Submitted by Ranjusha Antony

M.B.A. 2nd sem Human Resource Management

Submitted to, Bindu Anto Submitted on, 18-4-2011


DECLARATION I, Ranjusha Antony, a bonafide student of business administration, Indigrow Institute of Professional Studies, Thrissur. I would like to declare that the projects titles ³A Study on Effectiveness of Conflict Management of Apollo Tyres Ltd´ is an original work which has been done by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration of Manonmaniam Sundarnar University, Chennai.

Place: Thrissur Date: 18-4-2011 RANJUSHA ANTONY

I thank to beloved GOD for the success of the study. And also I express my sincere gratitude to my project guide Ms.3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT If words are considered a symbol of approval and tokens of acknowledgement. . Devarajan sir for his sincere support and co-operation for conducting the study.Sreekumar sir. A large number of individual has contribute directly or indirectly in bring out this project I am thankful to all of them for their help and encouragement. Bindu Anto for her valuable comments and suggestions which enabled me to complete my work in time. Mr. then the following words play the heralding role of expressing my gratitude. I would like to mention my sincere thanks to our beloved center coordinator Mr. I would like to mention my sincere thanks to the CEO of Apollo Tyres Ltd.

4 CONTENTS Sl. suggestions and conclusion  Findings  Suggestions  Conclusion Bibliography Annexure Page No. No Particulars Declaration Acknowledgement CHAPTER-1 Introduction  Introduction to the study  Rational of the study  Objectives of the study  Research methodology  Research design  Data collection  Variables understudy  Limitations of the study CHAPTER-2 CHAPTER-3 Theoretical Concepts  Profile of the organization  Present status of the organization  Product line  Business operations CHAPTER-4  Findings. .

all decisions that affect the workforce of the organization concern the HRM function. Even though specific human resource functions/activities are the responsibility of the human resource department. Human resource management (HRM) is concerned with the personnel policies and managerial practices and systems that influence the workforce. The scarcity of talented resources and the growing expectations of the modern day worker have further increased the complexity of the human resource function. The activities involved in HRM function are pervasive throughout the organization. typically spend more than 50 percent of their time for human resource activities such hiring. Line managers. the actual management of human resources is the responsibility of all the managers in an organization. The study conducted at Apollo Tyres Ltd Perambra. This study conducted through various research methods to analyze the problem and to collect the information properly. The successful management of an organization's human resources is an exciting. This study helps to know the company¶s position in the market and also to understand the effectiveness of conflict management styles. Human resources are the most valuable and unique assets of an organization. Major HRM . and scheduling employees. In broader terms. This study was to get familiarity with an industrial atmosphere and to learn more about effectiveness of conflict management styles in that organization.5 Introduction to the study The project emphasis the details of the organization. evaluating. Human resource management specialists in the HRM department help organizations with all activities related to staffing and maintaining an effective workforce. especially at a time when the world has become a global village and economies are in a state of flux. disciplining. The human resources of an organization consist of all people who perform its activities. dynamic and challenging task.

beliefs. HRM department provides the tools. self-awareness about conflict modes. however. ‡ Gender Some of us were socialized to use particular conflict modes because of our gender. goals. and. data and processes that are used by line managers in their human resource management component of their job. team-building. or conflict can be beneficially resolved and lead to quality final products. then fight. but learning how to manage conflicts can decrease the odds of nonproductive escalation. beliefs. performance management and appraisal.´ If one was socialized this way he will be more likely to use assertive conflict modes versus using cooperative modes. Although very few people go looking for conflict. Conflict management is the principle that all conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved. Conflict may be defined as a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs. compensation. ideas. ideas.6 responsibilities include work design and job analysis. Therefore. . and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment. Conflict on teams is inevitable. more often than not. For example. or values. the results of conflict are not predetermined. as well as identifying or developing valid methods for selecting staff. Conflict might escalate and lead to nonproductive results. because they are male. were taught ³always stand up to someone. recruiting. learning to manage conflict is integral to a high-performance team. worker health and safety issues. conflict communication skills. conflict results because of miscommunication between people with regard to their needs. or goals. values. some males. if you have to fight. What factors can affect our conflict modes? Some factors that can impact how we respond to conflict are listed below with explanations of how these factors might affect us. Conflict management involves acquiring skills related to conflict resolution. training and development.

Do we think our thoughts. and opinions are worth being heard by the person with whom we are in conflict? ‡ Expectations Do we believe the other person or our team wants to resolve the conflict? ‡ Situation Where is the conflict occurring. have taught us to frame conflict as either something positive that can be worked through or something negative to be avoided and ignored at all costs. Some of us had great role models teach us to manage our conflicts and others of us had less-than-great role models. with ease and limited energy. People who have and use effective communication will resolve their conflicts with greater ease and success. feelings. do we know the person we are in conflict with. more. ‡ Communication skills The essence of conflict resolution and conflict management is the ability to communicate effectively. Our life experiences. and is the conflict personal or professional? ‡ Position (Power) what is our power status relationship. or less) with the person with whom we are in conflict? ‡ Practice involves being able to use all five conflict modes effectively. determine what conflict mode to use with the particular person with whom we are in conflict. ‡ Life experiences As mentioned earlier.7 ‡ Self-concept How we think and feel about ourselves affect how we approach conflict. both personal and professional. . equal. ‡ Determining the best mode Through knowledge about conflict and through practice we develop a ³conflict management understanding´ and can. and the ability to change modes as necessary while engaged in conflict. being able to determine what conflict mode would be most effective to resolve the conflict. (that is. we often practice the conflict modes we saw our primary caretaker(s) use unless we have made a conscious choice as adults to change or adapt our conflict styles.

.8 Rationale of the study The study becomes important because by using a study like this the company can find out the drawback of its employees and their satisfaction and to make it efficient and effective. The study helps to improve the efficiency and ensure growth at the organization.

It is like a blueprint of research it keys down the method and procedure for the collection of requisite information and its measurement analysis with view to arriving at certain meaningful conclusions at the end of the proposed study. It is the sequential and systematic procedure of conducting a research. Research methodology Research methodology means the scientific method of conducting a research it is the research design which can be selected for conducting a study according to the nature and scope of the subject.  To understand how the management solve problems in that organization. b) Descriptive design: . .9 Objectives of the study  To identify the satisfaction level of employees.it is concerned with the study of the cause and effect relationship between two or more variables. There are three types of research design: a) Exploratory design: .it is concerned with the detail description of certain functional variables and characteristics of a problem situation. It is concerned with the detail description of certain functional variables and characteristics of a problem situation. c) Casual design: .  To understand what are the problems are facing by employees.it is one where a preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem of which the researcher has little or no knowledge. Here descriptive design is used. Research design Research design is the plan structure and strategy of investigating conceived so as to obtain answers to reach questions and to control variance.

Independent variables  Power  Goals  Gender  Climate . Source of primary data is direct interview. There are two types of data used primary data and secondary data. and web site. dependent or independent things that are coming under my topic. Sources of secondary data are records. PRIMERY DATA Primary data means those data which are collected at first hand either by the researcher himself or by someone else especially for the purpose of the study known as primary data. books. Dependent variables A study on effectiveness of conflict management styles of Apollo Tyres Ltd. This may yield derived results.10 DATA COLLECTION Data collection method one should known about the variety and sources of data. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data means in the hands of a researcher a data becomes secondary data if it was gathered earlier for some other purpose. Variables understudy Variables understudy includes what are the main variables.

11  Cultural Assumptions  Strategies and Tactics  Style Limitations of the study  The research was conducted within limited duration. So detailed and comprehensive study could not be made. .

. ideas. Conflict on teams is inevitable. more often than not. goals.12 THEORETICAL CONCEPTS What is conflict and conflict management? Conflict may be defined as a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs. Conflict management involves acquiring skills related to conflict resolution. and negotiating. Conflict might escalate and lead to nonproductive results. To manage conflict the United States Department of Agriculture (http://www.gov/cprc/understand. we need to focus on the things we need or desire as a group. and not things needed or wanted by individuals. and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment. Although very few people go looking for conflict. self-awareness about conflict modes. There are some proven strategies that you can use to help resolve conflicts within your groups. or conflict can be beneficially resolved and lead to quality final products. What is CONFLICT MANAGEMENT? Conflict management is what we¶re doing when we identify and deal with conflict in a reasonable manner. When we resolve issues. ideas. or values. but learning how to manage conflicts can decrease the odds of nonproductive escalation. This promotes working with each other instead of against each other. however. values. conflict results because of miscommunication between people with regard to their needs. conflict communication skills. Conflict management is the principle that all conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved. beliefs. Therefore. or goals. the results of conflict are not predetermined. problem solving. learning to manage conflict is integral to a high-performance team.htm) says we must develop and use skills like effective communication.usda. beliefs.

gov/schools/contentpages/styles.htm) describes five popular styles. .ohio.  Collaborating  Why should I collaborate?: Cooperation will help everyone achieve their goals and keep relationships healthy.  A Compromiser¶s Attitude: We should all meet halfway to do what is best for the group and each of us can still get part of what we want.  When should I collaborate?: ‡ Everyone trust each other ‡ No one wants total decision or resolution power ‡ Everyone needs to have a part in the decision ‡ Everyone involved will change their thinking as more information is available ‡ People need to work through personal hurts and disappointments  When should I choose another method?: ‡ When you need a resolution that won¶t take a lot of time and money ‡ When some may take advantage of others¶ trust  COMPROMISING  Why should I compromise?: Winning something while losing a little is sometimes okay.  A Collaborator¶s Attitude: Talking through the conflict will help us find creative ways to solve our problems where everyone is satisfied in the end.13 The Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management (http://disputeresolution.  When should I compromise?:  No one at the table has more position or power than anyone else and everyone is equally committed to the group¶s goals.

 An accommodator¶s attitude: I will please others by playing down how important the issue or conflict is in order to protect relationships.  A competitor¶s attitude: I must use all of my power to win the conflict.14  Time can be saved by agreeing on a situation that works for everyone ³for now´  Achieving all of your goals are only somewhat important  When should I choose another method?:  Things that are important to you may be lost in the fray ‡ Someone¶s demands are too great for the rest of the table  ACCOMODATING  Why should I accommodate?: Our commonalities are more important than other issues and facing differences may hurt relationships.  When should I compete?: ‡ You know you¶re right ‡ A quick decision is necessary ‡ Strong personalities are overshadowing other people ‡ Defending your rights or position .  When should I accommodate?: ‡ Issues not as important to you as it is to others ‡ You know you can¶t win ‡ Everyone agreeing is the most important thing ‡ The things people have in common are more important than their differences  When should I choose another method?: ‡ Some ideas don¶t get attention ‡ Credibility and influence can be lost  COMPETING  Why should I compete?: Resolving a conflict is associated with competition and winning.

 An avoider¶s attitude: I avoid conflict by leaving.  When should I avoid?: ‡ Conflict is small and the future of a relationship is at stake ‡ There is no time to devote to conflict resolution ‡ Other issues are more important than the conflict ‡ There is no chance of getting your concerns heard ‡ One party is too emotionally involved and others can better resolve the conflict ‡ More information is needed  When should I choose another method?: ‡ Decisions may be made by default ‡ Putting off or avoiding issues may make matters worse Many people think of conflict as negative. Conflict is negative when it« ‡ Takes attention away from other activities ‡ Damages the spirit of the team or an individual ‡ Divides people and groups.15  When should I choose another method?: ‡ Can make conflict worse ‡ Those on the losing end may attempt to get back at the winners  AVOIDING  Why should I avoid?: Not the right time or place to address this issue. But conflict can be both negative AND positive. . or putting off discussions.html) tells us that .nsba. The National School Board Association in their Toolkit for Educational Leadership (http://www. and makes cooperation difficult ‡ Makes people or group focus on their differences . .org/sbot/toolkit/Conflict. avoid.

purdue. There are many plans to choose from. like fighting or name-calling But it can be positive or constructive when it« ‡ Clears up important problems or issues ‡ Brings about solutions to problems ‡ Gets everyone involved in solving issues ‡ Causes real communication ‡ Release emotion. and gain as much information as you can. ‡ STEP 2: DETERMINE YOUR MANAGEMENT STRATEGY When you understand the basis of the conflict and everyone involved. This to think about includes: ‡ Someone has to start the conversation! If neither party is willing to do so.16 ‡ Leads to harmful behavior. so you can pick the one that is most appropriate for your situation. ‡ STEP 3: PRE-NEGOTIATION Steps must be taken for discussion to begin.html) could help you out« ‡ STEP 1: ANALYZE THE CONFLICT Don¶t be afraid to ask questions of everyone involved. . Take in answers from a variety of sources. and stress in a positive way ‡ Helps people learn more about each other and cooperate ‡ Develops understanding and skills Steps to Analyzing Conflict How can you manage conflict and disagreements in ways that strengthen instead of damage personal and professional relationships? These five steps from the Watershed information Network at Purdue University (http://www.ctic. anxiety. you will need to develop a plan to manage the conflict. bring in an outsider who will remain neutral to begin discussions.edu/KYW/Brochures/Manage Conflict.

place and materials must all be in order for conflict management to work. relevant to the conflict. and how the group will get answers to questions. Some ideas of things to include are: ways we¶ll communicate and how we¶ll make the final decision. ‡ The group must agree on rules for the discussion. Outsiders must be on board with the terms of the agreements reached during Step 4. ‡ STEP 5: POST-NEGOTIATION Once negotiation is complete. ‡ Individuals should get support from outside parties who may have been involved in some way. ‡ STEP 4: NEGOTIATION Negotiations should be discussions that include: ‡ Reasons. ‡ BE ORGANIZED! Location. the group should take the actions they decided upon. . needs. ‡ Everyone at the table must agree on what information is put on the table. time.17 ‡ Everyone must be ready to come to the table. Make sure everyone is on the same page and understands the expectations. and resolve the issues. to work together. ‡ Communication and working together should continue throughout this process. concerns and motivations for differing positions ‡ Current options ‡ Evaluation of all the current options ‡ Written agreement that documents what everyone understands ‡ Everyone must be confident that all parties will follow through with their parts of the agreement.

If we can learn to manage this highly probable event called conflict (we average five conflicts per day). Some of us observed good conflict management. When you learn to effectively manage and resolve conflicts with others. Faculty members should help students develop their conflict management skills. Although conflict may be misunderstood and unappreciated. and teamwork rank near the top of skills that employers seek in their new hires. Do you want to leave or do you want to fight when a conflict presents itself? Neither physiological response is good or bad²it¶s personal . and strategies for conflict skill improvement. research shows that unresolved conflict can lead to aggression. then more opportunities for successful team memberships are available to you. oral communication.´ Think for a moment about when you are in conflict. then we are less apt to practice destructive behaviors that will negatively impact our team.18 Why learn more about conflict and conflict management? Listening. Most of us have several reasons to improve our conflictmanagement skills. unless we have made a conscious effort to change our conflict management style. How do people respond to conflict? Fight or flight? Physiologically they respond to conflict in one of two ways²they want to ³get away from the conflict´ or they are ready to ³take on anyone who comes our way. interpersonal communication. Most people do not resolve conflicts because they either have a faulty skill set and/or because they do not know the organization¶s policy on conflict management. All team members need to know their conflict styles. Most of us use conflict skills that we observed growing up. conflict intervention methods. while others observed faulty conflict management.

How important is the issue to you? Even if the relationship is not of great value to you. then engaging in the conflict is necessary. if the issue is a belief. By consciously choosing a conflict mode instead of to conflict.19 response. How invested in the relationship are you? The importance of the working/personal relationship often dictates whether you will engage in a conflict. How might you select your conflict management style? There are times when we have a choice to engage in or avoid a conflict. 2. value. What is important to learn. The following six variables should be considered when you decide whether to engage in a conflict. Even in a track meet. Do you have the energy for the conflict? Many of us say. 1. or regulation that you believe in or are hired to enforce. there is an even more compelling reason to engage in the conflict.´ Often the issue is not how much time is available but how much energy we have for what we need to do. they are more likely to productively contribute to solving the problem at hand. If the relationship and the issue are both important to you. Whether they feel like we want to fight or flee when a conflict arises. is that we should intentionally choose our response to conflict. going through the process of conflict resolution is important. For example. runners are given recovery time before they have to run another race. they can deliberately choose a conflict mode. not time. one must often engage in conflict if the issue is important to you. . ³There is not time to do all that I want to do in a day. Energy. 3. is being managed in these situations. regardless of our initial physiological response to conflict. If you value the person and/or the relationship.

. If a person is going to sacrifice one of their core beliefs by avoiding a conflict. Many times people will engage in conflict and then be shocked by the outcome or consequence of engaging in the conflict. the employee thought and believed strongly enough about the issue that she did engage in the conflict with her boss. Are you aware of the potential consequences Prior to engaging in a conflict. For example. there are times when you must engage in conflict. When the personal consequences of turning away from the conflict outweigh all other factors. but this example illustrates the value of thinking through consequences. Are you ready for the consequences? After analyzing potential consequences. Most people have core values. beliefs. or an opportunity for a better working relationship. one must carefully consider the consequences of evading the conflict. ideas. Because this individual had thought through the consequences of engaging in the conflict. she was prepared to be without a job for a while and able to financially and emotionally plan for this outcome. there may be a risk for your safety. Her annual contract was not renewed for the upcoming year. determine whether you are prepared for the consequences of engaging in the conflict. Thoughtful reflection about the consequences. a risk for job loss. In such cases. personal loss of respect must be considered. then a person usually must take part in the conflict. one employee anticipated a job loss if she continued to engage in the conflict she was having with her boss over a particular issue. thinking about anticipated consequences from engaging in the conflict is wise. 6. After careful consideration. both positive and negative. What are the consequences if you do not engage in the conflict? To avoid losing a sense of self. even if a person is not excited about confronting the conflict.20 4. or morals. is useful before engaging in or avoiding a conflict. 5. Most consequences of engaging in conflict are not this severe. For example.

It is planning to become the 10th biggest tyre manufacturer in the world with annual revenues of $5 billion.21 PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION Apollo Tyres Ltd. Answers to the question What is the real problem in Perambra plant? We can't allow the attempt to get allowances without working in an era of industrial competition. Raunaq & Co. Kerala. It gets 59% of its revenues from India. camel back/retreading materials and rubber conveyor belts.. Ltd. Ltd.000 dealerships in India. Mathew T. Marattukalam and Jacob Thomas. (ATL) was incorporated 28th September. The company now has four manufacturing units in India. two in South Africa. The Company was promoted by Bharat Steel Tubes. 1972 as a Public Limited Company and obtained certificate of Commencement of Business on October 24. . In South Africa. The Company manufactures automobile tyres and tubes.. The whole problem began when a direction was given to follow some guidelines in production. Apollo Tyres Ltd is the world's 15th biggest tyre manufacturer. Pvt. of which 190 are Dunlop Accredited Dealers. Raunaq International Pvt.500 are exclusive outlets. In 2006 the company acquired Dunlop Tyres International of South Africa. two in Zimbabwe and 1 in Netherlands. 1972. it has over 900 dealerships. Ltd. with annual revenues of Rs 81 billion (US$ 1. 28% from Europe and 13% from Africa. It has a network of over 4. It was founded in 1976.8 billion) in 2010. of which over 2. Its first plant was commissioned in Perambra. Raunaq Singh.

We are giving bonus more than it is legally advised. Then how can you say that it is less? It is painful to know that without trying to raise productivity by treating it as their own company. How do you intend to solve this problem? It is not the company which had created or is creating problems.000 is not less especially in a state where unemployment is far too many. they are trying to get allowance without working. My son and vice-chairman and managing director of the company Neeraj R S Kanwar had discussions. They must agree for a 340 tone production. But employees seldom realize that neither me nor my company are at a loss if the company shuts work. I had already mentioned about my emotional attachment to the employees here. legal bonus and must permit to make temporary appointments when permanent employees are on leave or not working. The monthly salary between Rs 16. They should understand they are working for their own and should understand the present labor crisis .22 Who is posing a hurdle for reopening the plant? We are ready to reopen the plant but prior to that the employees must agree to our three conditions and sign the agreement. There are some misunderstandings among the workers and the trade union leaders might be . As per the new long term contract. when there is increased production we give special allowances.000 and Rs 30. the employees will get a hike of Rs 4800 in their salary. Apart from that. So I can understand their plight when a month's salary had not reached their homes. Is there a situation of work overload and less allowance? Not at all. Apollo Tyres have been giving allowance more than any company in Kerala.

What are the steps being taken by the company to overcome global economic crisis? Our present transactions point out that crisis has not affected the Indian market much. Do you want to leave or do you want to fight when a conflict presents itself? Neither physiological response is good or bad²it¶s personal response. Some persons who are heading the union for years are creating problems. We are advocating for a union election once in three years to avoid the same. they are more likely to productively contribute to solving the problem at hand. In some places we have reduced production and lessened the number of workers. Apollo Tyres is heading with a goal to become number one. . they can deliberately choose a conflict mode. To reach that we are manufacturing the highest quality and reliable tyres abiding to world standards in new models. The plants are arranged in such a way so as to work for 24 hrs a day. The main problem was caused in export business and in the European markets.23 behind that too. What is important to learn. How do people respond to conflict? Fight or flight? Physiologically they respond to conflict in one of two ways²they want to ³get away from the conflict´ or they are ready to ³take on anyone who comes our way. is that we should intentionally choose our response to conflict. By consciously choosing a conflict mode instead of to conflict. They have nothing to lose. Whether they feel like we want to fight or flee when a conflict arises. regardless of our initial physiological response to conflict. At the same time we are enforcing strict financial discipline.´ Think for a moment about when you are in conflict.

 Lack of leadership is a main problem in the organization. .  Supervisors try to understand the problems of his subordinates.  Poor communication between management and employees.24 FINDINGS AND SUGGESIONS FINDINGS  Management provides so many facilities to their employees like bonus.  Management tries to understand the problems of employees. additional allowances etc.  Give proper time to relaxation that will reduce the over burden of employees. SUGGESIONS  Keep good relationship between management and employees that will also helpful to the organization.

Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues. It: 1. 2. Conflict is often needed. 3. Conflict is not the same as discomfort. appreciation. for example. including: 1. . or 3. unions and other coercive groups which may impose restrictions on managerial activities Conflict is when two or more values. for example. Discomfort from fear of the unknown or from lack of fulfillment. perspectives and opinions. perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature and haven't been aligned or agreed about yet. it motivates them to participate. acknowledgment. Getting the most out of diversity means oftencontradictory values. Conflict is inevitable and often good. 4.it is when conflict is poorly managed that is the problem. Even management faces conflicts with many forces from outside the organization.25 CONCLUSION Why conflicts arise In most organizations. 2. storm. norm and perform" period. Within yourself when you're not living according to your values. such as position. Helps to raise and address problems. good teams always go through a "form. such as government. monetary benefits and independence. Helps people "be real". When your values and perspectives are threatened. conflicts increase as employees assert their demands for an increased share in organizational rewards. Helps people learn how to recognize and benefit from their differences. The conflict isn't the problem .

programs. Causes inappropriate behaviors. Avoiding conflict. 4. employees trust the "rumor mill" more than management. b. etc. Disagreement about "who does what". "passing the buck" with little follow-through on decisions. 4. Strong personal natures don't match. Stress from working with inadequate resources. 3. c. Supervisors don't understand the jobs of their subordinates. Leadership problems. Poor communications a.26 Conflict is a problem when it: 1. Types of Managerial Actions that Cause Workplace Conflicts 1. for example: a. b. 2. including inconsistent. . 2. c. 3. too-strong or uninformed leadership (at any level in the organization). We often don't like in others what we don't like in ourselves. Employees experience continuing surprises. The alignment or the amount of resources is insufficient. they aren't informed of new decisions. b. Hampers productivity. Employees don't understand reasons for decisions. As a result. Lowers morale. b. evidenced by: a. missing. There is: a. and they aren't involved in decisionmaking. including conflicting values or actions among managers and employees. Causes more and continued conflicts. Employees see the same continued issues in the workplace. "Personal chemistry".

com/Market-Analysis-Reports/Indian-Tyre-Industry-AnalysisIM267.rncos.wikipedia.htm http://en.html .org/wiki/Apollo_Tyres http://managementhelp.com/Article/196/186/28530.27 BIBLIOGRPHY Web site: http://www.htm http://www.org/intrpsnl/basics.bizcommunity.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.