THE

o^t-

PRECEPTS OF JESUS
THE

GUIDE TO PEACE AND HAPPINESS
EXTRACTED FROM

;

THE BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT,
ASCRIBED TO THE FOUR EVANGELISTS.

WITH

.ANSLATIONS INTO SUNGSCRTT AND BENGALEE.

CALCUTTA
PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION

:

PRESS,

CIRCULAR ROAD.

1820.

CONTENTS.
PART
THE
and Happiness
...

I.

Page.
Precepts of Jesus the Guide to Peace
... ...
I

An Appeal to the
Second Appeal

Christian Public in Defence of
...
...

the Precepts of Jesus

85

Ditto

...

...

115

PAET
Final Appeal

II.
...
...
i

Ditto

PAET
A
The

m.
...

Letter on the Prospects of Christianity

106

Common
Christianity

Basis
...

of

Hindooism
...

and
...

123

A

Dialogue between a Missionary and Three Chinese Converts ... ...

153
161

Index

PART

I.

INTRODUCTION.
/~V
. .

f
.

\J

A
and
a

conviction in the

mind

of

its

total

ignorance of

the nature and of the
sense

specific attributes of the

Godhead,
with our

of doubt respecting the real essence of the

soul, give rise to feelings of great dissatisfaction

powers, to inform us on these interesting points. On the other hand, a notion of the existence of a supreme

limited

as

well as with

all

human acquirements

which

fail

superintending power, the Author and Preserver of this harmonious system, who has organized and who regulates

such an infinity of celestial and terrestrial objects, and a due estimation of that law which teaches that mail
should

do unto others

reconcile us to

human

he would wish to be done by, nature, and tend to render our
as

existence agreeable to ourselves and profitable to the rest
of

mankind.

The former

of these sources of satisfaction,
;

viz., a belief in

God, prevails generally being derived either from tradition and instruction, or from an atten
tive

survey
in

of

the

wonderful

skill

and

contrivance

displayed
it is

the works of nature.

partially taught also in
I

The latter, although every system of religion with
principally

which

am

acquainted,

is

inculcated
of

by
the

Christianity;

This

essential

characteristic

Christian religion I was for a long time unable to disting uish as such, amidst the various doctrines I found
insisted
in

upon

in

the

conversation
I

the writings of Christian authors, and of those teachers of Christianity

with

whom

have had the honor of holding communi-

INTRODUCTION TO
cation.

Amongst these

opinions,
is

the

most

prevalent
appella

seems to be, that no one
tion of Christian

justly entitled to the

does not believe in the divinity of Christ and of the Holy Ghost, as well as in the divine-

who

nature of God, the Father of
allow a

much
it

created beings. Manygreater latitude to the term Christian, and
all

consider

as

comprehending

all

who acknowledge

the-

Bible to contain the revealed will of God, however they may differ from others in their interpretations of
particular

passages of Scripture
title

;

whilst

some
as

require-

from him who claims the
adherence
to

of Christian,

only

an

the

doctrines

of Christ,

himself, without insisting

on

implicit confidence in

taught by those

of the Apostles, as being, except when speaking from inspiration, like other men, liable to mistake and error..

That they were
in the Acts

so, is

obvious from the several instances
recorded,

of differences of opinion amongst the Apostles

and Epistles/
of

Voluminous works, written by learned men
ticular
sects for

par

the purpose of establishing the truth,,

consistency, rationality, and priority of their own peculiar doctrines, contain such variety of arguments, that I can

of sufficient
readers.

not hope to be able to adduce here any new reasonings novely and force to attack the notice of my
Besides,
in

matters

of religion

particularly

geneial, through prejudice and partiality to the opinions which they once form, pay little or no attentionin

men

to opposite sentiments ( however reasonable they may be, and often turn a deaf ear to what is most consistent with

i

the laws of nature, and conformable to the dictates of
*

Vide Acts,
ch.
ii.

ch.
1 1,

xi.

2,

3,

ch. xv. 2,

7

;

I

Corinthians, ch.

i.

12

;.

Galatians.

12. 13.

THE PKECKPTS OF

JKSUS.

ill

:human reason and divine revelation.
.to

At the same time,
and who
a
are,

those

who

are not biased by prejudice,
to

God, open by conviction, simple enumeration and statement of the respective tenets of different sects may be a sufficient guide to direct their
inquiries in ascertaining
Avith the sacred traditons,

the grace of

which of them

is

most consistent

and most acceptable to

common

tense.

For these reasons, I decline entering into any discussion on those points, and confine my attention at
present to

the task of laying before my fellow-creatures the words of Christ, with a translation from the English

into I feel Sungscrit, and the language of Bengal. persuaded that by separating from the other matters con tained in the New Testament, the moral precepts

found

in that book, these will be more likely to produce the desirable effect of improving the hearts and minds of

men
ing.

of different persuasions and degrees
F"or,

of understand

and some other passages are liable to the doubts and disputes of free-thinkers and antihistorical

christians,

especially

miraculous relations, which are
tales

much
down
apt,

less

wonderful than the fabricated

handed

to the native of Asia,*
at

best,

to carry little

and consequently would be weight with them. On the

contrary,

doctrines, rending evidently to the maintenance of the peace and harmony of mankind at
large,

moral

are

and

intelligible alike the learned

beyond the reach of metaphysical per version and to the unlearned.
is

,

This simple code of religion and morality
*

so

admirably

famed for having swallowed the ocean, when it had and having restored it by urinary evacuation at his command, also, the Vindhyu range of mountains prostrated itself, and so remains. ( \\ HXOHX Dictionary. )
Ugusti
is

givien

him

offence,

:

IV

INTRODUCTION TO THE PRECEPTS OV JKSl

S.

calculated to elevate
tions of God,

men s ideas to high and liberal no who has equally subjected all living creatures.,

without distinction of caste, rank or wealth, to change, disappointment, pain and death, and has equally admit ted all to be partakers of the bountiful mercies which hehas lavished over nature,

and

is

also so well fitted to

regulate the conduct of the human race in the discharge of their various duties to God, to themselves, and to
society, that T cannot but

hope the best

effects

from

its

promulgation in the present form.

THE

PRECEPTS OF JESUS,
THE

GUIDE TO PEACE AND HAPPINESS.
*

AND
:

seeing the multitudes, he went

mountain

and when he was
his

set, his disciples

up into a came unto
the king

him

:

and he opened
of heaven.

mouth, and taught them, say
:

ing, Blessed are the poor in spirit

for theirs

is
:

dom

Blessed are they that mourn for they shall be comforted. Blessed arc the meek for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed arc they which do hunger and
:

thirst after righteousness

:

for

they shall be

filled.

Blessed Blessed

are the merciful

:

for

they
:

shall

obtain mercy.

for they shall see God. the pure in heart Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children
:

an

of God.

Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness sake for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
:

Blessed are ye,
vrju,

when men

shall revile you,

and persecute

and

shall say all

for
is

my

sake.

manner of evil against you falsely, for great Rejoice, and be exceeding glad
:
:

your reward in heaven for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. Ye are the salt of the earth but if the salt have:

lost his savour,

wherewith

shall

it

be salted
v.

?

It is

thence-

* Matthew,

chap.

2

THE PRECEPTS OF
good
that
for
"nothing

JESUS.

forth

trodden under foot of men.

but to be cast out, and to be Ye are the light of the world.

A

city

is

set

on

a hill cannot be hid.
it

Neither do

men

light a candle,
;

candlestick

and

it

under a bushel, but on a giveth light unto all that are in the
-shine before
IT

and put

house.

Let your light so

en, that they

may
is

see

your good works, and
that I

glorify

your Father which

in heaven.

to destroy the Law or not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth one jot or one tittle shall in 110 wise pass pass, from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore

Think not
:

am come

the Prophets

I

am

shall

break one of these

least

commandments, and

shall

teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven but whoseover shall do and teach them, the
:

be called great h\ the kingdom of heaven. unto you, That except your righteousness shall say exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye
shall

same
For

I

shall in

no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time
shalt not kill
;

Thou

and whosoever
:

shall kill shall

be in

danger of the

say unto you, That who judgment soever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be and whosoever shall say to in danger of the judgment

but

I

:

danger of the council but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and
his brother, Raca, shall

be

in

:

there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy

way and

:

first

offer

be reconciled to thy brother, and then come thy gift. Agree with thine adversary quickly
^

Whosoever shall put away his wife. bless them that curse you. pluck it out. what reward have ye ? do not even the publicans the same ? And if ye sendeth rain on the just and . have heard that it was said by them of old time. causeth her to commit adultery : and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced. do good to them that hate you. saving for the cause of fornication. any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge. Love your enemies. and cast it from thee : for members should should be cast thee. cut it off. and pray for them which that ye may be despitefully use you and persecute you the children of your Father which is in heaven for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good. : and on the unjust. and not It hath that thy whole body should be cast into hell. commitshall That whosoever teth adultery. one of thy and not that thy whole body perish. not commit adultery That whosoever looketh on a Ye Thou shalt say unto thee. and hate thine enemy unto you. And if thy right hand offend into hell. thou shalt by no means come out thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. let him give her a writing of divorcement : But I say unto you put away his wife. . till : But I say unto you. lest 3 at in the way with him . and thou be cast into prison. been said. woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. : Thou shalt But I say jove thy neighbour. Ye have heard that it hatrv been said. And if thy right eye offend thee. and the judge deliver thee to the officer. Verily I thence. it is profitable for thee that and cast it from thee : for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish. For if ye love them which love you.THE PRECEPTS OF whilst thou art JESUS.

in closet. and. pray to thy and thy Father. vi. himself shall reward thee openly. secret.alms may be in secret seeth in secret. After : this manner therefore pray ye will in heaven. thou shalt not be for as the they love to pray standing in the and in the corners of the streets. before ye ask him. . do not sound a trumpet before thee. which seeth in secret .4 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. * Take heed that ye do not your alms before men. chap. as and lead us not into temptation. which thine . But when thou doest alms. even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect. that they may have glory of men. But when ye pray. as the heathen do : for they think. as : it is in heaven : give us day our daily bread : we forgive our debtors and forgive us our debts. Verily I say unto you. and * Matthew. when thou is hast shut thy door. enter into thy Father which . what do ye more than others f do not even the publicans so ? Be ye therefore perfect. : : And when hypocrites are : thou prayest. when thou prayest. that they synagogues may be seen of men. let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth that and thy Father. shall that they shall be heard for their much speaking. : but deliver us from evil for thine is the kingdom. : to- be seen of them Father. They have their reward. Therefore. salute yo^r brethren only. Verily I say unto you. use not vain repetitions. reward thee openly. which art name Thy kingdom come : : : Thy this be done in earth. But thou. They have their reward. hallowed be thy Our Father. when thou doest thine alms. which is otherwise ye have no reward of your in heaven. Be not ye therefore like unto them for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of. as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets.

If therefore : there will your heart be also. for ever. The light the eye if therefore thine eye be single. the light that darkness ! is in thee be darkness. that you : : they may appear unto men to fast. and wash thy face that thou men to fast. and the glory. forgive men For if ye Father will their trespasses. and : where thieves do not break through nor your treasure of the is. not.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. Ye cannot Therefore I say unto you. steal : for where body is whole body shall be full of light. They have their reward. who seeth in secret. Moreover. where moth and rust doth corrupt. what ye shall not the life more than meat. what ye shall eat. your heavenly Amen. appear not unto : anoint thine head. or nor yet for your body. nor gather into barns yet your . thy whole body shall be full of darkness. and the body drink ? Behold the fowls of the air : for they sow . masters for . when ye fast. but unto thy Father who is . how : great is that No man will can serve two one. 5 the po\ver. when thou fastest. Take no thought what ye shall put on. and despise the other. and where thieves break through and steal but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven. shall reward thee openly. for . Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth. also forgive passes. in secret and thy Father. neither will but if ye forgive not men their tres your Father forgive your trespasses. be not. But thou. as the hypocrites. neither do they reap. Is than raiment your life. and] God Mammon. where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt. But if thine eye be thy evil. either he will hate the to and love the other or else he hold serve the one. of a sad countenance for they disfigure their faces. Verily I say unto you.

ehap. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother s eye. and to-morrow clothe cast into the oven. thought for the morrow : for the morrow shall take Sufficient thought is for the things of itself. Let . Judge not. if God so clothe . it shall be measured to you again. saying or. first cast out the beam out of thine own eye and then shalt thou see clearly to cast . Therefore take no thought. that ye be not judged. which to-day not is. heavenly Father feedeth them.6 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. kingdom shall be added unto you. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs. and * Matthew. grow neither do they spin how they and yet I say glory was not is the grass of the field. . For with what and with what judgment ye judge. Where&quot. shall he O ye of little faith ? ? What withal shall t we eat shall we be :) you. Wherefore. Are ye not much better than they ? Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature ? And why take ye thought for raiment ? Consider the toil not. unto the day the * evil thereof. That even Solomon in all his arrayed like one of these. What shall we drink ? or. behold. a beam own eye ? Thou hypocrite. Take therefore no things of all . vii. me mote out of thine eye and. ye shall be judged measure ye mete. ? much more clothed for (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of these things. But seek ye first the and his righteousness and all these God. neither cast ye your pearls before swine. pull out the is in thine out the mote out of thy brother s eye. : but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye ? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother. lilies of the field. lest they trample them under their feet. : they unto you.

fish. but inwardly they are ravening wolves. that leadeth to destruction. of unto me. Beware of false prophets. and cast into the fire. kingdom day. . how much more shall your Father which is in he ask a he give him a serpent If heaven give good things to them that ask him ? There fore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you. . and few there be that find it. Do men Even gather grapes of thorns. will he give him a stone ? Or ye then.THE PRECEPTS OF turn again and rend you. neither can a corrupt tree A bring forth good forth fruit fruit. Ye shall know them by their fruits.that asketh receiveth and he that seeketh findeth and to him that knocketh find . good tree can not bring forth evil fruit. shall enter into the heaven but he that doeth the will of my is Father which Lord. JESUS. and broad many the way. and . Enter ye in at the strait gate : for wide is the gate. being evil. and there be which go in thereat because strait is the is : gate. know how to give good gifts unto your children. will Or what man is there of ? you. is Every tree that bringeth not good Wherefore by their one that saith hewn down. Lord. or figs of thistles fruit . it 7 shall be given knock. Many not will say to me in that in Lord. ? in heaven. which come to you in sheep s clothing. fruits ye shall know them. whom if his son ask bread. Lord. which leadeth unto life. and it shall be seek. and ye shall you opened unto you for every one . it shall if be opened. do ye even so to them : for this is the law and the prophets. : Ask. ? so every good tree bringeth forth good but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. Not every . and narrow is the way. in name and prophesied thy thy name have cast out devils ? and in thy have we .

. was the fall of it. chap. and the floods came. and beat upon that house and it fell not for it was founded upon a rock. Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft. when Jesus had ended these sayings. but sick. and beat upon that house and it fell and great : : . shall be likened unto a foolish man. and the winds blew. which build his house upon the sand and the rain and the floods came. Matthew. he said unto them. but thy disciples fast not ? And Jesus said unto them. 25. and doeth them not. as Jesus sat at meat in the house. And when the Phari sees saw #. name done many wonderful works ? profess unto them. Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners ? But when Jesus heard that. : : . : * And it came to pass.8 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. and not not come to call the righteous. And it came to pass. : sacrifice for I am But go ye and have mercy. descended. which built his house upon a rock and the rain descended. the people were astonished at his doctrine for he taught them as one having and not as the scribes. xi. Can the children of the bride-chamber mourn. they said unto his disciples. as long as the bridegroom is with them * ? but the days will come. but they that are learn what that meaneth. saying. behold. I will liken him unto a wise man. many publicans and sinners came and sat down with him and his disciples. Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine. and the winds blew. and doeth them. I will sinners to repentance. They that be whole need not a physician. Then came to him the disciples of John. authority. I never knew you And : then will I depart from me ye that work iniquity. And every one that heareth these sayings of mine.

. and the servant as his lord. The disciple is servant above his lord. and cause to be put to death. for a testimony against them and But when they deliver you up. not above his master. sake : but he that endureth to the end But when they persecute you : in this city. how much more shall they call them of his household ? * Matthew. for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment. nor the It is enough for the disciple If that he be as his master. and Behold. : ye that speak. and harmless : as doves. and then shall they fast. and the rent is made worse. synagogues and ye shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake. they have called the master of the house Beelzebub. and they will scourge you in their . And ye shall be hated of all them men for shall my name s be saved.THE PRECEPTL OF JESUS. Neither do men put new wine into old bottles else the bottles : break. For it is not the Gentiles. 9 when the bridegroom shall be taken from them. wolves : I send you forth as sheep in the midst of be ye therefore wise as serpents. take no thought how or what ye shall speak for it shall be given you inthat same hour what ye shall speak. till the Son of man be come. up to But beware of men for they will deliver you the councils. and the father the child and the : children shall rise up against their parents. but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you. No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment. and : the wine runneth out. Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel. chap. * new wine into new bottles. flee ye into another for verily I say unto you. xii. and the bottles but they put perish both are preserved. And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death.

is him in will I also fore I Father which heaven.IO THE PRECEPTS OF : JESUS. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. and he that receiveth me. in What : body. but are not able to kill the soul but rather fear him which is able to destroy both kill : the soul and body in hell. of a prophet shall receive a pro and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man. ye are of more value than many sparrows. receiveth him that sent me. there not be revealed and hid. him will I confess also be Father which is in heaven. He that findeth his life shall lose it : and he that loseth that receiveth his life for my sake shall find it. and the daugh am come ter against her mother. Fear ye not therefore. He you receiveth me. Whosoever therefore shal are confess fore shall me my my before men. that speak and what ye hear in the ear. nothing covered that shall not r I tell you in darkness. but a sword. But the very hairs of your head all numbered. He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me : and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. be known. and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. But whosoever deny me before men. He that receiveth a prophet in the name phet s reward . And he that taketh not his cross. is Fear them not therefore that shall for . For I am come to set a man at variance against his father. is not worthy of me. shall receive a righteous . and followeth after me. : deny be Think not that I came not to to send peace no earth send peace. And a man s foes shall be they of his own household. that preach light ye And fear not them which ye upon the house-tops.

how that on the sabbath days. Lord of heaven and earth. save the Son. hast : neither knoweth any man the Father. f Muthew.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. and to eat. chap. when he was an hungered. laden. they said unto him. I thank O Father. and : hast hid these it revealed them unto babes. which was not lawful for him to eat. and my . chap. all ye that labour and are heavy rest. that time Jesus answered and said. And whosoever one of these little At thee. Come and I into will me. s man reward. so father for so seemed good in thy sight. time Jesus went on the sabbath day t and his disciples were an hungered. him. But he said into them. through the corn and began to pluck the ears of corn. For my : yoke is easy. he shall in no wise lose his reward. and 1 earn of me heart and ye shall lind rest unto your souls. xii. and are blameless Matthew. 25. Behold. neither for them which were with him. II shall give to drink unto* ones a cup of cold water only in the name of a disciple. but only for the priests ? Or have ye not read in the law. give you . do that which is not lawful to do upon the thy disciples sabbath day. Have ye not read what David did. Take my yoke upon for I am meek and lowly in you. and did eat the shew-bread. how he entered into the house of God. burden is light. But that it. All things are delivered unto me of my Father and no man knoweth the Son. and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal but the Father . and they At when the Pharisees saw that were with him . xi. the priests in the temple profane the sabbath. ? But I * . Even. because thou things from the wise and prudent. verily I say unto you.

to And they asked him. and not sacrifice. saying on the sabbath days ? that they accuse him. For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day. speak good things ? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man. and it was ressored whole. against neither in this world. and his fruit corrupt tree is . it Stretch forth hand. good his fruit. He that is not with me is against me . being evil. 30. like as the other. on the sabbath day. ye would not have con demned the guiltless. known by O A man. And he stretched forth . and he that gathereth not with fore I say unto you. bringeth * Matthew. how can ye. ehap. and his fruit good make the tree corrupt. or alse for : the generation of vipers. is say unto you. it ? will he not is lay hold on and lift out ? How much it is then a man well better than a sheep Wherefore lawful to do on the sabbath days. What man might shall there be among you. one greater than the But if ye had known what this meaneth. And when he was departed thence.12 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. I will have mercy. out of the good treasure of the heart. he went into their synagogue and. of sin Where and blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. shall : Either make the tree good. xii. there was a man which : had Is it his hand withered. And he said unto them. neither in the world to come. lawful heal and if it fall into a pit it. it shall not be forgiven him. All manner it be forgiven him but whosoever speaketh the Holy Ghost. . behold. me scattereth abroad. that shall have one sheep. thine Then saith he to the man. That in this place temple.

behold his moth and his brethren stood without. : and because and some fell * Matthew. While he yet talked er to the people. 13 good things bringeth . they withered away and the thorns sprung up. and And And he spake many things unto them in parables. ! Behold shall my do mother and the is whosoever is will of my my brethren For and Father which heaven. account thereof in the day of judgment. Behold. they were scorched : . shall That every give man. . unto him. they evil . saying. and an treasure forth idle you. and when he sowed. But he answered and said unto him that told him. desiring to speak with thee. thy mother and brethren stand without. a sower went forth to sow some seeds fell by the way side. and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. Jesus out of the house. so that he went into a ship. Then one Who And and in is my mother ? and who are my brethren ? he stretched forth his hand toward his said. and forthwith they where they had not much earth and up. and the fowls came and . because they had no deepness ofearth sprung up : : them some fell . disciples. *The same day went by the sea-side.THE PRECEPTS OF forth JESUS. and brought them . xiii. the same mother. and sat together unto and the whole multitude stood on the shore. and choke d among thorns but other fell into good ground. out of the evil But I say unto good things word that men shall speak. when the sun was up. chap. For by thy words thou shalt be justified. they had no root. sat . great multitudes were gathered him. desiring to speak with said him. and sister. devoured upon stony places. my brother. Behold.

14 forth fruit. some sixtyfold. is not understand : and seeing ye people of s and shall not perceive for this heart waxed gross. he shall For whosoever hath. and their eyes they have closed eyes. of Esaias. THE PRECEPTS OF some an JESUS. Who them. hundredfold. and your ears. to him shall be given. and hearing they hear . some hath ears to hear. and should understand with heart. in them is fulfilled the prophecy which By hearing ye shall hear. and shall see. This is he which received seed But he that received the seed into by the wayside. . and should be converted. Therefore speak I to them in parables beacause they : seeing. stony places. lest at and hear their with any time they should see with their ears. and have not heard them. the same anon with joy receiveth is it . the disciples came. When any one heareth the word of the kingdom. For verily for they see I say unto you. Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower. : . and said unto him. And thirtyfold. and yet hath he not root in him- . and have not seen them and to hear those things which and I should heal them. he that heareth the word. and their their ears are . neither do they understand. for they hear. from him shall be taken away even that he hath. see not . Because ies given unto you to know the myster of the kingdom of heaven. dull hearing. and understandeth it not. and have more abundance but whosoever hath : not. not. That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see. shall And saith. let him hear. but to them it is not it is given. and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. then cometh the wicked one. But blessed arc your eyes. ye hear. Why speakestthou unto them in parables He answered and said unto .

by and by he is offended. Another parable put he forth unto them. the seeds but when it is Anther parable spake he unto them : The kingdom of . He also that received seed among the thorns is he that hearth the word . then appeared the tares also. his enemy came and But sowed tares among the wheat. saying. JESUS. we go and gather them up ? But he said. But he that received seed into the O ground is he that heareth the word. some thirty.THE PRECEPTS OF self. for when persecution ariseth because of the word. and went his way. : a man least took. Sir. An enemy hath done The servants said into him. some sixty. so that the greatest among herbs. parable put he forth unto them. birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. The kingdom which is heaven of is like to a grain of mustard-seed. and bringeth forth. and he becometh unfruitful. . Wilt thou then that . saying. and sowed all in his field which indeed grown. The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field : but while men slept. eth it some an hundredfold. choke the word. it tares ? He said unto them. ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest and in : the time of harvest first : I will say to Gather ye together bundles to burn them of the tares. and undersandwhich also beareth fruit. and brought forth fruit. So the servents of the householder came and and said unto him. 15 tribulation or but dureth for a while . and bind them in but gather the wheat into my barn. Nay lest while ye gather up the tares. and the the deceitfulness of riches. it is the and becometh a tree. and the care of this world. didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ? from whence then hath this. when the blade was sprung up. the reapers. Another .

the whole was leavened. and hid three measures of meal. Why do ye also transgress the ? command For God commanded. saying. xv. . and shall cast things that offend. which a till woman took. Then Jesus : sent the multitude away. . but the tares are the children of the wicked one that sowed . I of the world. dom the . The Son of man send forth his angels. ment of God by your * tradition : Matthew. chap. Honour thy Father and mother and.1 6 THE PRECEPTS OF is JESUS. the world . heaven in like unto leaven. I will utter will open my mouth in parables which have been kept secret from the foundation things saying. which were of Jerusalem. Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees. He answered and said unto them. saying. might be fulfiled which was spoken by the prophet. But he answered and said unto them. and they shall gather all out of his kingdom do iniquity . so shall shall it tares are gathered and burned in the be in the end of this world. Why do thy disciples trans gress the tradition of the elders ? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. Who hath ears to hear. As fire therefore the . let him hear. bles it All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in para and without a parable spake he not unto them that : .. . and them which them into a furnace of fire : Then there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. of the field. He that saying. He that the field is soweth the good seed is the Son of man the world the good seed are the children of the king . and his disciples came unto and went into the house Declare unto us the parable of the tares him. : enemy the end of them is the devil the harvest is and the reapers are the angels.

Thus have ye made the commandment effect of ! God Ye hypocrites well by your did Esaias prophesy of you. adulteries. blasphemies : fornications. murders. And when * his disciples were come to the other xix. Matthew. Are ye also yet Do not ye yet understand. // is . Hear. . 3. that mouth. this defileth a man. and honoureth me with ihcir lips but their heart is far from me. 2 . do they worship me. thefts. Knowest thou . But in vain none tradition. he shall be free. 17 him But ye Whosoever a gift. ? But those things which . Then came his disciples. Then answered Peter and ? said unto him. This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth. whatsoever entereth in at the and is cast out into the draught proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart and they defile the man. shall say to his father or his mother. shall be rooted up. teaching for doctrines the com mandments of men. For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. saying heavenly Father hath not planted. saying. witness. me of by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by and honour not his father or his mother. let JESUS. and understand : not that which but that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man cometh out of the mouth. Let them alone they be blind leaders of the blind : and if the blind lead the blind. Declare unto us this parable. chap. both shall fall into the : But he answered and hey heard this Every plant which my aftert ditch. without understanding And Jesus said. and said unto them. but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man. and said unto him.THE PRECEPTS OF curseth father or mother say. false these are the thing which defile a man . And he called the multitude. goeth into the belly. that the Pharisees ? were offended said. die the death.

Whom . that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? Then understood them how Sadducees. but my Father which is in heaven. and the gates of hell shall not prevail against if And I will give unto thee the and whatsoever thou keys of the kingdom of heaven : shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : and what r soever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven Then charged he his disciples. how that he must go unto Jerusalem. Jesus answered and said unto him. am ? And . because ye have brought no bread ? that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you faith. but of the doctrine the Pharisees and of the do When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi. saying. they should tell no From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples. that the Son of man. for flesh and blood hath not revealed Simon Bar-jona . they said. and suffer many things of the elders- .. But whom say ye that I am ? And Simon Peter answered and I. It is because we have taken said no bread. that man that he was Jesus the Christ. he ye of little unto reason ye among your How is it selves. He saith unto them. men say Some say- that thmi art John the Baptist said. Blessed art thou. that he bade them not beware of the leaevn of of bread. That thou art Peter. Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. Elias and others. themselves. Thou art the Christ. or one of the prophets. he asked his disciples. some. O why concerning bread. And I say also unto thee. Jeremias. the Son of the living God. And they reasoned side. among them. and upon thisit rock I will build my church . And unto thee. saying. Then Jesus said unto them. Which when Jesus perceived. they had forgotten to take bread.i8 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS.

For what is a he shall gain the whole world. and be raised again the third day. thou savourest not the things that be of God. not be unto thee. and set him in 1 midst of them. and lose his man profited. But whoso in shall it my name. If any men will come after me. works. Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven little ? And the Jesus called a child unto him. let him deny himself. drowned in the depth of the sea. rebuke him. * At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus- saying. but those that be of men. . And who so shall receive one such little th me. and become as little children shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. own soul ? or what shall a the Son of with his man give in exchange for his soul ? For man shall come in the glory of his Father and then he shall reward every man angels . were better for him that a mill stone were hanged about his neck.THE PRECEPTS OF and chief priests. Then said Jesus unto his discip for les. and take up his cross. shall find it.. JESUS. and follow me for whosoever will save his life shall lose it and whosoever will lose his : : life for if my sake. which shall not taste of death. Whoso ever therefore shall humble himself as this little child. saying. to his till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom. Verily I say unto you. and said unto Peten Get thee behind me. ye the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven. and be killed. Verily I say unto you Except ye be converted. Satan thou art an offence unto : : Then Peter took him. receiveoffend one of these little ones child in which believe me. But he turned. There according be some standing here. 19- and scribes. Lord this shall me. and said. and began to Be it far from thee. chap. xviii. * and that he were Matthew.

man and a publican. mouth of two or And three witnesses every word may be established. let him be unto thee . hands or two feet to be if And pluck it and life cast it from thee thine eye offend thee. That in not one of these little ones . that in the . then take with thee one or two more. Take heed that ye despise for I say unto you. rather than having two cast into everlasting out. doth he not leave the ninety and nine and goeth into the mountains. thy hand or and cast them from life is better thee to enter into halt or maimed. heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven. it is better for thee : to enter into with one eye.: but as if Verity I say unto Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in you. that one of these little onesif Moreover and if thy brother his fault against thee. verily I say more of that sheep. for ! Wherefore. go and him alone tell him will between thee : he if shall thy brother. thy foot offend it cut them off. and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be heaven : an heathen he neglect to heanthe church. fire. ! must needs be that offences come but woe to that if man by whom thee : the offence cometh thee. But he hear thee thou hast gained not hear thee. it unto you. For the Son of man is come which was lost. he rejoiceth and nine which not the will of your shall trespass is in heaven. if he shall neglect to hear them. for it Woe unto the world because of offences . and seeketh that which is gone astray ? And to save that if so be that he find it. How think ye ? If a man have an hundred sheep. is of the ninety so. rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell-fire. tell it unto the church. and one of them be gone astray. than Even went not astray.2O THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. Father which should perish.

and came and told unto their lord all that was clone. and he patience with me. and found one of which owed him an hundred pence hands on him. and his fore is the wife. Lord. they were very sorry. and children. The servant therefore payment to down.THE PRECEPTS OF loosed in heaven. Lord. and wor will shipped him. saying. Have his fellow-servants laid . And when he had begun to reckon. And his fellow-servant saying. I say not unto thee. there in gether in shall For where two or three are gathered to am I in the midst of them. Then his lord. and I pay thee all. and I forgive him ? till seven times ? Jesus saith unto him. brother sin against me. Pay me that thou owest. There my . till he should pay the debt. one was brought unto him which owed him ten thousand talents. and took him by the throat. 21 you is shall shall ask. I O thou wicked thou servant. and all that he had. Until seven times but Until seventy times seven. how oft heaven. But forasmuch as he had not to pay. his lord commanded him to be sold. That if two of on earth as touching any thing that they agree of my Father which it shall be done for them name. because desiredst me : shouldest not thou also have had campas- . kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king which would take account of his servants. and besought him. and I will pay thee all. So when his fellow-servants saw what . said unto him. have patience with me. And he would not but went and cast him into prison. and said. JESUS. was clone. forgave thee all that debt. saying. But the same servant went out. after that he had called him. my Then came Peter to him. Again I say unto you. Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion. and forgave him the debt. and fell be made. and loosed him. fell down at his feet.

them. suffered you to put away your wives but from the beginning it was not so. Why did Moses to give a writing of divorcement. His disciples say unto him. even as I had pity on thee ? And his lord was wroth. from your hearts forgive not every one his brother ye likewise shall * their trespasses.22 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. then command put her away ? the hardness of your hearts. it is not good to marry. The Pharisees also Is ? came unto him. Moses because of They I say unto you. If : and the case of the man said be so with his wife. which : were made eunuchs of men : and there be for the eunuchs which have made themselves eunuchs * kingdom Matthew. All men cannot receive saying. For man leave father and man put asunder. till he should pay all that was due unto him. And : say unto him. except it be for fornication. and to He saith unto them. mother. . let not flesh. it tempting him. Have ye not read. and saying unto him. For there are some mo ther s womb eunuchs. So if my heavenly Father do also unto you. Whosoever shall put away his wife. and delivered him to the tor mentors. his wife for every tuito lawful for a cause And to put away he answered and said man at the beginning. xix. 3. that He which made them made them male and female and said. chap. but one flesh ? What therefore God hath joined together. this cause shall a . this But he unto them. adultery shall marry another. save they to whom it is given. . sion on thy fellow-servant. and and they twain shall be one shall cleave to his wife Wherefore they are no more twain. which were so born from their and there are some eunuchs. committeth and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.

Then . may have eternal life ? And he said unto thou me good ? there is none good but God but if thou wilt enter into life. and said unto them. With men this is im his disciples heard //. . If that saying. Verily say unto you. But when the young man heard perfect. When they were exceedingly amazed. Thou shalt not bear false witness. what good thing shall I do. Which ? Jesus Thou shalt do no murder. Honour thy father and thy mother and. Good Master. He that is able to receive him receive it. Why that callest is. And his hands on them. But Jesus said. but with God all things are possible. That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven. to come unto me he laid : for of such is the kingdom of heaven. Suffer little Then were that : children. sake. one came and said unto him. and thou shalt have treasure in heaven and come and follow me.THE PRECEPTS OF of heaven s JESUS. possible . Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. and departed thence. there brought unto him little children. possessions. one. and give to the poor. He saith unto him. behold. and forbid them not. that I him. he should put his hands on them. All these things have go and sell that thou hast. said. Who then can be saved ? But Jesus beheld them. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle. and pray and the disciples rebuked them. Thou shalt not steal. And again I say unto you. I disciples. saying. The young man : saith unto him. Then he went away sorrowful said Jesus unto his : for he had great than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom oi God. youth up thou will be : what lack I yet ? 1 kept from my Jesus said unto him. keep : the commandments. let 23 it. And. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Verily I say unto you. And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day. the lord of the vineyard saith right Call the So when even was unto his steward. They He said Go ye also into the vineyard . saken houses. Why stand ye here all the day say unto him. sake. their hire. .24 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. Jesus said unto them. come. And ye also shall sit twelve tribes of Israel. upon twelve thrones. and ? suith unto them. and shall inherit everlasting But many that arc be first. beginning that from the unto the And when xx. or brethren. and said unto them.. and whatso that shall ye receive. Because no man hath hired unto them. which went out early the morning labourers into his vineyard. ever is idle us. and found others standing idle. and saw others standing idle in the market place. saken fore ? answered Peter and said unto him. labourers. chap. And about the eleventh hour right. they recived every * Mathew. or lands. And he went out about the third hour.. That ye which have followed me. or children. in the regenera tion when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory. I will he went out. they came were hired about the eleventh hour. or mother. first shall be and the unto in last shall * is For the kingdom of heaven is like a man that an householder. And they went their way. receive an hundredfold. last and give them first. or wife. or or father. shall life. and did likewise. we have for and followed thee what shall we have there all. Behold. Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour. for my name s last . he sent to hire them into his vineyard. . judging the And every one that hath for sisters. and whatsoever give you. is Go ye also into the vineyard.

and desiring a certain And he said unto her. 25 man penny. and the first last called. And thy were moved with indignation is against two brethren. the left. them equal unto us. And received every man a penny. I do thee no wrong didst : not thou agree with w. because So the last shall be first. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will ? : me for a Take that thine with mine own ? Is thine eye evil. : indeed of I my am and on to my and be baptized with the baptism with but to sit on my right hand. But he answered one of them. am baptized with ? They say unto him. But Jesus called them unto him.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. even as unto thee. which have borne the burden and heat of the day. Ye shall drink cup. when the ten heard the prepared of my Father. give. her sons. ceived it. and exercise said. Friend. baptized is not mine to left. But when the first came. they murmured against These house. Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles dominion over them. worshipping him. but I : for am good ? many be s few chosen. cup that drink Are ye able to drink of the and to be baptized with the baptism that We that are able. and they that are great . Ye saith know not I what ye shall I ask. Grant that these my two sons may one on thy right hand. and said. saying. but it shall be given them for whom it it. to Then came with him the mother of Zebedee children thing of him. unto him. But Jesus answered and said. and the other on the in thy kingdom. of. they supposed that they should have received more and they likewise a . and thou hast made last when they had the goodman of re the have wrought but one hour. And he saith unto them. penny and go thy way I will give unto this last. What wilt thou ? She sit.

By what authority doest thou priests these things ? Jesus answered and who gave thee this authority And and said unto them. xxi. 23. and said likewise. chap. which if ye tell me. saying. I also will ask you ! one thing. But it shall not be so but whosoever will be great among you. way of righteousness. For John came unto you in the and ye believed him not but the : * Matthew. let him be your servant even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto. And when he was come into the temple. God before you. Neither tell I you by what authority I do these But what think ye ? A certain man had two things. son. but afterward he repented. If we shall say from heaven he will say unto us. you : . I will to-day my vineyard. the chief and the elders of the people came unto him as he was teaching. And he not came to the second.among you. and said. why did ye not then believe him ? But if we shall say. I go. and said. people for all hold John as a prophet. and went. sir : and went not. and said. go work said. Verly I say unto you. . or of men ? And they reasoned with themselves. of men we fear the . . sons . ed Jesus. . him be your minister and whosoever will be chief . and he came to the in first. among let authority upon them. And he answered : He answered and . but to minister. : and to give * his life a ransom for many. cannot tell. I in likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things.26 exercise THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. Whether of the twain did the The -of will of his father ? They say unto him. whence was it ? from heaven. That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom first. The baptism of John.and said. Jesus saith unto them. We And they answer And he said unto them.

-saying. built : that they might receive the fruits of it. the this same is is become s the head of is the corner : the ? Lord doing. and let it out to husbandmen. and stoned another. what will he do unto those ? They say unto him. which shall render him the husbandmen Jesus saith unto them. they said among themselves. come. They will reverence my son. And they caught him. it shall fall. repented not afterward. the be taken from you. more than the first But last of all he : and they did unto them sent unto them his son. he sent his servants to the husbandmen. But when the husbandmen saw the son.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. hedged and it. it will grind him to . and will let out his vineyard -destroy unto other husbandmen. This is the heir . The stone which the builders fruits in seasons. And the hus bandmen took his servants. 27 : and ye. Again. and killed another. and round about. let us kill him. when publicans and the harlots believed him had seen it. and it mar Therefore say I unto you. and let us seize cast on his inheritance. When therefore the lord of the vineyard cometh. and beat one. and given kingdom And to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. and slew him. and went into a far country and when the time of the fruit drew near. He will miserably those wicked men. : certain householder. and him out of the vineyard. whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken vellous in our of eyes God shall : but on whomsover powder. he sent other servants likewise. and digged a wine-press in a tower. Did ye never read in the scriptures. it which planted a vineyard. that ye might ye There was a Hear another parable believe him. rejected.

come unto the and went their : ways. : and gathered together all as many as they found. Friend.28 * THE PRP:CEPTS OF JESUS. he saw there a : Then foot. Then saith he to his servants. Mas ter. and burned up their city. and as many as ye shall find. Again. Bind him hand and him away. And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians.gt. them servants. Then went the Pharisees. bid to the So those servants went out into the highways. and sent forth his : and that were bidden to the wedding they would not come. guests. The wedding is ready. For many are called. of heaven is The kingdom like unto a certain king which made a marriage servants to call for his son.J Y he was wroth and he sent forth and destroyed those murdereres. one to his farm. but they which were bidden were not worthy. * and teachest the way Mathew. chap. and all things marriage. my are oxen and : my fatlings ready But they made light of it. but few are chosen. king to the servants. we know that thou art true. another to his merchandise And the remnant took his servants. there* &amp. Go ye therefore into the highways. he sent forth other saying. . marriage. how earnest thou in hither not having a wedding garment ? And he was speechless. Tell them -which : are bidden. and cast him into outer dark ness there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. and slew them. man which had not on a wedding garment and he saith unto him. saying. Behold. : But when the king heard his armies. xx. and entreated them spiteful ly. and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. said the and take . I have prepared my dinner are killed. both bad and good and the wedding was furnished with And when the king came in to see the guests.

Caesar s. I as am the God of Abraham. ye hypocrites ? the tribute money. they were astonished at his doctrine.THE PRECEPTS OF of JESUS. they marvelled. Whose is this image and super? cription They say unto him. Then saith un Render therefore unto Caesar the things which and unto God the things that are God s. For the resurrection they neither marry. first. but of . And they brought unto him a penny. saying. And he saith unto them. thou regardest not the person of men. Why tempt ye me. unto his brother likewise unto the seventh. nor are given in But marriage. Now there were with us seven brethren a wife. him. and the God of Jacob ? God is not the God of the dead. of seven And of all. have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God. neither carest thou for any man for Tell us therefore . the woman died also. and went their way. Therefore in the re ? surrection they all had her. saying. left his wife also.the living. 2Q God in truth. which say that there is no resurrection. : and the when he had married and the third. having no he seco nd last issue. up seed unto : brother. are Caesar s When they had heard these words. Caesar. If a man die. and the God of Isaac. in whose wife shall She be for touching the resurrection of the dead. and to them. The same day came to him the Sadducees. but are as the angels of God in heaven. . . left Master. and. And when the multitude heard this. deceased. and asked him. Ye do err. nor the power of God. . his brother shall his marry his wife. not knowing the scriptures. Moses said. and raise having no children. or not ? and Shew me said. Jesus answered and said unto them. Is it lawful to give tribute unto what thinkest thou But Jesus perceived their wickedness.

the Lord said unto till my Lord. Then one of them. What think ye of Christ ? whose son is he ? They say unto him. disciples. and enlarge the borders of their garments. and do not. how is he his footstool ? son ? And no man was able to answer him a word neither durst any man. which is the in the law ? Jesus said unto him. and lay them on men sbut they themselves will not move them with shoulders . But all their works they do for to men * : they make broad Matthew. ? How then. one of their be seen of fingers. and love the . thy soul. ^vh^ch was a lawyer. This is love Thou the like and with first and great commandment- And the second is as thyself. Sit make thine enemies thy If David then call him Lord. that observe and do works for they say. Jesus asked them.3O THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. The son of David. He saith unto them. The scribes and the Pharisees sit in my right hand. they were gathered together. Master. the Lord thy God with all thy heart. it.. I . and saying. While the Pharisees were gathered together. ask him any more questions. asked him a question. Thou shalt love thy neighbour these two commandments hang all the law and the On unto prophets. For they bind heavy seat : Moses all therefore . from that day forth. whatsoever they bid you but do not ye after their observe. their phylacteries. * Then spake Jesus to the multitude. that he had put the Sadducees to silence. But when the Pharisees had heard great commandment shalt all tempting him. doth David in spirit call him Lord thou on saying. and with all thy mind. chap. xxiii. and to his. : burdens and grievous to be borne. saying. saying.

Woe unto you. ye for ye compass sea and scribes and Pharisees. Whosoever unto you. exalted. Whoso it. Ye shall swear by the gold of the temple. and to be But be not ye called called of men. neither ye them that are entering to go in. it is nothing but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it. scribes and Pharisees. Rabbi. Whosoever shall swear by the altar. ve blind guides but whosover shall swear by the temple. therefore shall swear by the all sweareth by and by things thereon. blind : for whether gift ? is greater. Rabbi for one is your Master. even Christ. Woe fools and blind : for whether is greater. And he that shall swear by . be abased . and the chief seats in the synagogues. and shall for a pretence make long prayer : therefore receive the greater damnation. he is guilty. and greetings in the markets. the gold. make him two-fold more the chiid of held than yourselves. But he that is greatest among you shall be : : earth for one no man your father upon the Father. or the temple that sanctifieth the gold ? And. Rabbi. even Christ and all : . ! which say. Ye fools and . which is in heaven. ye* are brethren. And is call your Neither be ye called masters for one is your Master. the gift. your servant. 3! uppermost rooms at feasts. hypocrites and when he is made. And whoso shall swear by the temple. for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven hypocrites ! suffer for ye neither go in yourselves. or the altar that sanctifieth the altar. And whosoever and he that shall shall exalt himself shall humble himself shall be But woe unto you. sweareth by it. hypocrites for ye devour widows against men : ! houses. it is nothing he is a debtor. scribes and Pharisees. ye land to make one proselyte ! .THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. . Woe unto you. and by him that dwelleth therein.

scribes full of hypocrisy and iniquity. mercy. and of all uncleanness. If we had been in the days of our fathers. hypocrites beacause ye build the tombs of the prophets. hypocrites for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin. and wise men. but are within full of dead mat s bones. ye escape the damnation I send unto you prophets. scribes and Pharisees. and perse that upon you may come all cute them from city to city blood shed upon the earth. hypocrites make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter. behold. from the blood the righteous . and some them shall ye scourge in : your synagogues. scribes and Pharisees. heaven. Ye blind done. sitteth theeon. and scribes : fathers. ! for unto you. ! we would not have been blood of the prophets. Woe and Pharisees. the prophets. but within ye are Woe unto you. and faith to leave the other undone. which strain at a gnat. that the outside of them may be unto you.32 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. ye Thou but within the} are full of extortion and excess. and have omitted the weightier matters of the law. platter. ! these ought ye to have judgment. 7 Woe blind Pharisee. and say. ! and some of them ye of shall kill and crucify . Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men. sweareth by the throne of God. ye generation of vipers how can of hell ? Wherefore. and swallow a camel. and garnish the sepulchres of the righte ous. Fill ye up then the measure of your Ye serpents. scribes and Pharisees. hypocrites for ye are like unto whited sepulchres. cleanse first that which is within the cup clean ! and the also. and not : guides. and by him that Woe unto you. which indeed appear beautiful outward. partakers with them in the Wherefore ye be witnesses unto that ye are the children of them which killed yourselves.

33 the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias. All these things shall come upon thou that killest O Jerusalem. chap. and ye would not is left unto you desolate. till ye shall say. shall find so doing. My lord delayeth his coming and shall begin to smite his fellow-servants. your house I say unto you. altar. xxiv. But and if that evil servant servant. have suffered his house to be broken up.in come a him asunder. and appoint him his portion with the there shall be weeping and gnashing of * Matthew. to give them meat his hath made ruler over his house in due season ? Blessed is that lord. that if the good your man of the house had known in what watch the thief would come. even as a under her wings. day when he Jooketh not for him. Therefore be for in such an hour as ye also ready ye think not the Son of man cometh. : hypocrites teeth. whom this Verily I say ye slew bet-v \i the temple and the unto you. Ye ! not see me henceforth. Jerusalem. generation. whom whom his lord hold. children together.THE PRECEPTS OF of righteous Abel unto JESUS. Verily I say unto you. Who then is a faithful and wise : servant. and shall cut shall &quot. he would have watched. when he cometh. and stonest them which how often would I have gathered thy are sent unto thee. But know this. That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. and in an hour that he is not aware of. For shall hen gathereth her chickens Behold. 42. and would not . Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. say in his heart. Watch therefore for ye know not what hour Lord doth come. 3 . and to eat and drink iwith the drunken the lord of that servant shall . the prophets.

34 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. . saying. Behold. five [were foolish. us of your oil wise. there was a cry made. five of meet the bridegroom. and hid his talents lord s money. And . slumbered and . and lamps. the bridegroom cometh go ye out to meet him. to his goods. Afterward came also the other virgins. Lord. and to another one to every five man according to his several ability his journey. Not so lest there be not but go fye rather to them enough for us and you that sell. Then all those virgins arose. chap. of Then unto ten to shall the kingdom heaven be likened virgins. the bridegroom came went in with him to the marriage and the door was shut. And and went them were forth wise. Verily I . he also gained other two. which took their lamps. Lord. and buy for yourselves. for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherin the Son of man cometh. After a long time the lord of those serv* Matthew. another two. and straight way took Then he that had received the went and traded with the same. And while they went and they that were ready to buy. : for our say unto you. received one. xxv. open to us. the foolish said unto the lamps are gone out. and made them other five talents. saying. For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country. unto one he . who called his own servants. But he answered and said. and took no oil in their vessels with their lamps. But the wise answered. Give : And . went and digged in the earth. I know you not. Watch therefore. . And likewise he that had received But he that had two. tarried all They that were foolish took their with them but the wise took oil : While the bridegroom And at midnight they slept. and trimmed their lamps. and delivered unto them gave five talents.

Well done. make thee many things : enter thou into the joy of thy talents He also that had received two came and : two and thou talents beside them. had received five talents And so he that came and brought other five talents. : said unto him. thou reap where I sowed not. and gather where I have not strawed thou oughtest therefore to have to the exchangers. . ceived the one talent many things enter Then he which had re came and said. said. saying. I have gained two other talents His lord said unto him.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. and give For unto it unto him which hath ten talents. I ruler over lord. and then at my put my money knewest that . 35 ants cometh. then there shall be weeping the Son of man shall come shall . was and and gathering where thou hast not strawed and went and hid thy talent in the earth afraid. be His lord said servant will : unto him. I lo. every one that hath shall be given. reaping where thou hast not . thou deliveredst unto me five talents hold. And : cast ye the unprofit able servant into outer darkness and gaashimg of teeth. servant thou hast been ruler over faithful over a few : things. Well done. good . thou deliveredst unto me behold. and all the holy angels with him. I Thou wicked and slothful servant. I have gained beside them five talents more. I knew thee : that thou art an hard man. His Lord answered and there thou hast that is thine. coming I should have received mine own with usury. make thee into the joy of thy lord. shall be taken : away even that which he hath. and reckoneth with them. Lord. When in his glory. and he shall have abundance but from him that hath not. thou good and faithful thou hast been faithful over a few things. Take therefore the talent from him. Lord. faithful I will Lord.sown.

and ye visited me not. when saw we thee an hungred. or naked. or in prison. Verily I say unto you. ye have done it unto me. and ye came unto me. saying. and gave thee drink ? thee ? thee a stranger. Depart from me. and ye gave me no drink : no meat I was was a stranger. and ye clothed me not ye took me not in and in prison. Verily I say unto you. and ye gave me meat I was thirsty. me : I was and ye took me sick. Then shall sick. saying Lord. or in prison. and came unto thee ? And the King shall answer and say unto them. ye blessed of prepared for my Father. and : naked. sheep from the but the goats on the left. prepared for the devil and his angels rne I : : was an hungred. and ye gave me drink I was inherit the : : : a stranger. Come. when saw we thee : an hungred. and ye gave thirsty. Inasmuch ye did it as ye did it not to one of the least of these. Lord. : me I was and ye clothed in prison. And these shall go away into . and did not minister unto thee ? Then shall he answer them. or sick. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren. they also answer him. or athirst. Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand. Then shall the righteous answer him. as a shepherd divideth goats and he shall set the sheep on : his right hand. ye cursed. saying. kingdom you from the founda tion of the world for I was an hungered. and took thee in ? or naked. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand. into everlasting for I fire. or a stranger. and fed When saw we or thirsty. and ye visited in : naked. not to me. and clo thed thee ? Or when saw we thee sick. he upon the throne all of his glory : : and before him his shall be gathered nations and he shall separate them one from another.36 THE PRECEPTS OF sit JESUS.

* : JESUS. 37 life but the righteous into And it came his house. And the and disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast : : they come and say unto him. And no man putteth new wine a piece of new cloth on an else the into old bottles else the new wine doth burst the bottles and the wine is spilled. Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast. Can the children of fast. and the rent is made worse. and the bride-chamber then shall they fast in those days. many to pass. sees And when the scribes and Phari saw him eat with publicans and sinners. to pluck the ears of corn. * Mark chap. but sinners to repentance. that. as they went. Behold. and the bottles will be marred but new wine must be put into new bottles. and they followed him.THE PRECEPTS OF everlasting punishment eternal. And it came to pass. while the bridegroom is with them ? as long as they have the bridegroom with them. that he went through the corn : : fields on the sabbath day his disciples began. they cannot fast. ii. They that are whole have no need of call I came not to the Physician. they said unto his disciples. How is it that he eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners ? When Jesus heard it. But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them. as Jesus sat at meat in publicans and sinners sat also together : with Jesus and his disciples for there were many. 15. but they that are sick the righteous. And the Pharisees said unto him. . why do they on the sabbath . old No man : also seweth new garment piece that filled it up taketh away from the old. but thy disciples fast not ? And Jesus said unto them. he saith unto them.

Behold. And some fell and the thorns grew up. * There came then his brethren and his mother. sent unto him. The sabbath was made for man. and said unto them in his doctrine. and was an hungred. and did yield * fruit iv. and they that were with him ? Have ye never How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high which also to is priest. and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. sowed. . For whosoever shall do the will of my brother. . and mother. because it . withered away. iii. earth : but it when the sun was up. Hearken behold. the same is t And he taught them many things by parables.38 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee. read what David did.gt. 2. he. calling him. and ! said.. and because had no among and it thorns. and did eat the shewbread. it it was scorched . and my sister. there went out a sower to sow he. where it had not much earth and imme had no depth of diately it sprang up. root. and not man for the sabbath therefore the Son of man is Lord also of : the sabbath. And Mark. and. . chap. standing without. the multitude sat about him and they said unto . when he had need. Who is my mother. And him.. f Mark. Behold my mother my brethren God. yielded no fruit. as some fell by the way side. And he answered them. and it came to pass. not lawful to eat but for the priests. or my brethren ? And he looked round about on them which and sat about him. day that which is not lawful ? And he said unto them. and gave ? them which were with him And he said unto them. on good ground. and choked it&amp. chap. and that sprang up and increased other fell . saying. And some fell on stony ground. 31.

Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of without. and hearing they any time they be forgiven not this para ye may hear. who. and some an And he him said unto them. stick ? candle brought to be put under a or under a bed ? and not to be set on a candle Is a For there . thirty. : these things are see. and the cares of this world. when they have heard the word. is sown. and so endure gladness . And these are they which are sown on good ground such as hear.THE PRECEPTS OF brought hundred. asked of him the parable. in. said unto them. He that hath ears to And when he was alone. which shall not be manifested neither was any thing kept secret. and how then will ye know And Know all soweth the word. But when they have Satan cometh immediatly. immediately they are offended. some hear. And parables ? The sow these are they by the way side. unfruitful. And such these are they which are sown among thorns and the deas hear the word. bushel. is nothing hid. all God : but unto them that are in parables . and bring forth fruit. done that see ing they may and not perceive . but for a time ariseth for the : afterward. they that were about him with the twelve. let JESUS. the word. some And he thirtyfold. and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts. and some an hundred. ble er ? he said unto them. And these are they where the word heard. and receive it. but that . immediately receive it with and have no root in themselves. And he said unto them. hear. some sixty. and some sixty. and not understand and lest at should be converted. . and the lust of other things entering choke the word. and it becometh. ceitfulness of riches. likewise which are sown on stony ground . their sins should them. 39 forth. . s when affliction or persecution word sake.

disciples Why walk not thy elders. should come abroad. with what measure ye mete. . it shall be mea and unto you that hear shall more be : For he that hath. And he said. 5. How- and said beit. forth fruit of herself . for the earth bringeth ear. For laying mandment of God. Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him. but eat according to the tradition of the bread with unwashen hands ? He answered unto them. ye hold the tradition the vain do they worship me. spring and grow up. as if a man sleep.40 it THE PRECEPTS OF If JESUS. shall than sown. as it is written. herbs. in commandments of men. teaching Jor doctrines aside the com of men as the like washing of pots and cups * : and many other such vi. when it is sown in the earth. then the after is that the full forth. from him shall be taken even that which he hath. corn in the But when the fruit sickle. Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites. This people honoureth me with their lips. all it the kingdom of God or with what we compare it ? // is like a grain of which. any man have let him : hear. Take heed what he hear sured to you given. he knoweth not how ear. is less but when it is seeds that be in the earth liken the : groweth up. to him shall be given and he that hath not. but their heart is t ar from me. and the seed should . . fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it. And he : said unto them. chap. and becometh greater than all so that the and shooteth out great branches . Matthew. first the blade. and should should cast seed into the ground and rise night and day. ! unto we comparison mustard seed. So is the kingdom of God. ears to hear. brought because the harvest shall immediately he putteth in the And he said Whereis come.

by he shall whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me be free. And any man have ears to hear. pride. Honour thy Father and If a thy mother die the Whoso : curseth father or mother. adulteries. blasphemy. Are ye so without understanding also ? Do ye not perceive. him hear. 4! things ye do. a gift. those are : they that defile the man. 34. For Moses and. cations. that to say. And ye suffer him no more to do aught for hi. chap. lasciviousness. . And he said unto them. * called the people unto him he said unto them. evil For from within. foolishness all : these evil things come from within. that defileth the man. said. his disciples asked him concerning he saith unto them.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. when he was entered into the house If the parable. out of forni the heart of men. and goeth out into the draught. wickedness. murders. father or // Corban. and understand there is nothing tradition. purging meats ? And he said. Whosoever viii. an evil eye. is man is shall say to his mother. thefts. And when he had with his disciples also. Full well ye re ject the commandment of God. : him let from without a man. and defile the man. And defile him . Mark. because it entereth not into his heart. Hearken unto me every one oj you. it cannot from the people. That which cometh out of the imn. proceed thoughts. that ye may keep your own him tradition. . deceit. And when he called all the people unto him. that entering into him can defile but the things which come out of him. but into the all belly. that whatso ever thing from without entereth into the man. let death but ye say. father or effect his mother : making the word of God of none : which ye have delivered through your and many such like things do ye. he said unto them. covetousness. .

: to house. we saw one casting out devils in thy name. and lose his own his soul change for ashamed of sinful Or what shall man give in ex Whosoever therefore shall be words in this adulterous me and . because he followeth not But Jesus said. 33. John answered him. of of my him and generation also shall the Son of man be ashamed. desire to be all. For whosoever will save his . first. that can us speak evil of me. : man which lightly shall do a miracle in my name. life shall lose it but whosoever shall lose his sake and the gospel s the same shall save it. he asked them. unto them.42 will THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. Whosoever in receive one of such children my name. and he followeth not us and we forbad him. come cross. yourselves for by the Capernaum What was ? : and being in the that ye disputed it way way they had disputed among them who should be the greatest. And he came among peace selves. and set him in the midst of and when he had taken him into his arms. soul if ? ? he shall gain the whole world. but him that sent me. Master. receivtth me : and whosoever shall receive And : me. when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. chap. For he that is not against For whosoever shall give you a cup on our part. saying. it life for my For what shall profit a ma n. his after me. and take up and follow me. : the same shall be If any man and servant And he them said took a child. let him deny himself. is of water to drink in my name. because ye belong to Mark. . ix. Forbid him not for there is no us. receiveth not me. And he sat down and saith by the But they held their and of called the twelve. last of all. he shall unto them.

x. and the fire is not fire : quenched. and have peace one wherewith will with another. And they brought young children to him. he was : much such displeased. 43 he shall not lose his reward. And whosoever shall offend JESUS. that he should touch them and his disciples rebuked those that brought them. : thy foot offend thee. and the fire is not quenched.worm if dieth never shall be quenched and the fire is not not. than having two eyes to be cast into hell where their worm dieth not.THE PRECEPTS OF Christ. Suffer the forbid little children to is come unto me. put his hands upon them. believe in And if thy hand offend thee. and said unto them. and he were cast into the sea. 13. into the fire that never shall be quenched : : whore their worm dieth not. shall not receive the kingdom of God as a child. and Salt is good shall be salted with salt. it is hetter for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck. . Mark. every but if the season * sacrifice For every one shall be salted with fire. than having two hands to go into hell. Verily I say unto you. salt have lost his saltness. he shall not enter therein. chap. cut it off it is better for thee to enter halt into life. And he took and them up in his arms. it ? Have salt in ye yourselves. pluck it out thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye. blessed them. And better for thine eye offend thee. into the fire that where it is their . one of these little one. But when Jesus saw it. verily I say unto you. than having two feet to be if And cast into hell. cut it off it is better for thee to enter into life maimed. . that me. : : quenched. and them not : for of Whosoever little the kingdom of God.

or children. And they were astonished out of measure. Lo. sad at that saying. or lands. and follow me.sisters. Jesus answereth again. and asked him. One thing ing thou lackest go thy way. and kneeled to him. .44 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. I say unto you. and saith unto his disciples. that Thou knoww. or . loved him and said unto him. And he answered and said unto him. God. and went away grieved : he had great possessions. can be saved : And There Jesus answered and said. and have followed thee. or fathar. Good Master. Do not commit adultery. have : in heaven : And he was for and come. And when he was gone forth into the way there came one running. what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life ? . but not with God for with God all things are possible. sell whatsoever thou and give to the poor. and saith unto them. Verily is no man that hath left house. est the commandments. or mother. is none good but one. and thou shalt have treasure hast. not bear false witness. Do Why Do not kill. Master. Do not steal. And there callest thou me good ? Jesus said unto him. Children how hard is it for them ! thatjtrust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God It is easier for a camel to go the eye of a needle. saying among themselves. Honour thy father and mother. or brethren. we have left all. How hardly shall ! they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God And the disciples were astonished at his words. all these I observed from my youth. or wife. With men it is impossible. then for a rich man to en through ter into the kingdom of God. Then Peter began to say unto him. But. take up the cross. Defraud not. Who then ? And Jesus looking upon them saith. And Jesus looked round about. Then Jesus behold him.

But so shall be among you but whosoever will be great : it not among and whosoever of you will you. For even the : Son of man came and not to be ministered unto. And he said unto * And James and them. t Therefore I say unto you. hand and on it my hand for is not mine to give it is but shall be given to them whom zYthey began But Jesus called to be prepared. We can. that are first shall be last many : . Grant unto us that we may sit. houses. we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. children and lands. and mothers. John. ones exercise authority upon them. f Mark. . and brethren. to give his life a ransom for many. x. ye ask can ye drink of the cup that I drink of ? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with ? : they said unto him. them to him. shall ye And : be baptized left : but to sit on my right . come unto him. 45 shall my sake. Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of and with the baptism that I am baptized withal. but to minister. and the other on thy left hand. But persecutions and in the world to come eternal and the last first. And Jesus said unto them. saying. Master. And when the ten heard much displeased with James and John. 24. chap. and the gospel s. shall be your minister be the chiefest. Ye know that they Gentiles exercise lordship over which are accounted to rule over the them and their great .THE PRECEPTS OF for JESUS. with life. Ye know not what glory. chap. shall be servant of all. and sisters. What things soever ye xi. but he receive an hundredfold now in this time. * Mark. What would ye that I should do for you ? They said unto him. in thy But Jesus said unto them. and saith unto them. the sons of Zebedee. 35. one on thy right hand.

there were seven brethren and the first took a wife. : Now and . Master. rise. And they saith unto them. And when ye : ye have ought against any is stand praying. And the left he any seed neither no seed last of all the woman seven had her. that his brother should take his wife. which . Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar s and to God the things And that are God s. Why bring brought it. . and leave no children. * And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees which in and of the Herodians. but teachest the way of God in truth Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar. If a man s brother die. unto them. that your Father also heaven may forgive you your trespasses. Moses surrection wrote unto us. and died dying and the third likewise. we know that them art true. In the resurrection therefore. Whose is this ? And they said unto him. when ye pray. say there and they asked him. and carest for no man for thou : regardest not the person of men. saying. they say unto him. But if ye do not forgive. ? for the Mark 13. forgive. And when they were come. shall she * when they shall seven had whose wife be of them chap. Master. is Then no re came unto him the Sadducees. And : : died also. and ye if shall have them. Jesus answering said unto them. image and superscription Caesar s. and left left no seed. or shall said we not give ? But he. and raise up seed unto his brother. the second took her. to catch him in his words.46 desire. neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses. me a And he penny. And they marvelled at him. tempt knowing ye me ? their hypocrisy. THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. xii. believe that ye receive $cm. and leave his wife behind him. that may I see it. : or not ? Shall we give.

O Israel and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart. and the God of Isaac. and with all all thy : soul. Master. how in the bush God spake as unto him. to love him with all standing. and having heard them reasoning together. The Lord our God is one Lord M.THE PRECEPTS OF her to wife. saying. is the first all&quot. and with all the under all the soul. 47 And Jesus answering said unto them. and with all the is more burnt offerings and sacrifices. . There none other command scribe : ment greater than these. God of the And one of the living : ye there scribes came. and the God of Jacob ? He is not the God of the dead. Do not therefore err. but the fore do greatly err. . I am the God of Abraham. . and to love his neighbour as himself. is Thou the shalt love neighbour as thyself. And no man after that durst ask him any question. Thou art not far from the kingdom of than all whole God. Well. and with strength. they neither marriage . And said unto for there him. that they rise read in the book of Moses. : And have ye not touching the dead. and perceiving that he had answered them well. and with thy strength the second is like. Which commandment of all ? And Jesus The first of the commandments answered him. the heart. asked him. JESUS. . and with is all thy mind. And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly. he said unto him. And thy this. ye neither the power of God ? For when they shall rise from the dead. marry. because ye know not the scriptures. thou hast/ said the truth God and there is none other but he and is one . Hear. namely this the first commandment. nor are given in but are as the angels which are in heaven.

And he closed the book. The the book. of all them that w ere in the synagogue were fastened r on him. to set a liberty them that are bruised. this And he began to say unto them. Verily I say unto you. where he had been brought up read. for all they did cast in all of their abundance. and wondered Joseph s son say unto me * ? And xii. and stood up for to his the prophet Esaias. Ye will : surely this proverb. and recovering of sight to the blind. because he hath anointed me to . And held how Jesus sat over against the treasury. and she threw he called And two mites. f Luke chap. Spirit of upon me. than all they which have saith cast into the treasury . ceop. And he found the place where the Lord is it when he had opened was written. a farthing. as the synagogue on And there was delivered unto him the book of custom was. And they said. which unto him his disciples. and. unto them. Physician. in And there came a certain poor widow. even t all but she of her want did cast in her living. preach the gospel to the poor he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted. And all bare him the gracious words which proceded out of his mouth. and he gave And the eyes it again to the minister. That this poor widow hath cast more in. This day fulfilled is scripture in at your ears. to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. what- Mark. Is not this witness. to that she And he came : Nazareth. iv. to preach deliverance to the cap tives. . 16. and sat down.48 * THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. he said unto them. he went into the sabbath day. and be the people cast money inte the treasury and : many make and that were rich cast in much. had. heal thyself 41.

ye that which is not lawful to do on f Luke. a city of Sidon. and Pharisees murmured against Why do ye eat and drink with pub licans and sinners that sick. and be But new wine spilled. The old is better.THE PRECEPTS OF soever JESUS. but also a parable sinners to repentance. and the bottles shall perish. and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old. No prophet of a own country. after he went through the corn fields and his disciples plucked the ears of corn. do also here Verily I say unto you. unto a woman that was a widow. 49 we have heard done in in thy country. And he said. save unto Sarepta. But I tell you widows were in Israel in the days of truth. vi. chap. came not to call the righteous. ? And I them. on the second sabbath . 30. No man putteth a piece of a . No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new for he saith. rubbing them in their hands. . . And he spake unto them new garment upon an old if otherwise. that unto them. when great famine was throughout all the land is accepted in his . then both the new maketh a rent. They they that are are Jesus answering said unto whole need not a physician but . must be put into new bottles and both are preserved. when the heaven was shut up three years and six months. And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet and none of them was cleansed. many Elias. Luke. : t the And it came to pass. And no man putteth new wine into old bottles else the new wine will burst the bottles. Capernaum. * But their scribes his disciples. and did eat. saying. 4 . chap. but unto none of them was Elias sent. the Syrian. * Why do v. And certain of the Pharisees said first. . saving Naaman . I.

and when they shall separate you their company. or to do. them said. s sake. when himself was an hungred. and said toagainst him. vi. and said. Blessed be ye poor for ye shall be filled. and gave also to them that were with Have ye not read so what David . That the Son of man he a Lord also of the sabbath. But he knew their thoughts. Rejoice ye in that day. I will ask you one thing on the sabbath days to do good. and did take and eat the shew-bread.5O THE PRECEPTS OF ? JESUS. Rise up. . did. man which had the withered hand. Blessed are ye that hunger now for yours : Blessed are ye that weep now : for ye shall laugh. to save life. And he arose and stood forth. that : man whose entered into the synagogue and taught right hand was withered. of and your name as evil. the kingdom of God. him is . whether he would heal on that they might find an accusation the sabbath day . the sabbath days And much Jesus answering as this. your reward is great in heaven But like manner did their fathers unto the prophets.. chap. Then evil ? said Is it lawful Jesus unto them.. and leap for joy for in the behold. and re proach you. and there was And the scribes- and Pharisees watched him. And came to pass also on another sabbath. that are rich Woe * for ye have received your unto you that are full for ye shall ! ! Luke. shall when men from cast out shall hate you. and they which were with him how he went into the house of God. : man woe unto you consolation. which ? it is not lawful to eat. or to destroy it ? * And he lifted : up his eyes is on his disciples. Blessed are ye. but for the priest* alone And it he said unto them. and the stand forth in the midst. for the Son : for. 20.

if ye lend to them what thank have ye ? for sinners also lend to sinners. measure that ye mete withal. what thank have ye ? for them which sinners also do even the same. it shall be measured to you] again. do good to them which hate you . the same For with shall} men give into your bosom. to receive as much again. and . pressed clown. hoping for nothing again and your reward shall be great. Judge not. and ye and ye shall be for forgive. shall : and ye shall : not. as your Father also is merciful. ! for ye shall unto you that laugh now Woe unto you when all men shal^ speak well of you for so did their fathers to the false prophets. And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other to forbid not and him that taketh away thy cloke Give to every man that take thy coat also. and run shall not be judged : : condemn not be condemned : ning over. Love your Woe enemies. what thank have ye ? for sinnersalso love those that love them. JESUS. and lend. and of him that taketh away thy goods And as ye would that men should also to do to you. But I say unto you which hear. . And if ye do good to them which do good to you. . And he spake a parable unto them. But love ye your enemies. ye be the children of the Highest for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil. and do good. asketh of thee ask them not again. given give. Can the blind lead the blind ? both fall into the ditch ? The disciple shall is they not not above . Be ye therefore merciful. and pray for them which despitefully use you. And of whom ye hope to receive. ! 51 mourn and weep. bless them that curse you. do ye them likewise. and shaken together.THE PRECEPTS OF hunger. and it shall be given unto you good measure. For if ye love love you.

let is me pull out the mote that eye. and could not shake it for it was founded upon a rock. and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy in thine ! brother s eye. corrupt fruit For a good tree bringeth not forth neither doth a corrupt tree bring forth is good fruit. and laid the : foundation on a rock . I will shew you to whom he is like man which built an house. . v 36. heareth. and do not the things which I say ? Who. Luke. Lord. Lord. But he that . and digged deep. Brother. chap. and when the flood arose.52 his master his is : THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. treasure of his good man out of the -good heart bringeth forth that which is good . but ? perceivest not the beam that in thine own eye Either how canst thou say to thy brother. the stream beat vehemently upon that house. . And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. soever cometh to me. speaketh. And * he went into the Pharisee . and doeth mouth And why he is like a them. its own fruit : for of thorns men do not gather nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes. and doeth not. s house. a foundation built an house upon the earth against which the stream did beat vehemently. is like a man that without . master. For every tree known by figs. when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in time own eye ? Thou hypocrite cast out first the beam out of thine own eye. and immediately it fell . and the ruin * of that house was great. but every one that is perfect shall be as And why beholdest thou the mote that s in thy brother is eye. and heareth my saying. A and an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart is bringeth forth that which of the heart his evil : for of the abundance call ye me.

: certain five which had two debtors : hundred pence. when she knew that Jesus sat meat in the Pharisee s house. This man. are forgiven for she loved is Her sins. him began to And they that sat at meat with within themselves. and the other fifty and when they had nothing to pay. with the Now when the Pharisee which had bidden him saw himself. brought an alabaster box of ointment. my feet : but she hath washed this kiss my feet the hairs of her head. And behold. saying. and said unto woman ? I entered into thine house. Who is this that say . and stood at his feet behind him weep at ing. which of them said. woman this is that And Jesus answer There was a the one owed ing said unto him. is a sinner. a 53 sat down to meat. anointed them. Thou hast rightly Simon. which are many. hath not ceased to : my feet. for she if within zV. he frankly forgave them both. Simon. and wiped them with Thou {gavest me no kiss but : woman. say on. to whom he for he said unto him. would have known who and what manner of toucheth him . Seest thou this turned to the woman. I have somewhat to say unto thee. Thy sins are forgiven. and ointment. hath anointed my : feet with ointment. and did wipe them with the hairs of her head. And And he suppose that he. the same loveth much but to whom little And he said unto her. he spake he were a prophet. forgiven. woman in the which was a sinner. I will love him most ? Simon answered and gave most. and began to wash his feet with tears. Tell me therefore. JESUS. thou gavest me no with water for tears. And he creditor saith.THE PRECEPTS OF and city. judged. My head with thou didst not anoint but this woman I . little. and kissed his feet. Wherefore say unto thee. Master. since the time I came oil in.

and were come to him out of every city. other fell on good ground. having heard the word. with patience. and taketh away the word out of their hearts. it . saying. Those by parable is this then cometh the devil the way side are they that hear see. Luke. receive the word with joy these have no root. chap. And when sprang up. Unto you it given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God but to others in parables that seeing they might not : . he spake by a A sower went out to sow his seed and as he parable and it was trodden sowed. said woman. And when -much down. And that which fell among thorns which when they have heard. and are are they. Now the The seed is the word of God. to the And he . vii. 4. No man. And his disciples asked him. They on the rock are they. Thy hath saved thee go in peace. lest they should believe and be saved. And some fell among thorns and the thorns sprang up with it . some fell by the way side : : . and bring no fruit to perfection. keep it. : .54 forgiveth faith sins THE PRECEPTS OF also ? JESUS. when they hear. because it lacked moisture. and in time . people were gathered together. when he hath lighted a candle. and hearing they might not understand. go forth. he that hath ears to it. he had said these things. let him hear. and and bare fruit an hundredfold. . But that on the good ground are they. And some fell upon a rock and all soon as it was sprung up. and choked And hear. and bring forth fruit. withered away. he cried. which for a while believe. What might is this parable be ? And he said. of temptation fall away. and the fowls of the air devoured it. and which. choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life. which in an honest and good heart.

and sent messengers before his face : they went. which of them should be greatest. by And it was told him co tain. and how ye for could not come at him for the press. that shall known hear : neither any thing hid. took a child. that sent me shall : for he that is least among you the same be great. Take heed therefore whosoever hath. and said unto them. perceiving the him by him. Master. when the time was come that he should be received up. and set and said unto them. manifest For nothing . Forbid him not : for he that is not against us is for us. Luke. which said. from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have. ix. we saw one casting out devils and we forbad him. Then came to him his mother and his brethren. And it came to pass. secret. Whosoever shall receive this child. 46. thought of their heart. . and do it. And Jesus said unto him. he steadfastly set his face to go and to Jerusalem. chap. desiring Thy mother and thy brethren And he answered to see thee.THE PRECEPTS OF coverth setteth it JESUS. or putteth under a bed . because he followeth in thy name not with us. that shall and come abroad. that they is which enter in may see not be made not be the light. to him shall be given and whosoever hath not. * Then there arose a reasoning among them. but it on a candlestick. and they did not receive him. . and whosoever shall receive in my name. And Jesus. stand without. receiveth me : me receiveth him all. it 55 with a vessel. My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God. and entered into a village of the Samaritans* to make ready for him. because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem. And John answered and said.

And when Lord. And if the Son of peace be there. And harvest. go bid them farewell And Jesus said unto No man looking back. Jesus said unto him let the dead bury their dead but go thou and preach the kingdom of God. as they went in the way. whither he himself having put his hand to the plough and fit for the kingdom of God. x. of the harvest. but man hath not where to lay his head. but at let me first which are him. even as Elias did ? but he turned and rebuked them. . I send you lambs among wolves. that. Therefore said he unto them. Lord. home my house. And another also said. is After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also. And it came to pass. and consume them. wilt thou that we not come to destory men s lives. And Jesus said unto air Foxes have the Son of said and birds of the have nests . that he his as would send forth labourers : Go your ways behold. And they went to another village. your peace shall Luke chap. : into whatsoever house ye enter. first say. and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place. but the labourers arc few The : harvest truly is great. I : will follow thee at . For the Son of man is said. Lord. suffer me first to go and bury my father. But he said. a certain man said unto him. would come. And he unto another. I. Lord. him. goest. Follow me. Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. they command fire to come down from heaven. Peace be to this house. pray ye therefore the Lord into forth scrip. Carry neither pures.56 THE PRECEPTS OF his disciples JESUS. but to save them. nor nor shoes and salute no man by the way. and said. I will follow thee withersoever thou holes. James and John saw this.

that for it shall be more tolerable in that mighty Tyre and Sidon. chap. x. And unto them. and thou * Luke. heareth me and he that despiseth you despiseth me and he that dispiseth me despiseth him that sent me. which shalt be thrust down to hell. which have been done in you. ! ! Sodom. . and say fore you : from house to house. and they receive you not. sitting in sackcloth and ashes. Bethsaida in Woe unto thee. hast answered right this : And he said unto shalt do. 25. Thou shalt said He love the thy soul. eat such things as are set be ter. Master. they had a great while ago repentedBut it shall be more to. and But dust of your city. Thou and thy neighbour as thyself.eating and drinking such things as they give : for the labourer is worthy of his hire. what shall I do to inherit eter nal life ? unto him. go your \vays out into the streets of the same. that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. and tempt ed him. . The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. be ye sure of this. He that heareth you . Go not into whatsoever city ye en and they receive you. say. than for that city. And the judgment.THE PRECEPTS OF rest : JESUS. 57 upon it if not. we do wipe off against you notwithstanding. : Even the very But I say unto you. and with all thy mind him. Lord thy God with all thy heart. which cleaveth on us. and heal the sick that are therein. and with all and with all thy strength. saying. . And in the same house remain. for if the works had been done lerable for Tyre and Sidon at thou Capernaum. it shall turn to you again. than for your art exalted to heaven. behold. day Chorazin woe unto thee. into whatsoever city ye enter. a certain lawyer stood up. What is written in the law ? how readest thou ? And he answering said. * And.

Jerusalem to Jericho. and took care of him.&amp. he had compas him and bound up his wounds. chap. and do Now it came to pass. he took out two pence. Go. and heard his word. his raiment. as he journeyed. thou Luke. and wine. willing to justify himself. he. and said. dost thou not my that hath help left therefore said she me to serve alone ? bid her me. * Then said Jesus unto him. as they went. thinkest thou. came : where he was sion on him. and set him on his own beast. Martha.8 THE PRECEPTS OF But JESUS. he passed by on the other likewise a Levite. and passed by on the other But a certain Samaritan. repay thee. and departed. 38. But Martha was cumbered about much serving. and said unto him. received him into her house. . when he was at the place. He that shewed when come again I will mercy on him. Take care of I and gave them to the host. came and looked on him. Which now of these three. and went to pouring in oil and brought him to an inn. Lord. is And who my neighbour ? And A certain fell man went down from thieves. careful and . which also sat at Jesus feet. And by chance there came down a certain priest that way side.lt. x. live. : And and when he saw him. .and among which stripped him of and wounded him. and when he saw him. that : he enter ed into a certain village sister Martha. was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves ? And he said. and a certain woman. And Jesus answered and art unto her. said unto Jesus. And on the morrow when he departed. him and whatsoever thou spendest more. side. thou likewise. and -care that came sister to him. named And she had a called Mary. leaving him half dead. Martha. Jesus answering said.

I. as John also taught his disciples. and I : is now shut. for a me. xi. hallowed be thy Thy kingdom come Thy will be done. When ye pray. as in : : Give us clay by day our daily heaven. * certain place he was praying in a ceased. bread and forgive us our sins for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us and lead us not into tempta so in earth. one of his disciples said unto him. which shall not be Mary taken away from her. teach us to pray. and it shall be given you seek and ye shall find knock. chap. will he offer him a ye then. 59 many things but one thing is needful : hath chosen that good part.and : JESUS. And I say unto you. : tion Which at evil. I cannot will and give thee. Trouble me not the door . and say unto him. And he said unto them. yet many it because of his importunity he will rise and give him as as he needeth. will he for a fish give him a serpent . name Our Father which art in heaven. being know how to give Luke. . have a friend. it And came to pass. that. lend me three . And he said unto them. Lord. that knocketh it shall be opened. and . be opened unto you. as when he say. but deliver us from of shall loaves friend of mine in his journey is come to have nothing to set before him ? And he from within shall answer and say. evil.THE PRECEPTS OF troubled about . For every one that asketh receiveth and he that seeketh findeth and to him shall . If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father. Though he not rise and give him because he is his friend.scorpion ? ? or If if he shall ask an egg. rise and my children are with me in bed . and shall go unto him you midnight. I say unto you. will he give him a stone ? or if he ask a fish. Ask. . Friend. . : .

Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 27. and wickedness. : the Pharisee saw ?/.60 THE PRECEPTS OF gifts JESUS. behold. . word of God. And the Lord said unto him. unto you. Yea. . and the paps which thou hast sucked. ? But rather give alms of such things as ye have and. full of light. he marvelled that he had washed before dinner. unto your children. did not he that made that And when first not which is without. a certain woman of the company lifted up her voice and said unto him. thy body also is full of dark ness.. the whole shall be as when the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light.. Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter. in a secret candlestick. as he spake these things. how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that good ask him * ? And it came to pass. that of the hath lighted a candle. chap. 33. all things are clean Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and xi.. when thine eye is evil. all manner xi. f Luke. when he place. If thy whole body therefore be having no part dark. And as dine with him he spake. . but on a. But woe unto you. Ye fools. No man. full of light. chap. and keep t it it. they which come in may see the lighttherefore when body is the eye whole body also is full of light thy : The but light is thine eye single. rather blessed are they that hear the But he said. make that which is within also . Blessed is the womb that bare thee.. a certain Pharisee besought him to and he went in. putteth neither under a bushel. but your inward part is full of ravening. and sat down to meat. of Luke.

. Beware ye xii. ye lawyers! For ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne. 61 and pass over judgment and the love of God these ought ye to have done. Therefore the wisdom of God. blood of Zacharias. for ye have taken away the key of knowledge ye ! : entered not in yourselves. I. insomuch that they trode one upon another. hypo for ye are as graves which appear not. he began to say unto In the mean his disciples first of all. and the crites! men that walk over them are not aware of them. thus saying. ye hindered. lawyers required of this generation. and Woe your fathers ye allow killed killed them. time. scribes and Pharisees. and not to leave the other undone. unto you also. JESUS. and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers. And he said. Woe unto you. which was shed from the foundation of the world. and them that were entering in. of the leaven of the Luke. answered one of the lawyers. and said unto him. Woe unto you. and ye build their sepulchres. when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people. Then seats in the synagogues. the deeds of your fathers Truly ye bear witness that for they indeed : also them. Woe unto you! for ye build the sepulchres of the prophets.THE PRECEPTS OF herbs. Pharisees! for ye love the : uppermost and greetings in the markets. may be required of this generation from the blood of Abel unto the . Master. which perished between the altar and the temple verily I say unto you. thou reproachest us also. chap. and some of them they shall slay and perse said : cute that the blood of all the prophets. it shall be : Woe unto you. I will send them prophets and apostles.

over you ? And he said unto them. the inheritance with me. say. and beware of covetousness . Take heed. for a man s life consisteth not in the abundance of the a judge And he or a divider things which he possesseth. and powers. shall not be revealed neither hid. in the ear in closets. and unto no thought jhow or magistrates. me be And shall speak a word against the Son of man. fear him. Man. And he spake a parable . farthings ? and not one of them the very hairs of : is forgotten before all God : but even your head are numbered. Also I me before men. Pharisees. And against whosoever shall : bring you unto the synagogues. covered. spoken in darkness shall which ye have spoken Therefore whatsoever ye have be heard in the light and that . Are not five sparrows sold for two : . Whosoever shall confess say Son of man also confess angels of God : but he that denieth men shall be denied before the angels of God. said he divide who made me unto him. I say unto you. Fear not therefore sparrows. not be known. And one to of the company that unto speak him. But I will fear him.62 THE PRECEPTS OF which is JESUS. which after forewarn you whom ye shall fear he hath killed hath power to cast into hell yea. Be not afraid of them that kill the body and after that have no more that they can do. shall be proclaimed^ upon the house-tops. my brother. it but unto him that blasphemeth be forgiven him the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiven. And I say unto you my friends. take ye for shall answer. that . that shall For there is nothing hypocrisy. or what ye shall say what thing ye when they : the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what said ye ought to Master. him shall the before the fore ye are of more value than many unto you.

. eat. and the body is more than raiment. which is to-day in the field. The life is more than meat. And : God he said unto his disciples. . : and yet I say unto you. 63 The ground : of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully self. : . saying. . to my Soul thou hast years take thine ease. saying. why take ye thought for the how they grow they toil not. Therefore life. or what ye all : shall drink.T/iou fool! this night thy soul shall be required of thee then whose shall those things be. But said unto him. much goods laid up for many and be merry. and is not rich toward God. my And he said. neither of doubtful mind. But rather seek ye the ye of the world seek after . What shall fruits and he thought within him I do. JESUS. you. eth them. drink. O ye of little faith ? how much more And seek not ye be ye what ye shall eat. That Solomon they in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. This will I do and build greater and there barns. nei your what ye shall put on. Consider the ravens for they neither sow nor reap which neither have storehouse nor barn and God feed- Take no thought for what ye shall eat ther for the body. fowls to ? How much more are ye better than the And which of you with taking thought can add one cubit is ? his stature If ye then be not able to do that rest ? thing which Consider the spin least.THE PRECEPTS OF unto them. lilies. For these things do the nations and your Father knoweth that have need of these things.. I say unto you. which thou hast provided ? So w he that layeth up treasure for himself. fruits and my goods. not . And I will say . and to-morrow will he clidhc is cast into the oven. If then God so clothe the grass. because I have no room ? : where to bestow I my will pull down my all will I bestow soul.

Lord. Sell that ye have. he would have watched. and find them this the second watch. whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching verily I say unto you. if the good man of the house had known what hour the thief would come. a treasure in the heavens that faileth not. Blessed aic those servants. kingdom unto you. and not have suffered his house to be broken through. and to eat and drink. and all these things shall be added . Who then is that faithful ruler over and wise his steward. And if he IT eat. little flock for it is your Father s . for the Son of man cometh therefore ready also an hour when ye think not. For where and give alms . that. neither moth corrupteth. your treasure is. My lord delayeth begin to beat the men-servants and maidens. provide yourselves bags which wax not old. : shall come in watch. or even Be ye at : to all ? And the Lord said. and make them to sit down to and will come forth and serve them. and to be drunken coming and shall . or come in the third And so. where no thief approacheth. . whom his lord shall make season household. But and his that say in his heart.good pleasure to give you the kingdom. know. and knocketh. That he shall gird himself. Fear not. Let your loins be girded about. he if make him servant . God . ruler over that he hath. they may open unto him immediately. speakest thou this parable unto us. yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord. to give them their portion of meat in due ? Blessed is that servant. there will your heart be also. and your lights burning and ye .^64 THE PRECEPTS OF of JESUS. Of a truth I say all unto you. Then Peter said unto him. when he will return from the wedding that when he cometh . blessed are those servants. whom his lord when he shall will cometh that find so doing.

and two The father shall be divided against the son . and did commit stripes. And that servant. And he said also to the people. his which knew lord s will. mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law. kindled how am that I I be already But I have a baptism to be baptized with and straitened till it be accomplished Suppose ye I. art in the way. one house divided. Nay . be delivered from him lest he hale thee to the judge. 5 . and prepared not himself. There cometh a shower: and so And when vc sec the south wind blow. it is. . straightway ye say. shall neither did according to his be beaten with many stripes. if it ! on the earth and what am come to give peace : on earth ? I tell you. ye say. and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. things worthy of stripes. give diligence that thou mayest . shall be beaten with few For unto whomsoever much given. When ye see a cloud rise out of the west. of him shall be much much. Yc hypo ye can discern the face of the sky and of the earth. will at JESUS. but rather division five in for from henceforth there shall be against three. but how is it that ye do not discern this time ? Yea. 65 come and in a day when he an hour when he is not and will cut his portion him in sunder. and the daughter against the mother the . send required of fire ? : and to whom men the more. and the son against the father the mother against the daughter. am come . will.THE PRECEPTS OF the lord of that servant looketh not for him. and it cometh to pass. There crites ! will be heat . But he that knew is not. aware. and will appoint him with the unbelievers. and why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right ? When as thrjiL thougoest with thine adversary to the magistrate. three against two. will have I committed to him they will ask .

and found none. upon whom the tower in perish. * with their sacrifices. because that Jesus had healed on the sab bath day. and dung it. ye shall all likewise Or those eighteen. thou shalt not depart till thou hast paid the very last mite. think ye that they were sin all men that dwelt in Jerusalem ? I tell you ye repent ye parable : Nay but. and the officer I tell thee.. and said. Lord. these three years I seeking fruit on this fig tree. and not on the sabbath day. let it alone this year also. chap. certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard thereon. and the judge deliver thee cast thee into prison. except also shall all likewise perish. . Luke. There were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans. because they suffered such things? I you. 14. f Luke. and said unto the people. it and find none : it come down : why cumbereth the ground ? And he answering said unto him. He fruit spake this A . well: and if not. to the officer. fell. being * a daughter of xiii. and if it bear fruit. till I shall dig about it. except ye repent. Thou hypocrite : ! one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall and lead him away to watering ? And ought not this woman. : tell Nay but. then after that thou shalt cut it down. whom Satan hath xiii. t And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation. chap. I. and he came and sought Then said he unto the cut dresser of his vineyard. Siloam ners above : and slew them. Behold.66 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. all Suppose ye that these Galilseans were sinners above the Galilseans. And Jesus answering said unto them. There are six days ii? which men ought to work in them therefore come and be healed. whose blood Pilate had mingled thence. The Lord then doth not each answered him. Abraham.

Unto what is the kingdom of God his adversaries all were ashamed and like ? and whereunto shall I resemble it ? It is like a grain of mustard seed. in the king of God. Strive to enter in at for many. when ye shall see Abraham. and cast into his and the grew. And he said. and there are first which shall be last. say . fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it. and hath shut to the door. all ye workers of iniquity. JESUS. We have eaten and drunk in thy pre But he shall sence. Lord. 67 these eighteen years. I tell you. come from the east and frrjin the west. There shall be weep ing and gnashing of teeth. in three measures of meal. The same day there came certain of the Pharisees . I say unto you. till the whole was leavened. and and to knock at the door. garden ? and it which a man took. And they Isaac. and shall sit down in the kingdom of God. to be ? loosed from this said bond on the sabbath day all And when he had : these the people things. I know you not whence ye are then shall ye begin to say. open unto us and he shall answer and : say unto you. When once the master is of the house risen up. ing. will seek to strait gate enter in and shall not be able. behold. and/ro/w the south. for all the glorious things that were done by him. and waxed a great tree . and from the north. and you yourselcvcs thrust out. : and dom shall and Jacob. and all the prophets. there are last which shall be first. I know you not whence ye are depart from me. Whereunto shall I liken Then be saved the ? said And he : one unto him. which a woman took and hid. say. And. are there few that said unto them.THE PRECEPTS OF bound. ye begin to stand without. rejoiced Then said he. Lord. again the kingdom of God ? It is like leaven. Lord. and thou hast taught in our streets. lo.

and he that bade thee and him come and this * Give man place . which killest the prophets. Behold. and healed him. Get thee out. Blessed is he that cometh time come would not and verily I in the * name of the Lord. Ye shall not see me. Jerusalem. saying. sit not down in the highest room lest a more honourable man than thou be . I cast out devils. . and the third day I shall be perfected. . Nevertheless I must walk to-day. : Herod tell And he said unto them. When thou bidden of any man to a wedding. and to-morrow. . and ye ! Behold. And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees. and thou begin with Luke. and I do cures to-day and to-morrow. Go ye. Is it lawful to heal on the sabbth day ? And they held their peacehim go and And he took him.68 THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS. and stonest them that are sent unto thee how often would I have gathered thy children together. xiv. when he marked how they chose out the chief rooms art saying unto them. as a O . bidden of him say to thee. I. those which were bidden. until the when ye shall say. there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy. And. . chap. for it cannot be that a prophet perish Jerusalem. hen doth gather her brood under her wings. saying. and that fox. Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit. for saying unto him. as he went into the house of on the sabbath day one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread that they watched him. behold. and : the day following out of Jerusalem. and le&quot. your house is left unto you desolate: say unto you. and depart hence will kill thee. answered them. it And came to pass. and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath day ? And they could not answer him And he put forth a parable to again to these things.

THE PRECEPTS OF
shame
to

JESUS.

69
art

take the lowest

room.
r

But when thou
;

that when bidden, go and sit down in the low est room he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher then shalt thou have worship in the pre
:

sence of them that

sit at

meat with thee.
;

For whosoever

exalteth himself shall be abased

and he that humbleth
he
also to

himself shall be exalted.

Then

said

him

that

bade him,

thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor lest they also bid thee again, and a thy rich neighbours
;

When

recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a feast r call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind and thou
:

shalt be blessed

they cannot recompense thee thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the
;

for

:

for

just.

And when

meat with him heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. Then said he unto A certain man made a great supper, and bade many him, and sent his servant at supper time to say to them that
one of them that
sat at
:

were bidden,
they
first
all

Come

;

for all things are

I

with one consent began to unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I pray thee have me must needs go and see it
said
:

now ready. And make excuse. The

excused.

yoke of I pray thee have me exen, and I go to prove them excused. And another said, I have married a wife, and
said, I five
:

And

another

have bought

therefore

I

cannot come.

So that servant came, and

shewed

his lord these things.

Then the master

of the

house being angry said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the halt, and the blind.

And

the

servant

said,

Lord,

it

is

done

as

thou hast

7O

THE PRECEPTS OF
is

JESUS.

commanded, and yet there

room.

And

the lord, said

unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled.

For

I

say unto you, That none of those
shall taste of

men which were
him
:

bidden

And

my supper. there went great multitudes with

and he

turned, and said unto them, If any man come to me and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and
children,
life also,

and brethren, and

sisters, yea,

he cannot be

my

disciple.

and his own And whosoever

cross, and come after me, cannot be For which of you, intending to build a my disciple. tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost,

doth not bear his

whether he have

he hath
all

sufficient to finish it ? Lest haply, after the foundation, and is not able to finish it, that behold it begin to mock him, saying, This man

laid

began
going

to build,

and was not able to

finish.

Or what

king,

to
first,

make war

down

against another king, sitteth not and consulteth whether he be able with ten

thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand ? Or else, while the other is yet a great

way

off,

of peace.

he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions So likewise, whosoever he be of you that
all
:

forsaketh not
Salt
is

that he hath, he cannot be
if

my

disciple.

good
it

but

the

salt

have

lost its savour,
fit

where
that

with

shall

be seasoned
;

? It is

neither

for

the land,

nor yet for the dunghill but men cast hath ears to hear, let him hear.
"

it

out.

He

Then drew near unto him
saying,

all

the publicans and

sinners for to hear him.

murmured,

And the Pharisees and scribes This man receiveth sinners, and eateth
*

Luke chap,

xv,

I

THE PRECEPTS OF
with them.

JESUS.

71

this parable unto them, saying having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find

And

he spake

What man

of you,

it ?

And when

he hath found

it,

he layeth

it

on

his

shoulders, rejoicing.
calleth together, his

he cometh home, he friends and neighbours, saying unto
;

And when

for I have found my sheep them, Rejoice with me which was lost. I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than

over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repent ance. Either what woman having ten pieces of silver,
if

she lose one pice, doth not light a candle,

and sweep

the house, and seek diligently till she find itl And when she hath found it, she calleth her friends and her

neighbours together, saying, Rejoice with me for I have found the pice which I had lost. Likewise, I say unto you, There is joy in the presence of the angels of God
;

man had two
me.

over one sinner that repenteth. And he said, A certain sons and the younger of them said to his
:

father, Father, give

me the

And

he divided

portion of goods that falleth to unto them his living. And not

days after, the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living. And when he had

many

there arose a mighty famine in that land he began to be in want. And he went and joined

spent

all,

;

and

him
his

self

to

a

citizen of that country

:

and he sent him into
fain

his fields to feed swine.

And he would

have
:

filled

and no man belly with the husks that the swine did eat unto him. And when he came to himself, he said, How gave

many

hired

servants

of

my

father

s

have bread enough

72

THE PRECEPTS OF
spare,

JESUS.

with hunger I will arise and unto him, Father, I have go my sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more make me as one of thy worthy to be called thy son
I perish
!

and to
to

and

father,

and

will say

:

hired servants. arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him,, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and

And he

And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son. But the father said to his
kissed him.
servants,

and put

a ring

Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him on his hand, and shoes on his feet and
:

;,

bring hither the fatted

calf,

and

kill it

;

and

let

us

eat,,

and be merry again he was
;

:

for this
lost,

my son was dead, and is alive and is found. And they began to be
son was in the
to
field
:

merry.

Now

his elder

and

as

he

came and drew nigh

the house, he heard music and

dancing. And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant. And he said unto him, Thy brother is come and thy father hath killed the fatted
;

calf,

because he hath received him safe and sound.
:

And

he was angry, and would not go in therefore came hisfather out, and intreated him. And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither
never gavest friends but
:

tansgressed I at any time thy me a kid, that

I

commandment and yet thou might make merry with my
:

as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf. And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine. It was meet that we

should make merry, and be glad for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again and was lost, and is found.
: ;

THE PRECEPTS OF
*

JESUS.

73.

And

he said

also

unto his

disciples,
;

There was a

man, which had a steward and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods. And
certain rich

he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear for this of thee ? give an account of thy stewardship thou mayest be no longer steward. Then the steward
;

said within himself,

What

shall I

do
:

?

for
I

my

lord taketh
;

away from me the beg I am ashamed. I

stewardship

cannot dig
to do, that,

to
I

am resolved what
called

when

am

put out of the stewardship, they
houses.

may

receive

me

into

every one of his lord s debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord ? And he said, An hundred
their

So he

measures of

he said unto him, Take thy billr and sit down quickly, and write fifty. Then said he to another, And how much owest thou ? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him,
oil.

And

Take thy bill, and write fourscore. And the lord com manded the unjust steward, because he had done wisely
for

;

wiser than

the children of this world are in their generation the children of light. And I said unto you,.
to
;

Make

yourselves friends of the
that,

mammon
may

of unright

eousness

when ye

fail,

they
is

receive

everlasting habitations.
is

He

that
:

faithful in that

you into which

least

is

faithful also in
is

much

and he that
If

the least

unjust

also in

much.

is unjust in therefore ye have

commit
been

not been faithful in the unrighteous to your trust the true riches ?
faithful

give you that two masters

mammon, who will And if ye have not in that which is another man s, who shall which is your own ? No servant can serve
for

:

either
*

he

will
xvi.

hate the one, and love
I.

Luke chap.

74
the other
the other.
;

THE PRECEPTS OF
or else he will

JESUS.

hold to the one. and despise

Ye cannot serve God and mammon. And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these
and they derided him. And he said unto them, things Ye are they which justify yourselves before men but
:
;

God knoweth your hearts for that which is highly -esteemed among men, is abomination in the sight of God. The law and the prophets were until John since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it. And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail. Whoso ever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, com
: :

mitteth adultery and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband, committeth adultery. There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and
:

fine linen,

was

a certain

and fared sumptuously every day and there beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his
:

gate, full of sores,

and desiring
s

to be fed with the

crumbs

which

fell

from the rich man
his
sores.

table

:

moreover the dogs

came and licked

And

it

came

to pass, that

beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham s bosom the rich man also died, and was buried and in
:
;

hell

he

lift

-up his
off,

Abraham
cried

afar
said,

being in torments, and seeth and Lazarus in his bosom. And he
eyes,

Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in for I am tormented in this water, and cool my tongue
;

and

flame.

But Abraham
evil

said,

Son, remember that thou in

thy Lazarus

life-time

receivedst

things

:

thy good things, and likewise but now he is comforted, and thou
all this,
:

art tormented.

And

beside

between us and you

there

is

a

great gulf fixed

so

that they which would

THE PRP:CEPTS OF
pass from hence to
us,
;

JESUS.

75

that

you cannot neither can they pass to would come from thence. Then he said, I pray

thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my that he may for I have five brethren father s house
: ;

testify

unto them,

torment.

they also come into this place of saith unto him, They have Moses Abranam
lest
:

and the prophets
Nay, father
-dead,

let
:

them hear them.
if

And he

said,

Abraham but

one went unto them from the

they will repent. And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
*

Then

said

he unto the

but that offences will
!

come

:

impossible but woe unto him, through

disciples, It is

whom they come It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea than that he should offend one of these little ones. Take
thy brother trespass against thee, he repent, forgive him. And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times thou shall in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent
:

heed to yourselves and rebuke him
;

if

if

;

And the apostles said unto the Lord, In forgive him. And the Lord said, If ye had faith as crease our faith.
a grain of mustard seed,

ye might say unto this sycamine tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou plant ed in the sea and it should obey you. But which of you,
:

having a servant plowing or feeding cattle, him by and by, when he is come from the
sit

will say
field,

unto

Go and

? And will not rather say unto him, wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and ready and afterward serve me, till I have eaten and drunken

down

to

meat

Make

;

thou

shalt

eat

and drink
*

?

Doth he thank
xvii.
I.

that servant

Luke, chap.

76

THE PRECEPTS OF

JESUS.

because he did the things that were commanded him ? I trow not. So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all
those things which are
unprofitable
servants
:

commanded you, say, We are we have done that which was
this
;

our duty to do. And he spake a parable unto them to that men ought always to pray, and not to faint

end r

saying,

There was

in

a city

a judge,
:

neither regarded man and she came unto him, city
;

which feared not God,, and there was a widow in that
saying,

Avenge me
:

of

mine adversary.

And
;

he would not

for a while

but

afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man yet because this widow troubleth me r
I will

avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me. And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust

judge saith. And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him, though he bear long I tell with them ? you that he will avenge them
speedily.
shall

Nevertheless

when the Son
?

of

man cometh

he

find faith

on the earth

spake this parable unto certain which trust ed in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others Two men went up into the temple to pray the
:

And he

;

one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God, I thank thee
:

that

I

am
I

not as other
or

men
all

arc,

extortioners, unjust,
I fast

adulterers,

even
tithes

as this publican.

twice in the

week,
his

give

of

that

I

possess.
lift

And
so

the

publican,

as standing up unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, eyes God be merciful to me a sinner. I tell you, this man

afar off,

would not

much

*

Luke, chap,

xviii. I.

THE PRECEPTS OF
went down
for every
to his

JESUS.

77

house

justified rather
shall

than the other

:

one that exalteth himself
shall

be abased

;

and

he that humbleth himself

be exalted.

And

they brought unto him also infants, that he
:

but when his disciples saw it, they would touch them rebuked them. But Jesus called them unto him, and
said,

Suffer little children to

come unto me, and

forbid

the kingdom of God. Verily them I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, shall in no wise enter therein.

not

:

for of

such

is

And
what

a certain ruler asked him, saying,
I

Good
none
the

Master,

shall

do to inherit eternal
callest

life ?

And
?

Jesus said
is

unto him,

Why
is,

thou

me good

good

save one, that

God.

Thou knowest

ments,
steal,

thy

Do not commit adultery, Do not Do not bear false witness, Honour thy father and mother. And he said, All these have I kept from
:

command kill, Do not

youth up. Now when Jesus heard these things, he sell all that said unto him, Yet lackest thou one thing

my

have treasure

thou hast, and distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt in heaven and come, follow me. And when
:

he heard
rich.

this,

And
the

he was very sorrowful for he was very when Jesus saw that he was very sorrowfull
:

he
into
to

said,

How

hardly shall they that have riches enter
of

kingdom
the

God
s

!

For

it is

easier for a

camel

go through
into

a needle

eye,

than for a rich

man

to

And they that heard it said, Who then can be saved ? And he said, The things which are impossible with men are possible with God.
enter

kingdom of God.

Then Peter

said,

Lo,

we have

left all,

and followed thee.

And he no man

said unto them, Verily I say unto you,

There

is

that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or

78
wife, or
shall

THE PRECEPTS OF
children,
for

JESUS.

the kingdom of

God s

sake,

who

not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting.

He
a far

said therefore,

A

certain

nobleman went into

tocountry And he called his ten servants, and delivered return. them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I

to

receive for himself a kingdom, and

come.
after

But
him,

his

citizens

saying,
it

We

will

hated him, and sent a message not have this man to reign

over

us.

And

came
the

to pass, that

having

received

when he was returned,, kingdom, then he commanded

these servants to

be called unto him, to

whom

he had

given the money, that he might

gained by trading. Lord thy pound hath gained ten pounds. And he said unto him, Well, thou good servant because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over
:

man had

know how much every Then came the first, saying,

ten

And the second came, saying, Lord, thy hath gained five pounds. And he said likewise pound to him, Be thou also over five cities. And another came
cities.

saying,
laid

Lord behold here
in a
:

is

napkin thou takest up that thou layedst not down and reapest that thou didst not sow. And he saith unto
austere

up

for I feared thee,

thy pound, which I have kept because thou art an

man

:

him,

Out of thine own mouth

will I

wicked servant.

Thou knewest

that I was

judge thee, thou an austere

man, taking! up that I laid not down, and reaping that I did not sow wherefore then gavest not thou my money
:

into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine own with usury ? And he said unto them that stood

by,

Take from him the pound, and give it
* Luke, chap.
xix. 12.

to

him

that hath

THE PRECEPTS OK

JESUS.

79

ten pounds. (And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds.) For I say unto you, That unto every one which hath shall be given and from him that hath not,
;

be taken away from him. But mine enemies, which would not that I should reign those over them, bring hither, and slay them before me. * And the chief priests and the scribes the same

even that he hath

shall

and they feared the hour sought to lay hands on him for they perceived that he had spoken this par people able against them. And they watched him, and sent forth
;

:

spies,

which should feign

themselves just men, that

they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the gover And they asked him, saying, Master, we know nor.
that thou sayest and teachest
rightly,

neither acceptest

thou the person oj any, but
truly
:

teachest the

way

of

God

no

?

unto Caesar, or But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto
Is
it

lawful for

us to give tribute

Why tempt ye me ? Shew me a penny. Whose and superscription hath it They answered and image And he said unto them, Render therefore said, Caesar s. unto Caesar the things which be Caesar s, and unto God
them,
!

the things which be God s. And they could not take hold of his words before the people and they mar velled at his answer, and held their peace. Then came to
:

him certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is and they asked him, saying, Master, any resurrection
:

Moses wrote unto us, If any man s brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should
take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. There were therefore seven brethren and the first took a wife,.
:

*

Luke, chap, xx,

19.

80

THE PRECEPTS OF

JESUS.

.and died without children.
wife,

and he died

childless.

And the second took her to And the third took her and
;
:

in like

manner the seven
Last of
all

also

and they
is

left

no children
Therefore^ for seven

.and died.

the

woman

died also.

in the resurrection

whose wife of them

she

?

had her

to wife.

And

Jesus answering said unto them,

The
riage

children of this world marry, and are given in
:

mar

be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage neither can
shall
:

but they which

they die

any more
the

and

are

they are equal unto the angels children of God, being the children
:

for

;

of the

resurrection.

Now

that

the

dead are raised,

even Moses shewed
the

at the

bush when he calleth the Lord

God
:

of

of Jacob.
living

Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God For he is not a God of the dead, but of the
unto him. Then certain of the scribes

for all live

.answering said, Master, thou hast well said. * And he looked up, and saw the rich
their
gifts into

men

casting

the treasury.

And he saw

also a certain

poor widow casting in thither two mites. And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor widow hath cast in more than they all for all these have of their
:

abundance

cast

in

unto the offerings of God: but she of

her penury hath cast in all the living that she had. t There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: the same came to Jesus by night,

know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him. Jesus answered and
and
said

unto him, Rabbi, we

said unto him, Verily, verily, I say
*

unto thee, Except a
f John, chap.
iii.

Luke, chap.

xxi.

I.

I.

THE PRECEPTS OF

JESUS.

8

1

be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God, Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old ? can he enter the second time into his mother swomb, and be born ? Jesus answered, Verily, verily,
I

man

untothee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
say
is

That which
is

born of the

flesh

is

flesh

;

and that which

born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. The wind bloweth

where

it

listeth,

but canst not

tell

and thou nearest the sound thereof, whence it cometh, and whither it
is

goeth

:

so

is

every one that

born of

the

Spirit.

Nicodemus answered and
things be
?

said unto him,

How

can these

master of

Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a Israel, and knowest not these things ? Verily,

verily, I say testify that
If I

unto thee,

We

we have seenjand ye

speak that we do know, and receive not our witness.

have told you earthly things, and ye believe not,

how shall ye believe if I tell you of heavenly things ? And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven

And
even

as

Moses

so

lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, must the Son of man be lifted up: that whoso

ever believeth
life.

in him should not perish, but have eternal For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son,that whosoever believeth in him should not

perish, but

have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the

on him
not
is

world through him might be saved. He that believeth is not condemned but he that believeth
:

lieved

condemned already, because he hath not be in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
6

#2

THE PRECEPTS OF
this
is

JESUS.

And
into

the

the
light,

world,

condemnation, that light is come and men loved darkness rather
hateth

were evil. For every the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds

than

because their deeds
evil

one that doeth

may

*

be made manifest, that they are wrought in God. But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true

worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in for the Father seeketh such to worship him. truth
:

God

is

a Spirit

ship him in t Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasing life, which

and they that worship him spirit and in truth.
:

must

wor

the Son of

man

shall give

unto you

:

for

him hath God

the Father sealed.

a

And the woman taken
t

scribes

in

and Pharisees brought unto him and when they had set her adultery
;

in the midst, they say
Avas

unto him, Master, this

woman
:

taken in adultery, in the very act. Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned but

This they said, tempting him, that what sayest But Jesus stooped they might have to accuse him. down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as

thou

?

So when they continued though he heatd them not. he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He asking him, that is without sin among you let him first cast a stone
at her.

ground.
their

at

convicted by own conscience, went out one by one, beginning and Jesus was left the eldest, even unto the test
:

And again he stooped down, and And they which heard it being

wrote on the

*

John, chap.

iv. 23.

f John, chap.

Vi. 27.

J John, chap. viii. 3-

and no more. that ye bear ye be my disciple. the same bringeth forth nothing. chap. And some of the Phari And . ix. he accusers ? standing in the midst. and it shall be done cast forth as a . itself. xv. Now of except it abide the vine . If ye were blind. taketh Every branch in me that not fruit fruit. I am the vine. I. glorified. unto you. sees which were with him heard these words. f John. and saw none but the wo said unto her. Jesus said. And : Jesus said unto her. my words abide in you. I No con man. Lord. chap. When up himself. For judgment I am come into this world. 39. Woman. We see therefore your sin remaineth. and my Father is beareth the husband man. and Tin you. out me ye is can do much fruit for with If a man abide not in : me. Neither do demn * thee go. and they are burned. except ye abide in me. ye have spoken unto you. and is withered gather them. ye arc he that abideth in me. ye shall ask what ye will. that they which see not might see and that they which see might be made blind. 83 and the lifted Jesus had man. As. and I in the branches : Tiirn. : . where are those thine woman hath no man condemned sin thee ? She said.the Father hath loved me. JESUS. As the branch cannot bear in fruit. . ye should have no sin but now ye say. Are we blind also? Jesus said unto them. no more can ye. he away it. he men and branch.THE PRECEPTS OF alone. and If ye abide in me. and cast them into the fire. so have I loved you continue ye in my is Herein my Father much fruit . so shall : * John. t I am the true vine. and said unto him. : and every branch that beareth it he purgeth that may bring forth more I are clean through the word which Abide fruit in me.

for all things that I have heard of my you. Ye are my friends.84 love. may give you. whatsoever . name. Henceforth I call you not servants for the servant knoweth not what his lord cloeth but I have : called you I friends. and abide in his love. my commandments. might remain in you. he These things . These things have I spoken unto you. a one another. If THE PRECEPTS OF ye keep JESUS. Ye have not chosen me. and that your joy This is my commandment.. and that your fruits Father have made known unto should remain : that whatsoever ye it shall ask of the Father in T my command you. but I have chosen you. that ye love one another. ye shall abide in my love . that might be my joy full. that man lay if down ye do his life for his I friends. as I Greater love hath no- man than this. and ordained you. that ye should go and bring forth fruit.even as I have kept my father s commandments. command you. That ye love have loved you.

IN DEFENCE OF &quot. PRINTED AT CALCUTTA 1820.&quot. BY A FRIEND TO TRUTH.AN APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. .THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS.

.

. I pre sume. &e. as much surprised as disappointed at Christian some remarks made under the signature of also at in that U A magazine by a gentleman on a Missionary. I the public against the unchristianlike.&quot. violated truth. by making use of the term heathen. which are essential to Christianity in every sense of the word. &quot.&quot. no mention of the name of the compiler being made in the Another mode. inapplicable in such discussions. In of u perusing the twentieth number of I felt The Friend India.&quot. is to guess at the real .The some observations of a similar nature on the and same subject by the Editor of that publication. has. which is obviously publication itself. can be satisfactorily inferred. late publication entitled. attempt to inquire into the to the Before how ever I ground upon which in question are founded. &c. Precepts of Jesus . because the Editor. as well as uncivil manner in which the Editor has adduced his objections to the compilation. is The most reasonable of the two modes to the to confine such inquiries evidence contained in the subject of review. charity. by intro their objections work to humbly beg to appeal ducing personality. For there are only two methods by which the character of the Compiler as a heathen. I say unchristianlike manner. or as a believer in one true and living God. and liberality.AN APPEAL. and applying the term of heathen to the Compiler.

These expressions my humble opinion. to them &c. and of to society. so well fitted the conduct of the human race in the discharge of their various duties. whose nature and essence is beyond numan comprehension. to convince every mind not biassed by prejudice. morality his Preserver of sayings as believing God code of religion and to be the Author and his the universe to or adapted regulate considering those the conduct of the . ideas to high and to regulate notions of one God. who has organized and who regulates such and &quot. to selves. &quot.88 author. &c. superintending Power. so conformable to the dictates human reason. the Author and Preserver of the harmonious sys tem.) so admirably calculated to elevate men s &quot. divine revelation. that the Compiler believed not only in one God. reconcile u us to human nature. under the his styl A Guide peace and habpiness ing the Precepts of Jesus. first source of evidence.&quot. This simple code of reli as gion is and morality. God. infinity of celestial and terrestrial objects. from the facts of his extracting and publishing the moral title of doctrines &quot. his AM APPEAL and to infer his opinions from a knowledge of With respect to education or other circumstances. and a due estimation of that Law which teaches &quot. the following expressions of the Compiler s sentiments are found in the Introduction : the A notion of the existence of a supreme. in but in the truths revealed in the Christian system. liberal ( meaning the Precepts of Jesus. of to the New a Testament. and &quot.&quot. I should hope neither the Reviewer nor the Editor can be justified in inferring the heathenism of the Compiler.&quot. that man should do to others he would wish to be done by. &c. are calculated..

can his separating the moral say ings of Christ from the mysterious cal parts. With respect to the latter mode of seeking evidence however unjustified the Editor may be in coming to such a conclusion. by and subjecting .TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. I world by his English publication a renunciation am sorry to say. to the epithet applied . which this part nor his opinion unfortunately that this simple code of morality would be more like ly to attract the notice and respect of such men. of the dogmas and histori New that these are liable Testament. period of his life. with filled . but published at that time a treatise in Arabic and Persian against that system and no sooner . to him by the Editor. and for different purposes. whole human race required of them. under various designations. although he was born a Brahmun. I cannot see how the same condemnation can be spared to numerous publica tions of extracts from the Old and the New Testaments. brought severe difficulties of his exciting the displeasure parents. I 89 all in the discharge of the duties trust. upon him. If they do. under the impression. Neither. in the opinion of the most orthodox Christians. and world mind into the paths of peace and than if presented to them in conjunction happiness. to the doubts and disputes of free-thinkers of the and is anti-christians. made and sent forth by several Christian authors. than he to made worship known the Christian that. he is safe in ascribing the collection cf these Precepts to Rammohun Roy who. with other matter against which their education has to guide their taught them to revolt justly subject him. not only renounced idolatry at a very early . -acquired a tolerable his desertion of idol knowledge of English.

inculcated in the precept of Jesus to complaining of one who performed cures in is is on our ch. Mark.&quot. and Protestants do not spare idolaters the to Roman Catholics . that the designation of heathen to him . ver. no one who has the least pretension to truth.. who are aware of those facts. Trinitarians deny the name of Christian to Unitarians. which the Editor of the &quot. in view at least one object in common with the obviously Reviewer and Editor.Friend of India.9O AN APPEAL to the dislike of his near. saying. ix. although there may be between them that might be thought sufficient to justify the use towards the Editor of a term no less offensive. when the name of Jesus. having part. : &quot. I his countrymen for several therefore presume that among his declared enemies. Very different conduct John. while the latter retort by stigmatizing the worshipers of the Son of man as Pagans who adore a created and dependent Being. as well as distant relations. would venture to apply the but I am sure.&quot. might have reasonably expected more doctrines. appellation of heretics or infidels on all classes title of of Protestants. charity from professed teachers of his . all him and to the hatred of nearly years. 40. yet refused to follow the Apostles He that is not against us he gave a rebuke. respect he entertains for the very name of Christianity. that of procuring respect for the precepts of Christ. The Editor perhaps himself justified by numerous precedents the several partisans of different Christian sects amongst in applying the name of Heathen to one who takes the may consider Precepts of Jesus as his principal guide in matters of religious and civil duties as Roman Catholics bestow the . The Compiler. seems to profess will restrain him from retorting on differences of opinion that Editor.

both not only disapprove absolutely the plan adopted by the Compiler in separating the moral doctrines of the Books of the New Testament ascribed to the four Evangelists from the mysteries and historical matters therein contained.&quot. is. but even blame him as an injurer of the cause of truth . 9! The Compiler of the Precepts of Jesus will. independent of the dogmas. it cannot apply to those precepts of which Jesus. is quite general. doubt not. and that it is piness of mankind. that the sense in which word moral is there used.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. qualified to judge. India. however.Friend of India.) presumption of him notes in radically false . the supposition cient for salvation. (as he Compiler) to think himself Divine Teacher. If indeed the Reviewer understands by the word moral what relates to conduct only with reference to man. whether rightly or otherwise. however the Reviewer will find included in the collec : but a tion of the Precepts of Jesus by the Compiler attention to the scope of the Introduction might slight the have convinced the Reviewer. passions. of the moral sayings being suffi says.. I to the hasty suggestions of example of the Editor of the The Editor of the 2. which justify no retaliation even upon enemies. independently of the what sort of instruction is advantageous for the hap (the page 26. and applies equally to our conduct in religious as in civil matters. respected Reviewer. human &quot. that teach the duty of man to God . and the and the Friend of &quot. Without attaching this meaning to the term moral doctrines/ the whole of the concluding sentence must appear . give preference to the guidance of those Precepts. and : for such disapproba The Reviewer tion they assign several reasons first..

COMMANDMENTS HANG ALL THE ON 40 LAW AND THE : &quot. O Israel. beginning with ver. It is society. : Hear. where to it is AN APPEAL &quot. 32 And he said unto him. and with all This is the first and great command thy mind. however too true that they alone were a sufficient guide to secure peace a and happiness to mankind entirely founded on and authorities of Jesus of at large position that is supported by express Nazareth a denial of which the would imply follow &quot. &quot.&quot. There : is no other command ment greater than these. and said. soul. sup ported by a great number of passages in the treatise in. performing our duty to the Almighty Power. Thou shalt ment. to themselves. 37 unto him. 31 namely this Thou shalt love first : thy neighbour as thyself. 30 the Lord thy God with all thy heart. THESE TWO PROPHETS. ch. which point out the appropriate mode of question. And the second This is the LIKE. ch. chiefly under the supposition. : and with thy and with is all thy mind. beginning with ver. . that the Compiler of those moral precepts separated them from some of the dogmas and other matters. Thou all shalt all love The Lord our God is one Lord. This simple code is well fitted the conduct of the human race in th dis regulate charge of their various duties to God.92 absurd. xii. 38 And the second is like unto it. xxii. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God thy heart. a total disavowal of Christianity. commandment. to This assertion is corroborated and to be denied. : here : Jesus said all Matthew. The first of all the commandments is. 39 with : : love thy neighbour as thyself. And Jesus Mark. and with : thy strength. Some of those authorities. 29 answered him. as found amongst these precepts. and with all thy soul.

not far from the kingdom of God. 33 him with all the heart. Law or the fulfil. u Therefore all 12 things whatsoever you would : that men IS THIS &quot. and with all the understanding. men istic of the office of Christ to teach men. . Matthew. and there is none other but he. a certain him. x. Prophets ch. to afford means of acquiring and directing other doctrine men to follow them accordingly. Luke. that I . thou hast said the truth for And to love God. ch. It was the character been requisite to teach &quot. and the Religion revealed to the Prophets and observed by them.&quot. but to &quot. 28 THIS IDO and said unto him. saying. and with as all the strength. Law and The Saviour meant of course by Prophets all the commandments ordained by divine authoriy. beginning with ver. Master. thy heart. he said art unto him.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 25 Lawyer stood up and tempted : And behold. am am come to destroy the not come to destroy. Jesus This do and THOU SHALT Live. : THOU SHALT the words LIVE. should do to you. that forms and . life ? what him. vii. Had any the road to peace and hap could not have pronounced to the Lawyer. FOR 1 7 : Think not I .&quot. Well.&quot. and to all jove his neighbour burnt-offerings himself. 34 And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly. . piness. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy mind all and with all thy strength. and with all And he and thy neighbour as thyself.&quot. as is evident from Jesus perfect s declaring those commandments eternal life. THE LAW AND THE PROPHETS. : and with all the sou). Thou ver. shall I do to inherit eternal 26 : He said unto : What is written in the Law ? How readest thou ? 27 He answering said. V. 93 there is one Master. do ye even so to them Ch. is : more than whole and sacrifices. Thou hast answered right.

. It may the public to judge. ver. whether or not the of arrogance and presumption which the Reviewer charge has imputed to the Compiler. there are two important points. (John. Placing also confidence in the truth of his sacred command ments.94 ceremonies were AN APPEAL useless tokens of respect for God. was this desirous of giving more publicity in country to them. &quot. finding commandments given as including all the revealed Law. Do unto others as you would wish to be done by. how to obtain.He that loveth me the Compiler never sayings.a hesitated belief in God. The respected Reviewer argues in page 26. keep my commandments.&quot. 15. and profitable to the left rest of mankind. 24. these The Compiler. compared with.) due regard to that law. under the idea that he now be to preferred his own judgment to that of the Saviour. be justly applicable to him. and 2dly. and the whole system of religion adopted by the Prophets and re-established and fulfilled by Jesus him self. that 3. the essential proof of obedience and love towards him evinced by the practice of beneficence to wards their fellow-creatures. render our existence agreeable to declaring. a knowledge of which is not to be acquired by following the moral precepts of Christ. and to the subsidiary moral doctrines that are introduced implicit by the Saviour in detail. the forgiveness of sins and the favour of God . but which are . viz. 11 ye love by the me. ch. keepeth not in my Ver. essential to the attainment of true peace of mind they being entirely founded (as he alleges) upon the dogmas and histories. as the means to acquire Peace full and Happiness.) &quot. and a i. not. xiv.&quot.If same teacher. to the observance of which we are directed &quot. (page -ourselves. ist.

that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth.ix. ch. 13 : &quot. son. there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. on the contrary. so iniquity shall See also the parable of the prodigal not be your ruin. where the mercy of God a is illustrated by the ex of his ample of repenting father pardoning the transgressions son.For the Son of man is ver.. appear. xv. distinctly promise us that the forgiveness of .I shall all likewise perish. the favor of God. but sinners to repent &quot. more than over : &quot. essence of their civil all that is duties. ch. to the Compiler to contain not only the of human God.I am not come to Ch. &quot. the righteous. ver. strength to overcome 95 commandments passions.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. v. ye 7. xviii. of the Old and the fill New Testament to the same which (might a volume. Luke.I which was lost. Ch. call ance. satisfy the Reviewer on those two ver. xiii. necessary to instruct mankind in but also the best and only means of obtaining the forgiveness of our sins. xviii. and to keep the These precepts separated from the mysterious dogmas and historical records. n : come 32: to save that &quot. I therefore extract from the of . points. I hope. Except ye repent. but sinners to repentance. and to keep his commandments. 3 : 1 pilation.&quot. Luke.&quot. Numerous passages effect. came not to call the righteous. 30 Repent and turn : yourselves from all your transgressions.&quot. a few passages of that greatest all who was tion to sent to call sinners to repentance a which will. ver. 10 say unto you. Which sayings are confirmatory of what is u taught in Eztkicl.&quot. I say unto you. ninety and nine persons who need no repentance. ch. and strength to overcome our passions. Matthew. ch. same com Prophets due atten respected ver.

shew. 9.Ask and consequences of earnest prayer ch.gt. 9 be given you. being evil. justly considered to be most essential by the Reviewer. ver. ch. After a due attention &quot. error in exalting the value of the moral doctrines above that of the historical facts and Testament. : of as God unprovided for in that respect. 7. and keep the commandments. That the aim and ob commandments of God is to teach us . The Reviewer imputes to the Compiler. seek shall be opened unto ye then. : you&amp. ver. as necessary desire. or even in the truth of his doctrine only can at all at a loss to find adequate means of attaining those two ends. to these and to numerous passages be 4. Redeemer. xi. &quot. &quot. 13 : Matthew. know how to give good unto your children.If knock and be given you. as quoted in the above texts which clearly . &quot. dogmas contained in the New I humbly maintain.. Ask and it shall I say unto Luke. xi. vii. that is How to be enabled passions. that there is no other means of attaining eternal life except the performance of our duties towards God in obeying his ject of all the commandments. can be of no weight or force against the authority of Jesus himself. no one who believes in the divine message of Jesus of Nazareth. gifts that ask him. required of sinners by the As to to the overcome our second point.96 AN APPEAL the favor of his divine majesty as God and may be obtained by sincere repentance. and Luke y it it shall and ye r shall find. how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them you. our gracious Saviour has promised every strength : we are not left and power and hearty ch. &quot. of the some effect. ver. This imputation.

ye blessed of Father. and ye gave me no drink I was a stranger. Come. of which perhaps the following l may suffice. and clothed thee ? Or when saw we thee sick. as a the goats. saying. And hand. ch. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of my brethren. Then he say unto them also on the left hand. the holy angels with him. and fed thee And the king shall or in prison. when saw we thee an hungred. depart from me. and ye : : : : visited me not. Then shall they also answer him 7 . ver. drink I was a stranger. ye have done it unto me. Then shall the King my right hand. Lord. inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the : world. answer him. For I and ye gave me meat I was thirsty. Verily I say unto you. Matthew. prepared for the devil and his angels. and ye visited me I was in : : : : was an hungred. and ye took me in naked and ye clothed me I was sick. and gave thee drink ? saw we thee a stranger. and ye came unto me. and ye took me not in naked. and ye clothed m-j not sick. When ? or thirsty. For I was an hungred. into everlasting fire. And before him shall be upon and he shall separate them one gathered all nations and all : from another. and came unto thee ? answer and say unto them. and took thee in ? or naked. then shall he sit the throne of his glory. and in prison.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and ye gave me Then shall the righteous prison. 31-46 : When the Son of man shall come in his glory. 97 our duty towards our fellow-creatures may be gathered from a hundred passages of Scripture. ye cursed. but the goats on the say unto them on his shepherd divideth his sheep from he shall set the sheep on his right left. XXV. and these shall ye gave inu no meat I was thirsty.

And every one that heareth these sayings of mine. In this description of the day of judgment it is clearly announced. I never ye that work iniquity. but he that doeth the will of my Father who is in heaven. and sister. that the merciful Father of the universe accepts as manifestation of love towards himself. ver. have we not prophesied name in thy name have cast out devils and name done many wonderful works ? And then Lord ! Lord ! in in thy . and . who built his house upon a rock. depart from me Therefore whosoever heareth knew you . Lord Lord shall enter into &quot. or a sranger. xii. every act of chanty and bene ficence performed towards his creatures (See text al : ready quoted. as say unto you. will of my Father who is brother. thy I will profess unto them.) And apparent by anticipation the erroneous idea that such conduct might be dispensed with. and doeth them. 50 in : Whosoever shall do the heaven. and reliance placed on a mere dogmatical knowledge of God. And : the righteous into life eternal. doeth them not. these shall go away into everlasting punishment &quot. I will liken him unto a wise man. and did not minister unto thee saying. vii. the Saviour. ye did it not to me. the same is my &quot. Matthew. or naked. ? or athirst. Matthew ch. Lord. and these sayings of mine. ch. AN APPEAL when saw we thee an hungred. 12.98 saying. ver. . Verily I Then shall he answer them. shall be likened unto a foolish man. Matthew. : ! ! the kingdom of heaven. In Hmuch ye did it not but to one of the least of these. Many will say unto me in that day. ch. 21-26 Not every one that saith unto me. who built his house upon the sand. ly to counteract vii. or sick or in prison. or of the following declaration seems to have been uttered. &quot.

God and doit.My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of ver. that the whole spirit of his has been faithfully and fully recorded.lt.^&amp. which God graciously admits Neither in this. at the conclusion also of his xxi. my Father s commandments. 28: &quot. : . John ver. they should be written every one. ch. The . is and abide in his love. \er.) which include therefore every duty of man. rather blessed are they that hear the word of God.&quot.TO THP: CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. as giving a title to eternal nor in any other part a of the New Testament relations can we find commandment It is similarly enjoining a knowledge of any of the mysteries contained in those books. or and they expressly exclude from those circumstances belief. On the &quot. Yea. xv.-&amp. 25. 99 Luke Ch. and yth chapters of Matthew. 10 shall abide in my love even as I have kept ments. mother.ch. 6th. the which other hand doctrines we cannot doubt. ch. and all that is necessary to salvation mere profession happiness.&quot.pel. and keep u If ye keep my command John. that but a very small portion the works of Jesus have been handed down to us by the Evangelists.besides plainly stated.gt.gt. 21: &quot. : and the paps which thou hast sucked but he said.Blessed is the womb (said a certain womin to Jesus) that bare thee. . 27. What then are THOSE SAYINGS.&quot. of or historical &quot. (contained are in the sth. &amp. . ver. says &quot. ye it. the obedience to which as indispensable so absolutely sufficient to those commanded who desire and all- to inherit eternal life ? They no other than the blessed and benign moral doctrines taught in the sermon on the mount. There are if many other things which Jesus did.&quot. viii. xi. I suppose the world itself could not contain the books that should be written.

acknowledging his authority. ch. on authorities that the Hindoos must deem superior to those of the Apostles. John. particular ideas of his nature and of the origin of his r Son. s me. and of what afflictions that Son may have suffered If the Reviewer and Editor w ill in behalf of his people. nor had recourse to. Vers. continue to resist both authority and common sense.&quot. short of their for duty and love than that he should select favor those whose claims rest on having acquired . believe the selves works. I must be content to take leave of them with the following . : that I do in my Father &quot. taught by revelation. 38 : If name. Had his doctrines of them made their would not have been this due impression. the aid of miracles In requisite. 37. as well as education. country. to ascribe to the Deity the perfection of those attributes are We which are esteemed excellent amongst mankind. as the bare report of such miracles could . miracles infinitely more wonderful are related of their the gods and saints. &quot. that he should admit to mercy those of his subjects who. ver. when they have fallen his laws . And according to those ideas it must surely appear more consistent with the justice of the Sovereign Ruler.IOO AN APPEAL : reason of this appears obvious miracles must have had a powerful effect on the minds of those who wit nessed them. have endeavoured to obey or shewn contrition. and who without some such evidence were disposed to question the authority of the teacher of those doctrines. 25 The works &quot. believe me not. have given no support to the weight of the doctrines for Compiler has stated in his Introduction. x. they bear witness of I do not the works of my Father. though ye believe not me. But if I do.

more Christians and tories infidels. The Com piler could and obvious not certainly overlook the daily occurrences facts which led him to remark (in the intro and some other passages are the doubts and disputes of freethinkers and antichristians. against the miracles. 5. much down less wonderful than the fabricated : tales handed any of the established Churches. the history. that the Compiler has intimated in the Introduction.And he said unto him. even caused continual wars and frequent bloodshed to mony and . The Reviewer observes (in page 24. will.) with every mark of disapprobation. Besides. and some of the dogmas of Christianity. (Luke. vain amongst the natives . If they hear not Moses and the Prophets. especially miraculous relations which are liable u historical duction. the in the same spot where European Compiler. &quot. A between dreadfully than slight reference to the his I trust. with distributing in a view to promote Christianity.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead. I humbly entreat any one to refer to the numerous volumes written by persons unattached to to the natives of Asia &quot. that the dogmatical and historical matters are rather calculated to do injury. residing missionary gentlemen and others for a period of upwards of readers entire conviction twenty years have been. They have not only destroyed har union between one sect of Christians and and continue to do so but in past times have . It has been the different interpretations of the dogmas that have given rise to such keen disputes amongst the followers of Jesus. of Christian countries. 31 ) &quot.another. afford to my upon this head. rage amongst them. xvi.) that to and to prove what the Compiler stated. ch. ver. : IOI words.

never doubted their zeal for the promulgation of Christianity.IO2 AN APPEAL copies of the complete Bible. and printed copies of this himself work et . however. speedily returned to Mohummudanism . their attempts to enlighten the natives in the of India. in but preparing vast numbers of copies of the Scriptures he has seen with regret. by introducing all the dogmas and mysteries taught in Christian churches to people that and by no means prepared to receive them have been so incautious and inconsiderate in they . He.. instead of benefiting by theperusal of the Bible. and generally use several of the dogmatical terms in their native language as a mark of slight in an irreverent manner. The consequence has been. whom the had converted instructed in to our divines supposed that they Christianity. Sabat. man of respectable family. numberless different written in languages. could not be altogether ignorant of the causes of their disappointment. of the a name of Ena Ahmud. wrote a few years ago a treatise in Arabic against those very dogmas. the mention of which is repugnant to my feelings. copies of which they always receive gratuitously. that they have completely coun teracted their own benevolent efforts. with those dogmatical notions imbibed from their infancy. as to if address their instructions to them same way as reasoning with persons brought up in a Christian country. exchange they were them very often for blank paper . who is still alive. nor the accuracy of their statement with regard to im mense sums of money being annually expended . that the natives in general. and published several hundred and another Moosulman. and whom they of course all dogmas and doctrines. an eminently learned but grossly un principled Arab.

ground to suspect that the greater faith number have been attractions than allured to change their by or a conviction of the truth . seemed so unprincipled. It has been owing to their be and ginning with the introduction of mysterious dogmas. who is still residing in the vicinity of Calcutta. constantly adhering to it. once glorified with the Of the truth of Christianity. from several occurrence. saw a great number of Christian converts with a petition. notwithstanding every I am not aware that exertion on the part of respectable Moosulman or of the common comforts of we can find a single Hindoo. 103 from Christianity. had in duced them to give up their ancient religion. pleading that he had not been able to reconcile to his understanding certain dogmas which were imparted to him. our divines. who. through false promises of advancement. from their own de Compiler felt claration. of that relations that at first sight appear incredible. About three years on an English gentleman. that those . The indignant at their presumption. the propriety of not countenancing a set of men. and in .TO THE CHRISTIN PUBLIC. few hundred natives who have been nominally converted to Christianity. the Compiler. stating that their teachers. The missionaries themselves are as well aware as the Compiler. his visit to local well-known to the Compiler as well as from the followingago. case of neglect a circumstance are apt to manifest a rebellious spirit which facts. who was not in want life. and sug gested to the gentleman as a friend. by other and reason all ableness of those are dogmas fed as we find nearly of them employed by is their spiritual teachers. which they intended to present to the highest Ecclesiastical authority. and who have been generally of the most there is ignorant class.

the Compiler is prepared to prove conveying conviction with them.104 AN APPEAL very dogmas are the points which the people always select as the most proper for attack. that the most paratively few. away. the interpreta tion of which is still a matter of keen discussion amongst . others he has therefore he in adopted Humble as patronage. an observance of which is not absolutely ordained. Under these circumstances the Compiler published such sayings of Christ. those measures thought most judicious to spread the an acceptable manner but I am sorry to that he has unfortunately and unexpectedly met observe. persons likely to oppose him on this subject. and best calculated to not lead mankind to universal love and harmony . have generally given rise to disputes and controversies. John should be com Compiler It is from this source. all of which. dogmas of the have been principally drawn and on of the the most learned and most pious scholars in Christen- . with opposition from those whom he considered the last which truth . required. ceive the difficult to be comprehended Christian religion the foundation of passages of that writer. both in their oral and written controversies with Christian teachers if . the Reviewer may per reason why the passages extracted by the from the Gospel of St. instead of introducing peace and happiness. nor yet has nor has he situations to give to he to friends their and colleagues recommend he is. as he thought intelligible to all. and the interpretations of which. The Compiler has had no local influence nor power to promote any one s interest. by the most unquestionable testimony. dwelling upon those matters. From what has already been advanced.

the Compiler thought the varied repetitation of them by different but concurring reporters those doc highly advantageous. published by the learned men of every sect of for . with a doctrines. if in such selection. as showing clearly that trines were neither misrepresented nor misconceived by any of those Evangelists. Nor is the conduct of the of Compiler in select the Scriptures ing certain passages for we see very often extracts from purposes singular the Bible. for the purposes of illustrating them. besides. hesitate questioned as to their object to assign as their motive the very reason adopted by the Compiler as his the superior importance of the parts so selected. Christian view to the maintenance of particular churches have selected passages from the Bible. must be deter mined by those who will candidly peruse and consider the arguments already advanced on the subject. certain Christians. and impressing them on the minds of his hearers. and the more enlight stumbling-block to the conversion of the ened amongst the Hindoos. 6. To whom this minds of those for impress more strongly on the was intended.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Whether or not he has erred in his judgment on that point. always bearing in mind the lesson practically taught by the . Nor will those teachers. and well adapted for the constant perusal and and study of the people of their respective churches . the doctrines compilation taught by Jesus. it is the continual practice of every :-Christian teacher to choose from the whole Scriptures such text as he deems most important. the origin of Mohummudanism. which they conceive particularly ex cellent. is erected the mysterious doctrine of three Gods in one Godhead. 10$ dom.

in to which he believed most peculiarly of a Christian. which has been their infancy. to avoid further disputation with them.IO6 AX APPEAL his Saviour himself. or peace of is or the scoffs of Hindoos. immersed in gross idolatry. and the miracles of their deities and handed down books. of adapting instructions to the susceptibility and capacity of his hearers.things to say unto you. and the Word was with God. ch. a What mind can we bestow upon Moosulman. who an entire stranger to the Christian world. doctrine. and two-fifths Moosul&quot. Hindostan is a country. xvi. as most extravagant description respecting antiquity. yet the latter portion are well-known to be firmly devoted to a belief in one possessed of God. of Christianity such as those contained u In the beginning chap. saints. ist of St. gions Although the professors of neither of these are reli such accomplishments as are enjoyed by Europeans in general. but : &quot. John. the Compiler selected those precepts of Jesus. ver. mans. was the Word. and anxious. and such as could by no means horror of benefit to excite the religious Mohummudans. with a few exceptions. 12 have yet many . by communi cating to him without preparatory instruction all the peculiar in verse dogmas 1st. of which nearly three-fifths of the inhabitants are Hindoos. c nd the Word was God ? Would they not find themselves at a loss to reconcile this dogma to their unprepared under- .I ye cannot bear them now. and in belief of the futurity. from his long experience of religious contro versy with natives. the obedience required tend. John: . to them and recorded in their ancient Weighing these circumstances. instilled into their minds from The former (I mean the Hindoos) are.

. conversation. and to prevent others from attributing their ill success to his interference with their duties. as by him. so generally in inimical to to European increase of consititutions their for proportion the number sobriety. the Reviewer supposes. 27. and good behaviour have been diffused among their neighbours as the necessary consequences of their company. ill-disposed towards This is the missionary establishments in this country. in accusing the as a Compiler as an injurer of the cause of truth. if he could see in past experience anything to justify hopes of their success. nor can But great number of missionary gentlemen may view the matter in a different light. yet to those that are strangers to these explanations. and good example. to whom he can have recourse for an explanation. IO/ A is B and A is also with B? Although the interpretations given us of such text by truly learned and candid divines be ever so satisfactory. he would gladly abstain from publishing again on the same subject. I From what I hope no one will infer that I feel have already stated. sistency. The Reviewer charges the Compiler with incon 7. they cannot be from the order of it be expected can happily rind at hand an able inter things. whenever he may be involved in difficulties or doubts* intelligible . standings.) because he has termed the precepts collected while. and that their members may remain in the happy enjoyment of life in a climate . I pray for their augmentation.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. moderation. that each preter. I doubt not that with a view to avoid every possibility of such im putation. tem perance. viz. far from being the case. a code of Religion and Morality. (p.. they form only a code . and join perhaps the Editor of the Friend of India.

meaning by the former. those precepts which treat of our duty to God.. that the Compiler has introduced those precepts of Jesus under the denomination of the moral sayings of the its New Testament. and to ourselves. nor sufficed to save him from the un expected imputation of inconsistency. and Morality. In conformity to the design thus expressed. he has carefully particularized the sense in &quot.J08 AN APPEAL of morality and not of religion. which he accepted that world This simple code of Religion by the latter sentence. as including our conduct to God. observes with regret. in having introduced some doctrinal passages into his compilation. that .&quot. and to society.as it is on account of these passages being such were the ordinary foundation of the arguments of the . In reply to which I again entreat the attention of the respected Reviewer to that passage in the Introduction. &c. taking the word moral in wide sense. has afforded to the Reviewer satisfactory evidence of his intention. and by the latter. he has collected all the sayings that have a tendency to those ends. lity of misunderstanding the term.as relate to our duties to mankind. The Compiler. such . ) is so admirably calculated to elevate men s ideas to high and ( liberal notions of fitted u one God. and to ourselves and to avoid the least possibi . The Reviewer again (page 29) charges the Compiler with inconsistency. to each other. in which the Compiler states the motives that have led him to exclude certain parts of the gospels from his publication. &c. and is also so well to regulate the conduct of the human race in the 1 discharge of their various duties to God. that neither this language nor this fact. He there states. It is already explained in paragaraph 2nd. however. to themselves.

That millions of people of God believe in a plurality of Gods. or the sources of the inter minable controversies that have led to heart-burnings and even bloodshed amongst Christians. But such dogmas. A man. literally sunk polytheism. and to him whom he graciously sent to deliver those Precepts of Religion and to Morality. lities. are generally included in conformity with the avowed plan of the work parti cularly such as seem calculated to direct our love and obedience to the beneficent Author of the universe. promote In objecting to the assertion made by the Com 8. cannot kind. the minds of those for whose benefit the compilation was intended. is a refined and disguised certainly admit that a great number of men and even men of profound learning and extensive abi atheism.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that they were not included in his selection as the more readily. 109- opponents of Christianity. not amount the denial of Godhead. That the majoritv the truth of the and Christian Revelation are atheists. and are not unfamiliar to and they were omitted he considered them not essential to . whose tendency is universal peace and harmony. 3rdly. owing to their early education. which denies to who deny God his moral I attributes. piler in the Introduction as to a belief in the existence prevailing generally. an absurd and irrational system of reli But the admission of a plurality of Gods does gion. Jewish That the very system of the Vedant. or doctrinal and other pas religion. for in in stance. because he be accused of having no notion of man is proved to believe in the existence of . sages as are not exposed to those objection. are. of those enlightened persons 2dly. the respected Reviewer advances three arguments: 1st.

astonishing eagerness of the learned amongst polytheistical.] 10 AN APPEAL The Reviewer ought there a plurality of individuals. to the best of atheism. imputing atheism to the majority of and of those who deny the divinity of the Jewish I from one sun. a strong the consistency of the system of Mono theism with reason. The Reviewer perhaps may have met with some unhappy freethinkers. belief of Debased and despicable as is the the Hindoos in three hundred and thirty milli ons of gods. are subordinate agents. my recollection. assuming offices in preserving the harmony of the uni verse under one Godhead. the only The doctrine consistent with reason and revelation. the truth fore to have of which will be readily admitted. that the three hundred and thirty millions of gods. has probably induced him to form this opinion but such rare instances can have no force to set aside the . who have professed doubts respecting the existence of a supreme superintending Power a circumstance which . am at a loss to trace For notwithstanding my ac with several Europeans and Asiatics who quaintance doubt the possibility of Revelation. whom various they enumerate. confined himself to the remark. they pretend to reconcile this persuasion with the doctrine of the unity of God alleging . I have never met Christian Revelation. with one. to is those. whose practice and language are evidence of prefer their claim to be considered as Monotheists. maintaining however widely they might differ from the Reviewer and the Compiler in a great many points of to the belief relating Deity. as innumerable rays issue the origin of his second argument. that there are mil lions of people ignorant of the unity of God.

in common with the Jewish and Chris tian Scriptures. . and the self-existent. By him who knows among Kuthu. i. into English. and form. name. He has from eternity been assigning to all He is omnis . u is God is eternal. Vedant. Neither can conscientiously in his cide with Reviewer imputing atheism to the Vedant system. from the impossibility of forming more for the fection exalted conceptions. And is creatures. section i : things collectively and dis whose knowledge and will are the only means of tinctly.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. credit of Ill what the Compiler the respected affirms. under the supposition of its denying moral attributes to God nor can I help . which have already been translated &quot. the Ruler of the intellect.&quot. 5 produced. In a battle between the celestial gods Kenopunishud the demons. &quot. that a belief in I God coin Prevails generally. Bruhma. God enabled the former to defeat the and : latter. He overspreads all Ishopunishud merely spirit without the form either of a 4k : minute body or of an extended one. are &quot. which or organization. is liable to cient. constantly ascribes to God the per of those moral attributes which are considered among prove the this human I species excellent and sublime. and all that vege tates. omnipresent. his actions. as to make him apply the term of atheist towards a sect or to individuals who look up to the God of nature through his wonderful works alone . lamenting that religious prejudice should influence the Reviewer so much. To quote one passage from each of the four Oopunishuds of the Vedant. chap. all the perishable universe and : . impression pure. perfect. chap. the source of sensation assigns to so among all animate existences and he alone many objects their respective purposes. all Moonduk. &quot.

It also represents God sometimes in a manner familiar to the understanding of the vulgar* Moonduck ch.112 creatures their AX APPEAL respective I purposes. For further evi refer the Reviewer to the beg rest of the original Vedant works that may be found in the College Library and in the missionary stores of dence. of his works. mouth. ver. slumbering. as being joy. behold God s face in heaven. xxxvii. capable of sound reasoning can waking. as well as in the after his own likeness. . u Ch. a with face. &quot. very true. made man in his The angels always Old Testament. 1 : : The Scriptures also represent God in the same familiar and figurative manner as is found in unsearchable. . being seen. &c. 23 Touching his greatness is the Almighty we cannot find him out and w e know him not. speak &c. legs/. 3 Hence It is. 26 Behold God is great. with hands and fingers eyes. Scriptures. and hate as moving from place to : place having arms. if required.&quot. and the sun and moon are his eyes space is his ears. ears . love. no language can describe him. : &quot. books. vexation. back. sect. as seeing. bowels. In the ing grief. nose. the Vedant. Kenopunished. for No one a moment imagine . . i Heaven is his head. clares often k : no vision can approach him. &quot. But such doctrines. and hearing. : &quot. ing. thighs. New. declarations as these are are not peculiar to the Vedant &quot. him : be explained. no intellectual power can compass or determine we know nothing how the Supreme Being should &c. heart. God is represented as repent moved with anger. God is affirmed to have own image. to however. tongue. a head. r Job found frequently in the Sacred xxxvi. that the Vedant de its total ignorance of the real nature very and attributes of God. vii.

that these or any other descriptions of to convey literal notions of God are intended the unsearchable.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Amen. and conducive to the and union of mankind. peace . May God render religion destructive of differences and dislike between man and man. incom prehensible Being.

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THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS.&quot. RAMMOHAN ROY.SECOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. IN DEFENCE OF &quot. .

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. yet of writers they are opposed in fact by a very large body them to be decid and teachers. That the Precepts under these two propositions which teach that love to God is manifested of THE : Jesus. . contents of the following Treatise are included 1st. who is Though alike these doctrines. are a suffi cient Guide to Peace and Happiness and 2ndly. and on their impartial judgment I confidently rely.ADVERTISEMENT. as I conceive them to be founded on reason and revelation. That that omnipresent God. religious veneration. is the only proper object of one and undivided in person. in beneficence towards our fellow-creatures. I must therefore leave ed upon by those who will be pleased to bestow their candid and liberal attention on the arguments I have used in the succeeding pages . appear to me to be almost as obvious truths as any abstract axiom.

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first. .. authority of Paul quoted. The Compiler acknowledges the .. 1 24 Repentance the only means of forgiveness. . . . Son to the Father. ib. . CHAPTER I. . . . contradiction between the inclispensibleness of the Doctrines and the sufficiency of the Precepts. . . . the excellency of the insufficiency of the Precepts. ALTERATION of Style in the Review.119 . Passages shewing the sufficiency of the PreceptsGod one. Two 117 points which the Editor wishes to establish. . Jesus receives all power from God. ib. . Positions of the Riviewer. .. . Dogmas and the . .. . . . 125 CHAPTER Natural inferiority of the II... . . . 127 . . The The Precepts of Jesus practicable. . i 20 The . and the object of supreme love. Power given to Jesus as the Son of God. . ib. General Defence of the Precepts in Q-iestion. Page.126 ..TABLE OF CONTENTS.. Rejects the second.. . . 121 ) 22 ib. . inapplicable. to wit. .Justifyng a selection as the substitute for the whole.

. 18. xviii. . 38 . 20. 7. . numerous persons under it.for God.. He that hath seen the Son hath seen the Father... Jesus s disavowal of his own ...Vlll SECOND APPEAL Page. i. ... H3 ib. existences . Definition of the unity between God and Jesus.God&quot. Jesus performs wonderful works. 5. ib. 36. 137 The term The term &quot. the Son of God. . . 6 xvi... explained. . . J 37 . him and his disciples. which do not . iii. xxvi. . Diety.. 32... Hindoos belived in one Godhead.. 132 God dwelleth in Jesus and he in God. ib....... . 8. 13. .. Matt.. 133 135 ib. . 141 CHAPTER III.. 28 . 136 ib. Jesus.. explained. . . . Matt. frequently ... Jesus considered distinct from God.. 58. viii. consisting of . xiii... .. explained... ever&quot. . . xvi... .. . ii. inferior to &quot... amount to equality with those of God.. The unity between God and Jesus. . and between . 62. 138 .. ib.. xiii. 2 . . 15 John vi. xi.. i. .. The John John John first position of the Editor.. on the ubiquity of -. often applied to created beings.. 140 ib.... Separate consideration oj the seven positions of the Reviewer. John i. . applied to . The Jews charged Jesus only with calling himself . 144 *45 John Matt.

37. . 9. explained.. . explained. separately explained. 9 . . 148 ib. iii. Daniel ii. . . Luke i.. . 4 Matt... considered. xi. . fifth iii.. ib. Editor infers his omniscience. . 16. . respecting the . . 37 . The fourth John John Deut. . Malt.. . . ib. 19 36.. Matt. 42 . Mark Acts ii. . 154 155 ib. 27. . . 150 ib. respecting . worship accepted by Jesus. v... xiii. 31. on Jesus forgiv . vii. ib. The position of the Editor. . Luke xxiii.. xii.. ix Page. . John xiv. . 15. Acts .. . . . Prov. v.. . the .. Luke xvi. ib. 30. position of the Editor..TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. The third position the Editor. From Mark John this the xiii. almighty power of Jesus. . . considered. 23 . . 151 ib. 22 . . 152 153 xviii. . 32 xiii. 46 . ib. . The second position Matt.. . . . .. xxix. 29. . 28 27 xxvi. . 149 ib. explained.. v. 39.. ing sins in an independent manner. 32 xi. 138 of the Editor. 1^7 The sixth position of the Editor. 14. . . . . . xxvi. . .. 17.. 26.. .. ... . Mark Matt. .. 23. .. . . xx. 18 .. . John 40 48. . ib ib... 23 32 . . xii. . v. .. . on the incom . 27. respecting Judgement of the world by Jesus. . 34 xi. ib.. . x.. explained of . the . prehensibility of the nature of Jesus. 156 ib. .. Matt. explained. .. 17. .. . 38. . . Matt. . 28. v.. Luke xxii. 5. vi. John .. . 21 v.. . 23. .

xviii. xvii. 9. . xiv. Matt. x.. ib. Mohummud Synonymous expressions employed by and Jesus. 7. ib. . 15. 159 . : . . . vi.X SECOND APPEAL Page. . 46 John iv. . 12. John 24 . 167 unaccountable. xv. iv. John Luke Mark John 31. xiv 35. John ix. . 47 49 . xxiv. . . notwithstanding. . iv. position of the Editor.. considered. 33. 8. Exod. belief. remain theists 164. xx..42. Mark . . considered. Luke . . . ib.158 ib.165 CHAPTER IV. Matt. v. . respecting the xxviii. xiv.. i 9. John xvi. Moosulmans. 33. Matt. l66 ii.. except as prophesied. form of Baptism. 29 . Matt. The sufferings of Jesus. viii. ..^65 strict - Mono- . 168 . 69. ix. 22. vi. Atonement. 21 John xi. ib. 2. . 38 .163 . . . . 43. . . 31 Matt. Matt. 16 viii. Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Texts adduced in support of the atonement. xix 17.. 25 . . 26.. Jesus himself worshipped the Father . 3 .. considered. 26. . . . Matt. Luke iv. 36 Luke . vi. . xxvii. . ib.. John xvii. 161 Mark 41 . The seventh 31. and of other Prophets.. Luke xxii.. The worship xxvi. 41. Matt. . 19 . . 53 paid to Jesus inferior to divine. Mark xii. 160 ib. . 10. ex plained. xxviii. . 162 Mohummud joins in his his own name with that of God form of 1 8. 19.

\iii. . considered. . 43 . 27. Matt. . 24. . .. ih. Kings . . . Matthew xxvi. 3. . John 18. 7.. ih.. a supposed proof of the atonement. 42. iN Genesis . suffered . .. 53. ... of the . . 3. .TO THK CHRISTIAN I l BI. .. . . xxiii. . xxii. 27.. nature of .. The Author offers no opinion on xlviii. 45. 37. ih.. . . 27 . . Nehemiah . .175 . ih_ 7 Nature of Christ. God or . inculcating . . 44. 32.. sidered. 16 . con . Jesus averse to the death of the cross. John xv.. Mark xiv. . God. righteousness sake. Exodus xxiii. 63.. considered.gt. 36 xi. Divine . ih. ix. . .. v.. . John xv. 175* . . as Man. vi. . Jesus is Saviour from . word of God. . 1 74 ih. John xxvi. . .. 43. .. .. . . . . .. . xii. ih_ . ih. v. 22. 21. ^4.. with the . explained. 2 1. 171 The application of the term Saviour to Jesus 2 . XI Page.173 . 22. God shews mercv Genesis xxx. for .... 177 27 Jeremiah xxvii. the . 172 Obadiah 21 a . v. 4k 2X. this doctrine.. 39.. .. Whether Jesus mankind.. Matthew Jesus will. ih ih. 21. 39. .. The term Lamh of God&quot. . Luke 17. v. . 42. as .. 1 70 The The first inconsistent . considered. . . . last |b inconsistent with justice. 38.. . Matthew Matthew Matthew v.. . i6i&amp. 20. ih.K 1 .. . for . was a perfect teacher .. . . . jb. 31. God declares Christ a Prophet equal to Moses. 2.

79 Mosheim Illiberal s I.178 Chris Illiberally in tians supposing shed each other Authority. considered. Page. narrations of the and miraculous New to Disputes ascribed of the Testament. 4^o. pp. explained by between the peculiar Doctrines of the Difference tenet of the existence of Gospel and the x. Hindoo 186. . Superior excellence . Matthew its context. John . the different interpretations Dogmas. & - xx. xiv. 34. Alexandrians cause of the final success of (afterwards called l8 the Orthodox) over Arians. 29. 24 . The arguments adduced by of the Riviewerin support to Christian miracles are equally applicable miracles. 37. God. ii John x. 78 J &amp. Matthew John xi. of the Precepts of Jesus. Matthew xii. considered. .. 419. 180 The remarks may be equally applied to the Apostles and Martyrs.187 miraculous narrations of And also to the Moosulmans.gt. Violent contentions between Roman Catholics and Protestants. The to shew their miracles quoted by the Reviewer importance. blood from worldly X motives. that the primitive s .SECOND APPEAL CHAPTER On the doctrines V. Vol. 179. 39.

iii. 2 xxi. 12 Acts i.. 4 . fluence. 28. 195 The Jews Matt. 13. -i. xii. explained.. with context .. ii.. xxxiii. 3. 30. I. 199 199 Acts v. The Holy Spirit explained to be the 6. vi. 193 in . ib Acts Luke iv. . John xv. . iii. 35. Luke Mark 15.. 41.. and Mark . n . xiii CHAPTER On the VI. Ivii. . 26. cvii. guiding influ . Luke i. .190 . 43 Luke iv.. Ezek... 29. 16. 5.. 198. explained. 22. 3. 67. . . Miscellaneous remarks. 3 2 Chorn. Impersonality of the Holy Spirit. 2 Chorn. xxxvi. 191 Anger. accuse Jesus of employing diabolical .. 195 24 37. . . 26 xii. 20 xii. Prophets associated with God. 4 . 9 Luke iii. the . . 38 . Psalm 5. 10. 36 Matt. . . . 197 The God was bestowed before the coming of Jesus. .. . i. Ixxxv.. . John xiv. c. A latt. 192 The bad consequences of supposing the Spirit to be a person of God. . 20 Jeremiah xxx. . 189 . . Spirit of i. . 7 Kings xxiv.. xii.itt. x. 22... .. . 31 Luke iii. . vii. iii... ib.. 18. truth. 196. xxii. 8 John xiv.. .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. xvi.. The association of the name of the with Spirit that of the Father and Son inadiquate to prove this doctrine. personified as well as . 193 non i also inconsistent with the use of the . 20. 25... . ib. i. in Only one circumstance adduced support of the Deity of the Spirit as a distinct person. &c. 7. . xxix.. Matt. mercy. Luke 4 Psalm xc. ence of God.. xx. n. Holy 26 Spirit.

ib. 3.. 8. extract from xiv. 2oq Another 6.. Exod. noticed. The . the prejudices of education. . . j8. thrice repeated term u holy&quot..prevailed at the Council of . Mosheim.. .. Isaiah vi.. . extracts 200. 3.. 414.. 26 Isaiah vi.... .. . 32.. 211 Moses might also be .... .. i.. 22. 203 20. noticed.. ib- . . ... introduced as . to have a twofold . iv. is of nouns and pronouns Dent.. 412. example from the Qoran... x. 25. xvii. 42. mental article of faith. Vol.. 204 This proved by Acts 12.. ii. quoted.. viii.. v. Gen. . the Diety of the Son was not considered a funda . 23.. 38.. and Other shewing Polytheism was familiar to the Christian con first n. &quot. ? 22. 204 206 Extracts from Mosheim. from Mosheim. 2oS Reason why Trinitarians Nice.. 37. 38... consciousness... verse which has been 7. . Acts xxviii.411. shewing that so late as the year 317...-aid . The plural number &c. 27 viii. ... iii. 4 .XIV SECOND APPEAL Page. 56. alleged twofold consciousness of Jesus Christ considered. 31.. which an . in Hebrew. or object... iv. 200 of . 210 The prevalence of the Trinity attributable only to ib.. The same The The rule observed in Arabic . in . 210 that verts of the ages. pp. 4. ib... . xxi.. 1 John v.. 206. 36. . often used for a singular agent .. 100. The Trinity not taught by the Apostles. . 6. . 29 . vii. 26.... p.. i.

. . 24... .. .... considered.. 214 the argument which represents Father. . 216 On the argument which represents .. 214 215 The union between Father and Son compared that between the human soul and body. 2. i. 6.. 7. argument drawn from the analogy of the sun.. .. and perception. 219 miah xxvii. to the Trinity. as a com ib... . On and heat. to the Trinity. God . quoted. xv.. pound subtance. .. ib. xiv... . contradictions . and &quot...... to .. . 8 . 1 Numbers .&quot. 30 Gen. 5.. v. Son. considered. ix. Opposed also to Scripture xxi. 19. viii.. and Holy Spirit. John xvii.. 213. of Polytheism more Christians for than those .. XV. ... Page. .. 5. in ... xxxii. of the 219 ... This opposed to common sense.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Mode of reconciling apparent . as qualities of one Diety..Son of Man&quot. . light. Argument drawn from the alleged resemblance between the term &quot.. ib. 2I 7 to his Alleged necessity of the Deity of Jesus mediatorial character.. 32 Jere 218. Difficulties arising 212 from neglecting this mode. Ephes. 3 I Cor. Deuteronomy Hindoos for The arguments powerful Trinity.Son of God. . xviii. . will.. 6 . xi. 20. 213 The argument drawn from The the analogy of the soul. scripture.

xv.. ........ . Matt. ... ... xix......... xxii. ib.. .. xxii.. No... . 19. .. .. .. xxi. 32... 35. ib.. 226 ib. .... Matt. xv... Matt. xiii. . . Matt. . .... Matt. 225 ib.. ib.. 15. .... . . ..... .. ii. . Jesus to God... iv. . ..XVI SECOND APPEAL APPENDIX. ix.... ... Page... iv. .. ... xi. . Matt.. .. Matt.... Matt. .. x. . . . John John John vi... . . ... I... xxii. ib. 7 9. Matt.. .. . .. . Matt........ 31.. . .. .. Matt... Matt. . 10. .. ... . Matt. . .. .. . iv... . 42.. 44. Matt. ....... Luke Luke . .... 223 ib xiii.... 18. . 45 ..... iv.. 13.. 227 ib. . .. .. .. .. . ... . 4... ... . 222 ib.... ib..... 220 221 ib.. .. . . Matt. . . 18... .... xix. xxii 39. . 19. Matt. 25. . .. 228 .. .. 5. . . ..xxvi... .. . .. 18. 16... 8..... ..... . . John Matt...... . ib.. 37....... . . ib.. These quotations prove the subordinate nature of . .. ib^ 10.. On the Quotations from the Old Testament contained in the New. . 13.... Matt..... . 14.... ib.. xxi. xix... iv. . .. 7.... 19. xxi.. 224 ib. .

7. term Saviour. Isaiah . compared with Jeremiah 5. . 255 John xiv. xxxiii. No... the . . phrase &quot. xlv. 9.. 8. Ephes. compared. compared with Paslm Ixviii. 6.. 16 . 16. 9.. Malachi xii... 26 .. Gen. 1 6. 29. 12. II.. 8. compared with Psalm xlv. 37... compared with i. xii. xl.. 229 . xxiii. xvi. 6.. .... 10. 13. 12.. Revelation 249 250 251 compared with Isaiah on the phrase &quot. 14. The original of Jeremiah xxiii.. iii. compared with Isaiah ix. x. considered. .. 6. on the term husban.. 23. Cor... 17. 6. John i. xliv. 6. Hebrews i. Rom..&quot.. compared with Isaiah xliii. 18. Rev.. on the 253 .. compared with Psalm . .Alpha and Omega. explained.. on the . 10. Gen. on the . xxv.. John I x. .. . i.. XVH APPEN DIX. 2 Sam. tempting Christ. 242 Luke John 1 i..TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.. . . phrase Whom they 256 . 3. campared with Isaiah liv..&quot. compared with Isaiah . Cor.... ii.. 30. .. 16 ...&quot. . xxii. compared u with Zachariah pierced. xxiii. ..&quot. . compared with Psalm Ixxviii. John iii. term Shepherd.My reward is with me. 56 on . iv.011 .... xxii.d. 14.. iii.. on the phrase u Thou hast ascended on high. 10. i. 2 xiv.. 5. 3. 243 ib. 246 247 248 Peter 18. and . On the Rejerencts made to the Old Testament in Support of the Deity of Jesus Page.. compared with Isaiah vi. 41. ... compared with Isaiah xl.

.... . of metaphor.. . . Page. 262 Nor the hope But reverence wish to of success. .. New... for the ... 267 269 Conclusion. u Stone of 258. 269 logy to the triangle. systems.. . 263 ib. 262. The Hebrew and The Deity of other Asiatic languages x. author of Christianity... Personal interest does not influence the author . ... . .. 264 Extract from Sir Isaac Newton... 6 8. 15 nor desire of fame.Xviii SECOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.. . . 264 arti .... 14. I Peter ii. 264.. Several arguments occurring in the beginning of Serle s Horae Solitariae considered.. from its ana Argument 265. . Locke s testimony respecting the fundamental 263. 259 full stumbling. 16... .. i Chron..271 .. ... . 263 raise ... and a it above all Polytheistical .. xxviii. The author s views derived from the Scriptures. considered. on the pharase &c. . . pointing out the different natures of God and Christ. . ved from Deut. xxx........ 20.. 260 261 Moses and of David cannot be pro .. 265 in favour of the Trinity.. and viii. John 34 36. xxix. cles of Christianity. compared with Isaiah 13..&quot.. . The Old Testament should be studied before the ..

...... . . 277 277 The term &quot.. Dr. 6.. &quot. . exa 272 mined. 277 Passages illustrating the epithets employed in aiah ix. &quot... between . of meaning . applied to various kings. 6.to 272 be 272 Is 277 and &quot..only-begotton&quot... On the difference called&quot.to be.. ..Messiah&quot.. 272 .Son&quot.&quot... Prideaux assertion respecting the testimoney s s of Jonathan Targum on ... 7. examined. 272 several ancient Jewish commen . 272 277 The terms tible and &quot.. incompa 277 The with the nature of the First Cause.POSTSCRIPT. Isaiah ix. 272 assertion respecting two sets of terms and No phrases being applied to Jesus. 277 277 277 272 True Christiauity is free from Polytheism. 272 Hindoo can conscientiously prefer the doctrine of the Trinity to Hindooism. . Quotations from tators.

.

doctrines of the unless accompanied with the important Godhead of Jesus and his atonement. I of the The Friend of India.&quot. contained in No. General Defence of the Precepts in Question. on the Quarterly Series of u The Precepts of Jesus. and excellency of the of the dogmas found in the compiled Precepts and.An Appeal to the Christian Christian- Public.SECOND APPEAL. as well as on to Introduction their defence. 2ndly.) but have also encouraged me to pursue my researches after the fundamental prin from the ciples of Christianity in a manner agreeable to my feelings. ( Nos. labours in The Reverend Editor establish his Review to two points writings the truth miraculous relations and scriptural . . that consolation for they have not only afforded me ample the disappointment and vexation I felt in the personality conveyed preceding Magazines. 20 and 23.&quot. As the Compiler neither in his Introduction to of those t lie Precepts of Jesus. the insufficiency of the of Jesus alone to lead to salvation. CHAPTER I. THK observations &quot. are happily expressed in so mild and like a style. and with such respect as I should always wish to manifest for the situation and charecter of so worthy a person as the Editor of the Friend of India. nor in his defence Precepts. termed &quot.

piler clearly evinced the contemptible light in which he viewed these legends and in stating that the miracles . namely. the Com. are. the arguments adduced by the learned Editor to demonstrate the truth and excellence of the authority on which they rest. were subject to the doubts of u Free thinkers and Anti-christians/ it can never fairly be of the Scriptures supposed that he meant himself. ( in the for separating the Precepts from the abstruse doctrines and miraculous relations of the New Testament. are liable to the doubts and disputes of Freethinkers and Anti-christians. reasons assigned by the Compiler.gt. that the compiled Precepts were not sufficient to lead to salvation. that the former latter &quot. ) to the matter in question. in applying the term the tales received by the credulous Hindoos. &quot. and foreign The only Introduction. included in that class. do&amp. I deeply regret that the to As Editor should appear to have overlooked the authority of the gracious Author of this religion in the several passages cited by the Compiler in his Appeal.Il8 SECOND APPEAL has expressed the least doubt as to the truth of any part of the Gospels. quite superfluous. I presume. to be the second point urged by the Reverend Editor. to prove . are. founded as they are upon undeniable facts. &quot. I am inclined to think. convey any disavowal or doubt of their fabricated to Besides. the fabricated tales handed down nature/ to them being of more wonderful These sentiments respecting the doctrines and miracles. truth. or any other person labouring in the promulgation of Christianity. not. and the are capable at best of carrying little weight with the natives of this part of the globe.

with some others.And Jesus answered him. Hear. to demonstrate the position he endeavours to maintain. and with all thy mind this is the first and great com .&quot. how am to reconcile their authority with the position maintained by the learned Editor. And the second is like unto it. and with all thy soul. numerous quotaions. : the Lord thy soul. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. could have escaped his notice. The first of all the commandments is. as to the insufficiency of the Precepts of Jesus to guide to peace and happiness. and I humbly entreat to of those passages. xii. mandment. 29 &quot. ch. beginning with ver. Thou shalt love ch. only illustrates by sacred authority the truth excellency of the miracles and the doctrines of Chris But such illustration can have no tendency tianity. the Lord our God is one Lord. 119 beyond doubt the to procure eternal life sufficiency of the Precepts in question as it is almost impossible that so . And the second is like all : . shewing that the compiled Precepts are sufficient to conduct the therefore am human know. Matthew. Oil these two command ments hang all the Law and the Prophets. Mark. O Israel.. that the compiled Precepts would fall short of guiding to peace and hap piness. 37 : &quot. race to if I happiness . Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart.Jesus said unto him. and with this is God with all the first thy heart. I under the necessity of repeating a few passages already quoted. spreading over a great part of the Appeal. xxii. while endeavouring to prove.. The Reverend Editor.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and with all thy thy mind. and with all thy strength commandment. be persuaded to believe in the divine origin and in the entire veracity of their I author. beginning with ver.

ver. ver. and with as thyself. This : and ihou shalt Matthew. xv. . Lord Lord have we not prophesied in name and in thy name have cast out devils and thy And then in thy name done many wonderful \vorks ? will I profess unto them I never knew you depart from in that day. What is written readest thou ? He answering. and doeth them. 25 &quot. I will liken him and unto a wise man. vii. a xi. . ch.&quot.Therefore all things whatsoever you would that men should do to you. 12 commandment. .&quot.I2O SECOND APPEAL namely this. ver. Many will say unto me &quot. and tempted him. do you even so to : them from . ch. is my John. shall be likened unto a foolish man. 27 : &quot. what shall I do to Law all ? How unto him. Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine. vii. a ver. and keep : . ch. for this : is the Law and the behold. Lord Lord shall enter into the kingdom of heaven but he that doeth the will of my Father who is in heaven. ! ! . And he do. who built his house upon a rock . said said : He Thou all shalt love the Lord thy God and with all and with said thy . ch. who built his house upon the the sand. blessed are they that hear the word &quot.Not ch.Blessed is womb (said certain woman to Jesus) : that bare thee. Yea rather. thy heart. it. ye that work iniquity.This of God. right. 21 one that saith ! ! . x. inherit eternal in the life ? saying. with all and thy neighbour thy mind unto him.&quot. certain lawyer stood up Prophets. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself There is no other commandment greater than these. Master. Matthew.&quot. that ye love one another. me. and doeth them not. soul. 12 &quot. every one that heareth these sayings of mine. and the paps which thou hast sucked but he said. Luke.And Luke. thy strength. every unto me. ver. thou hast answered live&quot.

that &quot. Christ &quot.&quot.&quot.&quot. P. 37 for all the 39. primitive Christians. : whatever you would that men should do to you. ye those two commandments. that ye another another . 89. ch. nor even applicable the express of the latter Author of Christianity already quoted includes not authority as the . that ye love one another. to which St. Paul. do you even so to them for this is the Law and the Prophets. I presume. ver.By also love one this shall all men know that ye are have love one to another. UA new commandment I give unto you.On these two commandments (to love God and to love . the most exalted among &amp. and sufficient means to produce peace and happiness to mankind.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. without intending to depre I regret that the ciate the rest of the word of God. adequate to to set aside. but both law and religion. ver. the Compiler never scrupled to follow the example set forth by Jesus himself in compiling Law and such precepts as include those two comas a mondments. 34 love one as I : have loved you.it every compilation be given Writings in all sample of the Sacred their excellence and importance. only the Mosaic law. as I have loved 121 I you. . &quot. Observing my disciples.) selected by the Saviour as a substitute . on the ground. that ye &quot. Paul alludes. 17 u : These things com : mand you. and not as a as a substitute for the whole. (Matthew. true substitute of the Gospel. is not. Ch. Reverend Editor should have disapproved of this com of importance that is pilation. and is evident from the following passages Therefore all things &quot.&quot. Ver. quoted by the Reverend Editor.&quot.&quot.If is dead in vain. xiii. ) righteousness come by the law. and their subsidiary moral doctrines.&quot. The authority of St. 35 if the Prophets. xxii.lt.

are they that ver. and keep John. and would not have promised him eternal life as the reward of such obedience &quot. ch. that the gracious Saviour meant Every u by the wards the Law and the Prophets. for a man pos do.&quot.&quot.&quot. ch. Luke.If Had our the manifestation of love towards God with all strength. and all his strength. . and thou shalt live ) sessed of common sense and common humanity would not incite another to labour in vain by attempting what was practically impossible. ch.&quot. and who was sent with a divine law to guide mankind by his. obedience to strictly required of us by the founder of that in xi. man to love God with requires of us it was Any commandment all enjoining his heart. Jesus and perfection. him to as the sole Father of the Universe but does not amount life. love me. nor delude him with promises ver. keep my commandments. sistently with his as the Christ of God. 15 you : &quot. ( in whose life. candour. preaching and example.Blessed it. hear the word of God. inculcate precepts that impracticable to follow. all the divine our neighbours commandments found which is the Scriptures. to a prohibition of the pursuits necessary for or . 28. ver. been practically impossible. religion. x.&quot. and towards our neighbours as ourselves. 112. in whom dwelt all truth. much less could a Being. (g. we have happily been could not. of a reward upon condition beyond his power to fulfil . con ) office persuaded to place implicit confidence.&quot. as maintained by the Editor.) or to lead to enternal veracity. xiv. of course to direct our love towards . 28 : &quot.I 22 SECOND APPEAL all the Law and the ) hang Prophets. had any other doctrines been necessary of Nazareth. one must admit. have enjoined the lawyer to the obedience of those two com mandment. ( vide Luke.This .

As the Reverent Editor has most fairly and justly confined himself to arguments. appeal to the Reverend Editor himself. 10 &quot. can &c. is enjoined by the such love also subsequent * ment. 21 He that hath he it is that loveth of my commandments and keepeth them me and he that loveth me shall be : . under the supposition that manifestation of the I love enjoined by we must tor. founded on the authority of the divine Teacher himself. the most perfect law. ver. ye shall abide in my 14 Ye are my friends. I should hope to be allo wed to beg him to point out. .That the most excellent precepts. Ch. can never lead to happiness and peace. xv. if ye do whatsoever : love. my commandments. do. that love of and adherence to Jesus. I command and many other passages of a similar import. But if the observance of those commandments be treated as practically impossible. the love of Jesus and adherence to him must likewise be so considered. as an atonement for the sins of mankind. and Christianity altogether regarded as existing only in theory. 123 for an abstinence from love towards any other object command&quot. : and will him. whether we are to set at defiance the express commandment of Jesus. u The following passages.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. if him is piactically we are to adopt the impossible ? Yet this position of the Edi found in his Review. page in. I pre refuge in the doctrine of the cross sume.&quot.If ye keep Ver.&quot. in order to establish his . ch.. the cross. you. xiv. unless by causing men to take meaning. John.&quot. loved manifest my my self Father to and I will love him. &quot. the doctrine of the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus on .&quot. exhibit clearly. ver. be evinced solely by obedience to the Divine command ments.

tions of temporary of that the best and short of manifesting a strick obe dience to the divine commandments. as all.124 position. with that founded on those passages which I have quoted sufficient in the foregoing paragraph. xviii. which is declared the only means of procuring forgiveness of our failures. I any ver. I have already quoted some of these com in forting passages my Appeal. and omitted to notice them tions. and may impel us to endeavour to reconcile comtatiction. It is rally so however evident. &quot. enjoining a refuge in such a doctrine of the cross. all them here with 30 : few additions. page to 1 1 . declaring Christ for eternal the all-sufficiency of the moral precepts preached by life. which would in that case be shewn to subsist between the passages. and those that might be found to announce the indispensableness of the doctrine of the cross for everlasting happiness. nevertheless. SECOND APPEAL even a single passage pronounced by Jesus. Ezckicl. in reliance in on numerous promises found the sacred writings.Repent . or indispensable for salvation so that his thus supported. we ought to entertain every hope of enjoying the blessings of par don from the merciful Father through repentance. and are constantly neglecting the duty they owe to the Creator and to their wisest fall far them fellow-creatures . that the human race are natu weak. may be placed in competition position. and so prone to be led astray by tempta gratifications. but as the Reverend Editor seems have in entirely overlooked them. and turn yourselves from your transgressions so . shewing both the indispen- sableness and the all-sufficiency of the excellent Precepts in question to procure salvation . of his publica a deem it necessary to repeat chap.

2 :: John the kingdom 47 : Baptist of preached.&quot.&quot. 7 : &quot.I am repentance. that the Precpts compiled and published as a guide to peace and happiness... beginning at Jerusalem. ch. doctrines all and is well as narrative.&quot. ver.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. is saying.&quot. and the most acceptable atonement on our part All -merciful. Ch. ver. more than over shall all likewise Ch. 3 : perish. xv. 125 xiii. ch.That repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations. I trust suffice with every candid reader.I ninety and nine just persons who need no Matthew. when we have fallen short of that duty. Except you repent. ver. 13 : &quot. you say unto you. . deficient in respect to speculative as though creeds. . wherein he declares the remission of sins as an immediate and necessary consequence of repentance. yet contain that essential in practical Christianity since they teach us the perfor mance of our duty to God and to our fellow-creatures. ver. but sinners to repentance. and Jesus after his re surrection. iniquity shall not be your ruin. lastly. &quot. ver. iii. &quot. that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth. as my apology for per sisting in the conviction. not come to call the righteous. The foregoing authorities and remarks will. Luke. ch.Repent for the heaven at hand. ix.&quot. xxiv. to the. directs his disciples Luke.

however extensive . the the Deity of Jesus most abstruse. 3rdly. were committed to him .&quot. as the Son by the Father of the Universe ? Axd does not reason force us to infer. and yet the most important of doctrines* Christ. Son to the Father. that the positions opinion. That Jesus was possessed of ubi quity.CHAPTER Natural inferiority of the II. that all the powers he manifested. upon an impartial examination. admitting for a moment. That he claimed almighty 11 power. That he exercised the power of forgiving sins. That he associated his own name with that of God the Father in the sacred rite of baptism. and that the Saviour was in pessesSion of attributes and powers ascribed to God have we not his own express and often repeated avowal. That &quot. an attribute peculiar to God along. of the Editor are well founded. however. in the most unequivocal manner. the Reverend Editor advances seven positions ist. 4thly. heavenly Father had committed to him the final judgment of all who have lived since the creation. That he declared that a knowledge of his nature was equally incomprehensible with that of the nature of God. seem to me. 6thly. his That he received worship due to God alone. IN endeavouring to prove what he represents as &quot. not only unfavour able to his inference. Sthly. that a Being who owes to another all his power and authority. 2ndly. ythly. but even confirmatory of the opposite For. The facts on which the Editor labours to establish these positions. the peculiar prerogative of God.

and his infer iority ch. and I have power to take it it might take down This ver. before own man kind were made partakers of them man by such mark of distinction ? ? Did God then deify The following passages. suffice to illustrate the entire dependence of the Son on God. although he is identity of Christ with God the most powerful and most splendid of all known created things. should be in reality considered inferior to that other? Surely.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. To effect is change without the aid of physical means. Therefore doth I my Father love me. xiv. John. commandment have I received of mv u : Father&quot. 49 For I : i{ But that the world may know that I love the Father. ver 31 xii. ver. must necessarily deny the as the sun. that No man taketh it from me. but I lay have power to lay again. x. has yet no claim to be considered : identical in nature with all the light God. I presume. Was not his likeness and that dominion peculiar to God. St. because I lay down my life. 17 and subjection and 18 to. him. several of the prophets on is whom Besides. that in the beginning of his the creation God bestowed on man all own likeness. yet we find power exercised the gifts of miracles first by was bestowed. this a po\ver peculiar to God . and sovereignty over living creatures. in dependently of all other beings. who has given to the sun and animating warmth which he sheds on our a material globe. therefore. the greatest immediate source of life and enjoy ment in this world. possessing the perfection of all attributes. have not spoken of myself but Father who sent me. those who believe God to be Supreme. it evident from the chapter of Genesis. it it again of myself. : and u his living by. and what I should speak/ Ch. he gave me commandment what I the should say. I down. 127 and high. Ch. . .

He shall in earth.&quot. 37 &quot. &quot. me in heaven and 32. . That 1 myself . 17: ascend unto my Father and your Father. even so 1 do.gt. and he Ch. even me. Son. ver. : I can of mine own selj is do nothing as I hear I iudge and my judgment : just . &quot. chosen . but hath committed 22 &quot.Behold my servant^ whom I have well pleased . but as : &quot. but. 30 .For from heaven.The word which ye hear is : not mine. 24 is one that seeketh and judgeth. will.As but the Father s which sent me? so Ver. : all judgment unto the : &quot. shall 18.128 SECOND APPEAL the Feather gave I and as Ch. I speak these my there Ver.* xvii. but the came down will oj him do nothing of Father hath tanght me. ch. to my God and your God? Mat&ew. Luke. Son also Jesus in his prayer may glorify thee 1 Glorify thy as thou hast given himpowci over as all flesh. ver 18 from Isaiah. 31 I do. Ch.&quot. xx. &quot.the will -who hath sent me? to Ch.I hath sent I yon? : Ver. Jesus is came and spake unto them. be great.&quot.All of my Father that the Father I givcth me shall come me &V. 50 seek not my own glory things. saying. that thy life to &quot. i. my beloved. and shall be called . All power ch. and 2. ver.&quot. 28. 19 : The Son can do* nothing of hims el bu what he seeth the Father do. to vi. ver. do mine own ver. xii. and hath given all Ch.I .&quot. me commandment. that he should give eternal 35 : many as thon hast given him: John. &quot. vers. Son. For the Father judgeth no man. not that sent me. ver. upon him. ver. : &quot.&quot.&quot. in spirit whom my soul is I will put my to shew judgment &quot. xxviii.And the Gentiles. xiv. &quot. 1 things into his hand. 21 &quot. viii. &c. &quot. ver. the Father gave his me com mandment.As my Father &quot. &quot.&quot. ch. own will. even so send And : after resurrection Jesus saith. 38 : &quot. because I seek not m\&amp. : v. Ch. Ch. iii. The Father loveth the Son. J.&quot. given unto ver.

and to the term Son. then shall the 1 1tin thdt f)iit till things under him. life in himself. ch. i.&amp. ver. enemies under his is The last enemy that shall be For he hath put all things under destroyed his feet Hut when he saith. All things are put under him. exclusively from the direct authority of Jesus himself. that God rnav be all all.lt. the reader will. Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto he lived him the throne of that &quot.For as the Father hath : l&amp.&quot. it is manifest that fie is executed which did put all death. all things shall be subdued Son also himself be subject unto unto him. see John. : things under him.Who is the image of 1 1 the invisible God. As the Reverend Editor in t\vo instances quoted. as pro posed by the Editor. perhaps inadvertently. though I my arguments. have delivered up the kingdon to God. and I lire the Father Ch.gt. ver. vers. xv. the authority of the Apostles. : when he shall the Father. Paul. ch. that those powers were conferred on Jesus. I shall confine myself to the quotation of one should be content ed to deduce or two texts from 24 Coiinl/ii dti.v crV. I think myself justified in introducing some of the senti ments entertained by them on this subject. the first-bom of ever v creature.As his father David. ch. For testimoney by the Father.gt. vi. 15 : &quot. 28 &quot. so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. And when in Cnlossians. be convinced. v.&quot. I2&amp.Then cometh the end. distinctly mentioned in them.TU THK CHRISTIAN ITHLU the .&quot. even For he must reign till he hath put all feet. 26. trust. ist Epistles of St. and declared a I From by himself to have been received by him from the 9 . ver. due attention to the support of the above quoted texts. &quot. 57 the living Father hath sent me.

&quot. ivhich thou hast given the Messiah. with the same breath with which in which he does so with glory. bore witness of Christ. who him in any i. 34: I saw and bare record.&quot. Lord. Here ag. xvii.&quot. God. as thou hast given him power over -eternal life all flesh. ver. Christ. glorify thy Son. Who is he. and it is he (the Son of God) that talktth with thee&quot. 35 37 : &quot.&quot. ( says been blind) &quot. 24 &quot.Dost thou&quot. ch. ver. vers. Ch. looked not upon other view than as the Son of God. with the glory glorify which I had with thee before the world was.believe on the and said. and. Ch.Father.2. Ver. where I am . or anointed and not solely in his human capacity . vested with high glory from the beginning of : the the John. promised Scriptures only Messiah. : before assuming the office of that they thou hast given me be with me.Father. vers. and that such Son of interpretation as declares these and other passages of a similar effect to be applicable to Jesus as a man. I will me : for thou lovedst me before the foundation oj the world&quot. In this he prays for passage. that man who had Son of God? He answered Jesus to a him ? And Jesus said I might believe on unto him. even before the foundation of the world. as the Messiah. thou me with thine own self.And John. also whom that they may behold mv glory. 5 &quot. ix. O Fathsr. Thou hast both seen him. (said . St. Jesus spoke as of himself throughout the world. that his Apostle may witness such honour as the Father had bestowed on him. ch. to as many as thou hast given John the Baptist. that he should give him.And now. of course. 1. is an unscriptural all invention.130 SECOND APPEAL Father.ain Jesus prays. he indemnifies the nature that under which he lived with of God before the creation his the world. xvii. &quot.

// proceeded forth and came from God neither came J -myself.&quot. Holy Ghost.lt.The tells Father is greater than It would have been idle to have informed them of a truth. and teach the angels of God. that in his mere corporeal nature Jesus therefore have was inferior to his Maker. 19: ye. nations baptizing them in the name of the and of the Son. of which. implies throughout the whole New Testament.&quot. all ch. especially when associated with the epithet &quot. Vide rest of the Gospel. &quot. 42 : &quot.The Father of the uni &quot.&quot.&quot. from whom he received the com in Messiah this mission kind. to come to this world for the salvation of man Hut apparently with the very view of anticipating any misapprehension of his nature on the part of his dis ciples. to whom he had declared the wonderful extent of the powers committed them. and it must been his spiritual nature. and some of the ancients of the human race. they would never have enter tained the smallest question. and in numerous passages . ver. that indeed. Matthew. ch. Ch. signifie-. he was entirely subject to and obedient to the Father. another proper name found in the &quot. and of the Father.being invariable the Son of God context. to 28. John. \\viii.No man knoweth the Son but the Father. of which he without here avowed the inferiority to that of God. ch. but he send me.I &amp.The Son&quot.TO THK CHRISTIAN ITBUC.Go verse. ver. are honou- . It is true &c. xiv. John. so the latter epithet. he &quot. viii.&quot. ver. when it stands alone. pointing out the person of Jesus.&quot. is a term which. Jesus declares. John the Baptist.vcr. that hefore he assumed the office of the world. 27: &quot. I. therefore. xi. &quot. 131 &quot. when used referred to. as Jews. him by the Father.) that this is the Son of God&quot. as well as the children of Israel.The Father .

Neither ver. similar identity be nay. 20 23 pray I for these alone. i. and not idenvide ch. ch. j i. Yet the epithet &quot.&quot. mark of honour which he alone deserves. 2 The Sons God saw the daughters of men. that they may be one. 22 : me. xvii. of John. such as existed amongst his apostles. The Saviour having declared that unity existed be tween the Father and himself. that they were fair.Then it shall be said unto them. ye are the sons of the living. ver. but for of the Apostles in were included : them also which shall believe on me through their word That they all may be one . with the definite article prefixed.&quot. art in me and I r in thee. vi. xvii.Holy Father. John. ver. is appropriated to the ririst-born of every creature. even as we are one. Father. This Jesus removes by defining the unity so expressed as a subsisting concord of will and design. 30. that they also may be one in us. ver.c\\.&quot. and my Father are one. TO: &quot. understand by these texts real unity and identity. J ob. That . &quot. &quot. a doubt arose with regard to &quot. ch. ver. i.tity of being : keep through thine own name those given &quot. . ver.Son of God. ch.I the sense in which the unity affirmed in those words should be accepted. even that the the Godhead. flosca. as we :. glory which thou gavest me I have given them that Should any one they may be one. thou hast Ver. x. as a distinct Christ.God&quot.The whom are.&quot. as thou. ch.132 SKI ON I) APPKAL with : red in the sacred writings the name a of &quot. disciples that case would consist of a great many times the num ber of persons ascribed to the Trinity. John. which in.&quot.&quot. he must believe that there existed tween each and also all a . 6 There was day when the of God came to present : themselves hefore the GcjKSts.Sons of God/ sons of Lord.

and thou me : that they may be made perfect in I know not how it is possible for those who profess obedience to one. ver. xiv.as you&quot. : Whosoever shall confess that Jesus the Son of God -God dwtlletli in in him. 15 &quot. 21 thou. Father. : -John.He that and drinketh my blood. The Saviour meant assertion also. I . however prevailing it may be. and in him. that they also my : u . ist. evidently appears from the following passages eh. the word of Christ to overlook the explanation he has here so clearly given of the nature of the unity existing between him and the Father. As conveying the doctrine that the Supreme Being. apparently introduced by some Heathen writers to suit their polytheistical prejudices .they .&quot. dwelleth in me. ver.&quot. is God. is 38 in : That ye may know.&quot. and he in There appear but three modes which such passages are capable of interpretation. ver. \ John.&quot. : At I that day ye shall in know (addressing his Apostles) that am I in . and in him&quot. were to be absorbed mutually as which is conformable to drops of water into one whole the doctrines of that sect of Hindoo metaphysicians.in !:. even as we arc one. 56.TO THH CHRISTIAN PCHLIC. and ir /// /. and That they all may be one me and in thee. . iv. my flesh. that in the end the human soul is absorbed into : lh e Godhead . xvii. but is quite inconsistent with the faith of . x. John. ver. the Son and the Apostles. unity in design ki and will that he was in God. &quot. or dwelt in by the God and as God in him. ch. that the Father me. may be one. but I doubt not the Kditor of the Friend of India will admit the necessity of giving preference to divine authority over any human opinion./r. who maintain. ch. I may be eateth one in us. art in Father. and to adopt a contrary system. I in them.and believe. ver. 29 &quot. John. Ch. ch. vi.

134 all SKCONJ) APPEAL denominations of Christians. when taken made the foundation no hesitation as I should singly and without attention to their contexts. Had not experience. As proving air identity of nature. could misconceive the clear and distinct assertions they every where contain of Testament to my countrymen no apprehension that even the most left to the guidance of their own un - New the unity of God and subordinate nature of his messenger of these have been already quoted : Jesus Christ. addressing the Father declares. 2ndly.. if prejudiced views of the mutter. ch. That. 3rdly. the Son. indeed. such as the Son evinced towards the Father. I should have had in submitting indiscriminately the whole of the doctrines of the have felt ignorant of them. with distinction of person. and obedience. the language of our Saviour can be understood in this last sense solely. love. that the . 3 : This eternal. harmony. As ex pressing that unity which is said to exist wherever there are found perfect concord. will. asbeing the only one alike warranted by the common use of words. Here Jesus in and Jesus Christ whom thoii hast senY. may be of doctrines quite at variance with the tenor of the rest of the Scriptures. and taught the disciples to display towards the Divine will. John . xvii ver. too clearly proved that such metaphorical expressions. hetween the Father. a doctrine equally inconsistent with the belief of every Christian. be readily acknowledgeged by every candid expounder of the sacred writings. I trust. that they might know thee r thc only true God. and capable of apprehension by the human- understanding. as multi plying the number of persons of the Godhead far beyond what has ever been proposed by any sect. to Many is life - which may be added the following &quot. and the Apostles .

10 How &quot.&quot.&quot. John. any time. Father?&quot.Why ver. vK ^materiality ver. the in u : He the following passage* that hath seen me hath seen Father. believe also in his disciples to me. callest God. two passages imme God at u by the phrase He that hath seen me hath seen the Father. ch. ver. : sayest thou then.No man hath seen Besides.&quot. and ought therefore to have admitted the truth of his mission from God. were a know ledge of of God. the Son and materially visible a doctrine which would be directly contrary that literally God was to the spirit of the religion taught by Jesus. 9 John. and the Prophets of God. xiv. i Whom no man hath seen nor can i John. ver. pure as none good but one. witnessed proofs of the entire concord of his words and actions with the will and design of the Father. Here Jesus. 9 &quot.&quot. Shew us the Believest thou not that I am in . ver. 135 means to be afforded for eternal salvation. In these wards Jesus com mands to believe in him as the put their trust in God. i Let not your heart be troubled ye believe in : : God . &quot. thinks it necessary to check the man who applies to him an epithet justly due to God only. Jesus explains himself in the diately succeeding. ch.&quot. ch. Nor can for a moment be understood by xiv. iv.&quot. 24 : by &quot. u ver. is Spirit. ch. &quot. ch. iv. that whosoever saw him and the works performed by him. ch. 17 is : Christ thou me good there is God.. xix. he meant only. and further Messenger of God and thus . xiv. that. 12 : &quot. a The : see. Ver.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. ver. plainly distinguihes himself from the it Godhead. Vide John. : He that hath seen me hath seen the Father. and of himself Also. i Tim. Ch. all God Apostles also maintained a belief of the and invisibility of God. ? as the anointed messenger saith.&quot. that he was and without re proach.

&quot. Saviour. and for the satisfaction of those consider the Precepts of Jesus as a guide to peace ^who and happiness.&quot. iv. Believe me. 1 1 : &quot. ch. unless we admit that all true &quot. one. xvii.) unity between God and Jesus. 33 : But for and because that thou. .&quot.&quot. and accused blasphemy. defining the nature of the suffices. I said. ch. but the. Jhim of blasphemy. Disgusted of and dissatisfied at Hindoo the cruelty allowed by Moossystem I. the grand division of them). until I me^ very with the explanation of the unity given by the divine Teacher himself sides. Ye are Gods ye called them . ver. followers of Christ are admitted as portions of the Godhead. God dwelleth in us. ver. that : I me or else believe am in the Father. as we are.&quot. felt for a length of time much perplexed with the difference of sentiments Ifound among the followers of Christ (I mean Trinitarians and Unitarians. n. &quot. the Jews mis-understood the phrase used by &quot. I and my Father are &quot. being a man.with the puerile and unsociable idolatry. They may be in one. For his word. and the Father in me? The words 1 that I speak unto you I speak not of myself. (ch. that dwelleth in me. dwelleth in me and I in him.made himself God. makest thyself in answer to the accusation denied having God. 34 ? 36. &quot. after the truth on my searching of Christianity. kk He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my John. (John. 56 : blood.Father. Ver.already seen in what sense the expression me must beunderstood. saying. I John. he doeth the works.the when Be as a guide to peace and happiness. fully . vi.136 SKCONI) APPKAL the Father. in vers. and me for the very works the Father in sake. We have u dwelleth in . x. If Is it not written your Law. ver* u 12 If we love one another. : my conviction.&quot. sulmanism against Non-moossulmans.) Jesus .

God. Ex- ch. to jealousy with that which &quot. is not God&quot. found in the Bible. possible that Jesus. or having ascribed to himself divine nature although the latter (i. possessed of everlasting sanctiindependently of another being ? From this and other local evidence the Pharisee* and chief priests. it hewill have him That for he said. xxxii. xix. King of the Jews. ver. xxii. ch. How was it . though inveterate enemies of the Saviour. unto 1 57 whom the word of : God came. e. Deut.&quot. out of x. accused him to having made himself the Son of God and King of the Jews but relinquished the charge of making him Pilate of . and by our law he ought to die because lt : .mest .fication. 1 am the Son of God?&quot. and the Scrip ture cannot be broken say ye of him whom the Father hath sanctified.&quot. the . 28 : Thou shalt not revile the Gods. 7 The Jews answered him. the founder of truth and true religion. ver. may be shewn by to be the following. 37 &quot. 21 They have : moved me . was better calculated to excite the horror of the people* Vide John. up over his Ver. I am the Son of God. This is Jesus. Gods. . 43 written. he made himself the Son of xxvii. We have a law. Thou blasphebecause / siid. as pointed out by Jesus. otherwise than to the wSuprerne Being. : : the epithet God is frequently applied in the sacred Scrip tures. if he . 44 HK TKUSTKD IN GOD let him deliver him now. should have disavowed the charge of making himself God by representing himself as the Son. ver. and sent by him to this world. honoured with sanctification by the Father. and Lord of Lords &c. ver. Ch. 17 instances : . ch. all were the true living God. making himself God) self . and sent into the world. ch.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. equal to God. head his accusation &quot.&quot. many ver. : And set Vide Matthew. For the Lord your God is GOD OF Gons.

6. ver. 23 give thanks unto Shew the &quot. thy God. viii.&quot. that ye are Gods. especially when we find in the very next verse.138 SECOND APPEAL people. 5 &quot. ch. vers. that he should be to Aaron instead of God. Ye arc Gods 1 . and hatest wickedness oil : Thou iovest righteous therefore God. 6 I have mighty : : &quot. On what principle then can any stress be laid in defence of the deity of the Son on the prophetic expression quoted in Hebrews from Psalm xlv. ch. hath : &quot. ver. Zeph. If Is it your Law. and the verse already quoted from John &quot.&quot. all &quot. cxxxvi. 35 : Jesus answered. Ye are Gods ? the it he called them Gods. &quot. Ver. ch. 34. that the human beings to whom it was attached &c.&quot. x. ch.? anointed thee with the of gladness above thy fellows . Moses was to be as a God to Aaron and a God to Pharaoh by the express will command of the Almighty . ivhom word of God came. ver. 16 : Moses. : As there be Gods many and not written in to Lords many . : : said. xxii The Lord God of Gods knoweth. words that declare his subordinate nature ness. ver. is for ever and ever . Thy throne. iv. vii. is any degree admissible. : things that are to come hereafter. In none of these instances in were thereby declared to be a portion of the Godhead. and all of you are children of the u : Most High/ Ps. Joshua^ ch. Exodus.&quot. u ver. ye Gods. r : Also i Cor.He will famish all the God said to Gods of the earth&quot. O xli.&quot. i See. nor curse the ruler of thy ver. O God. 7 : : we may know that &quot. &quot. Psalm xcvii. but no Christian the Father of thence argue the equality of Moses with all things. ver. ver. ii. 22 &quot. 2 the God of Gods} Isaiah.&quot.&quot.&quot. Ch. ch. ver. ver. that by the epithet God it is implied. Psalm u Ixxxii. / have made thee a God to Pharaoh. Worship him. i God standeth in the congregation of the he judgcth among the Gods. u &quot.

though called God.lt. ch. 17 my brethren.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. at a time when no design can be conceived to have existed that could have been advanced by his any of his true nature. &quot. to one who is at the same time declared to be his God. xx. ver. his throne shall he established for judgeth And that thou mayest Dent. his resurection. ver. &quot. We the cannot allow much weight to the phrase kl for ever. this applied phrase being often found metaphorically as the Scriptures to other created. and to my God and your God. xxix. Proverbs : The king that faithfully &quot. 40 ever.&quot.These are written that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ./\&quot. ch. 14 the poor. of his mission on earth.&quot. and his promoter to the state of exaltation. the JMy Lord and my God relates the circumstance ?r . but no where desires the readers of his Gospel to believe that Jesus is God ? Does not commonsense point out the inferiority and subordination oi a being. if longer withholding the knowledge remained unrevealed during the previous period any thing &quot. and say unto them. : After a slight attention to the terms Lord and being often applied to men in the sacred writings. 31. ver. 28 God can any weight be allowed to the exclamation of the astonished &quot. 13&amp. which contains the The i : . : especially as the Apostle who within a few verses concludes by saying. giveth thee. ch. ch.lt. iv. his father. his sanctrfier. ver. &quot.&amp. i. Sou of Go&amp.&quot.beings &quot. and expression of Jesus to Mary after therefore.&quot. in .Go to John. and the Word was with God. The Word was passage John ch. xx. disciple.gt. John. I ascend unto my Father ami vour Father. God. ver. as establishing literally the eternal nature of the power of : Son. ver. Similar to this is the remarkable for ever.&quot. : which the Lord thy God prolong thy days in the earth.

believe me not. which is. and consequently one substance of the Godhead might abide with the other. and therefore we may safely.OND APPKAL term God twice.. the contradiction which it apparently implies with another most decisive passage in Dent. John. -case also Christians ought in conscience .If I do not the works of my -of Father. the same light as we consider mankind and other genera. to refrain from accusing Hindoos of polytheism for every Hindoo. even I am he and is : . which they consider as infinitely numerous than those of the Trinitarian scheme. ch. namely. ch. 37. xxxii. They only advance thesim. a plausible excuse for their poly- that notwithstanding the unity of the Godhead. may according to such use of the term be interpreted without involving inconsistence with itself. ver. notwithstanding the plurality of In that persons included under the term mankind. we daily observe. that with him no God u See now that I.14 SK(. Should we follow on the other hand the interpretation adopted by Trinitarian Christians. for no doubt can exist of the the plurality of men consists in their unity of mankind to view the Godhead in : persons . confesses the unity of the Godhead. meant course the perfomance of works prescribed by the . both being equally God we should in that case be forced . that the Godhead. support the unity of man. though signify in it is one. x. or there there where Moses represented! God as declaring. different it consists of millions of substances assuming offices correspondent to the number the of the various transactions superintended in universe by divine providence. yet consists of three persons. ver. is no God with me / if it should he unnerstood to both instances the Supreme Deity. 39.&quot. more The Saviour in his appeal. under the same plea. &quot.

that . ver. ch. and thanked him : for his com pliance. ver. few of which have already illustrate and the constant practice of the Saviour. 14: &quot. and design that subsisted between him and as appears from the following passages. or to have exalted them above himself. x. seen vi. ver. xiv.&quot. and in the entire union of will and the Father. ch. The wonderful works which Jesus was empowered to perform drew a Jews to a and confirmed promised Messiah.U . vi. xi.&quot. ch.And Jesus lifted up his and Father. who can perform works of equal God or independently of the Deity. A great I number of passages in the Scriptures. John. I thank thee that thou hast heard Besides. believeth unto you. 21. This work of God. eyes. ch. 41 said. great number of the belief in Jesus as the his Apostles in their already acquired faith in the Saviour. I say on me. me. when they had is the miracle that Jesus did. the works that I and greater works than these shall he do. 14! his glory. John. and tending to Priil.Then those men. John. 29 answered and said unto them. is either greater than in power to the Almighty. It must be admitted that one.^ See also John.TO THK CHRISTIAN Father. verily.Verily. Jesus never can be suppo sed to have promised to such believers equality in power with God. is ver. that ye believe on him whom he hath : &quot. but eveft works of greater importance. Jesus prayed to the Father for the power of bring ing him to life again. died. ver 12 : &quot. &quot. said. The Scriptures indeed in several places declare. a cited. This of a truth that P)of)het that should come into the world. He that do shall he do also 1 : Ch.Jesus the sent. In raising Lazarus after he h:id this fact beyond doubt. in declaring that whosoever believed him would do not only the works he performed.

ch. living from the beginning of the world to eternity. ver. the Son was superior even to the angels in heaven. as 15. . v.&quot.For the Father hath life in himself. 26 &quot. Colossians. the ftisl- J)oni of every aeaturc. and that the Father created all things by him and for him. in conformity to those very as produced by the Supreme : Deity among created Beings.142 SKCOXF) AIM KAI. &quot. ch. Jo/iu. i. so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. ver. At the same time authorities.Who is the image of the invisible God. believe T him must.

declares his location both in heaven and on the earth at . John. John.e. but he that came down from heaven.&quot. viii. xi. Before Abraham was. must be understood in the past sense. attempting to support his first position. Master.&quot. entirely in the the force of his &quot.Jesus said unto them. one time. ch.His disciples say sought to stone tlu-c. future sense a great in a preterite or writings. / am. ch. though found in the form of the present tense. : unto him. even the Son of man who is IN in heaven wherein Jesus. observed in the sacred and were not number in of other passages to determine that the term instance. ver. ver 13: &quot. must &quot. verily. The Editor as rests &quot. I say unto you. above phrase signifying the presence of Jesus in heaven while he was conversing with Nicodemus on earth. the Jews of v &c. i. with This argument might perhaps carry some weight were not the frequent use of the present tense it. St.CHAPTER Separate consideration III. Here the sanvj verb.&quot. The first is. as the Editor conceives.Jesus therefore again groaning in himself cometh to the grave.&quot. Ver.who argument upon the term is in heaven. he came to the grave.&quot. of the seven positions of the Rcviciver. 38 &quot. that is. &quot. &quot. ch.is. iii. the Revedend Editor Jesus has quoted two passages. 8 late : preterite sense. unto him. that was possessed of ubiquity.No man hath ascended up to heaven.is. this : obviously be taken in a ver. His disciples said . John. 58 Verily.&quot.

ch. is. ? e. After a dili to the following passage. John.What and if ye shall see the Son : before in this passage. ch.I 44 SKCOXD APPKAI. positively implies the absence of Jesus from heaven during his stay on the where he was with the term Ch. yet I shall not be alone. xvi. scruple absent from heaven during his locality on the earth. the world. John. vi. accompanied earth. the future tense must frequently be understood where the terms used are those grammati : as Matthew. and am not alone. that is. 62 applicable only of Man ascend up &quot. and consequently the phrase quoted by the Editor is to the past time.&quot. Ver. 32 &quot. and the Son of man is.Out of Egypt have there be a voice heard.&quot. I gent attention to conclude that the Son was actually presume. truth it is expedient for you that will I go away. shall leave me every man to his own. i.In I called my Son. xvi ver.Then Simon that he : came to Simon shall ye Again. ver. Ver. the Comforter will not come unto you Ver 5 : but I depart. and go to the Father. Peter. Ch. I leave . ed to be crucified that- the Son of Vide the man is betray to be be trayed and to be crucified. &c. I \ send him unto to &quot. alone yet / New cally Testament.But you.&quot. xiii. 1 8 15: &quot. ch.Ye know that after two ts days- the feast of the passover. ch. : before. The verb was. .&quot.&quot. chapter. remainder of the comcth he to Peter. now : go my way him that sent me. I will call my Son. ver. no one will.That be scattered. : &quot. again. xxvi. 7 : &quot. 2 : Mattheu\ is &quot. ii. will Rama was ver. appropriated to the preterite there a voice heard.Nevertheless T tell you the If . ver. &c. 6 : &quot. ch. 28 : I came and am come into the world forth from the Father. I go it not away. e.&quot.&quot. John.&quot. as well as in the : . ver. So in all the prophecies contained in the Old.

) and sent from one mansion to another.&quot. b &quot.&quot. it kk a verb to complete the sense. T F or the attribute of omnipresence is quite inconsistent with the human notions of the ascent and descent by the Son of Man. 36 : &quot. &quot. even the Son of man.No man hath he that came down ascended up to heaven. a true in of which should be. that the lo-rt.&quot. being.&quot. xiii. I may safely refer Father. original jf 8aS The whole avai l. Is it possible to reconcile the contents of hundreds of such passages. Besides.is.f verse in the tis runs thus b i* : Kcu a PavS rbv e Pavbv 6 uiv iv H 7) TOU xaraQas vibe TOV av&oTra rw a PavC5.&quot. taken totally opposed to com For to a being named the Sou. thou me after his Ch. ver.lt. uiv fa o Pavw. in examining the original Greek Testament. even to the preceding terms of the verse relied on by the the Editor: &quot.Jesus canst not follow wards.Who in heaven.gt. that he should depart ant of this world unto For further conviction. &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that. me answered him. is single phrase. present participle &quot. or li &quot. on other verb in fact existing in the sentence. Whither now. or the crea ted.Jesus knew that hour was come. the ens&quot. the attribute of ubiquity can sense ? mon never be justly ascribed. hath ascended. u oJu.And translation the above would run thus: . to the apparent meaning of a literally. consistent effected with reason and conformable to the established order of interpretation.*i v o -&amp. (the one term implying the other. requires should be connected with the the nearest verb &amp.being heaven: and as the nominative case 6 ojv. is is we of find in the phrase in question. 145 ver. A 10 verbal &quot.&quot. xiii. being. used in lieu translation viz. but thou }\2\t follow i : I go.hat ruciv. but from heaven.&quot.

Is it not evident that the Saviour meant here. John. . we frequently find the present participle used in the past sense. ver. which words. &quot. xviii.ct of the verbs connected with them but future with respect to the command of God. his guidance to them when joined * See Bishop Middleton &quot. Matthew ch. should run thus : to the rules of English no one except the &quot.p\6s of the verb. even without reference to the time 25: ri&quot.&quot. there am I in the midst of them. ver. hath ascended into heaven.* The second passage which the Editor quotes on this subject is. if not the out of the Son of man the being in heaven r . ver. and not to that of his addressing himself to Nicodemus an explanation which. 49 : ovra j86v &$ &quot. In this case the presence of the Son in heaven must be understood as referring to the time of his ascent.14-6 SKCOM) APPEAL heaven descender no one hath ascended into heaven. the Son of man. and future cannot be meant otherwise than in res Part 1. xiv. ver.And descender from heaven.&quot.. implied in the verb.For where two or three are gathered together in my name.We pect to that act. ch. by being in the midst of two or three of his disciples. 33 &quot. for past.shoulder. ciple present.&quot.* Moreover.. 42.. see. ver. ought to be satisfactory to an impartial mind. Leviticus. iv-ana airov &quot.&quot. clothes. vii. ch. o ch. tov d\\TTw &quot. the being in heaven. 47: eating ( 7r\fVH ra person ) shall wash These present participles are referred to a time present with respect to the r.lt. are to refer the time of the partipage to the time of the act &c.ix.&quot. 20: &quot.Bavirg been blind. Note : &quot.&quot.I saw thee when thou wast.wv Ssio offering (person) for o fUxh^v him his shall be the right . now I . though it does not serve to est ablish the omnipresence of the Son urged by the Editor. i.&quot.The Ch. arranged according grammar. John.Being see.Doctrine of the Greek Article. blind now I that is.The : o TrPoo-^iPwv avr^ fcrrat b /3PaX&amp.

Luke.&quot. ver.&quot. ch. . 29: Abraham saithunto him. nor can any one deduce the omnipresence of Moses and the Prophets from such expressions. I must be incompre under the necessity of denying such a hensibility of the total Godhead . is equal with God. Here the Editor rest on two grounds ist. knowing the nature of God.&quot. by the term sible. That God is incom to man 2ndly. the former. man knoweth the Son.No seems to whomsoever the Son will reveal him. . the Jews actually had Moses and the Pro phets in person among them. ver. or only the impossibility of attaining If to a perfect kowledge of God. save the Son. without preferring any claim find similar expressions in the Scrip ubiquity ? We tures. and he to 27 : &quot. The second position advanced by the Reverend Editor Jesus ascribes to himself a knowledge and an incomprehensibility of nature equal to that of and in attempting to God. ch. . wherein the guidance of the Prophets of God is also meant by words that would imply their presence. T/icv have Moses and the Prophets let them hear them. or that they could hear them speak in the literal and not in the figurative sense signify that of the words . substantiate this point. xvi. That incomprehensibility of prehensible nature is peculiar to God alone whence the Reverend . wish to know if the Editor. and peculiar to God alone is.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and being himself possessed of an incom prehensible nature. he quotes Matthew. that &quot. : Editor draws his inference that Jesus. xi. but the Father neither knoweth any man the Father. in to 147 searching for the truth. No one will suppose that this expression is intended to l . for the very passage cited . Now I should incomprehen understands a total impossibility of comprehen sion in any degree.

or a visible star. 6. must be acknowledged as conveying an exception to the assertion made in the former part of the sentence. yet presume. will not. though it manner an ignorance of the day of stronger we have resurrection. understands by the passage he has quoted. : . surpasses human compre hension how then can a simple assertion. whom the Fditor considers one of the persons of the Godhead. neither know : . but also to every one who would receive revelation from the Son . but deny his inference. ch.But of that day and that hour knoweth no man.&quot. pos But if the Editor sessed of the same nature with God. &quot. 1 John. but the affirms Father. 17. &quot. as being peculiar to God alone for it the incomprehensibility of an object. xiii. pray the Father. &quot. because it seeth him not. and in this case the latter part of the passage. find also the following passages in c. that such an incom be prehensibility proves the nature of the object to appears evident that a knowledge of the real nature even of a common leaf. I than that already quoted does of God. that he may abide with eth him : but yc know him . xiv. We vers. ver 32.148 SECOND APPEAL by the Editor declares God to be comprehensible not to the Son alone. be considered by any one as convey- . be considered as establishing its identity with God ? In ]\Iark. no. which. his disciples a knowledge of the wherein Jesus ascribes to Holy Ghost.And I will give you another you for ever even the Spirit of truth whom the world cannot receive. the position. in a a passage.Neither knoweth any man the Father.He to whomsoever the Son will reveal him&quot.&quot. ch. neither the Son. not the angels which are in heaven. and he shall Comforter. the incom I admit prehensibility of the real nature of the Godhead. &quot. setting forth divine.&quot.

physicians. that are not considered by any ^ect as of a divine nature The third position is. his creatures.. ver. were trom time to time sent by the Almighty to afford mental rest to which the Editor considers mankind.Whether is it easier to say. 25. Jesus.&quot.Correct yea. Thy sins be forgiven thee. that it is God thank that affords al] peace of mind. 5 : &quot. effects cures of the body.gt. and the Reverend Editor quotes the passage. In treating of this point the Editor : quotes another text. and 1 will give you rest . ver. God. that Jesus exercised. and he shall give thee rest Revelation give delight unto thy soul. he shall thy son. xi. ii. !-}. by imparting to them the comforts of divine revelation and by so doing the) only fulfilled the com mission given them by God but no one ever supposed .gt. and other physical causes. Proverbs ch. Lord of heaven and earth. 28 &quot. in an in dependent manner. ch. ing the slightest insinuation of the divine nature of that day though time is a common object of adoration .I sorts of comforts on ch.&quot. ties Both our perception indeed and sacred authori cut.lt.Come unto me. All the prophets.&amp. : guides us to a sure belief. xxix. Matthew ver. because thou hast hid these tilings from the wise and prudent. ver. Matt. or to say . 17 : &quot. the prerogative of forgiving sins which is peculiar to God alone. as well as Jesus. point that he lavishes all these gifts on us through prophets. and bestows &quot. Mark.Thy &quot. all ye that labour and are heavy laden.O Father. (says&amp. sins be forgiven thee and the 9th veise for . amongst Idolators. : that in so doing they established claims to be considered incarnations of the divine essence.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN 1THLIC.) &quot.&amp. xi. ch. wherein Jesus declares his power of as peculiar to affording rest.&quot. and hast revealed them unto babes. thee.

I

50
walk?"

SECOND APPEAL

Arise and
his

Taking those

texts as the grounds of

position,

I

therefore beg

to call the attention of the

Editor to the passage almost immediately following, in which the evangelical writer intimates, that this power
of forgiving sins, as well as of healing men,

was given by

the Almighty
marvelled,

:

"But

when

and

glorified

it, they God, -who had given such power

the multitude saw

unto

men"

declaration,

Does not this passage convey an express that Jesus was as much dependent on God

in exercising the power of forgiving sins and healing the sick, as the*jprophets who came forth from God before him ? The apostles, who witnessed the power of fogiving sins in the Saviour, were thoroughly impressed with a be
lief

that

it

was the Almighty Father who forgave sins
Acts, ch. v. vers.
his
31,

through the Son.

32

:

"Him

hath

God

exalted with

right

hand

to be a Prince

and a

Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness rf sins. And we are his witnesses of these things."
"Be it ver 38 known, therefore, men and bre that through this man, (meaning the Saviour,) is thren,

Ch.

xiii.

:

preached unto }*ou the forgiveness of sins" I know not how far religious zeal in the breasts of many of the fol
lowers of Christ

may excuse them in. encroaching upon the
;

prerogative which revelation and reason ascribe to the Divine Majesty alone but Jesus himself clearly avows, that the power of forgiving sins had its source and origin
in God alone, as appears from his petitioning the Father to forgive those that were guilty of bringing the death of the cross upon him, the greatest of all imaginable

crimes.
them,"

Luke,

ch.

xxiii.

ver.

34

:

"Father,

forgive
;"

u (says JUMJS,)

for
all

they know

and from

his directing

not what they do those that followed him to

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

I

>

I

pray the Father alone for forgiveness of sins. Luke, ch. "And xi. ver. 4 ^Fatthew, ch. vi. forgive us our sins."
:

ver.

14:

"If

ye forgive

men
1

their trespasses, your hea

venly Father will forgive you. The fourth position advanced by the Editor is, that is also claimed by Jesus in. the most "Almighty power
unequivocal manner." In endeavouring to demonstrate this the Editor notices three passages of John, (ch. v. vers. 21 23 :) "As the Father raiseth up the dead and

will.

quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth whom he For the Father judgeth no man, but hath com mitted all judgment unto the Son that all men should
:

honour the Son, even

as

they honour the Father/
I

A

candid inquirer after truth must,

think,

feel

surprised

and disappointed, that in quoting these texts, the Editor should have overlooked the force of the words in which
the Son declares that he hath received the commission

judge from the Father: "For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son." I
to

ready to admit, indeed, that, taken, simply as they stand, the words "As the Father raiseth up the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth whom he
will,"

am

and

"That

all

men

should honour the Sun, even as

-they
.as

honour the Father, "might very readily be understood

implying an assertion of equality witli the Father. Hut this affords one of numerous instances of the danger

of resting an opinion on the

apparent meaning of the words of insulated passages of Scripture, without atten tion to the context for I am convinced that no unpre
;

judiced

pjrson peruse the verses preceding and to those quoted by the Editor, without feel subsequent ing that a more explicit disavowal of equality with God

can

152

Si-:coxn

APPKAL

can hardly be expressed by language than that which

they contain. T must therefore beg permission to give the entire passage in this place, though some parts of it

have been quoted before
diseussed.
It is

in support of

arguments already

to be observed, that the occasion of the

expressions here

tion brought against

made use of by Jesus, was the accusa him by the Jews, that he had made
God.

John, eh. v. vers. 19 36: said unto them, Jesus Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can ofo nothing oj himself but what he seeth the Father do for what things so
himself equal
"Then

with

answered

and

:

ever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.

For

the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth and he will shew him greater works
:

than these, that ye
raiseth

may

marvel.

For

as
:

the Father

up

the dead, and quiekeneth
\vhorn

them

even so the

quiekeneth geth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son that all men should honour the Son, even as they
;

Son

he

will.

For the Father jud-

honour the Father.

He

that

honoureth not the Son

honoureth not the Father who hath sent him. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and bc-

him that sent me, lath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation but is passed from death
lievcth on
;

unto
ing,

life.

Verily, verily,
is,

I

say unto you,
shall

The hour
For

is

com
the

and no\v
of

when the de^d

hear the voice of the
as

Son

God

:

and they that hear
life in

shall live.

Father hath

himself, so hath he given to the Son to

have
not

himself; and hath zirert him nuiJuirity to exe cute judgment also, because he is the Son of Man. Marvel
life in

at this

:

for

the hour

is

coming

in

which

all

that
7

are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall

come

forth

TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
they that have done good, unto the resurrection of

153
life

;

and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. I can of mine ownsclf do nothing: as I hear.,

1 judge : and my judgment is just, because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father who hath sent
me.
If I
is

hear witness of myself,

my

witness

is

not true.
;

There

another that benreth witness of
the witness

me

and

I
is

know
true.

that

which he witnesseth of

me
:

Ye

sent unto John,
I

and he bare witness unto the

truth.

But

receive
I

these things

not testimony from that ye might be saved. say,
:

man but He was a

burning and a shining light
season to rejoice in his light.
ness than that of John
:

Rut

and ye were willing for a I have greater wit works which the father
T

for the

hath given
witness
It

me

to finish,

the same work that
mr"

do,

bear

of me, thai the leather hath sent

would have been strange indeed, bad Jesus, in accusation of blasphemy, which had repelling the

wrought on the minds of the Jews
to kill

so far that they him, confirmed their assertion, that he sought made himself equal with God, and thus prematurely

endangered

his

own

life

;

but

we

find that so far

from

being further incensed by the explanation above quoted, they seem to have quietly acquiesced in his appeal to
their

own

Scriptures, that the

Messiah should have

al

the power and authority which he asserted the Father had given to himself. Ver. 46 "For had ye believed
:

Moses, ye would have believed

me

;

lor

he wrote of

me."

The

only text in the writings of Moses that refers to the nature of the Messiah, is that of Deuteronomy, eh. xviii. vers. 15 and 18, quoted by St. Peter in the Acts of the
Apostles, ch.
iii.

ver. 22,

and by

St.

Stephen, ch.

vii.

ver.

154
37
:

SHCONI)

APPEAL
u

Moses

said to the children of Israel,

God

will raise

The Lord thy unto thee a Prophet from the midst of up

Uiee, of thy brethren, like unto
hearken."

me :
the

unto

him ye
"I

shall

The words which

Lord addressed to
:

Moses were exactly of the same import will them up a Prophet from among their brethren,
unto thee
c."

raise
like

remarkable pas sage that Jesus referred, and nothing can more distinctly prove the light in which he wished to be considered,
It

was no doubt to

this

this

namely, that of a Messenger or Prophet of God. But is not the only instance in which Jesus entirely dis
claims the attribute of omnipotence. On many other particular occasions he declares, in the strongest Ian-

want of almighty power, and his constant need of divine influence. Matthew, ch. xx. ver. 23 "And he saith unto them, ye shall drink indeed of my
guage, his
:

cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am bap tized with but to sit on my right hand, and on my left is not mine to give ; but it shall be given to them for
:

whom
"But

it is

prepared of
cast

my

Father.

11

Ch.

xii.
^

ver.

28:

if

I

kingdom
"And

out devils bv the Spirit of God then the of God is come unto you." Ch. xxvi. ver. 39
:

lie

went

a

little

further, and
if
it

fell

on

his face,

and

prayed, sa) ing,

O my
:
:

Father,

cup pass from
wilt."

me

nevertheless not as

be possible, let this I will, but as thou

Ver. 42

"He

went away again the second time,

and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done. Luke, ch. xxii. ver. 32 "But I have prayed for thee, that
,
:

thy
save

faitli fail

not,

&c."

John, ch.

xii.

ver.

27

:

"Father,

me
I

from

this

hour."

Whosoever honours God

cannot,

presume, consistently refuse to honour his

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
Prophet,

I

55

whom
as

he dignified with the name of

"Son

of

he honours God, he will also honour that Prophet, though he be well aware of the distinction be tween the Almighty and his chosen Son. The honour
;"

God

and

paid to the Prophet may in this sense be fairly consi dered the test of the real degree of respect entertained

Matthew, ch. x, ver. 40, He that receiveth you, receiveth me and he that receiveth The obvious mean me, receiveth him that sent me.
for

God

as

Jesus saith,

u

;

1

ing of which

words

is,

As

far as

men

listen to

your

ins

tructions, they listen to mine,

and

in so far

the

commandments

of

God who hath

sent

they receive me. Pre

judice alone could, I think, infer from such expressions, that those who received the Apostles were literally re
ceiving

God

himself under their form and

substance.

Equally demonstrative of prejudice, I conceive, would it be to deduce the identity or equality of the Father and

and the
:

from the following passage, John, ch. v. ver. men should honour the Son, even as they 23 honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son,
So:i
"That

all

honoureth not the Father who hath sent
this very passage the

him."

For

in

Son

is

represented as the

Messen
to

ger of the FaLlici, and for

thai

rca^n only

entitled
"as

honour.
here,

the preposition [conj.?] implies man-/ other places, likeness in nature and quality, and not in exact degree of honour, is illustrated by its obvious meaning in the last verse of Matthew, ch.
as
in
k

That

v.,

i>e

heaven

is

ye therefore perfect, even as your Father in for by these words no one can con perfect
;"

ceive, that equality in degree of perfection bet \veen

God
had

and the

disciples
fifth

is

intended to be enjoined.
is,

The

position

that his heavenly Father

156

SKCOXD APPEAL
final

committed to Jesus the
lived since the creation.

judgment

of

all

who have

I readily

admit the correctness

of this position, and consider the fact as confirming the

maintained by me, and by numerous other followers of Christ, as to the Son s total dependence oil
opinion

God for his power in administering such judgment. I agree also with the Reverend Editor, in esteeming the nature of this office most important ; and that nothing but the gift of supernatural wisdom can
the commission of
qualify a being to judge the conduct of thousands of millions of individuals, living at different times from the

beginning of the world to the day of resurrection. It is, however, perfectlyconsistent with the omnipotence and wisdom of God, who is declared by revelation to be able
"

of these stones to

raise
9,)

up children unto
and with

Abraham,"

(Matthew^

ch.

iii.

ver.
i.

whom

all

things are

possible, (Luke, ch.

ver. 37,) to

the important nature of this every creature, whom he has anointed and exalted even

bestow wisdom equal to office on the first-born of

above his angels.
I

But the Editor goes much further than

am

willing to follow him, in concluding the omniscience

of the Son, from the circumstance of his distributing final judgment since Jesus not only disclaimed that attribute,
;

but even expressly avowed that he received his qualifica
tions for exercising judgment from God. With respect to his disclaiming omniscience, see Mar&,ch. xiii.ver. 23
;

"But

day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father." Omniscience, as the Editor must be well aware, has no limit but here Jesus expressly declares, that he is
of that
;

ignorant of the day

resurrection and judgment.

appointed by the Father for the What words can be more ex-

TO THE CHRISTIAN

PriJLIC.

1

57

pressly declarator} than these of the finite nature of the knowledge granted to Jesus, however its extent may

actually surpass our limited capacity?
his judicial

Asa

proof that

authority
"

is

ch.

v. vers. 26,

27

:

For

as the

derived from God, see John, Father hath life in him

self, so

hath he given to the

Son

to have

life in

himself

:

and hath given him authority Yen 30 u I can of mine own
:

to execute
self

judgment
:

also."

I

judge

:

and

my

judgment

is

do nothing because just
;

as I

hear

I

seek not

mine own
sent
me."

will,

hut the will of the Father which hath

Is it possible to

misunderstand the assertion

contained in these words, that both the authority and the ability to judge are gifts bestowed on the Son by the

omnipotent Father

?

The

sixth position
<k

is,

that in several instances Jesus
;"

due to no man, but to God alone accepted worship and instances of his receiving worship from a blind man,
a leper, from mariners, and from his disciples, are adduced

from the evangelical writings. Every one must admit that the word both in common acceptation worship,"
"

and

the Scriptural writings, is used sometimes as implying an external mark of religious reverence paid to
in

God, and
of civil

at

respect due to

other times, as signifying merely the token and that concurrent superiors
;

circumstances in every instance determine the real sense in which the word should be taken. Among the Pro
phets of God, Jesus was not the only one that permitted himself to be worshipped, as we find Daniel the Prophet
"

allowing himself such worship. Darnel, ch. ii. ver. 46 Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and
:

worshipped
the

Daniel."

Daniel, like Jesus, neither rebuked

man who worshipped

him, nor did he feel indignant

15

SECOND APPEAL

at such n tribute of respect .; yet

we cannot

find

any sub

sequent assertion that he had offended God by suffering himself to be the object of the king s worship in this in
stance. Besides, Jesus himself uses the

word worship in the latter sense, (I mean that of civil reverence,) in one of the evangelical parables, where he represents a servant as
worshipping his master.

Matthew, ch.

xviii.

ver.

26

:

"The

servant therefore

fell

From the circumstance of human beings to worship God
any form or shape, either
ch.
iv. ver.
"

down and worshipped him." Jesus positively commanding
alone in
spirit,
;

and not in

huir.au or
;

24

:

God

is

a Spirit

him must worship him in spirit u ch. iv. ver. 10 Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thoti serve." And from the circum stance of his rebuking the man who called him good
:
"

as, John, and they that worship and in truth." Matthew

angelic

master,"

on the ground that the term

"

"

good

should be

peculiarly applied to

God

alone, (Matt. ch.

xix. ver. 17,)

we
as

necessarily conclude that Jesus accepted worship only a mark of human respect, and acknowledgment of

gratitude.

Let us moreover ascertain from the context,

the sentiments which the blind man, the leper, the mariners, and the disciples of Jesus, entertained of his

and we can no longer hesitate to believe, that they meant by the worship they offered, only the mani
nature
;

festation of their reverence for
yetstill as

him

as a superior, indeed,

being. question is, Did those that offered worship to Jesus evince that they believed him to be God, or one of the three persons of the God
a created

The

head, and equal to God ? Nothing of the kind the blind man, after his cure, spoke of Jesus as a Prophet, and a righteous man, and believed him when he said he

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
was the Son of God.
John,
c\\.
"

I

;<)

ix.

ver.

31

u
:

Now we

know

that God heareth not (says the blind man,) sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth." Ver. 33 ki If thifc man
"

:

were not of God, he could do nothing." And in answer u Dost thou believe on the Son to the question of Jesus,
of

God

?"

he answers,
ver. 38.

u

shipped
in

him,"

The

Lord, I believe. And he wor unclean spirit which is said

have worshipped Jesus, u cried with a loud voice and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou

Mark

to

adjure thcc by God, that Mark, ch. v. ver. 7. This ad would have been absurd if Jesus were himself juration addressed as God and clearly shews, that the worship
?

Son

of the most high

God

I

thou torment

me

not."

;

was to deprecate the power of a being w^hose nature was subordinate to that of God, by whose name he was adjured. The leper, too, glorified God, while to
offered

Jesus he gave only thanks for being the instrument of

And one of them, -when he saw that he was healed, turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God, and fell down on his face at his
his cure. Luke, ch. xvii. vers. 15, 16
"

:

feet,

giving him thanks" The mariners who worshipped u Of a truth thou art Jesus declared at the same instant,
!

the Son of God.
of Canaan,

Matthew** ch. xiv. ver. 33.
also stated in

The woman
ver. 25,

who

is

Matthew, ch. xv.

to have worshipped Jesus, addressed him, ver. 22, as "the son of David," by which term she certainly would not

Peter,

have designated a being vhom she worshipped as God. the most celebrated of his disciples, shewed his

faith in acknowledging Jesus merely as the Christ, or in other words with the same exact sense, the anointed of God which is certainly far from implying very God."
"

160

SECOND APPEAL
ch.
viii.

Mark,

ver. 29.

Even

after the crucifixion
"

we
all

find

the disciples conversing of Jesus only as mighty in deed and in word before God
people."

a prophet,

and

the

risen

they addressed, yet through out the remainder of the chapter, which concludes with the account of his being carried up to heaven, they are

Luke, from the dead

ch. xxiv. ver. 19.

It

was Jesus himself

whom

only further taught that this prophet was the promised Messiah, but by no means that it was their duty to wor Peter, in the name of all the disciples ship him as God.
declares,

John, ch.

vi. ver. 69.

"We

believe and are sure
God."

that thou art that Christ, the

Son

of the living

already observed, the disciple John declares, that the object of the Gospel is, "that it may be believed

And,

as

the Christ, the Son of God." John ch. the leper prayed to Jesus for cure, he adressed him only with the term Ki/Ptbs (Matthew^
that Jesus
.

is

xx. ver. 31.

When

ch.

to

ver. 2,) which in Greek is used as synonymous viii. Lord or Master, and often applied to superior persons. Every Christian is morally bound to evince obe

dience to the
self to follow his

commandments
example.
his
It

of Jesus,

and exert him

behoves us therefore to

are with regard to the object of sacred worship and prayer, and in what manner he himself performed those solemn religious
ascertain,
duties.

what

commandments

The very

act of prayer,

indeed,

implies

an ac;

knowlegment

of inferiority

to

the being adored

but

jthough Trinitarians affirm that such devotion

was paid

by Jesus only in his human capacity, his form of prayer ought still to be sufficient to guide human creatures as
to the Being to whom their prayers should be addressed. Let us examine, therefore, whether, Jesus in his acknow-

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
ledged

l6l

capacity ever offered worship or prayer to what Trinitarians term the second or third person of

human

the Godhead, or once directed his followers to worship or pray to either of them. But so far from finding a
single

direction of the kind,

that

Jesus strictly

observe on the contrary, us to worship the Father enjoins

we

alone in that form of prayer which he offered for our
guidance. Matthew, ch. vi. ver. 9 "After this manner therefore pray ye, Out Father which art in heaven, &c."
:

"Pray

to

thy

Father which

is

in secret

:

and thy Father,
In the

which seeth

in secret, shall

reward thee

openly."

same way, when the Saviour himself prays, he addresses the Father alone. Matthew, ch. xxvi. ver. 53 "Think:

est
to

thou,"

says Jesus to Peter,

"that

I

cannot
:
"I

now pray
:

my

Father?"

John,

ch. xvi. ver. 26

\v\\\pray the

"And Luke, ch. xxii. vers. 41 and 42 you." he (the Saviour) was withdrawn from them about a stone s cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, saying,

Father

tor

Father,

if

Mark, and prayed, that
from him.
sible

ch. xiv. vers. 35
if it

thou be willing, remove and 36 "And
:

this
fell

cup from

me."

were

possible,

on the ground, the hour might pass
all
:

And he
thee."

said,

Abba, Father,
vi. ver.

unto

Luke, ch.

12

"He

things are pos went out

unto a mountain to pray, and continued all night in pra yer to God" Luke, ch. x. ver. 21 In that hour Jesus
:

rejoiced in spirit,

and

said I

thank thee,
xi. ver.

O
41

Father, Lord
:

of heaven and
lifted

earth."

John, ch.

"And

Jesus

up

his

eyes,

and

said,

Father,

I

thank thee that
:

thou hast heard

God,
iv.

me." Matthew, ch. xxvii. ver. 46 "My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" John, ch. my ver. 22 "Ye we know worship ye know not what
: ;

what we

worship."

No

creed

drawn up by
ji

men,

I

62

SECOND APPEAL
opinion
entertained by any sect,

nor

can by an un

biassed searcher after the true doctrines of Christianity be
suffered to set aside the express

authority and constant example of the gracious author of this religion.

The last position name with that of God

is,

that Jesus associated his

own

in the rite

of baptism, intended
;

to remain in force to the end of the world

and ordained
:

by the passage, Matthew,
teach
all

ch. xxviii. ver. 19

"Go

ye and
of the

nations,

baptizing

them
is

in

the name

Father, and of the Son,
profession
to
all

and of the Holy

Ghost."

A

"the

unquestionably the religions supposed to have been founded upon authority of the Old Testament but each is distin
;

of belief in

God

common

guished from the other by a public profession of faith in their respective founders, expressing such profession in a

language that may clearly exhibit the inferior nature of those founders to the Divine Being of whom they de
clare themselves the messengers.

carried on from the

first,

This system has been and was no doubt intended to

serve as a perpetual distinguishing mark of faith. The Jews claim that they have revelation, rendering a belief

not in

God

alone, but

in
:

Moses
"

also,

incumbent upon

The people feared the Lord them, Exodus, ch. xiv. 31 and believed the Lord, and his servant Moses." But
the term
"

his servant

Moses,"

in this passage, suffices to

prove the subordination of Moses, though declared, equally with God. to be an object of their belief. In
like

manner Mohummudans,
and
also in

in the

first

acknowledgment

of

that system of religion, are directed to profess faith

in God,

Mohummud,
SNX>CN*

his

messenger in the
J|K

following form

:

$\Jj*)

<J)J|Uf

There

is

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

163
is

no God except the true God,
enger."

Mohummud
"

his

mess

The term
"

of

Mohummud s
Son
"

messenger removes every doubt so the identity or equality with God
his
;
"
"

u

found in the passage, Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, c. ought to be understood and admitted by every one as expressing
epithet

the created nature of Christ, though the most highly exalted among all creatures. If baptism were adminis tered to one embracing Christianity in the name of the

become enrolled

Father and the Holy Ghost, he would thereby no more as a Christian, than as a Jew or as a

Mohurnmudan
Christians,

;

for

both of

them, in

common

with

would readily submit to be baptized in the name of God and his prevailing influence over the uni
verse.

But

as Christianity requires

peculiarly a faith in

promised Messiah, the gracious Saviour en joins baptism in the name ot the Son also, so as to distin guish his happy followers from the Jews and the rest of
the people.

Jesus, as the

A

mere

association

of

names

in

divine

commandments
:

therefore never can be considered as tend

ing to prove identity or equality between the subjects of those names such junction of names is found fre quently in the Sacred Writings without establishing unity among the persons whom those names imply.

The Editor quotes
ch. xxviii.
ver. 18
"

:

the following passage, Matthew, All power in heaven and earth is

unto me," recommending it as a sure proof of the deity of Jesus. I regret very much that the force of the expression is delivered unto found in this me,"
delivered
"

passage, should have escaped the discerning notice of the Reverend Editor. Does not the term delivered shew
"
"

evidently an entire dependence of Jesus upon the Being

&quot. I only entreat the attention of the Editor to the follow ing assertions of Mohummud. of the world ? I will been already discussed not renew the subject. known to almost all Moosul- mans who have the least knowledge of their own religion :.164 SECOND APPEAL has committed to him such power ? who Is it consistent with the nature of an omnipotent God to exercise power delivered to him by another being.&quot. to the question of the Editor. ever make such a declaration as Jesus namely. was a Prophet when Adam u. or to confess that the power he possesses another ? has been received by him from As did. am &quot. &quot. Hj xL^. Did Mohummud. My shadow is on the head only of my followers. uu ^cx^ worlds&quot. . ^ &quot. Jf cNJU/ Of I This is the Lord of those that were sent by God. u I water.&quot. y j^ liy God raised Truly the great and glorious me as mercy and guidance to U I was the first si all Prophets in creation. no boast to me. arrogant as he was. as it has in examining the first position.. &XJsJ &quot. that I am with you always even to the end &quot.&quot. and the last in appearance. was u/ in earth and&quot.

It is. and by his followers. Besides. may Com . fortunate for Moosulmans. nor have heathen modes of worship or festivals been intro duced among Moosulmans of Arabia and Turkey as a entertained part of their religion. could not fail to understand them in proper sense. however. 1 65 44 He who has seen me has seen a God. although these expressions throw great difficulty in the way of an European mentator even of profound learning. the doctrines of Monotheism taught by Mo- hummud. has sinned against God.x&amp. have not been corrupted by polytheistical notions of Pagans. metaphorical expressions having been their Mohummudans very common among Oriental nations. that from want of familiarity and intimate connexion between the Mohummudans and their contemporary primitive heathens. u He who has obeyed me. ds XT . and he who has sinned against me. has obeyed God .&quot.gt.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

I many.more than a mere statement of facts requiring for figurative interpretation ? For it is obvious that an at tempt first.CHAPTER IV. Gl are the).I take them in their direct sense. : if any man eat of flesh he shall live for world.&quot. which whoso ever should receive should live for ever? And that the Saviour. by exciting the anger and of the superstitious instruc enmity Jews.&quot.&quot. in the shape of an explicit commandment.I lay is Son of Is Man down my life for my come to give his life a ransom any one of these passages. &c. the texts collected by the Reverend Editor in his review from the authority of the divine Teacher. ever. ( to &quot. u llay down my life for you. &quot.&quot. that Jesus was invested with a divine commission to deliver instructions leading to eternal beatitude. in ALL favour of the second important doctrine of the cross. forseeing that the imparting of those tions would. .. &quot. ) would amount to gross absurdity. are : &quot. cause his life to be des hesitated not to persevere in their troyed.I bread which came down from heaven this bread.&quot. who hazards his life to promulgation procure freedom and peace for his subjects. . Do they reasonably convey anything more than the idea.&quot. especially the if am the living bread any man eat of this. were to ad . yet as if a king. Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Atonement. would ask. im an atonement plying the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus as am the living as follow for the sins of mankind. His giving his for the life of the u The sheep. dress himself to them saying.

Ch. ) Jesus in his com munion with God manifests to that he had completed the object of his mission by imparting divine commandments mankind : &quot. were events prophesied in the Old death fulfilled Testament. thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing.And that heard him were astonished at his and answers. for therefore am I sent&quot. have received them.And he said unto Luke. &quot. Had his death on the cross been the work. ver.For I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me and they . How be about is it that ye sought me wist ye not that 1 / must my Fathers business? Wherein Jesus mission was to declares. vers 47 49 : &quot. ch. as the founder of truth. that the sole object of his preach and impart divine instructions. having instructed his disciples in the divine law and appears from the following text. 8. ride on a colt. ii. and they have believed that thou didst send me. or part of the work. 43 passages. ch. after will. xvii. and should be wounded with a he had delivered up the ghost. And he ? 1 said unto them. iv. ) they were amazed and his mother said unto him. ( John. them I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities : also all . should receive an offer of vinegar to drink.SECOND APPEHL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and consequently these were by Jesus. for the performance of which Jesus was sent into this w orld he. wouldinot have declared him r self to That Jesus should spear after have finished that work prior to his death. Son. why hast thou thus dealt with us ? Behold. .I have glorified thee on the earth. This interpretation 1 67 is fully confirmed by the following &quot. as well as his on the cross. and have known surely that I came out from thee. / have finished the work which thou gavest me to do&quot. as Again. ver.&quot. And when : they ( his parents understanding saw him.

and to enter into his glory ? And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets.&quot. and went into a far country&quot. ch. known thoroughly to God alone) seems more consistent with the contents of the : : Mark. : nor his parents . such as follow . and let it out to husbandmen. and built a tower. and set a hedge about it. as predicted. and digged a place for the wine fat. I am therefore sorry that satisfactory reply I must plead my inability to make &quot. that we ?&quot. i 9 And he began to speak unto them by parables. vers. ix Jesus answered. the Scriptures that several other Prophets in common with Jesus suffered great afflictions. Vide Luke. pounded unto them in all the scriptures the things cons cerning himself. a to the question of the Editor. vers.&quot. ch. ch. A cer tain man planted a vineyard. (John. and some even death. that he underwent such afflictions I can only say. which happened to Jesus before his ascent to heaven. 3 having perpetrated any remarkable crime. he ex&quot. But we are unhappily at a loss to dis cover any other design in each of these events. as some scriptural authorities shew beyond doubt. But I know not whether those find in afflictions by them or were the consequences of the sins committed by their parents. without his or his parents ver. 26 and 27 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things. sacred writings.1 68 SECOND APPEAL :&quot. or whether these distresses to were experienced by them through some divine purpose unknown us . xii. Had ever Jesus transgressed his heavenly Father s will. xxiv. Neither hath this man sinned &quot.) God should be made manifest in The latter alternative (namely that the righteous Prophets suffered afflictions and even death for some divine purpose. that man may be made liable to suffering for some secret divine purpose. but that the works of him.

Having yet therefore one Son. because they know not him had not come and spoken unto had not had sin but now they have no cloke them. And they caught him. And kill him. This ance the heir . let shall be ours.&quot. 169 And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant. If I : sin. that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. come. him Son. and many others beating some. and killed him they us and cast him out of the vineyard. vers. and beat him. that Jesus. 21. They said will reverence my But these husbandmen is among themselves. And again he sent another servant . What shall therefore the Lord of the vineyard do ? He will come and destroy the husbandmen. If we view assumes. saying. and at . xv. and wounded him in the head. his well-beloved.&quot. In explaining the objects of Jesus cross. they for their This parable and these passages give that sent me. and sent him away shamefully and him they handled. we have every thing perfectly in character he became incarnate : to accomplish that which could have been effected by I neither men nor angels. countenance to the and God suffered his Prophets. should therefore wish to know whether Jesus. and will give the vineyard unto others. 22 do unto you for my name &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. whom the Editor represents as God . . the Editor confidently s death on the &quot.and sent him away empty. John. . be cruelly treated and slain by the Jews for the purpose of taking away every excuse idea. : But all these things will they s sake. And again he sent unto them another him they cast stones. and the inherit took him. ch. also last unto them. his beloved Son. killed. he sent . that Jesus Christ as atoning for the sins of men. and killing some. to that they might offer for their guilt.

is. vers. and even at variance with those principles of equity required of men for it would be a piece of . that God. . and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. suffered death his divine nature. seems totally inconsistent with the justice as cribed to God. or in his human capacity ? men in The former must be highly inconsistent with the nature of God. with the death of the cross. is evident from the fact. The latter. prayed. who had all and who had never transgressed the God. is since the difference jects above being rendered liable to death or pain we draw between God and the ob are not . namely. one innocent being. if it be possible. and the other to mortality. gross iniquity to afflict the will human of feelings. which. 39. and who of course must be considered as excluded from the benefit of his having died for the remission of their sins. saying. as is manifest from the following : passages.. and 43 he took with him Peter and the two sons of ch. that one cannot be subjected is to death or termination. were finite. And this Zebedee. 37. xxvi.I7O SECOND APPEAL and pain for the sins of incarnate. O my Father. earth. whom the doctrines he taught have never reached. for the crimes committed by others. &quot.And Matthew. that to the present time millions of human beings are daily passing through the world. we are persuaded to believe by reason and tradi tion. finite and liable That the effects of Christ s appearance on whether with respect to the salvation or condem nation of mankind. let cup (meaning death) pass from me : nevertheless. and therefore suitable to the nature of a finite being to accomplish. 42. especially when he declares such great aversion to it. that Jesus suffered death and pain in his human capacity as an atonement for the offences of others.

Mark. he prayed more earnestly being of blood.Now is and what shall I say? Father. I will. Do not human felt these passages evidently shew. that thus it must iniquity of one for the s The an atonement fault being sentenced to death committed by another is countries the so palpable. will. me because / lay doivn my life that I might take it again no man taketh it from me.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. if this cup may not pass away from me. : 42 and 44 this Father. knowing that the will of the Father render such death unavoidable. vers. John.Saying. and that he earnestly he might not be subjected to it ? Jesus. not in my but thine.&quot. all things : are possible unto thee nevertheless. yielded to it as predicted. ch. Thinkest thou that Matthew. and I have power to take it efnumantlmcnt have I received of my Fathei ^ it &quot. take away this cup from me but what thou wilt. xxvi. &quot.&quot. be done.&quot. but as thou wilt. remove cup from me nevertheless. 36 &quot. : if thou be willing. vers.And he said. not 17* He went away again the as I will. ch. saying. that although in many human . Therefore doth my Father love ch. have power to lay * again this down. ver. but I lay it down of myself I : . save me : from hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour. not what xxii. and prayed. . xiv. 53 and 54 I cannot now pray to my Father. prayed however. ch. thy will be done. 27 &quot. xii. 17 and 18 :&quot. Luke. except I drink it. . O my Father.&quot. falling his sweat was as it were great drops And down to the ground. vers . that Jesus in his capacity (according to the Trinitarian phrase) averse to that death and pain. : Abba. second time. and an agony. xi. than twelve legions of angels ? But how the Scripture be fulfilled. ver. ch. my soul troubled this John. and he shall presently : give me more shall then be as ?&quot. Father.

&quot. In endeavouring to prove Jesus s atonement for sin the Reverend Editor urges. Is he called &quot. We find Saviour applied fre quently in the divine writings to those persons who had been endued with the power of saving people. ver. of Saviour. or affording protection to them although none of them atoned for the sins of mankind by their death. Nchcmiah ch. because he gave them moral precepts. 2 Kings ch. ix.172 SECOND APPEAL race think themselves justified in detaining the persons of those sible for men who. ver. by his death. : The Lord the gave the hand of the Israel a savimir^ so that they went out from under Syrians. 21 &quot. How could. and Elijah and John the title Baptist. xiii. 27 : according to thy manifold mercies thou gavest them saviours. with the enjoyment of heaven as their just desert ? or. the Saviour of men because he died in their stead to atone for their sins and procure for them every blessing. come up on mount Zion to judge the mount of Esau and the kingdom shall be the Lord s. : And saviours shall .&quot. Qbadiah. he has this honor in common with Moses. Editor. ver. voluntarily making themselves respon the debt or the persons of others. neither of 1 whom however the title assumed the &quot. ? If Jesus be termed a Saviour merely because he instructed men. either by inculcating doctrines. their engagements them would shudder innocent nevertheless. who saved them out of the hand And of their enemies. &c. a diligent student of the Bible. 5 &quot. fail to fulfil . every just man among at the idea of one s being put to death for a crime committed by another. therefore. by obeying which they might obtain the divine favour. even if the man should willingly offer his life in behalf of that other. lay such a stress .

1 8. Say all ing. 2. ch. and life. that he saved the people solely through the inculcation of the especially when ? word Now ye are clean John. : : him that sent me. ver. xv. Ch. to believe that he.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. but to fulfil and strictly &quot. :&quot. in common God with ? several other prophets. .He that heareth my word and belie veth on of God &quot. 63 The words that I speak unto you. not. for law taught by Moses Think (Matthew.3:&quot.) Jesus declares himself to have come to fulfil the is indeed unscriptural. ver. in his capacity of Saviour. ver. divine teacher. Jesus himself declares frequently. they are life wherein Jesus represents himself as a or a distributor of eternal life. as application of the term to adduce it as a proof of the doctrine of the atonement upon the . they are spirit. through ver. the Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses seat disciples at large : his and the people therefore whatsoever they bid you observe. underwent afflictions and death Such an idea represents the Christ as a Prophet equal to Moses. u Saviour to Jesus. (Dent. v. ver. because for Moses and the Prophets before him delivered to the people divine instructions ? Or would it depreciate the dignity of Jesus.&quot. xviii. vi. 7 :) not that I am come to destroy the Law and the Prophets I am not come to destroy. Would it de grade Jesus to revere him as a Divine Teacher. hath everlasting Ch.&quot. ch. 173 &quot. that observe and do and do . xxiii. vers. v. : . commands to obey whatever Moses had taught. Jesus Saviour. but do not ye after their works : for they say.&quot.&quot. 24 &quot. ch. is of course justly termed and esteemed a having instructed men in the Divine will and law. : &quot. 3 the word which I have spoken unto you. Ch. never before so fully revealed.

v. saving for the cause of fornication. Thou fool. Thou shalt not commit adultery but I say unto you. 39 &quot. Matthew.174 I SECOND APPEAL am If sorry that I cannot. beg to call his attention to the following in stances. 27. true that Moses began to erect the everlasting a degree of It is honour must be given reality his edifice of true religion. for it was in law that Jesus explained and established. agree with the Reverend Editor in the opinion. An Vers. the greater to Moses. be in danger of the council but whosoever shall say.&quot.&quot. without offending my con science. Ye have heard that it hath been said. 31. 22 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time. them : : hath been him said. Jesus be esteemed merely a teacher. found even in a single chapter. 28 Ye have heard that it was said by his brother. That whosoever : eye for an eye. shall &quot. : Thou soever and whosoever : shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment but I say unto you. and a tooth evil for a : tooth . shalt not kill . vers. . Moses and other Prophets.It after her. you. and obedience to his will knowledge of the and command ments and rendered this fact. : of old time. as exhibiting the perfection to which Jesus brought the Law given by &quot. 32 &quot. 38. hath committed adultery. causeth her to commit adultery. let say unto shall put away his wife. put away but give her a writing of divorcement : whosoever shall his I wife. I but Jesus of Nazareth has completed the structure To convince the Editor of his law perfect. but I you that ye resist not but whosoever shall say unto smite .&quot. ch. shall be in danger of hell Vers. Raca. consisting of unity of God. That who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment : and whosoever shall say to : fire.&quot. that &quot. 21. that whosoever looketh on a woman to lust Vers.

1 75 thee on thy right cheek. bless them that curse you. he thinks. and persecute you that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven : : them for he maketh his sun to and sendeth rain on the I I rise on the evil and on the good unjust. the learned and unlearned. &quot. serves to enhance their value as of testimonies. than what is due to the author of the doctrines just quoted. 43 45.&quot. and from were epithets generally applied . Vers.&quot. thy neighbour. We find. the very minuteness of which. and hate thine enemy : unto you.Lamb God the part of Christ. lays much stress on circum &quot.&quot. he also came into the world to sacrifice his life as an atone ment for sin. applied &quot. however. He alludes to the epithet to Jesus by having been twice applied John the Baptist. where no allu. carry with them proofs of their divine origin to the conviction of the high and low.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. which. The Editor. This is considered by the Editor as implying an admission on &quot. particularly the PaschaLamb. and pray for shalt love Thou but I s-vy that despitefully use you. with a power no less than standing miracles could produce. Love your enemies.lamb. to innocence subjected to persecution a meaning which . &quot. do good to them that hate you. turn to him the other also. (though it varies from the declaration made by the Editor. was used in sacrifice as an atonement for sins.&quot. just and on the Now hope may be justified in expressing my belief. the term as well as in other places.) that no greater honour can be justly given to any teacher of the will of God. two Oi whose disciples were thereby induced to become followers of Jesus. in page 101. Ye have heard that it hath been said. sion to the sacrificial which we infer that these lamb can be well imagined.sheep&quot. stances. &quot. that as a lamb.

ch. &quot. the Father will give them &quot. 26.&quot. Mediator. . declared that whatsoever they (his Apostles) shall ask in for the Compiler. Ye believe not sheep hear my voice. We have &quot.&quot. I presume.176 sufficiently accords SECOND APPEAL with the use of the word lamb in the instance in question. innocent as a lamb. xxi. and in ch. as represented in the Scrip of a .&quot.&quot. The that. . The Son pure as light. as the Editor may compilation in question. repeatedly ac knowledged Christ as the Redeemer. and great as the He also angels of God. follow from to his argument. Jesus God. tend to a proof of the . sin because ye are not of my sheep. declares him to have been. to shew they atoned for the sins by their of mankind. x.sufer death and difficulties like other prophets find in the who went before him . vers. that Jesus was sent into this world to.&quot. Now. necessary for eternal life as bread for a temporal one. My .. represented as term synonymous with that of the highest of all the prophets and his life Messiah. that the term was applied also them. intended has adduced to prove. his name. 15 17. vers. might have omitted to quote such authority as shews. maintain. Reverend Editor might have spared the arguments he as the long-expected Messiah. I presume. as of Nazareth well as in &quot. many of the Apostles suffered death in consequence of their endeavours to withdraw men from but the Editor will not thence. that Christ. 27. defence of the Precepts of Jesus. Jesus to his disciples in John. to feed his sheep . it &quot. though * lamb death. But such intercession does not. or rather greater than the} tures. in behalf of his followers. and In inhis tercessor with God. being a mediator between God and men. &quot. where he commands Simon Peter to feed his lambs. its defence.&quot. those terms applied by &quot.

and sake. have carefully noticed the Editor. 12 . I have prepared.I learned by experience. before thee. deity or 177 the atonement for of Jesus. 20. as to the ing to deliver any opinion. 18 if &quot.&quot. me from &quot. then. intercession to them now make Moreover. merits thereof. fest his favour towards those who might petition him in the name of one whm creatures and prophets he anointed and exalted over all have Gen. evil. to keep thee in into the place the way. angels declared to have been endued with the power of pardoning and redeeming Genesis.&quot. bless the lads !&quot. the Lord of hosts. ver.The Angel which redeemed Exodus. and to bring thee which voice. from the reject of the same Divine Teacher of the leaving the decision of the public. : But if they be let the word of the Lord be with them. ver. xxiii. 21 : Behold. 27 ? : &quot. ch. Beware for is and obey his provoke him not : he in not pardon your transgressions for my name I With regard to this doctrine. that duced such arguments as may be used by those that doctrine.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. ver. xlviii. xxvii. vers. every argument advanced by and have ad in its support authority of Jesus himself. ch. ch. we find various occasions. by declin subject to the discreet judgment as an individual. that the Lord hath blessed me for thy Prophets.&quot. I send an Angel of him. all men on : 16 &quot. . . God is represented the sacred books to have often shewn mercy to mankind for righteous men s sakes how much more. would he naturally mani . and which they rest on the authority . in as interpreted by the Editor . xxx. Jeremiah. ch. will him.

They existed in the .&quot. narrations of the and miraculous New I Testament. under the designation of&quot. created the causes of wars and bloodshed. should have accused the on the dogmas or doctrines Compiler of Christianity those wars and that bloodshed which have occurred between nations merely termed Christians.&quot.&quot. Although human and want of perfection in men are in fact esteemed as the first and original causes of their improper frailty * conduct and wicked deeds. which he esteemed not essential for In order to convince the editor of the accuracy my assertion. line 24. therefore. of my defence of the compiled Pre An Appeal to the Christ cepts. that &quot.CHAPTER On the doctrines V. wars and bloodshed ex . promulgation of Christianity in the world neither Christianity. human mind long before its doctrines were published and that quarrels and feuds between the Arians and the Orthodox in the fourth and fifth centuries were little more than struggles for power and wealth.&quot. REGRET that the Editor &quot. good . in his defence of the precepts of Jesus. but to the different interpre tations of dogmas. of ian Public. has ascribed such disputes and contentions not to anything contained in the Scriptures. and page 22. of having charged The Compiler. The Editor isted before the observes. I entreat his attention to page 1 8. yet in the ordinary acceptation or evil acts are invariably attriof the term cause. nor its dogmas. line 22. salvation.

Council and seditions. that the majority of the primitive Arians by their mistaken and not by a desire of religious zeal to slay each other. But as the motives of actions and the secrets of the is human heart are in truth known to God alone. who in the divi sion of the empire became ruler of the East. and I entreat my readers to draw their own inferences from them : After the death of Constantine Voume I. and Trinitarians were excited ever. who have written on I allude to the History of Christianity. against the Trinitarians. and indeed by the whole court. how power and worldly advancement. 179 bated to their immediate motives. held to entitle their respective agents to praise or re proach. whether it would not be indeed very illiberal to suppose. ascertained from cir and these acts are consequently cumstantial evidence . Constantines. whose words I here give. that almost all the Christain world should for a period of two hundred years have been weak or wicked enough to engage wilfully causing the blood of each other to be shed under the m But cloak of religion. I beg to shew that as this must be a matter of opinion. Mosheim. maintained the decrees of the Nice throughout all the provinces where their Hence arose endless animosities jurisdiction extended. was warmly : u attached to the Arian party. treacherous plots. whose principles were also zealously adopted by the Empress. I would appeal. it indeed beyond my power to establish in a satisfactory manner. Constantine and Con- Emperors ol of the West. and merely for worldly motives.SECOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. to the Editor himself. which has been entertained on the subject by one of the highest authorities. Dr. P. and open acts of in- . 419 the Great. stans. On the other hand. one of his sons.

and enacted laws whose severity exposed them to the greatest calamities. it the event naturally to have been expected. and contradictory decrees spread perplexity and confu sion throughout the Christian world. Page 420: His ( Gratian s ) zeal for their interest. who raised the secular arm with a terrible degree of violence.&quot. The devotion even of the Apostles and Martyrs of Christianity may be attributed to a pursuit after power over the minds and respect in theeyes of men. Council was assembled against Council. in The : idea of a God human form was had altars presses easy and familiar Emperors and Em raised to them even during their lives- and Perhaps too. doctrines that resembled the polytheistical belief that till then prevailed. and all distinction of good and evil character be considered respect to as futile and without foundation. obvious that such a mode conduct be adopted. drove them from their churches. that the religion they after death were enrolled as divinities. it is difficult to say where we are to stop.&quot. had begun to profess was dictated immediately by the . and their jarring &quot. active. something may justly be attributed to a certain degree of pride and satisfaction in the idea.l8o justice SECOND APPEAL and violence between the two contending parties. to the people of those ages. With the final appears to me For. though fervent and Theodosius against the Arians the Great. was surpassed by that of his successor. It is difficult to conceive what other motives than those of mistaken zeal for a particular doctrine could have influenced the mind of an Emperor like Theodosius to such acts it is of cruelty and violence if : but however that of interpreting may be. must success of the Trinitarian party. have been more acceptable than those which were dia metrically opposed to such notions.

that Christ taught them. of Matthew. being vested in St. owing. Peter and his successors. There had not been among the Heathens any class of mankind to whom they were accustomed to look up with that devotion familiarly entertained by the Jews towards Moses and their Prophets.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. consists of the instructions delivered by Jesus to the twelve Apostles. that he came not to send peace on the earth. l8l Deity himself. and leading to life. fully foreseeing that they would be the . The violence and outrages which Roman Catholics and Protestants have experienced from each other. but a sword. What many great mischief has however been produced. when he sent the-r forth to preach the kingdom of heaven to the on allusion. rather than by any subordinate agency. to the adoption of different interpretations but respecting the deity of Christ or of the Holy Ghost . they were the immediate consequences of the different -sentiments they have held with respect to the doctrine of eternal an exclusive power of granting absolution. but has sheep of the house of Israel that I can perceive. argues. in their origin. from the difference of sentiments held by the parties with regard to this doctrine. as a proof of the the doctrines of the Gospel. The Editor in of dispute and quotes his saying. to eternal dissension lost . and lives how have from time to time been destroyed. The whole of the i oth chap. were not of course. and they were consequently being ready to elevate to a God any who rose in therr estimation above the level of mankind. as observed by the Reverend Editor. which even the Editor himself does not deem an essential point of religion ! importance of p. 114. . from which the subject Editor quotes the passage here alluded to.

That Jesus foresaw. not in any part of the doctrines of Christ but as those dissensions are .lt. the bigotry or into lerance evil of mankind. the differences of opinion which have been the declared grounds of hos of different sects tility are handed down by the teachers . and the daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law. should have wrested his words to As observed by the Editor himself. is a cause essentially distinct altered. that priestcraft work ing on the ignorance and superstition. human sources institutions may be avoided. After the secret and immediate causes of persecution have passed away.I 82 SECOND APPEAL amongst those who were already or might afterwards become Christians. is evident. the daughter and her mother. mischief lay originally in human nature. But this seems to me by no means &amp. when their real are known. from their origin. but those which have from time to time been seized upon to excite enmities still existing amcngst fellcw Christians.. now perpetuated principally by education. as already repeatedly avowed. . to see a fire kindled in the earth respecting doctrines not essential to the salvation of to prove it mankind. Nor would have been any reason for suppress ing the most trivial of his sayings. that great dis sensions would arise that he was aware that the great question would be as a sword between a of confessing him to be the Messiah or not his man and father. as supposed by the Editor. the purposes. not those questions concerning which Jesus spoke and which distinguish his followers from all others.l that Jesus. and. longedlor almost longed&quot. as one of the primary effects of preaching his Gospel. the case entirely corruption of the human heart cannot be removed but the evil effects that spring from totally The . it was with the view of evading.

every faith. this We know that he does Why then should he omit the doctrines of Christ and his Apostles. 183 that the Compiler confined himself to those Precepts. it should be recol lected that the former are. though they differ from one another in representing the nature and attributes of the Deity. Admit ting that the doctrines of Christianity and the existence of a God are equally liable to disputes. &quot. to common with the professors of all be the foundation of religion. has been unfairly drawn by the Editor. concerning which all mankind must be of one accord. Every system of religion adopts the idea of a God. contention gion. The Compiler therefore could have no motive for suppressing the doctrine . that they are not essential to reli therefore obvious. in the estimation of the Com piler. that the analogy between the omission of certain dogmas.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. It is that they are the subject of disputes and 2ndly. wherein he will find that he assigns not one. but two direct answer to this question. For a beg Reverend Editor to the Appeal of the Compiler. As to the question of the Editor. and avows this as its fundamental principle. I to refer the circumstances. while the latter is acknowledged by him. as dis tinctly stated in his Introduction to the selected Precepts of Jesus. that the very being of a God has been for numerous ages the subject of dispute among the most learned of his own country does he .It can scarcely be unknown to the Compiler. account this doctrine? a sufficient reason for suppressing not. as concurring to form the motive of his having omitted certain doctrines of Christianity in his selection ist. because men have made them the subject of dispute ?&quot. page 27. and that of the being of a God. not essential to religion in .

person. The Reverend Edit thus expresses his surprise at the conduct of the Compiler. that in these and other instances Jesus referred to to his miracles believe. vers. Art thou he that should heard come. he sent two of his disciples. taking care at the same time. the Editor first quotes three instances. attributes. men though disputed by a few and he has consequently all his power the idea of one God to the learned and unlearned of his own country. Vide Matthciv. 2 4: When John had the prison the works of Christ. But after a slight attention to the circumstances in which those appeals were made. in omitting in his selection the miraclous rela tions of the Gospel u : We cannot but wonder that his miracles should not have found greater favour in the eyes of the Compiler of this selection.184 of SECOND APPEAL the being of a God. or required of him some sign to confirm their faith. while the amazing weight which Jesus himself attached to them could scarce and in order to prove the ly have escaped his notice :&quot. he recommends Philip the Apostle to the evidence of his miracles. essence. the third. in the John the Baptist to his wonderful miracles second. or substance of the Godhead. those being points above his comprehension. scrupled or doubted him those persons only who either as the promised u Messiah. he called the attention of unbelieving Jews to in his miraculous works as a proof of his divine mission . and said unto him. or do we look for another ? Jesus answered and said . xi. and or liable to interminable disputes. importance of the miracles ascribed to Jesus. not to enter into particulars as to the real nature. it appears clearly. as much as possible. in ch. in the of which Jesus referred . pretended literary never hesitated to inculcate with .

therefore.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.) seek for miracles for their conviction as to his divine mis sion.&quot. that believe 1 1 u Believe Jesus answered and said. said &quot.xii.&quot. 185 unto them. in the Father and the Father in me. or intending to slight them by such an omission. Jesus says to of blasphemy. u 39 : But he answered and said An eth after a sign. who. 4i Lord. works&quot. even speaks in terms of reproach of those that Jesus . xiv. profess their belief on him. and excited his veneration for the author of this religion. I regret. shew us the Father. ver. see. (John ch. ver. &quot. xx. x.&quot. those Jews who accused him If I do not if I do t the works of my Father. without aid from miraculous he omitted in his compilation the mention of the miracles performed by Jesus. who. But In reply to though of Philip. because thou hast seen me thou hast blessed are they that have not seen. ch. ye believe not me. the very works sake. Under these circumstances. Thomas. that the Editor should have in suffered any part of his valuable time to be spent ad vancing several arguments. and adulterous generation seekMoreover he blesses them. ver. 29 : believed unto him. without meaning to express doubts of their authenticity. with evil out having recourse to the proofs of miracles. believe the and it sufficeth us I am me for me. being discontented with the the request doctrines Jesus inculcated said.Jesus John ch. 37 and 38. and yet . believe me not. in the concluding part of his . have believed&quot. and from the experience that nothing but the sublimity of the Precepts of Jesus had at first drawn the atention of the Compiler himself towards Christianity. Matthew unto them. hear and Go and shew John John ch. those things which ye do vers. relations. or else .

mercantile. divine power suspending the If all usual course of were to be indiscriminately admitted as facts. it may be worth considering.I 86 SECOND APPEAL Review. and supported by testimony which they have been taught to regard with a reverence that they cannot be expected all at once to bestow on the Apostles. p. political . that the enemies to revela tion draw a line of distinction on the subject of proofs by testimony. merely because they are testified by numbers. See Precepts. indeed. between the current events of nature faimliar to the senses of mankind. amount to this : Arguments adduced by the Editor &quot. how can we dispute the truth of those miracles which are said to have been performed by persons nature. assertions esteemed holy amongst natives of this country? The Compiler has never placed the miracles related in the New Testament on a footing with the extravagant tales of his but distinctly expressed his persuasion that countrymen. 88. and judicial transactions be allowed to rest upon testimony why should not the validity of Christian miracles be con cluded from the testimony of the Apostles and others^ and be relied upon by all the nations of the world&quot. The very same line of argument. Introduction to the and Appeal. to establish the truth of the miraculous state But as this discussion ments of the New Testament. If all social. The Editor must be well aware. and within the scope of human exertions common tion cf and extraordinary facts beyond the limits of experience. they (Christian miracles) would be apt at best to carry little weight with those whose imaginations had been accustomed to dwell on narrations much more wonder ful. and ascribed to a direct interposi . pursued by the . p. 5. applies to the evidence of miracles generally.

in defence of that religion some before the attempts of Mohum .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. . Vushistu. others after his commencing such at tempts. would equally avail 1 87 the Hindoos. that several of those witnesses suffered the greatest calamities. who are represented as eye-witnessess of the miracles ascribed to him such as his dividing the moon into two parts. or by demoniac power. and . and others deration of after his death. They can assert. subsists between these two on subject. such as Ugustyu. authorities from the histories of their most inveterate enemies the Jeins. Nursingh in presence of their contemporary friends and enemies. who oin the Hindoos entirely in j acknowledging the truth ? and credibility of their miraculous accounts The only parties difference this which is. mud at conquest. Have they not accounts and records handed down to them. and Gotum and their gods incarnate. relating to the wonderful miracles stated to have been performed by their saints. walking in sunshine without casting a shadow. the Compiler hopes he may be allowed to remain still of opinion. On mature consi all those circumstances. Krishnu. such as Ram. and some even death. Editor. can produce records written and testified by contempora ries of Mohummud. that the miraculous relations found in the divine writings would be apt at best to carry little weight with them. and . on the other hand. and the Jeins declare that they performed all those astonishing works by Asoorcc Shukti. that the Hindoos consider the power of performing miracles given to their gods and saints by the Supreme Deity. when . too. Moosulmans. both friends and enemies. the select and the multitude? Could not the Hindoos quotq in sup port of their narrated miracles. the wise and the ignorant.

imparted to the Hindoos at large. much less that can be to them.1 88 SECOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. . the Compiler with the Precepts pretended to be superior deemed his to introduce these among incumbent upon him countrymen as a Guide to it Peace and Happiness. in the present state of their minds but as no other religion can produce any : thing that may stand in competition of Jesus.

although the Editor equally esteems them both as distinct persons of the Deity. It is needless to add that this testimony of Jesus. I wonder. the Father. short and abrupt a manner. the Impcisonality oj the Holy Miscellaneous remarks. Spirit. in his attempt to prove the Deity of the Holy Ghost. how the learned Editor could suppose a mere association of names in a rite to I be sufficient to 1 prove the identity of their subjects.) is equally decisive respecting the Deity of I have hitherto omitted to notice this the Holy Ghost. and defying reason totally. that the association of the Holy . cannot. after having filled up many with numerous arguments in his endeavour to pages establish the Godhead of Jesus. in the next place. am indeed sorry without overlooking a great many name scriptural authorities. WILL now inquire into the justness of the conclu sion drawn by the Editor.&quot. join the Editor in of the the opinion. wheie he observes. in the first place. reserving it for the express purpose of a distinct and separate examina It seems to me. (the associating of his own name and that of the Holy Ghost with the name of &quot. tion. associated with that of the Father in the rite incidentally brought forward in the course of the arguments he has adduced respecting This subject is the nature of Jesus. that the Reverend Editor.CHAPTER On I VI. rather singular. question among other matters in review. should have noticed in so the question of the Deity o^ the Holy Ghost. from the circumstance of his name being of Baptism.

Hear me. in Jeremiah. and said. : believe his prophets. The kind of evidence on which the Editor relies in this instance. or David. in the rite Spirit with that of the Father of the Universe. that Jesus Christ will If baptize with the ciation in Holy Ghost and with fire. up unto them.&quot.190 SECOND APPEAL of Baptism. Again. clear that fire also being associated with the . raise of therefore be unscriptural to make an attempt to prove the deity of the Prophets. under the plea that their names ances ? are associated with that of God in religious observ so. whom I will &quot. ch. so shall ye be xx. and David their King. u the or even allusive decisive is of. ch. insisting on the literal sense of the words. in O salem believe . proves their divinity it is . 1 6. were we to follow the process of reasoning adopted by the Reverend Editor. repeated in Luke. iiiver. Jehoshaphat stood and ye inhabitants of Jeru Judah. But they shall serve the Lord their God. ch. xxx. with that of the Father. in which it is announced. ver. the Lord joins his name with that David in the act of religious service. But we must do would besides might seek suit admirably the purposes of those who in the sacred Scriptures grounds for justify ing idolatry. ver. might refer to that text in the 3rd chapter of Matthew.&quot. for instance. separ ate personality of tne Spirit. the rite of Baptism of the names the asso of the Son and Holy Ghost. which is in its Would it not strictest sense esteemed due to God alone. to. 20 &quot. so shall ye prosper wherein the name of the Prophets of God is associated with that of the Deity himself in the profession of belief established . . Fire worshippers. 2 Chronicles. the Lord your God. which is considered by Christians of all denomiantions more essential than an external symbol of Christianity. 9.

John. who is the mediator and of that influence by which spiritual bles sings are conveyed to mankind. as patli of right of their sincere consequence prayer and also. designated in the Scrip tures as the Comforter. which they should expect direction eousness. should offer divine and also in the Holy influence of God. ver. to him as from the following pas 20. Spirit of truth. ver. As God is declared through his Holy Spirit to have led- to righteousness such as sought heartily his will.&quot. . &quot. who the object of worship . or Holy Spirit. and in the Son through whom homage. in the For the same reason it is in publicly adopting ceive it is proper that those who re should be baptized in the name of the Father.For 2 Kings ch. ver. and leading such as and ultimately is to salvation. so to he is have through wrath afflicted equally represented rebels against his authority. (&quot. this religion. mercy those who manifested obe appears xxiv. he will guide you into (&quot.) worship him in spirit to righteous conduct. John ch. 19! Holy Ghost in the same rite. represented in revelation as the God is invariably main object of belief.) truth. Christians. of the Son.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot. as the supplication. and to have prospered through dience sages : his infinite . xiv. must likewise be considered as a part of the Godhead. through his guiding influence. therefore a moral obligation on those who avow the truth of such revelation to profess their belief in There is God as the sole object of worship. when he all the Spirit of truth is come 13. from they. xvi. but by me. 6. receiving worship and prayers that proceed from the heart through the first-born of every No man cometh unto he Father creature. through the . which called the Holy Spirit. the Messiah. ch.

Psalm ch. c. anger upon Wrath came upon Judah thee. For we find expressions of a similar nature to other attributes of God. ver. whom the Father will send. ver. 7. ver. ver. to me impossible to view the Holy God. xxi. 3: &quot. above the heavens. teach Lu&ech. Ch. Ixxxv. ch. : 10: &quot. ver.Let thy mercy.&quot. personifying them applied equally with the Holy Spirit.&quot. xiii. 4.The Comforter.&quot. it would be difficult to avoid form a distinct Were attribute ascribed personage. 4: Ezek.save me for thy mercy s sake. without coming to ideas respecting the nature of the Deity. 8. Ch.The Lord ver. ver. 2 thy mercy vii.&quot. come upon you. great will ch. ver. cviii. : his mercy is everlasting&quot. xiv. 22 &quot. little different from some of Spirit as very .Return. Ivii. be upon Ch. &quot.&quot. O Lord.For we are consumed by thine anger.For O Lord. to the Deity. ver. &quot.&quot. 7.&quot. &quot. ver. &quot.192 SECOND APPEAL it came to pass in Jerusalem. Nor can or dis we cal legitimately infer the idea of the self-existence tinct personality of the language as Holy Ghost. who is the Holy Ghost. and by thy wrath are we troubled.&quot. Psalm ch.Mercy truth are met together. 5 &quot.&quot. us. Chronicles ch.&quot. &quot. &quot. Psalm ch. ver.Thy O Lord. until he them out from his presence. Psalm ch. xxxvi.I send &quot. 26. anger of the Lord cast had deliver my soul : O. of the Bible. Acts.The Holy Ghost shall i. 5: meicy &quot. ver. xxiv for this trespass.&quot.&quot.The Holy Ghost is you. 3: &quot. &quot.&quot. Ch. every to be therefore considered as which is found personified.God shall snd forth and is mercy and his truth . John ch.. vi. ver.And through the mercy of the most High he shall not be moved. from such metaphori the following. my 1 8. ing a very strange notion of the theology It appears. 12. is is in the heavens. xc. xxxiii. good. indeed. ver.

where it is said. for instance.those miracles stand by such expressions as f1 r . Luke above quoted. according to the opinion In interpreting these maintained by the God was to should necessarily be drawn to the idea that came upon Mary. and the power of the &quot. ch. . 35 thee. and Luk^ . . . Is this idea.ien but the blasphemy .&quot. indeed.ier of sins and bias . Ver. 193 those most generally and justly condemned as found amongst Polytheists. . &quot. if we understand by those passages. was contrary to the ordinary course of nature. merely that miraculous influence of God came upon Mary. ver. . ch. . in. as horrible as the sentiments entertained by ancient and modern Heathens respecting the Deity ? On the other hand. . u. i.&quot.&quot. though a virgin. shall overshadow thee. n. I would beg know. Holy Ghost. equal in power and glory with th? Father of all. everything would stand consistent with our belief of the Divine power without shocking our ideas of the purity of the Deity. confirmed by the very passage The power of the Highest shall &quot. consistent with the perfect nature of the right eous God s ? Or rather. : Highest passages Editor. is not such a notion of the God head having had intercourse with a human female. 20 That which is conceived ver. Holy Ghost shall come upon is of the The Luke. and that the child which she bore we in reality begotten of him. &quot. so that. inculcated alike by reason and revelation. ch. plainly and simply declaring. : . This mode of interpretation of is. I am at a loss to know what T under teim &quot. e shall 13 .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that it the power of God which gave birth to the child. ver. Take. she bore a child. atthew . Matthew. i. If by the overshadow thee Holy Ghost be meant a third distinct person of the Godhead. that Mary was found with child of the Holy Ghost. : in her.

being given unto man. x. Jesus. and with power.&quot.&quot. withinfluence of sin (ature of the Deity. ver. person of the Godhead) cast out devils by the third person of the &quot. the . ver. returned from Jordan.&quot. 28 All Ver.&quot. according to which the foregoing pas sages may be understood as follows u : He &quot. : God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the : Holy Ghost and with power. ver. : : u And Jesus. God anointed Jesus of Nazar eth. with the second person. Acts.&quot. of the person.&quot. Christ &quot. 38 &quot.) Godhead enable any one to perceive the inconsistency of such paraphrases as the foregoing. and with &quot. (the second person of the &quot.&quot. Godhead.) with the third I (the second person of the Godhead. the second going passages may be read as follows shall baptize you with the third person. manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be for &quot. i full of the Holy Ghost. Matthew. first All even against the shall manner of sin and blasphemy. Luke. the fore : u He.&quot. Holy Ghost and with fire. wjrfe^hp spirit his holy influence and power.194 SECOND APPEAL baptize you with the ch. and second person of the Godhead be forgiven unto men. ch. Godhead.&quot. indeeujvith &quot.&quot. but blasphemy against the third person of the Godhead shall not be forgiven unto men. (the second person of the Godhead.&quot. If the term Holy Ghost be synonymous with the third person of the : &quot. returned from Jordan. Godhead. I should suppose. shall baptize you 4 Jesus^/ear^ of 1 casfas V ery God. xii. and &quot. All manner first- against the Christ. iv. &quot. being full of the third person of the Godhead. necessary to . God. ch. But little reflection is. &quot. V God anointed of truth and purity. fire. and the reasonableness of adopting the usual mode of scriptural interpretation of the original texts. 31 I cast out devils by the Spirit of God.

) the Spirit which enabled him to do those wonderful works was a holy Spirit and that whatever language . 30. that the occasion on which the term was made use of by Christ was the accu sation of the Jews.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. &quot.&quot.&quot. (&quot. namely. would it tarian mode. but by Beelzebub the prince of Jesus affirms. with respect to the text above quoted. 22 : dove upon him. ch. they might hold with respect to himself. if we form of a dove. &quot. born of every creature. denouncing eternal wrath on those who blaspheme against the Holy Ghost. the passages be to interpret. iii. the power of Beelzebub.&quot. according to the Trini which describe the descent of the Holy Ghost upon Jesus on the occasion of his baptism. They This fellow doth not cast out the devils.&quot. Jesus. ch. Because they iii. or in any other bodily shape. 24. u And the Holy Ghost descended Luke. that devils. that his miracles were the effects of an influence of a nature directly opposite to that of God. was really the third person of the Godhead. how can we justly charge with absurdity the in a bodily shape like a believe that the Spirit. spirit :&quot. 195 shall blasphemy against the power unto men. xii. returned from Jordan. Matthew. blasphemy against that power by which he did those miracles would not be forgiven. in the Hindoo legends of the Divinity having the form of a fish or of any other animal ? It ought to be remarked. Mark. ver. For. He hath an unclean said.All manner of sins and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men but the blasphemy against : . the Prince of Devils. ver. ver. The Jews alleged that he was possessed of an unclean or diabolical spirit. Still more dangerous to true of religion be forgiven to men but God shall not be forgiven . said. being full of the influence of God. &quot. ch.

And whosoever speaketh against the Son of Man. therefore. xii. he is shall then his kingdom cast out devils. the exception of the Holy Ghost must exclude blasphemy against the Father.&quot. And if . it shall be orgiven him but whosoever speaketh against the Holy : not be forgiven him. passage of For futher illustration I vers. knew their thoughts. said. it shall Were in the words question. not stand. stand ? And if I by Beelzebub by whom . shall not be forgiven : . even against the blasphemy against but first-born of every creature. shall be forgiven . In the above- quoted passage. in the received as including blasphemy passage the Father. blasphemy against the poWer of God. shall not be Matthew.But when This fellow doth not by Beelzebub. &quot. all manner of blasphemy. Ghost. and consequently the interpretation would amount an admission of the superiority of the Son and the Holy Ghost to the Father. quote here the whole : 24 37 &quot. divided against himself how Satan cast out Satan. ch. And Jesus lation shall Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to deso and every city or house divided against itself . an opinion which no to sect of Christains has hitherto formed.&quot. and All manner of the whole should be thus interpreted men and angels. but blasphemy against the Holy Ghost must not be forgiven :&quot. neither in this world r nor in the world to come. &quot. and said unto them. the Pharisees heard it. by which Jesus declared himself to have cast out devils.196 SECOND APPEAL the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. they cast out devils. the term must be thus understood : against All manner of blasphemy against man and the Father. and even blasphemy against the Son.. but forgiven. the prince of the devils.

But I say unto you. For by shalt be justified. That every idle word that men shall speak. and his fruit cor rupt -of : for the tree known by his fruit. except he and then he me is against me . bind the strong man ? his house. iii. Mark. Is it not evident from the above authority of Jesus is himself. And whosoever speaketh a against the Son of Man.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. then the kingdom of God is come unto you. O generation ? vipers. that the term Holy Ghost synonymous to &quot. make is make the tree good. neither in this world. how can ye. 29. vers. &quot. it shall not be forgiven him. because they said. they shall thy words thou he that shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. speak good things for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. Either or else . A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things and an evil man out of the evil : treasure bringeth forth evil things. But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God. the prevailing influence of God ? And had not the power . ch. but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be scattereth abroad. it shall be forgiven him word : but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost. Wherefore I say unto you.&quot. and his fruit the tree corrupt. but is in danger of eternal damnation . Or else how can one will enter into a strong first man s house. 30 u : But blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness. All man ner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men . 197 do your children cast them out ? therefore they shall be your judges.good . neither in the world to come. forgiven unto men. being evil. and spoil his goods. and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. He hath an unclean spirit. He that is not with spoil and he that gathereth not with me.

in passages.. The Evangelist Matthew employs a similar expression. xxii. And it was re vealed unto see death. that Ver.&quot. and : s) father Zacharias prophesied. mother when And it came to pass. waiting for the consolation of Israel and the Holy Ghost was upon him. filled with the And his (John Holy Ghost. Ver. ? If I by Beelzebub by whom therefore they shall do your children cast them out ? be your judges. he came by the ver. This will fully appear from the following heaven. filled i. that he should not the Lord s Christ. make thine enemies thy footstool. 67 was filled with the Holy Ghost. ver. 25. Ch. Sit thou on my hand. 43 : .&quot.&quot. before he had seen him by the Holy Ghost. even from his :&quot. Baptist) shall Luke. : leaped in her womb . 36: &quot. : And behold. the babes womb. right ch. &quot. and was it not of the same nature as that by which the children of Israel performed theirs cast out devils. 41 Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary. in leading righteous men to truth. subsequent to his ascent to consequence of his repeated intercession with the Father. 15 And he (John the with the Holy Ghost. whose name was Simeon and the man in same man .&quot. vers. there was a : Jerusalem. and Elizabeth was &quot. before Jesus had commenced the performance of his divine commmission. xii. in the in guiding his true way of God. this and even before he had appeared in same manner as it afterwards operated followers to the world .David Mark.198 SECOND APPEAL by which Jesus performed his miracles the same origin. be ch. &quot. 26 &quot. &c. It may not be without use to notice here. himself said by the Holy Ghost.&quot. And Spirit into the temple. ch. The till Lord I said to my Lord. that frequent instances are related in the Scriptures of the influence of the Spirit of God. ii. was just and devout.&quot.

vers. who proceedeth from the Father. to Christ. &quot. nor of its this admission of self-existence identity with God.How 199 then doth David in ver.&quot. as I have already 130: a circumstance which may pos as are have tended to confirm such early in rendered. so as to afford to believers of the Tri nity an excuse for their profession of the Godhead of Scriptures. The have met with are Peter said.But From which they Ghost lieth to God. be supposed. and was led by the Spirit into the iv. filled &quot. Jesus. but unto conclude. the term &quot. send unto you from the Father.i : spirit call him Lord? Luke ch. applied figuratively in a finite sense to wilderness. I whom only remark.&quot. He will that lieth to the ver. : 3. why hath Satan to the Holy Ghost ? Thou hast not lied unto men. that any sin or blasphemy against one of the attributes of God is of course reckoned a sin or blasphemy against God himself. But amounts neither to a recognition of the the attribute. ch. With res- . even the Spirit of truth. returned from Jordan. I need testify of me. their partial to the doctrine of the Trinity.4: thine heart to Ananias. ch. or as Spirit a person of God. 26 : John. Holy when the Comforter is come God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that the manifestation of this holy attribute of God is peculiar We find in the Scriptures to the Christian dispensation.And It must not. therefore. in which the the Holy Ghost.God&quot. &quot. this effect that I v. &quot. fess prepossessed But with respect to the inability notions of the deity of Holy Ghost I must con whole my to find a single passage in the is addressed as God.&quot. noticed in page sibly and to some other superiors. lie only!authorities they quote to as follow Acts. xv. Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost. from their impressions. he shall As to the first of these texts.

would thus run But when God is come. the plural form of expression in the 26th verse of the first chapter of Genesis. when they . detestation of Polytheism. if the fact were not nity. absurdity. that such eminent scholars as some of those divines undoubtedly were. if so taken. commonly called the doctrine of the Tri It could scarcely be believed. too notorious.And God said. after our likeness. and not merely an expres &quot.&quot.&quot. the believers of numerous gods under one Godhead. even God : sion for the influence of who proceedeth from God Can there be an idea more polytheistical than what flows from these words ? Yet those that maintain this interpretation express their &c. of interpretation. pearance of unreasonableness I find to plead mystery in defence of their under the plea of mystery. has been quoted by some divines as tending to prove the doctrine of the deity of the Holy Ghost. with the deity of the Father of the Universe. and that of the Son. with a view to soften the they think themselves justified in having recourse to the term my without injustice. unreasonableness of this If. God. could be liable to such a mistake as to rely on this verse as a ground of argument in support of the Trinity.&quot. &quot. stery. accuse Hindoos. and of almost Asiatic . they cannot. whom I ( God ) will send unto you from God. every ap may be easily removed. and of truth. the passage in question. Polytheism for. Let us make man in our image. Arabic. It shews how easily prejudice the better the sphere the idiom langua- in favour of an already acquired opinion gets of learning. how successfully it darkens Were we even to disregard totally all of the Hebrew.2OO SECOND APPEAL as pect to the mission of the Spirit of truth its a proof of being a separate existence. that my great surprise. &quot.

&quot.&quot. and also with the spirit of the whole of the Old Testament. in which the &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. : gular 4 : &quot. .our likeness. composed in the latter it would be consistent with the pensities but there is nothing in the Hindoo system of religion . In the former case. words that can be with any justice construed as pointing to the Trinity. iv. ch. .our . image&quot. without determining whether their number was three or three hundred. the lowest degree of plurality in the first personal pronoun both in Heb rew and Arabic. would imply a plurality of Gods. it would be almost necessary for the purpose of obtaining some fixed number as implied by those terms. . and &quot. These are not the only difficulties attend if they should be ing the interpretation of those terms : viewed in any other than a singular sense. to adopt either two. and of course without specifying their per in that case sons. the verse cited might countenance the doctrine of the duality of the Godhead entertained by Zirdusht and his followers. to express the respect due to the persons denot ed by the noun and to understand the term. the quotation would still by no ing means answer their purpose for the verse in question a plural . No middle point in the unlimited series of num ber being determined. ver. ges. representing the God of goodness and the of a God of evil to have jointly created mixed nature of good and evil pro man. &quot. in 2OI which the plural number is often used for the singular.&quot.The number is distinctly used and Lord our God is one Lord . found in the verse as convey meaning. in Dent. or to take the highest number of Gods with which human imagination has peopled the heavens. they would So involve contradictiun with the very next verse sin God created man in his own image.

&quot.) also ( in the Qoran.! &quot. ) it is a wellfact that in the Jewish and Mohummudan scrip is which tures. \lb H^ *V\ r6t^K I send? and who will go for us?&quot. Verse 29th. for me. as well as in common is discourse. the plural form is often used in a singular sense. with his horn in time and it has been testified to owner. God is represented to have spoken in the plural number. But what which are we to think of such reasoning as that finds a confirmation of the doctrine of the Tri in verse 3. xxi. I We are meaning I) | am ) ujJ| a^^jfjjjx nearer than the jugular vein.If Judges.Then his masters (that is. those ( who are tolerably versed in Hebrew and known only refined Hebrew. Exodus^ ch.&quot. is. and sufficiently from the Qoran. (that is. . mj his vi.2O2 SECOND APPEAL To Arabic. I ) -* -*&amp.holy. shall u To fitf Hebrew. whom So &quot. In these two texts of the Qoran. 4. his master) shall bring him unto the Hebrew &quot./ Ver. Stf 6th Hebrew.Surely we (meaning created every thing in proportion. in 1 the original his mas Scripture PltW lh ID &quot.gt. 1^r6tfn ^JHK Win&quot. nity in the thrice repeated term ch. &quot.&quot. ver.&quot.TO owners ver 8 : 1 (that to his ch.pjntf OS ters (meaning his master) have given him a wife. &quot.&quot.But push past. cannot be supposed to have em ployed a mode of expression which he could have sup posed capable of being considered favourable to the although Mohummud Trinity. the subject of discourse this is superiority of intended to be kept in view : when the apparent from the following quota tions taken both from the Old Testment in Hebrew. pSjnD *W\n\ Dtt^ SoDO X\n if the ox were wont to *T]ty D^ &quot. &quot.) Isaiah.

that have been as resorted to. my by Jesus So human name nature.gt. for a length of time.gt. repetitions God. spa. and the Holy Ghost.. was. the Word.) and met with approbation. are worthy of notice only they serve to exhibit the extraordinary force of pre- judice and superstition. This is supposed to &amp. head. and the water. Deus in Arabic. v. representing it as the yth verse ch. the Father. n]!T[ in Greek. ver. . have been at first stands as ver. though few value to it biblical critics ever attached the smallest is either way. From that time it has been the common practice to insert this verse amongst those which are col lected in support of the Trinitarian doctrine.&quot.My God. 46. in the Hebrew. . that some should quote in support of the Trinity the following sentence: &quot. in clearly denotes the quadrality of the Godhead!! But these and all similar modes of argument Sunscrit. the Spirit. in Matthew. xxvii. .&quot. of the term in his or &quot. of the first epistle of John. known in the but was afterwards placed editions. composed as a paraphrase upon what and there are same chapter. . most probably in the fifteenth century. The most extraordinary circumstance is.Eli. equally establishes the duality of the God holy being composed of four letters. and these three are one. three that bear witness n earth. ch. 8 of the (&quot. the &quot. however. This interpretation so modern. Oios and in Latin. also the of the Supreme Deity . Eli. and at last introduced in margin to the next. It may have served in this way to confirm and strengthen prejudice. as an only in oral circulation of some original verse.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and these three agree in It one. Q&amp. ^jlj . vi.For there are three that bear record in heaven. and the blood .i 2O3 Isaiah! Following this mode of argument.&quot.

Jesus of Nazareth. has excited great doubts as to the accuracy of other passages generally relied upon for works on the . 22 : &quot. ver. I trust. men of Israel. far less that exacted acknowledgment of rite its truth they from those into whom they admitted by the ii. ( who the Bible. that such an interpolation. it may be worth while to examine whether it be included by them amongst the doctrines of the Christian This question may be immediately determined religion. ch. by referring to the history of the Acts of the Apostles . seen ditinctly that none of the lessons taught by Christ to his disciples teach us to believe in him as God but as most Trinitarian authors . hear these man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs. a . we should certainly find it insisted upon in the for if But we they addressed to their converts. that indicates the profession of such a discourses shall belief by the Apostles themselves an .Ye words.) have omitted to insert it in their late New Testament knowing. look in vain for any expressoin amongst those re ported by Luke. which God did by Acts.204 SECOND APPEAL so obvious. its support. perhaps. so far from strengthening the doctrine they maintain. of Baptism the faith of Christianity. have already. such as Griesbach and never allowed their zeal for their sect to overcome the prudence and candour with which they were endowed. and that of several Trinitarian Editors and Commentators Michaelis. We assert that his doctrine was fully revealed by his Apostles speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. the doctrine of the Trinity had been considered by them as an essential part of what they were commanded to teach.

as ye yourselves also know 32 : u This hath God raised up. 2(K him in the midst of you. &c. witnesses. both Philip and the eunuch and he baptized him. behold.&quot. iv. iii. 42 And he commanded &quot. v.&quot. Ch.&quot.The kings of the earth stood up. and to testify that it is he who was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and . 36 : Therefore let all the house of Israel that know assuredly. Ch.How * : God : us to preach unto the people. For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus. standing on the right hand of : God. a Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you &quot. with all 38 &quot. none other name under heaven given among men.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot. I see and the Son of lievest Man the heaven opened. anointed. 31 Him has God exalted :&quot. ver. for to give repentance to Israel. whereof we all are Jesus .&quot.vii. 12 &quot. thou mayest. I believe that Jesus Christ the Son of still : God. xii. and against his Christ. &quot.&quot. Ch. which will not hear that of your brethren. and forgiveness of sins. that God hath made same Jesus. Vers.38 anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power. : me him shall ye hear in all whatsoever he shall say unto you. ver.Ch.&quot. 56 : And said. shall be destroyed from among the people. vers. ver. both Lord and Christ. 26. 22 and 23 For Moses truly said unto the Fathers. And he commanded : the chariot to stand and they went down both into the water. that every soul. whereby? we must be saved. x. And it shall things. Ch. Ch. 37. whom thou hast. vers.And Philip said. come to pass. and the rulers were gathered for there is : together against the Lord. like unto . Ver. ver.&quot.&quot. If thou bethine heart. And he an is swered and said. 27 &quot.&quot. &quot. with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour. whom ye have crucified.Neither is there salvation in any other : . Prophet.

SECOND APPEAL Ch. so zealously maintained as fundamental by the generality of modern Christians. a celebrated author among Trinitarians. men and brethren.&quot. although he repeatedly avowed that he was Mesaiah. perfect P. the Son he knew that. ver. xvii. : order which took place afterwards whoever Christ as the Saviour of mankind. Vol. that through this man preached : &quot.suffered. according to their law. 100 &quot. that their master was a Prophet. ver. until the commencement of the fourth century . and risen I again from the dead is Christ. I shall extracts that the doctrine of the Trinity. unto you the forgiveness of sins. who were supported by I. : Be it known unto you is there fore. and acknowledged : . the authority of a monarch. : and that this Jesus. As to the nature of those doctrines of Christianity deemed essential in the content myself with making a few from the Ecclesiastical History of Mosheim. we ever find them representing him as the In the same manner. Jesus himself never assumed that character to himself. or even a secon dary article of Christian faith. Nor in this first century was the distinction made between Christians of a more or less Mosheim. 3 Opening and alleging.&quot. whom preach unto you Thus we their lives find the Apostles never hesitated to hazard by declaring before the Jews. xiii.sermons do true God. Ch. which will prove earliest times. the Son of the liv ing God which was equally offensive to their countrymen. that Christ must needs have .&quot. .and then it was introduced after long and violent discussions by the majority of an assem bly. whereby would draw the penalty of death upon himself. the expected Messiah. he of God. made not its appearance as an essential. as if they had called him God himself yet in none of the : . 38 &quot.2O6 dead.

and the Holy Ghost. are matters that hitherto were neither disputed nor explained. that the Christian doctors entertained different sentiments upon this subject without giving the least offence. P. these persons to each other. troversy. . had happily escaped the vain curiosity of and been left undefined and undeter particular set of ideas. that three distinct persons exist in the Deity but the mutual relation of . was the doctrine of three persons of the Godhead : a doctrine which in the three preceding centuries human researches. as we commonly speak. with res pect to which the Church had consequently observed a nothing was declared to be the faith profound silence : of Christains in this matter.&quot. and received into the Church. Hence it happened. nor were there any modes of expression prescribed as requisite to be used in speaking of the mystery. 2O7 made solemn 411 &quot. a much new Egypt. : after its commencement. upon a subject of higher importance. even in the year 317. and discoursed variously concerning the distinction between Father. that if.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.Soon profession of his confidence in him was immediately baptized. which kindled such deplorable division through out the Christian world. Son. mined by any The Church indeed had frequently decided against the Sabellians and others. and the tinction that subsists nature of the dis between them. that there was a real difference between the Father and the Son. On this quotation I beg leave to remark. and that the Holy Ghost was distinct from them both or. in the first and purest ages of Christ ianity.&quot. each one following his respective opinion with the utmost liberty. and with consequences of a yet more pernicious nature the subject of this fatal con contention arose in . the followers of Christ entertained such different .

but also of this assertion was the same essence with the Father . in which effect. and that troubles and commotions which the passions of men too often mingle with religious dis putes. contented himself at first with addressing a letter to the he admonished them without contending parties. the doctrine of Arius was condemmed . one of the Presbyters. as little connected with the fundamental and essen doctrines of religion. and Holy Spirit. P. Mosheim. put an end to their disputes but when the Prince saw that his admonitions were to . a man of a subtile turn. whose name was Alexander. and without even breaking the tie of Christian affection towards each other. 412 : In an assembly of Presbyters of Alexandria. were spreading and increasing daily throughout the empire. : opposed by Arius. looking upon the sub and tial of this controversy as a matter of small importance.. without incurring the charge of heresy and heterodoxy. nor the same mutual forbearance maintained amongst those selves who &quot. expressed his sentiments on this head with a high degree of freedom and confidence and maintained. he assembled at length in the year 325 the famous Council of Nice in Bithynia. the Bishop of that city.The Emperor Constantine. wherein the deputies of the Church Universal were summoned to put an end to this controversy. Christ declared consubstantial or . call them Christians.&quot. In this general council. and remarkable for his eloquence. among other things.2O8 SECOND APPEAL opinions on the subject of the distinction between Father Son. it is a this melancholy contrast that the same freedom of opinion on subject is not now allowed. after many keen de bates and violent efforts of the two parties. that the Son was not only of the same eminence and dignity. Page 414 ject : &quot.

and his followers compelled to give their assent to the creed or confession among composed by this council. or women become tions . contemplated by their posterity with an en was the reason of their being exalted honours. thusiastic gratitude. into celestial We find also in the Acts of the be God by the people of Apostles.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. ver. and both Paul and Barnabas regarded as gods by the inhabitants . illustrious the merit by remarkable actions or useful inven of these distinguished and eminent persons. of the same essence with the Father Presbyter banished of faith which was 2OQ . be easily accounted More than nine-tenths of the Christians of that age. xxviii. or kings and generals who had founded empires. as well as from the I. to whom the idea of a plurality of Gods was most familiar and acceptable. nature with the Father was supposed to be a matter of the funda The reason for three persons of the Godhead for. they looked when he . the doctrine of the Son being of the same small importance. as I the majority being in favour of the at the Council of Nice may noticed before.of Lystra and the Saviour was ranked . were either ancient heroes renowned for noble exploits and worthy deeds. as appears from the following quotation. u Howbeit. p.&quot. the vanquished the Illyrians. and little connected with mental and essential doctrines of religion. Vol. 6 gods even by professed heathens. that so late as the year 314. It must not escape the notice of my readers. in the number of false : Acts. Roman and &quot. 25 : deities of all nations Mosheim.The Grecian histories. and to whose reason as well as practice the worship of a Deity in the human shape was perfectly conso nant. including the emperor and princes.&quot. Paul declared to Melita. were Gentile converts. ch.

and saw no harm come he was a to him. Mosheim. n &quot. nevertheless. sincere assent of any instilled in early one educa Early impressions alone can induce a Christian to believe that three are one. Christianity. : proposed his being enrolled among the gods of Rome. &quot. These facts coincide entirely with my own so firm persuasion of inconsistent with the impossibility. 25 : to us in the likeness of men. constituting him one of the persons of the Godhead. so struck with the account of his life and actions.&quot. which the opposition of the Senate hindered from taking If some of the heathens. nay even among the u So illustrious was the fame Page 46 of Christ s power grown after his resurrection from the dead and the miraculous gifts shed from on high upon his Apostles.Many who were not willing to adopt the whole as of the doctrines of Christianity were appears from undoubted records. as that of three persons in the evidence of the senses that a doctrine one being. and ver. xiv. from the nature of effect. and so charmed with the sublime purity of his precepts. it verted to ity among their false when nominally con is no wonder others. .&quot. and one is millions . said God. that they numbered him ( Jesus) among the greatest heroes.210 SECOND APPEAL (Paul) should have swollen or fallen down dead suddenly - r but after they had looked a great while. : The gods are come I down p. and should have passed a decree. Vol. they changed their minds. that the Emperor Tiberius is said to have gods themselves.&quot. of their superstitions. and one is three just as by the . could rank Jesus gods. same means a Hindoo is made to believe that millions are and to imagine that an inanione.&quot. Ch. should have placed him on an equal if with the true God. should ever gain the into whose mind it has not been tion.

which have been already partly touched upon. divine capacity. It is main~ tained that his nature was double. ch. Moses performed and commanded the heavens and the earth. and &quot. that in miracles. wherewith Moses. ch. divine and human : . O ye heavens.TO THP: CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Israel. (&quot. I beg to revert to one or two arguments respecting the nature of Jesus Christ. what can prevent one of his as possessed of both nature. and from the circumstance &quot. wonderful works contrary to performing the usual course of nature ? If so. xxxii. being divine as Son of God. and human as Son of man that in the former capacity he performed miracles. since Moses. above &quot. I U I have made and he is also called man. ch. . and not from a parent or tutor. and as man was subject to and experienced human feeling joy and sorrow. thee a God to Pharaoh u man of blessed from esteeming Moses and others. as manner required by the the invisible God. xxxiii ver. . and capable of assuming various forms. (Exodus.) and consequently it may be alleged. Is it possible to consider a being in the human shape. and I will speak and hear. the Dcut. ver. . nature of the mortality human all the feelings of mortal beings.&quot. I cannot help refusing my assent to any doctrine which I do not find scriptural.&quot. and exercised authority over the wind and the sea. likewise. acting daily in a race. I ( &quot. As I have sought to attain the truths of idol is Christianity from the words of the author of this religion and from the undisputed instructions of his holy Apostles. from a mere figurative application of the terms Son of God or God to him. Before concluding. the words of my mouth. O earth. is called God distinctly. ver. plea sure and pain. &quot. Duet. vii. 211 mate a living substance. his Give ear. God.

SECOND APPEAL I .not only acknowledge the same intimate connexion of literal sense. &c. The latter taken literally.*) and that in his he suffered death and other miseries. being inconsistent with expressions reason. that when two seemingly contradictory. Thus God is declared to be immaterial. and yet to have hands.212 &quot. and so I say so. applied that. of this general Were any one. and the other in a figurative sense. two at sorts of minds. should be taken in the its term &quot. is universally adopted this. Neither Jesus nor Moses ever declared. and as perform man. ai e understood as metaphorically implying his power and knowledge. is your life&quot. ver. this as If God give . Jesus should be considered God in the human shape. should be taken in a literal. applied to any other than the Supreme Being. eyes. &c. eternal a loss to and perishable know what is rational and what human and two sets of then we shall not only be is absurd. one being pos God and man . are applied to one per then that which is most consistent with reason and son. divine and . little The mode of interpreting the Scriptures is which terms.&quot. with the context. that exists between matter and the . souls. and with other passages of the Scriptures. to insist that to Jesus. consequently. &quot. I say so. because human capacity. while the former is interpreted in its strict and literal sense : in like manner the term u Lord in God. God. For it (the it word of Moses) is not a vain thing for you. or no but shall find our senses and experience of use to us.&quot. he would actually . must be figuratively understood.. as . and perform that we great a latitude to the modes of reasoning employed sessed of two sorts to justify the idea of of consciousness. and matter with God. &quot. 47 . defiance mode of interpretation.

were to hold good. properties. in consistency with the distinc tion of three persons. one. God God for.Mother of God&quot. are to be esteemed as one. Admitting for a moment the propriety of this the Father. ^ the Father would be acknowledged as a separate . now conclude my manner the modes reply with noticing in a) brief of illustration that Trinitarians adopt both in conversation and in writing in support of the unity of the Godhead. the Supreme Author of the universe and it is the use Brother of God &quot. and will its and perceptions existence . which have no distinct the same manner as weight and locality are the properties of matter. and to James and which are highly derogatory to the character of others. will. though distinct persons. analogy. so 1st. yet are in fact the Son. of such but also would necessarily justify the appli phrases as &quot. Virgin Mary. without having existence as in separate substances. and God the Holy Ghost. To admit that all things. might case be advanced and supported on the same I in that plea. to the &quot. That as the soul.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. are possible for God. . the soul according to the established system of theo is believed to be the substance. whether possible or impossible to our understanding. and though they are three things. then. is certainly favourable to the idea of a mixed nature of God and and man . perception. . of phrases similar to these which has ligion of the rendered the re Hindoos so grossly absurd and contemptible. but at the same time would be highly detrimental : both to religion and society for all sorts of positions tales. it serves to destroy totally their position as to the three existences of the Godhead being distinct sub stances logy. If this analogy. 213 human cation soul. however impossible they may be.

are connected together . in endeavouring to the reasonableness of the idea respecting the unity prove of three distinct substances of the Godhead. that whatever argument tends to prove a distinction between substances. though separate sub Were we to admit the separate exist stances.214 SECOND APPEAL existence like the soul. . ence of heat. it would serve as an analogy so far as these three distinct substances. and perception are three substances. shewing the possibility of the position which they assume. as will Son and the Holy Spirit and perception a doctrine which resembles that of the heretic Sabellius and the early Egyptian Christians. . first and its will and will. But it is univer sally acknowledged. that. and God the Holy Ghost. power of expanding other substances. they should establish that the soul. rays of light are fluid substances and frequently found emanating from other bodies as well as the sun and heat. and . from com It is therefore necessary. that these distinct persons are illustrating one in nature and essence . and that they are at the same time one and then should draw such an analogy. 2ndly. but the must be considered are of the soul : his attributes. That as notwithstanding the distinct exist ence of the sun. is frequently unaccompanied by the rays of the sun. they are considered as one so God the Father. parison between them and the soul. perception. a point still disputed amongst philosophers. an exist ence of which the most remarkable property is its . are one. : for the sun is acknowledged to be a compact body subject to absorption. but by no means would answer the purpose of their position. God the Son. his rays of light and his rays of heat. must necessarily overturn their unity in essence and existence . though different in nature.

pre-existent state. can allege the united state of the soul . advanced. light. the Son. in reference to another quality. is qualities. himself . that as the Son of Man designates . the analogy it attempted to be drawn must be abandoned.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. which They and the body as but no analogous to the union of the Father and Son one who believes in the separate existence of the soul. serves to deny the Trinity. that one and the same and being in one of his capacities is superior to himself. so that unless they Some allege. is inferior to again. for a moment suppose . that as a single substance possesses various and consequently is viewed differently so the . in which he is deemed inferior such an I know not whether to consider to both. justifies us in believing. one Father. in which he is generally supposed and in his office of sanctification . Again. after all. and another capacity is at the disposal of himself according to the entreaty of his Son. argument since it as reasoning. that he is in one case his own beloved Son. and not as one person possessing it is the object of Trinitarians to prove. This mode of then in arguing. 21$ therefore the unity in nature and essence which they assert to exist in the three persons of the Godhead not being found in the sun. it to be of the same essence as the admit the immateriality of the body and assert the materiality of the Son in his Father alone. which represents the Godhead as consisting of three distinct different attri persons. named the Holy Ghost. tor is inferior to the Father is termed the Son. butes. and the Holy Ghost are in fact God yet the Deity in his capacity of Creator of the world is called the Father. this illustration also must be set aside. and heat. or as a mockery of reason . and in his capacity of Media .

either ideal or perceptible in a true sense.2l6 SECOND APPEAL nature. itself. the Son tain. a total impossibility of composition for com position absolutely requires articles or parts of different identity and essence nothing being capable of com would be . and the Holy Spirit being of the same nature and essence. and the Holy Spirit. ( that is. term u God com mon genus noun.. whether these parts ( Father. represent God as a compound substance. the Father. which they main In the latter case. or each possessed different nature or essence. there . are of a In the former case. so the human of God. &c. con sisting of three parts. The argument . name. com but it of these three parts is not impossible destroys the opinion which they entertain respecting the Father. position with substance is inconsistent with that distinct compound personality of Father. animal functions. the Father. and Spirit. so adduced by them would include in reality a denial of the epithet God to each part of the Godhead for no portion of an existence. this mode of reasoning would stand good but Godhead must in this case be brought to a level with other genera. a representation in support of which they can offer Some no scriptural authority. and Godhead as a and that Jesus was actually begotten of the Deity. Son. wish to ) know. and the Son. capable of performing . the idea of such a Besides. however. I would. and not like mankind. Son and Spirit of the same nature and existence. ) a . Son of God expresses the nature as a Were we to admit the a proper &c. the Son. and the Holy position Spirit being of different nature. and of course implies that the Godhead is liable to divisibility. can be called the existence .

&quot. iv. and is successful in procuring mercy to the offending animal. This mode of reasoning is between God and man most evidently opposed to common sense. ch. I say.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. ver 24 &quot. in his simple nature. vers. one baptism one God and Father of all. that when any and inclined to punish one of angry with. ver 6 1 : God. a herd of cattle which may have trespassed on his grounds. and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent. I say. 5. b &quot. without assuming in additon that of the creature in whose behalf he intercedes.Then cometh the end. stood mediator.One Lord. ch. all. Moses. as it is one of the that a part is less Scriptures the Father constantly called God in the strict and full signification of the term. itself 21 7 . sense . . who and through all.&quot. the Father. axioms of abstract truth. to we observe. opposed . and other Prophets. xv. that Abraham. that unless Jesus as is be considered diator qualified to . I Cor.To us there is but one Father. the only true God. that sect is. when he : shall have delivered up the kingdom to God. Cor. viii. ver. he cannot perform the office of me because it is only by this character that he intercedes for guilty creatures compound with their offended God. xvii. God and man. ch. and inter- . Ephesians. ch. even the i &quot. but we find in the than the whole first 3 : This is life eternal.&quot. and in you Another argument which has great weight with is above all. : . : &quot. common feels because one or of when its a rider wishes to chastise his horse it is on account viciousness. opposed to scripture because we find in the sacred writings. John. as well as to the Scriptures though their zeal in support of the Trinity has not permitted them to see it. that they may know thee. one faith. his friend or neighbour generally who intercedes in its behalf.

19. I will : ver.&quot. Gen. the fire was quenched. I. 18 &quot. from thy mercy. We have for we have spoken against the Lord. peradventure make an atonement for your sins. ch.&quot. Moses said unto the people. And it came to pass on the morrow.Pardon. according unto the greatness of inquity this people. O let not the Lord speak yet but this once: ture ten shall be found there. it xi. : But if in union. seems to have been an but none of them is Prophets with supposed to have been clothed office common to all : Godhead and manhood ver. : and now I shall go up unto the Lord. xxi.When the people complained. &quot. ver. vers.Therefore And the Lord said. that sin. and against sinned. and destroy it I will Peradven I will not for ten s sake. 7 : the people came to Moses. be angry. &quot. ch. thee pray unto the Lord that he take away the serpents : from us xxxii. Exod. xxvii.21 8 SECOND APPEAL in behalf of . be Prophets. I Egypt. word. the Lord. people cried unto Moses and when Moses prayed unto . Ch. doned them according to thy I have par Ch. and said. ch. 32 &quot. 20: beseech thee. And Moses prayed for the people. as I noticed before and . Jeitmiah. xiv. vers. displeased the Lord and the Lord heard it.&quot. . ch. And he said. even until now.And he (Abraham) said. and his anger was kindled. I find several others in com performing the office of mediator and intercessor indeed this mon with Jesus. an offending people with but none of them possessed the J\nmb. ceded successfully their offended double nature of 2 : God God and man. and if the word of they . Ye have sinned a great : ver 30 &quot. and consumed them And the that were in the uttermost parts of the camp. xviii.&quot. and the fire of the Lord burnt among them. and as thou hast forgiven Moses prayed to the Lord. the of this people. &quot.&quot.

and since. on have supposed the divine and human so morally impossible for God even to accept inter cession from a mere human being in behalf of the human should have advanced that race. and was made flesh.&quot. To is appointment avoid the supposed dishonour attached to the of a mediator less than divine. Other arguments of the same nature are frequently advanced. natures to be so diametrically opposed to each other. but they are altogether much fewer in num convincing. &c. them now make Deut. I regret very to shew you the much that a sect generally the one hand. the Deity declared by them to have assumed the human shape. that it is enlightened. ch. and himself to the feelings and incli natural to the human species which is not only nations to have subjected . on the other hand.&quot. . properly introduced them Guide to Peace and Happiness. the Lord be with them. Hosts. in evincing the ber. in the discharge as a of his duty towards his countrymen.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. than those which are forward by Hindoos to support their commonly brought truth and polytheism. then. and. the Compiler has. as a last resource. to the Lord of let 219 intercession ver. they do not depend for their support on the ground of mystery. should. Since. possessing all the members and exercising all the functions of man propositions which are morally inconsistent with each other. the Deity joined to his own nature that of man. inconsistent with the immutable nature of God. 5 &quot. and far less excellence of the Precepts of Jesus. (Moses) stood between the Lord and you word of the Lord. but which highly derogatory to the honour and glory we are taught to ascribe to him. v. there is no need of the aid of metaphysical arguments. : I at that time.

into great errors. not only lay stress upon them. in support of the sentiments generally these references adopted. is used by the Apostle in reference to the Saviour. through really applied to Israel. when unaccompanid with their respective contexts. repre sented there as the Son of God. so they went from them unto Baalim. IT cannot have escaped the notice of attentive readers of the Scriptures. I. and both were denominated in the Scriptures the thus runs from ch. then I loved him. Thus Matthew ii. On the Quotations from the Old Testament contained in the New. that the bare quotations in the Testrment from the Old. and called my Son out of : Egypt.APPENDIX. chapter xi. are liable to be misunderstood. 15. but even lead others very often. such phrases as apparently funding corroborate their already acquired opinions. &quot. &quot.&quot. &quot.Out Egypt have I called my Son. The . in consideration of a near in resemblance between their circumstances stance : the in both Israel and Jesus were carried into Egypt and recalled from thence. Evangelist refers to verse ist. of ffosea which. As they they sacrificed called them. The passage of Hosca &quot. and burnt incense to graven . though unin of tentionally. Son of God. 1st to the 3rd : When Israel was a child. vers. New Those who in are not well versed in the sacred writings. No. xi.

that live. taking them by but they knew not that I healed them. which thou knewest that he might make not. which he hath commanded thee. vi. by bread alone.&quot. 7 u Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thee know. 4. viii. . is declared to have sacrificed to Baalim. . neither -did thy fathers know . but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man Matthew iv. but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God the same in Luke iv. them methodically. ver. ly be ascribed to the Saviour. Ye shall diligently keep the commadments of the Lord your God. 16. Matthew &quot. 4 : Man shall not live by bread alone. as ye tempted him in Massah. and his testimonies. compared with Dent. begin to arrange such quotations as were made by Jesus agreeably to the proposal of the Reverend Editor. 17 : &quot. and fed thee with manna. images. and his statutes. I 221 their arms taught Ephraim also to go.&quot.&quot. and to convince my readers that all the a references in the New Testament with their contexts manifest the unity of God and natural inferiority of the Messiah to the Father of the universe. Quotations by Jesus himself exactly agreeing with the Hebrew. In which who is represented as a child of God.&quot. I have endeavoured ning with himself. With of such view therefore to remove the the possibility errors. which cannot just Israel.Ye shall not tempt the Lord your God. and suffered thee to hunger. iv.SECOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. : man shall not live thy God&quot. compared with Dcut. . u 3 : And he humbled thee.

or originally to Jesus passage principally himself. The stone which the builders refused is is s become the head-stone doing this . is it is marvellous in our xii. 42 the same is become the head of the corner : : this the Lord s doing. Matthew xix. 23: (says David) wil] for thou hast heard me.&quot.&quot.But go ye and learn what that have mercy. and not sacrifice com meaneth. .I Luke xx. and in the of accommodation to Jesus. 22. is God that has Matthew Sit thou on footstool . salvation. self&quot. com pared with Psalms ex viii. of the corner. 19. Luke xx. 44 : . till I make thine enemies thy the same in Mark xii. 12 father and mother. xxii. and the same in Mark eyes. &quot. 10. &quot.222 SECOND APPEAL 13: &quot. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy : : Honour thy compared with Exodus xx. goeth and thy judgments are as the light that For I desired mercy. and not sacrifice . I will &quot. thy neighbour as thyself : Matthew rejected. and art become my praise thee . xix. my right hand. of my mouth forth. evident in either case.&quot. : Thou shalt not avenge nor bear any grudge . that raised the stone so rejected. The Lord said unto my Lord. xxii. : &quot. 39 u Honour thy father and thy mother and. it is is entirety left to the discretion of it my readers . 17.&quot. 42. that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee and Levit. 36. This the Lord it is marvellous in our is To decide whether way but applied to David. with Hosea vi. &quot. eyes. but thou shalt love against the children of thy people I am the Lord. 5. 1 8 &quot. . 1 and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings.6: u Therefore have I hewed pared them by the prophets I have slain them by the words Matthew ix.The stone which the builders xxi.

of God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. And he &quot. : and all of the Most High but ye shall die wherein Jesus shews from this one of the princes that the term God is figuratively applicable quotation. 1 gation of I the mighty . Thou 14: . have said.Thou God. Go and tell Hear ye indeed. Matthew Dent. and who will go for us ? Then said Whom Ir (Isaiah. and shalt swear by his name. 7: &quot. you are chilldren of like men. serve him. and hear. .&quot. and fall like in the Scriptures to creatures of a superior nature. until I make thine my enemies thy footstool. shalt fear the Lord thy God.God standeth in the congre &quot. i. J. see This censure has ye indeed. he judgeth among the gods. said. reference to the conduct of the people to whom original . . and shall compared with Isaiah vi. 6. 35: compared with Psalm Ixxxii. and him only 13 : shalt shalt worship the Lord thy thou serve compared with &quot.&quot. send. The Lord unto my right hand. shall I U I heard the voice of the Lord. 10 u : &quot. Matthew shall xiii. Quotations made by Jesus hints el nearly agreeing ^u^th the Hebrew. but perceive not. 223 said compared with Psalms Lord. u By hearing ye shall and not understand not perceive&quot. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion rule thou in the midst of : thine This passage is simply applied to the Messiah. manifesting that the victory gained by him over his enemies was entirely owing to the influence enemies. and its context. vi. I. Ye are gods.&quot. 9. but understand not and send me. Sit thou at ex. and seeing ye shall see. iv. saying. I. Ye are gods John x.) Here am this people. 2: &quot.

Luke x. flesh of my flesh she shall be called woman because leave . Matthew xxvi. face for he was afraid to look upon Matthew xxii. shalt not kill. 30. shalt not commit adultery. and with saith all thy might. am the God of God of Isaac. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 5 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine : &quot. unto his wife Matthew Thou Thou do no murder. Lord thy the same in : heart. shalt not bear false witness. shall be one flesh &quot. I thy the father.Thou shalt shalt love thy neighbour as &quot. the and Moses hid is God.&quot. God with all thy heart. and one flesh. Honour thy father and -six. of Abraham. vi. compared with Deitt. 37 : Thou shalt love the &quot.224 SECOND APPEAL Isaiah was sent. and with all thy ^i : soul. she was taken out of man. 23 : And Adam said. Thou shalt not steal. compared with Genesis is ii. Jacob&quot. 5 u For this cause shall a man leave and they father and mother. and the &quot. iii. Thou : the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.&quot. 19: &quot.Honour 16 with Exodus xx. &quot. his father Therefore shall a shall cleave man and shall his and they mother. 18.&quot. and shall cleave to his wife : : twain &quot. 12 compared thyself&quot. shalt not steal. : This now bone of my bone. and . 27. and compared God of Isaac. &quot. but it is applied by Jesus in an accom modated sense to that of the Jews of his time. and.Then Jesus unto them. . with Exodus 6 : Moreover he said. and . the God God of Jacob. with all thy mind Mark xii. Thou Thou Thou : shalt not bear false witness against thy the neighbour. 32 &quot. Matthew xxii. Matthew xix.I am the God God of of Abraham. thy mother . that thy days may be long in thy father and thy mother. be &quot.

All ye shall be offended because of I will : 225 me this night for it smite the Shepherd. 18 &quot. whose disciples were in like manner dispersed while he was suffering afflictions from his enemies or but in both cases his total is directly applicable to Jesus . whose subject. the flock shall be scattered abroad compared with is &quot. either was last originally applied Agrippa king of the Jews. and the sheep shall I will turn mine hand upon the little to Verse ( 7.&quot. were scattered after he had been smitten with the swore. It is written in the Prophets.&quot. which did in The word fT*OJ7 found one that lives is the original Hebrew Scripture in signifies near another. own familiar friend. submission to the Father of the too obvious to be disputed. I know but that the Scripture may be have chosen xiii. subordination universe is and &quot. and xiii.Awake. therefore the word &quot. Every man. HlD H^tf ) the and in an accommodated sense is applied by Jesus td himself. 9 against me&quot. compared with Isaiah liv. Zechcwiah herd. and great shall John whom his ** I speak not of you all.And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord be the peace of thy children. cometh unto me &quot. O that sword. smite the Shepherd. and the sheep of written. And John vi. &quot.fellow&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up : heel Mine * compared with Psalm xli. against is my Shep against the : man my fellow. the English translation not altogether correct. as justly observed by Archbishop Ncwcome. 15 .* saith the Lord of hosts be scattered j and one. : I . in whom I trusted. 7 : &quot. 13: . 45 they shall be all taught of God. fulfilled. therefore : that hath heard and hath learned of the Father.

with a lying about also with words of cause. without a cause &quot. but not in words. compared with Psalm 3 : They have spoken against tongue. is shall vii. lifted immediately applicable phel.For mine house house of prayer for all people. to Jesus. 13 : My house shall it unto them. his traitorous apostle. up his heel against me. secondarily. become a den of rob eyes?&quot.&quot. me Verse 3rd was in an originally applied to David and his enemies. &quot. xxi. hated 2. Matthew ten.Is Ivi. this house. Quotation made Hebrew by Jesus himself. sucklings thou hast perfected praise Psalm viii. which bers in your called by my name.&quot.&quot. is to David and his friend Ahitho- who betrayed him / and. 17: &quot.&quot. because of thine enemies est still the enemy and the avenger. Out of the mouth &quot. agreeing with in sense.226 eat of SECOND APPEAL my bread. 2. They compassed me hatred and fought against me without a . . and his accommodated sense to Jesus and the Jews of day. But this cometh John xv. They cix. compared with be called the IT: &quot. 16 u : the Matthew xxi. It is writ be called the house of prayer but &quot. and Judas.And said : you have made Isaiah a den of thieves &quot. Ch. that the in their law. me &quot. of babes and Out of the and sucklings hast thou ordained that thou mightstrength. 25 word might be fulfilled that is written : to pass. Quotation taken from combined Passages oj Scripture. and its preceding verse of babes compared with : mouth .

abroad : &quot. thus translated in the common version &quot. Quotations in which there reading in reason to suspect a different Hebrew. 8 &quot. 7 Smite the Shepherd. but which in verse 9 differs from the original Hebrew.l shalt thou serve vi. Quotation differing from the Hebrew. 13. and honoureth me with but their heart is far from me. and the sheep shall be scattered. &quot. serve him. and the sheep of the flock shall be &quot. but agreeing with the Septuagint. and he shall iii. &quot. Matthew xxvi.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.| 1 9 : The Spirit of the Lord is upon . who shall prepare thy way before thec compared with Malachi i Behold I will send my messenger. which &quot. or that the Apostles under stood the words in a sense different jtom that expressed in our Lexicons. the Lord thy God. compared with Zechariah xiii. 1 8. But in vain do worship me. 31: prepare the way before will smite the Shepherd. : Thou shalt and him only &amp. Luke iv. : And their fear toward me is taught by the precepts is men. in the Septuagint corresponds exactly with the gospel.&quot.&quot. Behold I send my messenger btfore thy face. Quotations slightly varying from the Suptuagint.&quot. teaching for doctrines the command they ments of men compared with Isaiah xxix. Liiftc iv.I scattered &quot. 10 This is he of whom it is written. This people draweth with their mouth. &quot.lt. and fear shalt worship the &quot. 227 Matthew nigh unto their lips . xv. : &quot. : me. 13 : Thou Lord thy God. well did Esaias prophesy of you me saying. Matthew xi. 7 9 : Ye hypocrites. compared with Dcut.

to proclaim liberty to the captives. or even equality with him. and recovering of sight bruised to . ed. because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel he hath sent me to heal the broken-heart to the poor . 2 &quot. to preach deliverance to the captive. . me. i.&quot. Now I beg the attention of my readers to these quotations ascribed to Jesus himself. and the opening of the prison to them that are bound . and appeal to them whether he assumed in any of these references the character of the Deity.- to preach the acceptable year of the : Lord compared with Isaiah Ixi. I am certain that they will find nothing of the kind : Jesus declared himself in these instances entirely subordinate Almighty God. to preach to good tidings unto the meek : he hath sent me bind up the broken-hearted. to set at liberty them that are &quot. to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. and subject to his authority^ and frequently compared himself to David or some of to the the other prophets. the blind .The spirit of the Lord God is upon me because the Lord hath anointed me .228 SECOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

6 For unto us a child is born. The Prince of Peace. .&quot. But unless Ahaz was aware of the allusion of the Prophet. that it was given to that wicked king to understand that the mother of Christ was the virgin alluded to .No. everlasting Father. unto us a &quot. as well as in the Septuagint. Counsellor. to the English translation. could Ahaz have comprehended . to wit. the kings of Syria and Israel. : TRINITARIAN Divines quote John i. (and we beheld his glory. Jerusalem. though the Evangelist John made no allusion to this passage of Isaiah . II. utter destruction was then threatened by &quot. and no one will passage must be contend for a moment. On the References made to the Old Testament in Support oj the Deity of Jesus. : son is given. Gospel of Matthew. The mighty God.And the us. the use of the definite article in this quite inexplicable . as a reference to Isaiah ix. the the son of the virgin. 114 Word was made flesh.&quot. The words a virgin. foretold by the Prophet as the applied to as deliverer though its of the city from the hands of its enemies.) full of grace and truth. and the government his shall be upon his shoulder and name shall be called Wonderful. the daughter of designated Zion. son of Ahaz. are the virgin. figuratively Hezekiah. then. the glory as of the only begotten of the Father.in the verse in The passage of Isaiah thus referred to was question. according both in the original Hebrew and in the Greek of the &quot. &quot. and dwelt among &quot. what.

when he foretold In of Assyria) shall shake to him the happy reign 32. daughter of Zion. here Jerusalem itself. It The virgin.230 SECOND APPEAL &quot. and laughed .&quot. Come down. in was commonly used in the figurative of the Prophet. and let them not vhgin daughter of my people is broken with a great breach. expressly spoken of the king of Assyria. thee to scorn. where he informs the king. the epithet u the daughter of passage was used as synonymous signifies with &quot.&quot. 12: shalt no city. word unto them Let mine eyes night and day. 17 : .Therefore thus saith the Lord Ask ye now among the heathen. i : O &quot. addressed to of Ahaz.&quot. Hczekiah.And he said. impossible to conceive that these words. for the .? On referring to 2 same Prophet make use of the very expression. bear any allusion to the virgin. 21.&quot.&quot. of the denunciation of God against Senna find the cherib. Zion.&quot. the mother of Christ and is . Thou Isaiah xviii. &quot. the Lord hath spoken daughter of Zion. O Babylon. by the expression Kings xix. and no doubt well understood language by Ahaz for we find the same words in many other which sense it : passages used to signify either a city or the people of a &quot.There fore thou shalt say this run down with tears cease . more rejoice.&quot. Ch. thou oppressed virgin. Ch. who was at This is the work that &quot. we the virgin &quot. virgin daughter of Jeremiah xiv. the that time besieging Jerusalem. who . Isaiah his He (the king hand against the mount of the hill the of Jerusalem. his successor Hezekiah. 13: &quot. which in the last daughter of Zion. the concerning him hath despised thee.the virgin. xviii. it illustrates clearly the otherwise obscure expression of the Prophet x. xlvii. blasphemous king of Assyria. and sit in the dust.

the son of . And it came to pass in the days of Isaiah vii. as in a wine-press. 23! liath heard such things the virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible thing.&quot. she shall no is rise . &quot. the king of Syria. O viigin .&quot. ii. The turn again to these thy Lord hath trodden the Lam.&quot. to reign of Hezekiah. 13: &quot.What thing ? O what thing shall I ^daughter of Jerusalem ? what thing thee. Amos more v. Ch. me to be clearly indicated by those passages. ch. nothing more than a is foretold in this comparison of them with the records of that reign I shall is requisite. 4 Again I will build thee. with their contexts. O virgin of i. and shalt the dances of them that make merry. as well that refer to and the succeeding. shall Ver. and thou shalt be built. : Judah. 13: &quot. shall I liken to virgin. together with such parts of the history of the reign of Hezekiah as appear to &quot.&quot. thy breach is &quot. thee up way marks. be adorned with thy tablets. virgin of Israel . thou shalt again go forth in Ver.Then &c. chapters. v the virgin rejoice in the dance. 21 . make thee set thine heart toward the highway. there is none as to raise her up. the daughter of Ch. that Rezin. daughter of Zion ? for ?&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.Set : turn again. : O . I take to witness for thee shall liken to thee. even : &quot. high heaps the way which thou wentest Israel. lay before my readers all those verses in these chapters that are commonly referred to by Trinitarians as alluding to the coming of therefore Christ. king of Ahaz.&quot. she forsaken upon her land . 2 : who can heal thee great like the sea The virgin of Israel is fallen. the son of Uzziah. 15 : Judah. cities. Pekah. xxxi. i the son of Jotham. To shew all that the passages in question.

232

SECOND APPEAL

Remaliah, king of Israel, went up toward Jerusalem war against it, but could not prevail against it. 2. And
it

to>

ate with Ephraim.

was told the house of David, saying, Syria is confeder And his heart was moved, and the
of his people, as the trees of the
3.

heart

wood

are

moved
Goson,,

with the wind.
forth

Then

said the

Lord unto

Isaiah,

now

to

meet Ahaz, thou, and Shearjashub thy

at the

end of the conduit of the upper pool in the high way of the fuller s field 4. And say unto him, Take fear not, neither be faint-hearted, heed, and be quiet
; ;

for the
fierce

two

tails

of these

smoking

firebrands,

for

the

anger Remaliah. 5.

of

Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of

Remaliah, have taken evil counsel against thee, saying, 6. Let us go up against Judah, and vex it, and let us

make
of
it,

a breach therein for us,

and
7.

set a

even the son of Tabeal
It
8.

:

Thus

king in the midst saith the Lord
it

God,
pass.

shall

For
head

not stand, the head
of
five

neither
of

shall

come

to

Syria
is

is

and
that

the

Damascus
years

Ream

;

Damascus, and within

threescore
it

and

be
is

Ephraim
liah
s

shall Ephraim be broken,, of the head 9. And people. Samaria, and the head of Samaria is Rema-

not a

son.

If

ye
10.

will

established.

not believe, surely ye shall not be Moreover, the Lord spake again unto

Ahaz, saying, n. Ask thee a sign of the Lord thy
ask
it

God

;

either in the depth, or in the height above.
said, I

12.

I tempt the Hear ye now, O house of David, Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will ye weary my God also ? 14. Therefore the Lord himself shall give you ia sign Behold, a virgin shall

But Ahaz
Lord.

will

not ask, neither will

13.

And

he

said,

;

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his
nuel.

233

name Imma-

know

15. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may 16. For to refuse the evil, and choose the good.

before the child shall

know

to refuse the evil,

and choose

the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken
17. The Lord shall bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father s house, days that have not come, from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah even the king of Assyria."

of both her kings.

;

"

Chap.
saying,
6.

viii. 5

:

The Lord
softly,

spake also unto
in

me

again,

Forasmuch
that

as this people refuseth the waters

of Shiloah,

go
7.

and

rejoice

Rezin and

Remaliah

s

son

;

Now

therefore,

behold, the Lord
river,

bringeth up upon them the waters

of the

strong

and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory ; and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over he all his banks 8. And ihe shall pass through Judah
; ;

shall overflow

and go over,

he

shall reach

even to the

neck

and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel." u Ch. ix. i Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be
; :

such as was in her vexation, when
afflicted

at the first

he lightly

the land of Zebulum, and the land of Naphtali and afterward did more grievously afflict her by the

way of the sea, beyond Jordan in Galilee of the nations. 2. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great
they that dwell in the land of the shadow of upon them hath the light shined. 3. Thou hast multiplied the nation, and not increased the joy they before thee according to the joy in harvest, and asjoy
light
:

death,

:

men

rejoice

when they

divide the spoil.

4.

For thou
his-

hast broken the yoke of his burden,, and the staff of

234
shoulder,

SECOND APPEAL
the rod of his Oppressor, as in the day of For every battle of the warrior is with 5.
;

Midian.

but this confused noise, and garments rolled in blood For unto us a shall be with burning and fuel of fire.
child
is

born, unto us a son

is

given
;

:

and the govern

name shall be The mighty God, The called Wonderful, Counsellor, Of the 7. everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
ment
shall

be upon his shoulder

and

his

government and peace there shall be no the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, end,* upon to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with
increase of his
justice

from henceforth, even
will
:

for ever.

The

zeal of the

Lord of hosts
Ch. the
x. 5

perform

this."

"O

Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and
is

staff in their

hand

mine indignation.

6.

I

will

send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the
spoil

the mire of the

and to take the prey, and to tread them down like streets. 7. Howbeit he meanethnot so,
;

neither doth his heart think so

but

it is

in his heart to

8. For he saith, destroy and cut off nations, not a few. Are not my princes altogether Kings 9. Is not Calno as Carchemish ? is not Hamath as Arpad ? is not Samaria
;

*

Those that are

at all versed in scriptural
"no

no weight to the terms
eternal

end"

and

"for

ever,"

lauguage will attach found ch. v. 7 for
;

the former often signifies plenteousness, and
duration.
all

the latter
is

long,

but not
of
"

Vide Eccles.

iv,

16:

"There

no end
ii.

all

the

people, even of
is

that have been before them,
their
ii v

Isaiah
there

7

:

Neither
of their

there

any end
there

of

treasure, neither
"

is

any end
store,"

-chariots."
"

Nahum
is

9,

:

There

is

none end of

their

Ch.
9
:

iii,

3:
-will

And

none end of
for

their

corpses."

Psalm

cxlv.

2,

"I

praise

thy

name

ever

and

ever

,"

Deut. xv. 17:

"And

he

shall be thy servant forever?

TO THE CHRISTIAN! PUBLIC.
as

235

As my hand hath found the king doms of the idols, and whose graven images did excell them of Jerusalem and of Samaria n. Shall I not, as
Damascus?*
10.
;

I

have done unto Samaria and her
12.

idols, so
it

do to Jerusalem

come to pass when the Lord hath performed his whole work that, upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the King of Assyria, and the
and her idols?

Wherefore

shall

Therefore shall the Lord, glory of his high looks." 16. the Lord of hosts, send among his fat ones leanness and
"

;

under
of a

his glory
17.

he

shall kindle a

burning

like the

burning

the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and it shall burn and .and his Holy One for a flame devour his thorns and briers in one day." 24. "There
fire.
:

And

fore thus saith the

Lord God

of hosts,

O my

people that
:

dwellest in Zion, be

not afraid of the Assyrain

he

shall

smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up For yet a very 25. thee, after the manner of Egypt. little while, and the indignation shall cease, and mine
his staff against

anger, in their

destruction."

u

27.!

And

it

shall

come

to pass in that day, that his

burden

shall

be taken away

from of thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing."
2

Kings

xviii.

"

i

:

Now

it

came

to pass in the third

year of Hoshea, son of Elah, king of Israel, that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, king of Judah began to reign.
2.

Twenty and
1

five

years old was he
II,

when he began

to

Compare
t

vers, 9

with the historical relation of the vain
xviii,

boastings of the Assyrian, narrated in 2 Kings

33

35,

Compare
ch, xviii,

\vith 2

Kings

xvi. 7,

"

So Ahaz

Tiglathpileser,
c,,

King
7,

of Assyria, saying,

I

am

messengers to thy servant and thy son.
sent

and

as above,

236
reign

SECOND APPEAL

;

and
:

he
his

reigned twenty

and
did

Jerusalem

mother

s

name

also

was

nine years in Abi, the

daughter of

Zachariah.

And he
4.

that

which was

right in the sight

of the Lord,
did.

David

his father

He removed

according to all that the high places,

and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made : for unto those days the children of Israel did burn in
cense to
in the
it
;

and he

called
Israel

it

Nehushtan.
so that ajter

5.

He

trusted

Lord God of
all

;

him was none

like

him among
btjore him.

were

6.

the kings of Judah, nor any that For he clave to the Lord, and

departed not from following him, but kept his command ments, which the Lord commanded Moses. 7. And the

Lord was with him and he prospered withersoever he went forth and he rebelled against the King of Assyria and served him not. 8. He smote the Philistines, even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof, from the tower of
: :

the watchmen to the fenced
of Assyria

"

city."

17.

And

the king

sent Tartan, and Rabsaris, and Rab-shakeh,

from Lachish to king Hezekiah, with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem ~

And when

they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fuller s field." 28. Then Rab-shakeh stood, and
"

cried with a loud voice in the

Jews language, and spake,

saying, Hear
29. Assyria deceive you
:

,the

word of the great king, the king of Thus saith the king, Let not Hezekiah
he
shall

:

for
:

not be able to deliver you out
let

of his

hand

30.

Neither

Hezekiah make you
will

trust

in the Lord, saying,

and

surely deliver us,. this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the

The Lord

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
:

237

for king of Assyria. 31. Hearken not to Hezekiah thus saith the king of Assyria, Make an agreement with me by a present, and come out to me, and then eat ye

every

man
drink
I
;

of his

own

vine,

and every one of

his fig-tree,

and

32. Until own land

ye every one the waters of his come and take you away to a land
a land of corn

cistern
like

:

vineyards, a
live,

your and wine, a land of bread and land of oil-olive and of honey, that ye may
:

and not die and hearken not unto Hezekiah, when he persuadeth you, saying, The Lord will deliver us.
33.

Hath any

of the gods of the nations delivered at

all

his land out of the

hand

of the king of Assyria

?

34.

Where

are the gods of

Hamath, and
hand
?

of

Arpad
?

?

where

are the gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivah
delivered Samaria out of mine
all

have they

are they the gods of the countries, that have delivered among their country out of mine hand, that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of mine hand ?
35.

Who

Ch. xix. 15: And Hezekiah prayed before the Lord, and said, O Lord God of Israel, which dwellest between the cherubims, thou art the God, even thou
alone,

of

all

the kingdoms of
earth.
16.

the earth

;

thou hast

made heaven and
and hear
:

open,

Lord,

thine ear Lord, and hear thine eyes, and see
:

bow down

the words of Sennacherib, which hath sent him to re proach the living God." 19. "Now therefore, O Lord our God, I beseech thee save thou us out of his hand
that
all

art the

son of

the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou Lord God, even thou only. 20. Then Isaiah the Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith the
of Israel, that

which thou hast prayed to me 21. against Sennacherib, king of Assyria, I have heard.

Lord God

238

SECOND APPEAL
is
;

This

the word that the Lord hath spoken concerning

him The vhgin, the daughter of Zion, hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn the daughter of Jeru salem hath shaken her head at thee. 22. Whom hast
:

thou reproached and blasphemed ? and against whom thou exalted thy voice, and lifted up the eyes on ? even 23. By the against the Holy one of Israel. high
hast

messengers thou hast reproached the Lord, and hast said, With the multitude of my chariots I am come up to the
will cut
fir

height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and down the tall cedar trees thereof, and the choice
trees thereof
:

enter into the lodgings of his 27. "But borders, and into the forest of his Carmel."
I will

and

abode, and thy going out, and thy coming and thy rage against me. 28. Because thy rage in, against me and thy tumult is come up into mine ears,
I

know thy

therefore I will put
in thy lips,

my hook

and

I will

thy nose, and my bridle turn thee back by the way by which
in
"Therefore

thou

earnest."

32.

thus

saith

the

Lord

concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it

nor cast a bank against it. 33. By the way that he came, by the same shall he return, and shall not come into this city, saith the Lord. 34. For I will

with a

shield,

defend this

city, to save
s

it,

for

mine own

sake,

and

for

came to pass that 35. my that the angel of the Lord went out, and smote night, in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and
servant David
sake.
it

And

five

thousand

:

and

when

morning, behold, they were
Sennacherib,
returned, and dwelt

they arose early in the all dead corpses. 36. So

king of Assyria departed, and went and at Ninevah. 37. And it came to

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
pass,
as

239

his

God, that
:

he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch, his Adrammelech and Shaezerr, his sons, smote
;

him with the sword and they escaped into the land of Armenia and Esar-haddon, his son, reigned in his stead."
2.

Chron. xxx. 24

:

"For

Hezekiah, king of Judah,

did give to the congregation a thousand bullocks, and seven thousand sheep and the princes gave to the
;

congregation

a

thousand bullocks, and ten thousand
priests

sheep
selves.

;

and a great number of
25.

sanctified

them

the congregation of Judah, with the priests and the Levites, and all the congregation that came out of Israel, and the strangers that came out
all

And

of the land of Israel, and that dwelt in Judah,
26.

rejoiced.

So there was great joy

in Jerusalem

;

for since

the

time of Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel, there was not the like in Jerusalem. 27. Then the priests, the Levites arose and blessed the people and their
:

voice was heard, and their prayer
dwelling-place, even unto

came up

to

his

holy

heaven."

And thus did Hezekiah throughout and wrought that which was good and right Judah, and truth before the Lord his God. 21. And in every work that he began in the service of the house of God,
Ch. xxxi. 20
"

:

all

and

in

God, he did

the law, and in the commandments, to seek his it with all his heart, and prospered."
"

Ch. xxxii. 23

:

And many

brought

gifts

unto the

Lord

Jerusalem, and presents to Hezekiah, king of so that he was magnified in the sight of all Judah, nations from thenceforth." 33. "And Hezekiah slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the chiefest of
to

the sepulchres of the sons of David and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honour at his
:

240
death.
stead."

SECOND APPEAL

And
as
is

Manasseh

his

son

reigned

in

his

If,

in
6,

ch.

vii.

declared by Trinitarians, the child promised 14, be the same that is alluded to in ch. ix.

that

ch. x. 17, it is quite evident from the context, he was to be the deliverer of the Jews from the hands of the king of Assyria, and was to be distin

and

guished by the excellence of his administration and the respect in which he was to be held by all the nations.

Making allowance

for the hyperbolical

style

of Eastern

nations, nothing can more aptly apply as prophecy than these passages do to the reign of Hezekiah, as described in the above extracts from Kings and Chronicles. But

what, it may be asked, had the birth of Christ to do with the destruction of the King of Assyria ? or how could it be said that before he knew to refuse the evil
"

and choose the good," the land of Syria and of Israel should be deserted of their respective kings, Rezin and
Pekah, who were gathered to their fathers many years
before this birthi?

This

illustrious

son of Ahaz was not the only king
that was honoured,
"

among the select nation of God, with such names as Hezekiah or
and
u
Emmanuel" or
"
"

God my
us
;"

"

strength
also

God with

and

with

such epithets as Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty the Everlasting Father, and the Prince of Peace." God,

We find several
he

other chiefs of that tribe that used to

walk in the way of God, dignified in Scripture with
epithets of a similar import.
said,
(

Genesis xxxii. 28

"

:

And

Israel,

with

Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but God for as a prince hast thou power God and with men, and hast prevailed." Psalm
Prince of
:

)

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
Ixxxix.
1

24!

8

:

"For

the Lord
is

is

HOLY ONE

of Israel

our defence; and our king. 19. Then

THE
thou

spakest in vision to thy

Holy One, and saidst, I have laid one that is mighty I have exalted one chosen help upon out of the people. 20. I have found David my servant
:

;

with
will

my

holy

oil

have

I

anointed him:

27.

Also

I

make him As
to the
I

MY
"

FIRST BORN,
a
virgin,"

higher than

the

kings of the

earth"

word

found in the English
as

translation,

request
fTO/JJH
of
"

my
the

readers to advert to the ori
virgin,"

ginal

Hebrew
both
TJ

well

as

to

the

Greek

the
u

Septuagint
the
virgin,"

and
leaving
so

the
it

Gospel of

Matthew, judge, whether
verts the

TraP^efos

to

them to
per

a translation

which

entirely

meaning preserved throughout, by men

whom

we cannot

suspect of ignorance of the original language

must not have proceeded from a previous determination. as found in the Prophet, to to apply the term virgin,"
"

the mother of Christ, in
plied to

order that the high

titles

ap

Hezekiah might be understood of Jesus.

in the

most unqualified manner

Isaiah

his Gospel to of accom purpose merely modation the son of Ahaz and the Saviour resembling each other, in each being the means, at different periods, though in different senses, of establishing the throne of

The

Evangelist
14,

Matthew
for

referred in

vii.

the

;

the house of David.

In the
ii.

same manner he referred to
of his Gospel, and in
is it

Hosca

xi.

i,

in

ch.

15,

many
sect,

other instances.

How

inconsistent

that

a

which maintains the omniscience and omnipotence of Jesus, should apply to him a passage, by which he is mad
subject
to

such a degree of ignorance, as not to be able
16

342
at

SECOND APPEAL
one period to distinguish between good and evil u For before the child shall know to vii. 16
! :

(Isaiah

refuse the

evil,

and choose the

good,"

&c.

)

Admitting

Isaiah were originally appli cable to Jesus, they cannot assist in proving the Deity of the Messiah just as they fall short of proving the
that these

quotations in

;

divinity of

Hezekiah when applied to him

:

for

we

find

in the sacred writings the name of God, and even the term of Jehovah, the peculiar name of God, applied as

an appellation to others, without establishing any argu

ment for asserting the Deity of those names are given. Jeremiah xxxiii. 16
shall

:

to whom such u In those

days
:

Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely and this is the name wherewith she shall be called,
RIGHTEOUSNESS."
is

JEHOVAH OUR
lish version,

In the
"

Eng
in

the word Jehovah

rendered

Lord,"

this

other passages. Exodus xvii. Moses built an altar, and called the name of

and
or

in

15:
it

"And

Jehovah
is

nissi,

JEHOVAH MY BANNER.

"

It

fortu

nate that some sect has not hitherto arisen, maintaining the Deity of Jerusalem, or of the altar of Moses, from the
authority of the passages just mentioned. In the Epistle to the Hebrews, ch. i.
is

8, 9,

reference
is

made

to

Psalm

xlv. 6, 7

u
:

Thy

throne,

O

God,

for

ever

and ever
&c.

&c.
:

Thou

lovest

righteousness,

and

hatest wickedness

ed
u

thee,"
"

I

therefore God, thy God, hath anoint have frequently noticed that the term
is

God
it

in

an inferior sense

often applied in the Scrip
;

tures to

but

distinguished persons deserves particularly to be noticed in this instance, that the Messiah, in whatever sense he is declared God,
in the very

the Messiah and

other

is

same sense described

in ch.

i.

9.

("

God,

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. thy
God," )

243

whom

as having a God, superior to him, and by he was appointed to the office of Messiah.

Supposed application of the term
reference

made
:

to the

Jehovah to Jesus Old Testament.
of the
)

"

"

in

Luke
Israel

i.

1

6,
(

18

"And

many

children

of

shall

their God.

turn to the Lord John the Baptist And he shall go before him in the spirit and

he

power
to

of Elias, to turn the hearts of the

fathers

to

the
;

children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just

make ready a people prepared for the Lord" compared with Isaiah xl. 3, The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah, make and also straight in the desert a highway for our God
"

:"

in

Malachi
shall

iii.

i,

"Behold, I will

send

my

messenger,

and he

prepare the

way

before

me

:

and the Lord

whom

ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in
:

behold, he shall come, saith Jehovah of hosts." From this, it is concluded by Trinitarians, that because the

Prophet John

and

in

described as the forerunner of Jehovah, the evangelist as the forerunner of Jesus, there
is

fore Jesus

must be Jehovah. In reply to this, it may be simply observed, that find in the Prophets distinct and separate mention

we
of

Jehovah and of the Messiah as the messenger of the convenant John therefore ought to be considered as the forerunner of both, in the same manner as a comman
;

der sent in advance to occupy a strong post in the country of the enemy, may be said to be preparing the way for the battles of his king, or of the general whom
the king places at the head of his army.

244

SECOND

AI

PKAL
5,
"For

They
John
glory,
is
xii.

also refer to Isaiah vi.

seen the King, the Lord of
41,
"These

hosts"

mine eyes havecomparing it with

things said Isaiah,

when he saw
to

his

and spake of
father

him."

The

passage in the evangelist

more

correctly explained

by referring

John

viii.

s;6,

my day cannot be understood of ocular vision of Isaiah was that of God himself in the delivery of the commands given
"Your
;"

Abraham

rejoiced to see

which

to the Prophet on that occasion.
i

Corinth,

i.

30,

"But

of

him

are ye in Christ Jesus

who
&c.,

of
is

God

is

made

into us wisdom,

and righteousness,

compared with Jeremiah, xxiii. 6, "He shall be called Jehovah our right ousness." In reply to which I refer my reader again to the passage in Jeremiah only

which Jerusalem also is and to the phrase our righteousness
xxxiii.
1

6,

in

called
u
is

"Jehovah

,"

made unto us

God" found in the passage in question, and express" ing the inferiority of Jesus to God. Also 2 Cor, v. 2i r "That we might be made the righteousness of God in

of

him,"

where

St.

Paul

says, that

all

Christians

may be

made the
Mr.

righteousness of

God.

Brown,
to

a celebrated Trinitarian

retains the
applies
it

common
Jesus,
,

version of Jeremiah

Commentator xxiii. 6, and
16,

whom
But

he supposes to be
in ch.
xxxiii.

our righteousness.

Jehovah where the

"

construction in the original Hebrew is precisely the same,. he alters it in the margin, "he who shall call her is

Jehovah our

righteousness;" instead of applying triephrase "Jehovah our righteousness" to Jerusalem, in the same manner as he had applied it to Jesus in the

former passage.

I

therefore

the original Hebrew of both

necessary to give texts, and a verbal translait

deem

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
lion of them.

245
strongly the biassed in

The

reader will judge

how

judgment

of the

learned

Commentator was
xxiii. 6,

support of a favourite doctrine. Jet.

nipp lanp
ik

ii^x piy rrp n&nS pun ln his days shall be saved Judah, and Israel shall
11

dwell in safety, and
call

this

his

name which (man)
Jeremiah
11

shall

him, Jehovah our

righteousness."

xxxiii.

16,

jn^in onn o

wi

pp-i*

mm
In

nZflsS lID

oSUM-Pl saved Judah, and Jerusalem shall dwell this (name) which (man) shall call her,
In

^n

mim

-WK ^-rp those days shall
nS
in
safety,

mi
be

and

Jehovah our

righteousness."

altering

the

common
first
her;"

translation of the latter

passage, Mr. tflp that is,
1

Brown
"shall

disregards

call

the stop after PlS which by separating the two
"

parts of the sentence, prevents Jehovah from being em u shall call. ployed as the agent of the verb 2ndly, He the established mode of construction, by entirely neglects

and by omitting to this," untranslated, leaving T\\ or out the name by which Jerusalem should be called. point
"

.3rdly,

He totally overlooks the idiom of the Hebrew, in which verbs are often employed unaccompanied with their agent, when no specific agent is intended, as
appears from the following passages
(rcn. xxv.
ll
:

26, itw npjn Dins i-n vns N*I ^-TTW 3pIT *\W Klp-n And after that came his bro ther out and his hand took hold on Esau s heel, and (man) called his name Jacob." 2 Samuel ii. 16,

p

imrn inm

irrirn

tys
<i

ipin^i

iimm
inj?n

"r

o

.npSn ^inn aip^S
sword
in his

-7p they caught every one his fellow by the head, and thrust his

i

innv iSs^
;

"And

fellow

s

side

so they

fell

down together

:

since both declare that it is to God that every knee shall bow. 10. n*oS *Hp p ^ Genesis xvi. that declared to have been exalted to these honoursis. every knee shall bow to me. which is in Gibeon. it appears that Jesus swore by himself. where he declares. 23: &quot. 14.. every tongue shall swear compared with Romans xiv.&quot.&quot. according to the rule.T *&amp. by God. ? or why is dost thou set at nought judg saith shall all stand before the it For written. the Lord. through him before : whose judgment-seat we shall all stand time both Jesus and his Apostles inform for at the us. and every tongue shall confess.246 SECOND APPEAL wherefore (man) called that place Helkath Hazurem.But why dost They again a dduce Isaiah &quot.. called the well Beer-lahai-roi&quot. thou judge thy brother thy brother ? For we ment-seat of Christ. because the Father has committed the office of final judgment to him. that u the Lord. ii. As I live.J*O &quot. which expressly informs us. Between the Prophet and the Apostle there is a perfect agreement in substance. that it is God only that can swear by himself.rh &quot. that same we must stand before the judgment-seat of Christ.&quot.gt. (Jehovah.Unto me (God) every knee shall bow. 12: &quot. and that thereby he is proved to be God. swore in this manner ? We must not. however. From this passage. that at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow and every tongue Jesus is shall confess . overlook what the Apostle says in his epistle to the Philippians.) and not Jesus. and that the only confession required that . So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.Wherefore (man) xlv. they say. But how can they escape the context. but neither must we forget. and every tongue shall confess to God. 9 11. ch. 1 N&quot.

and also to Christ in the New Testament and I is adduced by them as a proof of his deity . compared with 2 Peter iii. : the Holy one of Israel. that he could not be a Saviour but : how futile this reasoning : is will clearly ix. 9.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. That at the name of Jesus . observe with the utmost Surprise. Any however common may be. their tents. : the border thereof to the Lord.&quot. Obad. saviours. 2 And : saviours shall come upon Mount Zion. 19.&quot. that the prejudice of many Christians in favour of the doctrine of the Trinity induces them to lay stress upon such sophisms. 18. conclusion they draw from these passages is. &quot. Some have adopted a most it extraordinary way of establishing the deity of Jesus. haiah xliii. hath highly exalted him. Sacred Writings. and given him a name which is above every name 10. and things in and things under the earth I I. so they went out from under the hand of the Syrians and the children : And of Israel dwelt in xix. bow. Wherefore God also &quot. and a pillar at 20 &quot. of things in heaven. instance. The unless Jesus were God. to the every knee shall . For For I am the Lord thy God.&quot. ha is 247 Lord. 3 &quot.&quot. sign and for a witness unto the And it shall be for a Lord of hosts in the land . Isaiah In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt. ascribed epithet to God in the or act. glory of God the Father.&quot. Kings xiii. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. them &quot. tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord. who them. thy Saviour. 5 the Lord gave Israel a saviour. as beforetime. which office confession of his dignity is to the glory of God the Father. &quot. And that every earth. appear from the u : following passages Nchemiah saved 27 Thou 27 : gavest &quot.

some of whom were already attached to him. manner. God and others were afterwards to become converts : but : Trinitarian writers thus conclude from these passages If Christ be not one with Jehovah. Again. applied to others also. i Jehflvah is my Shepherd with John x. xxiii. then it would lead us to acknowledge the deity not only of Jesus. Jesus protector represents himself as the one shepherd of the one fold of Christians. his is followers a flock and the term Shepherd &quot. : Moses and his people. Ps. . and he shall deliver them. In the former text. he could not be called a Shepherd. compared which are not of this fold them also I must bring. and he shall send them a saviour. and a great one. that all those who have been instrumental dependent hands in effecting the deliverance of their fellow-creatures from evils of whatever themselves nature. and thus &quot. and only instruments all in his . a shepherd that in like &quot. applied in the above citations. The phrase in Isaiah. 16 &quot. Moses is called . Besides me there is no Saviour.&quot. and one Shepherd.24 of : SECOND APPEAL Egypt for they shall cry unto the Lord because of the oppressors.And other sheep I have. is &quot. appearance of inconsistence u : is removed. David declared : to be his shepherd or in the latter. but a little reflection and thus there would be two shepherds on the following passages will con that : vince every unbiassed person. but that of those different individuals to whom the term or Saviours Saviour &quot. were upon God. &quot. If this argument possesses any force. &quot. Isaiah Ixiii. and : : they shall hear my voice and there shall be one fold. &quot. 1 1 Then he remembered the days of old. without conveying the idea of their unity with Jehovah. is easily accounted for by considering. Where is he that brought . and &quot.&quot. saying.&quot.

have been the person tempted by some of consequently Jesus is the most high God. as some of them also : tempted. &quot. in common with Jesus. Christ.And it came to pass after these . which shall feed them and they shall fear no more. neither shall they be lacking : saith the Lord.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and he shall feed them. How to ! cannot prejudice lead astray men of sense Is it not an insult to reason. even my servant David . tempted by Israel and others ? Are we not all.They tempted and provoked high let God Neither &quot. Psalm the most &quot. sented them far .&quot. Genesis xxii. I. 1 5. they must still attribute his shepherdship over his flock to it.24: u And I will set up one shephc^d over them. I will set up shepherds Jeremiah xxiii. servant David a prince And If I the Lord will be their God. 4: over them. and he shall be their shepherd. 9.&quot. cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities but was in all points tempted like as ive arc. iv. he shall feed them. us tempt compared with I Cor. the latter. liable to be tempted both by Hebrews &quot. 23. divine commission. x. and the Messiah his scivant. them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock Ezekicl xxxiv. to infer the deity of Jesus from the circumstance of his being in common with God. declares They thus conclude high and the former passage Jesus is the most God in to have been tempted by repre rebellious Israelites. yet without sin. and my among them. I the Lord have spoken they insist (though without any ground) upon interpreting the name David as put for Jesus.&quot. 56: &quot. nor be dismayed. 249 ?&quot. and must U relinquish the idea of unity between God the employer. &quot. Ixxviii. For we have not men and by Satan ? an high priest who .

be of any avail to prove the divinity and unity of these respective subjects of temptation ? We find Moses in common with God is spoken against &quot. to Jesus. who one bride. and to all mankind.Thy Maker is is thine husband. and Are we to conclude upon this ground. Can the liability temptation common to God. the hi. Eph- v. will and in another place Christ. we the most high God provoked also and provoked the most high God ) so (they tempted find and David provoked &quot. that And [because]* God as well as Moses is declared to have been spoken against by Israel. at different times. is they other infer. i r and ill And Satan stood . From these Church. Numb.He name &quot. that Moses therefore is God himself? In the same text quoted by them.&quot. rebellious Israelites. 32. : . to Abraham. up against cvi. so on the is termed in one place God. &c.. &c. from the circumstance of Moses and David having been for their the subjects of provocation. so Can any one that he spake unadvisedly with his lips. xxi. people ( Israel ) spoke against God. against Moses. by the the &quot. Israel. is the deity of them ? Isaiah 5: his &quot.&quot. that SECOND APPEAL &quot. For the husband is is Christ the head of the the head of the wife. My readers be pleased to examine the language employed in these two instances in the one. 23. even as. 33. we find Mosei Numbers xxi. there one husband. that hath the bride &quot.25O things. in justified in common with God. 29. be either of attempting to prove liv.It provoked with Moses David and Psalm sakes : went because they provoked his spirit. to God did tempt Abraham. 5.&quot.&quot. compared with John the bridegroom. God is represented as.. Lord of hosts &quot. that as the Church is hand. &quot.

. the true vine. his in. and my Father is the husbandman.&quot. and himself and God.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 6 &quot. &quot. an inequality of authority evidently Moreover. the &quot. &quot. and his Church to r directly contrary authority. that no God besides him who is the first and the last : but Jesus Jesus there is is the first and the I List : therefore besides this no other God. xliv. Would it not be highly unreasonable to set at defiance the distinction &quot.I am drawn by Jesus between God. that precede and follow feriority Reve lation xxii. must embrace oppor tunity of laying before my readers the context of the verse in Revelation. ye are the branches. and most clearly declares from the Father. I am is the first. and my Father is the husbandman. shew to every unbiassed mind how the verse. which will. ascribed God and : am 5. i true vine. the with haiah Israel. 13 : I am Alpha and Omega. &quot. first : Thus saith the compared Lord the King of .in question has been misapplied of Jesus. I church. when considered it. and the last&quot. Christ . since the verse cited ia defence of the deity in relation to the passages. and there I am a is the and besides me there no God/ From comparison of these verses they conclude. : : . Christ himself shews the relation that existed between him and his to to Jesus. and his redeemer the Lord of hosts last . declared to he the husband or the head of his followers is there therefore. the beginning and the end.I am 5.- the vine. 6 And he (the angel) said unto me. I presume.&quot. These and the Lord God of the sayings are faithful and tme sent his angel to shew unto his servantsholy prophets his distinct nature &quot. the husband of is 2^1 all his creatures. and to attempt himself. and in the other. and unsupported by revelation ? a conclusion his Revelation xxii. in John xv.

( I am Alpha and Omega. I Jesus have sent mine angel to unto you these things in the churches. I come quickly and as my with me. reward is And. Behold. Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand. according the beginning and the end. right to the tree of 15. ane whoremon gers. He that is unjust. and the bright and morning If star. . 14. man last. See thou do it not . u. and of them which keep the 10. And he saith . that they may have life.sayings of this book worship God. idolaters.&quot. See thou do it not : for I am thy fellow-servant.252 SECOND APPEAL the things which must shortly be done. I 8. And I John saw these And when I had heard and fell down to worship before the feet of the angel who shewed me these things. and sorcerers. Then saith he unto including of course verse the qth. and whosoever loveth and maketh testify 16. and may enter in through the gates into the city. to Jesus ana not to the angel mentioned in the u .&quot.. 7. they must also unavoidably ascribe to Jesus the passage coming immediately before or after it. 9. and of thy brethren the prophets.above passage. Blessed are they that do his his shall work commandments. let is eous 12. and the the first be. let him be right him be holy still. let him be unjust still and he which is filthy let him be : filthy still still : and he that is righteous. &quot. behold. . am Alpha and Omega. for I am : unto me. things and heard them. and a lie. ) they ascribe verse 13. For without are dogs. I come quickly blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of : the prophecy of this book. seen. and murderers.&quot. &c. to give every 13. Then saith he unto me thy fellow-servant. I am the root and the offspring of David. : and he that I holy. me.

TO THE CHRISTIAN &c. 253 He &quot. as verse the i6th to the angel. 13. as found in verse 1 6th. that he is the offspring of David.. 1 3th. was intended to. was to testify to John and other disciples the 2dly. in is is but one agent described by the pronoun the whole train of the verses ab ove quoted who 1 pointed out clearly by the repetition &quot.. for there &quot. me there is 110 God&quot. That when the angel rejected the worship of John addressed to himself. show his servants in general . T am Alpha and them to Omega. Jesus declares in things relating to the churches.HLl( . verse i6th. Pl&quot. one who either takes away from or adds any thing to his revelation. yet must be considered passage. as far they ascribe all the verses of chip. xxii. is not contained in the former.&quot. and in the subsequent verses. Behold this I come the quickly. he ordered him to . 4thly. ) and ranking him For I am thy ( &quot. That the passage in Revelation xxii. case denying him the divine nature. 3dly. That the angel whom the intimated in verse the 6th. &c. they cannot If justify themselves in regard to the deity of Jesus &quot. is the prophecy of Isaiah not parallelled to that contained in xliv. among the chosen servants of God.. 2th. fellow-servant. in verses yth and In Jesus as as although it speaks of Alpha and Omega. which in the latter case can bear no reletion to Christ.&quot. which is found in the latter. as ist. since their system requires apply it to an inferior angel. 6. I beg the attention of my readers to five particular circums tances in this instance. Lord sent. of the phrase. and upon which the whole controversy turns. since the phrase Besides &quot.&quot. and that it is God that has the power of punishing an). things that would shortly happen and the angel sent by Jesus. founding their conclusion with upon the force of verse the &c.

describes himself as Alpha and or separately of the whether Omega. own The Father judgeth no man.&quot. &quot. See Colossians I i. &quot. &quot. are in a finite sense justly applicable to Jesus as the ences. 10 &quot. 22. application of the phrase. mandments. after the speaker. that the terms. of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his . is compared with Revelation xxii. and his arm shall rule for him be hold. his reward is with to in God and to Jesus. which Reve : and also to John is v. first of all created exist and the last of those u who is will be required to resign the authority with which he invested by the Father.As I hear. From the circumstance of &quot. and my reward is with me. 28. . they infer the deity of I the latter . For the Son unto the Son . 30.Behold. answer to which beg to refer my readers to the foregoing paragraphs illustrating verse nth. 5thly. worth noticing here. the Lord God will come : with a strong hand. I judge and will.- I come quickly. The first-born of every creature shall Corinthians xv. by which Jesus is distinguished . 27. Isaiah xl.-254 SECOND APPEAL worship God without mentioning the name either jointly Lamb. &quot. 15. but hath committed all judgment and to Mattkciv xvi.&quot. 12.Then the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him. his reward is with him.&quot.&quot.&quot. being to whose commandments obedience It is is required. my judgment just. ver. 9.&quot. the common him. he uses the expression. In the very next verse. immediately precedes the verse in question of the lation. and his work before him : &quot. Blessed are they that do his com clearly indicating the existence of another &quot. Alpha and Omega. &quot.&quot. beginning and end. Jesus or an angel.throughout the Revelation: Worship God. because I seek not mine but the will of the Father who hath sent me.&quot.

&quot. with a view to establish the deity of Christ by a comparison of Ephcsians iv. and thence draws this . received him. 8 u : When he (Christ) on high. with Psalm 18. consider the i8th verse in this Psalm. (&quot. the divine commandments) for men. and that Jesus possesses this authority in behalf of ti\z Father of the universe ? Ephcsians iv. for the rebellious also. that the Lord God might ( dwell among them. writer. j/erse chapter of Ephesians. an accom modated sense of The verse in the Psalm his may be directly applied to Jesus. Ixviii. thou hast led captivity captive thou hast received gifts for men. and quotes only thou hast ascended on high. received (i. Brown. omits carefully the latter part of the verse. in this case the Apostle Paul in in must have applied the verse to Jesus. 18. a celebrated Trinitarian Commentator. &quot. 255 and then he shall reward every man according angels to his works. 8th in this and and several others. thou hast led captivity captive . e. 8. that the power of exercising judgment and of distributing rewards has been given to Jesus by the Almighty.&quot. and gave men&quot. The : Jews are of opinion thut David in this verse spoke of gifts Moses. But another Mr. even for the rebellious Israelites his epistle. yea. for the rebellious also that the Lord God might dwell among them. as imme diately applicable to Jesus as the Messiah.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. on ascension.) which the is altogether inapplicable to part of the verse. who. when he ascended to Mount Sinai. . gifts who. . ascended up gifts unto compared with Plaint Ixviii.Thou hast received gifts for men. pardon even for those who had rebelled against Mr. Do not these passages point out evidently.&quot. yea. Jones. first God.Thou hast ascended on high. he led captivity captive. &quot.

&quot.256 conclusion - SECOND APPEAL The Scripture here (in the Epistle referred to) expressly affirms the person who ascends.In that day they shall look upon me whom they have &quot. be as follows The person who ascended on high and God. Christ who hung upon him a the cross was also the Lord is Jehovah. 10.&quot.&quot. in order that he might dwell among men. ancj. np DbimT iwr vby &quot. received gifts for among them. 37 &quot. as found in the English version : &quot.lt. pierced on him whom compared with John xiv.nsDi by*\ TIT rrn by rpsun -pp-i nirs DK ^bx ita am D^J print -ipnn by TOPIS \*by TCPTI Trrn by &quot. according to this mode of reasoning. Zechariah xii.&quot. Jones s error.They shall look from which comparison he they pierced . of Jerusalem. as well as a correct translation into English. the sense must. who&amp. And I will pour upon the house of David. upon the inhabitants the spirit of grace . that the the Lord God Lord God might dwell . is equally absurd and unscriptural. as implying that the Lord God ascended and received gifts from a Being of course superior to himself. in him. &c. the Evangelist applying to fulfilled found to be a false witness. to be view of the whole verse. and in a translation thereof from the Arabic Bible. the Lord From a &quot.. has thus concluded u As it LjOrd Jehovah was to be pierced stands in the Prophet. is men. which. I beg to lay before my readers the verse in Hebrew. an interpretation. . the so that unless the man . prophecy that could not possibly be In order to shew the source of Mr.

Hence the prophecy in question for lias been fulfilled in Jesus. and they shall mourn shall for him as one mourneth for his is own son. Lord (Jehovah) as the object pierced and consequently no false testimony is chargeable upon John the Evan gelist.&quot. ?rPbe iO v *T^PX to-vro. as one that born. the Israelites] will mourn and lament. me&quot. which shows beyond doubt the inaccuracy of the translation Eng I pre show.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that since in the last two clauses in the verse under consideration the Lord God common sume. pointing out that they looked to the Messiah also. ki we may suppose. 4 &quot.&quot. Without referring of the verse. and for whom they will mourn and lament.&quot.&quot. the prophets the Lord speaks of Israel at the approach of their restoration. on account of those And they whom they shall look towards me. whom they had lish pierced. into him. without representing the . who by changing the object of the verse from found in the Hebrew and Septuagint. 257 and of supplication: and they shall look toward me OH account of him whom the) have pierced.) he must be supposed to have spoken of person as the same third pierced by them unjustly. phrase. in bitterness for his first This translation tuagint. e. and thus to have 17 . whom they pierced. pierced. whose words Kal rTTiQt ^ovTcu u I is strongly confirmed by the Sep- subjoin with a literal rendering M*. when they will look up to In God mercy on account of their cruelty to the Messiah. had in view the general import rather than the particular expressions of the prophecy. sufficient to u for him ( speaks of the Messiah in the third person they [i. and be in bitterness for him. to the Hebrew sense is.

and that who ever stumbles at that stone so exalted by the Almighty. to both the houses of Israel bling. I lay in Zion a chief corner-stone. and ii. in There Zion for corner u a foundation. he that believeth not make haste Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself let him be your fear. . he but unto the head of the corner. the precious which the builders disallowed. &c. . being disobedient whereunto also appointed&quot. the same is made stone be confounded. . a tried a precious shall stone.I in Peter ii. ( quoting a part of vers.&quot. 14. and let him be your dread. and a rock of offence. i the object Peter ii. the} 1 6. of . he would have been mentioned as throughout in the first person. a sure foundation . which show the created nature of the after u Messiah. rock of offence. and a stone j thesame is The stone which made the head of the the builder disallowed. If pointed out the cause of their lamentation. a stone. Behold. These passages show. &quot. for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 6 &quot. And he shall be for a sanctuary but for a stone ofstum. 13.. precious : Unto you therefore which believe them who are disobedient. But Mr. Messiah as a corner-stone for the temple. And a stone of stumbling. 6. Peter. and he that believeth on him shall not elect. Jehovah of had been pierced. : Wherefore also it is contained in the Scripture. even to them which stumble at the word.&quot. and Isaiah viii. is : 7. 16.258 SK COXI) APPKAI. that the Lord God placed the and for a . also lamentation and bitterness. 7 and 8 of corner. and lay in Zion a chief corner-stone. 8. Behold I lay stone. precious. were fore thus saith the Lord God. ch. Jones omits the words found Isaiah xxviii. stumbles at or disobeys him who has thus placed it. compared with Isaiah xxviii.

u This stone of : viii. the inde &quot. which. stone of stumbling and rock of offence and hereby they stumbled secondarily at the founder of this stone. and part of the I4th of ch. is a stone of distinctly declared to be u a living stone chosen of God. that contempt for the holy doctrines which Christ commissioned his disciples to teach. Therefore Christ is the Lord of Peter. 24. In in ver. and offended the Lord God who. yet is made by the but the Jews same founder. many such stones. 4 of the same chapter of Peter. ) Jesus stumbling. ) stumbling and rock of from the latter text. and Jesus as the same corner-stone. finite article a &quot.&quot. ( the text in appears no other than Christ. 6 whom infer Christ himself was sent . disallowed indeed of men. but chosen of God and precious. the same stone which it the builders rejected. me and he that des. Israel. here denoting that he is only one of It is surprising that Mr. and only verse I3th of Isaiah. &quot. ) concluded offence. stumbling. and deity of those disciples. he has thus as is Peter. ( To whom coming as unto a living stone. but no the and 7 in question. exalted. Jones could . conformity Prophet. .&quot. . hosts himself. ( rock of Psalm in xciv.&quot. intimating by piseth me. the head of the corner from their disobedience stumbled directly at the stone so . argued con tempt for him by one will thence vers.&quot. He that despiseth you. 16. &quot.&quot. despiseth him that sent me these words. rendering it a .TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 259 and a rock of offence. Thus u Luke x.&quot. represents God as the founder of the corner-stone. despiseth Jesus declares to his disciples. ) became a stone of stumbing and rock of offence. Here the Apostle in with the though it be disallowed by the Jews. though he was the rock of defence of refuge.

see Genesis xlix. This. where metaphorical sense Jeseph and the stone of Israel. That there is nothing peculiar in Jesus being called a stone or a shepherd.260 SECOND APPEAL overlook these phrases. a stumbling stone &quot. It is observe. strict Hence we their most find epithets which in their as I sense to in common application are peculiar God. and conclude upon the identity of Jesus with God from metaphorical language which re presents God as &quot. to overlook the idiom of the language of Scripture. however. to denote that he was and sent of the Father. how frequently men melancholy. have already noticed. we must upon the same ground be led to acknowledge . frequently indulges in metaphor consequently the Old Testament. and Jesus a stumbling stone of those who never believed him. in a is called u the shepherd The Hebrew language. by misunderstanding various adjuncts and epithets of obvious meaning. abounds with expressions which cannot be taken in their literal sense. 34 36.&quot. written in that and lan guage. quite But the Scripture avoids inapplicable to the Deity. other Asiatic tongues. indeed. Were we to admit common phrases applied both to God and to Jesus as a proof of the divinity of the latter. applied to inferior beings. and (apparently misled by the force of preconceived notions ) set aside every expression that modifies those that suit their peculiar ideas. 24. Jesus himself points out in John tion of the sanctified x. in common with . by shewing that in the Scriptures the name even of God was sometimes meta phorically applied to men of power or exalted rank. of Israel. affording the least pretext of the real nature of such objects. in which he justifies the assump title of Son of God.

their heads. In the same manner the term worship is equally applied to God and David in Chronicles xxix. 20. every one must find himself justified in drawing the following conclusion God is the only object of wor Whence.&quot. 15. day So Jehovah declares thee this and good. xxx. the subjects of peculiar &quot. and of other Prophets. according : ship but the term worship is in the Bible applied to David I David must therefore be acknowledged as God. who set are in common with God life phrases. the deity of Moses.TO THK CHRISTIAN* PUBLIC.&quot. and bowed down the king.See. 26 1 of David. to the severe Perhaps my opinions may subject censure of those who dissent from me. and the way of death. except such as appeared to me so futile as to course of my examination I be unworthy of remark and in the have plainly stated the .Behold. I have evil. In conformity to this mode of argument adopted by Trinitarian writers. And all the congregation blessed the Lord God of their fathers. 8.&quot. grounds on which conceive them to be inadmissible. with the . have now noticed all the arguments founded on Scripture that I have heard of as advanced in support of the doctrine of the Trinity. and some will be ready to discover particular motives for my presuming me to differ the present from the great majority of Christian teachers of day in my view of Christianity. we should thus conclude from these passages unless Moses were one with Jehovah. gation. and death and in I set before you the way of Jeremiah xxi. declares. before Moses in Dent. &quot. and worshipped the Lord and to their mode of argu ment. he could not in his own name employ the same authoritative phrase which is used by Jehovah. life. And David said to all the congre k &quot. Now bless the Lord your God.

that even the belief that I have been successful in combating the doctrine of Trinitarians. His greatness is unsearch able. Ch. to account for conduct which they wish it to be believed honest convic tion could never direct. which declares incomprehensi positively the unity of bility . and that the same being cannot be at once man and God or in opposing those who maintain. Touching the Almighty. I cannot assume to myself the smallest merit for what credit can be gained in : proving that one is not three. or * any portion of magnitude ? Job xxxvi. 23. but contrary to it and to the common course o^ nature. that all who do not admit doctrines so . &quot. moment they became notwithstanding great capable of receiving them for and long-continued . 26. us&amp. In reply to such an accusation. incomprehensible must be therefore subjected by the All-merciful to eternal punishment ? It is too true to be denied.262 SKCOXD APPEAL doctrines of which I have ed. But where the evidence of sense does not compel how can we believe what is not only beyond our compre hension. u xxxvji. and directly against revelation . Behold God is great.&quot. God as well as his but nowhere ascribes to him any number of persons. I in can only protest in the most solemn manner. we cannot find him out. and therefore the love of distinction or notoriety may perhaps be resorted to. and we know him not. Psalm cxlv. that believe we are led by the force of the senses to that many things we cannot fully understand.&quot. 3.gt. become but recently acquaint Personal interest can hardly be alleged as likely to have actuated me. Neither are my attempts owing to a strong hope of removing early impressions from the breasts of those whose education instilled certain ideas into their minds from the .

that has it induced me to endeavour to as far is vindicate indeed mortifying to my feelings to find a religion. the same authority for theirs inasmuch as I attri bute the different views.. ought to have been sufficient to discourage from any other attempt of the kind but it is my reverence for Christianity. for when powerful effects of early religious impression are deep. that from its sublime doctrines and pure morality should be respected above other systems. as my limited from this cause nism of ancient brought Greece to a . therefore. not to any inferiorty of judg ment compared with my own limited ability. from the charge of polytheism It capacity and knowledge extend. religion.suggested.lt. yet maintained that &quot. reduced almost to a level with Hindoo and theology.&quot. while it included a plurality of Gods. all entirely from be excused for the Scriptures themselves. merely by human creeds and prejudices all .rrt 7e. . or were and that their numerous divine persons comprehended in that one Deity.God Obe &amp. and for the author of this me . but to the . it may be my part to very partial. comparison with the Paga which. though palpably gross and absurd. 1 may perhaps the confidence with which I maintain them to against those of so great a majority. Having derived my own opinions on this subject is one. my success has been This experience. and to acquire a knowledge of the true force of scriptural phrases and expressions without attending to interpretations given among Christians as . exertions on 20^ do away Hindoo polytheism. . reason is seldon allowed its natural scope these in examining them to the bottom.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Were it a practice Testament to study first the books of the Old found arranged in order. who appeal.

when arguing with those that think freely on religion.. which our divines esteem as the fundamental principle of this religion.264 bj* SECOND APPEAL sect and then to study the New Testament. human I opinions. quote the names of Locke and Newton as defenders of Chris tianity . p. God his benefaction in creating all things. includes in it a receiving him and King. this is is that in short makes men ist. I of the public as to the accuracy to be allowed to extract here a of this asser beg few lines of to their respective works. did not contain the doctrine of the Trinity. and dience to all that he commanded/ 262 that they can attain of sincere obe : Sir I* Newtotfs Observations upon the Propnecies. have often observed that English divines. That the believing which it That there a faith that Jesus to be for the Messiah. 421 But that neither upon he nor others may mistake my book. u Locke V Works. tians in their churches and the worship of these Chris here represented under the form for of worshipping God and the Lamb in the Temple. referring religion for my : readers their publications more complete information. That this faith is the believing Jesus of Nazareth to be the Messiah 3dly. For the conviction tion. p. .gt. Vol. the one with the other. promised and sent from God* and so lays upon all his subjects an absolute and indispensible necessity of assenting to of the all our Lord knowledge that he taught. Christianity would comparing not any longer be liable to be encroached upon by- any . VII. u The Beasts and Elders therefore represent the all Christians of nations is . which those but they totally forget that the Christianity illustrious persons professed. says Christians 2ndly. and the Laml&amp.

and which I feel through for : consider here. the unity which they attempt to destroys Secondly. Son. denies to God. 7 cannot be alleged that these personages. brought to light by Trinitarians. and exalted above all by the merits of his death. in the first instance. in imi tation of several Grecian philosophers. as follows com pose one persons compose one Deity. force may some such considerations possibly have given way to as the following This : analog) between the Godhead and a triangle. I am afraid some of my readers may censure It is me repeating an argument that as three lines of this kind. so three discover this argument in favour of the possible existence of a Trinity. It . for 265 : his benefaction in redeeming us with his blood God the as sitting Lamb It upon the throne and living for ever. and to the established religion of their country for both . If it did occur to him. It is astonishing that a mind so conversant with mathe matical truth as was that of Sir Isaac Newton. . establish between Father. one ) of the greatest mathematicians not the greatest recollection a that ever existed. has brought into matical argument which I my mathe adduce in support of inclined to some time ago heard a divine the Trinity. did not triangle. the vulgar opinion and the religion of the government England in their days were directly opposite opinions which these celebrated men entertained. consider ing that it must have its lain so much in his way. equally with a line. and Holy Ghost for or relative situation. abstracted from exists only in idea. any real existence position : for extension of all kinds. of to the The mention of the name ( of Sir Isaac if Newton.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. published these sentiments only in conformity to the vulgar opinion.

and thereby proving the three persons of the Godhead. consistency posed of numerous persons. may be compared which is considered as having no sides nor angles or. in referring for an illustration . who believe in numerous persons under one Godhead .&quot. strict sense of the term. they might compare God with a polygon. It will afford to that to consist of four persons. that the Godhead Sixthly. As some great mathematicians cosider the circle as a polygon. more suitable to the dignified rank of the Deity. equally suit the Atheist as the Polytheist. in fact.-266 SECOND APPEAL existences. for instead of figure comparing the Godhead with a triangle. the epithet side cannot be designated a triangle though the Father of the universe is invariably called God in the . by comparing the compound Deity with the four sides of a quardrilateral figure. persons of God. who maintain persons in the the existence of an infinite number of Godhead. without any divine person cle. the three sides of a triangle are conceived of as separate Thirdly.gt. sides. sect among Hindoos who suppose God or Fourthly. a containing the fewest sides. S^I^TW. so the eternal represented by the three revolution of nature to the cir . It denies to each of the three u inasmuch as each God. to shew the reasonableness of their sentiments. Seventhly. and thus establish the with reason of the belief. having an infinite number of the illustration of the Trinitarian doctrine by the form of the triangle will by analogy justify those sects. Fifthly &amp. an opportunity of using the same mode of arguing. Fo as the Trinity is sides of a triangle. This manner of arguing may be esteemed better adapted to support the polytheism of the majority of Hindoos. may be com This mode of illustration would.

u spirit. At page 10. which the author has adduced in the ist.&quot. begining of his work. the very . how can we deny the same dignity to the end. Serle alleges. at all 2 nelly.&quot.&quot.&quot. and justify me in neglecting them. formed each of an I infinite number of sides. and then just after the Spirit moved upon the face of the waters. an abstract relation. &quot. God. &quot. and the Spirit. In the beginning God the created wards. or rather perhaps to the . attention only to four or five arguments. heaven and the earth .) in the first two verses of Genesis. Because I am unwilling to pro replied to .God says by Moses in the book of Genesis. a firiend to the u kindly lent me Serle s Hone my Because a deliberate attention to the nature of the first- mentioned arguments may furnish the reader with a general idea of the rest. 1 making it the fourth person. justifies the numbering of them as two persons of God. &quot. God. . 3rdly. as a person of and &quot. and that for several reasons. as a fifth per son of God classing under any pretence we are justified in beginning. Because such of the others as seem to me worthy of notice have been already considered and and. in which is to be found an infinity of circles. If a bare mention of the word begin ning and spirit. As was concluding I this doctrine of the solitariae. that &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot.globular figure. Mr. which has already grown to a length beyond my original intention. and which : is if mentioned before Spirit. confine Trinity here Appendix. tent with darkness&quot. which is equally an abstract relation ? Nay. &quot. 267 of their opinions to the circular. Here are thee persons in one power the Beginning. (or properly speaking wind. tract further far discussion. how can we conscientiously omit the water mentioned in the same verse as coexis &quot.

and which was. or that persons (according to our * the point Athanasian creed) is by himself Jah or Lord (kametz) as common to each.- &quot. Serle s come. all. arguing. was intended to exhibit the perfect unity. is denote the Deity has two jods only a Targums of Jonathan and Onkelos. This which. the We opinion have any foundation. Page 12: &quot.&quot.I saith the Lord. and which is to have. inclosing and conjuction. of the whole Trinity. by this parti where the three jods denote Jah. and the Ending. whom we must admit into the Godhead. establishes according to Mr. 8. is described as profound Kather.205 SECOND APPEAL words of chap. In the same page again he says. of Revelation might be quoted toprove one of the persons of God to be the ending am Alpha and Omega. wisdom. .They (the ancient cular Chaldee Jews and Cabalists) expressed their idea of the Trinity type. and to other Targums in Hebrew and Chaldee. Jah. Theistical. Hrbrew and Chaldee. if Mr. the first person. or Atheistical type. the Spirit. Chochma. or the intelligence illuminating the . This eternity. can bear various interpre but in tations. is entirely over looked by him. implies the divine nature in and the circle. existed at any time.&quot. God.&quot. which the three persons equally existed each of three : .!)&quot. if it . Serle s mode of the duality of God. generally used to reference to the doubt. written in the Chaldee language. four persons at least ning. the Begin Almighty. I. or admirable and the second person JT03n intelligence *&quot. will establish the fact beyond practice. the sign which . Polytheistical. that u in a very ancient book of the Jews. Jah. the BEGINNING and the ENDING.D . then. the crown. or Hypostasis. which 1 is.

they believed. or thrice ik holy. and mentions only the first three. or the sanctifying intelligence. Serle u Page 14. that the Jews called fact them is.* But a Godhead s consisting ten hypothesis. or numerations&quot. which they called sometimes JTp^ middoth.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.IJ Greatness n^On Wisdom mp} &quot. the worker He immediately after this of faith and the father of u assertion notices in page 13. taught. or properties. Supreme Deity used ten Pl^S Under or qualities in the creation of the world. The force of truth here impels the author to contradict him self directly . and and the second glory . _ . which he denominates a proof of the Trinity. adored three primordial existences in the Godhead. that The propei tits. when the intercourse between the Jews and Greeks was great. In persons not suiting Mr. namely. it. the former. believed them forgetting what he he affirms Jews and again God. he omits the last seven. &quot. the second Holy the Son. Serle represents R. or numeration of properties. and sometimes JT|T!?Q sephiroth. entertained the idea that the superior intelligences in imitation of the latter. that the first Holy implies the Father. since he at one time asserts that the to be the three persons of said.&quot. and the third Holy the Holy Ghost.Tin Mightiness Beauty tion H^J / Everlasting Glory- 11D 11 )TlN2n Founda of JTO O Kingdom. Simeon and the famous Jonathan treating upon tee Trisagion.DID Crown standing nb&quot. in the 6th chapter of Isaiah^ as saying. of the learned amongst Eastern theologians. creation. 269 and the third person nr3 Binah.&quot. I This opinion is still to be found in the conversation as well as writing. Mr.

in the year 1656. and There of is Holy Spirit. Dtf. consisting of various But Mr. i. e. names of God. is as u Holy. the original Hebrew text. D. Jonathan s Targum on the term vi. and Arabic translations. on the authority of represents Christian writer. together with the Septuagint. in order to shew how zeal in behalf of the Trinity has sometimes led men to forget the claims of care and prudence. that &quot. because we find different numbers of Galatinus. each accompanied with a Latin Syriac.&quot. the Holy upon the work of his power Holy for ever and ever and ever. t which 1 have been so fortunate as to procure. a letters. Again. the place of earth. he says.The Jews before of the Godhead consisting twelve which Maimonides. Serle. or Raymundus Martini. and Holy is now in my hands was printed in London. in Page Christ had a letters. title for 14. owns to have been a compounded name. Galatinus from R. Father. 150. Son. by It co . the most learned of all their writers. or rather Hakkadosh. thrice repeated in Isaiah follows : by u imp rpnjsty m nxby KI^TO CI^D imp jn his glory wby ^byb\ Qbyb imp rrmp} in^ Holy in the most high heavens. that these twelve letters Porchetus Salvaticus. no impossibility in the existence of a name God been consisting of twelve letters.) believes were ttHpPI Hp] p. of Jonathan. besides the Targum Roycroft.tains. or name as ( was common among of the Rabbins ) composed of the from initial letters other names. j* The copy which Thomas interpretation. Son. 3. &quot. these twelve letters as expressing the names of Father. .270 therefore give the SECOND APPKHL commentary of Jonathan. as is stated to have the case on the authority of Maimonides. (who lived about A.

gt. ticus.r fi &amp. that have not been brought my notice but I trust ciently far to justify me the inquiry has proceeded suffi in still adhering to the unity of God as the doctrine New Testaments. must have been invented by one more accustomed to the idiom of European languages. 3rdly. The construc of twelve letters is f tion of this sentence conformable to the Europsan style of writing. letters were the initials of other names whereas Mr. . . I now conclude taught alike in the Old and in the this Appendix.whether r&amp. not be a cause of difference between when religion shall man and man. and when every one sole will regard the Precepts of Jesus as the Guide to Peace and Happiness. 2ndly. Serle himself expi esses his doubts respecting the source from which Galatinus had obtained his informa tion. Mr. but Hebrew before ]!3 foreign to idiom. Son and Holy Spirit. that a day may soon arrive. still and importance to those already remain. than to that of the Heb rew. instead of giving a name for each of the twelve letters. 1st. owns that these twelve . Serle. which requires a conjunction expressed or Son but the omission cf this shews that it is quite . Hakkadosh) nan Pore /ictus SalraRaymundus Martini&quot. &quot. the original authority of Mr. with repeating my prayer. Maimonides.)i)i from R. 2~j \ I therefore make a fe\v remarks on this head.k Spirit.lt.TO THK CHRISTIAN ITIU. Father. Serle in the explanation of them represents them as composing in themselves three complete names. I am not aware how many arguments and illustra tions of similar weight discussed to may .

his name will be called the anointed. truly ll his. and Jonathan. ch. to the Mes I therefore give here the explanation given by : Jonathan to verses 6 and 7. ) from has been offered in the preceding pages After quoting the words of the prophet according to the English Version. (in . ? is siah applied by Jonathan. nection. Prideaux has committed. in the doth on that place say the .&quot. 7. he says. given. DR. which will the error Dr. ix. as by Christians.POSTSCRIPT. the great God endur ing for ever. the preservation the causer of wonderful counsels. include the epithets Wonderful Counsellor. my 6. vers. to the house of David a child is bom. hands.Con takes a that (which has very lately come into different view of Isaiah. God. u Christians all hold that this is which spoken of the Messiah is Targum which same. and he will take upon himself of the law from the presence of . Hereby he gives out that this prophecy. and the Prince of Peace. in the fourth volume of his &quot. PRIDEAUX. the Mighty ing the Everlasting Father. sufficiently shew -n srwo wcyb D^p anna KnStf nxy P*r ^a ^npin by\ -rp D-rp by il The prophet to us a son is says.&quot.

and applies ( to him only the synonymous title of &quot. the Messiah of the God of Jacob. here lam! witness the Lord. (2 Kings xx. and his anointed. the in direct opposition to Christians. Heb. born the epithets Counsellor. ) of Peace.&quot. and exalt the horn of his Messiah. 3: &quot.&quot. high. &c. 26 The wrath of days Lord came not upon them in the days of Hezekiah. : 1 made ings : to Hezekiah in the same manner as to other emi nent kings.&quot. Psalm xx. nearly his with on preserving peace during his reign as was promised of the Messiah. and 51: sheweth mercy to seed for evermore.&quot. i xii. 19: ik Is it not good ( says Hezekiah ) if peace and truth 2 C/iron. often called Messiah i in the Sacred Writ Samuel against me Messiah. xxxii. Here Jonathan. &quot. before &quot.Behold. (or his David the the king. in whose days peace shall be multiplied Greatness shall be multiplied to those who obey the no end law. ) son of Jesse said. and Everlasting so Wonderful Father .&quot. i unto David. Lord to his Messiah.&quot.&quot. there will be David and of his government building it with judgment and : with justice denies to now and son for ever.&quot. ii. : and the man who was raised up on Ch. The Prince Messiah.SKCOND APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. to The reign of Hezekiah was so accompanied with 18 . ?&quot. ) the This application of the term anointed (or Messiah) is account of be in my &quot.&quot. Mighty God. Messiah 273 ) upon u us. his Messiah. 2 Samuel xxiii. u He is the tower of salvation for his king.&quot. Cyrus. and to his 10 u : Samite/. and to those to the throne of for establishing and for who keep peace. The Lord shall judge the ends of the earth and he shall give strength unto his king. I : Thus saith the Lord saveth his Messiah. xxii. 6 u : Now know 4i I that the Isaiah xlv. .

however. Trinitarians defiance above anointed f authorities.&quot. ch. as far as depends upon the interpretation given by him of verses 6 and 7. who has five names. Sholomo follows the annotation made by Shattimai.&quot. For a child is born. take vengeance upon the king of Assyria. R. let Hezekiah. they must be compelled to relinquish the idea that he expected a divine deliverer. some of are more ancient than Johathan. and . of the &quot. shall and keep the commandments thereof. the government of God and his yoke shall be on his shoulder. who is the wonderful counsellor. because he shall obey the law his son. &c. for they the time of Hezekiah. Though Ahaz was wicked. who has taken upon himself five names also. u. and under pretence of the word u found in the Targum of Jonathan. some of them differing. who was born to him to be a king in his stead.274 SECOND APPEAL peace and success. R. e. &c. orf? bbn There is no Messiah still insist for at enjoined If it (i. &quot. Hillel. God said. then. whom other celebrated Jewish writers.- rwo &quot. Talmud Sanhedrim. apply the pas all sage in question to Hezekiah.&quot. they had him) in the Israelites. that or Messiah. name. and shall incline And he calls his his shoulder to the burthen of God. from him in the application of the epithets contained in verse 6. that some Jewish commentators entertained the opinion that Hezekiah was really the last Messiah promised by God. be righteous. Moreover. &quot. his interpretation should be understood of the expected Messiah. God.

master and us. ?&quot.&quot. scriptural. the utmost bound of the everlasting hills. Therefore of the Jewish ark. . &quot. Is &quot. about to build shall be wonderful &quot. &quot. considers the following passages. I Samuel iv. See Deut. 4.&quot. there no king in thee ? Is thy counsellor perished Hear us thou art a mighty Prince Genesis xxiii. . xlviii. am 9. and &quot. ?&quot. to Hezekiah. Isaiah Ixi. 2 Chron. to be unFather. See justified when Luke i. Who shall deliver us out of the hands of these mighty &quot.&quot. everlasting and prince of peace. but And his name shall be the name of a person. To &quot. and even for u The house which I 9.&quot. when he refers to page 216 of this work. xlix. 13. that &quot.&quot.&quot. interprets I Isaiah xliii. This is more especially the case when the phrase to be called has for its subject not a person.This is the sixth month with her who was called (that is. gods ?&quot.&quot. but the use of it is imply that the thing is in reality the thing is merely taken notice of in that view. wonder how those who found their opinion re specting the Trinity on terms applied in common to God and of the term c It is creatures. to be called and to be do not invariably signify the same thing since the former does not always what it is called. beings.* The reader will not suppose the application of the terms wonderful counsellor. ii. &quot. all &quot. Micah iv. is Who himself above that called God. mighty God.&quot. 275 the mighty and everlasting Father. xxv. 26. great. &quot. 2 Thess.That they might be called (or reputed ) barren. : &quot. 16. epithets are used for in which the same in human animate objects.&quot. worth noticing. &quot. t he house of him that hath his shoe loosed. servant. 36. &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC . can possibly overlook the plain meaning or u Only-begotten.&quot.&quot. Let my name be named on them. &quot. which Cruden u 28. &quot. 3. accounted) trees of righteousness. 6. continually Son. Genesis called in Israel.Should I leave my wine amongst Judges which cheereth God and man that is. &quot. 8.&quot. have profaned the princes of the I sanctuary. called his name the Prince of Peace. &quot. ix. 10. for peace and truth shall be in his days. opposeth and exalteth Gen. &quot. ii.

and another his deity. one declaring the humanity of Jesus. Trinitarians. Moses and others. for getting that at the same time the greatest incongruity exists between the nature of God and man. for should we understand term strict sense. upon. as denoting the First Cause. . and then attempt to reconcile the alleged contradiction by introducing the doctrine of the union of two natures. (that Testament in its is. that there are found in the Scriptures two sets of terms and phrases. and the religion of the Jews and Christians will appear as Polytheistical as that of Heathens. that each word in the Sacred Writings should be taken in its strict sense.&quot. the whole of the the New God. equally with the Saviour.276 applied SECOND APPEAL to the Saviour throughout . is as incompatible u with the idea of the as entity is &quot. if it is insisted considered as gods. with a view to support their opinion. As to their assertion. charge them first with all inconsistency. in one person. must be and that. Only begotten. divine and human. Although there is the strictest consistency between the passages in the sacred books. as with non-entity and therefore that to apply both terms to the same being will amount to the gross . according to both revelation and common sense. and that he must therefore be acknowledged to have possessed a twofold nature. a being not born nor begotten. human and divine. Son. est solecism in language.) we must neces sarily confess that the idea of God or &quot. I have fully noticed it in other places pointing out such passages as contain two sets of terms and phrases applied also to Moses and even to the chiefs of Israel and to others .

If 277 Christianity inculcated a doctrine which repre sents God as consisting of three sometimes in the human persons. it represents the divine nature. however. no Hindoo. though one ( c^s I as consisting of many persons. and appearing other times in a bodily form. for that which renders the absurd and detes modern Hindoo system table. approbation of my conscience in publishing the Precepts of this religion as the sources of Peace and Happiness. am. can conscientiously profess it in preference to Hindooism . at shape like a dove. is of religion that 3J*R ). most firmly convinced. . in my humble opinion* who searches after truth.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. capable of assuming different forms for the discharge of different offices. that Christianity is entirely free from every trace of Poly I therefore enjoy the theism. whether gross or refined.

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PART II .

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1823. DHURMTOLLAH.THE PRECEPTS OF JESUS&quot. CALCUTTA I PRINTED AT THK UNITARIAN PRESS. .F1NAI APPBAl -^ TO THE CHEISTIAI PUBLIC IN DEFENCE OF &quot. BY RAMMOHUN ROY.

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THANKS Author s to the Reverend Editor . . scripturality of the Trinity.. .... for his labours.. Precepts of Jusus. TABLE OF CONTENTS. . the un.. 4 5 Author Author s public avowal of his faith. Exp3riment proposed.. . ib... . .... .. ib. i Vindication of himself from the charge . The The Editor as to s ridiculing of the suggestion offered . . s Author 3 ib.&quot..... vanity. . .. . ib.. of the Author s belief.. precaution in the Second Appeal. ib.. ib. in proof of this. 2 Quotation of a part of &quot. .. reason assigned for his disapproval ..... ........ Necessity has driven the Author to these publica tions. Remarks.. . .. 6 of the . ..... of presumption.... Page. . The assertion of the Editor as to his ignorance . ib.... ... .. Quotation of some part of the First Appeal. suggestion.II and part III..... the study of the Bible. Unbiassed common sense suffices to find ..The Introduction to the . CHAPTER Introductory I... s vindication of himself from the charge of ..

and ib. referred to. Polytheism. Traditional instructions inculcated of in childhood one of the causes prevailing errors in Christianity.. fiding credulity of his children. . 14. commandments.... unless inculcated in youth. referred to.. et seq. 31. &c.. Editor. 14 The argument adduced by thou shalt live. 29... The The duties of liberal parents.11 FINAL APPEAL Page. mine. . . 10.. . position of the insufficiency of the Precepts of Jesus to procure . This do.. &quot. .. No liberal parent can take advantage of the con .. noticed. ib.. &quot. men . force of early-acquired prejudices. Mark xii.. referred to. &quot. . studies. scriptural .. 24.. xv. . weight of the passage.&quot.Hear O Israel.&quot... adopted by the ... John ye keep and ver. noticed..... 7 ib.&quot. the Lord our God is one Lord.Whosoever heareth these sayings .. . .. Impossibility of a belief in the Trinity and Hindoo .. .. ib.. 9 The reason assigned by the Editor for his omission of several arguments in the Second Apppeal. 13 Matthew of vii. salvation. .... ciate the my to. n 12 The The irregular mode of arguing ..... . The Editor of s ironical remarks on the success of in the Author . ib. . examined . 10 The Editor s noticed.. salva proved....&quot... If ib. . sufficiency of the Precepts of Jesus for tion. . referred Matthew xxv. ... the Editor to depre &quot.

xviii. 4... Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Atonement.. &quot.... . 23 ib.. and brother . .. . . 7. noticed. CHAPTER II. Cain s examined. referred to. 26 .. vi. &quot. 4. Hebrews xi. . li. referred to. ib... The The The Editor u s question. procuring pardon... The Parable Psalm Prov. Hosea 6 ... referred to. Micah Psalm 8 ... &c... Genesis iv.. purged. . referred to. Isaiah i.. spirit.. ib... 32.. examined. explained Editor s omission to notice those passages that represent repentance as a sufficient means for . of the Prodigal Son.. 16 righteousness fame by the law. 8 15. 56.. The sacrifice offered by Abel.. referred to. . 1 8 xvi. . . . xxiv 47. &quot. .The sacrifices of God are a broken 17. . n. 1.. ... 23 24 25 How far sacrifices are vi. 15.. ib. A Genesis .. divine institutions.. approved of God..TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. referred to. . John viii.. &c. is . xiii. Hi Page. . regard the .. iii....I 20 ib. ib.. .. 30.. Luke v.. lf answered.. noticed.. ... referred to. .. ?&quot. lawyer as sinless verse..&quot.By mercy and truth iniquity i.. . . &c.... &quot. 16 18. Isaiah 18.. Ezekiel 6. . change of arrangement by the Editor.... in preference to his ... 17 ib. Human justice referred to. . &quot. Hebrews xi..Did Jesus . ib. will put enmity between thee and the woman/ &c. 3.. 26.

and his quoting know that my Redeemer liveth&quot. them... Job xix.. in a spiritual sense. 21 23. 6 Peter ii. . and virtual . Psalm cxli. as &quot... The death Such terms of Jesus was . . should be taken. I .. ... 13. .&quot.. 36 . 5. . .IV FINAL APPEAL Page. ib. notions of Justice.... . 4. 4... Luke xi. and others ... .. 26 i Sam... Prov. examined.&quot.. . 8. 32 ib.. tain dispensation. 16.. ye eat . I were adopted by . 3. . &quot.. 23. examined. Numbers xiv.. 22 ..Unless to... the apostles. referred to. &c. a . 28. . 19. 18 20. . Hebrews referred to. spiritual . 29 ib.. &quot. xxi. .. ib. 5.. 2 Isaiah Iv. &c. sacrifice... ib. Revelation i.. 33 Priesthood without sacrifice exists under the Chris. Psalm cvi. 5.. . Matthew Isaiah v. 3 u . 16. 7 .. 27 Common ..&quot. atonement for sin. 5. xv. referred to In what sense such expressions as he had offered one sacrifice for like This man after sins. 31 xxii. x.&quot. 34 ib. 35 ib... ... . Eccles.I &c.. 5. quoted . . 6.. Ixiii.. Jeremiah vii.. referred to. . v. . as. 30 Hebrew Genesis x. &quot.... 20 2 Chronicles xxx.. &quot. The Editor s reference to Noah s sacrifices.&quot. It is not possible that the blood of . in proof of spiritual . bulls.. ib* Peter ii.. Protestants explain such phrases his flesh.. . referred to. Matthew xviii.. referred to.... referred to.. referred &quot. &c. sacrifice. xxxii.. 25. Exodus xx.. sacrifices... Ix.. being familiar to the Jews.. and God s promise to Abraham.. xx. 1.

Therefore&quot. me. . doth my Father love . the Father willed. Mark xiv. have re human attempt to notions of justice in their prove the atonement of Christ. s mission was to deliver divine . . . noticed as bearing no relation to the vicarious sacrifices of Jesus. &c.. 7. . referred to.. The Editor s objection to the application of human notions of things of Justice to 44 judge the unsearchable . .. miah made to 15.. 25 27. .. 24 &quot... . 42. 37 39. The assertion of the if it Editor that This iniquity. . divine things.But I was like a .. ... examined.. ib... ib.. Lamb.. 8.. examined. x. 46 47 The Editor s human .. &c. &quot. The orthodox course to divines. Luke 19 .. 3. referred to &quot... to the ... 38 39 ib. referred to. 25.. . .. 6 8.. 42. Exodus xxviii.. ib.. context.. sense in which the application of the term is Lamb John xxi..&quot. compared with Acts ii. ib.. .. 8 n.. 26. x. .. Jesus. Psalm ii. The account of the scape-goat examined. . 42 43 ib... The John object of Jesus instructions... by referring . Jere &c. V Page Job xix. notions of justice to .. applying .&quot.... referred to.. and Psalm xvi.. 36 The &quot.. Psalm xl.... xi.. Jesus s aversion to death like many other prophets... 41 &quot.. like the Editor..TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 2. 37 Genesis xxii.. 17... 36 Luke xxii. examined.. . etc. . Matthew xxvi. .. referred to. ... . discussed. 38.. I. 26. 44. examined. compared with Acts iv. God. .&quot. be such. &c. .

. &quot. 33. .. i. . ib. 23. 14. to Jesus. 2. sufficient &c.. understanding.. examined. 15 .. 6. xv... Examination of Isaiah quent chapter. Daniel ix.He shall not cry. .. our repentance .. Micah iv.Saviour. &quot. 54 ib.... 52 ib. of quick . ?&quot.. Isaiah xlii. 30. . the question. 51 ib..&quot.. &c... examined.. The just shall compared with Romans ii. Galatains 2 noticed. deferred to the subse . .&quot. ib. Habakkuk iii... 4.. . 8 John v.&quot. 56 ib. .. 10. 53 ib. . examined..... Isaiah xi..... 21. &c. examined .The did the Egyptians cry to . ib. .. . 24.. noticed. &quot.. 55. Editor s examined. 17 . . Lord. Ezekiel xxxiv. v. 3.... . . &quot. .. I xxxi.. 20.. his faith. . n. 21. Christ s vi. examined. Amos ix. Corinthians liii..&quot. noticed. &c. . &quot.... 26.. 49 The attempt to prove the atonement from the application of the term &quot. Cor. . Answer to the question.. ib.&quot. vii. Joel 28 . &quot. Jer. ..&quot. .. 5... Hosea 5 ... .. noticed. Matthew ix.The .. xxiii. .. 9.. Jehovah ib. is . 3. 19. And he shall make him . Lord 2 well pleased. referred to. Isaiah xxxv. 48 ib.&c..... 56 live Nahum by i.. 21. examined. iii. Isaiah xix.. 31. .. examined... ?&quot. and v.When previously to coming. i.. .. Is Isaiah Answer to examined..... examined. 50 &quot. examined. Obadiah ver. .VI FINAL APPEAL Page. ransomed of the ... . . 7. ... ii. . examined.. . Haggai ii... .. 63.

... 9 ... 64 ib. iii. 8.. 62 Reference to a few &quot. mere creature could take away sin. explained..&quot.sacrifice. terms . that The blood of no &quot. note on the word &quot.. 61 ib. .&quot. Vll Page. quoted.. noticed. sins commit . The Editor s assertion. i.ransom. 26.offering. 13.&quot. 67 . 12 and 15 referred to. God.. ib.. explained. xiii. ted against the infinite God. ib.. ib. 16. 68 &quot. referred to. referred to.Redemption. &quot. Jehovah. &quot. &quot.. . ... .. iii... design of his death.. noticed... Zechariah iii. .. 63 Of a two-fold nature of a Hindoo incarnation . 69 . ib.&quot. Malachi Jesus iii. Judges . noticed. propitiation of the infinite The phrases &quot..Jesus came to give himself a .&quot.everlasting fire. 8. . note on the word &quot. 15. ib. and . . Habakkuk 6.. and his atoning in 65 proof of the finite effects of Christ s appearance on earth. vi... Chronicles xxi... .. The Editor Arguments &quot..Mercy-seat.Being 1 justified freely&quot. ib.. . &c. appointment of noticed.. .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. The I Israelites punished finitely for ... .. iii. 8... 24... 58 Such expressions as &quot. s assertion. adduced. xlix. direct made no declaration respecting the . As to the sin. punishments. ransom for many.. ..&quot.. Genesis xvii.&quot. . 32... 12..&quot. Infinite reward for a good act performed for the . Solemn denial of ridiculing Christ s intercession.. ib. Romans viii. 57 ib. referred to.&quot.everlasting . i. Locke Locke Locke s s s paraphrase on Rom.. text explaining the &c.. 24.... ch.

.Thus thou say... 21. sons of God. 58.. .. ver. 70 xlviii.&quot. referred to. . 75 . ... Trinity not found in the Scriptures. The term Genesis xxxi.. . 19. .... 79 Psalm Ixxxix.&quot. . a flame of fire..&quot. 2. .. 9 . An allusion to a three-fold nature of Christ. am. &quot.. . Ruth iv. xxiv. SECTION I.. Job i.. 26.. Gene Judges i. The . xcvii.. . v. referred to. 8. &quot.The . 27 Exodus referred to. &quot. ii..Vlll FINAL APPEAL Page.. Chronicles xx. 8a 81 2 Kings v. .&quot. Exodus 14. referred to. and John . 5 &quot. xviii. . . iii.&quot. 26. 13. 3. 14 . examined..... . referr . referred to. referred to. . 76 78 78. v. referred to... Psalm Judges 2 xiii. . iii. referred to.I noticed Isaiah Ixiii.&quot... i 8.. 27. I.. ..... Nehem. . 13. The Pentateuch and Psalms. 16 7.. brought you out of Egypt sis xxii. &quot. am&quot.. 3. 16. . Exodus .&quot. that I . 16. &quot.. 2. am.. referred to.. I &quot. III.. 7 . ed to.Thou has not withheld thy son. &c. Isaiah x. .. 71 ib. angel which redeemed me.. 6. 25. 22 . 21.. CHAPTER Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Irinity. 72 73 73. 4 xxix. 74 74 Micah I iv. am Christ... &quot. ib. Chronicles xiv. shalt 24. ib.&quot.. Judges xiii. 8. . Samuel 1 xxiv. Matthew John i 1 ii. examined. iv.If ye believe not that ...I ib. 21. &quot. 12.In &quot. John viii..I am the God of Bethel. xxiii. referred to.

. Cor. i. sometimes without . &quot. &c... iii. &c. referred to.. 8. . Prophets performing miracles. examined. .. 17 . 82 ib. .. referred to. Kings xix. 3. . of .&quot. The word which 18. &c. John iii..&quot. Psalm Locke Ixviii. thou preservest. i. ..&quot. 2. .. illustrated 90 qi Psalm cii. iv.. 18... O for God... 30.. Hebrews i. . 5. Psalm xiv. u The earth . ... 42. 9. .. U O Jehovah. ?&quot.. ... . 2. examined.... Hebrews &c..... examined.. Jeremiah xvii.. 86 87 ib.To trust ih him.. . .&quot. ... 85 ib. &quot. 26. 89 throne. 90 The Editor Direct s substitution of noticed.Jehovah&quot.. note quoted.&quot. x.... 6.. 25 27... 2 .God&quot. 24.. Psalm xxxvi. 10.. . ... 2 Ephesians . i . . Matthew xxviii. examined. x. 22.. is Johovah s.. referred to. .. 8. compared with John i.. . 88 John xvii.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. compared with Colossians i... examined. v. u . . . 32. &quot.. The phrase &quot. .... referred to. ib... . . Whatsoever sold. and xiv..... Hebrews i compared with Psalm xxiv. ib. 81 ib. . i.. referred to. to Solomon. compared with Ephesians . quoted in Hebrews i.. explained. 35. 84 ib. examined. to. examined.. . the term . b. Isaiah xiv.. &quot.The ye hear.. s referred to. Psalm xxiv i. 3... oral addresses to God... Psalm xxiv. 41.. application Pslam xiv.&quot..Do we provoke the Lord &c. &c. . &quot. ... referred to is 83 i Corinthians. 25. ib. referred 8. Proverbs xxxi. IX Page... John xi. .

99 From a Jewish book of prayers.&quot. 28. 25. 45. xiii.. examined. referred to. The The context of ver. 96 n . 94 The Editor s endeavour of Christ.. . in the . will ..The firstborn of 51. Hebrews i.&quot.. xi. referred to. pherds over &c... Psalm .. &quot. force of the evidence respecting the changeable nature . 6. .. xii.... Ephesians Alquoran.. iii.Thou. . 5. &c. 18. for . examined....&quot. quoted. Service. &quot. Matthew xxii..Sabbath . &quot. &quot.I will set up she ... . s The Editor &quot. 18. . . examined.... i.. of the terms sons of . weaken the . .. examined. referred to. 21..... 17.....Lord&quot. . ib. substitution of the term noticed. 40. &quot. referred to. 95 .Jewish Morning 5.The founded on John 102 Figurative application God... &c.. Lord.... set ib. 19... &quot.. . quoted. Jeremiah them. 100 ib... to.. hast ascended on high. 23..&quot. ib Corinthians xv. noticed.. referred to. i .... 34. ib. 16 .. &quot. 15 quotod.Jehovah&quot. 10 .. ib. 5 Johniv. 7. beginning.. Alquoran ii.. . 24. Morning . Isaiah Ixiii. ..shepherd. &c... .. 103 Luke ii.. Mark xxiii. ..X FINAL APPEAL Page.. 4 &quot.&quot. .&quot. quoted. Isaiah xlix.. 21 Luke . iv. 10 12. 19 . 93 ib. . one shepherd. . &quot.. ..&quot.. God. 52 . 18. . .. to ..&quot. 27.. Hosea ii. Application of the term &quot.. 3.Thou compared with Psalm Ixviii. referred 101 Editor s attempt to invalidate x... 42. 98 ch. ib Deuteronomy xlvii. Service. Ezekiel xxxiv.. the argument . . xxxii. Matt..I xxiii.

ib. 5. noticed. . Terms.9. noticed.&quot.. 8. when ascribed to created sense. Christ.. 14 . be upon 15 i... . referred to. 7.Mine ib. 9. 34 . .. . 17 . . xxv. Ixiii. in..&quot.&quot. &quot. ib. John .. or circumstances ble to have per ib..... . xxvii. xiv. . referred to. 34.. noticed. 44 ii. 9.&quot. . no... &quot... examined.&quot.. 6.. Mark xiv.... Psalm Ixxviii. referred to.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.. . vii. .. Moses and others being types of .. beings. 107 ib. 8. examined. subject ex .. .. &quot. 3o. examined.. Isaiah lix. . Deut. &quot. referred to. Christ. Psalm referred to. 113 Psalm xcv. ib.For Jehovah is a great God. The I context of John x. Deuteronomy x. am Alpha and Omega.... 105 Moses and the of Israel termed Gods and to Men. Inconsistency of ascribing to Jesus the following expressions shall : &quot.The blood . Matt. 50 .... The commonly-received fold nature. phrases... strictly applica God of alone. 15..He divided the sea. ib. Philippians 103.Neither let us tempt . 108 The on this . 104 s 8. &quot. to the interpreted in an inferior 106 The argument Exodus xxv. referred to. and Revelation examined. Editor s last assertion ..I in will tread them.. 11.. 6. . and equally with Jesus said formed most wonderful miracles. xlix.. &quot.&quot.I ... 13.13. garment.&quot. XI Page. Isaiah 8... i. Daniel its vii. 17 . xx. xiv. I. 112 112 Revelation and context. 109 Gen. 7. .. 17 8. . my . two . x. chiefs doctrine of Christ . Corinthians x. 7.Jer. own arm. amined....

compared with John . noticed. 7. 2i.. 114 ib. 23. to. ii. 24. . i. examined. considered. 17. i. 116 Psalm cxxx. xxxi.I and my .. 12 ..... 10... ver.. 6 V referred . . Numbers i xvi. 13. 14. 37.. referred .. a virgin shall conceive.&quot. . Genesis Xvi. 5. x. 124 ib. xxix. Exodus Isaiah xxi. 4. . Genesis xxxviii. II& John iv.. to. referred to. Ixxxv. 22 .Doth not wisdom cry . v. The context of ver. 8 . 2 Sam.. SECTION The Prophets. 120 121 Verse 41.. 22. compared with Matthew i.. viii. exa ........ 41. compared with John viii. 10 .. ib. to. 14.shall conceive. referred Isaiah vi.. . 17 . 57 and Isaiah xxvi... examined.. 8 . 7. Examination of John one/ referred to. 3. Gen. . Father are . 2 Kings . . &quot. re . . xviii. Hebrews iii. 30.. xi. viii 13 . &quot. 122 Isaiah vii.. Cor. 8 . nq ib. 28... &c.. 24. referred to. Deut.. ib.. ?&quot. . vii. 46... mined. xii. xxviii. 4 i Kings .. re. John i.. Zech.. ... ... ....... 4. 2.. ferred to. 41. 30. &quot. 122. The term &quot.. referred to. 37 Zech. 22. xxviii. . I. . 123 . Romans Isaiah Ixiii..Behold. 2 Cor. 30 . to r I . 27.Xii FINAL APPEAL Page. 125 .... . Amos . 56. ...Deut.. 1 terred to. 1 . . Jer. referred xi. . 115 _____ /-\ \J _ II. .... Proverbs viii. i. Ver. 5. xii. u.. 25.

&quot.. For unto us a child ... Psalm Ixxxix.. applied in an accommo . xviii. 29.. dated sense to Jesus. of Isaiah ix. be. xvi.. re 132.. ferred to.&quot. &quot. &c. Matthew i... context.. 14. compared with in his 2 . .. examined by a reference to its divinity. . 3.&quot. and &quot. .2... Campbell s ... seq. .&quot.And they shall call his name .. 133 . 128 Matthew s reference to Isaiah . ..TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 138 Isaiah xxviii. ...... is bom..&quot.. The context of the verse in question. ib.138 your godship..for ever. . examined. . 16. 23. 136 The phrases lasting. .&quot. &quot. .. and u to be called.. and his not knowing good from . et.... &quot. . noticed. Immanuel.. ib. .... 19. explained. referred The context of Isaiah Kings to.. 14. very .. compared.... . vii. 46 50. compared with Isaiah viii. 6. evil in that .ever explained. . 12. or &quot... referred to.&quot.. your . Capacity. Dr. compared with 2 kings xv. end. Isaiah xxiii. 137.... ib... 130 131 Hoseaxi. .... 125 The inconsistency between Christ s being poss essed of all power in his human capacity.. Gospel.. 13.&quot.. ib.no . 129 authority quoted. 7.to 135 Differance between noticed. Christian emperors addressed by the style &quot.&quot. Luke ii... &quot. &quot.. 126 ib. . referred to. . Isaiah ix. i. &c. 5.. Verses 1. . Micah iv. The decision left to the public. 10 .... . vii. I xiii Page....

&quot. &c..9. 8. 8. 14 . i.XIV FINAL APPEAL Page. Isaiah xl..The stone which the . ... Several questions put to shew the inferiority of the 155 Lamb. 10 compared with Revelation .. &c. xxii.. i. 28.. . ... . The verse in question in the original Hebrew. . 613.. . 13..... . 24. was inferior to the John viii. 12... 155. explained... 15... Revelation red to. Cor. 46. whether as man.. iii. 30. 143 ib. .... and Mai. .. addresses and xxii. 5. 7. shewing that Jesus.. . ..... Hebrews i. himself a servant of God. 150 151 Revelation xxi.. . xvii. iii. 1. xxii.. son of man.... Reference to Mark ib. s changeable nature.. of . . as the searchers . . 147 Joshua v.... . . 156 A query in reply to one of the many insinuations . ii. xv. noticed. 157 .... 8.. 6.. 29.. 139 141 A proof of Christ xl. Most High. . i. 31 . . .... 149 Prophets and Apostles represented of hearts. i. ... 69 John i. 3.. referred Isaiah xliv. Revelation xxii.. ib.. Isaiah 3.... and . 6. Cor.Voice him.. . ib.. to. &quot... of the Editor. 152 Phrases in Revelation Jesus calls compared..2. . builders. 14. I Peter ii. 31. Acts xvii. examined. 148 referred to. i.. 151. or son of God.. refer . . &c.... . referred to. xxii.. &quot. i.. . .. 2. 153 Christians as his brethen. Numb. i Dan. examined. . Luke i. examined.... 147.. .&quot.... . 145 compared with Revelation . examined.

.. 23.. to inani ... Jeremiah I xxxiii. . iv.. 3. .. explained.. . his own. 157 John iii. ib. &quot. Hosea 5.. . ^. The Acts I Editor iii. 23. Isaiah liv... . 66 68 Hebrews The God I reason for the different expressions used by to the Prince of Tyrus. 169 ib. examined. . 13 examined.. shall 12.. 22... .. Isaiah xlv. no name beside .. 21. 170 The The perishable nature of Jesus and his kingdom. to .. applied even .. exami . The Editor position that Jesus in &quot. and to Jesus.... . Jeremiah n.. every knee xiv..Most .. examined. Jeremiah .&quot.. .. explained epithet &quot. .. s . state of the heart.. 5.. .. explained^ Corinthians iv.. jb... s examined. .. . . . . 171 Holy.. 10 .&quot.. ... 16 xi. 2..... x..... .... God. . compared with Romans ned... . noticed.. That others besides Jesus were endued with the power of knowing the shewn...... remarks on Hosea examined.. ... 29 .. .exercised absolute dominion ed... ib.&quot..... examin . Corinthians The simple term &quot. . ii... 173 ib. mate things.. i.. xi. 172 examined. ib. exclusively applied .Jehovah&quot. . 5... bow.Unto me . .. v.. ... ... Ephesians examined... 163 165 v.. examined. Corinthians i. 1 1 John x. XV Page. . referred to. 159 162 ib.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 25. referred to. compared with .

of the all ..everlasting. referred to. 5 Performing miracles and enabling others to perform them were not peculiar to Jesus.. vii.... noticed.who vii. 7 . . ii. noticed.XVI . noticed. CHAPTER to the Arguments contained as . 14 Exodus 22 .. iii.. quoted.. noticed . . The terms and &quot.. and justice to the Mercy Father. ib... IV.. Chapter II.. Amos-iv.. noticed. .. Danial . The alleged compound nature of Jesus.&quot. 2. . 6.. . . . . by God.. Locke paraphrase on I Corinthians i.... 18. a possessing ascribed to power mediator. 8 .....&quot. &quot. Jef. Jesus was like the sun. .. 9 . 2 All the power Jesus enjoyed was given unto him . 3 Attributes peculiar to God never ascribed to Jesus. explained.. . . . note on Romans x..... &quot. . 175 ib. PART On Christ the Editor s Replies in s III. referred to.... 27.. according to the Trinitarian system.. xxxi... iv. 8. FINAL APPEAL Page....&quot.. 15 . and ii.. term &quot. . 6 8. being in the form of The examined. Psalm .... explained. 10 Philippians &c... .. an instrument in the hands 4 of God.first-born....for 9 9 ever&quot. Jeremiah ... God..... .... .. i the Son. 13.. . . and his .. s 2. Second Appeal.. Genesis xvii.. ib. Ixxxix. Zechariah 13. &quot. . .

.. I noticed.&quot.. 16 17 Jesus alleged two natures.. ib. 19 John xvii....God as &quot. noticed. 19 . 23 24. 22. himself the Son of God.&quot. containing a disavowal . the . 18 The Editor Christ.. i. . Hebrews i. examined by its context... 29 . The u phrase u only-begotten.. 36 .v.. John 34 36.&quot. John iv.. .. and he in .. . Ezekiel xxxvii. x. exaplained.. .. under the charge of making Jesus having died .he in dwelleth in . 25 26 John.. words . Instances wherein Jesus himself and his Apostles . One s calling God his father cannot amount i unity in nature with the Deity. s introducing the two-fold nature of .. and my Father are examined. &quot...son&quot.. . .. .. The force of the examined.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC..own son.. God.. The phrase from the beginning. . 20 ib.&quot. . referred to. 29 Such phrases &quot. of deity by ... 25 Psalm Ixvii. ....x. Micah.. XVII Page.&quot. Corinthians x. 6 Timothy i. .. noticed.. and God in him... s . &quot... referred to.. same to himself... referred to. 28 Genesis ii.. ib. &quot.. .. 7.Thy throne. 8.. .. noticed. one. . again noticed.&quot... him. 2. spoke of him as a creature.&quot... 31 . 17.. 36. 24 . Inconsistency of God s emptying himself of his for glory and offering up supplications . God. Romans viii.... 30 John x. 30. 2.. . to his . O God. I .... originally 32 33 applied to Solomon.. . and . referred to. again noticed. Christ. . noticed.

ascribed to Jesus in his human nature. examined.47 xvi.. &quot.. 37 ib.. God . quoted . . 48 ib. 39.. 39 Hindoo Polytheism compared with that main tained by the Editor. noticed.... again noticed. . The phrase &quot.. . 52 ib. i. . 47 Paul.. ascended .. Translation of this verse by Dr. V.. . .&quot. John xx.. ib . &quot. Position as to the ubiquity of . &quot. up.&quot. John John k xx.&quot. 13.. . The Editor John iii.God our Peter 25.... Parkhtirst s authority quoted. .. God the Son. Campbell. &c.... examined. 28. s First Jesus. The will of God the Father sometimes found at variance with that of xxvi. 46... quoted by the Editor... 61 ib.. the -beginning was the . Remarks on the Replies to the Arguments Jound in Chapter the Third of the Second Appeal.&quot. examined. 17.&quot. righte ousness of wise. Answers to the Editor s queries.. &c. and another in his human capacity. man hath .&quot. . I .&quot. .. discussed. 49- CHAPTER ... Perishable nature of fictitious gods... Jude To the only .In &quot. one part of the same sen tence spoken by Jesus in his divine.&quot..... in Matt.. I..for ever.The &quot.... word.&quot..Now are we sure that thou knowest John all things. According to the Editor. and Mark xiv.. &c. I. . 38 ib.. .. noticed. &quot. 36.No ... Saviour.. .My Lord and my God. 30. . &quot. examined.xvni FINAL APPEAL Page.

5 Matthew ix.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.. I . John iii. 27.. s . .. worship due to God... . 31.. Matthew xviii. The Editor Fifth Position. The Editor s Sixth Position..... Acts v. hensibility Matthew xi. John Gal. explained. . xix.worship&quot. examined. .. 22...For where two or three are . .No man knoweth the Son/ &c.. . respecting almighty Jesus.. 14.gt. &quot. 20. 19 Gen. 23.... .. &quot. I. 78 . discussed. 23. XIX Page. in to Christ s exercis an independent manner.. forgiving sin. ib. The Editor s Third Position. ing to himself a 65 examined. . discussed.. ib..&quot. 38. The Improved Version quoted. 2.. x.. .... discussed 76 ib.. ... 74 75 ib.not power being claimed by John v. xiii. 67 ib.... The term &quot. being committed to Jesus... . referred to. &2. . defined... .. referred to. . iv. referred to... peculiar to Jesus. .. Matt. 73 ib. referred to. Mark xiii. The work of judging men is .. noticed. discussed . .... &amp.. . referred to.. . as to Jesus s accepting .. &c. 25.. . referred to... . as ing. . v.. 14 .... Matthew ix. Matthew Matthew xx. 66 ib. .. 62 The The Editor s s queries answered. 19 36.. . as to all judgment . 77 .. the power of .. separately examined. 31.. 38.. iii... ... xiii. ... . Mark ii. xx. examined. . 69 The Editor s Fourth Position.. gathered.. .. 63 Editor Second Position as to Jesus s ascrib knowledge and an incompre of nature equal to God. 70 ib.. discussed.

XX FINAL APPEAL Page.. Invocation by Stephen.89 ib. Luke 16.. examined.... examined. .examined 85 CHAPTER On the VI.. examined. acquitted of the charge of encouraging idolatry. &quot. The Editor s queries answered.expressions you. &quot. ... 87 88 Such &quot. 8 1 referred to. noticed. xiii. and thanks to . . explained. ib. The ancient prophets receiving worship same sense that Jesus received it... Acts x. . ..&quot. . and the apostles. ib... discussed. 38 ... . Christ s 79 offering worship.. 31 ... Holy . .. referred to.&quot. 94 .. and ..And I will pour upon the house . x. 80 . examined. will teach . . &c. ..The Editor the Deity of the Son. Holy Spirit and Brief notice of the noticed. David.. and the Personality of the Holy Ghost from the institution of baptism. mentioned. &quot. to 83 The .son&quot. iii.&quot. . as Holy Spirit ..servant&quot. his Christ.. 2 90 93 Corinthians 14..2O... Matthew xvviii. referred to... 16. 20. &c... other subjects. God... .. &quot.. viii...terms &quot.. .. 2 Chronicles xx. I Corinthians 12.. manifest . equally .... .. Isaiah xlviii. . The Father. . Spirit by the Editor. inferiority. . ib. 84 ib... with its context.The .. 10... 16.. s Seventh Position. . 3.... Luke iii.. in the . .. as to 81 Exodus xiv.. .. 20.. . Matthew Acts xY 40 . . Acts V. ib. examined. prayers. Zechariah of xii..

.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBL 1C.. . . noticed. 99 ib. 7. blessed for 6 . vii.. i .. Ephesians the true 6. O sword. John v. ... Deut.. ..&quot. 20. A letter enjoying.. 4. Genesis xliv. on the prospect of Christianity . ib.. 8.. iv.. .. . quoted Authority The term &quot. . 5. .. . . shephered. Locke and Newton noticed.. . XXI Page. 103 The doctrine of Polytheism plurality of persons... 31... The practice of the Mosheim s authority John xx.. .. of primitive Christians noticed. against my . I .... &quot.. &quot.. 104 The Author s expression of thanks to God for . examined.&quot... .This is examined.. . Parkhurst s i Exodus i. . 5. Civil and Religious Liberty.. authority quoted. .. is similar to that of a . 100 ib.. 123 A Dialogue Chenese Converts between A missionary and Three .Awake. &quot.. 153 . i. God.Antichrist&quot. 95 iv.. referred to. ever. .. 105 106 The Tytler Controversy .God examined 17.&quot....... 96 97 98 Zechariah xiii.... 101 . referred to.. .. Corinthians viii. examined. Romans i ix... ..... ..

.

printed in the fourth number of the Quarterly Series of the Friend of India. 1821. by Dr.The Final Appeal was published in reply to the elaborate answer to the Second Appeal. Marshman. ED. . December.

.

and to my two former Appeals. my own conscience fully ap- . has compelled me. am well aware that this difference of sentiment has already occasioned much coolness towards I me in the . whatever may be the opinion of the world. part of this Essay. to bring forward my reasons for opposing the a of body large and piety a consideration which. men opinions maintained by so for learn ig highly celebrated I trust. will induce them I to regard my present labours with an eye of indulgence. by a reference to the I. and cannot wish that . that the necessity of self-vindication against the charge u of being an injurer of the caifte of truth. as a warm friend of that cause. feel my self obliged to lay before the public at large this my u FINAL APPEAL to the Christian self-defence. but has also diverted my other literary pursuits for three years Notwithstanding these sacrifices. among first however. confidently hope that the liberal them will be convinced. had pursued a different course since.PREFACE. entitled A Public. fied I all I had pro jected in the native languages.&quot. hold very dear has not only pre and that this protracted controversy vented me from rendering my humble services to my demeanour of some whose friendship countrymen by various publications which attention from past. NOTWITHSTANDING the apprehension pleasure in the breasts of of exciting dis I many worthy men. I feel well satis with my present engagements.

for any length of time. I extend my appeal yet further I solicit the patient attention of such individuals as are rather unfavourable to the doctrines of Christianity as generally promulgated. and make them the standard of their faith therefore. be kept concealed under the imposing veil of high-sounding expressions. oracles being truely interpreted also appeal to those who. feel the great importance of the divine . In esteem present vindication of the unity of the Deity. it has been corrupted by the subsequent intermixture of the polytheistical ideas that were familiar to its Greek and Roman converts. although indifferent about religion. therefore. that they may examine and judge whether prevails. and who will. yet de vote their minds to the investigation and discovery of truth. and more especially with the mild spirit of Christianity. and which have con and how much tinued to disfigure . from finding them at variance with common sense. and but I who must. not think it unworthy of their attention to ascertain trines of Christianity as taught what are the genuine doc by Christ and his apostles. I appeal not only to those who sincerely believe in the books of revelation. I feel its doctrines are really such as they are understood to be by the popular opinion which assured that now if religious controversy be carried on with that temper and language which are considered by wise and pious men as most consistent with the solemn and sacred nature of religion. it in succeeding ages.IV FINAL APPEAL I proves of my past endeavours to defend what the cause of truth. deeply and practice. the truths of it cannot. calculated to . as revealed through the writings of the Old and New my Testaments.

Many readers have not sufficient leisure or perseverance to go through a voluminous essay. and other friends of true religion. that they man make up 2ndly. determination. introduced in succession. from infancy. soon feel discouraged from proceeding further. 3rdly. adapted to the speedy attain ment of the proposed object. but is founded upon the authority of books written in languages which are under stood rules. that interpretations bear often no immediate relation to the subject. astonish the imagination and V rouse the passions of the people. for several reasons. long before they can come to a various The multiplicity of arguments and numerous scriptural passages. distract and dis hearten such readers as are not accustomed to Biblical studies. or to of each other. These reasons are as follows : i st. is necessarily issued at considerable intervals of time. could wish. by means of large publications. their minds and come to a settled opinion on the subject. But I regret that the method which has hitherto been observed in inquiry after religious truth. and explained according to known and standing I therefore propose. so well not. to establisha and certain attainment of .TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Those who have time themselves in at their command. with a view to the more speedy religious truth. and interrupt their further progress. as I. associated. Christianity is As happily not a subject resting on vague metaphysical speculations. and interest religious researches. finding the real point under discussion mixed up with injurious insinuations and personalities. and thereby keep alive and strengthen the pre conceived notions with which such language has in their minds been.

in for himself. intended Missionary Gentlemen refuse to bestow any for the spread of Christia nity. I hereby engage to exceeding cause it to be printed and circulated at my own charge. and also. of defending and in and the doctrines they have undertaken to preach v request. their regular order. and publish our obser the passages in that vations upon them . behalf of his fellow-labourers. commencing from the month and to subject Unitarian sion will consent thus to of April next. beginning with the Book of Genesis.VI FINAL APPEAL monthly periodical publication. I propose that. and taking all portion of Scripture. we should examine them one by one. That this new mode of controversy. in may be common . If any one of the Missionary Gentlemen. shall be published along with it by the begin ning of the ensuing month. attended with all the advantages which I.. those of the latter persua submit the scriptural grounds if on which their tenets concerning the Trinity are built. that an Essay on the Book of Genesis. towards this object. which are thought to countenance the doctrine of the Trinity. by short monthly publications. and so on with all the Books of tRe Old and New Testaments. as well as Trinitarian doctrines to the test of fair argument. For the sake of method and convenience. should the part of the funds. to be devoted to Biblical Criticism. may be sent me by the middle of diffusing I the month and a if confined within reasonable limits. the same manner with the and that next month we proceed in Book of Exodus. that a reply (not exceeding the same number of pages ) to the arguments adduced. choose to profit by the opportunity thus afforded them. not dozen or sixteen pages. of the kind above-intimated.

if mankind are brought into existence. domestic. must be considered presumptuous and unjust interfere for one man to attempt to observances of others. or which is inimical to the happiness of society. and can only serve to retard the progress of discovery and that we never allow our . he that . of a personal nature. January 30. .&quot. expect. or calculated to hurt the feelings of individuals that we avoid all offensive expressions. in opposing any system. with the religious is which he well knows. and by nature formed to enjoy the comforts of society and the pleasures of an improved mind. Notwithstanding. fears it him and works righteousness. he not held responsible by any law. and such arguments as have no immediate connection with the subject. As religion consists in a code of duties which the creature believes he owes to his Creator.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and as u God has no respect for persons but in every nation. 1823. and of which it is capable. . VII with other searchers after truth. is accepted with him for . religious. or calculated to debase the human intellect Calcutta. bearing always in mind that we are children of ONE Father. either human or divine. will be absolutely necessary that nothing it be introduced. 41 who is above all and through all and in us all&quot. selves for a moment to forget that we are engaged in a solemn religious disputation. they may be justified political.

.

almanner possible. in the First Edition. and of depending principally upon native this work. El).* ALL the preceding works of the author on the subject of Christianity were printed at the Baptist Mission Press. Second Appeal. Calcutta but the acting proprietor of that press having. may appear in its typographical This notice appeared Calcutta. declined.NOTICE. . he was under the necessity of purchasing a few types for his own use. since the publication of the ough in the politest work that the author might publish on the same subject. printing any other superintendance for the completion of the greater part of This must form an apology to the public for the imperfections that execution. published in .

.

&quot. NEARLY &quot. in refutation at the conclusion of that &quot. at the same time.FINAL APPEAL. to notice his I must. CHAPTER I. I trust. neither of that salutary kind alluded to by the Editor. will make their appearance in my The Rev taking to those age. &quot. For the able and in Second Appeal to the Christian condensed view of the those doctrines offer I arguments best support of I which Reviewer that publication presents. no painful emotions. a cation of the fourth month having elapsed after the number of the quarterly series before it publi of the Friend of India. in beg permission a . remarks. and other avocations and objects having subsequently engaged my attention. offered of my Public. have to the my thanks.&quot. though the benefit is have derived from their perusal limited to a corroboration of my former sentiments. Magazine. Essay nor of any other.to me with the arrogance of upon myself held by the teach doctrines directly opposed mass of real Christians in every To vindicate myself from the presumption with . Introductory Remarks. Editor charges &quot. happened had to reach me. few unjust insinuations some parts of but in so doing. I have not till lately leisure to examine the laborious essay on the doctrines of the Trinity and Atonement.

I decline entering into on those -confine points. were not.&quot.&quot. to and before my my attention the task of laying fellow-creatures the . Intro I The Precepts of Jesus. in deeming contained in the sacred . public to beg to call of the &quot. Introduction to Precepts of Jesus. these will be likely desirable effects of the to produce improving the hearts and minds of persuasions duction. that. any discussions ) opinions are widely different My words are &quot. p. nor did rejection my language in Introduction imply the of those truths which the great body of the learned and fully pious have concurred Scriptures. ) degrees of understanding. words of Christ. I hoped.2 FINAL APPEAL I which I am here charged. and which was Christianity.&quot. men of different ( and 4. or &quot. took every precaution to against giving least offence the prejudices of any one. (the at dogmas present of Christianity. with and the by separat in language of Bengal. my &quot. ing from the other persuaded matters contained the New Testement the moral precepts found in that book. and to shew by what necessity the have been driven to publication I of opinions unacceptable to the attention many esteemed characters. I and conse quently limited calculated my labour to what suuposed best for the improvement of those whose received from those of Christians. &quot. which was desirous of teaching. to the held by the mass of real the Christians. rejecting held by the great body of the Christians. first me. doctrines opposed &quot.&quot.&quot. from teaching any the prevailing I doctrines. publication compiled by connected with so far They may observe opposite opinions therein.The the language of the &quot.a translation from the English I feel into Sungscrit that.

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

3

Notwithstanding all this precaution, however, I could not evade the reproach and censure of the Editor,

who

not only expressed, in the
his

"

Friend of India,

"

No.

extreme disapprobation of the compilation, in a 20, mannar calculated more to provoke than lead to search
after

truth,

but
of

also

an
I

injurer

the
refuge

indulged himself in calling me cause of truth. Disappointed as
in

was, I took

the

liberal

protection of the the

public, by appealing

to

them
In

against
that

unexpected
I

attacks

of

the

Editor.

appeal

carefully

entering into any discussion as to the doctrines held up as the fundamental principles of Christianity by

avoided

of my first appeal is this : he (the Compiler) is, he has therefore Humble as adopted those measures which he thought most judicious to spread the truth in an acceptable manner; but I arn

the
"

Editor.

The language

sorry to observe that he (the Compiler) has unfortunately

and unexpectedly met with opposition from those whom he considered the last persons likely, to oppose him on
this
subject."

(Pegegi).

Compiler) has erred in determined by those who

he (the his judgment, that point must be
"Whether

or

not

will

candidly

peruse and

consider the arguments already advanced on this subject, bearing in mind the lesson particularly taught by the

Saviour himself, of adapting his instructions to the suscep
tibility

and capacity of
>:

his hearers.

John

xvi.

12:

have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot What benefit or peace bear them now. (Page 92.) of mind can we bestow upon a Moosulman, who is an
I
"

entire stranger to the Christian

world,

by

communica
all

ting

to

him,

without
of

preparatory

instruction,

the

peculiar

dogmas

Christianity?"

(Page 92.)

"The

4

FINAL APPEAL

in

Compiler, having obviously in view at least one object common with the Reviewer and Editor, that of

procuring respect for the precepts of Christ,

might have

reasonably expected more charity from professed teachers of his doctrine." (Page 80.) In reviewing the First Editor fully introduced the Appeal, the Reverend
doctrines of the

Godhead

of Jesus

and the Holy Ghost,
Chris
as a professed beli
first

and of the Atonement,

as the only foundation of

tianity ; whereby he compelled me, ever of one God, to deny, for the

time publicly,
to accuse

those doctrines

;

and now he takes occasion
in teaching

me

of presumption

doctrines which he has

himself compelled

me

to avow. as

The Editor
this

assigns,

a

reason

for

entering
"

on

controversy,

that, after

a review of the
"

Precepts

of Jesus,

and the

First Appeal,

he

"

felt

some doubt
"

whether their author

fully believed the Deity of Christ,
"

and, consequently, he
Scriptures
that
this
all

adduced a few passages from the
doctrine."

to

confirm this

He
Page

then adds,

Second Appeal

to the

Christian public con
(
I. )

firms

that he before only feared.

I

could
s

have scarcely credited

this assertion

of the Reviewer
if

unacquatance with
tion

my

religious

opinions,
;

the allega

had come from any other quarter conversation and correspondence
Missionary gentlmen,
the
old and
I

for

both in
as

my

with

many

honour

to

know,

have

young, as I have had never hesitated, when
candidly,
as
to

required, to offer
unscripturality

my

sentiments

the

and unreasonableness of

the

doctrine

of the Trinity.

On

one occasion

particuiarly,

when on
Editor,

a
at

visit

to one of the Reverend colleagues of the

Serampore, long before the time of these publications,

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

5

I discussed the subject with that gentleman at his invita
tion
;

and then

fully

manifested
of

my

disbelief of this

doctrine, taking the
all

liberty

examining successively

the arguments he, from friendly motives, urged
in

upon

me
in

support of

it.

tances, I

am

inclined to believe,

Notwithstanding from
Editor,
that

these

circums

my

confidence
those

the

character

of

the

either

religious sentiments

Missionary gentlemen that were acquainted with my have happened to omit the mention

of

them

to

him,

or

he

has

forgotten what they

had

communicated on
review of

this subject,

when he entered on the

my

publications on Christianity.

In page 503, the Editor insinuates that vanity had led

me

to

presume
the

that

"

of early religious imprsesions

freedom from the powerful effects has enabled me to dis
"

"

cover

truths

of scripture,
in

in

its

most

important
others
forty."

doctrines,

more

fully

three or four years, than
in thirty or

have done by most unremitting study

The

doctrine of the Trinity appears to

me

so

obviously
ex

unscriptual, that I

am
of

pretty

sure,

from

my own

perience and

that

others
fail

that

no one, possessed of
its

merely
after a

common
unless

sense, will

to find

unscripturality

methodical study of
previously

the

Old and

New

Testa
of

ments,
his
life

impressed with creeds and forms of
to

in the early part

speech
pride,

preparing
therefore,

the

way
be

that

doctrine.

No

can

supposed
attainable

for

commoly

mement to have arisen from success. The Editor might be fully
a

convinced of

this fact, were he to engage a few inde pendent and diligent natives to study attentively, both the Old and New Testaments in their original languages,

.and

then

to

offer

their

sentiments

as

to the doctrine

6
of the

.

FINAL APPEAL
being
or

Trinity

scriptural

a mere

human
Second.

invention.

To

hold up to ridicule
to
first

my

suggsetions in the

Appeal, study unbiassed by ecclesiastic opinions, imbibed in early life, and then to study the New Testament, the Reverend
Editor
states, that
"could
it
"

the books of the

Old Testament,

be

relied

on

indeed,"

my
with
plan,

compendious
a

method
Christian

would

deserve
j
as,"

notice,

view

to

education

on

my

way of enabling any one to dis cover, in a superior manner, the truths and doctrines of Christianity is to leave him till the age of thirty or
the most certain
,

forty, without any religious

impression."

(Page 503)

I

do not

in

the
;

least

wonder
Editor,

at
in

his

disapprobation of
with other

my
of

suggestion

as the

common
is

professors of traditional opinions,
his

sure
it

of supporters
is

favourite

doctrine,

so

long as

inculcated

on the minds of youths, and even infants, who, being once thoroughly impressed with the name of the Trinity
in

Unity, and Unity
for

in

Trinity,

long before

they

can

think
after

themselves,

their

must be always inclined, even reason has become matured, to interpret the
those
texts

sacred books, even

which are evidently in-

consistant with this doctrine, in a

manner favourable

to

their prepossessed opinion, whether their study be conti

nued

for three, or

thirty,

or

twice thirty years.

Could

Hindooism continue
of their
carefully
idols being

after the present generation, or bear
if

the studious examination of a single year,

the

belief

endued with animation were not
the young
?

impressed on

before

they

come
no

to years

of understanding

Let

me

here suggest, that, in

my humble

opinion,

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
truly liberal

7

of

the

and wise parent can ever take advantage of his credulity unsuspecting and confiding
to

children
set

of abstruse

impress them with an implicit belief in any doctrines, and intolerance of all other
truth

opinions, the

or

reasonableness
Still less

of which

they

are incapable of estimating.
threats the danger of present
for

would he urge by
punishment,
they are

and

eternal
to

withholding

a

blind

assent

opinions

unable to

comprehend.
to give
their
to

Parents are
children

moral

tie,

bound, by every such an education as

may be

sufficient

render them capable of exercising

their reason as rational
their opinion

and

social beings,

and of forming
ill-will

on religious points, without

towards

others, from a through investigation of the scriptures, and of the evidence and arguments adduced by

of different Judgments, thus persuasions. have a real claim to respect from those who formed, But of have not the means of judging for themselves.

teachers

what consequence
to

is it,

in a question

of truth

or

error,

know how
for

the matter at issue
generations,

has

been considered,

even

a hundred

by those who have
?

blindly adopted

the creed

of their fathers

Surely the
to

unbiassed judgment of a the study of the Sacred Scriptures,
desire to

person who has proceeded
with

an anxious even
if

discover

the

truth

they

contain,

his

researches were to be continued but for a

single twelve

month, ought, as
to

far as authority

goes

in

such

matters,

outweigh the

opinions
all for

of

any number who have
have studied

either not thought at
after prejudice
fair

themselves, or

have

laid

hold of their minds.

What
of his

inquiry respecting the doctrine of the Trinity can be

expected from one who has been, on the

bosom

8

FINAL APPEAL

mother, constantly taught to ask the blessing of
Father,

God

the

and God the Holy Ghost, and to hear the very name of Unitarian with horror ? Have the doctrines of the Vedant ever succeeded in supressing

God

the Son,

polytheism amongst the generality of Hindoos, brought up with the notion of the Godhead of the sun of fire,

and of
of

water,

and of the separate and independent
the sublime works, written

exis

tence of the allegorical representations of

the attributes

God ? Were

by the learned
faith

among

the Greeks, ever able to shake the early acquired

superstitious

notions
their

and

polytheistical

of the

countrymen ? Nay, even when Christian converts became numerous, did not those who
generality
of

were brought up

in

the

ancient

superstition

introduce

-some vestiges of their idolatry into their new persuasion ? In fact, nothing can more surely impede the progress of
truth, than prejudice instilled into

minds blank

to receive

impressions

;

and the more unreasonable are the
the greater
pains
are

doctri

nes of a religion,

taken

by the
suscep

supporters of them to plant
tible

them
a

in the readily

minds of youth.
Editor has
early
filled

The
other

complete page

in

proving

that, besides

impressed prejudices, there are also

an attempt which might have been dispensed with; for I never limited the sources of mistake in examining religious matters
causes
of error in judgment
to

early

imperssion
in

alone.

I

attributed only the pre

vailing

errors
in

Christianity to traditional instructions

inculcated

childhood, as the language of
"

my Second
opinions

Appeal

will

shew

:

Having derived
for

my own

on
I

this

subject entirely from the Scriptures themselves,

may perhaps be excused

the

confidence

with

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
which
I

9

maintain

majority,

who

them against those of so great a appeal to the same authority for theirs ;
views, not to

inasmuch

as I attribute their different

any

inferiority of
ability,

judgment compared with
to

my own
is

limited

but
;

the

powerful

effects

of early religious

impressions

for

when

these are deep, reason
in

seldom
to

allowed

its
"

natural

scope

examining them

the

bottom.
of this

(P. 235.)

If the Editor doubt the accuracy

remark, he might soon satisfy himself of its justice, were he to listen to the suggestion offered in the preceeding paragraph, with a view to ascertain

whether
belief

the

doctrine

of

the

Trinity
or

rests

for

its

on

scriptural

authorities,

on

early

religious

impressions.

The

Editor mentions,

ironically,

(in

page
"

3,)

that

prove most learned and pious in every age of the church have been so completely mistaken as to trasform
that the

my

success in scriptal studies

was such

as

to

the pure religion of Jesus into
lary."

the

most horrible
to

ido-

In answer to
to let

this, I

only

Editor
-fifteenth

me know

first

beg what a

ask

the

Rev.

Protestant in the
if
"

century could have answered,
:

he had been
sucess

Is your Roman Catholic examining the truths of scripture such as to that the most learned and pious in every age church have been so completely mistaken as to

thus questioned by a
in

prove
of the
trans

form the pure religion of Jesus into
idolatry,

the

most horrible

by introducing the worship of Mary the mother
instituting

of God, and

images

in

churches, as well as

by acknowledging the Pope as the head of the church,
vested
his

with

the

power of
this,
"My

forgiving

sins
is

?"

Would not
so
as

answer be

success

indeed

10

FINAL APPEAL

to prove these doctrines to be unscriptural. As to your inferences, they are no more divine than mine ;

and though

I

do not doubt the
of your

piety

and learning

of

many

Christians

persuaded that many
Christian religion
in

church in every age, I am corruptions, introduced into the

by the
fifth

Roman
centuries,

heathens

converted

the fourth

and

have been handed
impressions

down made
root

through
in the early

successive generations by
part

of

life,

and have taken such
learning

in

the

minds of men, that piety and
well
as

have

fallen short of eradicating prejudices
state, as

nourished by

church and

by the vulgar superstition
reply justifiable, I
also
"

and

enthusiasm."

Where

this

might
find
I

be allowed to
doctrine

offer

the

following answer

:

I
;

not the

of the Trinity in the scriptures

cannot receive any human creed for divine truth ; but, without charging the supporters of this doctrine
or
fraud,

with impiety
pretation
"

humbly
to

attribute their misinter
early religious

of the

Scriptures

impress

ions.

The Editor
several
"

assigns as a reason

for

his

omission

of

arguments, adduced in the Second Appeal, that we have before us a work of a hundred and seventypages, to an examination of which
:

three

devote half that number

can scarcely and while to leave a single

wj

page unnoticed,
to leaving
it

might by some be deemed equivalent

unanswered, the mere transcription of the be answered, were it done in every instance, would occupy nearly all the room we can give the
passages to
reply
itself.

We

shall therefore

adduce such evidence
will

for

these doctrines,

as, if sound, urged against them nugatory,

render every thing

though not particularly

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
noticed."

II

To
that
latter

enable the public to compare the extent
that of the Review, I beg to

of the
observe,

Second appeal with
the

former contains
closely

173 widely printed
pages,

and the

128

printed

and

that

if

any one will take the trouble of comparing the number of words per page in the two Essays, he will soon satisfy I will himself that the one is as long as the other.
afterwards
notice,
in

the

course

of the present reply,
of these
doctrines,"

whether or

not

"the

evidence
in

adduced by the Editor
great

the Review, has

still

left

a

many arguments
his

in

the Appeal quite unanswered.

In

attempt

to

prove

the

insufficiency

of the

precepts
the Rev.
the most

of Jesus to procure

men peace and
the

happiness,
"

Editor advanced the following position,
excellent precepts,

that

most perfect

law,

can

never lead to happiness and peace, unless by causing men to take refuge in the doctrine of the cross," (No. i
Quarterly Series of
the

Friend

of

India, page

in,)to

without
the

adducing any arguments having
I

reference

position.

therefore

brought

to

his recollection

Cm
the

my

First

and Second Appeals) such
author of
Christianity,

authorities
as
I

of

gracious

conceived

established the sufficiency of these
to comfort,

precepts for leading
"

and

solicited the
his

Editor

to point

out,

in

order to

establish

position,

even a single passage
in

pronounced by Jesus, enjoining refuge
(P,

the doctrine
salva

of the cross, as all-sufficient or indispensable for
tion."

118

of the Second
to

Appeal.)

The

Editor

instead
his

of

endeavouring
as
to

demonstrate

the truth of

assertion

the insufficiency of the precepts to

conduct men to happiness, or shewing a single passage
of the nature applied
for,

introduces a great

number

of

12

FINAL APPEAL

other passages of Scripture which he thinks well calcula

ted to prove that the death of Jesus was
for

an atonement
the

the

sins

of

mankind.

I

regret

that

Editor

should have adopted such an irregular mode of arguing in solemn religious discussion and I still more regret to
;

find

that

some readers should overlook the
between
the
position advanced

want of

connection
authorities
to

and the

adduced by the Editor. Were we both adopt such a mode of controversy as to cite passages apparently favourable to our respective opinions without
adhering to the main ground, Reviews, and of
proportion to the
verses
their

the

number

of

his

my

number of

Appeals, would increase at least in the years of our lives ; for

and quotations of scripture, if unconnected with context, and interpreted without regard to the
the

idiom of

languages
has
;

in

which

they

were written,

may,

as experience

shewn, be adduced to support

and the Editor may always find a majority of readers of the same religious sentiments
any doctrine whatever
with
either

himself,
in

satisfied with

any thing that he may

offer,

behalf

of

the

Trinity,

or in support of the

Atonement.

Whether Jesus died
of

actually as a sacrifice for the sins

men, or merely

in the fulfilment of the duties of his
it

orifice

as the Messiah, as

was

predicted,

is

merely a
only

matter of

opinion,

the

truth

of which

can

be

ascertained from

a

diligent

examination

of the

terms

used and doctrines

set forth in the evangelical writings.

This however has no relation to a proof or disproof of
the
to
sufficiency

come

to

a

In order precepts for salvation. as to the value of the conclusson,
or

of his

precepts of Jesus being either really effectual

merely

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
nominal,
already
I

13

deem

it

necessary

to

repeat a few passagesto

quoted

in

my

Appeals,

ask the
are

Editor,

whether they demand
of credit
I
;

explicit

belief or

unworthy

and

in case

he admit

the

former alternative,

should beg to ask him, whether they confirm the opinion that the precepts preached by Jesus are sufficient to lead

and happiness, or are a set of sentences delivered by him conformably to the prin
to eternal peace
ciples of his

men

hearers,

similar

to

other

codes

of moral

law

written

Egypt,
follow
:

by and India

the
?

ancient

philosophers
in

of Greece,.

The

passages

question are as

xii 29 Jesus answeied him, The first of all commandments is, Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with

Mark

:

the

all

thy heart, with
all

all

thy soul, and with
:

all

thy mind,

and

with

thy strength
is

this is the first
it,

commandment. And
shalt

the second

like

unto

namely,
is

Thou

love

thy

neighbour as greater than
so
as to

thyself.
these."

There
Is

none other commandment
another

there

commandment
of the
cross,.

absolutely enjoining refuge in the doctrine

shew that these two commandments are

in

sufficient for salvation,

Matthew
these

vii.

24

:

and comparatively insignificant ? heareth Therefore, whosoever
"

sayings of
v. vi.

mine,"

(alluding to
"

the precepts con
I will liken
rock,"

tained in ch.

and

vii.)

and doth them,

him unto a wise man who
&c.

built his

house upon a

Are not these sayings declared by Jesus to afford a stable foundation, on which may be raised the indestruc
tible edifice of eternal iife ?

John

xv. 10

:

"If

ye keep Ver.
I

my
:

commandments ye shall abide in my Ye are my friends if ye do whatsoever
love."
"
"

14

command

14
I therefore

FINAL APPEAL
again ask the
of

you."

Rev.

Editor to shew

a

commandment

Jesus

directing refuge in the
explicit

doc

trine of the cross, in the

same
to

enjoined love to
to
his

God and

precepts as sufficient

way as he has neighbours, and obedience means for attaining eternal
in

happiness.

Did not Jesus

Matthew

xxv. 31, et seq.

by means of a parable

in the description of the

day of

judgment, declare that acts of charity and beneficence toward fellow-creatures will beaccepted as the mani festation of love towards God, and be the sufficient
cause of eternal
life ?

With a view
explicit

to depreciate the weight of the following
"

promise of Jesus,
(

Do

this

and thou
"

shalt

live,"

the

Editor interprets,
"on

p.

509, )that

Jesus taking
as

him"

(the lawyer) principles, been, what he vainly imagined himself,

his

own

though
a

he had

sinless

man

who needed no
he knew that
observe
forgot
his

saviour, directed

him

to the

whole of the
live,

divine law, adding,
it

This do, and thou shalt

though

was utterly impossible

for that lawyer to

instructions."

The

Editor,

however, quite

by his attempt to undervalue the precepts of Jesus, he was actually degrading the dignity of the
that

author of them
it

;

for,

according to

his

interpretation,

appears, that as the lawyer

to

tempted Jesus by putting him a question which he thought the Saviour could
so Jesus, in return,

not answer,
ting
to

him

to

do what he knew
this

to

tempted him, by direc be impossible for man

perform, though shew revange even
Scribe
"upon

very

teacher forbids others to

to
his

enemies.

Did Jesus take

also

the

own
Mark

principles,"

by instructing
has

in these two

commandments
*

?*

a

man why

never

xii. 29.

TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.
inclined to tempt Jesus, but having heard
"

15

him reasoning,
asked him,
* and

and perceiving
is

that he

had answered
of

well,

Which
heard

the

first

commandment
of
Jesus,

all ?
"

when he
Master,
decla

the

reply

he

said,

Well,

thou hast said the
red
to

truth,"

a
of

man whom
danger of
"

Jesus

be

at

least

out

hell for his ac

knowledgment of the truth of his precepts as the Thou art not far from means of salvation, telling him, the kingdom of heaven ? Did Jesus on the Mount
"

take

also

his

"

disciples

upon

their

own

principle."

as

selves,

though they had been, what they vainly imagined them sinless men who needed no Saviour, in directing

them

to his precepts, the observance of

which he knew
of

utterly

impossible, and
as

in

holding

out promises t

eternal salvation

the

necessary consequence of their
?

obedience

to

those

sayings

Were we

to

follow the

mode

of interpretation adopted in this

instance
suit

by the

Editor, the

Bible would serve only to

our con

venience,

guide to
of

and would not be esteemed any longer as a mankind for according to the same mode
;

interpretation,
xxviii. 19,
them,"

would
"Go

it

Matthew
baptizing
their

ye therefore

not be justifiable to explain and teach all nations
"

&c. that Jesus took his apostles
as

upon

own

principle,"

firmly persuaded to believe in

the sanctification attainable by

the baptism

introduced

by John the Baptist, although he was aware that immersion in water could produce no effect in changing
the state of the hearts
!

In reply to his question,
*

"Did

Jesus,

who knew

the

Mark

xii.

2834.
vii.

t Matthew

24, 25.

1

6

FINAL APPEAL
regard this lawyer as

hearts of

all,

perfectly
9) I

sinless,

an

exception to all

mankind

"

?

(Page

must

say that the

context seems to

me

to

shew that neither Jesus con

sidered the lawyer to be a sinless, perfect man, (as is evident from his directing him to the scriptures for a

Do this and thou shalt live," and guide to salvation,) nor did the lawyer vainly Go and do thou likewise
"
"

"

;

sinless man who needed no Saviour," imagine himself though he endeavoured to put the claim of Jesus to that
"a

title,

to the proof, in these to inherit eternal life
I

"

words,
?"

Master, what

shall

I

do

Although
116)
that

declared

(in
"

by the term

the Second Appeal, Page the verse If right law," in
"

eousness
the

come by the law, commandments found in
yet

Christ

is

dead
of

in

vain,"

all

the

books

Moses are

understood,

the

Rev.

Editor charges

me

with an

inability to unintelligible expression, and intimates his the ceremonial or ascertain whether I meant by
"law"

the

moral part of
Editor
it

the books of Moses.

(P. 507.
that

)

I

therefore beg to explain the verse

more

fully,

the

Rev.

may

have an opportunity of commenting
Paul, knowing the efficacy of the

upon

at large.

St.

perfection

intoduced by Jesus into the

Moses, law been sufficient to produce light among the Jews and Gentiles, without being perfected by Jesus, this attempt

declares, that

had the system of

the

law given by Mosaical

made by
and

Christ to perfect

it

would have been superfluous,
his

which was the consequence of instructions, would have been to no purpose.
his death,

candid

The
to
his

Editor notices frequently

my

expression

of the

neglect of duty on the part of
fellow-creatures,

man

to the

Creator and
fills

nevertheless,

he

up more

but mission xxiv. shall all likewise the indispensability of repentance for the forgiveness of sins is explicitly Is not also the mercy of God illustrated by the example of a father forgiving the repentance ? transgressions of his son through his sincere alone. 3. a chief object of his Luke sins 47 : be the calling of sinners to repentance? That repentance and remisssion of preached. by in this should be his nations. in the parable of the prodigal son Those who a place confidence in the divine mission of Jesus. however.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. I trust. I therefore beg to ask the Editor to give tion of the following passages selected that plain explana the reader may from my Appeals. I down in the precepts of Jesus.&quot. than IJT He has not. knowing to inability of 2 men give entire obedience to his- . proving this point. 32 : sinners to repen tance. Does not Jesus here declare to &quot. Jesus. shewing that the guilt occasioned by the want of due obedience two pages in to the precepts in question may be pardoned through for repentance as the prescribed by the author of those precepts sure and only remedy human a failure. attempted to counteract the force of the passages I quoted in both of my Appeals. be able to judge whether or not the blessings repentance can procure us of pardoa of for our constant omissions in the discharge of the duties laid &quot.&quot. ye declared. came not to call the righteous. In Luke perish. among commandment to all his disciples. Luke v. declare the remission of sins as an immediate ? and necessary consequence of repentance &quot. Did not name.&quot. xiii. or even in his veracity. for momenta to admit that Jesus has directed us to sincere repen the only tance as the means of procuring pardon. Except ye repent. will not hesitate.

By by the i. sins be as they shall like be as white as snow shall though they the be red crimson. watching his own he heart to discern those constant neglects of the duty owed to the Creator and to his fellow-creatures. for sin.&quot.8 FINAL APPEAL precepts lawyer. &quot. as he says. inefincacy of repentance to to procure which.&quot. 6 : so iniquity shall not be your ruin. your trans Proverbs &quot. fear.&quot.1. inquires not about repentance of the his guilt. &quot. more a judge who has the privilege of shewing mercy. to atone for the wish theft of or murder commited by another consistent with justice. they be as wool. God are a broken a broken and contrite xviii.The means of procuring pardon sacrifices of Psalm spirit . righteousness. Ezekiel 30: &quot. the Editor appeals human the justice. To shew pardon.&quot. and that Jesus would have to recommended the to whom to &quot. and then applied to imperfections. I find Jesus for the remedy of his discerned abundant passages in the Old Testament as LI. Lord. attempted obey his precepts.&quot. and Isaiah evil. and turn yourselves from all gressions xvi. knows no to repentance. . 18: Come now and Though your . have recourse repentance to had he gone and sincerely &quot. robber and law. saith the scarlet. murderer. O God.&quot. representing other sources than sacrifice. also.Repent . (page 506. sufficient 17. heart. should forgive the crimes of those that truly feel the pain and distress . thou wilt not despise. I therefore suffers guilt know whether or not human justice an innocent man to be killed. us reason together. that ? It is at all events. but respecting The ) indeed. of the mercy and truth inquity Lord men depart from let is purged. he directed &quot.

sincere repentance^ than that to death. of 19 mind inseparable from to atone culprits. he should put an innocent man or destroy his his own life. for the guilt of some of con demned .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.

is from the malice of destroyed his Satan.. he affirms. is incapable of feeling fate of its offspring through future as human to the &quot.I reply accordingly. I to substantiate the doctrine of his therefore followed this course of arrange ment first in my Second Appeal of . on the cross.) I admit that a reptile. ant of Christian doctrines. but as the the Editor has introduced the doctrine atonement of Jesus arrange in the present Review. demanding. In his first &quot.&quot. the Editor began with what heDeity of Jesus considered the most abstruse. to could a reptile feel. the and then proceeded atonement. it shall bruise woman. Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Atonement.Jesus. but I wish to know if a mere reptile so as could not have the power of conversation. and yet the most import Christ. ?&quot.CHAPTER II. to persuade a .&quot. and between thy head.&quot. and this thou shalt bruise attempts to his heel. Review. ages . From deduce the atonement of Jesus &quot.&quot. so as for it to bruise his heel &quot. the fate of its offspring. 15 : will put enmity between thy seed and her seed thee and the . man far to God.What passage he for the sins relative ? of men.relative &quot. through future ages of what individual serpents did the seed of the woman break the head. the seed of the woman who suffered then. while he. &quot. power by atoning for sin and reconciling (Page 517. I will also my &quot. Genesis iii. The Editor quotes first. as experience goes.

&quot. it shall and between thy seed bruise thy head. difficult to reconcile is. in the same way case. and her seed bruise his . but the animal so denoof two words. by bringing him bread and flesh morning and evening ? Are not these occurrences equally sense&quot. shew no clearly in above every beast of the that the serpent thus addressed was and really spirit borrowed form.gently supply the wants of Elijah. upon thy all belly shalt thou go. as either angelical reptile is or demoniacal spirits. 21 woman to adhere to its advice . The verse the in question. above all cattle.common as the case of the ? serpent according to in the sacred the Editor Yet we find these stated books and we are taught to believe them as they stand. and conversing with its own master Balaam ? and whether ravens could dili.&quot. Thou art cursed field. thou art cursed above* all cattle and above every beast of the field . and dust I will shalt thou eat the days of thy life.FINAL APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. to &quot. Because thou hast done this. and thou shalt &quot. as merely allegorical representations but would not the consequence of such interpretations be most dan gerous to the cause of truth with its ? &quot. out of all. thus runs : And Lord God said unto the serpent. Can we justly attempt to represent the ass. And put enmity between thee and the woman. whether the ass of Balaam could be possessed of the power of seeing exclusively the angel of God. . &quot. as to take all the facts found in the Bible . and ^10 * 7OO Composed 7^ i. and those ravens also. e. as the represented ? by the Editor to have been no other than Satan give still We might. heel. Do not the phrases. in that latitude be permitted to so greater to metaphor. context..

1619. that. It would imply only. liable to the evil effects of the sins already remitted by the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus If. and Jesus by the seed of the woman. equally with others. and return at last to actually atoned dust. is of \vhcm in question no mention ? made throughout the chapter But. its belly. in fact. has the power of Satan over the seed ? of the the sin woman been which our reptile. would not be. destroyed first The consequences by the in of ill parents committed advice of the nature and which they implanted been. who believe in his atonement. have women and bring forth children in sorrow. be still. than to Satan. and the days of evidently imply that the serpent thus cursed was of the same class that we now see subject to that very malediction to the present day ? The sins of fathers are declared in the Scriptures to have been it visited by God on more the their posterity . and are ruled by their husbands. as Satan opposed the .) If Jesus its sin. and delivered men from consequences. ? notwithstanding all the above-stated facts and arguments the Editor still insists that Satan should be understood by the reptile mentioned in the verse. that the of their posterity. to consistent with scriptural authorities attribute . thistles and to that the earth brings forth thorns also men. for (Genesis iii. yet his interpretation cannot apply in the least to the doctrine of the atone ment. therefore. how can those men and women.-22 FINAL APPEAL ? ruinated Does not the circumstance of to the serpent to eat being condemned dust all move upon its life. who eat the herb of the field with labour.heinous conduct misery of serpents to the of their first origin.

) esteeming of Jesus I as an illus tration of the vicarious sacrifice for the re mission of out (Page 518.. the anointed. Lindsey. iii. Such reproach of See also Whitby. tion know &quot. . page 278. not how through his answer the ques : of the Editor. the reproach of Christ.) what relation there could sin. xi. in loc.&quot.) Gr.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. The Israelites are called Christs. as much preferable to all the &quot. and the death of Jesus. iv. and approved of God s in preference it to brother Cain (Gen. meaning says Dr. of Christ 26. Sykes. Editor refers to the circumstance of the sacrifice The his offered by Abel. so Jesus diminished his power. as he and disap pointed him by leading many I to salvation to divine precepts. men.*) * (Improved Version of the New-Testament. Nevvcome also Version is. the interpretation Photius.e.of &quot. 56) and Moses having esteemed the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt.&quot. But am unable to find exist between the accept ance of the offering of Abel by Jehovah. so as for to bruise injuries by referring him to the reciprocal which man and serpents inflict on each other.that Moses looked upon the contempt and indignity which he underwent on account of his professing himself a Jew. &quot. or &quot. 4. God upon the circumstance of Abraham ( s seeing the . whether sacrificial or not. as Christ endured which is Crellius. a chosen and favoured people. 15. Heb. and Mr. power of Jesus to 23 procure salvation for all intended. i. his offerings were accepted by .&quot.The riches and honours of s Egypt. that Abel having looked forward atonement of Jesus. The Editor however. 13. to the founds his assertion. Segnel. of what individual serpent did the it seed of the his heel?&quot. or anointed. woman unless break the head. Psalm cv. (Heb. day by prophetic anticipation John viii. in loc. Dr.&quot. is.

the existence issot of God. same chapter of Genesis out. he might have by declaring himself an Egyptian instead of a or Moses esteemed (according to the English ver- . and in any personal o r vicarious. in obedience to the will of God. and was their all the belief in of God. . and sacrifice. and rejected that of Cain .24 Sbey all FINAL APPEAL having been &quot. in mission of Jesus. over the riches and honour of Egypt. that any one can esteem the one as the necessary consequence of the other ? Moses having &quot. having been accustomed to do points well.&quot. Noah. righteous Jehovah accepted his offering. us understand that the faith which other the jsocured for Abel. Israelite. word &quot. to which Paul thus By faith Abel offered a more excellent sacri&quot. which obtained Jew . to the sense in which that apostle used the verse. &c. By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death. contrary to the find we verse fourth of the ^practice of his brother.&quot. should hope to be informed whether there be any authority justifying this reference. On the contrary. I. ference to the term ffif anointed. 4. Here &quot. &quot. 34 But without faith it is impossible to please him believe that he diligently seek is.&quot.&quot. prophetic anticipation by Abraham. Sce than sfoabtful Cain.&quot. alludes. &c. in fatriarchs. St. Sberefore. of the same catalogue. called himself a Jew.&quot. gave pre or &quot. (Hebrew above xi. &quot. for he is lhat cometh to God must to and that he a rezvarder of them who Paul gives him. his being their rewarder. faith in the By faith Abel offered unto God. that Abel. of the divine to What could com conduct. grace Enoch. a term all reproach among the Egyptians in those days. &quot. have do with Abel s Tendering his sacrifices acceptable to God.&quot.) without leaving us as &quot.

in lieu of them. doubt. &quot. But neither had in view the sacrificial death of Jesus in rendering their offering acceptable to It is God. while shewing his displeasure at mere animal sacrifices. as an animal. or any other patriarch. 6 &quot. whether valuable. in fact. But they are not repre oblation sented in any of the sacred intrinsically books as means having the power of procuring men pardon and eternal salvation. walk humbly with thy God ? Here Jehovah. enjoins just actions and humility God. or with ten thousands of ? Shall I give my first-born for the fruit of my body for the sin of is my transgression. liable the reproach which fulfil Christ would be made his divine by the Jews in the riches ment of the commission. intended for men unaccustomed to the worship of 8 God the in truth and spirit. O man. that sacrifices are as a divine institutions manifestation of obedience to God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. greater than all grandeur Egyptian explanation can support the idea that Abel. sacrifice. Micah 7. . what Lord and to require of thee but to good. : For I desired mercy and not and the knowledge of i. 16 18 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me ? saith the Lord. as worthy to be accepted by in without substituting human sacrifices Hosea vi. true. Isaiah n. sion) in his 25 to prophetic power. : God more than burnt-offerings. and what doth the do justly and to love metcy. their stead. or dearly own son. through the dear to man. &quot.&quot. I am full of the burnt&quot. The with of oil following passages suffice to illustrate this beyond vi. as the Editor observes. as one s of anything that may be common. shewed thee. They seem. : Will Lord be pleased rivers thousand of rams. my soul ? lie hath . of unbelievers.

cannot be supposed to have had delight in human blood. of your doings from before mine eyes learn to do . i Samuel xv. the foot Lord than Eccles. or drink the blood of goats ? Offer unto God High thanksgiving . relieve the oppressed . and.26 of FINAL APPEAL rams. : Keep thy when thou . nor he-goats out of thy folds. hearken* justice than the fat rams. and the fulness thereof. who protests against the idea of flesh of bulls being supposed his and the blood of goats his drink. of bulls. Does not Jehovah here substitute good works alone for Psalm sacrifices. 3 to &quot. the blood of bullocks. . 8-15 : I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices or thy to burnt-offerings will take have been continually before me. or of you.To do and judgment sacrifice. : I will deliver thee. the blood of his beloved Son. . Hath the Lord as is as great delight in burnt-offerings and sacrifices in obeying the voice of the Lord ? Behold. saith the Lord . cattle upon a thousand hills. or of lambs. they shall &c. : said. plead for the widow. and I delight not he-goats. is more v. the I know all the fowls of the mountains If I is . seek judgment . judge the fatherless and let Come now. I no bullock out of thy house. &quot. 22 &quot. as real means of taking away sins ? 1. were hungry would not tell thee for the world flesh Will I eat the mine. sins be as scarlet. . and the wild beasts of the I field are : mine. put away the evil cease to do evil . and thou shalt glorify Jehovah.&quot. us reason together. For every beast of the forest is mine. Wash well make you clean .And Samuel food. and : to. in offerings and the fat of fed beasts . i acceptable &quot. Proverbs xxi.&quot. though your be as white as snow&quot.&quot. to obey of better than sacrifice. and pay thy vows unto the Most in the and call upon me day of trouble me.

we should take such phrases as offered sacrifice This &quot. Christ hath once ap &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. execute and sin suffered his blood to be shed in saving through his divine precepts and pure which were both opposed to the religious sys example. 27 to and be more ready of fools hear than to give the evil&quot. goest to the house of God. that he might sanctify the people blood. actually as an his own blood God atonement Jesus. with his own &quot. and directing men cannibalism. sacrifice himself. . sacrifice for they consider not that they do It is now one left for us to ascertain in what sense &quot. tem adopted by his contemporary Jews ? Were we to follow men from the former mode of interpretation. I am the living bread these &quot. &c. as the . man after he had for sins sin &quot. insisted upon the offer his son. (Mathew and offer ix. though he preferred xii. gate. or do they mean that knowing already that the fulfilment of his divine commission would endanger his life. peared &quot. . appear monstrous to every civilised being ? . for the sins of others. literal sense. and also proposed flesh Would not the doc ! trines of Christianity. If any man eat of this. 13.&quot. Jesus also.) mercy sacrifice. 7. suffered without the &quot.&quot. to put away by the sacrifice of himself . representing God as to delighted with human victims. condition of his the men and that Jesus accordingly offered his blood to propitiate to men actually to eat his God. and take all these phrases in their strictly we must be persuaded to believe that God. in this case. not being contented with the blood of bulls and goats and other animal sacrifices offered to of the blood forgiving him by the and life of sins of Israelites. Whether do did to passages to imply that Jesus. never hesitated to it.

No can justify such inconsistency as to interpret literally some of the above- mentioned phrases in support of the doctrine of the atonement. exposed fit fulfilment life his own for the bene of his subjects. and persevered in executing the commands of God. should be mani to fested to that temporary man Jesus. If it be urged. love. duties of his mission. felt If there be. mode of interpretation. to. above mortal afflictions. I think. of which no Jewish high priest had offered an example. and explain the last quoted figuratively. in this latter case.28 FINAL APPEAL one. borrowed human nature for a season. Ought not this belief in the unbounded beneficence of Jesus to excite superior gratitude. purged their sins by his doctrines. and not Jesus the Christ. even to the undergoing of bodily suffering in the miser able death of the cross a self-devotion or sacrifice. whom the Editor and other Trinitarians esteem as God. and offered this fictitious man as a sacrifice the for remission of sin. To Jesus. and reverence towards our Saviour and King. above pain and death. that it is inconsistent with justice to common punish- pardon sin that requires the capital . than the idea that he. upon us to follow the and to understand from the in spiritual the passages referred that Jesus. latter avoid such a stigma upon it is the pure religion of incumbent. Lord of the and King of Jews and Gentiles. unless biassed by prejudices. while he himself was no more with the suffer afflicted with that sacrificial death than ings of other human death individuals. any gratitude for the it afflictions which attached to the of the cross. as they are all confessedly alike subversive of every rational idea of the nature of the divine justice and mercy. as God.

and adopted by. unless from what is revealed to us .Pardon. may he well as replied. : the iniquity of this people according unto the greatness of thy mercy.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and as thou hast forgiven this people from Egypt even until now &quot. as self. have pardoned. all pardon being who have had exalted as the advantage of he was by God prophets and righteous men that ever lived. should not be measured by what are found in. that sins have of the intercession of been pardoned righteous should. and wrath. according to thy xxx. 5) ? it consistent with our common punish notions of justice to afflict men with infinite ment xviii. I wordy Issachar 2 Chron. xiv. the human race. 20 Moses prayed to the Lord. as other attributes of God. and should not entertain doubt as bestowed upon over those the intercession of Jesus. mercy. to in therefore. we be contented with those authorities. would it be consist ent with common notions of justice to afflict cent man with the death of the cross. consequence men. . 18 20 &quot. 19. even supposing the voluntarily offer his life in innocent man should ? behalf of those others We can have no idea of the perfection of divine justice. Numb. Is visit it con sistent with our common Is notions of justice to the sins of fathers on their descendants. as Jesus declares in Mathew an inno 8 ? Even in the present case. without any sacrificial atonement. for their finite guilt. .For a multitude of : the people. even many of Ephraim and Mannasseh. for sins committed by others. in the sacred books. 29 it ment of death without an atonement for it. beseech thee. and as we find. and Zebulon.. had not cleansed themselves. that the perfection of divine justice. and the Lord said. God ascribed to him (Exodus xx.

Let my hands the his as the evening sacrifice. the the Lord God the the that of his to fathers.Obey my voice. I will confess my transgressions unto the Lord. without having the least reference to the human blood ? Psalm xxxii. 5 : offer of animal or &quot. 2 . through and &quot. For I spake unto your fathers. lest forgive Did not Jehovah here intercession the sins of Israel from the of Moses. purifi- though he be not cleansed according -cation the of sanctuary.Therefore he said his he would them. and to vii. Psalm destroy &quot. And Lord hearkened to cvi. Hezekiah.&quot. shall &amp. Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices.&quot.Thus saith Lord of hosts. stood before him in he should des wrath. Chosen. and will be your God. and he he have mercy upon him abundantly the pardon. my sin unto thee. his let righteous the Lord. nor com manded them in the day that I brought them out of concerning burnt-offerings or sacri fices. man for and way and the un him return unto .gt. and ye be . 7 : be set forth before thee as incense and the Isaiah up of &quot. 23: &quot.The good heart his to God. and eat flesh. was writ But Hezekiah prayed for them.Let humility without blood-offerings Psalm my prayer lifting Iv. the breach to turn away his troy them. saying. and l\\o\iforgavest the iniquity of my ? sin/ Were not confession cxli. 23 : and healed people. Lord pardon every one that prepareth seek &quot. our God. had not Moses. saying.&quot. and mine iniquity have I not hid I said.1 commanded I them.&quot. wicked forsake thoughts will will . -the land of Egypt. the God of Israel.I acknowledged . 21 Jer.30 FINAL APPEAL it yet did they eat the passover otherwise than ten. But this thing . : sins forgiven in this instance also.

fall ground without permission desired for and by whom sake.&quot. The away Editor quotes (page 519) Heb.&quot.&quot. Such an as to represent human blood. who pre to serves . sacrifices never their own should have caused millions of animals to be slaughtered at different times by men under the mistaken notion of their being an atonement for sins. referring and sins of all atonement made by Jesus for the men that ever lived from the beginning of is the world ? How inconsistent such an idea with the known mercy of that Providence. &quot. direct or figurative. while remitting real he has been only to the iniquity sufficient from eternity.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 3* my people.were beast. x. as an indispensable not atonement for sins. unscriptural. made by human blood. to no reference. and that ceased after he had offered himself a sacrifice for How strange is the idea. that &quot. therefore.&quot. thou . &c. Here we find prayers and obedience be .It is possible that the blood of bulls sins . sacrifice and offering but a body hast . and to propitiation. in attempt. whom God had prepared a body.preferred to animal sacrifices as means of pardon. And he : attempts thereby in themselves. and goats should take wouldest not.&quot. that when Abraham had proved his fidelity by binding his son on the altar. . were approved merely for never desired by God they with a view to his making atone ment &quot. blood.are prove that sacrifices.and sacrifices prepared thou hast had no to thou me in burnt-offerings pleasure. considered then.God. nor his suffers a : sparrow to &quot.they sin. or that form. . whose unwillingness to re ceive human sacrifices was such.the man and &quot. of God in human lieu of animal is. I think.

in human verses sacrifice fifth in the Christian dispensation and sixth. Hence. 13.) should have received the offering which he himself had thus prepared. which he was graciously pleased to accept as an offering in the stead of Isaac sacrifice.) death the sins of Jesus as a of all and virtual sacrifice for those . &quot. quoted often by spiritual the Editor. God hand from the How can we imagine that God (Genesis xxii. and thereby putting an end as effusion of blood. a testimony of humility. &quot. teaching to them to the to yield God a heart-felt. noticed than the in the preceding paragraphs. idea that the divine disre mere sacrifice led to the preparation of through which he could impart to mankind the perfection of the will and laws of God. the but a body hast thou a body prepared gard of me. he mercifully preserved ? As to the above-cited verses.&quot. a real for. to understand by the phrase. in a manner for Jesus.32 FINAL APPEAL stayed his and produced a ram unexpectedly before him. they rather corrobo life rate the second mode of interpretation. ing them any particular whether of man or verse. it appears more consistent with the context and the general tenor of scripture. in general terms. The language confirms of the fifth and offering thou wouldest not. the Hebrews sacrifices declares the author of the Epistle to the dissatisfaction of God with and to offerings.&quot. without limit species.Sacrifice of animal. instead of a ceremonial and outward further obedience.The offering of the body of Jesus the Christ. with reference solely to the future sacrifice of a whose being far superior in excellence to Isaac. gratitude and devotion. consistent with the divine nature. doctrine of .

author of followers by God. not only from the but also from his disciples and illustrated a i fact which may be ii. engaged his to take means of blood. How Epistle inconsistent to would to be. ye also. that . to the will of his heavenly Father. in the author of the the Hebrews. Peter 4. inasmuch death the blessed Saviour testified his by that obedience perfect and devotion God. the apostles the ideas and forms of language familiar to those whom it they addressed. God and 3 precious. . when sincere repentance was to be offered by them instead of perfect duty. in the Christian implies a spiritual offering required this religion. and thereby vindicated to himself the unlimited favour of he instructed mankind how they render themselves worthy of the Divine mercy might by his death he qualified himself to be their intercessor During his life : at the heavenly throne. with respect to him. God would not have sacrifice and offering and again- to announce. We may easily account for the adoption by the apostles. as unto are built a living stone. Besides. and their representing Jesus as high priest. for 33 as whom he became a mediator . authority. but chosen of stones.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. of such terms as sacrifice and atone the ment for sin. disallowed indeed of men.To whom lively by sacred coming. so pleased with sacrifice. with a that he was sacrifice. of the world. almost at the same moment. as . away the sins of the world by These were modes of speech to made use of in allusion the sacrifices and bloodused to wisely offerings which the Jews and their high priest make for the remission of sins and accommodated their instructions to . declare in one place. even that for its human sacrifice sake he would forgive the sins dispensation. 5 : &quot.

must be understood If these writers in a spiritual. in understanding and on the authority of the sacrifice. Rev. &quot. &quot.But they shall be priests of God and years built . xx.I am he the living any man of this bread.&quot. had no existence in the Old Testament that a priest without atonement I must say existence to in the but has New Testament. apostle. Peter ii. take upon themselves to flesh to interpret. . in the by language of the apostle. in upon the literal sense those order to avoid of Christianity. that these phrases are in allusion the manner of sacrifice. and that the his eating of the of Jesus.) that priest without atonement. of Christ.a .Unless flesh.&quot. the Editor.If such phrases as eat &quot. and drinking blood. &quot. not in a carnal make of so direct an encroachment phrases. a virtual obla tion that Christianity may not be represented as a reli gion founded upon the horrible system of human victims ? . The bread his that I will give my flesh. and drink blood.&quot.&quot. &quot.Ye him a thousand stones. sense. i and 5 : shall reign with &quot. bread. and holy priest Moreover. my blood is drink indeed . i.My ye have no life in you. ever. disposed to dispute the assertion of 532. in explaining &quot.&quot.34 FINAL APPEAL acceptable to up I spiritual sacrifices God by Jesus Christ. Protestant commentators &quot. however.&quot. and refer the Editor excluding those that are made us kings &quot. Except ye eat the ye eat flesh of the Son of his man. all &quot. 6 : and priests unto God &quot. as lively are up a spiritual house. hood.&quot. is shall live for &quot. the idea of cannibalism being a tenet why should I not be justified upon the same principles.And hath 6 : the following verses. am not at (p. also. flesh is meat indeed.&quot. applied to Jesus. and. and &quot.

anticipate great delight in human sacrifice when Noah made an offering to him ? May we not admit.I know that my redeemer liveth. The sacrifice Editor first refers on his all coming the 520) (page out of the ark &quot. rather blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep Could not Job or any one deemer or deliverer without having it. be that in him &quot.&quot. derived from the sacred instructions of Jesus. 3 n.shall all the families of the earth blessed&quot. 28. Luke xi.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and that he &quot. The Editor has also quoted the passage in Job &quot. being of opinion the term redeemer being applied to Christ fess I must con proves either his atonement or his deity. &quot. who. how can Jesus assure us of the divine blessing merely through the observance of his instructions? Matthew v. He considers this circumstance communication of blessing as fully foretelling the atone ment of Jesus. Editor. He again mentions God having made a promise to Abraham. shall stand in the latter day upon the earth that . to find oat the connection between my inability these authorities and the conclusion drawn by the Editor from them. Did God. Revd. call another his re ? allusion to his blood . according to the had no delight even in animal sacrifice. that the divine promise to Abra ham has been fulfilled in the blessings we enjoy. a blessing which came to the Gentiles of the through Jesus. ex clusively considered ? If not.But said he (Jesus) yea. 35 to :&quot. without assuming that other advantages have been reaped by us from the circumstance of his having shed his blood for us.Noah s whence he concludes that genuine religion of the new world was founded on the future atonement made by Christ.

neither. Christ. and of any value to Job. : our father.Redeemer. The fact the verse of Job quoted by the Editor has no such obvious reference to the Messiah that to Jesus the term &quot.&quot. were equally known to him. Christ appearance in earth. that Messiah not termed a of his teaching or his redeemer merely on account &quot. who as possessed of a as.36 FINAL APPEAL Cannot one being redeem another without sacrificing his own blood ? How is it. then. words) were graven with an iron pen and lead in the . we find Jehovah. the Father of all. if he was unac quainted with future then truths events while writing this passage)- the doctrine of the atonement. art Trinitarians ? to Ixiii. of course.could lived so long before the appearance of Christ in the earth. I wish to know whether Job. circumstances of Christ atoning for and import of according to the Editor. and the saving equally by hidden from him. e. called redeemer. that my readers may have a better opportunity of considering the sub Job xix.These&quot.&quot. the inculcated were. could be s &quot.That they (my ject in question. knowledge of future events or not the ? s in the former case.Shalt know I that I Jehovah wonder at the is am thy saviour and thy of the redeemer.who lived so long before is. with its 1 therefore quote it context. says. 24 26: &quot. though Isaiah in that capacity not considered even by blood shed as an atonement Lord. In the latter case. consequently. Ix. and the nature his divine instructions. 16 &quot.Thou. he example. have had his 16 : &quot.the assertion Editor. our redeemer.&quot. any one can be justified in applying found in the same verse. &quot. is to be considered be of no value to Job. (i. an inspired writer. &quot.&quot. and he could call the Messiah redeemer in either view.&quot. sin.

in 522) some verses of the which the apostles use the same epithet It is applied to their gracious master. no Christian. being above the angels of God. could ever &quot. are merely figura The terms for innocence subjected to persecution. such terms scripture to as &quot. And though after my skin worms destroy this body. only maintained that modern. whether primitive or in its literal sense apply the word as -&quot.lamb&quot. Editor however without noticing this observation. to Jesus . yet in my flesh shall I see God&quot. that I did not dispute application I term to Jesus in the scriptural books. their attempt to withdraw to it men from sacrificial yet in their cases no allusion . rock forever ! 37 liveth. Appeal (page 162) were applied Jesus also . &quot. the disciples many of whom the likewise suffered death in sin. quotes his in present review (page epistles of Peter and John. The Editor having urged in his first review.lamb&quot. I stated in obvious from what the my Second of that Appeal. For shall I know that at my Redeemer latter and that he stand the day* upon the earth.lamb&quot. who.sheep&quot.lamb&quot. is. of course far above the nature of a &quot. (page loi. lamb has ever been safely made that tive and that might be therefore &quot. inferred the epithets and &quot.lamb&quot.) that the circumstance of the term to &quot. shewed as Jesus came into the world to sacrifice his life an atonement for sin. being twice applied that Jesus by John the Baptist.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.lamb and that under this consideration it must have been used as for innocence use of the subjected to persecution. I observed to the Editor in that in my Second and of &quot. . we find the signifies properly afterwards without any reference to a particular clay.sheep&quot.

(page 524) that the priest used to &quot. . and Abraham built an altar there. God provide himself a burnt-offering his .&quot.And they came to the place which God had told him of .lamb&quot. but where is the lamb for will a burnt-offering ? and Abraham for a said. He then from circumstance. 8 &quot. for all their sins in this every that year. Second I 3 Appeal) my send you forth as lambs among wolves.&quot. for a virtual one . Luke Behold : wood lamb less .And he (Isaac) said. very xxi.&quot. Genesis xxii. word man.But I was like a lamb or an ox that is brought to slaughter. all Editor relates. ?&quot.&quot. putting them on the of a fit head of the send it goat. Behold the fire and the 7. 19: &quot. the &quot. &quot.blood&quot. Upon &quot. and laid the wood on in order altar and bound Isaac : his son and laid him the upon the wood and Abraham stretched forth his hand and took the knife to slay his son. as I noticed fully in preceding paragraphs.sacrifice&quot.38 FINAL APPEAL &quot. frequent elsewhere 15 : when applied to in : John (already quoted x. and by the hand person to away into the wilderness as an atonement infers. used condescension to death and the &quot.commandments like these did of Christ.&quot. as appears from the following verses . The lay his hands on the head of a living goat. My son.&quot. the for same principle the apostles generally . &quot.and confess the iniquities over him of the children of Israel. Jeremiah xi. Wherein Abraham doubt meant innocent son about to be subjected to a hiding the violent death commandment of God from him. &quot. more than merely fortell the atonement Were we to consider at all the annual scape of goat as an indication some other atonement for sin.feed lambs.

it as a sign of Aaron s bearing both the scape-goat and Aaron having be supposed a sign of the author. i. 39 the ini we must esteem quities of Israel. the effusion of blood. I they the may be accepted Rev.^ as a prediction of the sacrificial death of Christ. and it shall be always upon his before the Lord. both Herod the and Pontius Pilate. The Rev. 12 6 . to the it scape-goat shall or Exodus s 38 . the sacrifice of his own be and had therefore no resemblance Aaron. while he Psalm 8. i. people of Israel.And upon Aaron forehead that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things which the children in all their of Israel shall hallow holy that that gifts . 7.&quot. 10 xl. and insists upon the forgiveness of sins being founded upon i. thy holy Jesus. 27 25 . repeats ii. Secondly. xlv.&quot. Gentiles. without animal or human victims and yet represents the circumstance of the scape-goa. 8 n. Psalm xxxi. Editor wonder himself notices here that the iniquities of Israel were forgiven by confession over the scape-goat.) &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. God 27. paring them to Hebrews x. who. 4thly. comparing them with Hebrews 8 6thly. the and comparing Psalm xxii.For ii. according to bore the sins of men by xxviii. it with Heb. 3rdly. comparing 5. stating the lifted up voices with one accord to Psalms. com 6. Psalm 12 .&quot. 527. child verse a truth. were gathered Psalm xvi. Psalm . (p. whom thou with hast anointed. alike lives j borne the sins of others without sacrificing their but by no means can it the atonement of Christ. forehead. he quotes them with Acts ii. &quot. Sthly.their Editor that in now Acts begins iv. very words of of the against adding. 4. with Psalm apostles in the &quot. together. life.

Romans thee 9thly. and which paragraphs. 17. 19 37 . com 22 . fourteenth. but cannot omit to notice here two or three remarks made by the Editor. 10. &quot. 5. this. applying it to Ephesians iv.&quot. . 4. &c. but. fell i. on Psalm lothly. in a subsequent chapter on the Trinity. Ixix. comparing them with John ii. 8 n &quot. 7.4O Ixviii. already adduced from the that Penta teuch and the these Psalms. that. and should they find them having little or no relation to a proof of the atonement. Psalm The as it is zeal xv.&quot. Psalm filled Psalm pages ex. quoting immediately after paring i2thly. they may then the frequent complaint of the Editor. 4. I is of the judge whether want of or is not well-founded. Heb. i. in which a declaration sacrifice of the is of Jehovah I at in general made. all have fully examined beg in the preced to look ing I therefore my readers over to the Psalms introduced here by the Editor. The me. and form their opinion whether these are properly applied to the discussion of the doctrine of the atonement . 3. After having up more of the than six (527533) with the quotations above Psalms. But I regret none of Psalms appear to except Psalm displeasure me to bear sacrifice. 7 cii. 2. in the course . n. written. from some of these Psalms. Ixxii. one with the other. Psalm i. . the Editor observes. his will examine attempt to prove the deity of Jesus. without cxviii.notwithstand ing the abundant evidence of the atonement. 7thly. FINAL APPEAL i8. reproaches of them that reproached Sthly. the least reference as to the principle of vicarious an atonement for sin. 17. and even the deity of Christ. of thy house hath eaten me up and with Even Christ pleased not himself. Psalm Ixxxix. nthly. room.

. that the sole object of his instructions. thy law is within my heart. establishes that the grand design of the Son in becoming man was fortieth. Jesus never valued. of course. of quoting the Second -free 41 assertions in these Psalms. I am sorry following a frequent practice of his other orthodox verses. / : have I righteousness in the great congregation refrained lo. his truth and salvation to them.&quot. 6 8. 5. and declaring of the x. omits the im mediately following will of which thoroughly explain in ver. 528) &quot. 4 7. the fulfilment of his commission. preached have not not hid my lips. fully our assertion. 58) . leaving a decision on them to the judgment of the public.&quot. O Lord. quoted by the Editor.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. sacrifice. whether &quot. that of being a or of preaching the righteous ness of God to the world. as found in necessity of his Hebrews implies.I : yea. mission was to preach and impart divine to say. (p. God. on some of my Appeal. O my God : &quot. thou knowest. They inform becoming man refutes us that the grand design of the Son which in was that of being a author s sacrifice (p. I have thy righteousness within faithfulness loving tion. The preparing body for the Son.&quot. and compared these verses with Hebrews x.the mentioned 8 of the Psalm quoted by the Editor.&quot.By these declarations various facts are established. in . implies sacrifice or divine instructions delight to do thy will. The Editor having quoted Psalm xl. The Editor. 9 thus concludes . my heart : and thy kindness and It is salvation / I have . have declared thy not concealed thy thy truth now left from the great congrega to the public to judge whether Psalm &quot. the ing the will of God being furnished with a body in preach to mortal men a body which. brethren.

single assertion in Scriptures upon John because above notion. It is FINAL APPEAL to danger. divine and thinks it proper to rest his position upon a comparison of the above Psalm with Hebrews. that that the Editor. quoted Psalms and Hebrews that that in &quot. or on the autho Appeal. to his implicit obedience.&quot. in appointing him general. the Lord and King of Jews and the that Gentiles? Not finding a can support his x. is and not his reconciling rebels to their offers of merci through friendly entreaty and which we know he has employed ? amnesty. and virtually offered as a worth observing. and not to the instructions. ful king. that I might take it again.they also demons himself a the Son delighted offering . in ? consequence of the discharge his of his being ready to give up his life in duty. can we thence infer that the grand design his death. 17 : I lay down my life. the Editor lays stress &quot. rity of Jesus himself. The second trate conclusion of the Editor from the above is.Therefore doth my Father love me. even to the loss of his own life. of the king. Are we to place greater reliance on his bare affirmation. these Do taken by the rebellious his fellow-soldiers. though he affirms positively appearing in this inculcate grand object of the Son s world was to be a sacrifice.42 but exposed sacrifice. words imply anything more than his attri buting the love of the Father towards the Son. yet never attempts to reconcile to this notion the verses pointed out in page 155 of my Second proving that the object of his mission was to preach and impart divine instructions. Jews his that Should a general inform king is attached to him.

Lo. &quot. Hebrews in it much is less in Psalm Son on s &quot.. to it. knowing that the will of his Father rendered xxvi. let the Editor to death. 42. . O of ver. evidently found in Hebrews the x. yet yielded in common Matthew with many 37 other prophets. the will of his Father rendered such death in I find xl. unto them.delighting offering himself as a sacri fice . it. saying. except &quot. to Verse 7: thy will. not what I Take away this cup from me : nevertheless.Then he.&quot. not as I but as wilt. He went away again the second time.pass from me nevertheless. as knowing that unavoidable.) declared great aversion to it God. an assertion thoroughly confirmed by what Appeal.&quot. 36 : he Abba Father. come which to is do thy will.Lo. O my thou Father. sacrifice 43 assertion.And I drink said.&quot. whatever the Son performed through the I with his body prepared obedience &quot. 9 I . 39.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. let this (meaning death) will. thy will be done. cup&quot. said (the Son) said God.&quot. Jeuss declared great aversion to the death of the and merely yielded no mention made of the &quot. the that contrary. possible. all things possible untothee. &quot. 44 will.Then him to I. come do I O God. O my Father. if be . to shew that Jesus. part quoted in my Second which I am necessitated to repeat here. (the Son) &quot.&quot. such &quot. was the entirely will implicit of Father. and prayed. 42 : he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee.&quot. saying. (whether as man or decide. Mark are xiv. Then it said he and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. Luke xxii. my soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death. : . if this cup may not pass away from me. &quot. And prayed. but what thou wilt. which refutes that dreadful that cross.&quot. x.And death unavoidable.

that willingly offer his life in behalf Editor that the quoted (Psalms and Hebrews) stating. as he has attempted to prove . from and the compared passage of Hebrews. and to 63) that as &quot. fectly coincide with the Editor. be such. which may evince that Jesus.&quot. the above is.this the above positions.&quot. : if thou be not willing. FINAL APPEAL Father. remove this cup from me nevertheless. or even a single passage. who had all the human feelings.Saying. even then maintains. and let him take upon or himself to reconcile such gross contradictions between (if those two sets of passages. com one s mitted by others. &quot.) them.) that it would be a piece of gross iniquity to (p. that the death per of the innocent Jesus took place. with death of the cross for the crimes (p. that every just would shudder at the idea of one s being put to by another. &quot. my will. since he prepared the Son a body In this I which to suffer this palpable injustice. . refute if it if committed death for a crime committed innocent of that texts the man should The other. And his sweat being in an agony. the in Father willed.they third conclusion of the Editor. but thine be done . furnish a that complete answer to the declaration 62. the Editor find out a set of verses. so far from feeling aversion to death delighted in it.&quot. he prayed more earnestly and was as it were great drops of blood falling to the let ground. reject one set of there be any such. The Psalm. iniquity.44 &quot. and who had never transgressed the the will of God.the iniquity of for -being sentenced fault death. afflict one innocent being. down Now.&quot. is such. like that of many preceding . an atonement the man by another.

conformable the will of God. Jesus as an atonement to himself for withholding merited the our ideas of punishment from the real point in truly guilty. The Editor more admit that some.) . on the bare that and misery. And will this is the discussion.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. as the con the only possible the justice one.? The Editor will not inference admit that the bare was . this that John the Baptist was beheaded Zechariah was slain the sins ? ? Was it Was as for this that for Was it an atonement of the to rest of mankind. though innocent. to The plain text and obvious conclusion be drawn from the that Christ a body. die. 45 by the unsearchable all will of God. that his sufferings in particular those of mankind But I general. that God prepared for he might communicate a perfect . is. others. and divine the ways of God. the proposed as fact would be legitimate in these cases. to convince in like me of the fact. of that death he suffered for it to satisfy his Maker. who hath some by ordained that the sons of men shall a violent and painful death. by God.Thou hast prepared me a body&quot. as in that of Jesus.stone the prophets and from those who were it sent to yet her&quot. as that pain thus suffered by was inflicted on him. the innocent Jesus was or rest this dained to die on the cross. that Jerusalem was kill suffered &quot. yet. prophets. to the garden. to in our eyes worthy of wretchedness fact. in bestowing happiness on leaving favour. are inscrutable. he pretends to clusion. declared by Jesus in in his agony were. others by an easy and natural extinction nor do I require the evidence of the text quoted (&quot. cannot find anything in inference so contrary to these words that warrants an justice.

who cannot fully comprehend the mysteries of his own being.46 code of divine law for to FINAL APPEAL the devotion with mankind. Editor expresses his indignation at the mode of reasoning adopted by me. it down when it suited The Rev. of gross injustice. in the passages above quoted saying. &quot. For I find this very Editor in his endeavour to atonement arguing (page kept the law has not broken prove the doctrine of the who has &quot. that of a fellow-worm in his own argument example to shew the necessity that the Almighty laboured under to have his justice satisfied.He 506) thus : it.) There appears here a most strange mistake on the of the Editor. to deduce ideas anything from the divine human I inimical to his view of can only say that I have for my will. capable of a palpable determined to unpunished innocent justly . all religion and charge him with having founded on an act of palpable iniquity ? (Page 529. punishment. pause before he arraign his Maker . It is part he who seems to me to be labouring to prove the absurdity that is God. those If deserve the the he who mean to object of applying the to limited capacity of the human understanding judge the unsearchable fore denies things of the my right. and he who has broken . though he leave quite inflicting the marks of his wrath on the have the for to purpose weight rashness of of its sparing terrors. as wisdom of God. and his readiness to lay the purpose of the Maker. and that he loved him which he fulfilled his divine commission.should not a creature. regardless of the comfort or safety of that body. and there a worm of the dust. the Almighty iniquity and All-merciful. a worm of the dust.

&quot. it 47 cannot have kept its it : that the should incur its penalty for violating it. but respecting his From to apply these passages does of opinion that it not appear. therefore. imperfect law. &quot. on the bare that Jesus Do for was provided with a body. it.This is an if common sense&quot.&quot. therefore. same man. ways of Providence of . applied to human affairs. the divine blasphemous and rebellious majesty to deduce. will clearly&quot. as if the Editor were human reason as will quite right and proper a standard by which to judge it is what must be the ports his views of the contrary. and also deserve outrage on reward for keeping &quot. Should not this induce him would be palpably iniquit to pause. appear.Human not [about the] repentance guilt.Apply this to the divine &quot. nothing but the most express and positive declara couched in language not capable of being ex a is plained in a metaphorical sense.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. in ordaining cross. &quot. from human is conclusions of interpretations them from the scriptures contrary to his ? The Editor has not attempted to dispute that.. we refer to human laws. and per mit tion. to sway him to so to belief irreconcilable to common this sense ? Yet he willing fact assume at once conclusion. when he thinks it sup but that. on the against reason. the motive to the which he assigns the death of Jesus on the ous. to be rewarded as one who had kept trary to the divine law would be directly con judges inquire righteousness. not orthodox divines often offer it as a reason the crimes necessity of an atonement being made for the of men.For him. will of God. that it would be inequitable in the per- . it God.&quot. as they are. of the robber or murderer.

Christ. his xi. &quot. and ix. it. with the death of the crimes committed by others. without some as a satisfaction sort of punishment being inflicted for to his justice ? Do they they not.it reference to human had notions of justice. in ch.&quot. to do the same.&quot. that Isaiah. to remit sin.} vii. in ch.And from Isaiah. especially when cross. but my capacity really has failed to enable me was to ascertain what he means to establish by the quotation of this passage.&quot. I think myself also authorized to urge. The first Editor. who human feelings and who had never trans of gressed will God. introduces &quot. to afflict that would be a piece of gross all iniquity the the one innocent being. (page 536. in consequence.) The Editor in the course of the atonement of Jesus Christ.of he in shall make fear (Jesus) quick understanding limited the of the Lord . Editor abandon the unsearchable. next quotation 3. I and confess of divine inscrutable both justice willing and of divine mercy. I the notice of them to proper to defer the subsequent chapter on the deem Trinity. nature. (page 533. &quot.predicting saying. &quot. But if the he declares such great aversion to for it. and are allowed in do so.48 FINAL APPEAL feet nature of the just God. have no relation whatever to the doctrine of atonement. identifies his divine the birth of and his human it nature. 6. him&quot. Editor am perfectly ready and The now refers to the prophets. represent sins the death of Jesus as an If atonement for the to of mankind^ do. As Isaiah vii. an attempt to prove the deity and but the force of truth cite would appear to have induced him here to a verse . this mode of reasoning. 14.

l deny a this fact. and a great (&quot. but that which does not only proves what I advanced Christ my Second 4 Appeal . and others. to of the term Jesus. The Editor having endeavoured. I my inability to discover in his the atonement. In like manner. deliver them.&quot. 20.&quot. I my Second Saviour applied those Appeal. But the force of truth again that man him to passage.make him of Lord. in that &quot. saying. his former the application noticed. is. s delivering his country does not elevate an equality with God. that &quot. were dependent themselves upon God.we find the title frequently in the divine writings to with the who have been endued whether will. who . any allusion what next quotation from in Isaiah xix. though unable to &amp. nations. The Editor. such phrases &quot. to prove the doctrine of the atonement from &quot. of their fellow-creatures by been their their and. that to overcome an invading enemy is an act totally different from saving sinners from their sins. quick understanding. containing 49. 19.) refute his in own position. power of saving by the imparting of the divine to them .Saviour&quot. and only ins truments in his hand. thus turns away the subject .all those the who have of instrumental fellow-creatures. in Review.&quot.and and he shall one. lt surely required but little knowledge to discern. or. as &quot. temporary protection none of those saving prophets or although the sins or by affording princes atoned for death .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.lt.&quot.&quot. in a spiritual sense.&quot. effecting evils deliverance from of whatever nature. which. makes the Reverend Editor quote here the following he shall send them a Saviour. and in the fear of the go to prove must confess ever to his created nature.

I do not dispute verse 10 (&quot. it must have reference to his the implicit obedience to the will of Jehovah. 63. FINAL APPEAL at different times. previously. the following the of the evangelist people &quot. was Israel the third with Egypt and the is. in what sense should we understand those declarations of Jesus in himself to be v. If shall. (page 537. Assyrians. the blessings of Christ s kingdom are declared in the most The glowing language.&quot. &quot. previously to Christ s coming. as the Editor confesses. my and answer must be s in the negative. It is not possible for God.50 saved people cities.glorified God.in ch. return. found even xv. personages to men. and when.) have any allusion to Jesus. To his question. of their enemies. &c. cry to Jehovah join the Assyrians a bless ing in the midst of the land.? (ix. did the Egyptians cry to Jehovah for deliverance. 3 ? a single Gospel John 24. we that reconcile such disavowal of the assertion how should power of God to Matthew. and in his only instruments hands. who had given such to men&quot.the ransomed of the Lord it in the least. to raise one to ? save from the grasp mankind from sin through his divine instructions If not. Editor says. vi. who could save raise.&quot.When.&quot. even to . by their miraculous strength. nor have they subsequently to the coming of Jesus. up to this day. 8). or joined Israel and the Assyrians in asking divine blessing. in their peculiar capa were dependent themselves upon God. ) that &quot. xxxv. that neither previous to Christ coming did the Egyptians and Israel. cried to the God a of Israel. And if Jesus was not entitled power to the appellation of a saviour from the saving power of his divine instructions.

&quot. griefs found he hath borne our and car of us these ried our sions. as if he had been a sinner.guilty of no sin .lamb&quot. Vol. that we. to s discover what these .&quot. or even of Persian. page mankind. 21. Do sentences prove &quot. Second Appeal. stn. as was predicted. lay ing great stress in that chapter: upon such phrases &quot. has no re ference to the atonement. The Rev. was wounded laid for our transgres &quot.God hath made him subject to sufferings and death. and bullocks.He as the following. made . might be made imputed to us by page 232.&quot. Editor now refers to ch. a circumstance far from typically . viii.For he hath made him to be &c.&quot. must be aware that the word 166. again quotes Isaiah xlii. 2. righteous. &quot. of Isaiah. &quot. liii.quotations have to do with Christ atoning for sin as XJ a sacrifice in lieu of goats v. So. by a righteousness See Locke s works. God.sheep. being applicable to even for he.Surely &quot. &quot. 21. the usual punishment and conse quence of sin.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.The Lord hath shall on him the iniquities all . though he were .&quot. their like iniquities. also. which the Editor insists it upon : implies no more than &quot.ransom Q pT : ) or fJ is often used to express extreme attachment or obedience. He bear he. He cry. sacrifice as without implying an actual an atonement for sins.&quot. as Any one who &quot. that for a sacrificial ? &quot.&quot. &quot. in and by him.He shall not &c.&quot.The Lord is well pleased for his righteousness sake. but I am unable. sorrows. &quot. 51 laying down in of his own life for the safety of explained my has a tolerable knowledge of the idiom of Hebrew or Arabic. 2 Corinthians. or atoned the sins of others Did ever a of sacrificial lamb or goat are bear the iniquities men ? The scape-goats stated to have borne the iniquities of Israel Christ.

Behold. 10. xxxi. Final Appeal) reference human of ideas of justice in support of for the the doctrine atonement. though innocent himself. and ch. saith ch. the days I will put my law in their inward parts. or rather death. been sent to teach them repentance for the pardon of their sins. calculated fulfilment to prevent of which commission was at the cost of his their further the life. that I will raise unto David a righteous in branch. &quot. viii. The &quot. of this religion. 33.&quot. while interceding for them with a king mightier than Editor. or had they repented sincerely of their transgressions. viz. was to suffer afflictions. as a prince. for the transgressions of his guilty people. 8. requiring us to have recourse to repentance as the means of procuring par don page 24. of only two passages the 5. xxiii. As I have already noticed the Editor s (in page 46 to et. liii. quoted come. saith the Lord. To this question of the our repentance All-merciful since ! sufficient to make atonement in with the ? my his answer must be the affirmative.52 FINAL APPEAL no escape from the hands of his ch. as being Heb. we find the direct authority of the author forerunner. &quot. I will not renew the subject here.Behold. enemies. days come.&quot. when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the land of Judah.Is himself. The . Jehovah. &c. 31. and John the (Vide Baptist. to lay before them the divine transgressions.) Had the human race never transgressed. &c. law. the Son of God need not have for sin. Editor seems contented with the quotation of Jeremiah. seq. My readers it may peruse the whole of and may find that conveys but the idea that Jesus. and his censuring me same mode of reference to natural equity.

and the term I shall &quot. In illustration here cite the same phrase found in other instances. Editor then quotes (page 539) i 53 30. I never denied.&quot.&quot. as in the Hebrew. xxxiv. that the Editor thinks necessary to attempt so often to prove the kingdom in and redemption of Jesus afterwards quotes Daniel off.Shall Messiah be cut in the origi &quot. sanctification in purity of mind.Shall person or nothing for him off. that &quot. and salvation by repentance. then. but not for himself. There is no term nal Hebrew passage answering found in the &quot.Ezekiel also predicts I will set promised Redeemer in ch. my servant David and .&quot. as some Jewish writers. both in the original Hebrew Scriptures and their translation also. The translators used the term instead of &quot. that the Messiah would be not only of the race of David. but also of his spirit. as the promised Messiah the course of his arguments in favor of the atonement? ix. in lieu of &quot. in the English version. of Christ.Christ Cor. We find in the &quot. i. and he He says. up one shepherd over them.but&quot. English version.but.&quot.himself&quot. for him. .him.&quot. in righteousness in conduct. even &quot. it How is it.&quot. Hebrew V?^H1. He 26 &quot. redemption. is made unto and us wisdom.No to the words or &quot.himself. sanctification. The the Editor then advances.and. Exodus . in any of my publications. shall feed them. &quot.&quot. he shall be their shep that herd. is. that Christ was to be sent to direct mankind to sincerity worship. 23. &quot. righteousness. nor did interpret the ever above passages.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. I Jesus was sent as the promised Messiah. But what these quotations have to sacrifice do with the vicarious at a loss to perceive . that Messiah be cut and no one be &quot. I to am again being able discover in them nothing more than a prophecy and its fulfilment.

Daniel But. &c. but not for himself. all flesh. 2. and Joel 28.&quot. 12. &quot. though found the plural form. bers xxvii. to rebel against the divine law.&quot. &quot.) &quot.In &c. would. even The the Editor quotes Isreal their Hosea 5. of Esau be Jeho vah s. wholly alludes omit the in Re 21 : deemer s kingdom. that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David which is fallen. n. seek the Lord ii. he thus . and their relation question myself the trouble. He hath no son. To justify the application to Jesus of the noun &quot. I must spare The Reverend Obadiah.&quot.saviours. shall come to pass afterward.&quot. short (page 541. iii. &quot. and David it &c. though instructed by their at the hazard of his intercessor. 45. but the fault of his subjects.ni^r^i . &quot. the certainly not obvious.Afterward shall children of return and king.. FINAL APPEAL DW^VK 4.And none help even were we to admit this mistranslation or perversion of the original Scriptures. who continued own life. the words.54 xxii. not for any guilt he committed himself.&quot. shall He : thereto verse And the saviours come up on Mount Zion and the kingdom in shall to judge Mount &quot. con vey nothing more than that the Messiah should be cut off. to my mind.And God.&quot. I would endeavour to examine the connection between them to : as he has omitted to do is so.&quot.. Psalm 1^1 &quot. &quot. in Editor says. Had he been pleased to shew the tendency of these quotations to the proof of the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus. &quot.Shall the Messiah be cut off. and also Amos ix. &quot. Num Ixxii. iS niJT xi.Nor does his prophecy. iSniW Kl. their &quot.&quot. No blood be shed for him.And him that hath shall no helper. him.&quot. that I will pour out my and your sons and your daughters spirit upon shall prophesy.

has given him a wife&quot. Obadiah as required in the former alternative of the question put line 34. while the same in of acknowledged ( p. quad- and decimune gods.acknowledge the finding myself as proposed by triune God. being accompanied with the plural verb 1vJ71. this cannot Christ that we ask plural him whether form is he has not in a affirmed. .Should he&quot.saviours. 55 : (the author of the Appeals) &quot. associated with the verb form and the past tense. meaning. in ch. which in connected with ix.masters&quot.) by the Editor. maintain the correctness of read in ing &quot. him in the latter alternative : for having relinquished the notion of the triune. as pointed out by me. 248. argues &quot. individuals. The Editor admits 536 ) the application of the term Savi our to human p. is (Second anxious to prove the doctrine of the atonement by the application of that very term to Appeal.&quot. The Editor says. (page 542. tanding to notion is find plausibility in one case.? The Editor.) that &quot. the often used his masters. &quot. I with the pronoun must. as a diligent student of the Scriptures. should have known that the singular sense.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.they shall come 1 up. as of his master noun in question. (page 541. absurdity another. therefore.V whereas. &quot. as well as plural.) but he Jesus. 27. is by no the means an analogous case as found in Exod.saviours&quot. Neh. iv. in the the term plural &quot. unable to &quot. to that of the is term &quot.reply. xxi.Micah. saviours is used. verb singular is \J&quot.. when immersed in the grosser polytheism prevailing among modern Hindoos. that as the plural refer to number .saviours&quot. 4. which I once professed. I cannot reconcile it to my unders rune.&quot.

&quot. out of thee shall me ^whose goings forth have been of he come old.. to that of the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus. for the proving Christ kingdom. The testimony to the eternal deity of Christ.Habakkuk&quot. from everlasting. hosts be greater than that of the former. lie in the same terms with : and in ch. But what and knowledge of God. iii. I am at a loss to faith in. and in prophets sent by him. as corroborated by Paul. which is a subject totally foreign &quot.&quot. given in connection with his birth as man. it is wrong to overlook. (says the Editor page 542) -was evidently no stranger to the doctrine founded on the atonement. &c. 15. when we purpose of come to the subject of the Trinity. saith Jehovah of which the Editor thinks affords decided proof the deity respecting both the atonement and It is of Christ. and &quot. He quotes s again Nahum i. the desire of all nations shall come and will fill house with glory the glory of this latter house shall &quot. faith. 4 FINAL APPEAL s kingdom nearly v. as well as faith in the perfection of his attributes.The just shall live i. is Any I but will examine the verse here cited in the subsequent part of this discussion. has to do with the atonement. Rom.56 describes Christ Isaiah. repeats the place of his birth forth unto Thou. Does the bare mention of death of Jesus faith by Habakkuk of other prophets prove his or their familiarity with the sacrificial ? He this quotes the passage of Ilaggai ii. having not in place here.Thus saith Jehovah. by his 2. of Jesus testimony relating to the birth nothing to do with his atonement. and he then quotes the passage. 17.&quot. and Gal. discover. &quot. however too deep for my shallow understanding to .&quot.the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of Jehovah&quot. Bethlehem Ephratah.

atonement. and vi. quotes Zechariah iii. ( The ) remaining passage of Zechariah page 543 548. discover from this doctrines. (page 548.I subsequent will The phrase found the verse &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. so far from being freed from sins. Besides. 12 and wherein there is not the slightest mention of the 13. the Israelites.Jehovah s to a material one it coming into clothed in our nature. the body of and their disobedience to him. latter Should the spiritual term in the above. Were we from instances in its understand by the word temple in both the verse a material one. of Malachi.) remove the iniquity of that land in one day does not attribute the removal of the iniquities of the land of Israel to the sacrificial death of Jesus. &quot. continued more vehemently than ever to pursue sinful conduct Christians. and verse ist of Ch. which. the verse can by no means be applied to the death of Jesus. as in their violent persecution of So the Jews have been punished to this day. it temple be understood by the without of would be regarded naturally superior the necessity &quot. was alone in of Hagi^ai. 8 and 9. in the reign of Darius than the former built by Solomon.) quoted by .after the day of his crucifixion. 57 much to these passage an allusion to either of less that it is a decided proof of them. on account of their outrages upon Jesus. &quot. passages. so as to justify the Editor as a proof of the doctrine of the in quoting it atonement. III. Christians believe. since. it is evident the context in the prophecy. I will notice in it in a (&quot. As to his attempt to prove the deity of Jesus He from these chapter. con we must be persuaded to believe templation that the latter temple was mor^ magnificently built by Zerubbabel and Joshua. whether vicarious or accidental.

) declaring that the the Son of Man should be betrayed rise hands of men.that he came versing to give his life a ransom Elias. and so fundamental for salvation. that a teacher. if such were the main source of salvation. who. 12.it is evident that : intimations were. even after his resurrection. that &quot. How is it possible to think.&quot. and that he was about to give his third day * again the flesh for the John xix. .* as predicted.58 FINAL APPEAL the Editor in support of the deity of Jesus. I will notice afterwards. apostles) his &quot. should have kept concealed the doctrine of the atonement. while he and was constantly enjoining love to God. and have left them to deduce so material a point from the obscure predictions of the prophets. and also repentance. sufficient. con his into with Moses and (Luke 31. (according the Editor) both before and after his resurrection. unless biassed by early prejudices. brought death upon himself. I am sorry I assertion (page 549) that cannot agree with the Editor in his &quot.* and the king of the Jews. for many ix. in case of failure in obedience. his of his nature to were (Jiis not withheld such declaring them&quot. a truly divine teacher. to each other.had our Lord himself made no death. his direct declaration respecting the design of his referring his disciples to those predictions already named circum would have been stances. from his own apostles. and be killed. particularly to in their for it would be strange suppose that Jesus to should have omitted to inculcate so important a doctrine. which are suscept ible of so many different interpretations ? The direct Editor then affirms. to neighbours. 7. by declaring himself publicly the son of God.

with some additions. they were (his parents) at his . as to procure freedom and This interpreta passages. tions receive. verses in and to rise from the dead the third As the Reverend Editor quoted some of these them noticed in his I former Review. cause his life to be destroyed. but it observations. who hazards down my confirmed : promulgation . tion is fully by the following I Luke the fore And he kingdom of God to am I sent. This is my blood of the you New Testament. should that forever And the foreseeing the imparting of those instruc by exciting the anger and enmity of the superstitious Jews. Thus it is written. my body. &quot. lay for you. yet would. he has lays me under in the necessity of remarks the as Second Appeal : again adducing my on those passages. Christ to suffer. 49 And all that heard him were astonished And when they understanding and answers. peace for his subjects. a strange mode of conducting a controversy . hesitated if not to persevere in his life their a king. iv. however. I were to address himself to them life saying. 43 said unto them. Ch. Second Appeal. life 59 of the his world. must preach .Do these passages reasonably convey anything more than the idea that Jesus was invested with a divine commission to deliver instruc tions leading to eternal beatitude. day. Entirely the overlooking my thought proper to This is indeed repeat them here. which is shed for many for the remis sion of sins . and to lay down his life for his sheep them. and thus it behoved discourse for and with This is which is broken . They are follows &quot. saw him. other 4y cities : also for there ii. ? whosoever that should Saviour.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. live which.

death on the cross been the work. and that his all precepts were a mere code of morality inadequate to pro cure salvation. 8. I now beg the that have finished the the Editor will be pleased to reconcile position. How is about that it that ye sought me ? wist ye not that must be declares. thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. And he ? said unto I them. and have known surely that I came out from thee.&quot. (John Jesus. Hence . and they have Deceived them. he instructed his will. he.) communing with God. in xvii. and the be shed. disciples in the divine law : and as appears from the For I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me. or part of the work for the performance of which Jesus came into this world. why hast ? Behold. manifests that his he had completed the object of divine commandments to commission by imparting I have glorified mankind. and they have believed that thou didst send me. and there would have been no perfect security for the remission of sins and the attainment of eternal comfort in those sayings. as the founder of truth. that the sole object of his above passages to his death of Jesus on the cross was the appearance in this world. remained sunk supersti and the Gentiles in idolatry.60 FINAL APPEAL : amazed and his thou thus dealt with us mother said unto him. gavest I have finished Had his work which thou me to do. of still as predicted. suffered his Had blood the not Jesus disregarded his to life. to would not have declared himself work prior to his death. Son. my Father s business Wherein Jesus commission was the sole object of his to preach and impart divine following text instructions. in delivery of will the Father the in whole of the Jews would have tion. the thee on the earth. . Again.

61 the gracious benefactor alludes to this act of delivery from of his si ns. which he hath bore with hitherto.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. whom God hath set forth to be the propitiatory. by paying what was of equal value. and his notes on its different quote the Locke s Works. casting off the nation of the Jews. cited verse. 24.Being made righteous by the favour of God. freely wit Testament declares that God forgives mankind h out any equivalent. &quot. iii. 304. but deliverance from that to which a man is in subjection or bondage. in consideration whereof they were delivered. verse tion signifies 24: &quot. (Rom. Para &quot. 24. as their past sins deserved. and of his free bounty. formerly committed. one of the great est men that ever lived. and not to an actual for the sin an equal val ueor compensation the pardoned. on verses 24 and 25 phrase expressions. Romans in. but not deliverance from every thing. ow n through divine instructions.. 18. gratis. that sinners are justified by God gratis. I For the further paraphrase on the above subject. since New . in his own blood. p. i 5. gratis] justified by his grace. : viii. or mercy-seat.) by Locke. there was any compensation made to God. for the by passing over their transgressions. Note on the word Redemption. the redemption viii. even at the expense sacrificial death as life. viz. so as to withhold his hand from s) manifestation of his (God righteousness. through the redemption which is by Jesus Christ. Paul expressly says here.Being freely^ (8^/irtv. &quot.Redemp deliverance. confirms of justification illustration by the of this free grace of God. What . the idea So Romans 32. through &quot. Nor does redemption by Jesus Christ import. Vol. that is in Jesus Christ. for that is inconsistent with what St. 16.

must be whom we the redeemed are in bondage to. for this. Exod.62 this . a great number. Mede has rightly observed upon this place. by and it is the price paid for its redemption. 7. a necessary sense which it is plain it hath not. places 8. .) unless the that strict justice. 6. Nor could the price be paid to God. &quot. persist in it against Paul s declarations. verse 25: signifies propitiatory. literal tion of the word in English. Deut. (for that is made the argument here. Rev. that he might redeem us from all iniquity. But if St. in the original. i. him believe St. Paul had not in been so express denning what he means by redemption. i. St. Paul s words. viz. for . God we are Thou 9 : &quot. I shall refer is so clear that nothing can be more. xv. or mercy-seat. in strictness of justice.as iXaa-rtPiov propitiation. Eph.&quot. xxiv. to have both the thing redeemed. ii. to those we strictly adhere to the metaphor. they yet would be thought to lay too the criticism of a much stress upon word. and not . FINAL APPEAL redemption is. from the it. to v. Col. amongst 12. that necessarily implies to consider to it price paid. That redeeming. vii. the sacred Scripture language. Sin and Satan. The Editor fills about a page and a half ( a part of . if I desire him whom an equivalent and that. who would in thereby force from the word. and significa 18. same person ought. even the forgiveness of sins. and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood. Mr. 14: Who gave himself for us. But any one will. Paul tells us. and from he will whom not be are redeemed. by the death of Christ wast slain. let If lieve his own system Tit. in his discourse on God s house. redeemed. Note upon the word mercy-seat. my if reader to three or four vi.14. in the translation. signifies not precisely pay ing an equivalent.

28. but as those teachers merely illustrated the sayings their gracious Master. I refer to a few texts explanatory of the terms fully only sacrifice. beginning with Rom. Luke 77. Now I beg that it my reader will be pleased to determine whether would be more consistent with the context. i Tim. to take them a spiritual sense as explained by the apostles themselves. as consistent with the religion of Jesus. it blood. xiii. already quoted by me of . understand such words attainable by and thus found the salvation Christianity. 14. therefore. say to his impug- having already examined those in the preceding chapters. 550 and the whole of 550 with quotations 63 from the ) writings of the apostles. or whether upon flesh and would not rather as well in be thoroughly reasonable and scriptural. 3. 23.ii. their writings must be under been taught stood with reference only to what had him. 7 . 24. 14. ii. 6. Heb 12. Tit. x. and with tion. espe cially as I have already noticed some of them in the course of the examination of the Psalms and Prophets. Heb. As the Editor s illustrative remarks upon the atone ment (pages 552 and 553) ments previously adduced I except only his queries. ransom. i. Rom. i. Eph. Rev. v. human or divine. xx. i.What shall we . &quot. 10 . world. 12 v. 2. rest will entirely on the argu leave them unnoticed. v. 26 . I will. Jesus. ix.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. viii. 17. 5. as ascribed to and the taking away the sins of the Heb. offering. Eph ii. Being desirous to shew that is my interpretation of these will supported by scriptural authorities. Mark 45 . to the benevolent spirit of the Christian dispensa literally. by not prolong the present subject of discussion by examining those passages separately. i. iii. Matt. to substantiate the doctrine of the atonement.

away . even in thought. he intercedes. It is evident from the circumstance of sin. and leave to him to say. and to his ridiculing his intercession? &c. Editor. so far as am aware. composed if the blood the it blood of Jesus was not that of a creature whose was. that the Creator is not of blood and flesh. I have not the most distant recollection of acknowledging Christ divine s and human if nature. and shall therefore feel obliged the Editor will have the goodness to point of out in what passage chapter. sin. doctrine of Christ after s divine it and in human nature. as I have previously reject ed the idea of a mixed nature of God. the blood of no assertion mere creature could take away I add the &quot. as maintained by the Editor.&quot. even having acknowledged chapter the second. blood of a creature being unable to take away that the taking and the Creator having no blood. To also this assertion of the &quot. It is perfectly optional with the Editor to say for or against any one whatever his shall. the intercession of I Jesus charity mankind: restrain therefore hope that Christian will the Editor from imputing to I me in future such a charge. man.&quot. nevertheless reject I from the such absolutely unaccountable ideas as a mixed nature of God and man. as well as of those for whom.the ning&quot. maintained by the Editor. that no being can the intercede with another being for a third one. unless mediator be possessed of the nature of the being with whom. second of my Appeal I I acknowledged for this mystery. my own conscience. ridiculed. conscience dictates of may permit. only intended to refute the argument adduced by Trinitarians.- 64 (page 108) FINAL APPEAL &quot. (^fa^t^1^) in which Hindoos profess their faith. I have never. to which I must reply. and lion.

) that &quot. and those who are not Jehovah. indeed imposible in its own nature. whom he hath himself appointed to this glorious work. the Father Justify the sinner. (page 555. whether or not. I therefore beg to ask.) Nor does (the Scripture) u give us the least hint that God ever has imparted any one is infinite perfection to a finite creature. and also to have been appointed by Jehovah. on the same ground. can imply no peculiar &quot. such as magnitude and other conditions. This. and change his heart : himself witnesses that it is Jehovah &quot. 65. it is not impossible in its own nature that the whole of the omnipresent God should be brought into a circumference of a small space . Nothing that I can conceive. according to whose will the former Jehovah humbled himself in becoming in our nature a Mediator. being common to Jehovah. could atone for sin. He humbled by becoming in our nature the Mediator between God and men. How a endued with new honour which he had latter could the unchangeable Jehovah be not prior to his appointment by the unchangeable Jehovah ? How could the God change his condition by assuming a new nature ? If the acceptance of a new state of the assuming of a new nature. can prevent the Editor from perceiving gross inconsistency between his declaring Jesus to be the unchangeable Jehovah.&quot.&quot.no one but Jehovah. be not considered changes in an object. but prejudice in favour of the Trinity. The Editor says. (page 554. ground of distinction or reverence &quot. the Editor declares.&quot. the unchangeable God. .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. be called unchangeable and consequently the application as mena may safely. Jehovah. all pheno according to the Editor s maxim. of properties. or the alteration honour. for it&quot. of the term unchangeable&quot.

and beg that the Editor will favor me with a reply thereto. 170. That the effects of Christ s of Christ s . and who of course must be considered as for the excluded from the benefit of his having died remission of their sides. amounts to a proof of the finite number of creatures. that to the present time millions of human beings are daily passing through the world. the assertion that the guilt committed . therefore an atonement even for the all it remission of the sins of of them must be of a finite nature. however numerous they may be . is evident from the fact. that an avowal of the begin ning of creation. and of its end. whom the doctrines he taught have never therefore the nature of a reached. as well as omnipotence as r Editor. &quot. p. whether with respect to the salva tion or condemnation of mankind.66 subjected to all FINAL APPEAL human feelings. the denial made by Jesus himself of omniscience. appearance on earth. (Second Appeal. and clothed at ? one time with two opposite natures. though Should the} are finite in themselves. yet are committed against the infinite God and thereby they are infinite. it is sins. human and divine The Reverend subject perfection of Jesus. .) Be worth observing. in the concluding part of the of the atonement. He entirely avoids here noticing what I stated in proof of the finite effects appearance in the world which I now repeat. forgetting. and that an atonement on the part of an infinite being is there fore In I shall reply necessary for their remission the first place. in the limited period of his life. attempts to prove the infinite narrated in the evangelical w ritings. were suitable to finite.&quot. perhaps. My argument is. be alleged that the sins committed by a single individual. and finite being to accomplish.

and is con that Being is infinite in entirely unsupported by reason or proof. its 67 consequences. &quot. or else three days the sword of the Lord &c. that among those that believe in revelation. i Chronicles. Thus saith the Lord. cannot be supposed to have escaped every sin in this tempting world every man. destroyed. from time to time. or three months to be destroyed before thy foes. or a prayer wor thy of reward as its effect. and the angel of the Lord destroying throughout all the coasts of Israel. he . there least.&quot. to trary scriptural authorities . done for the honour commandment infinite of the infinite offered to propitiate the Divine Majesty. at of his one single righteous act during the whole period life but as he is a mortal and imperfect being. the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord and the Lord delivered them years&quot. and he repented him of the evil. esteem a good act. while that the sword of thine enemies overtake thee . no observing. and said unto him. hand of the Philistines fotty In the second place. either three vcar s famine. then. and said to the angel that &c. to destroy it and as he was destroying. Judges into the xiii. as far as suggests. for we find the finite Israelites were. even the pestilence. the Lord beheld. 15: &quot. afflicted with punishment for the sins they committed against the infinite u God. xxi. in the land. Under these circum stances we cannot help any probably. PUBLIC. we must. man that has not performed. upon the same ground. must be both guilty of : . to be also God. Ver. . I u : And . choose thee . is. were this we to admit the truth of reason of the argument. either true or received as true. 12 So God came to David. stay now thine hand.TO THE against an infinite is CHRISTIAN&quot. It is enough.And God sent an angel unto Jerusalem.

fire. &quot.The blessings of thy father have all : prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors. Gen. those who have. is to be punished for the Editor. that to their good and evil works according the intercession of one who stands as a mediator through reasonable. they may to an object not divine. cording to for the infinitie he has committed. to his one with eternal punishment for the same time. to which they are not entitled by their own merit ? At to such phrases as everlasting fire. for an everlasting pos &c. while justice for his requires that both. or. session. that . in which the term aiumoS. therefore. unnoticed entirely. I beg to refer my readers to the original Greek. he must be either rewarded for his good or punished for his evil actions for eternity. or everlasting punishments. will If we suppose ac sin eternity. according to the position.&quot. implies applied find the term long duration. lasting. shall Christ. xvii. unto the . men between God and man. scriptural as well all as should be judged. after thee.&quot.durable &quot. Would he should experience the consequences of it be consistent with the perfect nature of afflict the just God. after death add then. art a and to thy seed stranger. xlix. there an infinite reward be no opportunity of his enjoying . duration or ages . be admitted to enjoy infinite beati tude by the free bounty of the Father of the universe.durable denotes.&quot. that punishments. found in the English version. is &quot.&quot. being derived from aiwu. leaving.68 infinite sin FINAL APPEAL that this very person and an agent of infinite virtue. good work but. his good deeds guilt. when ever Besides. 8 &quot. frequently. : And I will give unto thee. through truly repented. 26 &quot. the land wherein thou the land of Canaan. though performed with a view to the at glory of God ? It is not.

u iii.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and the perpetual hills did . 6 He stood and measured the earth He beheld : : and the everlasting and drove asunder the nations mountains were scattered. Habakkuk. page 234.&quot. . bow. Vide Note in the Second Appeal. &c. 69 utmost bound of the everlasting hills.

(page 556.&quot.&quot.) whence the Editor concludes. although it is frequently introducted both in orthodox writings and conversation.in appeared to Moses to Jacob in a Gen. &quot. not once The first position the Editor advances. 12. and said. I NOW proceed to examine the doctrine of the Trini ty.) is. fills more than two pages with never thinks of producing a single argument.&quot.CHAPTER III. who was Jesus himself. although he .&quot. from the Father and able to &quot. 13 ) and Bethel. (Gen. ( flame of fire. as he appears.Thou hast not withheld thy son.&quot.) and who came up from Gilgal to Bochim. that the angel who redeemed Jacob. u I made you go up out of Egypt. xlviii. xxxi. was Christ. spoke of himself and that redeeming angel being the angel that as God in other instances. Christ is God. (Judges ii. is said in Gen. or for his identifying that angel with The this Editor. 16. a term which. INQUIRY INTO THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY. yet authority fot his inference. out of the midst of : who spoke an unconsumed bush. and said. SECTION. in support of of the deity of Jesus.) and called unto Abraham out of the heaven. thine only son from me. &quot. as the is fundamental doctrine of Christianity. to have redeemed Jacob. and that the same redeeming being dream. distinct redeem. i. I The Pentateuch and Psalms. in the Scripture. yet found in any part of the sacred book. &c. that Christ being the redeeming angel.I tvas the angel of a am the God &quot. that the angel. xxii. (Exodus iii. 2.

identify God with the human race. would neces that according to the Editor. that Jesus. it the angel who redeemed Jacob was indeed sarily follow. &quot.FINAL APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot. who were sold unto the heathen. Blessed be the thee this day without a redeemer* said in Israel. he was in his and the angel of his presence saved them love and in his pity he redeemed them. Ruth iv. is thereby made evident that. on the same ground. and Jacob. God. This. Were we to admit. 9 : In all their affliction . Xeh. and he bare afflicted. and on the same principle. : We. sufficiently deter mines the meaning. both. that is is possessed of a three-fold nature.&quot. the God lk of Abraham. he was Chirst who people. have redeemed our brethren the Jews. by two persons. v. before the birth of this son. unto Naomi. is.and that he In the English i ible the term kinsman is here employed. attributes as mercy. Isaiah &quot. for a moment. Ixiii. Christ * and Angel-Jesus . that the angel appeared distinct from the Father and able to redeem hence .&quot. after our ability. all them.&quot. &quot. that there was Christ man-Jesus. the Scriptures having ascribed to them such . and therefore the expres Naomi who hath not left thee this day without a kinsman sion cannot have reference to the child then born. Isaac. &quot. If so. must maintain the identity of Jesus with all those that are said in the sacred books to have redeemed people at punishment and we also. and carried them u the days of old. reward. The only reason he assigns for his first supposition is.&quot. Can represented as the redeemer of his the circumstance of the performance of is similar acts. Ruth and had Boaz and others as their kinsmen. 14 : And the woman Lord who hath not left ^*O that his name may be famous 8 &quot. Besides the synonymous term il restorer of thy life used in verse I5th for the child. different times. is inaccurate which will appear by referring to the context. . wrath. those angels 71 whom the Editor considers as Jehovah. identify one w ith the other 7 ? we must. It however.Jesus.

in an &quot. in its no one. in a metaphorical sense. Then Manoah knew that he was Judges xiii. call Jesus. perhaps. &quot. capacity. in several ot these instances. He might. (which he cannot . under such a circumstance. like If the scriptures do not scruple to u Gods.&quot.&quot. I shall reply.&quot. to the angel of God. 7 u u 6 u : The sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord. applied to any angel of God.&quot. the Editor neither attempts to reasons nor does he endeavour to shew any authority for his assertion.72 to FIN AT. can be &quot. We shall surely die. and to Abraham and to others. APPEAL be esteemed as an obedient servant in his in his human nature. As to his latter supposition. angel.angel justified in less neverthe adopting a metaphorical meaning we will. inferior sense. lay stress on the definite article prefixed to to the word &quot. in the English version. that we fiind nothing in the verse that can prevent the appli cation of the term literal sense . : Psalm xcvii. that the angel in a who redeemed Jacob was the same that appeared to him dream. on different assign occasions. . ye gods. writings. Sons of God. 21. in conformity to the spirit of the sacred . Worship him. and his pro that is they phets.&quot. because we have seen God.&quot. 22: an angel of the the Lord. his angels. we should not wonder if we find the term redeemer&quot. and Manoah said unto his wife. maintain the opinion that God is the only ture redeemer. and &quot. are redeemers in a secondary sense are the instruments in the hand of God in his works of redemption. angels. as a faithful and as angelical messenger an independent master and employer in his divine ! essence If it be alleged that the lerm angel is here only figuratively applied to Jesus. and that his Christ. Job i.

) as God in one instance. Editor supposes. prisoners. the Editor. Lord. He Hebrew x would however. that that angel was God the Son. where the. and even declares. shall Isaiah x. 16. did not often speak in behalf of God. r definite article in the u Though thou if common version) says to detain me. soon perceive his own error* f he should refer to Judges xiii 16. but his hand stretched out still.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that he the speak of himself. can Jesus. How. declaring himself unworthy of the worship due to God alone or if he should turn to 2 Samuel xxiv. without distinction of persons. 4 u 7 : abound in the Without me they and they is bow down under the slain. confine my notice to any angel speaking Jehovah. as well as sage as if and his the angels of God. iris shall fall under the For all is f/ns anger not turned . I will not eat of thy thou must bread offer . while in others he renounces his own deity. angel ( w ith the Manoah. (as the destroys the lives of thousands by superior being ? command of a Let us now examine whether or not the prophets. in behalf of the prophets for were I to point out Instances similar to the following Old Testament. the obedient messenger of God. in the delivery of his mes will. do without 73 total disregard to the idiom and use of the language. then.&quot. and thou wilt offer a burnt-offering. where the angel is represented as an it unto the . . Many other instances might be cited of a similar nature. I God himself had spoken. in this case. if he be the being termed the angel. ) and thereby might attempt to sub stantiate the identity of one angle with the other. O Assyrian . a destroying instrument in hands of Jehovah. might attempt to deduce from this very circum stance. away.

&c. verily. and to take the prey. to take the spoil. any weight trous conclusion. I : Now gather thyself in troops. 13: u Arise and thresh. and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. that to be ruler in Isreal. and will lay siege against thee with a mount. the Editor will not propose to inentify those prophets with the is Deity . though. so. in John viii. him a charge. yet out of the shall he come forth unto me. Beth-lehem with a rod upon the cheek.&quot. that &quot. and against the people of my wrath will I give nation. admit that his argument. me unto you. Judah. kill sacrifices I will distress : and ye year to year let Ariel. iii.&quot. I presume. to be precisely what Jehovah declares himself in Exodus Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel.. and there it and shall be unto me as Ariel. thou be little among the thousands of Ephratah. daughter of Zion. 58. ) 24: If ye supplied ye shall die in and ver. i 3: ! and cut off nations Woe to Ariel. Now. he hath they shall smite the judge of Israel But thou. I will camp against thee round about. and I will raise forts Micah iv.&quot. the city where David dwelt them yet shall be heaviness and sorrow . neither doth his heart think but it is not a few. O against thee.74 FINAL APPEAL - the rod of mine anger. Ch. declares himself asserts. and the staff in thei I will hand is my send him against an hypocritical indignation. in his heart to destroy u Ch. v. yet he must at all. Verily. Howbeit he meaneth not so .&quot. &quot. I say unto you. for laid siege against us I will make. &c. . if it has must force us to submit to that mons In the course of this argument the Reverend Editor Christ also. 14 : I am hath Aour sins sent I believe not that . : O daughter of troops . to Ariel. . xxix. am (he being i John viii.

26. or the being. assert. xxiv. the original Greek S\w &quot. which implies you can be described as only mere being or . of In &quot.before 75 possible that Abraham was. How is it the Editor.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. are psccisely the same. in one instance. In John of course supplied in &quot.&quot. 24. i wv&quot. 24. ( he or Christ. or the being who is being. as with a verb in the being third in lieu of the same term JTntf in the other. it must require which is.. 58. . the term PITT^.&quot. The Jews consequently evident from person. the word with &quot. equivalent to the enternal being. &quot. and fy M fiHi in agreement the names of God. a phrase in me Him who existence. H/-U&quot.&quot.&quot. John viii.Thus shalt thou say to the children of Isreal. I am.jTu. a diligent student of the Bible for thirty or forty years. ? but his zeal to that support the doctrine of the Holy have prevented him from examining Trinity In Exod. comparing John iv. lor &quot. found in the Septuagint. and with with Matt.&quot. the Greek Septuagint. I would then ask. rendered 6 wi.I the future tense of PPPT to be.&quot. &quot. &quot. (viii. &quot.the being. in John It is viii. o v &quot. &quot..? If so.1 a mode implies I i* &quot. &quot.&quot.I am. &quot. says.I the he.is &quot. found.&quot. &quot. f I say not very correctly. unto alone and which is translated in nott very correctly. in Exod.TUJtf TTHtf* the being who is being hath sent Hebrew.IttW PPn. and that of Jesus. 25. &quot. though ?i o I am the being. But in the Gospel of John am. a phrase precisely the same viii. count used term among as in the above-cited verse. God the phrases found in these two chapters.lam.&quot. PPPTK can &quot. Hebrew is translation So in ver. that is am and its shall be. because we find in the Septuagint. Is PITT 8 &quot.&quot.xPto-roe I am Christ. and is used &quot. can have made such a palpable mistake as to iii.&quot. 5. we find only ^H &quot.&quot. as is I 24) the words are.) and in without the addition of &quot. or &quot.jToi fti/t or kk I am&quot.OK.?7w &quot. ?tMi or I am.&quot. that the declaration of Jehovah. literally shall this be.

Job also the redeemer I is God . liveth. cludes that the Jews at once understood stones to stone .For know that my redeemer and quotes Job. equally beyond my comprehen sion with the mysterious doctrine of the Trinity. 26 I have many things to 27.76 of FINAL APPEAL it. 53 and 66. after my skin worms destroy this body. 25 26. xix. ception been the case in several other instances. &quot. and that he And stand at the latter day upon the earth. say and to judge of &quot.) the Editor con 1 &quot.&quot. but he that sent me world those things which is true I and I speak to the have heard of him they . destroy Then said the Jews Forty and six years was this temple in building and wilt thou rear it up in three days ? But this : viii.&quot.&quot. he spake of the temple of his body. yet in though shall . &quot.Jesus answered and said unto them: temple and in three days I will raise it up. they attempted in to stone him. But from the context of verse the 58th. which it is brought to support. Thus John ii. 58. before From the circumstance of Jesus having announced Abraham was I am (v. it appears clearly that the indignation of the Jews arose from the idea that Jesus declared himself not merely the cotemporary of Abraham. : understood not that he spake to them of the The Editor mentions (page 559) that testifies that Father. left It is not the only instance which Jesus of his the Jews to labour for under a miscon the same to have meaning. argument to prove &quot. &quot. John vi. you.&quot. but even gave out and that it was for this that before Abraham. he was . find : we 19. and 21. himself God and took up him him to declare : nor did a silence which Jesus hint that they had mistaken him the Editor thinks amounts to the tacit acknowledgment by Jesus of his deity.

&quot. And u : his feet will Mount xiv. 3.&quot. and ye perish from the is way. and at the last period of the world. Blessed are . when his wrath kindled but a little.&quot. which is stand in that day upon the before Jerusalam&quot. I am at a loss to know what &quot. The phrase.&quot. would we know whether by God. both at the last moment of their life. 14 That thou &quot. 25. . lest he be angry. I fully coincide with the all Editor in this declaration : not Job alone but the other writers is of the .Then shall the Lord go forth and fight those nations. which are also found in the above passage. as when he fought in the day of against xiv. 5 : And the Lord descend ed in the cloud. at the latter day. Exodus xxxiv. for they shall see God. v. &c. are often spoken of the Supreme Being.&quot.&quot. and u I shall see God. Zech. Job means some deity. inferior neither creature nor creator is . last. last verse.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. [Note. 77 my flesh shall I see God. art seen face to Matt. either creature or creator. as has been already noticed in page 37. Numb. &quot. expression in the passage in question has induced the Editor to refer to the other texts cited. 8 : Blessed are the pure in heart. of Olives. &quot.&quot. is incorrectly rendered in the English version as the translation of the Hebrew ^Tntf. ] The Editor refers his readers to Psalm ii. battle.&quot. Kiss the son. found in ver. 4: &quot. for there can be no doubt that the term redeemer frequently in the sacred writings applied in its strict sense to the Most u He shall stand at High God and that the phrases. face. without implying any necessity of understanding them as applicable to an inferior deity.&quot. and stood with him there. sacred books testify that the true redeemer God and they all expected him to cast his mercy upon them.

Kiss for their safety. Beware now. relating to the to another than David. lest he be angry. out of sight. I will make corresponding him ( David ) my first-born. &quot.&quot. So we find in i Chron. &c. and the despite of God at their vain boast. 27. and I God afforded : . and rejoice with trembling. in verses 8. that &quot. this day ha\e I begotten nothing except the violent force of early-acquired prejudice can lead any one to the direct application of the term (found earth. 9. xiv. and that he would break the heathens and dash them to pieces. He then mentions. son. Ask of me. again in verse same his subject ) the same Psalm. how u him consolation I will declare the decree The Lord hath said unto me. 7. be instructed. Thou shalt break them with a rod oj iron . Here Jehovah. I must again say. that he would have the heathen for possession. verses 10 : O ! . David lastly men what God recommended those heathen kings to du 12 &quot. I therefore deem preceding verses here. shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance. that the public may judge whether the verse referred to by the Editor be directly applicable to Jesus or to David. God again assures 12 of David.78 FINAL APPEAL leaving the context carefully is proper to cite the they who trust in him. in against verses I 3.My calls David. in verses : 7 9. higher than the kings of the &quot. ye judges of the earth Serve ye kings the Lord with fear. David thus of relates the circum stance of the heathen kings dispostion God and against his anointed David himself. and the utmost parts of the earth for thy possession. the son. thou shalt dash them tions in pieces like a potter s vessel. Also. therefore. in verse thee^ with Psalm Ixxxix.&quot.son&quot. them art my son THIS DAY HAVE I BEGOTTEN THEE. . hostile the in verses 4 6.

Then David put garrisons in Syria-damascus. xviii. And when the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadarezer.David therefore did as God commanded him : and they smote the host of the Philistines from Gibeon even to Gazer. went to establish his dominion by the Euphrates. And that ch. but received of them hundred chariots. wherewith Solomon and the vessels of &quot. king of Zobah. David and David h card of 16. kk 7Q When the Philistines heard that all David was* anointed king over Ver. became David s servants. and from Chun. 3: And David took the it crown of their king from off his head.against his anointed. and the Syrians became David s servants. &quot. 2. unto Hamath. 17 : the Philistines went up to seek it. And also ch. And David as smote Hadarezer. Likewise from Tibhath. and subdued them. David slew of the Syrians two-and-twenty thousand men. and seven : thousand horsemen. and brought them to Jerusalem.&quot. all Israel. king of Zobah. and found to * Vide Psalm ii. And the fame of David went out into all lands . . brass. Now after this it came David smote the Philistines. And he smote Moab and the Moabites . And David took the shields of gold that were on the servants of Hadarezer. piLars. cities of Hadarezer r brought David very much made the brazen sea. xx. he And David took from him a thousand chariots. and brought gifts. Thus the an Lord preserved David whithersoever he went. and twenty thousand footmen David also houghed all the chariot horses. and went out against them/ &quot. and brought gifts. and the brass.&quot. I 8 :&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and the Lord brought the fear of him upon all - nations to pass. 2. and took Gath and her towns out of the hand of the Philistines.

and . fear of &quot. him&quot. office David the by God. .&quot. &quot.&quot. (David) upon all nations&quot.&quot. found in 9 of David &quot. in pieces. Thus the Lord preserved David whithersoever he went. son. agree with the circumstances &quot. .David the above Psalm correspond with i Chron. and cut them with saws. who. as God himself. admit of better application to David.&quot. Even so dealt David with all the cities of the children of Amman. . and with harrows of iron called his Are not these directly suitable to the history of conqueror. rather than to the ? and nature of the meek and lowly Jesus. smote Hadarezer . (the ? ) with saws..&quot. he smote Moab smote the Philistines . And David Do not the people returned to Jerusalem.&quot. &quot.&quot. Thou shalt dash them &quot. Ask I give thee the heathen for an inheritance. brought the &quot. and with harrows of iron. . &quot.80 FINAL APPEAL weigh a talent of gold and there were precious stones in it and it was set upon David s head and he brought also . David slew of &quot. And he brought out the people that were in it.. : exceeding much spoil out of the city. two and twenty thousand men of their king from off his head citizens &quot. lest he be angry. such denunciations as Thou shalt break them with a and &quot. was himself the victim of the rage of unbelievers ? Even upon the Trinitarian system. whose glory depended from time to time upon his supplications to God. was possessed of infinite power and glory from eternity. according to the Edtior. &quot. u iron. and needed not to ask of another ? Does not such address to the heathen kings as Kiss the son. &c. the Syrians David took the crown cut them&quot. as. xx. than to Jesus. rod of ver. do shall not such sentences &quot.&quot. &quot. and with axes. all &quot.&quot. who though most exalted among the sons of God. corres The Lord ponding with the passages in Chronicles.

I thank thee that hearest thou hast heard always&quot. 8 1 mentioned in i Chron. Even so dealt David .&quot. : The Moabites became u David s servants. &quot. and with and with axes.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. As to assertion. when the conduct of his servant. xviii. who trust in him. in which Elisha is said. that consequently the asser the destruction to spiritual . and brought gifts.&quot. : u lifted up his eyes and . knew that thou me From the words. aM the cities of the children of Ammon &quot. tion of the Editor. be fairly concluded authority and acts of Jesus himself. and brought gifts out the Syrians be &quot. I Father. according as they were disposed applied always to God for power. in performing miracles. 21. came David s servants. of God. from the It may. harrows of \vith he brought and cut them with saws. from the wrath of a mere subject in has no applicability to the his &quot. 42 &quot. either of punishment or reward. without pronouncing and also on him verbally any curse in the name of God displeased at . enemies is no where in scripture described as arising creature. with a rod of were his political enemies &quot. me and &quot. omitted to express such applications verbally. and pronounced I only refer the Reverend on them a curse in his name. xx &quot. Editor to 2 Kings v. have the power of keeping away pardon from men. question.And Jesus (in raising Lazarus from the dead) 41. Prophets denounced on men the wrath of God. however.? The opponents whom David broke iron. to have mira culously punished him with leprosy. said. that both the angel and the prophets of God. xxiii.&quot. though they sometimes. 26. &quot.&quot.and the people iron. to Exod. 27. John xi.&quot. &quot. found in the 6 . wherein he will find that the angels if provoked.

&quot. it. and compares it with All things were made by him.] things were made by him and without him was not any thing made that was made.&quot. xvii. to come to pass also. 36. shall have no need of spoil. and maketh flesh heart departeth from Jehovah. and they Jehovah for he hath founded it upon the sea. though it is often used with reference to God. 7 xix. where .&quot. xvii. that &quot. Thus saith Jehovah. to be. Were In creating power. this is a sense which the word tJtvtro W1 U n t admit. .All almost im- were done by him. quoted by people shall trust in hi&amp. the Editor attempts to prove the deity of the Son on the supposition that the phrase to trust &quot. parison is. 2 &quot. independently of God. it. Christ is equal towe to overlook the mistranslation of it is this verse* in the English version. I. as the agent and instrument of God. so thai :&quot. he &quot. is exclusively applicable to God. (which * All things &quot. See his notes on verses 3 and IO.The earth : and the fulness thereof. the world. fifty It signifies in this gospel. to become. to come. Editor. It has the latter sense . yet is applied sometimes to created beings. as man. forgetting that this term.lt. that who &quot.&quot.t occurs three times. to be done or transacted. The Editor quotes Psalm xxiv. Newcome it of the creation of the visible material world who explains by Christ. Chapter xv. and corroborates his opinion by Jer. xxxi. the &quot.) John i. (the Word. and the poor of As to Jer. appears from the last sentence of the is in whose heart departeth from Jehovah&quot. but : never in the sense of create. 3. Isaiah xiv.&quot. Prov. 5.same verse. . Cursed be he that his arm. trusts should be cursed. But rtvoMai occurs upwards of seven hundred times in the New Testament. trusteth in man. and without him was not any thing made which was The inference which he draws from this com made.&quot. 5. 32 : The Lord hath founded Zion. and established u it upon the floods.82 FINAL APPEAL second Psalm.&quot. n The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her. . he and whose implies of course. Jehovah. in&quot. that dwell therein s .

perhaps. ) and each of them must depend upon the others in creation. &quot. decision. as well as of the Holy Ghost. or an instrument i. 85 it as possible not to notice. . 1 6 John xvii. Here all the worlds are repre sented as made by Jesus as an instrument in the hands of God. . the Editor ma} . i. this case naturally inclined to ascertain whether Jesus efficient or was an either since the preposition a an instrumental cause of those things u found in the verse. Could not is retract his assertion. (whom the Editor here omits to notice.&quot. that &quot. ) . deciding the question beyond a doubt hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son. and according dispensation were done by Christ to his direction and in the ministry committed to his apostles.) and to understand the passage stands in the orthodox translation. to create this whom the Editor ascribes omnipotence. version. or any nation professing . we should esteem Jesus But we should be in as the cause of all created things. and be of opinion that the world was made by the will of one being. i. . IO. 8 ? Col. . Compare vers. the world being. &quot. like joint managers of a Can the Editor point out any set of men. See John xv. Jehovah. 18 vi. agent of an action. a grosser polytheism than All things in the Christian Matt. principal therein. v. world independently of another omnipotent If not. signifies by. . It is hoped that after reflecting upon this by the author of these epistles. 1 6. concern. 6. by whom made the worlds P^ph. in creating equal to Jehovah. . We ) find Heb.&quot. e.&quot. ibid. Christ power. iii. .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. ( Improved Version. 4. 5: &quot. equal to him in creating power must be. 42 xxvi. 7. 17 Cappe. by his authority. the joint production of Jehovah and &quot. 9 : &quot.Without me ye can do nothing.Who (God) created things by Jesus Christ. nothing has been done without his warrant.&quot. 8 xxi. 2.? Christ. (God he all whom also he linth appointed heir of - all things. in this case. (as it stands in the English &quot.

&quot. speak same absolute dominion over the earth is here ascribed to the Son as to the Father Jehovah. the Son. without the most distant allusion to Jesus I am. Paul reference. saying. the ( xxiv. of i common 26. referring to Psalm xxiv. ( to men for Locke. hath appointed heir oj all things &quot.84 this ? FINAL APPEAL The his notion only difference that he can shew between and that of avowed polytheists. whether it had been For the earth and all therein to any idol or no. s viii.&quot. . and the John iii. 35. and hath given all things into his hand.The Father loveth the Son. 2. &quot. that eat For the earth is the Lord &quot. subject to the sound distinction which will must now leave the judgment of my reader. i. refer him to Hebrews i. x. and of the above paraphrase. that in I Cor. is if . ) If the Editor still insists. at a loss to discover : the ground upon which the Editor founded his foregoing For further illustration I quote the para conclusion. &quot. given by him their use. as his reason for such justification. of Corinthians phrase by a most eminent personage on the above verses Eat whatever is sold in the shambles. If this Psalm i of Jehovah the Father. sense. should take upon myself to whom he ( God) (the Son) &quot. in defiance of St. St. The Editor further to Christ. : offered without any inquiry or scruple. Vol.Whatsoever is : sold in the shambles. 25. x. are the good crertures of the true God. s and the fulness thereof. 26.&quot. Paul alludes to Jesus. he is there termed St. Paul here justifies the eating of whatever sold in the shambles. ) then. Paul adds ( proceeds. He then concludes.&quot. These I hope will convince him that all 1 1 . With reference i Cor. therefore. must consist the increase or decrease of the sup a I only in respect of posed number of Creators amount to nothing intrinsic.) &quot.

&quot.&quot. repeat I will verbatim the Editor s quotation . who enjoined the apostles to observe to jealousy the Lord s Supper. according to the Editor s interpretation^ be supposed to have. Paul means Jesus by the term Lord. 10 Majesty. 22 &quot. : . the to jealousy Are we stronger than he the Lord ? whence of being the worship of idols equally with God. for the children and thrown down of &c. x. The apostle may. and the cup of devils. as appears from the Ye cannot drink the preceding verse to them imme cup of the Lord. : Do we provoke &quot. ? offered without his find himself with God I that . (a position and by the pronoun which is unsupported by proof. of which their Master required diately partake.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. would be provoked to followers partaking both fice of his table. in heaven and on derived from the gift of the Father of the universe. Ye cannot be partakers Is it not of the Lord s table. provoked by Granting that St. natural that Jesus. by his and of the sacri thereby equalizing the prophets of God are declared in more pointed terms to have been jealous but no one has ever of the dishonor manifested to God idols.&quot. 85 earth. u the passage elevating Jesus to equality with his Father.&quot.&quot. and of the table of devils. are the power and possession of the Son. capable &quot. i Cor. I have been i Kings xix. very jealous for the Lord God of hosts of Israel have forsaken thy covenant. thy altars. The Lord he infers Editor quotes ? &quot. that then is in verse the 22nd. instead of those of Christ. ) we still find nothing in he. felt disposed to ascribe to them equality with his Divine u And he said. by partaking of the cup and table of devils.prohibited Christians from provok ing Christ to jealousy.

iv. and Eph. after he had descended first into the middle of the grave.&quot. synonimous to captivity mighty in battle&quot. the terms glory. and so on which cannot be ascribed to God. u Jesus elsewhere mighty in battle. 8.00 FINAL APPEAL xxiv. is violently He says (page 561) that in verse one about to enter the king of glory who is called Jehovah. in the whole Chapter iv. of king of glory. ascends. which is the son or as Here also implies battle and victory.&quot. mighty above Psalm. * This term &quot. nor are there. Ephesians. or &quot. perceive prejudice can operate upon the how human mind. Psalm that my &quot. is captive&quot. In Ephes. nor eqivalent in application.&quot.&quot. reader may 8th . such phrases as u or ascend on high&quot. himself. as is evi : dent from the immediately following verse u Now that he ascended. 8. 8. and his inference of the Deity of Jesus from the comparison of the one with the other. Verse the into the lower &quot.&quot. Eph. . &quot. iv. as found in captivity captive &quot. having led captivity heaven as captive. a descent 8th of iv. iv. in battle. or even Lord of &quot. For one may be mighty in battle without leading captives ?o one may lead captive by miraculous or artful means without being mighty in battle.* either described as equal in might to Jehovah. but that he also descended first paits oj the earth. to lead not : . Jehovah There are not in verse eighth nor in the whole Psalm xxiv. styled the Lord of glory. as we find The Psalm commences by stated in the a declaration of God s sovereignty over the earth proceeds to state the virtues that must belong to those who seek his pre sence and desire to his blessing and concludes with an exhortation Jerusalem to receive him as the king of glory verse of the Epistle the Lord of Hosts. who ascended on high to give divine gifts to men. &quot. But the subject of the above to the Ephesians is Jesus. what is it.

Paul s argumentation. that the Lord God might dwell among them. Mr. 10 St. who were declared enemies to the thoughts of a Messiah that died. unless they were circumcised. an obvious reference to Psalm is 18. to enervate that objection that he must die by the passage out of the Psalms v. a which acknowleged even by Mr. inconsistent for with his object. In further explanation I repeat the note of Mr. nor receive any advantage him. that were converted to the Gospel. proves St. and be buried. 8.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. though both contain almost the same words that he dwells upon perhaps in consideration of the latter phrases of the Psalm being . Thou hast received gifts men that which clearly Lord God mijht dwell among them&quot. for the rebellious &quot.&quot. of theirs. in the three chapters. and many other Trinitarian hast ascended on high. several of them. thou hast led captivity captive. Note on verses 9. to free this perplexity. that they admitted to be the people of God under the kidgdom of the Messiah. could not be on another ground. or at least professed to be so. Besides the unbelieving Jews. and put themselves. Paul. page 477. Locke on verses 9 and of Ephesians in his para n 4i phrase of this Epistle. the &quot. Brown and writers Thou : . He had said a first great deal. The converted gentiles were attacked by the unconverted Jews. by wholly under the Jewish constitution. Ephes. in these two verses is skil fully : adapted to the main design of his Epistle. also. fact is 87 Ixviii. persuading them. shows the subordination of the son to his heavenly father. But the Editor omits here to compare the passage in Ephes* with the last mentioned Psalm. thou hast received gifts for men yea. attacked the gentile con verts. Jones. but yet takes occasion here to offer them from them .

was exalted to the right hand of God. &quot.&quot. is either Johovah In the &quot. in descending into detail. thou preservest man and beast.55 a FINAL APPEAL telling new argument. he does not say.&quot.O 17. and with things by the word of his &quot. might receive immediately from him. the apostle could have meant only the &quot.the church. that by the term all things. in the highest state of dignity and power. . 3.&quot. i. he himself being filled with the fulnsss of God.&quot. &c. The creation of natural objects. viz. Jesus is declared find. a fulness of gifts and graces. that Christ is called the first-born of the whole creation. the Editor thus concludes. . but things in heaven and things on earth 2dly.That for 1st. for we things concerning the Christain dispensation in the verse immediately following. that. because he is the first who was raised from the dead to an immortal life 4thly. &quot. then. he may perceive from the context. By him (by Jesus) all Hebrews i. things all consist. . viz. which of O course bears no comparison with the above Psalm. &quot. and sea. upon no other terms but barelly as they were his members. to be &quot. are enumerated * the apostle does not here intend the creation of natural &quot. the head of the body. In the second place. thou preservest man and beast. is evident created heaven and earth.&quot. . He does not. which are only ranks and orders of beings in the rational and moral world 3dly. in preserving place. from comparing ver. first some ancient manuscripts.* &quot. 6.&quot. instead of by him all things consist. and was laid in his grave. . by them. thrones. Jehovah. the same Jesus that died. that Christ. with Col.&quot. and in the as preceding things&quot.&quot. the heaven. above all the heavens. that by him were substances. the earth. It is plain. but merely states of things. After having compared Psalm xxxvi. or Jehovah himself. believers. there is the phrase all things are united in him. power. dominions. who were all his members.&quot. 18. Jehovah. If and ver. celestial and terrestrial substances. the verse. equal to The in Son. specify things themselves. their head. .. He upholds &quot. power. &quot.&quot.

24. i. when they are plainly and unequivocally men uniformly and invariably ascribed to the Father. him (the Son) power over all can of mine ownself do nothing&quot. to the term ra Travra found in 3. or the new creation. the Edi. mode of interpretation. me in heaven the word of power. u.&quot. as I Heb. according to the Jewish demonology. Matt. orders 89 and ranks and not natural substances. Col.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. the affairs of states and individuals were superintended and governed. his But if the Editor agaii? insists upon meaning all natural objects The by that term. who was the great prophet and messenger of the new covenant. page 477. iii. J . 30 u : I &quot. which the apostle here ascribes to Christ. See Eph. iv. we cannot help yield ing conviction to the repeated avowal of Jesus. Improved Version. and word which ye hear is not mine but the Father &quot. all things. All power is given unto and on earth. u 18. mani festing that the support of all and the moral world. Hence. must be convinced that by which Jesus upholds or rules all things. both in the Old Testament and the New. u : Thou Ch. admit interpretation of the Editor. This is often called creation. by whom. v. iii. belonging to the Father. hast given v. 9. that all in the religious things. it signifies also. in fact. as s&quot. Linclsey s Sequel. u &c. he. 10 2 cor.ind all tilings therein. and \Vctsteiu in loc. &quot. 10 15. This great change the apostle here describes under the symbol of a revolution. ting even the natural substances consist by Jesus. expresses that great change which was introduced into the moral world and particularly into the relative situation of Jews and Gentiles. observed before. just quoted by the Editor.&quot. all the things belonging to the Christian dispensation. 17. is. ii. by the dispensation of the gospel. without power new Jesus. that the creation. which he 2 is totally unable to support them. 24. it follows. See Mr. xxviii. In his attempt to prove the deity of Jesus. In the third place. flesh. and is usually ascribed to tioned. is . by referring to John xiv. introduced by Christ amongst certain ranks and orders of beings. borrowed from the oriental philosophy. or the things of the is entirely dispensation by owing to the vested in him by the Father of all things. John xvii. Jesus Christ. As i.

not only for the Creator. if I found myself compelled to make perversions of scriptural passages. wickedness.God. that to the peculiar O forever and My Jehovah. as is quoted in Heb. of gladness it above thy fellows (Page 138.&quot. O God. to support the doctrines that It is persuaded to profess. ever. a term which is in the Scriptures. and adopt a regular mode of argumentation. and &quot. and to set aside the suggestions of common sense. verse. name apply to Jesus the term of God. words lovest Thou oil righteousness thy and hatest therefore. may observe. I am therefore. Jehovah. also the original Epistle to Hebrews. Thy throne. neglects entirely the Psalm in Hebrew l^nStf. hath anointed thee with the ?&quot. the Editor perverts &quot. can thus proceed be laid in defence of the deity of the Son. 6. original He. any stress On what principle. O God.&quot. in : . now beg this to ask the Editor to me know I his authority for unaccount able change. that the Editor quotes the I may have been above passage of Psalm xlv.) &quot. 6. After stating I that Moses was &quot. induced to repeat them. The throne of let thee. should for sorry and ashamed of my own parts. also called God in the Scriptures. at the same time.&quot. but for other superior existences. FINAL APPEAL Psalm xlv.&quot. 8. O God.But deserves . again worth observing. the verse in question by placing the word Jehovah instead of &quot.9O tor repeats (page 561) &quot.. I in Greek 6*05. is for ever and ever k especially when we his find. i. in the that declare very next subordinate nature. reader ^ Thy throne. u Thy throne. then. omitting entirely to notice my remarks on it in the Second Appeal.&quot. monly used. God. com &quot. the prophetic expression quoted in Hebrews from Psalm xlv. God. be indeed very my opinions. in the hope that he may reply to them.

no scripturalist ever hesitated to God to him. he king greatly desire thy beauty for and worship thou him. in the 7. directly to Solomon. 25 27.&quot. as is evident from the context My heart is inditing a good matter I &quot. : upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir. described in verse as a God thy God. O God. and consider. &quot. ) having superior appointed to the office of Messiah. whom thou mayest make : : house is so shall the princes in &quot. all the earth. Thou than the children of men grace is poured into therefore God hath blessed thee for ever. exalt him to a participation in the divine nature. hath oil of gladness above thy fellows. ) In the third place. &quot. Thy : throne. Psalm cii. is is for ever and ever : the sceptre of thy kingdom a right sceptre. referred to author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. in this instance. . and incline thine ear forget also thine own people. If the application of the word God in an accommodated sense. is.&quot. and hatest wickedness anointed thee with the thy God. O daughter. (i. Hearken. ( very same sense. : : speak of the things which I have made touching the king : my : art fairer thy lips tongue is the pen of a ready writer. particularly to 9! Messiah. and thy father s . 1012. Kings daughters were among the honourable women therefore God.) &quot. in defence of the deity of Jesus. God to Solomon. The Editor afterwards quotes. entitle Jesus to deity how much more properly should be direct application of the same word. Editor. Instead of thy thy Lord. by the Thou. : Thou lovest righteousness. (Page 243. and by whom he was apply Psalm xlv. according to the &quot. in be noticed. fathers shall be thy children.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. after his marriage with the daughter of Pharoah. that the whatever sense he is declared God.

bat thou remainest and they all shall and as a vesture shalt thou wax old as doth a garment fold them up. on the the and. 9. the begin u As a &c. that the author of the Epistle to the Heb rews invokes his Divine Majesty by quoting Psalm cii. (13. To acertain which of these us his as two interpretations the apostle had in view. . these two opposite qualities can by no means be ascribed to verae.&quot. are. on my which of the angels said he at right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool that if such expressions ning hast laid the ?&quot. and thy years shall not : : : fail.To Son over angels. shew the continual duration name of as anointing the preceding verse. as flowing from the unchangeable and preserving power of the bestower of that honour. earth. Sit any time. as supposed by the Editor the other is. and they shall be changed but thou art The construc the same. 12. asks. . character mentioned in verses 10 12. the apostle. Again in the following. introduced Son above his fellows of the honour bes towed on the Son.&quot.92 FINAL APPEAL Lord. account of (9) is stated preceding quite inconsistent with immutable therefore. 25 27. Lord. to prove the superiority of the &quot.) be same being. dictates.&quot. let now refer to the context. in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth. in foundation of the . in the the to God. after he has. One s verse exaltation his above merit. Here common sense &quot. thou fold them up and Thou art the and thy years shall not had been meant by same.&quot. : : addressed to the Son by God. &quot. and the heavens are the works of thy hand. They shall perish. vesture shalt fail. tion here verses admits of two interpretations one is that 10 in continuation of verses 8. fellows in by another. as Thou.

Lord &quot. sense. 93 the apostle as applicable to Jesus.&quot. He (Jehovah) kept him 1 as the apple of his eye&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot. Psalm xlvii.&quot. and actually admit his superiorty to the Father of the universe. he would not. 10. and to consider the passage. (Jehovah) and the nations under our &quot. of Matt. : ?&quot. Either. as a part of pretation. describing the superior courage and the strength of a man who is reported to have overpowered a lion. xxxii. Lord. according to the Editor.&quot. the term My Lord. 6 &quot. indeed. there- .Lord. would after stating the former adduce the latter as an additional proof of courage and strength. 10 ture. on the ground that no father could consistently call his son &quot. endued with common fact. Thou. &quot. i. xxii. much less could he apply to his son Were we to admit the first inter in the beginning. and also a dog. that Jesus is the Son of God. xxii. addresses him as &quot. Isaiah xlix. : Behold. to the we must. have added the words. 45. in set ting forth the dignity of the Son. the people under us. and which. &quot. 3 In feet. the address of Jehovah to Jesus. &quot. I have graven thee upon : the mv hands&quot. as it is evident that to kill a dog is a feat by no means of so wonderful a nature as that overcoming a lion. 41 Sit on my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool . &c. who. may : &quot. upheld by the Editor.He shall palms of subdue no one. in conformity argument used by Jesus himself.in Heb. which imply a much inferior nature to that attributed in the preceding passage. applied to mere human beings.. in Matt. relinquish the commonly-received doctrine. be parallelled by other expressions found in Scrip Deut. My reader may recollect If David then call him (the Messiah) 45 how is he his son which tells us that Jesus dis Lord. proves the assertion of the Messiah being the son of David.

24. Thou. the FINAL APPEAL Editor must abandon the opinion that God the as Lord. of u Editor again uses the word Jehovah in verse io Thou. &quot. &c. that the term for ever. 25. I shall. as well as the Hebrew and Greek originals. in the passage referred as the &quot. without assigning any reason for his deviating from the English For version. or a begotten son. Lord. Chirst.&quot. the term x. and. and ceases. and in the foregoing chapter of this work. the Editor says.Jehovah&quot. feel obliged to the Reverend he can point out to me any authority for his substitution of the in question.&quot. Heb. in the begginning. in the Greek passage. or he must cease to consider him Son of God. Jehovah mentioned in Psalm cii. Father addresses Jessus to. for ever and ever his mediatorial I throne remains for a season. i. however. in pages 139 and 234 of the Second Appeal. 10. My reader. when used for a creature. signify. (page 562) as His original throne . Lord. The and instead reads.94 fore. r Thou. by referring to those instances. word &quot. consequently. &c. So in the English in version the verse stands thus. &quot. long duration of time.&quot.&quot. in the verse With found in i a view to weaken the strength of the evidence Cor. if Editor. as to the changeable nature of &quot.&quot. 25. will be convinced that neither to whom Psalm cii. for Lord. is directly applied. therefore.i/Pc? cannot be supposed to be intended as translation of the word Jehovah. have already noticed. in the beginning. Psalm.. nor Jesus. Jehovah. ning. Jehovah God is . or similar terms. to in the above .. in scriptural idiom. xv. whom the apostle applies the said verse Solomon. which is a quotation of the same verse of the in the original Hebrew there is no &quot. the begin &c.

as the Son. besides. even the Father when he shall have laid down all rule and shall . that Jesus will in the end detivcr up his kingdom to God the Father. and the Holy Ghost . has a kingdom and throne.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 24. human. 25 Then cometh the have delivered up the kingdom to God. will be subject to all Him who has exalted him above No one. that a being can lose his kingdom in any capacity what soever. that God may be all in all. a question which i St. xv. Psalm. God in alone may be all in all.&quot. and that kingdom can he deliver up in the end of the world. and yet be unchangeable. end. Here the apostle declares. when he authority and power. all For he must reign (Verse 28 :) till he hath put al) enemies under his feet/ u And when things shall be subdued unto him. as the king of the anointed with the oil of gladness above his kingdom . that fellows. or divine. creatures. unbiassed by early pre can ever venture to pronounce such an opinion a. can in On a the con mediatorial capacity exercise a our faith. . Is there in this- or authority for neither any other part of the Scriptures. judice... can be supposed to be a throne or kingdom that never will cease . Besides the above verse (28) asserts. up to the Father ? he nor any one. any saying that the Son s mediatorial throne alone shall be delivered trary. but Jesus. he. that passage. then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him. that God only may be all in all. and not to God composed (as the Editor maintains) of the Father. the Son. in 9^ endued with an accommodated sense. unlimited to any particular capacity. in Cor. whether mediatorial. Paul decides in the most plain and u : positive terms. shall be subject to the Father. the highest title that Jesus is honoured with.-. and that the Son himself.

? With even respect to the referring to Jesus Christ. from the circumstance of the term shepherd Jesus. u. Jehovah. and Moses. Reverend Editor. will give glory ?&quot.I set up shepherds over them. and ff Abraham ?&quot. or identified with. in to being applied to God. i. The other is. my servant David. having been a chiel and although Jesus is styled of Christ s fold &quot. who. the under shepherds a crown o But was our author ignorant &quot. I observed in &quot.) &quot.) But did he (the strange questions. Ezek. xxxiv. &quot. nor does prove his unity with the Most High God. they his shepherdship over his flock to divine commission. and for the leaders of Israel. . in Psalm xxiii. Moses. 23.&quot. when he author) &quot. 16.96 FINAL APPEAL As some orthodox the deity t divines had attempted to prove of Jesus &quot. 4. and the Messiah his servant. that David was also one of Chirt s fold. that the same term u shepherd is used u With the shepherd of his for Moses. wils flock. and Abraham.) yet that none of those persons is The supposed to have been united with God. Second Appeal). In answer to which. &quot. his it employer shepherd. 249 of the &quot.&quot. xxiii. : yet such avowal of his superiority above other messengers of the Deity neither places him on a level with shepherd. and must relinquish the idea of unity between God the employer.) that even in this case. shall appear. (in Isaiah Lxiii. (p. must still attribute 249. argument founded on I will set one . Can a chief among the generals of a king be ever supposed equal to. (Jer. and John x. the king. although he acknowledge] the accuracy of my above assertion. never read of a chief shepherd. yet tries to draw from it an argument against me by means of one or two One is. I pointed out (p.&quot. my Second Appeal.&quot. I must confess that am ignorant of David. (page 562.

&c.. it now George the Fourth. u he had adduced many other passages in which that 7 . my scnwit David&quot. the unity of the Messiah with God by means of the take amiss if will set one shepherd over them. like must be confessed that definition or in we have something a clear Trinity. between George the Third and his to lead his armies. the Editor says.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. even above passage. between God and God. existence. inclination. In the course of this argument. 97 to which the Editor makes reply. that a is.. can at most but prove unity be &quot. fowl. must cause plurality in the Godhead. just as much as we do between Cyaxares and Cyrus. but which is entirely inconsistent with that of coevality and implies. In this passage. as the difference of between them .I tween the Messiah and God s servant David. between man and man. of the man. and is distinct existence a con ception w hich r certainly compatible with an idea of unity of nature between the Father and the Son.&quot. so c. so far from establishing observing. fish &c. though of a separate will. the difference of existence. Can there be any polytheistical creed more clear and more gross than it this ? Yet the Editor will charged with Polytheism. exposition of the nature of the . u We must relinquish a unity of nature between the Divine Father and the Messiah whom he sent. It is worth that the orthodox. which the Editor professes his belief he conceives the God-head to constitute angel. that.. just as and passion. genus like being the man George the Third is of the same nature with the man George the Fourth. between son. employed Vespasian and Titus. is the origin of the plurality of mankind. God the Son same nature with God the Father.

( page 256. find hitherto only two places in &quot. and now he gives out ! his own perversion of those texts as authority Mr. and only refers to the context.&quot. &quot. latter instance. 1 8. I wonder at this assertion. (Page 564. ) an address to God in the third person. Thy thorone.commences with Psalm. yea.. 1 O God !&quot. and received gifts from a being of course superior to himself. in order that he might dwell among men. therefore. : The according to this mode of reasoning. Second Appeal.And to Jesus. thou hast led gifts of captivity captive 1 thou hast received men . Jones having attempted to deduce the deity of Jesus by a comparison of Ephes.} view of the whole verse. the sense must. be as follows who ascended on high. The Editor entirely omits to notice the foregoing observation. &quot. an interpretation..98 FINAL APPEAL is the Son I called Jehovah. Lord. The Editor &quot. thou.Thou : hast ascended on high. the one persons be not addressed from the beginning. as implying that the Lord God ascended. and who received gifts for person men. . which he applies the word Jehovah &quot. is the Lord God. iv. &c. he observes. for the rebellious also. it is certain that he who as8th verse. that. takes &quot. with Psalm Ixviii.&quot. At verse 7th he is addressed in the second person the second person is: retained 1 till verse nth. is equally absurd and imscriptural. ( Ixviii. and If is resumed again in this. which.God upon himself &quot.in to use the the former.&quot. as before noticed. in the beginning &c. from a Lord God might dwell I observed.) u The &quot. inferring thence that different persons of the Godhead are addressed in the course of the Psalm. that the Lord God might dwell among them. term Jehovah instead of in the and instead of Lord &quot. 18. that the among them.

ch. against astray. perhaps. and of a Jewish prayer. I shall quote the translation of some lines of the Ooran. whom Can thou art incensed. Praise be to God the Lont Alqoran. a diligent student of the Bible for thirty or forty years. 99 cended on high. though in defiance both of the idiom of the Hebrew and of common sence. is God. indentified by Paul as Christ. &c. 3 5. .&quot. assistance. from being supposed to convey notions of the omnipresence and pervading influence of the Deity ? To prove this assertion. as well as in almost considered a rhetorical trope in all the Asiatic languages. and where it cannot be imagined that differ ent persons of the Godhead are meant to be therein addressed. who went forth before the people through the wilder ness. in the way beg of those to whom thou hast been gracious not of those of judgment. of all creatures. by Sale. addressed both in the second and third but as the Editor might. the third person and also the second are constantly used in immediate seque nce.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. should not know that. : Thee do we worship. and of thee do we Direct us in the right way. and that this variation is Hebrew and Arabic. and is in a single ch. in which the same variety of persons is used. that in all these instances David in spirit meant the first and the second persons of the Godhead by the variety of persons. 3. even from the single book of Psalms. not of those who go Mohummud alluded in spirit to the first or has he not rather used those phrases according to the here be supposed to have and second persons of God. I. in which God .&quot. How is it possible that the Editor. I could quote a great many instances. the most merciful. the King of the day &quot. such as Psalm iii. . in addressing God. 2 Samuel xxii. 49. allege in persons those cases.

* Justins. if he say truth. as in the clays of her used.Set not up. through his holiness. A &quot.* Sabbath morning service. Justins. book of prayers. thy servants. and glory. and the generations of the seed of Israel. Alqoran. thousand similar instances might be adduced. all whom God hath formed. Barnet. and Joseph. translated by Messrs. are living. even unto all ages . In the Quoran. which we have sent down unto our servant. honour. both the first and the last. &quot. and printed in London by E. ii. Therefore. causeth his people Israel inherit rest on the holy Sabbath. O Lord our God shall be sanctified. shall glorify and &quot. .&quot. written bless him they shall ascribe praise. God. His words aslo ! &quot. and call upon your witnesses besides ledge. Solomon Hirschell. we find in the Jewish Scriptures. 15 17 : . Hosea &quot. 5 &quot. saith the &quot. and the valley of Achor for a door of hope and she shall sing there. permanent. Moreover. ii.IOO FINAL APPEAL practice of the language ? common The following lines are from # Jewish in Hebrew. our children. it is further remarkable that the is adopted whe n God is represent ed as speaking of himself. unto God against your own know therefore. produce a chapter like unto it. . 1803. that in speaking of a third party both the second and the third personal pronouns are sometimes And I will give her her vine yards from thence. as well those which he hath spoken con cerning our ancestors. youth. and translated into English. our generations. Compiled by the Rev. faithful. Thy name. and desirable for ever. any equals same change of person : If ye be in doubt concerning that revelation. as those concerning us. unto the King who hath formed all things and who. Morning service. And it shall be at that day. and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt. .

and they shall no Ver. . 19 more be remembered by their name. was written on the specific which was done according to the instructions delivered to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. in verse i8th. In of 17. Lord.&quot.&quot. leap ye. leading 15 them towards the promised thus mentioned . as the hill of Bashan. in the preceding verses of the Psalm. an high hill. I will. For I will take away the names of Baalim out of her mouth. and shalt caU me no more Baali. the Lord will dwell in chariots of God are twenty thousand. couched in both the second and third persons. ye high hills ? This is the hill which God Bashan desireth to dwell in The yea. : it for even thousands of angels yn the holy place. nothing can appear more strange than an attempt to deduce the deity of Jesus from an address by David to the omnipresent God. the argument of the I Editor ought to carry with and whether adduced only a &quot.&quot. the Lord is among them. after In verse 18. men- . that thou shalt call IOI me Ishi . the wonderful cies of mer verses God in delivering Israel from the Egyptians. it will be recollected. yea in I will betroth thee unto me righteousness. David accordingly recapitulates occasion of the removal of the ark. &quot. Sinai is u : The hill God is as the hill of Why ever. confidently appeal to the context. in applying verse 18 originally to Moses. in and judgment. mercies. moreover.Jewish dream&quot. to satisfy any unprejudiced person that the Psalmist. immediately as in Sinai. The may now judge what weight it. and public in loving-kindness. an Asiatic. and land. as position on the ground of mere imagination. had Moses alone in view The Psalm. or whether the Editor rather has not founded his To me.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. u : And I will betroth thee unto in me and for ever .&quot.

I quoted ( Second to To prove Appeal. the Lord God might dwell among them reason to which. With view to invalidate argument. Ye Gods ?&quot. 14. 10. 13. the Editor puts three questions ( page u What creatures of a superior nature 564 ). after address ing the Supreme Father of the universe.God&quot. the figurative application of the term God and to other superior creatures. for the rebellious /&quot. such as in Psalms 2 . and . 34. unusual or stange in applying the verse in question. are here termed Gods ? Those that die like men. Yes . ii . Ixvi. 16 . this I p. is those chiefs of Israel who were men. this it . like human feelings. I. From only question that remains those gifts for is. the cons very truction of the ark. Is it not written in your a said.&quot. ix. abruptly addresses himself to creatures.Thou on high. To this I answer. the holy place. authority of the Saviour himself. iv. that men . law. here applied to \vho con and from the very circums sequently died like men tance of their having had the appearance of man. he goes on. that the gifts alluded to were those granted on Mount Sinai and the assigned. &quot. where David. &quot. 6. from the Jesus. 5. as well as men. though originally relating to Moses. xci. we are . many other passages in the writings of the Psalmist. liable to death. in the book of Exodus. 28 . candid reader. thou hast led captivity captive for : thou hast received gifts also. The first is. is the appears evident. whose removal was taking place. There is nothing. therefore. the term &quot. 15. 138 ) John are x. There Ixviii. yea.IO2 tion of the FINAL APPEAL hast ascended word Sinai. besides. and having been endowed with their having been. in an accommodated sense to Jesus. Who was it that received men? I leave this to be answered by the are.

as human feelings.&quot.) (Ver.) of Man came eating and drinking&quot. the dom the of priests. is the sons of the Most High iv. 19. anger. (John iv. 21. like those chiefs of Isrcal. (Ver.) 41 And when he had looked round about on them with increased in being giiwed&quot. 6). (Luke.gt. xi. 6* the first-bom of God &quot. for al though Jesus was honoured with abundantly high titles.) u old. filled with the child grew. and the grace of God When he was twelve years subject unto them&quot. )Ver.Jesus (his parents. (Matt. the same ground and the same principle. upon him&quot. \vas&amp. 7. for Jesus. (Ver. &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot. The Son wisdom and stature. people of God. . as found in the English version. wisdom. (Ver.And began to wash his In the original ^&quot. 52. 5.&quot. and possessed figurative. 51) &quot. and that exalted it no means terms. to be he himself explained (John x.&quot. 6.&quot. (xix.) And was &quot. and &quot. of yet he was in the appearance of man. we must consider (if not biassed by prejudice) the use of the Upon word &quot. Scriptures: (Jesus).) &quot. therefore. &quot. as is evident from the following. and even by u Gods (Psalm Ixxxii. 27. (Exodus all 22). the word ilD signifying sons. (Mark being weary with his journey. is or children. 6).) And eight days were accomplished for circumcising of u And the child. as well as u many u oiher facts recorded in the forth her first-born son&quot.IT found instead of Hebrew. hy by the ). &quot. - though we find them &quot. and an holy nation (ver. ( Psalm Ixxxii. above nations the u peculiar 4i king 5). 42.) Now is my soul * troubled. 34).) &quot. iii.) and waxed strong in spirit. God. the Son of God. and liable to death.Jesus. tinder 1 03 the necessity ik of inferring that the application of the term ki God real. She brought ii. &c.&quot. (xii. to them is figurative. most glorifying title of &quot. his name was called Jesus. xvhen &quot.&quot. 40.

yielded np the ghost&quot. are not these circumstances more wonderful than Christ being raised after death ? Is not the fact of not having died at all. loud voice. &quot. ) And became obedient unto death. and Elijah. like other men . Ver. &quot. I t 2 Kings 2 xiii. though he died like man. that Enoch.&quot. Philip. 8. For if the circumstance of being men.&quot. them. and died as a man ? If the Editor say. to have prevented the Editor from inquiring. 5.* that the dead. who was. a Jewish prophet. Jesus. he prayed more Luke xxii. 50. xxvii. 44. never tasted death at all.104 disciples ( FINAL APPEAL feet. ( My soul ) exceedingly sorrowjul. creatures of a superior nature are like here termed Gods ? Those ( Israelites ) that die men ?&quot. ) Ought not the consideration of the foregoing circumstances relating to Jesus Christ. more conclusive evidence Elijah of a superior nature.And earnestly. . and dying like men. the highest of all the honorary terms with which any being can be exalted argument fail of proving the how can the same common humanity of Jesus. 34. yet was raised again from the dead. ( beging in an agony. Kings iv. even the death of the ( cross. 1 * troubled in spirit. Mark xiv.) He was &quot. that a dead boy was also raised by him I and then ask the Editor. ii. . to touch the body of Elisha. ) And ( Jesus ) saith unto is &quot. according to the mode of reasons s * 2 Kings ii. like them. . 21. (xiii. 35. must preclude the chiefs of Isreal from being supposed to be creatures of a superior nature. one of the sons of men. 21. What &quot. when he had cried again with a &quot. ttnto death&quot. ) &quot. in the shape of a man. ii. I shall remind him. revived and stood up t and. notwithstanding they are called Gods. that Jesus. 34. who happened . ( Matt.

and the I latter. I Kings xvii. are found ascribed to * created being. . question which. as attributing to Jesus. . Gods. perform wonderful ? * water. and restrain bringing to a level with the doctrines of heathenish Is it Christianity not a general rule. to render them consistent with reason. or circumstances. is because he was in the shape of man . xxvii. 31. or to and any human being. phrases. I and 2 Kings ii. xxxii. xxxiv. let us give up such nature. as raising the they dead and commanding wind and not manner. there any authority in the sacred writings ask.) but which he has avoided to answer. Rzek. an unscriptural and irrational idea. I vii. indeed. of I as well as the sun and moon Did not some suitable to the them talk of themselves in a manner nature of stances. adopted to preserve concordance between all the passages of scripture. xviii. 45 Deut. . either man Exod. I. (page 211. . that when terms . 44. God alone ? || Are we. x. || I. 13. the nature of God and the nature of man the former.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. a double nature of God from ourselves man. and polytheism. which are applicable to God a alone. because he is termed God in scripture. Joshua 12. I took upon myself put to the Editor in the Second Appeal. I. xxxiii. I. for alleging that Jesus was possessed of such two-fold would nature? to a. ing employed by the Editor. that Jesus was possessed of a two-fold nature. from these circum to represent them as possessing a two-fold divine and human ? If not. 22. f Deut. Are not Moses and the as chiefs of Israel termed. than the Christ after his death on the cross ? resurrection I Of of In case the Editor should have recourse to the generally-adopted argument. in like as well men ?t Did miracles.

are called gods. Exod. in consequence of his having been of the seed of Abraham* and house of David. 6. He loved he chose them only.&quot. Such an attempt as to shew that Moses and the chiefs of Israel having been types and shadows is of Jesus. . God w^s That he has Deut. is equally applicable to those of Israelites that are termed gods. to them. t could lower the dignity of the Messiah. 15. To whose their &quot. &quot. Such an apology as ascribes birth.TO6 FINAL APPEAL or angel these are to be interpreted in an inferior sense ? Were we to deviate from this general rule and take these terms to be real. it could not the honour which scripture &quot. to the material body of Christ. totally inadmissible . growth. I.sons of God&quot. and immortality and divinity to his spirit.&quot. and &quot. 22. and death. above Christ. kk 6. 18. xxv. and others depreciate had there been any authority declaring Moses to have been types of Jesus.&quot. . 8. or could exalt the rank Abraham. by the application of the terms gods&quot. vii. to wit. or of David. confers upon them. question Israel s The second nature is of the Editor ? a is. that Christ was the Saviour of mankind. and unworthy of adoption by rational beings. as well as the rod of the stem of Jesse. u They are the them. as well as to Exod. sons of God and to numerous passages of a similar dwelling . x. * Genesis xxii.&quot. 6. xix. xiv. Psalm Ixxxii. any more than the fact. among them chosen them from all the nations. i. 5. Judaism and Christianity would be but systems of Polytheism. for we : mid 110 authority in the Scriptures for such an assertion moreover. the brutes ! that of ) ( only superior In answer to which I refer the Editor to s to the passages already cited. u iv. t Isaiah xi.

35. blasphemy therefore. is in scripture. to was. 17 : Lord of God. the Jews to their attempting equal as assign stone Jesus. their equality with God in ver.&quot. as being &quot. mankind. having * called himself the Son only in a &quot. 17 &quot. according &quot. they supposed. and manifestation of of God.&quot. As . is. as the God of all not a man-god that shall gods. in the &quot. rajecting Christ s declaration of his being the son of God. lords. who made heaven and earth. Psalm xlv. ami by God. die . the same divine god&quot. Israel. Deut. term to those chiefs .k : : Let us now again refer to the context of John In ver. 34. 1 07 whence the Editor may judge whether to Israel was superior the brutes only. hath anointed thee/ 7 &amp. he shews their inconsis tency in calling their chiefs gods. Jehovah your God is God of gods. negative. Is not this argument. because 1 said I am the Son of God. pointed out to them. whose throne is forever My answer must be in the ?&quot. and the Lord of lords birth must regulate the death and figuratively called of those is who are gods. and. &quot. 33. acceding to the Scriptures. 34. The third questison or to u If the rest of other gods die like men. and lastly. same metaphorical sense. used by Jesus. because Jehovah is but he. their law. God. an -evident disavowal of his his own &quot. must Jehovah. that even the term found figuratively applied to the chiefs of without meaning to imply thereby. x. it as the that reason for he himself of to God.&quot. and To my God and your John xx. in ver. sent &quot. deity.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. while he himself immutable. by* in calling a real himself sense. ) Thou blas- .God. x. is phemest evident from the reply of Jesus. : made the Son which Jesus. at the same time. thy God.sanctified&quot.&quot. 36. . ( ver. description.gt. he reminds them of their applying.

thing. and denies any one s. by sue! a declaration elsewhere. which But I do not find in the verse in is here adduced. that being tempted by the devil. the was he who was tempted apostle If the Editor has met with Israel in the wilderness. x. and hence. be of any avail to prove the divinity and He then unity of those respective subjects of temptation that I was not correct in the statement of my declares. in common with Jesus. that the Edi tor seems to have bestowed little or no reflection upon these texts. to of sense wit. 9. an observation of my How far cannot prejudice carry away men Are we not all. and ?&quot. all men and Satan ? Can the liabilty to common to God. question.&quot. opponent &quot. I cannot admit any between the declaration of the apostles and that of the Psalmist. The Editor lastly his being tempted. he should first point it out. be tempted both by temptation. declaring that Chiist &quot. asserts. relation shew. that it% the apostle s declaring that Christ was he who was tempted in the wilderness. described by the Psalmist as tempted. tempted.&quot. and then build his argument upon it. to Abraham. Jones s work on the nature of Christ. and being temp mean the same. But unless he first i ted by Israel. to Jesus. In answer to my observation on the attempt of or thodox Christians to prove the deity of Jesus from I Cor.108 FINAL APPEAL metaphorical sense ? I am sorry to observe. ! the Editor quotes first. having attempted to prove the deity of Christ merely s 1 from To shew the accuracy of my statement. &quot. .&quot. liable to &quot. own. the Most High God. I beg to refer the Editor to Mr. mankind. however. s nor in any preceding or following verse. doctrine on this subject. Neither let us tempt Christ as some of them also &quot.

u i. sit thou at I my right is The Lord said unto my hand.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. After the Son had humbled himself. 1OQ Lord. was not to be expected that the Father would But that Jesus had no might of his owui fain prove. festing. u r. All that the Father giveth shall come has failed to convince the Editor that Jesus had his oivn. is which our author would not a fact. would they not be .&quot. the Almighty. himself. The Editor afterwards endeavours to pove the human omnipotence of Jesus by quoting Isaiah Ixiii. as such positive disavowal of u I can of mine own- do nothing. it forsake him. Is it not most strange. should supposed by in him again to have humbled himself. To this was entirely owing to the influence of God this passage !&quot.&quot. in my Second Appeal. which is. and Rev. power. pression upon him. Supposing these two last-mention ed passages to be actually ascribed to Jesus. that the Son. combat. and success to have been not appointed by ideas another to a combat. observed. mani that the victory gained by him over his enemies.&quot. so as to assume our nature and be appointed to the &quot. to me. whom the Editor be considers the immutable. Relative to Psalm ex. 223. : Mine 8 u : I am Alpha and Omega .&quot. &quot. till I make thine enemies thy that footstool.&quot. the beginning and the end. no power of other no argument of mine. saith the Lord.&quot. and which is to come. conveying a manifestation of his own omnipotence. ( p. almighty God. and which was. the Editor replies. 5 own arm brought salvation unto me. by Jesus &quot. or of any can be expected to make an im being. ? which that other assisted him to obtain Are these ? two quite incom patible with his self each other If own.) simply applied to the Messiah.

dwell deep. 7. &quot. of Edom hosts Is Concerning Edom. a reproach. thus saith wisdom no more in Teman ? : So Jere and Bozrah the Lord of Is counsel ? perished from the prudent ? Is their wisdom vanished Flee ye. 5 has na more allusion to Jesus than to Moses or Joshua. saith the Lord.For I have sworn by that I will visit him/ myself. under the wrath of God. These places were inhabited by the sons of Esau. cities a waste. And also the whole Edom Lord. saith the of Edom.n name called Edom. then. Feed xxv. we are occasion. are we to reconcile to our understanding the idea that the of true Author religion disavows his almighty power on one But. me. The prophet here speaks of the destruction of Edom and Bozrah.&quot. and asserts it on another ? not reduced by the texts in question to any such dilem for the passage quoted from Isaiah Ixiii. and all the thereof shall of be perpetual I wastes. with the same red pottage. : pray thee. miah prophesies the desruction (xlix.) who was also called And Esau said to Jacob. and in hundreds of other passages ? How. Whence. Edom. 30 &quot. therefore was his for I a. in fact.110 FINAL APPEAL as esteemed directly contradictory to his positive dis avowal of omnipotence. and . that Bozrah shall become a deso : lation. Gen. for their infidelity towards Israel. Esau upon him. prophecy by the wrath of God. turn back. I am quite at a loss to kno\\*. the time Ver 13 &quot. O inhabitants of Dedan for I will bring the calamity of . 9): Shall I not in even destroy the wise men out day. ma ( ) passage to Christ. 8) . the Editor and others apply this .&quot. and under what plea. faint I : (the brother of Jacob. found in the foregoing. and a curse . Obadiah s foretells the slaughter of quote here only one or that two verses (8.

came to reconcile them to God.Their blood shall be upon my garment. Ixiii.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. who so far from treading down or the inhabitants of Edom and Bo/rah. anger. 1517: the Lord saw it..&quot. and it displeased him that there was no judgment. lots and foreigners entered into his upon Jerusalem. : . &quot. and cast one of them. the messenger of peace on earth. suffering his own blood to be shed. 1 1 slaughter. shall be dismayed. away captive gate. that the passage can be interpreted as speaking the language of Jesus ? Nothing of the kind that I can perceive. Can the following expressions. the other sidei in the day that the strangers carried that &quot. O Teman. And he saw that . and of men even . to the is Messiah used for should expect in find such language as by in Isaiah that similar Most prophets. poetical the expressions are abundantly ascribed to in an allegorical lix sense. even thou wast as expression does Isaiah What make use of in chap. to justify ? the I Editor in referring to chap. of an) other blood upon his garment. his forces.&quot. Isaiah High &quot. character of the 3. and good-will in heaven towards men. It contains rather such denunciations as are considered totally inconsistent with the office and lowly Jesus. Ixiii. land. rather than refrain from teaching them the .. u I will tread them in my &quot. Ill understanding out of the mount of Esau ? And thy mighty men.And the chapter referring of the language to God . to the end every one of the mount of Esau may be cut off by In the day that thou stoodest on Ver. and laboured in behalf their and sprinkling all of them.&quot.way of salvation ? What particular connexion had Jesus with the destruction of the Sons of the children of Edom.) meek and be ascribed to Jesus. (ver.

and peace from him which is. and was clad with zeal as a cloak. He proceeds to des throne . and the Prince of the kings of the earth.&quot. are so distinct from the description Almighty. : and the Ancient of days did white as sit. u I beheld till the thrones were cast Dan. vengeance for clothing. Behold.&quot. the Almighty. As Rev. Even so. : . saith the Lord and which is to come. u Unto him that loved us. which pierced him wail and every eye shall see him.&quot. the cribe Christ as a first-begotten of the dead. he cometh with clouds. . In this. to &quot. For he put on : righteousness as a breast-plate. i. commenced am Alpha and Omega.112 FINAL APPEAL there was no man.&quot. addressing the seven churches of Asia. John. and which and the ending. vii. says. and wondered that there was no intercessor therefore his arm brought salvation unto him. Amen. our sins in his priests own blood. and whice was. the eternal attributes of the appears so very plain in verse 4. the begining which is. Amen. whose garment was snow. and they also and all kindreds of the earth shall : because of him. and which is to &quot. and his righteousness it sustained him. is stated what Christ u I had done. to made us kings and him be glory and dominion and ever. come u faithful witness. and from the seven spirits which are before his and from Jesus Christ. All this was. 9 down. Grace be unto you. com mencing with verse 4. and to the declaration of the eternity of Having thus John reverts God with which he to do. 8. . the . and an helmet of sal and he put on the garments of vation upon his head .&quot. let us refer to the contexts. and washed us from adding. and hath his unto God and for ever Father . of the character and office of Christ in verses 5 7 .

8. the term Almighty Moreover. for pasture. I will not renew the subject but beg attention to that part of my treatise. angel u He divided the sea. nor the &quot.designation who is. The Editor and made the waters to stand ness as their in a heap. u . situated either in the wilderness. tioned seven times. 6. is to come. that should have thought impossible for any one not to perceive how totally uncon nected verse 8 is with that which precedes it. neither the term Almighty. As I have already noticed the argument adduced by the Editor respecting angels. But what allusion this Psalm has to Christ. is once ascribed to the Lamb. and referring always to God at the same time. O great God. or in an inhabited land. frequent mention of the Lamb or Jesus. let us kneel before &quot. he is our God. understanding is unable to discover. identity of the definition of ver. in the beginning of this my limited chapter. again introduces the subject of the of Bokim. notwithstanding the . is 113 God I in ver. s intention to declare the Almighty and his faithful witness. throughout the whole book. my reader s For Jehovah and a great King above all gods. with that in it so obvious.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. (page 565. &c.&quot. The Editor quotes Psalm xcv. we find in the book of Relevation men be one.&quot. 7. and who &quot. 8 . let us worship and bow down. Let the candid reader judge for himself. and we are the and the sheep of his hand .&quot. and justifies the application of this passage to Jesus. 13. and how it far was from John &quot. 4.&quot. and who was. to &quot. equivalent to the term Jehovah.) quoting Rsalm Ixxviii. come.&quot. besides in verse 8. Whence he concludes that the Son was with Isreal in the wilder God. is a Jehovah our Maker people of his . and caused them to pass through.

As I noticed this verse of John i. however. &quot. and Ixxxiii. Upon which he com- . ( Pages I will 77. 3. upon the ground in John i. and one or two similar verses in page 82. which.114 FINAL APPEAL that. In the course of the quotation fron the Psalms. would be interpreted as referring to Jesus without selec tion. except him. again quotes John x. though they are two beings.Blessed also all noticed Psalm ii. elucidate proper place. in common with all other authorities of of unity the the sacred books. abstain from reiterating the same subject. for should this reason be admitted as well-founded. the Editor cites Heb. To my great surprise I observe that the Editor I and my Father are one.. 1 passage more fully in its thank the Revd. Editor for quoting such passages as Psalm Ixxxi. 3. 4: &quot.&quot. he who built all things is God. is worthy to be called Jehovah. though I find the Editor repeating his arguments here in his usual manner.) are they who trust in him. in which Jehovah is mentioned. all the passages of the Old Testament. I wonder at the Editor s choosing this passage as being applicable to Jesus. Jesus is declared equally with the Father to be the Maker of all things. 12. 9. I will not recur to them here. 10. 1 yet are one. inasmuch as he who hath builded the house is worthy of more honor than the house. 3.&quot.For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses. and that no other being. on such a basis . decidedly prove the Supreme Being. iii. 133. 18.) still I will. to shew that God and Jesus. without any attention to I all the illustrations adduced to explain this passage in the Second Appeal this (pages 132. Having &quot. For every house is built by some man but . 30. 78.

as he supposes. and of the rest of the universe. English version. I will not prolong the discussion by pointing out the errors appearing in the was Christ that stood. ( ) in the verse in question. whose house are we&quot. that the house which Christ built by the will of the Father is the Christian church and that God. which the Editor omitted to mention to wit.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. the . over his own house. that it 115 built the house under from the phrase u all things&quot. . ments. I only repeat verse 6. Father of Jesus. explaining what the apostle meant by the house of Christ. Hence it is evident. author of all things whatsoever. But Christ as a son &quot. is the .

s Hebrew does or not signify as &quot. 27. astonishing to me how the strong prejudice of other learned divines. i. book of Proverbs. Matt. and Luke 49. and as seems implied in Christ s . 22. qualities with tances. IN introducing the Prophets. rejoicing always indeed. as well as of the Editor. would go .SECTION II. have been from of the almighty eternity to Possession in the It original stabled. them Doth not wisdom 30: ? The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his cry way. 19. delight. 1 was there. See Parkhurst Hebrew Lexicon. before his works of old.brought up. means &quot. as one brought up* quotes Prov. Therefore said the wisdom of God. He then &quot. in favour of the doctrine of the Trinity. established. saying. his prevented them from perceiving that the identification attempted to be thus deduced by them from those passages &quot. is justified of her children . . has : I was daily It is.&quot. and all other attributes eternity in the of God. or his self-existence. Christ be represented under the character of wisdom. THE PROPHETS. When he prepared the heavens.eternal of the deity&quot. understand ing. But wisdom xi. subs&quot. steaded. xi. I will send furnished to the prophets. viii. with him before him. for Chris to destroy his distinct existence altogether tians of all denominations agree that wisdom. as divines have thought. the Reverend Editor u commences with Proverbs If in this book saying. instead of proving the of Jesus. fresh proof is here enternal deity of the Son. I was by him.

eternal existence a doctrine which would &quot.) proves that the wisdom there alluded to was considered as in possession of If Jesus. consistently taining the same doctrine ? with the same prophetical language. 1 1/ without either a or endowed with separate attribute to each of the properties of existence any of them having been and were we to . that are insisted upon by the Editor as properly applied to Jesus. we must numerous necessarily beings. . so far from being esteemed as Jehovah himself. be supposed to have been possessed If this doctrine be admitted by Jehovah as an attribute. God which self-existence. then. Jehovah. such as wisdom. mercy. In fact. both in religious and social life. the inspired writer of Provers directs us to call wisdom a sister. God himself. fail separate voluminous work would.&quot. how then are the primitive Christians to be justified in condemning Sabellius on account of his main find that. The Lord po ssesscd me in the beginning of his way. 4. amount to gross Polytheism. be meant here by wisdom. 22. in the usual poetical style of expression. the everlasting God. And if the abstract to contain them. benevolence. he must. quoted by the Editor. the necessity af adher ing to wisdom. But the expression. ( admit that there are besides ) God like his attributes. power. just as his other attributes are. strength ening the exhortation by pointing out that all the works of founded upon wisdom. Jehovah. were I to be noticed. possess. am attri butes of God.) instead of bestowing on her such epithets as. a afraid. the book of Proverbs meant only to urge. (vii. and under We standing kinsivoman. truth. (ver. as well as are in God profane Asiatic works in common circulation.FINAL APPKAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. as orthodox. If such poetical personifications as are found in the Prophets.

on account of c. 24. all wrath. Take. Are we. and curse in Zech. i Cor. . the following passages. God is declared to be mere Love. which personify the attributes of God. unprejudiced mind is convinced that these 2 and But every . I admit. ii. &quot. i. In i John iv. true Christians are declared to be wisdom in Christ and Israel is said to be an astonishment in Deut. Here we have mercy. xxviii. Abraham is to be blessing in Gen. 30. 5. this mode of literal interpreta tion would. tainly. redemption. . Psalm cxxx. being sometimes personified. 2 Cor. and Lord. or revelation. as them in the Scriptures. 7 : With the Lord there redemption.&quot.. spoken of as separate as existences. so real existences are intended sometimes under the appellation of abstract qualities. : from the truth. and with him is plen Ixxxv.Jl8 FINAL APPEAL are to be esteemed as seperate deities. and ascribe to them eternity. viii. Jesus is called word. be so far advantageous to the cause their of the Editor as respects the refutation of the doctrine of the unity of God. to consider ? Godhead As abstract persons of the are often represented qualities writings generally. Christ is represented as power and wisdom. i. righteousness and peace have kissed each Numbers xvi. 8. for the sake of energy of expression. to render ideas familiar to the under standing. 46 Teere is wrath gone out &quot. 37. &c. 10 a Mercy and truth are : met together other. for example. and declared eternal and associating with God. as it would cer extend the number of personified deities much beyond three.&quot. 21. teous is mercy. John i. and in Asiatic persons and agents. allegorical . and association with God. v. therefore. xii.&quot. but would not be precisely favourable to the doctrine of the Trinity. J ehovah declared to be glory in Zech. 13 .

first impartially refer to the context of verse We find in the verse a personal pronoun &quot. could bear no sense whatever. reference some . for the words &quot. and spoke of Isaiah. where. used three times. have expected that it should be the Son.&quot. when Isaiah saw Isaiah have s glory. nor even admits. he saw his glory and spoke rf him&quot. and considers these words as decisive testimony of the opinion. &quot. relating to the As this he then comments.&quot. phrase in the Greek verb &quot. tioned just before it. of his attributes. we might The Editor s Prophet vis .These things said Isaiah. as in many Wisdom is to be other passages in which the word found. his&quot.&quot. &quot. of course refers to Isaiah.when his. thus first &quot.spoke. connected with the word him. The second and the third. he saw.&quot. that it was the Son who was Let us 41 of John. &quot. quotes Isaiah vi. the nature of the unity of God. therefore. when he saw glory and spoke of him.he. seen by the Prophet in the vision. The men &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. in the when aS* . and the third. These two to last pronouns must. nor can they change and of the dependence After this no further remark seems necssary on the passages quoted by the Editor. he. wherein the Prophet received his commis glorious sion.&quot. and of him. glory . who had under taken to redeem men. &quot. i.&quot.&quot. terms neither can alter 119 the fact.&quot. vision.&quot. The first. can have no reference to Isaiah. The Editor afterwards quotes John his xii. represented either the Father or the Son.of after the verb &quot. 41. the second. the sense neither requires.&quot.&quot. 10. from Matthew and Luke. though understood &quot. pronoun. &quot. of our understanding Jesus to be meant under that appellation. on of God .

17 : O Lord. and &quot. the God of hosts. 38. who blinded the eyes of the Jews and hardened their hearts. From single verse 38 to 41. (According as it spirit of slumber &quot. it necessarily follows. We accordingly find. without mention of the Son being once made between verses 38 ( and ) Isaiah to &quot. These things. and from Isaiah vi. . //e hath blinded their eyes. whom hath the arm of the Lord. could not believe. is written. &quot.&quot. 40.What then ? quote Rom. him. when he saw his glory. illustration of God s being have blinded their eyes and hardened &quot.&quot. hardened their heart. who hath believed our report ? spoke. from the preceding verse.&quot.&quot.I2O FINAL APPEAL to be found in the immediately preced pronoun or noun ing part of the passage. xi. 10. they should not see. said Isaiah. . that he saw the glory of that very being spoken it is evident of by Isaiah. mentioned twice in verse 38. that he spoke ef God. from the preceding verse. and spake of Isaiah must have then seen the glory of him in whose behalf he spoke a fact which neither party can dispute and. the tribe of thy inheritance. 8 : hath not obtained that which he seeketh it.} unto this day. 40. For further to I often declared their Israel hearts. for . as already observed. as . . there is not a noun or a pronoun that can have allusion to Jesus. because that Isaiah said 40. 7. that these pronouns refer to Jehovah. but the election hath obtained and the rest were blinded. Therefore they again. The passage thus stands. whose glory Isaiah saw. why hast thou made us to err from thy ways. ?&quot.&quot. &quot. and in whose behalf he spoke. and 39. been revealed 41. eves that God hath given them the Ixiii. 41. and hardened our for thy servants heart from thy fear ? Return sake.) He Lord. (ver. and Isaiah ears that they should not hear.

implying as absolutely required by the sense. 121 the pronoun him. my but day.) by prophetic anticipation. among many were admitted to bear reference either God or Isaiah.) so Isaiah. as I command given the prophet on that With a view to invalidate this interpretation. &quot.When he saw his glory and spake of him&quot. and must have through spoken of Christ s commission ( if he had spoken of him seen the at all ) through the same prophetic power : the rctV- .&quot. &quot. day must to do allow. 56. that the two last-mentioned pronouns. 56. as another prophet of God. the chief rulers also the phrase believed to Nevertheless in him&quot. the name of Jesus is found mentioned. and not through ocular vision. But we in verse 42. Abraham except vision. must have (properly speaking glory of Christ (if he had seen it at all) the same prophetic anticipation. vision. in which find. the passage in the evangelist would be. that day had nothing to do with Isaiah s as Abraham saw the day of Christ the reign of Christ. in verse 41.) what has Abraham In answer to which s I with Isaiah that s vision s ?&quot. observed in the Second Appeal (page 244. the text could convey no meaning. more correctly explained by referring it Your father Abraham rejoiced to see &quot. &quot.&quot. (page 569. If it are applied to Jesus. in reference the Son to verse 37. well as in As all the Pharisees u believed in God.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. be insisted upon. as Isaiah. (John viii. one of if their prophets.. and in consistence with verse 44. in that case. the Editor inquires. in defiance of all the fore going explanation. to John viii. which cannot be understood of ocular . in prophetic anticipation the vision of Isaiah was that of whereas the glory seen God to himself in the deli very of the occasion.

hear art the Lord again&quot. nor did I declare that Isaiah saw the day of Christ. but his glory. &quot. or any other prophets. he hath Jblinded their eyes. that in such u He saw the day of phrases.122 FINAL APPEAL rence. ch. * l 4 : The Lord hath not given you an to see. &quot. therefore. unto I Kings xviii. Isaiah. that of Christ. they must have seen or spoken of them through the prophetic power vested in them by God. with disobedience. Lord. that the Editor should have occasion to advance that u it is not the day of Christ which the Evangelist describes Isaiah as having seen. amount almost to the same thing. is one which goes to prove. &quot. 28: u The Lord shall smite thee with madness. that when ever the prophets. I cannot help being of opinion.predicting the birth identifies divine and his human nature. Duet. Behold. for I find the Jews were from time to time charged. (pp. 533. O as noticed before. me. or He saw the glory of the king &quot. I never u attempted to prove. xxix. Isaiah. are synonymous.&quot. My limited understanding cannot. xxviii. heart to perceive.&quot. such as Abraham. 17. The 570.) Editor refers to the prophet Isaiah. even when it was said. a virgin shall conceive. .. However. vii. and bear a son. &quot.&quot. like the Editor s. in his saying. on particular occasions. and with having been blind ed and hardened. and blindness.&quot. as the king Messiah. and astonishment of heart. Messiah.&quot. &c. that the words day. and u ears to hear. and that thou hast turned their heart back Isaiah Ixiii. by several of the prophets.&quot. discover how u Isaiah fixes the time when he thus saw k Christ s glory. are declared to have seen or spoken of future events. the words &quot. 37 : Here me. and eyes this day. day and u glory&quot. and glory&quot. that this people may know that thou God.

23. How will the u shall &quot. kiah was not then a thing to come six . then. or with child&quot.&quot.&quot. Thou . and from the sacred history. Here we find again a Bible. as and to declare. found in about to be conceived by the virgin. ? &quot.&quot. art 11. for this plain reason. u A the English version. charges prophecy was delivered. in which a diligent study of the tor thirty or forty years. as being used in the future tense.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. when this he was rive-and twenty years six. 12 pages on this. though totally unable to reject the proof of such application.&quot.mPT Hebrew. Thou his hast conceived. interpretit. deduced by me. shalt on adopted principle. in an immediate sense. years when The editor. Editor render the same term &quot. of Isaiah. 22. Will he. for. conceive. xvi. meaning absolutely. ix. entirely upon the phrase. as well as on the passage in ch. me with having expended. This our . new instance. Hezekiah could not have been the unthinkingly. has not been able to save the student from making such an error pregnant.y Second Appeal.author will see reigned sixteen by merely comparing the fact. if Hezekiah old must then have been not 1 seven. and Hezekiah began to reign old. that child at that time to be conceived. and shall call 123 his name Immanuel. as to take the in term . from its context. but accompanied with early religious prejudices. He rests his rejection conceive. that Ahaz years. The birth of Heze that God never fortells past things. he was at least years old when this prophecy was spoken. u in the original verse. He regrets my applying the above verse to Hezekiah. in This passage the i. on the ground that Hezekiah could not have been the child at the time virgin shall &quot. Holy Spirit applies to Christ Matt. in vain.* mn found in Gen. in rr.

and * In the 1 7th year of the reign of Pekah. and ? JTTW bearing as are found in Isaiah which might have suggested 14 to the Editor the propriety of not making so positive an Hezekiah could not have been the child assertian. in that case. &c. ) the virgin (the city of Jerusalem. in verse the nth. 2. at that time to be conceived. Gen. and he reigned sixteen years. saw she had conceived. implies. or shall the nation call is pregnant. (4) &quot. either a city.shall : Second Appeal. xi. that vii. pregnant. . overlook verses 4th testify and 5th of the same chapter.&quot. signifying pregnant. 22 Kings if 12 . Amos 13 ? The fact that we find in the original Hebrew. (14. and bearing a and his shall before the child* name Immanuel. I ) upon &quot.&quot.&quot. And : Sarai said unto have given my Abraham. and she conceived . &quot. 17 2 . &quot.124 conceive&quot. &quot. that he lived thirty-six years only was born . 2 Kings xvi. son. a passage &quot. 25 xxi. which. Sam. xxxi. and as Hezekiah began. wrong be upon thee . the king of Israel. which Hagar s having already conceived before the angel of the Lord had seen and spoken to her. Ahaz and twenty years old was Ahaz when he began to reign in Hence Jerusalem. 5. ? FINAL APPEAL He must. or the people of a city. xxxviii. it appears. I. noticed in pages 229. as I the virgin. with the participle &quot.He and when she went in unto Hagar. and 238. 8. iTOvJWJ signifying not referred to a particular person before-mentioned. Exod. . instead conceive.) &quot.&quot. is. Did the Editor entirely 2 . of my and also we find rnn synonymous of &quot. i.&quot. The is verse r therefore thus runs &quot. ( 5. Jer. 24. &c. and Isaiah xxvi. 230.For know to refuse the evil.&quot. in the figurative language of the Scripture. containing the same terms PHPI or or &quot. overlook the same term mil viii. My maid unto thy bosom and when she saw that she had Did not the Editor ever reflect conceived.&quot. in .Behold.conceived.

O a thou daughter u But into u unless oppressed virgin. like a u Isaiah xxiii.&quot. and in other instances.&quot. the Bishop of to I reign after the death of his father Ahaz. and the historical facts. O shalt no more of Zidon. mpj? . *&quot. he may on the Greek convince himself by referring to that excellent work article for which the learned world is Calcutta.&quot. &quot. to Micah iv. liv. 2. in question. &quot. himself . the king of that Israel.oppressed virgin. 35. 10 u : Jteinfatn and labour bring forth. the virgin virgin. &quot. or at most. and to shall Christ nience. H. or the people of the city. the land that thou shall be forsaken of both her kings. In noticing my explanation of the HWJWl the in the Second Appeal. to entirely suit their conve they have disregarded the original scripture. is generally rendered in the Septuagint by the Greek article : that they are by no means equivalent in value. that u it is true.&quot. Middleton. which was rather contrary to the common course of nature. however. indebted to Dr. . In Isaiah Hi. ( 2 Kings xviii.&quot. or the people of the city.bring forth children. rejoice. and consequently. Rezin. I. the context.&quot. is once called five 14 &quot. . the king of Syria.&quot. the city. a captive daughter in ch. xvi. barren &quot. the Reverend Editor states. as is evident from the preceding verses and such personifying phrases as . eleven years of age. Choose the good. 2. virgin. orthodox authors vdianged into &quot. 12: And he said. they could not apply the verse in a direct sense to Mary. who. the mother of Christ. daughter of Zion. at ( 125 abhorrest e. it is once styled a harlot in Ezek. ) ) i. and u conceived&quot. when he was twenty and years old.&quot. woman Thou in travail. &quot. the emphatic of Hebrew. in vii. in the prophets. other instances similar to that of t 14. are found Isaiah also applied to the city. time had besieged Jerusalem. conceive. ) he must have been born when his father Ahaz was ten.&quot. Ahaz (16.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and &quot. and Pekah.

in &amp. with other orthodox Christians. which heaven and earth to have been given to Jesus by the that all power was is.J Arabic. 534) such ignorance to the human nature of Jesus. offers as an explanation of such passages as declare all power in common Father of the universe. can the Editor be justified the idea that. knowing that he. according to the Editor. Nothing but early prejudice can belive that one being at one time persuade should be both subject to total ignorance and possessed of omniscience two diametrically opposite qualities.&quot. I beg 4650. as article. Is not the power of distinguishing good from evil included in all power given capacity ? to Jesus. shewing that Jesus was possessed of knowledge of his divine commission even in his early youth. forgetting what he. a to man . in Pf Hebrew. he maintaining all though possessed of unable. to distinguish the of the good from the evil.. given him in his human capacity. u ) The spirit of the Lord was to rest upon him as the spirit of wisdom and understanding. given such an evasive answer to so important a point however. and also to the Editor s own declaration. as also the attention found in verses 15 and 16 Editor to Luke ii. in his human in How then. ( page 536. was ? age of maturity.lt. was obliged to do so.126 FINAL APPEAL really am sorry to observe that the Editor should have . is invariably a In his attempt to remove the incon sistency between his maintaining the idea of the deity of Jesus and applying to him verses 15 and 16 in Isaiah by which he is declared subject to total ignorance. in vii. while in his divine capacity he enjoys independent omnipotence. before the power in heaven and earth. the Reverend Editor attributes (p. definite before a noun. in his human nature.

&quot. of the Lord s having sent Jerusalem first The verse of the . 10 and n mention the Lord s to Ahaz 14. the prophet. 17. bringing and of the king of Assyria in opposition to the kings of Syria Israel. before the child should verses. before that son should have knowledge to cry. Ahaz the king of Jerusalem to him consolation and confidence against the attacks of these two kings 5 and 6. viii. viii. Hence it is evident that &quot. foretell become of age . The first four verses. the head of tions Ephraim. and on the land of Samaria. and following what was to happen in Judah. speak of the birth of a son to Isaiah. called Immanuel.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 15 and 16 which he (verses 12 and 13) contain the Lord s promise to give spontaneously a sign of the destruction of Ahaz s enemies in the person of the son borne by the virgin of the delivery of Judah from these two kings Jerusalem . the child mentioned in ch. 8 and 9 the total Israelites Ephraim the ten tribes of who separated from Judah which comprised of ( the two score and five offering remaining tribes) and of Samaria within three years. declined. of chap. of the two kings having taken evil counsel against Ahaz and of their determina Isaiah the prophet to offer . Let us now question. vii. tion to set the foretell son of Tabeal on his throne fall . verse 14. refer 12 J to the context of the verse in same chapter speaks of the king of Syria and the king of Israel having besieged verse 3 and 4. who were then inimical to the house of David. the attacks upon Syria and Israel by the Assyrians took place only before the former became of age to . was much older than the child mentioned for 3 . the capital of Syria. My father and my mother. and of the depreda by the Assyrians on the land of Damascus. a sign. ch.

given the prophet confederacy of the kings of Verse 18 declares the Lord s having fear the and the children for signs and for wonders in Israel . ch. 6 Shiloh. &quot. 14. having refused the soft waters of Shiloah. king of Syria. which turned to their own destruction. xlix. speaks of the army of Rezin. us. figuratively meaning 7 and 8.&quot. vii. king of Israel. from the word Shiloah. Kings. Immanuel. God with instead of leaving it. people against the king of Judah. though in two other instances. lo. advising them to fear Verses n the Lord. came up to 2 : : u Jerusalem to war. upon these invaders. found in Gen.&quot. : . 17. not overcome him.&quot. It is worth noticing. Verse 6. that is. * signification. pronounce the Lord s displeasure at the disobedince of the tribes of Israel.* a river in Judah. for the sake of Immanuel. of the miserable situation a fact which is fully related in the of the Israelites book of Then Rezin. &quot. the armies of the king of Assyria 9 and 10. that the last u word in verse 10. and not Syria and Israel. is is translated in the English version. differs in and also in spelling. 8. son of Remaliah. xvi. and the remaining verses of this chapter speak of false prophets. 5 rhw. Immanuel &quot. and ch. but while the latter was still unable to pronounce a single word. 5 and Pekah. Rezin. of the Lord s declaring that he would peace into the land of Immanuel. of the combination of the . . but could u At that time. is left unchanged as it stands in the original.123 FINAL APPEAL know right from wrong. herein mentioned as signifying rivers in Genesis Isaiah viii. implying a redeemer. FhW i&quot. u as it is in the original Hebrew. and of the son of Remaliah. 6. Ver. the kings of Syria and Israel. viii. bring . the strong waters of the river.. the word &quot. and they besieged Ahaz.

recovered Elath to Syria. dwelt there unto this day. As to the application of verse 4 to Jesus Christ. whose land was Judah . had been forsaken by the king of Syria and of Israel. or to : Jesus of Nazareth.&quot. 9 . of the king of Israel which rise up against me. and carried the people of it cap Damascus. Ver.&quot. in each being the means. It is and slew left Rezin.*the son and heir of Ahaz. the Immanuel. &quot. modation his Gospel to ch. now to the public to in reflect seriously on the above circumstances stated it the context. event took place only after the birth of Jesus. and to 14 is pronounce whether thereby appears that verse originally applied to Hezekiah. and out of the hand Ver. at different periods. thy servant and thy son. king of Jerusalem. and sent : Assyria. messengers to Tiglath Pileser. king of Assyria. : tive to Kir. and drove the Jews from Elath and the Syrians came to Elath. my language in the Second Appeal was. 129 king of Syria. 8 And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found am of the . from the interference of the king of Assyria. or whether before Hezekiah came to years of discretion . &quot. Matthew.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot.&quot. and in the treasures of the king it for a present to the king of Ver. born at least 500 years afterwards and also to decide whether or not the land which Ahaz abhorred. by St. that that &quot. 9 And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him for the king of Assyria went up against and took it. the purpose of accom Isaiah. merely the son of Ahaz and the Saviour resembling for Matthew referred in each other. and . u 7 : So Ahaz sent Come up and save me out hand of the king of Syria. a child born before the defeat of his -enemies. house. the evangelist 14 of . I : in the house s of the Lord. saying. vii.

compared with ii. and Hosea xi.&quot. ii. i. / Indeed. the import used by the sacred observed. Did these orthodox writers also attempt to persuade people to discredit the evangelical writings by applying Hosea Christ ? xi. 14. and allusively to Jesus Editor will not. in whose notes 15. have recalled my son out o/ Egypt.&quot. originally to Israel. . 22. whom all had long before from Egypt. i. says. get the sanc tion of the public to accuse those learned divines of The blasphemy. I entreat my readers to refer to the translation of the four Gospels by Dr. Nevertheless. u that the explanation of the above verse. a declaration from the prophet Hosea called which he God made in relation to the people of Israel. ( page 9 ) that learned divine &quot. as writers. by attempting to persuade him and others. a celebrated Trinitarian writer. of the Greek phrase. 23. ii. is applied by the historian allusively to Jesus where that is meant is. Campbell. the Editor charges me with having blasphemed against the word in my God. Thus xi. 15 of his Gospel. i. their mode 15 of expression in examining Isaiah Matt. or rather. is no more. never Editor. Christ.&quot. that with equal truth. ch. with Matt. as commonly Le Clerc has justly than that such words of any of the prophets may be applied with truth to such an event.. i. I. to In the same manner. many of instances. i. To expected such an accusation from the acquit myself of the charge.I3O FINAL APPEAL in though referred in different senses. I presume. evangelist Matthew ought not to be credited. with greater energy of signification. apostles Hosea other in ch. indeed. of establishing the throne of the house of David. yet . I did no more than adopt vii. much God might now say. and Rev. the xi.

I taught Ephraim also to go. As they them : they sacrificed called them. 6 to Jesus and the govern child is born unto us a son is given : : . 220). then I loved him. in opposition to my . u For unto us a explanation. ment shall be upon his shoulder be called Wonderful. and called my son denominated : out of Egypt. represented used by the apostle in God. ) The Prince of Peace . in comparing the book of Hosea with the Gospel of Matthew (p. so they went from unto Baalim. words that the public may judge whether the language of the is Editor. there to Israel. them God. I 13! am charged with blasphemy against the authority of the Gospel of Matthew. ii. I when 3 passage Israel was a child. &quot.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. The Reverend Editor likewise. reference to the Saviour. just and I i. in which Israel. have . The of Hosea thus runs from ch. xi. taking them by their arms but they knew not that I healed . who is is declared to have sacrificed represented as a child of to Baalim.&quot. and all that he says ( page 534 in support of his referring this verse .Thus 15. Out of called my son/ the evangelist refers really Egypt have to Hosea xi. and to burnt incense to graven images circumstances which cannot justly be ascribed to the Saviour. in consideration of a near which. The : and Father. as though applied is the son of resemblance instance : between their circumstances Jesus in this both Israel and recalled in were carried into Egypt and from thence. liberal. and burnt incense to graven images. and both were the Scriptures the Son of God. everlasting his name shall The mighty God. I must repeat the very I used in the Second Appeal. applies Isaiah ix. as to my attempt to discredit the Gospel. Matt. Counsellor.

however. Ch. and particularly the following instances. which we Louth. our author gives us a : translation. Targum. to I therefore beg of him attention again to the subject.132 to FINAL APPEAL &quot. It in question call his may . many The learned Trinitarians to apply this verse Editor avoided noticing the context. points. the public may refer to them for their own satisfaction. So we find it mentioned in 2 King xv. promises that Israel shall not suffer so severely from the second as from the former invasion of the king of Assyria. the Deity of Jesus.be of use. some of whom lived prior to the birth of Jesus. writer? Is there any authority of the sacred writers of the New Testament. Christian is Bishops. to ? Trinitarian. for the refuta Hebrew a whom. even in an accomodated sense. is in these words To secure to Hezekiah that passage in ch. u 29 : In the days of Pekah. given by Bishop Can the merely oppose that interpretation of the Old Testament given by Jonathan and other celebrated Jewish writers.. to observe those facts.&quot. foreign language in arguing with one not belonging to the orthodox sect and establishment. 6. ix. the authority of a Trinitarian The public may be the best judges of these As these Jewish writings are not unprocurable. and the to historical circumstances which I adduced in my Appeal to prove the application of the verse Hezekiah. tion of his adversary. to Jesus? I believe is mere enthusiasm that has it nothing of the kind : led a great to Jesus. quote with propriety. . Can a at any rate. or one thousand. be discredited from the authority of one. when he invaded Lebanon and Naphtali and Galilee beyond Jordan. authorizing the Editor to apply Isaiah ix. in his or rather to a paraphrase of shall it by Jonathan. i. ix.

We find accordingly. 10. in 2 Kings xviii. king of Assyria. and all the land of Naphtali. 34. that Hezekiah rebelled against the king of Assyria. leaving Israel safe in their Vers. 133 Tiglath-Pile^r. he went. places. king of Israel. 2 Kings xix. and Kedesh. So we find in 2 Kings xviii. So we find in Isaiah vii. 2 and 3 declare ) the joy which Israel were to feel at their delivery from the hands of their cruel invaders. the enemies of Hezekiah and his father. and Galilee. and served him not. after or before him. besieged Jerusalem at king that the people of Samaria setting against . Verses 6 and 7 speak of the illustrious son who was then to reign with justice and of the So we Lord slew the destruction of the army of the find. and Hazor. and Gilead. that the judgment. the king of Syria. the king of Assyria was compelled to return to his country with great ( loss. and ( verse 4 ) at throwing off the yoke and rob of the oppressor. with Ephraim. Verse 5 foretells invaders. the of Syria. 35. and Janoah. that Rezin. a great part of the army angel of the Assyrian invaders. Verses 9 and 10 speak of the displeasure of the Lord at the pride and stoutness of heart of Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria. So we n. 3 7. there was none like him among the kings of Judah and that the . and carried Israel captive to so far Assyria. captivity. that Hezekiah during his reign did what was right in the sight of God. took Ijon. of the Lord s up the adversaries of Rezin. who. Verse n. Kings were defeated and made prisoners by the Assyrians in the sixth year of Hezekiah. Lord was with him wheresover. But in from reducing Israel to the reign of Hezekiah. so that. find in 2 xviii. 2 Kings xix.&quot. and Abel-Beth-Maachah. 36.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 7. him. 35.

So we find in Kings xviii.134 FINAL APPEAL the time the city had borne the child mentioned in ch. of Ephraim and Manasseh having joined together to invade Judah. n . 33 and xix. against great king Assyria came and took all her fenced cities. 14. that the Lord sent his angel into the his camp of the king of Assyria and slew mighty men. to despise the king of Assyria. So we find in 2 Kings the that in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah. that the Lord encouraged the virgin. So we find. 2 Kings xviii. 21. Ch. x. that the king of Assyria boasted of his great power. 35. his disrespect . even blaspheming him in Verses 12 a message to Hezekiah. 26. living God. 21 34. and 2 Chron. and his destruction of the gods of different nations. boasting of the king of Assyria as to his power and conquests of many kingdoms. Verse 21. as occasioned by the wicked ness of Israel. and promised safety to the inhabitants of Jerusalem on the prayer offered by Hezekiah. 7. denounce punishment to the wicked people of Judah by the hands of the Assyrians. for his high boastings. describe the anger of God. the true. that . and to bring ruin upon him. So we of find in 2 Kings xix. of the xviii. promising to punish the king of Assyria. and the daughter whom he had determined to punish Jerusalem. and of his contempt for the living 2 God of the Jews in Jerusalem. of Judah. i 6. Verse 27 promises the king of Judah s liberation from the yoke of the king of Assyria. xxxii. the daughter of for Zion. Verses 8 14. So also we find in 2 Kings xix. 35. 13. was defeated by his adversaries. and for his contempt against the Lord. and of having subdued the gods of the nations and that he despised Jehovah. 14. Verses 12 20 vii. leaders and captains.

&quot. xvi. in the beginning of his reign.&quot.&quot. I trust. all whithersoever &quot. ) And they may also decide whether the delivery of Israel from the Assyrians.&quot. noticed in the preceding paragraphs. or that of Jesus Christ. prospered subsequent to whose reign.&quot.) The public may now judge whether or not the above circumstances. xix. did that which was right in the sight of u . the Lord. 3 7. Counsellor. and xxxix. subject.&quot. trusted in the Lord God of clave to following *4 him . and the contents of chapters vii. and departed not from u who with whom the Lord was . Hezekiah rebelled against served him not afterwards. and viii.&quot. readers compare minutely chapters vii. acknowledged depen dence upon the king of Assyria. took place in the reign of Hezekiah. . and was not Hezekiah alone that. determine the application of verses Hezekiah. xviii. the It 135 king of Assyria. of Isaiah with If my xx. and x. he went was none . mighty God. (2 Kings xviii.TO THK CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. attack of the and the punishment inflicted upon the king of Assyria in the prescribed manner. common with the son mentioned in Isaiah who was called Hezekiah. the Father of the everlasting age.Wonderful. 6. the Lord 6 and 7 of ch. of Isaiah to who &quot. they will. broke the images and cut down the groves Israel u . Immanucl? In k4 us. and prior and like him among the kings of Judah. removed high places u . 7 Israel when Hezekiah was only a child : ( 2 Kings and 8. and sued to him for protection against the kings of Syria and of xvi. the . ix. God with &quot. &quot. &quot.&quot. but his father Ahaz also confessed the superiority of the king of Assyria.&quot. 2 Kings xv. have a still clearer view of the ix. u God my strength&quot.

St. Emma OJT with .&quot. human beings. and the land of Naphtalim and Galilee. are always to be taken in a limited sense. 7. But let us ascertain whether other beings are not. to&amp. readers. i. or &quot. from the darkness of sin. h$ God that is. Second Appeal. &quot. iii. This name us. is &quot.everlasting. and that he must therefore be God. u and to Moreover.&quot. &quot. whose spiritual reign delivered . As the Editor and many orthodox Christians lay much stress on the application of the term Immanuel Jesus. with u name Immanuel. with us us u . 26 Heb. &quot. p of three Hebrew words. in common with Jesus. called by designations compounded . The sum total of their argument 23 : is derived from the following verse. most high Jehovah. God. Vide Gen. as noticed in pages 240. As to the phrases no end. xlix. page 275. i. being interpreted.&quot. the latter long duration. And they which. as I observed in note. found in Isaiah ix.&quot. and &quot. in an accommodated sense. 275 and 276 epithets. composed noo. el. 6. the difference between to be called is worth observing. as I noticed in the note at be&quot. shall call his is Matt.gt. these. and even inanimate or similarobjects. to which I beg to refer my for ever.&quot. of my Second Appeal. 243. 2. the former signifying plenteousness.136 FINAL APPEAL Prince of Peace. to Jesus. without being held up as the &quot. . were designated by the same terms. Matthew. when applied to creatures. . 6. God hence called the advocates for the Trinity conclude that Jesus is here God. page 234 of the Second Appeal.with cl . applies Isaiah ix. I offer the following observations. also the inhabitants of Zebulun. 242. in the same way as in Hezekiah s reign their inhabitants were saved from the darkness of foreign invasion.

and my life is preserved. mighty God Ver. say that Jacob wrestled with the Almighty God. MalcrnW. Dan. 28 whom he saw there.^. And Ver. that &quot. or whether and Jesus.living God . &quot. and prevailed over him. is styled cl (God.&quot. from the invasion of Isaiah vii.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. there wrestled a Jacob was left alone. Gabri^/. be the grossest blasphemy to . from the application of this term to him. strong &quot. and man with him until the breaking of the day.) be called no more the said. Jehovah God. 16.&quot.&quot. 18. Thy name shall he ) &quot.name of the place W^B. none esteemed him to be during the reign of Ahaz but God. : angel ( Jacob. .) and and the angel who wrestled with and blessed Jacob. in the sacred writings. prevailed. to the deliverer immediately the king of Syria.&quot. &quot. for as a prince hast prince properly speaking./(God. xlvi. 2. God. but Isra^/ thou power with and hast pi waited.&quot. shewed him his power and wrestling with the angel. 20.&quot. u 17. Here the called the face of *&amp. &quot. Gen. king Chron. find So we in . my i God xv.&quot. . or 137 the term el is God. Beside. (or God.The name of his first born was ]ocl&quot. called Israel the prince of God. is.Jehu-/.&quot. or. that viii. Gen. &quot. &quot.&quot. on the by referring to Parkhurst s Hebrew Lexicon. &quot.And &quot. 30 he (Jacob) called the . the very term in Immanuel is applied of Judah 14. of the word cl.&quot.Jaazi^/. and that of Israel. &quot. and then direct exclusively applied to Jehovah xxxiiour attention to the above-stated conclusion. &quot.&quot. 24 : And : Peni^/ : for I have seen God face to place is face.gt. Ver. As Jacob in God and with men. Moreover.&quot. he was of the angel for it would the .thai explanation Christian emperors of the fourth and fifth centuries would suffer themselves to be addressed by the style uf . viii. is.) we find &quot. I Sam.

&quot. with thine anointed} (Ver. 20) oil in vision to one. I therefore beg to refer my readers to the whole a u context of the Psalm in question. often applied to superiors. MY GOD.&quot. 13 &quot.) that David is also called the holy one of Israel. 19.Thou hast made void the Thou hast made covenant of thy servant.Immanuel.&quot. thou hast been worth &quot. 1 (Ver. thou of MY first &quot.&quot. anointed art my holy He shall cry unto (Ver.138 a FINAL APPEAL your divinity&quot. 45) The public now may judge whether the &quot. even in an accommodated sense. and the rock him. God.&quot.The mighty men God. the phrase &quot.&quot. my servant with have u me. thy holy Then thou (Ver. Moab. will 35) lie Once I have sworn by my holiness. in Psalm Ixxxix. (Ver.your Godship&quot. 26) my Father. or to Jesus. or can used. And also to the Old Testament we. xv.The mighty one of of the Heathen. Exod. : n . appointed by God as the Lord of the Jews and Gentiles. saidst have I found David. for Jesus.&quot. D* ]} ^tf 1 &quot.TTN&quot.1 saw s . . i Exod. make him my (Ver.But SALVATION. that is Samuel. (page 241.) few passages of spakest I which I here subjoin. (Ver. 15: xxviii. The Editor denies the truth of my assertion in the Second Appeal. &quot. xxij.&quot. and . (Ver. find the terms* b* by referring el. be justified in charging the apostle Matthew with inconsistency. 39) &quot.&quot. 44) his glory to cease. above sentences are applicable to king David.! D^ITO *-b# DTlStf &quot. on account of his having elohim. 38) that I not unto DAVID&quot.&quot. &quot. 27) Also I will &quot. and insists that Jehovah and the future Messiah only are styled the holy one. * Ezekiel xxxi. No one. 8 : DTlStfJl h# To the God that is the Judges. OTlS* therefore. Sam. Thou hast covered him (Ver. born. thou hast cast off and abhorred. with shame.

and that of the other house. is applied to one constantly styled a servant. such as wonderful. it is doubtful whether they ever saw this prophecy while in their own but Christ has been a stone of stumbling and land away captive if . passages mentioned in pages 156 and 157 of the Second Appeal. that Isaiah delivered this prophecy in the that the captivity of one of the houses reign of Ahaz . 8. counsellor. and who cannot be supposed to have been covered with shame. the mighty God.&quot. names. in the reign of Zedekiah. the everlasting Father. . With a view to deduce the deity of Jesus Christ from the comparison of Isaiah xxviii. and with i Peter ii. and even to inanimate objects. (page 570. 13. with whom God been worth.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.) what instances I peculiar to God. in which he will find the same epithets given to human beings. The Editor bring that these inquires. a few years after the delivery of not a year or two before. of Israel took place in the reign of Hezekiah.The declaration is. with Isaiah viii. Besides. that the term u holy one &quot. the Reverend Editor thus comments (page 570): shall &quot. . it is evident from this passage. 139 has never whose glory never ceased. was he this to them prior to the coming of Christ ? As the house of Israel was carried this prophecy. his son. were applied to certain I therefore kings in Israel beg to refer him to the . the Prince of Peace. rock of offence to centuries. while all of every tribe for nearly eighteen a sanctuary to all he has been I who have trusted in him. and for Jehovah a rock of offence to the two houses of Israel but after of hosts : the delivery of his prophecy. need not prolong the discussion by pointing out. that be for a stumbling-stone. 16.

and rock of even to them 5 who stumble at the word.As to his being made the head of the corner by his heavenly Father. by an attentive reference to the sacred 2 histories. the two houses of . reject him. stumbling at Common sense. ) is but a general statement of the ill consequences attached to disobedience.&quot. being delivery carried away captive prophecy. he must be stumbling-stone to those his word. must not be esteemed as the maker himself. &quot. or of the Gentiles. Jesus is here represented as a stone. then. in verse 7. the same is the head of the corner. whether on the part of Israel. Israel. the circumstance as and misery just before. prophet ( declaration and that and &quot. the Lord of hosts having become offence for a stumbling-stone and Peter for a rock of the 8. a few will years after the of this he undoubtedly be of their persuaded to confess distress also. from the time of Ahaz. i soon ii. And a stone of stumbling. . however. is prejudice.The made stone which the builders disallowed. that a stone. The necessary consequence. made the head of the corner. if not biased by early sufficient to decide. on the phrase. well as during the time of captivity. and. Kings and 2 Chron. offence. rejected by men but a chosen by God . that he will clearly perceive that the above-stated prophecy of Isaiah had been duly fulfilled long before to s Christ s birth. to the word delivered to them by Jesus in his divine commission. Editor comments. being disobedient. which is who chosen and made the head of the corner by a maker. will be. The &quot. consequently. As the Editor acknowledges the fact of the house of Israel &quot. this can no more affect his unchangeable deity.140 FINAL APPEAL the 9th king of Judah.&quot. after 7. saying.

for. and his growth and reduction. by referring to Mark i. whom ye seek. of the prophecy of Malachi. . 14! than his being made flesh. should not be considered as an evidence of a change in him. i. more than also follow the example of that in his who coupled them Gospel. ( Behold. fully explains the passage of Isaiah. : . latter. ) by coupling it with Malachi iii. This is as much as to say. or fact of his . and separate mention of Jehovah. that the circumstance of an object being made flesh. shall suddenly come into his temple. I confined my animadvesion to the former distinct &quot. and he shall prepare the way before me . and the Lord. ( voice of him that crieth in the Prepare ye the way of the Lord. coupling the above verses. adpoted by me.&quot. 3. I will send my messenger.&quot. in the progress of time. I did no Evangelist. one s being made flesh. As the explanation. I &quot. (page 571. every man might up 3. whom behold. we must matter. claim the as honour of an immutable flesh. and of the Messiah. make straight in the desert a high way for our God. 4 to evade Isaiah wilderness.) that xi. even the messenger of the covenant. then be at a loss to discover If even a single changeable object in the world. ) and confining his animadversions to the I trust. and set God made The The Editor says. saith the Lord ye delight in . that the circumstance of his being made the head of the corner is as much a proof of his changeable nature as the being made flesh for were we to admit. which he was not before. 2.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. of hosts. he shall come. as the messenger of the covenant John. we find in the book of that prophet. will find. that m the Editor.attempted nature. does not evince the changeableness of the nature of that object.

that every third person by God. and the &quot. whom ye delight in. &quot. It is.&quot. and as the preparer of the way of both manner as a commander. How can the mention of the in the third person. It is worth observing. by the the unity of that messenger vrith the Deity? Diety. How the Editor supposes that Malachi does not mention two.The fact Malachi does not mention two it is Jehovah is. as the saying of Jehovah. that &quot.&quot. Hebrew. prove messenger of the covenant. whom the king places at the occupy a country of the enemy. immediately after the mention of &quot. I.&quot.the messenger of the covenant&quot. ought FINAL APPEAL to be considered as the forerunner. stands as nominative to the verb &quot. come. not they. the prophet Behold. . of . in that case. 243. that the iii.the messenger of adds. 244. evident.&quot. amount at least to thousands in the sacred writings. by the prophet adding. that in the original Hebrew. also. therefore. Malachi covenant.&quot. that . &quot.) On which explanation the Editor observes. shall with the pronoun he/ The verse thus stands .142 therefore. &quot.&quot. and the Jehovah are Messenger s covenant shall identified &quot. the number of identified Gods must. sent in advance in the same strong post in the said to be preparing the way for the battles of his king. who was afterwards. saith the Lord of hosts. Were we to admit. messenger of the covenant is distinctly and separately mentioned. &quot. or of the general. We find &quot. both. in the original messenger of the with the conjunction after the and.&quot. may be to head of his army. suddenly to come and the into his temple of &quot. But we find. pp. *O or &quot. I am unable to guess.&quot. (Second Appeal. he come. mention of the Lord. is identified with being spoken of in the God. the covenant. he shall come.

&quot. ( in my .) hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David. of the covenant. his the Lord God will : come with behold. but hath committed all judgment unto the Sou and Matt. xxii. whom in . &quot. Mark. 30. and John his son.) with Rev.&quot.) Behold the Lamb of God. 12. as mightier than himself.) &quot. Zechariah gives us to understand. In John we find still more explicit testimony. (30. Some orthodox divines having attempted to prove the deity of Jesus. writings of Matthew. whom &quot. a strong hand. . and my reward is with me.This is he of whom I said. (Luke i. .) adds. 69. shall suddenly come IS to his temple . who taketh away the sin of the world. and with arm shall rule for him his reward is him. and the messenger Lord of hosts. After me &quot.The Father judgeth no man. Behold. COMING. the identity of Jesus with Jehovah. (i. mentioned in Isaiah xl. behold. 1 will send he shall prepare the way before my messenger. (or. ) John v.&quot. 1 Jesus. cohieth a man who is preferred before My readers may now judge whether Zechariah and John confirmed me. or represented him as a creature raised.Be hold. and Luke. &quot. by comparing Isaiah xl.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. come quickly. in the original u : 143 Behold. is As to the nature of Zechariah. and exalted by his and our Father. he shall come. (&quot. brought to their notice. 3. Second Appeal page 254. we find Jesus represented by John. ) give to every man according as his work shall and his I be.&quot. ye delight saith the is The Editor That Jesus Jehova. 10. 22. the Most High. In the evangelical that God &quot.&quot.. 29. and me and the Lord.&quot. whose way John was confirmed by the testimony of sent to prepare. ye seek. ( to I work before him.

xxii.&quot. his by the not a God. &quot. by the authority of his Divine Majesty. judgment unto the Son.144 xvi. These argument. Is it not.The Father judgeth no man. shall come in the glory of his Father. the authority by which these things are done should be considered as a matter of no consequence. by the omnipotent God. were vested in Jesus. but my whether he be and the person described as rewarding : this. which is not. however. therefore. by what authority Christ rewards. 27. and to reward them accordingly. why should we not deem it also necessary to ascertain whether the authority to judge men. as well as in the performance of miracles. or exercised by him fact.&quot. (p. independetly of the Father of the universe ? In point of we find the following positive avowal of Jesus himself &quot. the Editor says. might be established on an equal footing. reward. If in the administering of judgment and of 12. or indepen dently of the Almighty power ? But if we consider it ? own power Is it incumbent on us to believe and to know that those prophets performed works peculiarly ascribed to God.) passages. a power of Jesus. 573. these very passages confirm. whether Joshua ordered the sun and the authority of moon or to stop their motions. whether Elijah raised the question dead by the authority of the Most High. do not in the least affect the question. the almighty and that of several others. by worth determining.For FINAL APPEAL the Son of Man . subject worthy of question. and my judgment is because just all &quot. particularly Rev. but hath committed judge .As : I hear I I seek . with his angels and then he works/ shall reward the every man according force of to his To weaken &quot. as well as the power of performing miracles.

gt. that but the will of the Father who hath tion. When ye then shall ye know my : &quot.His glory 10 . 9 : Thy throne. Acts xvii.Then said Jesus lifted am he.ut was dependent on God for the exercise of his power : as the Son of God was quite an independent Deity ? So far from meeting with such authority. that THY : SON . but as the Son of Man. authority for the assertion that Jesus.&quot. as the Son of any Man.&quot. Thou righteousness and hated iniquity therefore God.&quot. The Editor says. O GOD. power over all flesh. 31 : &quot. whereof he hath given assurance unto all men.&quot. is described to be subject to and dependent on God.All Here the Editor offers the following made of himself the Son of Man. I speak these things. 145 own . unto them. even THY GOD. xvii. As him} 1 thou hast given eternal i. and that / do nothing of myselj but as . i. is committed to him. not merely as the Son. saying. ever 8. up the SON of MAN. 28: &quot. be there is permitted ask the Editor. Father hath taught me.as also may glorify thee. by that whom he hath ordained-. in every epithet that he was designated by. he hath appointed a day in which E will judge the world in righteousness. whether which I have to often however. I may. as to providence and final judgment. not mine sent me. HIM life &quot.will.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. is is for ever and . the hour is come glorify thy Son. we find that Jesus. 2 Father. that he should give to. This amounts to the doctrine of the two-fold nature of Jesus. because he &quot. in that HE hath raised him from the dead. the absurdity noticed. the Mediator.Because MAN John have that I viii. exaplanapower. many as thou hast given Heb. t&amp. &quot. hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows&quot. a sceptre of righteousness hast loved the sceptre of thy kingdom: .

I4& FINAL APPEAL the Son aside. To my which my limited capacity. omitted to quote John v. the laws of nature. must produce least a temporary change in his nature. being does not change his glorious nature. I must confess. page 155. for a season. during this discussion in my Second Appeal. * it John xvii. understanding. $ and 22. The Editor finally argues. . It is true that God s bes committing on the sun the power of casting light upon the towing planets round him. 2 . because it fully in has no relation to the subject. have. such divinity must be analogousto matter without space or gravity. lay divine nature he can never change. judging no man himself. and enabling superiors to provide of judgment. that as the Father r s work and glory of committing the final judge of all. ( ) he but his* wish to be informed what kind of divine nature divested of its it was that could be for glory* and power.. without the intervention of sical some phy s.. Son the authority food and protection for their dependents. in 1 this visible world. Acts x. that nothing can be s effected. in no way changes to the Son the entire his original nature to the and godhead. and because I noticed another part of that publication. of course. do not imply any change in his glorious nature for it is ordained by . t even a season.&quot. so the Son s laying aside his glory and becoming a man. or sunbeam without light. but that Son or any other being laying at aside his glory and becoming a man. cannot u comprehend. I may. 23. is a proposition as obvious as any that can be submitted to the understan I ding. f John xvii. 38. means .

8. from noticing. saying. 14 and did worship. after he received worship by the command of God from all the angels I may be. 12.&quot. and in xxii. and said unto him. King of Israel. my This argument has been already replied to it shall be again adverted to Second Appeal . 92. How ?&quot. could Jesus forbid John to worship him. and even human Editor. alluded to by the Editor. In this book five persons address at different times two of the elders around the thronet the grand speaker throughou. host of the Lord. also Heb. justified in asking the the angel could forbid John to worship him. He as be meant verse 9. beings. often intro is two angels. is duced without the least notice. Rev. . &quot. Jehovah of beside hosts. while he knew that other angels of God. has quoted only instances in which describes the two elders and the two angels in a John distinct manner but I cannot find that he adduces even Editor.) &quot. with the utmost The however.&quot. he. and he who the book whom duces without the least notice. while he previously des care. the 6 xliv. The Editor next comes to Isaiah saith the Lord. (the captain of the .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. shortly.&quot. Joshua v. 13. on the same principle. u : Thus and i. Again. intro &quot. after the first chapter. and his redeemer last. a single instance where the u grand speaker&quot. woiship from fellow-creatures? And Joshua fell on his face to the earth. already- have considered that passage as fully as possible in the preced ing chapter. then endeavors to prove that Jesus cannot prohibiting John from worshipping him in &quot. that . he says. p. is me there am the first and I am the no God comparing it with I . as refrain this place. cribes every other speaker. How had received &quot.&quot. I 147 in I will i. What saith my Lord unto his .

in ch. John to worship him. 31 &quot. 9. it is quite plain that no fell his face conclusion can be drawn from of the being who. in scriptural language. as is evident from the . to have fallen at 8. last sentence of verse &quot. to Jesus. but angels and prophets. down and worshipped stances. 1 7. implying an external mark of religious reverence paid to God and since. word u worship worship is used as signifying merely a token of &quot. he refused it. : And he (Balaam) saw the angel of the drawn in his flat on his chadnezzar Lord standing in the way. we find in Matt. &quot. him . therefore. used to accept of it. The servant. The fact is is. as latter sense. however. that the word as worship. Lamb 1 . 26. the Most High. 46 : Then the king Nebu and worshipped Daniel.&quot. the four beasts and four- and-twenty elders having fallen/down before the avoiding. the use of the wo#d worship to express. as well as .&quot. in ch. v. in Rev. FINAL APPEAL Numb. therefore. i. face. upon As the Editor s argument. It denotes. in this not only Jesus. the reverence shewn to the Lambl. the feet of Jesus and he speaks also. in these places.148 servant?&quot. must apply with equal force to angels as to Jesus. that the author of the book of Revelation declares self. and fell Daniel &quot. or used sometimes . forbids &quot. throughout the whole book of Revelation. in this sense worship was offered by John to the angel. My readers will observe. and his sword hand. him. nor raises them to a level with their Creator. of. xxii. offered with which neither whom the Deity. and even temporal princes or masters. . ii. fell and so in various other ins- in this acceptation.&quot. it relative to the identity 9. and he bowed down his head. xviii. merely a identifies those to mark it is of reverence. xxii. God and sometimes the same civil respect due to superiors : and accordingly.

iii. &quot. unto him.How could Jesus.&quot. and worshipped him. the an epithet peculiarly applied to God five Almighty times in the book of Revelation. xi. and very often through out the rest of the sacred writings. then shall the that also himself be subject all. Ver. t o notice or.Jehovah. when he even shall have delivered up the kingdom &quot.&quot. &quot. 4.Alpha Alpha and Omega. and which is but a repetition of what is found in the preceding verse 4th of &quot. 14 : saith the &quot. that chapter. invariably. he adds n. &c. God. page 252. He xix. &quot. in a finite sense. &quot. it has never been applied to Jesus in any part of the Revelation. Paul. 14. the expressions it contains are given as those of God himself and not of Christ. Cor. u the beginning and the to wit. the beginning and the end. Vide says. 8 introduced again by the Editor. the Pather&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. of his fellow-labourers. and v. while to the words u fell down. Him who &quot. justly applicable to Jesus. wonder at the Editor s entirely neglecting &quot. and Omega. 24 : Then cometh the to end. i.&quot. since it describes the speaker to be and who was. &quot.&quot.&quot. reject worship from John I do not ?&quot. and by St. 3rdly. who beclares himself to be Alpha and Omega. in the Second Appeal. 28 : And when Son in all things shall be subdued unto him. beginning and end. ning of the creation of God : I know thy works.&quot. Being equivalent to &quot. ch. is. either separately or joined with the terms &quot. God may be all As to Rev.when I find him regardless of the explanation given by John himself respecting these terms.&quot. I Cor. one These things the faithful and true witness. Rev.&quot. 16. my remarks on the terms end.&quot. i. : xv. and who is to come. the begin Amen.Alpha and . 15 The first-born of every creature. are. 149 when referring to God. vii.

overlooking the application of the sama word. 9. 26. which Jesus. vii. Peter is represented as a searcher of the heart 8. but again stated. with the Father on his of Revelation except implies nothing in th2 book an acquisition of holy psrfection and honour. refer my readers to . 4thly.. even as also over &quot. without our therefore acknowledg ing him as an object of religious worship. $. Editor. that it is &quot. to have prohibited Cornelius from offering him worship.&quot. 3. &quot. ?&quot. came.&quot. The How could Jesus. 6. i will find that no man- tion of the Larnb. the Lamb In answer to his assertion. s once made. &quot.&quot. to the elders and the four beasts. in the Acts of the Apostles. sit u to Besides. 4. I beg to ch. &quot. Holy. ch. holy. in common with every righteous Christian Ch.15 FINAL APPEAL But.&quot. and am set down with my Father in his throne. Elisha is declared to have known what passed in he is the heart of the king. have already fully noticed this verse not return to the subject here. which contains this phrase blessed constantly adore. as far as they possessed the gift of prophecy. nay. were u searchers of hearts. which I beg to remind him. . The Rev. lastly. in ch.&quot. as I will Omega. iv. where they Je. or in other words. And in 2 Kings vi. whom th holy.The Lamb who -is in the midst of the throne.rather to the whole of th. Thus. such a phrase as throne.&quot. sit iii. 25. were able to discover what passed in the hearts of other men . I in page 112. 8. lays stress on the phrase found in 17. v.To him that acquired through ovcrcometh will I grant to with m3 in my throne. St.&quot. that the prophets and the apostles also. Lord God Almighty. reject the acceptance of worship &quot. x. 32. iv. midst. crying.it crnpter. . his merits. I 21: &quot.su. in ch. or. who searches the Editor urges. In answer to heart.

cannot perceive what the Editor could have really meant by the following remark He there (in ver. xxii. 12. introduced different speakers. another speaker besides the angel manner. Ch. have intended to identify the speaker in ch. Behold.&quot. xxi. v. xxi. I unto me. And he said unto me.&quot. these words are true and faithful. things new. who represents himself as a fellow-servant of John. xxi. xxii. away.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. u in verses observes.&quot. In ch. xxi. &quot. 5) &quot. ! k Write. and : uses the same language found in these words are true and faithful ch.&quot. xx. Ver. u the Besides. u 5 : And all he that sat upon the throne said. intro duced in an abrupt I of ch. Vide I Thess. 6. the language found in ch. according to the interpretation of the Editor. 6 : And he things. &c. make said Write. says. 6. 5.) that is 5. u 7 : It is done. 7. 6. who thus. and he shall be my sou. and leave my readers is to judge whether or not the speaker in the here introduced alleged to be in same abrupt* manner : as he is ch. 3.) my son. and there xxi. Jor these sayings are but in the hitter we find only. but not once without a distinct notice of the speaker in the context. (page 577.&quot. . 6. 15. He that overcometh shall inherit all I will be his God. therefore repeat verse n. used in ch. since in the former the whole speech stands thus Write. Ver. for &quot. u These true and faithful . u Ch. John introduces. 151 The Editor of ch. 10. ii And I saw a great white throne. * In the book of Revelation. xx. I am Alpha and Omega. speaking of himself. xxii.&quot. and him that sat on fled it. the day of the Lord is metaphorically as a speaker. ik I will be his God. xvi 14. I from whose face the earth and the heaven \yas found no place for them. for 1 hope he could not xxii. with the speaker in ch. and 2 Peter iii. and verse 5 7 of ch. about eighty times. 5. is not 1 very same &quot. and he shall be (ver.

FINAL APPEAL write&quot. but not the verb u sayings are faithful and true nor the causal preposition for&quot. And 13) runs thus &quot. said. me these he unto me. demons Behold. and my reward is with me. quickly. . These sayings are faithful and true J : and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew his servants the things which must shortly be done. I come (ver. He that is unjust. 7. ist. (10) And he saith unto things. 6. 7.&quot.152 . 13. 6 the speaker of ver. See thou do it not for I am thy fellow-servant. (n) and he which hand. previously introduced in ver. let him be righteous still and he that is holy. that this angel neither . still be unjust still is filthy. as The he passage in question (vers. Internal evidence. ^ The Editor comes next evidence trates &quot. at . to what he calls internal saying. (ver. however. I . I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel who shewed. the am Alpha and the first . (7) Behold. (12) And behold. Then saith : me.)&quot. come quickly.) nor I am Alpha and Omega. let him. And when (9) I is he who keeps the saw these things. and John had heard and seen. let him be filthy he that is righteous. . : said unto me. I come quickly (8) : blessed I prophecy of this book. to give every I man according as his work shall be. in which a speech is repeated without the previous introduction of the speaker and in this instance we find an angel is . Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of for the time is this book. the beginning and the end. let him be holy still. single instance in the whole style of the is There not a book of Revelation. Let us now examine the context and the writings of the book of Revelation. (13) and Omega. and of thy brethren the prophets. . heard them. and of them which keep the say ings of this book worship God.

) we must be of totally at a loss to account for the strange conduct John towards entirely. in falling down to wor ship before the feet of the angel. and 7 refer verses 6. : holy prophets sent his angel things ivhich fa must shortly be shciv unto his servants the u 1 done. containing the precise words in both instances. and 9. John himself explains whom he meant by the angel mentioned &quot. without defying common sense. to an I unknown and all angel. in how which there is no notice whatsoever of a new speaker. sentences. rots 8oiy\oiS avrov a 7fVfcr0ai fv raXti. though of no conse quence.) fa show unto his savants things which must shortly come fa pass&quot. and neglecting Jesus though he saw and heard them both at onetime. 6.. in xxii. and no un biased mind can. in these two phrases. reject the relation of a verb to an appropriate nomi native standing before it.8. or rather his vision of Jesus was subsequent to that of the angel. these verses. xxii. and verse abruptly to Jesus. therefore. There is only one agent in the whole train of 2ndly. I therefore quote the original. his Master.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. in the face of all the rules of composi tion. expressly named in the first chapter of And the Lord God of the Ch. 6 Revelation. Jesus. As in the English version there is some difference. and 9. 8. the acknowledged laws of grammar. . I : God gave unto him. Ch. Were we to follow the example conceive of the Editor. 153- I am. and verse the 7th to another. identifying this angel with Jesus. quite at a loss to comprehend the Editor can justify himself in ascribing verses 6. (which we cannot do. last. 4thly. extending as far as verse 20. in order to refer the same to a noun which preceding is not found in any of the immediately 3rdly. to one being. i.&quot. (Jesus.&quot.

xxii. and addresses Christians as brethren. language designates found elsewhere in the book As the of Revelation. xii. according to the general of Trinitarian exposition. that he sent shew to John and his other servants these things in the churches. 9. therefore. by reference to ch. phrase five I come is quickly. 12. 7. and the other. ^thly. 1 6. designates the . I will now have &quot. 5. recourse to the rule recom mended by the &quot.) we must naturally ascribe this phrase in verse refer to Jesus. iii. shewed.r 54 FINAL APPEAL I hope now that the explanation of the author of the book of Revelation.&quot. Editor. 10. (8. It is not only in verse 9 that Jesus calls himself a servant of God.) the immediately following verses with him. (ch. We may in the latter easily find out the angel who is described end of ch. used expressly by Jesus as speaker in ii. joined with the above-stated circum stances. but also in Matt. i. as expressly mentioned in verse i of the book of Revelation. that Jesus. and must. in perfect consistency other scriptural writings. We find here two things distinctly one. 6. to all he represents himself as a chosen servant of the Most High and in xxviii. If mode the Editor should say. 17. and John xx. his that when the speaker him. : i. other opponents. i. 16 u I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches&quot. that the adoption of such . ch. different instances. n. will not fall short of producing conviction in the mind of the Editor and my i.&quot. as being sent by Jesus. as directed by God : in ch. desig nated as an angel in xxii. as well as in ch. disciples as his brethren. xxii. xxii. all things which must shortly come his angel to to pass . 18. 20. 16. is not expressly named. ch. respecting the Christian dispensation.

Ch. ? and am down with my Father his throne. under the supposition that in this instance also Jesus God. and glorify THY name for THOU . 155 designations was in reference to the human capacity of Jesus. &c. with a few remarks in allusion to &quot. 2). 21 &quot.&quot. : To him that over cometh will I grant to with set me in my throne. merely in his human I capacity. Is it becoming of the nature of : God &quot. thou King Who ? fear THE?:. is the Lamb that was slain to power. and blessing. and glory. now s conclude my reply to this branch of the Editor argument. found thy works perfect before confess his &quot. and the name of the city of my God. marvellous are true are THY works. ? (Ver. Lord God Almighty of Saints. Him bejorc my Father. God&quot.I . as well as forbids John to worship him. sit iii. Chap.&quot. and honour. and before his that overcometh will I make a : angels&quot. ii. (Rev. U (iii.&quot. KYKN AS in 1 aho overcame.) it Is consistent with the nature of : God u : to acquire exalta a tion through merit voice. to sing thus. I would justified in ascribing deity to As I received of my Can any man be one whose language is this have not Father&quot. 12 Saying with receive loud Worthy and riches. I will name (ver.) . addressing himself to another being Great and . : &quot. and his followers brethren. v. which cometh down out of heaven from my GW&quot. just shall and not THY WAYS. ?&quot. O Lord. as after receiving the worship of the highest archangel God. in turn . and wisdom. at God s express commands forbade John to worship him &quot. 12. and strength. he will perhaps give up the present difference from calls himself a servant of me. pillar in the temple of of my God I will write upon him the name my God.lt. Is it that the Son of such questions of the Editor.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 27) ask. &amp.

him. takes great care choice of words. and of the testimony of And peace from him who* Jesus Christ&quot. .3 they (the holy saints) sing the song of : Moses. 3. xii. 16 &quot. Ver. : of God. 10 &quot. keep the commandments of God. v.The kingdoms of this world are 1 become the kingdoms of our Lord. u and for the testimony of Jesus Christ. and who was. ch. : Who bare record of the word of God.&quot. then that of the Lamb . The apostle never once declares him to be God of Power. and haveChrist. Ch. and who is to come and from the seven spirits which are before his throne and from Jesus For the word Christ. the testimony of Jesus Christ&quot.Who Chap. 5 : is.&quot. and the faith of Jesus&quot.&quot.And hast made us unto our God kings and priests.&quot. Ch.&quot. the peculiar epithet of the Almighty the most holy saints sing first the song of Moses. &quot. 12: &quot. &c.And xv. the servant of God. : King of Kings. it. 4? &quot. and Lord of Lords. xvii. and of HIS 17 : &quot. Ch. in the those generally printed in capitals. and King of kings. who is the Jaithful witness.That keep the commandments of God.156 FINAL APPEAL art ONLY holy.&quot. Ch. and hast redeemed us to God&quot. Ch&quot.&quot. Ch. 14 For he (the Lamb) is Lord of lords. i.. which God gave unto &quot. 9 : Thou wast slain. xiv. and the song of the Lamb. . xix. . 23: For the glory of God did lighten in and the to ascribing the Lamb is Lamb the light thereof. &quot.&quot. having perhaps had in view the priority of the former to the latter in point of birth. Vers. 2 &quot. Ver. Is not the Lamb throughout the whole Revelation mentioned separately The Revelation of and distinctly from God Ch.. So Gods. xxi.He (the Lamb) hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written. xv. John most honorary epithets. 15 &quot. i : : Jesus Christ. 9 . and : &quot.&quot. Ch. Ver. 4. : xi.

that -&quot. saith the Lord.) with Rom. &quot. At least I am other- . this be Christ. and without any the authority in the holy scriptures. because the Father has committed the office of final judgment to him.But why dost thou judge thy why dost thou set at nought thy brother all brother? ? For we :shall it is stand before the judgment-seat of Christ. is to be found ? It must author it is not in to ours. Between the prophet and the apostle there is a perfect agreement in substance. this.Unto me. or 1012. On the attempt to prove the deity of Jesus Christ by comparing Isaiah xiv. since both declare that it is to God that every knee shall bow. Almighty. the Editor in the course of his to wit. For written. or his true 1 his worship. God. xiv. (&quot.&quot. So then.) I observed in my Second Appeal. i. every knee shall to me. : emblem. every tongue shall swear.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. that we must of Christ. and every tongue shall all confess through him. We s where the phrase through him be in the here beg leave to ask our author. To which the answer of the Editor is &quot. e. bow and every tongue shall confess to God.) I most lamb be God If a slain in reply following query ?&quot. gratuitously inserted in my words in question are explanation.. copy of the prophet and the apostleBy these words the Editor clearly that means insinuate. every knee shall bow. As I live.&quot. 23. every one of us shall give account of himself to God.&quot. (&quot.&quot. In answer to one of the 157 many insinuations made by &quot. before stand : at the whose judgment-seat we shall same time both Jesus and his apostles stand before the judgment-seat inform us. what must be become his worshippers ? and what must. what must become of the precepts of the Jesus reluctantly put (page 576.If arguments.

2 Cor. Amen. Rom. 18 All things are of God. &quot.. v.&quot. Jesus that by himself. I That hope to I was warranted in my interpretation. : be glory through Jesus Christ forever. : I thank my God through shall : Jesus Christ. Ch. to wit.&quot.. by referring it is him the following that it passages. i. to himself by Jesus Son. Ch. no one can.In the day when God judge u the secrets of men by Jesus Christ&quot. Christ&quot. &quot. : For the Father judgeth all no man.because judgment to the Pather has committed the office of final him&quot. . i We have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. John v. Ch.&quot. think. but hath committed judgment unto the After considering these texts.&quot. I refuse to admit the correctness of my assertion. v. to convince the Editor himself. 16 : &quot. as being founded upon the best authority of the is that man can appeal to. whose judgment-seat we shall stand. I observed in my Second Appeal. &quot. 27 : To God only wise.How passage of Isaiah. instead of giving was only fully my idea of its import. Upon the interpretation &quot. reconciled us 22 &quot.It above-mentioned swears here &quot. who hath.If FINAL APPEAL loss to wise at a that the in words his understand what he means by saying. xvi. that it is to before God every knee shall bow through Christ. ii. in is which expressly declared Jesus that glory and thanks are to be given to God. \^s quot the fact ing that a I particular passage falsely. 8 &quot. of my paraphrase are not to be of the of found edition Bible . for it would wished I be to unworthy impress to suppose him that he that his readers with the idea.&quot. and that we have peace with God and also that it is BY JESUS Christ that God through : judgeth the world.

therefore transcribe the or that the reader may judge whether : has any foundation &quot. not his position shall one say. with the Editor so as to declare Jesus to only Saviour mentioned in the records of the Christian dispensation but previous his birth there were many saviours raised by to under God. Eph. In the Lord have shall I righteousness . used in such a sense as I principally verse. agree be. is verse 24.&quot. Christ is &quot. Is not this merely a assert that begging of the question. swore in this manner ? To this the Editor replies.Q can they escape the context. I requested in my Second Appeal. v.Surely. 5. and all men come shall and that even to him strength are incensed against : him be ashamed.&quot. and not Jesus. The Editor righteousness is adds. In the one God is represented as the husband of all his creatures. is that &quot. 29. that in Isaiah xlv.&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. applicable to the Son. &c. . that the Son was Jehovah &quot. inasmuch as one may equally Moses or Joshua was Jehovah before he was Moses or Joshua ? He further says. and in the other. 23. I&amp. which expressly informs us that Jehovah God. before he was Jesus. the . that readers would be my pleased to examine the language employed in these two instances. God to save his servants. Isaiah liv. as noticed already in other places.gt. and also God s being called the husband of his creatures. Respecting the attempt to prove the deity of Jesus from the circumstance of his being figuratively repre sented as the husband or the supporter of his church. John iii. that there salvation far no other. Jesus in is so pre-eminently I Saviour.

to &quot. i : his I church. he his would have found that those to himself the whom God from being declares all husband. not taken the least notice of this last argument &quot. ye are the branches/ man. God is the husband. that whosoever is the maker is also the preserver. and its branches. Would it not be highly unreasonable to set at defiance the distinction drawn by Jesus between God : himself. or the head of his followers : there is.&quot. therefore. in opposition the Jews. wish to know how the Editor God between justifies himself in concluding real unity and Jesus from the application of the term husband to them. an inequality of authority evidently ascribed to God and to Jesus. saying. Christ himself shows the relation that existed between him and xv. liv. that they are only one branch of his church. while Jesus declares the relation between God^ himself. Moreover. and his church ? The Editor has . could escape the notice of the Editor. and himself and God. and his church.l6o FINAL APPEAL declared to be the husband. Some orthodox divines having attempted to. in preference to others. or the preserver. however. and its true force. including the Jews more especially as his chosen people. in John am the true vine. the Gentiles. . I. and consequently. the children of the married wife. I r wonder how the choice of the designation thy Maker. Ver. and my father is the husband I am the vine. (page 579) author examind the context with sufficient Had our care. in Isaiah &quot. are so far creatures. the vine. he only glances over the former. between the husbandman. the children of the desolate. to be such as that existing. of all his creatures. as the phrase implies in a general sense thy Maker is thy husband &quot. 5. 5 &c.

who shall reign and prosper. Jerusalem also is called THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS . This does not the question in hand. to which the Reverend Editor thus at all affect replies &quot. which is simply. Jesus to k is MADE passage in question. that the throne and exaltation which Jesus was possessed of. this can of course make no altera tion in the Son s eternal nature. 6. here overlooks gn&amp. establish the deity of Jesus. in which again to the passage in Jer. page (480). 33. &quot. phrases as. that. my refer my readers 16. such &quot. and to the phrase. and a king and this is his name whereby he shall reign and prosper shall be called. who 1 of God I is made unto in wisdom and righteousness.&quot. we need only : call in the 32.relative to his being made of God righteousness to us. I therefore beg to u . being the Editor adds.) with i will raise (&quot. the force of &quot. Cor. that all &quot. this king.&quot. unto David a righteous branch. shall give unto him the throne of his David : And he &quot. replied. in . To made of lessen God. God shall (Jesus) the throne of his father David. that only &quot. ness of God . v.) I Second Appeal. be Jesus Christ or not and to prove this. &c. The Lord God father testimony of the angel to Mary. of God. us i.. be made the righteous may 21. . Christians that we might be him where St. 5.&quot. The Editor &quot.&quot. 30. THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. ( u Christ Jesus. made the righteousness of God Paul says. Luke i. I l6l by comparing Jer. shall reign over the house of Jacob forever. xxiii. implying. &c.e unto him again the force of the phrase.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. God shall give unto him. found in the and expressing the inferiority of unto tis God and also to Cor. was but the free gift of God. xxxiii.&quot.gt. whether this righteous branch of David.

&quot.&quot. the We may is holy Jerusalem. that as Jehovah is the head &quot. and admits of Jerusalem being figuratively called &quot.to the honour of her different glorious head. what nature. the honour of his head&quot. unless he means to advance the doctrine. how can he Jehovah reject the figurative application of the phrase our righteousness&quot. here. the church of Christ. Let us reflect on this answer of the (Page 581. having no reference to the church or In the second place.to of Christ. reality. indeed.&quot. understood as signifying the well-known holy city in that kingdom. if one s being made by another any thing whatsoever that he was not before. to the honour of her glorious head and husband. first place. from its association with the term Judah. consequently. &quot. is its Jehovah our righteousness. that it ousness. who bears name. is 1 In the 6. in Jer. that souls are emanations of God and proceed from the deity. from and subordinate to him. followers of Christ. on the ground that Christ head. As to Jerusalem being called. This is was Jehovah before he became a bare assertion which I must maintain to be without any ground. though. it bears that name in &quot. then. the church of Christ. does not tend to prove his mutable nature.&quot. &quot. xxxiii.&quot. Jehovah her righteousness. &c.&quot. the Editor says. that Jesus incarnate. &quot.&quot. though. the term Jerusalem. and that. different : from and subordinate to God Vide Cor. if the Editor understands by the term Jerusalem&quot. Jehovah our righte observe. same principle. &quot. consequently Christ bears this in i name &quot. xi.l62 FINAL APPEAL ask the Editor. 3 But I would . who is. on the same ground and &quot. can be called mutable in this transitory world ? The Editor again advances. which is. ? reality.) this Editor. to Jesus.

TO THP: CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. or u to exist. He s expression) are addressed further observes. the self-existent.&quot. xlviii. any as if if used and confirmed by God. xliii. name of one of their name of their masters. 6 . to have their reproach taken away.&quot. u Editor again uses the following words The incommunicable name Jehovah. and to have shewn instances in which the second and third persons of the Deity (according to the Editor by this name. in which seven women wish to be called by the name of a husband. He must also know that thousands of sons and descendants are fathers. 163 have you know. The Editor then proceeds to divide the honorary names.Jehovah. We name know very numerous &quot. 8. that the head of every man is Christ.&quot. from The the verb H]n hawah. and the HEAD OF t CHRIST is GOD. that u no one sup- . to be &quot. and the head of the woman is the man. Gen. three. and the other given by God but he must know that the names given by prophets. is applied God. but never met with an instance of applying to two other sacred persons the simple term &quot. or by .&quot. which the sacred Jehovah &quot. which is to no one throughout the scripture besides &c. Exod. or by of the sacred writers. found in scripture. to the master. one given by men. by and servants by the the honour of the father or the i . I wish the Editor had been the most good enough this is to have taken into consideration that the very point in dispute. The Editor shews an instance in Isaiah. into two kinds . Hosea xi. applied the sacred instances to in &quot. common men.9. xxiii. become as worthy of attention had been bestowed originally by the Deity they : himself.&quot. called Vide Isaiah 21.

the very same mode of interpretation the Editor. but they express facts more strongly than simple assertions or propositions. his EMPLOYER. but demon strates. was intended to deify her. but to perpetuate the fact that the of Isaac . who so that is his righteousness. is indeed Jehovah.. as I the Editor Compound names. to by Moses that Lord did there provide a sacrifice instead God. God will see or provide. name men should call Jerusalem. that is. High. poses that Jehovah-Jireh. the consistency cannot be overlooked which for prevails through all the phrases of a similar nature is represented to be the head of his church. I am glad to observe that he differs from a great many of his colleagues.164 FINAL APPEAL &quot. is the Lord Jehovah . do not of themselves express deity. rny banner. intended any thing more than &quot. found in Jer. in their attempt to deify the Messiah from the application of the above phrase to strated by this phrase. Lastly. . Abraham to the place where he offered Isaac given by was intended to deify that place. xxiii. that his Father. him .&quot. who is righteousness.. is noticed says. &quot. 6. in explaining the same phrase. but as to the facts demon they may be easily ascertained from comparing the application of it with that of exactly similar phrases to others. as I have just observed. that Jehovah-nissi. or Christ s church. his HEAD.Jehovah righteousness/ the. therefore. as Christ . so God &quot. that Jehovah-tsidkenu. the Most . but to demonstrate that her Lord and head. head of Christ. I follow referred to the Messiah the application of this phrase to the Messiah does not deify him.. God was his banner against the our Amalekites .&quot. adopted by The Lord our righteousness. given his altar. in represented to be the the foregoing page. Here &quot.&quot.&quot.

&quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. say Jesus in common with because both Elijah and Flisha the prophets exercised power over wind and water and other things. u . not so much the name as the divine nature of the Son. This only a part of that work of creation ascribed to him who. that. The of at this rate all the passages ascribe to God the supreme over the whole world as evidence in favour of the deity of Jesus as he was sure to find always many persons of the same persuasion to applaud any thing offered in favour of the Trinity. 25. like Jesus. we have this expostulation k : saith the Lord. tend to illustrate. to shew that own.And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said. while on earth. waves toss themselves. The Editor now mentions Fear ye not me ? Will ye not tremble at my presence who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea by a perpetual decree that it cannot pass it. Jesus &quot. whatever power Jesus. exercised absolute dominion however over the winds and the waves in no name beside his mcn. exercised in absolute dominion over the winds and the waves no name be I beg to quote John x. exercised over wind and water while he was on earth. he thinks.&quot. in the name of the Father of the that thou hast heard me. l6$ (page 583) a few more u passages which.&quot. &quot. and though the v. Jesus answered them. 22. in common with other prophets. and ye believed not the works that I do in you my Fathers name they bear witness of me. Father. other prophets. yet is can they not prevail. As side his to his position. I . In Jer.^ But what this passage of I Jeremiah has to do with the divine nature of Jesus Editor might have quoted the Old Testament control that am unable to discover. I thank thee it I he did told in the name of God.

10 and Cor.&quot. Christ.I 66 FINAL APPEAL I Kings xvii.&quot. v. even Moses himself as far as he aspired to the godhead. We do not find him once represented in the scriptures as the maker of heavens and earth . over we observe in the New Testament. that whatever things Jesus made or did. Ch. 44. foundation of the earth. 21 . 10. he accomplished as an instrument in the hands of God. xviii.&quot. by &quot. 2 &quot. of God 44 Upon the assertion in my Second Appeal that the epithet God is frequently applied in the sacred scrip beside the tures to others Supreme Being the Editor observes that the Gods objection Jeremiah cuts up. i. and 2 Kings sometimes without verbally expressing the name ch. Hebrews i. Heb. Let us apply this rule adopted But from this general wreck of our author is by the Editor respecting the prophets. and . as hav More ing reference to God the Father of the universe. to Jesus Christ. It 9 r Who created things by Jesus would in deed be very strange to our faculties to acknowledge one as the true God. 8 13 and 27. that have not made the heavens and the earth &quot. ii. and yet to maintain the idea that hecreated things by the directions of another being. Christ he having made these heavens and laid the excepted. ii. As to the instan ces pointed out by the Editor. all things iii. whom also he made the Ephes.this even they shall perish from the earth and from under which declaration sweeps away not only these heavens the Gods of the heathen but all magisterial Gods and* . i 17. ii. : Whom all he hath appointed heir of worlds. even in the same book of Hebrews. this peculiar attribute having been throughout the whole sacred writings ascrib ed exclusively to God the Most High. ch. s Gods. . I fully explained them in pages 343 and 346. 45. universe. x. i.

No one destitute of as the power of omniscience is ever acknowledged .&quot. who perfectly knows the Son.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. though raised afterwards by his Father. in this instance. Matt. : eth no neither man tlie no. We assured that the Father. 3.&quot. to exe cute judgment. the power of knowing those things that do not respect the &quot. therefore. are hence He commit adds. : execution of judgment by the Son. . . is not bestowed upon him and the Son. I will not return to Having examined these arguments them here. rule of the Editor I find Again in pursuance of the same that Jesus like other perishable Gods both died and was buried. without qualifying him for so doing without giving him the power of knowing all the events of this world in order to the distribution of rewards and all power is given unto punishments. was appointed as 1 67 heir of all things by that other. Notwithstanding this. without It is all man knowing so his infinite fitness for the work. man that is. Rev. in defy Jesus Christ.&quot. 23. the Edior again introduces the circumstance of his being a searcher of hearts. is totally ignorant of them. himself. 18 me in heaven and in earth. who had day. S o//. i. xxviii. ii. &quot. &quot. and also quotes Heb. not but But of that day and that hour knowthe angles which are in heaven the Father. did not to him all judgment so entirely as to judge no himself. in pages 344 and 393. 32 . the power of raising Elijah to heaven even readers without suffering him to die and be buried for a single My To be not included in the rule laid may now judge whether Jesus Christ common with other perishable Gods down by the Editor. evident that the Father did not entirely as commit to the Son judgment to judge no . Mark xiii.

and thou hast said 1 am a God behold. ii. God says respecting a man who arrogated to himself the honors of Godhead. while figuratively represented as a twoedged sword. that believe in revealed He re that is quotes Heb. he would not Editor attentively referred to the have taken the trouble of . putting this question to me for he would have easily found the reason for this difference that is. and who There is. or Revelation. thus saith Son of man. &quot. is in the same allegorical sense declar ed to be the heart.. Had the scriptures.Neither is there any creatu not manifest in his sight but all things are . which I have already noticed. the king of . is appointed to judge whether the conduct of men is re gulated by them in conformity to that Revelation. 23. &c. say unto the prince of the Lord God. thou How shalt die the death of the uncircumcised. 13. But the Editor must know that r in the immediately preceding verse. naked and open unto the eyes of him with whom we in order to corroborate the idea that Christ have to do. the w ord of God. . Tyrus. The Editor says (page 584) that u in Ezekiel xxviii. it does not convey any other idea than what is understood by Rev. u a discerner of the thoughts and intents of no inconsistency in as the knowledge of the intents of hearts to him cribing through whom that Revelation is communicated. different O God. iv. different the Father is s throne. because thy heart is lift ed up.&quot. therefore.1 68 FINAL APPEAL sect Supreme God by any religion. for language to the ever and ever ! Son: Thy this Why language to the prince of Tyrus and to Jesus ?&quot. &c. knew all the secrets of men.&quot. Supposing this passage to be applicable to Jesus Christ.

who both will : The Editor before the time. the dark and secret counsels of who will bring men s hearts. John were my Father love me. by God himself. v. not my will.Thy throne. 17.) Also. iv. submission to the purposes of God. never ceased to confess that God was both his God and his Father. but Jesus. As to the above verse.&quot.Judge nothing quotes i Cor. The passage simply to light amounts not either me or others before the time. 17 Therefore doth : made sinners. that the prince of Tyrus manifest but Jesus even laid down his ed disobedience to God . (John xx. and attributed divine favour towards himself to his entire obedience to life in the Most High. and will manifest the counsels of the heart and then shall . As the conduct of the prince different.&quot. by O God. as above stated . that I if 42 : Father. u 19 : For as by one man s disobedience obedience of u x. in .&quot. that estimate set upon him.) God does {&quot. 5 until the Lord come. down my kl life. Locke. because I lay xxii. . but thine be done.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot.&quot. so far from robbing the Deity of his honour. 169 Tyrus called himself God.Judge God. remove this cup from me nevertheless. until the Lord come.&quot. Rom. so by the many one shall many be made righteous. every man have to this : praise of &quot. which he truly deserves. but he also uses for the chiefs of Israel and for Moses the same epithet. is for ever and ever. preach and then shall every one have that the Gospel ing praise. &quot. quite God were not peculiarly address Jesus with the epithet God. and that of Jesus towards they were differently treated the Father of the universe. : might take it again/ Luke thou be willing. make bring to light the hidden things of darkness.

Cor. and in 2 Sam. i. endued with the former. : the king ( David ) said. but on particular to know and occasions others were intrusted with the same power.. and founds upon .&quot. He then cites Dan. thee in all this ? and the Is not the hand of Joab with said. and vii. and hast made known unto me now what wedesired of thee for thou hast now made known unto usthe king s matter&quot.. judge the world world shall be judged by you. instances.&quot. 23 as : &quot. 19 and 20 &quot. are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters ? Know ye not that we shall judge angels ? &c. has already been noticed in page and will also be thank thee and praise thee.. i Kings xx. i. both public to and private. So we find the same gift of future knowledge granted to righteous men in numerous .&quot. Lord is wise.I O thou God of my fathers. found in Daniel ii. Do you not know that the saints shall &quot. to know all things that are in the earth.And the prophet came to the king of Israel and said unto him. woman answered and wisdom My vi. according to the of an angel of God. so as enable them perform so delicate a judgment.And . and of course to be possessors of a knowledge to of all events. who hast given me wisdom and might. 2 and 3.170 It is FINAL APPEAL not Jesus alone that was empowered by God to judge all secret events. go strengthen thyself and mark and see what thou dost for at the return of the year the king of Syria will come up against thee. Here ? and if the Christian saints are declared to be judges of the deeds of the whole world. Besides a knowledge of future events is by no means less wonderful than that of past things or present secrets of hearts yet we find all the prophets of God were . 22 : &quot. xiv.

perhaps.most holy Daniel ix. is manifest : was God s adopted : against his father Jesus was God s constantly rebelling proper son of the same nature with did k his father (as is every proper son) and always what pleased him. the creator the sophistry that attributes the death and subjugation of Jesus only to his human capacity. alleging him that put all things under The son therefore is not by As to of heaven and earth. the same term &quot.&quot. u the that Hosea says have s quoting this passage ( Out of Egypt Evangelist I called my son. then by nature he was following question by nature the creator of heaven and earth.. 24. to and the general him (i Cor. the Editor attempts to prove the forgetting. (Luke iii.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.In the 37 : most u It holy place shalt thou shall be an altar most Exodus xxix. This assertion of theEditor (that Israel was God s adopted son ) is I think .&quot.) nature God. 38) are and that their death divine nature also of . consequently in in their human capacity alone. To the this my that we find Jesus subjected after to death of the cross while on earth.&quot. that they being the children of Adam. even to inanimate things. 28. found applying to Jesus the epithet &quot. that eternal deity of the son. : &quot. but the difference son.If he and his kingdom must reply is. By in Vide pp. xv.most holy&quot. perish from under the heavens. resurrection. 1 7 I them the not God. it might be applica ble to every individual. 10 : &quot. Numbers eat it. is applied in the scriptures xviii. but that their divine nature they cannot be subjected to 1 death. 355 359 of this Essay. plainly shows that it referred to The Editor in noticing ) Christ as well as to Israel Israel .&quot. holy. the son is possessed of a God.

and hast forgotten God thou Israel formed thee. art 18 &quot. and without iii. thou xxxii.as he could be sought only in heaven David in common with other saints. : an instance. &quot. that begat thee that shalt is unmindful. so Christians in they may be from such a notion. and without an ephod. I to the son really regret to observe that as David. 5 Afterwards shall the children of Israel return and : seek the Lord their fear God and David their king . however distant in fact Messiah. and without a prince. the the Jews are endeavour to misinterpret such passages favourable to ths idea of as most Jesus being the expected general try to refer to Jesus any passages that can possibly be explained as bearing the least allusion to their notion of the Messiah. Ver. and without teraphim. : Pharaoh. and without a sacrifice. Deu. Of the iv. without foundation . Exodus born. By so both only weaken their respective opinions. king been in his grave : on which he comments that David had then . universe. could not search heart the and know the sincerity of prayers of . . of the prophet determine . doing they The above citation on which the Editor now dwells is For 4 the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king.&quot. be begotten sons of God but were not like Christ entirely devoted to the will of the Father of the .172 FINAL APPEAL to for they are declared. and shall Does not the poetical language the Lord and his goodness in the latter days. . 1 1 : And say unto son.&quot. Rock 22 &quot.Afterwards shall He then quotes the children of Israel God and David their return and seek the Lord their &quot. this prophecy must be assigned Messiah. like Jesus. Let us refer to the text of Hosea u an image. thus saith the Lord my 5 even my first Hosea iii.

/ among you. as well as his note on Romans x.&quot. of David. to the satisfaction of every 173 that. So far fro . and it shall come to pass that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be applies Jesus &quot. he must wait fulfilment as not as yet sought Jesus as the son to them. If and to wish the a return of their reign if Editor insist upon its referring this .lt.11 identifying him with God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. here these : words . on the name of Jesus Christ our I therefore 2.&amp. 32. prophecy Israel has to Jesus. which them that are separated from the rest of the world by faith in Jesus Christ called to be saints^ . The Editor then adds that Paul in also addressed himself u to all who every place (i call i. who was promised to The Editor 21.lt. whereby he identifies But we find Peter here quoting only a part of Joel ii. saved. to u To the church of God. Jehovah with him. the Messiah.) that Peter in Acts ii. at Corinth. 44 call on the name of Jesus&quot. Jesus of Nazareth. is not a correct translation in is the English version.gt. 13.lt. a man approved &amp. by miracles and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you &c. Joel ii. possible.l (r&amp. with a view to shew the Editor that the phrase Lord/ Cor. after unbiased man long sufferings Israel will repent of their disobedience: and seek the protection of their God and the happiness which their fathers enjoyed during the reign of David as it is very natural for a nation or tribe when oppressed remember their own ancient by foreign under whose Governments their fathers were kings conquerors to prosperous. the applying this to the Son and apostle explains in the immediately following verse (22) his nature and his total u subordination to God Ye men of Israel.t&amp.) quote Locke s paraphrase on this verse. says (page 586.&quot.

insists call the phrase version. We need go no farther for an example than the 6th. shall receive shall give a &c. he requires an . professed Christians. and u of calling upon v. 40. he shall in no lose his reward when he will perceive that .) name i of i. in the same sense. If the Editor still &quot. if in the three preceding verses. I shall from whom up these it words are taken. (Deut. Cor. Paul. a phrase not very remote from St. page 384 Paul s writings. Paul for professing Christianity.&quot. that argues to the point and therefore. I cannot but think that signifies if all all that call upon him. name of a prophet. to that which is taken to be the meaning of it there.&quot. u 14.&quot. that will St. to tie his use of any text. Whosoever hath. it is be the meaning plain it must be the this meaning of by If &quot. he brings out of the Old Testament. verse 13.lt. 19. that are open. Paul uses them here. their Lord and ours. xxx. him&quot. with care. 12. : that receiveth you.calling upon his name. verily I say unto you. the meaning of the prophet Joel.174 FINAL APPEAL with all that are every where called by the Jesus Christ. . receiveth me and he that receiveth receiveth him that scut me He that receiveth a pro me. Tim. 13. x. which 2 is used ii. &amp.&quot. yth. &quot. Note on Rom. be an ill rule for interpreting only say. to be a close reasoner. be urged.He he will I upon the accuracy of thetranslation of upon the name of Jesus found in the hope refer to Matthew x.) and see whether St. must own him : open profession of the Gospel. which I desire any one to read as they stand. 41 and 42 &quot. : phet reward in the . ( Locke on 2. naming his name. and 8th verses of this chapter. And whosoever little to prophet s drink unto one of these ones a cup of cold water only in the name wise of a disciple. looked into St. verse 12.

proceeds to say. and ch. the Editor must be well aware that God speaks of himself. Thus sword. &c.&quot. is 13. we find that the prophet .&quot. his thought. very frequently. against my shepherd. 8. that divided the sea. saith the Lord of hosts. that this passage. &c. xiii. : said unto Satan. Jehovah rebuke thee. saith the Lord of hosts. : And Jehovah . and secures for him the same favour of the king as if he had yielded directly to the sovereign. ii.. calling 175 by God. Even in. 2 &quot.&quot. : Lord. righteousness. perhaps on man what subject here. rebuke thee this a even is not brand plucked out of the &quot. iii. i Hearken to me. &quot. ye that seek the I am : this very book of Zechariah. 15: &quot. O distinct personality of the son. Iwill not return to He again quotes Zech. its containing the phrase. in the third person. first With respect unto Satan.&quot. ye that follow after &quot. same manner as one s yielding to a general sent by a king amounts to his submission to the king himself. The account of Editor then quotes Amos iv. Father.But the Lord thy God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. O Satan Jehovah that hath chosen Jerusalem. instead of the first. As I declaring unto have noticed this it already. Awake. whose waves roared The Lord of hosts is his name. against the man who is my fellow. throughout the sacred books. said Editor intends by his two to the former.&quot. Isaiah li. 7. oftener than once. Jehovah Jehovah rebuke thee. that &quot. on the name of Jesus. After the glory hath he sent The Editor then with ch. fire ?&quot. as being the Messiah sent is an indirect call on the name of God in the . forms another three-fold testimony of the me. I am unable to and his equality with the discover exactly what the quotations.

and he shall grow up out of his place. . ii. I am returned to Jerusalem with mercies my and 2 &quot. Behold the Thus speaketh. 12.&quot. O The hands house . &quot. Zerubbabel. In the second year of Darius. or of the equality of s either with some other being. be stretched forth upon said I. Q. to In &c. &c.13. and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him. 16 : &quot.&quot. Zech. the high-priest. 8 &quot. Zechariah speaking of himself. this hands shall also finish vi. the Lord is man whose name Semuh .176 FINAL APPEAL speaks of himself sometimes in the third person.&quot. and Semuh . iii. i : second year of Darius. vii. and to rebuke discourage Joshua. Neither God s nor : . 2 : me. Zechariah. 7 &quot.And the word of the Lord came unto Zechariah saying.. &quot. the eighth month. rebuke thee the fire As to Zerubbabel the prophet says. iv. Satan : ?&quot. &c. saith the Lord of hosts. came the word of I. &c.And measure Jerusalem. in the of the Lord will second year of Darius. &c. who would : passage Zech.&quot. and yc shall build .&quot. And the Lord said unto Satan. said unto &quot. to build the second temple of Jerusa lem. of hosts. in the third person. in poetical language. king of Persia. : Jehovah unto Zechariah. : Then. saying. in the came the word of the Lord. thus saith the Lord. from that undertaking as is evident from the following Satan. Res pecting Semuh. . house a line shall shall be built in it. Whither goest thou ? Jerusalem. i. And he i. . is not this a brand plucked out of salem. To he shewed me Joshua the high-priest standing before the angel of the Lord. can be construed into a proof of the plurality of either of their persons. of Zerubbabel have laid his u the foundation of / /. by Joshua. s The fact is that Zechariah prophesies. The Lord rebuke even the Lord that hath chosen Jeru thee.Therefore.

&quot. He is speaking of the SECOND building of the temple. to the after he has sent me people with his the words of God. &quot. both here and in ch. 8. Semuh and Joshua.&quot. glory. explain. in the original s Hebrew signifies &quot.&quot. In the English version the meaning of the name of Semuh is used. from the circumstances. called. toucheth the apple of his eye/ (ii. and rule he bear the . that is between . mentioned in the immediately preceding verse 11. Zechariah very often.) The prophet here that communicates &quot. See Parkhurst Hebrew Lexicon. separate personality with the Father. and the com mentators choose to apply the name thus translated to Jesus. though no instance can be adduced of Jesus Christ s having been so says. . Semuh itself. to the nations who the apple of tyrannize over Israel. will. viz. and shall be a priest shall peace upon his throne and he shall and the counsel of upon his throne be between them both. iii. the temple of the Lord of : 177 Even he shall shall build the temple the sit Lord and . of his If equality will.th. birth of Christ. 12 . that* he who touches Israel touches his own eye. which began before the king of Persia. I hope.it&quot. as well as for. he insists * The word 13 . Vide the whole book of &quot. Zechariah. After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you for he that toucheth you.. instead of &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.&quot. introduces himself as bein g sent by how the Editor. and though the prophet expressly 12. 8. long. vi. he of God : but the infers the Son. in the reign of Darius. Branch. in his book.whose name is Semuh. The second quotation is For thus saith the Lord of hosts. in ch.

(upon some ground that we know nothing find at last. with God. he would be sorry to Zechariah.) in a among the other passages alluded to subsequent chapter. 7.&quot. I will. notice the third quotation. upon the equality of the Most High. instead of Jesus. (xiii.) in the verse in question. .178 FINAL APPEAL TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. u After the glory hath that he equalizes me. O sword. he sent of. * 4 Awake. in the second chapter of this work. with that of him who says. according to the plan already adopted.

PART III .

.

to &quot. Have we to not his (Christ s) own express and often repeated avowal. he was just as much Jehovah as before. produce as that such a change in the condition he should have been thirty years. him he as the Son. that circum mediator. divested of his glory for more than only but even not subjected to servitude? Are not the ideas as says. and taking upon himself the form of a servant. the Editor that thus replies in the negative (page 588) : No. dominion and cast that of subjection.) possessed of . act the part of a laying aside his glory.&quot. powers he manifested were committed by the Father of the universe &quot.&quot. he could have been no mediator between his Father and his offending creatures. ?&quot. that God the Son. (according to their of expression. &quot. whether tional is consistent with idea of the nature &quot. stances of the could Deity. of the Deity. and may discern. The Editor. in Arguments contained Chapter IL of the Second Appeal. equally with God is the Father. that God be appointed by God. in common mode with other Trinitarians.CHAPTER On the Editor s Replies to the IV. con ceives. whether it is not most foreign to the notion of the immutable God. Every unbiassed it man may any ra should easily pronounce. we have already seen for without this . was appointed by the Father to act as mediator between him and sinners.&quot. just ? of supreme remote as the that while from the west Yet the Editor he was stripping himself of his glory. by and taking on himself the form of a servant. To my that all the inquiry in the Second Appeal.

the Son had a greater portion oppose to his justice in of mercy than the Father. the in Godhead. his . found not that he could forgive mercy so them at by by through punish mercy. and their reconciliation to himself. yet represents strict them justice. justice. righteousness. and reconciling them himself. the second at the person of the Goldhead. truth. &c. he has obtained for them pardon without satisfied his justice punishment ciled them vengeance. how was the justice of the their Son prevailed upon by his mercy. and and If the justice of the Father did not permit to pardoning sinful creatures. according to the system of Trinitarians. that is. without suffering individual punishment. so or differently as to ascribe to the Father rather vengeance . though displeased offending creatures. unlimited first mercy and forgiveness. to admit pardon. unless he satisfied his justice inflicting ment upon these his guilty men . unless a vicarious to was made him for their sins . sent the second to . to having his sinful to experience creatures pardoned. them Are these the doctrines on which founded ? genuine Christianity If the first is God forbid ! person be acknowledged to be possessed of mercy equally with the second.2 FINAL APPEAL attributes the of perfection. and that he. justice wrath his at the sinful person of the conduct of resisted all. the Father. and by offering own blood as an for their sins. through his infinite mercy towards his creatures. having been his offending creatures. recon the Father. sins of suffered his his mercy to overcome atonement justice. without him as an any sins sacrifice. in sacrifice compliance with his mercy.. offered to ? atonement for their It is then evident. that. and to the Son. but the Son. and by means to of vicarious sacrifice. such he as mercy.

even as a mediator. In humiliation or answer to the Editor s position. they marvelled. and mani and directly first msrcy by the the first opposite to that a.The the xvii. which from scripture testimony the Son has not been . all things into his hand. offer his 3 blood as an atonement for of their sins. him the throne of his father Matt. we must then cjnfess that the festation of mode the is operation strange. All power is GIVEN unto me in heaven and in earth. r. only beg to re mind him Son.\To &quot. Ch. that Jesus. and spake unto them. so hath he himself. person displayed mercy only death of the second. &quot. was possessed of every that power and perfection I was inherent of in his divine nature. 22 : And the glory which thou GAYEST me. saying.&quot. Ch. withjut subjecting himself to any pain.&quot. to I have given life them. v.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. who had given such power to MEN.&quot. sacrifice who manifested while the the mercy even by his of at life.possessed single power. which was not . 35: &quot. GIVEN 32 : the the Son have life Luke i. 26 * : For to as the Father hath in in himself. 8 : But when the multitude saw it. in or attribute. or were in his own The a Editor again denies Christ s having &quot. a : few sacred passages among many Father loveth of a similiar nature John iii. and hath GIVEN &quot. shall GIVE ix.* eternally his divine nature and in defies me to point out one attribute of perfection the Father. the power and glory him by God.&quot. Jesus came. On 18: &quot.lopted his by the second. Ch.And Lord God David. these texts I trust to no commentary all is necessary to enable any one inherent determine whether that Jesus enjoyed were given nature. and glorified xxviii. inherent perfection. God. &c.

may have pr?P. but the Father.But of that day and that hour knoweth no man no. figuratively called gods in In the first place. Besides. neither the Son. almighty. Matt. left. Father. Most High or the being by which the supreme &quot. not the angels which are in heaven.4 &amp. it is NOT MINE TO- is PREPARED of MY Ch.&quot. already shewn to to point out a I therefore take I upon myself convince few instances which hope will the Editor that the peculiar attributes of ascribed to Jesus. 41: &quot. one subjected to the transitions of birth and death. 23 &quot. FINAL APPEAL possess. and omniscient.. and more especially. the attribute of scriptural language. but to them my whom &quot. though invariably applied to the Father throughout the scriptural writings. the dead was laid . and Jesus lifted up his eyes.&quot.Then they took away the stone from the place where FATHER. nor to any other God were never human being who been. Deity is distinguished above all gods. . if not supreme. 32 : &quot. xx. . me. be considered a created being. I thank thee that thou hast heard He also denies his omniscience. as the apostle all declares. moreover. the creed which the generality of Trinitarians profess.gt. xxvi. Mark xiii. more than twelve legions of angels? John xi. however highly exalted. Jesus was never called almighty. and said. 2ndly. is not found once ascribed to Jesus. 53 Thinkest thou that 1 cannot now pray TO MY FATHER. be in the end. and like all creatures.&quot. subject to the Creator of in things. like Jesus. &quot. and though for ages endowed with all power in heaven and in earth. he expressly denies being But toalmighty power. Any being. : on my right hand. or Hl^ a term peculiarly used for the Deity.&quot. and on for : (JIVE. and he shall presently GIVE MF. must. even by the title of a god. possessed sit of Nay.

to his Father and Creator &quot. is represented as proceeding from the Father. that he is the most powerful and most splendid of although all known created beings. who has wish given to the replies. the sun. the ?&quot. M What added. in . esteem him as the supreme must not. we daily witness into life.&quot. but that it is their worshippers that have advanced doctrines ascribing Godhead and infinite perfection to these finite objects. Appeal I observed. &c. On the same ground.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. the sun to his Maker I he had also is but that which a son and creature ?&quot. that the supreme Deity made through Jesus relating to this Christ tion. yet our gratitude and admiration recognize in him only a being instrument al in the hands of God. all the things belonging to the Christian dispensa or everything visible world. 5 God none is described as self-existent. to which the Fditor ?&quot. Deity. has yet no claim to be con In my Second &quot. to saying. having proceeded from but the on the contrary. whether we understand from scriptural authority. sidered identical in nature with God. ) we in either case.If When he again inquires. (as interpreted by the worshippers of Jesus. Here even the orthodox . . and we offer worship and duty to him alone who has given to the sun all the light and animating warmth which he sheds on our globe. has has ever its Maker to none (alluding to Christ. the power of the Notwithstanding that in sun glorious bringing variety of vegetable and preserving to maturity an infinite and animal objects. heat. sun has no claim Godhead. sun all the is &quot.) he might have recollected arrogated that neither the sun nor Jesus himself Godhead. amongst Christians ascribe the to the attribute of self-existence Father of the universe alone. Son.

and he cried.&quot. Ask what I shall do for thee b. -. as wonderful as those done by Jesus ? Did not Elijah bestow on his servant Elisha the power session of effecting putting his own of this changes without physical means by spirit on him ? Is Elijah. but it is formed by Joshua and Elijah. Supposing Jesus alone had the power of effecting material changes with out the aid of physical means. to be considered an incarnation of ? the supreme Deity 2 &quot. And &c. I pray thee. Kings ii. &quot. he had smitten the waters. father. that material change.&quot. 10. Elijah was taken up by a whirlwind into heaven. it his being identical or equal with Him who conferred such a power on him all notorious that Jesus was not at Were not the miracles per peculiar in this point. Elisha saw it. And he said.O FINAL APPEAL is whose hand he represented by the same Scriptures but as an instrument. it shall be so it thee if not. that Elijah said unto Elisha. And they came to- . The : And when spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha. and Elisha went over. they said. II.efore 1 let be taken away from thee. yet this power Christ not only pos sessed. Thou but hast I thou see unto me when \ am asked a hard thing. my Verses &quot. My father. parted When the sons of the prophets saw him. from the pos power. they 14 hither and thither. 9 : And it came to pass when they (Elijah and Elisha) were gone over. a double portion of thy spirit be upon me. but bestowed on his apostles. and of bestowing on others the same in the could have proved only his being singular enjoyment of this peculiar blessing of God. and not gift. And 12. be peculiar to God. wiihout the aid of though the power of effecting a physical means. 15. And Elisha said. The Editor says. nevertheless if taken from thee. shall not be so.

: and they could not cure cast Vers.&quot. in God.And 22 Jesus answering saith unto them. And I brought him (the lunatic child) to him. likeness. Be thou In removed. sovereignty over all God bestowed on man his likeness. Kditor thus remarks &quot. and bowed themselves him. that we find in the evangelical notwithstanding the power of performing miracles given by Jesus of such a to his apostles. that shall unto this mountain. say 23. Howbeit shall be impossible unto you. he gave them power against unclean spirits. it is evident from the of the chapter of Genesis. until their faith in : themselves firm and complete over another.Then came the disciples to Jesus apart. (his : disciples. and that dominion. they could not avail gift.) Have faith whosoever &c. that &quot.&quot. x. ye shall say unto this moun Remove hence to another place. 21. and Was not his own living creatures. Besides. : It is in reality asking. mustard seed. it is thence God was become evident that God is the creature &quot. 7 meet him. and nothing this xi.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting. my Second first Appeal i mentioned. thy disciples. &quot. ye have faith a grain of tain. Ch. Mark &quot. i : has And when he had and to heal all called unto him his twelve disciples. manner 16 : of sickness. only source of the power and influence that one Matt. Did God . &quot. for verily say unto you. 19 said. And Jesus said unto them. and Why If could not we him out ? 20. before mankind were made partakers of them ? Did God then On which the deify man by such a mark of distinction ?&quot. to cast all them out. to the ground before writings. Because of I your as unbelief. and 11 manner of disease. that in the beginning creation. peculiar to God. For verily I say unto vou. and it shall remove. xvii.

me&quot. that although God raised Jesus above all. Father and your Father. to ask the Rev. did not make him cease to be a he not. till they shew that can prove nothing his thus be coming changed that divine nature which he pos sessed from eternity.They to purpose. as well the Editor. or (in the words of the Editor) a complete change it ? &quot.I CAN Father gave me commandment. to my Second which the Editor his replies. should be at a loss to point out any saying of any of the preceding prophets. that the Father giveth me shall come to As &quot. and manifests his subordination to God. I selected nineteen passages out of many. &c. &quot. OF MINE OWXSELF DO NOTHING.&quot. the &quot.All . that their might tend to substantiate humanity. &quot. whether the following passages found among those already quoted. yet he did not make him is creature. if he was ever possessed of even so 1 do.8 FINAL APPEAL to make him cease be a creature by thus creating answer. after the as example orthodox friends. as well . of his The Editor may perhaps say.&quot. by bestowing on man his peculiar and dominion.To my my Father hath taught me servent fall I speak these to things. and &quot. and bestowed on him a portion of his peculiar power and influence.Behold my God and your I God/ these my do whom have chosen/ If declarations short of shewing the I. that these. admit the opinion. him ac ? We presume he expects no If the Editor likeness knowledges that God. human as nature of the person who affirms them.&quot. Editor. in which Jesus distinctly disavows the divine nature.&quot. I therefore take upon myself incarnate. according to the same principle. do not prove the entire humanity of the Son. obliged to eease to be a creature In ? Appeal.As in his divine nature.

Supposing Jesus was of a two-fold nature. divine and human. xv. I shall then entreat the Editor to shew me any authority in the scriptures. was he not made of a mixed nature of God and man. At page 589. both in my Second and in the present Appeal. . must be acknow ledged perfectly But after he pure and unadulterated by humanity. is for ever and ever eternity means of only a limited period. point out &quot. had become incarnate. Heb. from another set of the same author as God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. the Editor thus censures in me : &quot. possessing at one time both opposite sorts of cons ciousness and capacity ? Was there not a CHANGE of a pure nature into a mixed one further ? I will not. another place The 10. to destroy &quot. as I fully noticed in i.&quot. 25 the latter already Editor adverts : have but as I have examined the former and I in other of places in will not revert to the consideration them this place. as the case. when applied to any one except I therefore presume to think God. as man. which contain the term for ever/ and in which it can &quot.for : one or two more passages in the mouth of the Father. 24. signify long duration that the Editor might have spared this censure as being I will here. . i Cor. everlasting. according to the Editor. other savings to the same effect. however. the God and he quotes. in his 9 proceeded from Jesus human capacity. distinguishing one class of the sayings of Jesus Christ. Editor believes him to be his divine nature in this before his appearance in this world. himself. altogether undeserved. that the terms ever.&quot.To say that the mouth of the Father. pursue here to the subject it now. however.&quot. Jehovah shall reign for ever and ever/ I have shown by numerous instances.

by learned Trinitarian authors. 24. : . the author of a J Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament. D. therefore. English version of : Philip. ever. Then will I cause you to dwell in this place. In a it not robberv to be equal with God. 7 : : &quot. in the land : that I gave to &quot. verse 6 thus stands in the form of God. thus translates.* Is the it land of Canaan in now in possession of Israel and will remain their possession after all rule. : Who. Dan. did not think it robbery to be being like God. course of this discussion notices that Jesus was in the not robbery to be equal 6. xv. vii. Who by James Macknight. yet took upon himself : the form of a servant. 8 unto thee. Gen. ii. Editor in the ii. 6.&quot. and after the Son has delivered up his kingdom to God the Father of the universe ? i Cor. &quot. being in the form God. The Philip. &quot. 6 &quot. and for the truth.&quot. vii.. for ever. 28. new translation from the original : Greek. give stands in the English version. And I will give imply only long duration. thought Secondly. ii. and unto thy seed after thee all the land of Canaan. and power have been put down. So John Parkhurst. first and became obedient the verse as it I will. and finally trans in as found the original Greek. 18 But the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom even for ever and . whence he concludes it form of God. I purpose of shewing the gradual progress of will add some subsequent eminently cribe it translation of the same verse. for an everlasting possession. Jer. two other orthodox writers. your fathers_/0r ever and ever*&quot. and thought to death with God. celebrated Doddridge and Whitby.. xvii. with a verbal translation. page 322 Philipp. A. M. D. conformably to the opinion of Drs. authority.&quot. who was also an orthodox writer.IO FINAL APPEL &quot.

42. to the Lexicon habuit New Testament. is to-ov r&amp. as the angel &quot. neither it amounts used by several an identity of one with the other. Gen. Schleusner. know that when he * shall appear.In that day shall the Lord defend feeble the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Ch.. 60.Non praxis.. agreeably. to be like God. Let us T make man xii. 8 : &quot. renders the passage &quot. which Whitby has collected in his The proper Greek phrase for equal Qt&amp. for in many is meaning. 41.lt. 26 God said. John iii. Lord before them.He did not esteem likeness to God in the is place of a prey. latter. Israel like to the stars of heaven. until it was a great host. John &quot. vi.p. 23 : &quot. orthodox writers.The Lord had said that he would increase xii. ii. there came to David to help him. because he not only had broken the sabbath. and after our likeness Chron. . in his Another Trinitarian author. we shall be like &c. &quot. The substance of this translation adopted in the Improved Version of the New Testament.&quot. nor does prove an equality of the former : with the in &quot. our image. loco similitudinem cum Deo.) as to it is The term.lt. in to the force of i6a in many places the note on to this place.gt.&quot. at and he that is : among them of that shall i as David and the house of the David day shall be be as God. 2 : But we him. i.&quot. Zech. 19. God which is used in John to kill v. making himself equal with God. to be as God.lt. 6 (This not the only instance in which the Jews misunderstood other instances they misconceived his Jesus. 52.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. TO avai ta-o I I fc&amp.p LXX. So to-a (ji&amp. but said also that God was his Father. day by day.$ is most exactly rendered. 21 . xxvii. like the host of God.&quot.&quot. 22 : At that time. 18 : There fore the Jews sought the more him.

man on of his own others. being in the form of God. .as &quot. did not think of the robbery of being like God. 9 wC n vts &PaZvrJTa think. arranged according &quot. : Who. iii. 7 But made himself of no reputation. : &quot. Here the apostle requires than ourselves. &quot. 2 Pet. in lowliness of mind. by the context Verse 3 of the same chapter vain glory . better according to example of YWoPeti implying to esteem as well as to with a simple accusative.think of slackness&quot.&quot. : was also in Christ Jesus. and was made * in the likeness of men.&quot.&quot. God. Ver. would think of violating fidelity to the original text by interpolation in the transla of us to esteem others the tion. did not think of* the robbery the being like This interpretation is most decisively confirmed of the verse in question. 5 The 6 original j 1 Greek run thus 8 : os *v 9 TO 10 ?ivat ii icra 12 i/TTaPXtov ovX a/PTTaTMov 123 &quot.Who to the English idiom. not robbery thought the 12 4567 VT na-aro run thus: 89 in 6^ 10 being God. (properly speaking.&quot. : and took upon him the form of a servant. will being the form of God. Ver.&quot. &quot. 5 Let this mind be in you which Ver. 6 &quot. no one. some men count slackness&quot. Who II like in form of God being. Where the sense of a passage complete without introducing an additional word more than is expressed. Let nothing be done through strife or but. Ver. 4 &quot.). let each esteem : others better than themselves. Which words. Look not every but every man also on the things things. unless devoted to the support is of some particular doctrine.42 FINAL APPEAL 12 3rdly. ijo /vrat : We find the verb &quot.

MoP^I. opinion of himself. form. Luke 6th verse xxiv. and JH2 aspect. 12. apprehend. (comp. 7. one Trinity. bearing in mind that Jesus My Father is greater than John I. xiv. No in one can be at a-loss to understand the his difference of essence between Christ and &quot. is too obvious to need illustration.&quot. but to being (though that he ) real is and is essential God.being of the it most zealous advocates to in for the thought in the absurd of lay stress on the term deity form God/ support of the of Jesus Christ. of his God How in can we be following better the example ourselves.being Creator God. Even the phrase. 13) I Philipp. as the distinction between being God.&quot. See ii. .&quot. Mark xvi. did not think even not his Father higher than himself ? We. of if Christ thinking others than he. who. forma. humility I J. (See p. perhaps from the Hebrew Jn2f^3 appearance. however. and being in the form of God.lt.&quot. out one instance s It would be absurd equality with to point as an own opinion of humility. as or of so the foundation Christianity his glorious appearance. be misled by any such orthodox entertain so erroneous an idea of to Christ s himself proclaims. to Christ s Jehovah.pa loPtf) ). which last word is from the Latin this. by Jesus. 6. as the orthodox say. where the refers not. ) &quot. 443. notwithstanding his never thought of those perfections by Godly appearance. in the Prakhurst. from the Doric voP&amp.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. God before and under the Mosaic dispensation. implied ? form of God. 28. Outward appearance. must suffer ourselves to as interpretation. &quot. which he approached man s ideas of God. but even made displayed himself of no reputation. and for 7 by transposition.

with is so identified by the use of the parallel expression in Judges and be as a man. and so no one them.&quot. justly Brown.&quot. God. of the real Christ was possessed the real essence real essence of God and reconcile ? of a servant. Was made the likeness of be admitted to identify him more than we can allow that Samson Jehovah. the first of every all. whose work on Socinianism has answered It is never been not said tJie Christ TrP^roxrieoe first. &quot.&quot.Relative to Christ s every creature. created.&quot. equally Paul s nature. yet the reason for St. an orthodox commentator. 590) the first-born of remarks in the &quot. In the English version. as to be the only-begotten Son he is so all. tation of the word defiance of the common accep insist in &quot. The Editor says (p. choice of the word is obvious-.&quot. that is. took upon himself the form of and he must then admit and believe that verse. from the common imply a created acceptation of these words. Owen. How can we Godhead with in real servitude. Although both &quot. he must receive the &quot. is before them of of above them heir to them all. not warranted by the original Hebrew. the phrase. x vi.first-created.&quot. for when in used in reference to a creation not produced the .&quot. the in upon its implying real essence in form of God. we is reply with being Dr. and of every authority. word other which is is found . &quot. I shall be weak.. that is. * .first-born&quot.first-born.&quot. and &quot.&quot.be like another man. creature. but TrPujroroxoc first-born and Christ is so the first-born. any verse 7. margin. the phrase. the &quot.14 FINAL APPEAL in Should any one. &quot. 7 and 17: And be like any man. it &quot. as Mr.form. even for a in moment Nor can man.being in the same sense following a servant&quot.

before the creatures above them all. son. word &quot. 17. iv. St. and not an only son of a begotten son father . &quot. though Abraham had another son by Hagar.&quot. whether well Israel. let John defines what would be understood be born of God.:o : and every one that loveth is God/ the Hence Jesus of is considered born of God. xi. natural course. now I will higher than the kings of the earth. 22. as we find.to be all the only-begotten son of and was also &quot.Beloved. whether natural or spiritual. is Jer. 29 : &quot. Vide I John iv. first ) terms.on. as as David. Owen and the Editor seem will here point out the sense in which the born is used in the Scriptures.For God above the whom God conformed the rest of his creation did foreknow. . other creatures of the &amp.gt.&quot.onlv- most beloved among children. my my first-born. and to shew that they respectively chosen of were ? Rom. and knoweth and declared to be head the children of signifies God. he also did predestinate to be that to the image of his he might be FIRST-BORN 1 among many : BRETHREN.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. Ixxxix. heir to them all. even Israel designated by the xxxi. 27: I Again.&quot. was so God. Exod. &quot. And take upon myself to ask the Editor. 9 : I am a father to Israel. in Heb. I as Dr. and Ephraim will my ( born. &quot. and so no of whether that designation was not rather both to the nation and to the individual because applied -. 7 us love one another for love is of God. viii. as &quot.&quot.gt.y term &quot. same class.&quot. first obviously not find in relating to natural birth. when &quot.&quot. first-born to 15 signifies superiority &quot. the l&amp. &quot. first-born &quot. this very term applied to Isaac. Son.&quot. we the mouth &quot. Psalm make him David my first-born. one of them they were principal persons. and not an only-begotten to suppose. So the term &quot. of Jehovah himself.

not renew the Editor.I 6 FINAL APPEAL As is. I &quot. to his assertion. Son of man.But and there to shall see me. In the midst of the church will I sing praise unto As shew to the Editor s reliance that the creation of I refer my readers to on the subsequent verses to things was effected by Christ. shewn. that the apostle Paul means. John them.&quot. repeated by the have already examined it.. 5 : my of God and your God. I into Galilee &quot. as I I have subject of Revelations. and they that are for which cause he Ver.&quot. 10 tell : &quot. thee.&quot. 17: ascend go i my brethern. he received the same from the Father of the . xxv.&quot. I say unto you. or Son of God. 22.one Jesus himself and his apostles enumerated of them. 12 : sanctified. : the throne of his glory day. him least as Matt. Here is the at King and Lord. all 21. as head over things belonging to the which represent Jesus I need church. is are all not ashamed to call them I will brethren . and to Cor. Be not they afraid . Go and my brethren they go xx. Heb. last upon Ch. the &quot. who represented as styling the poor xxviii. God. 40 : &quot. in (that of creatures) only quote a few passages which &quot.Christ is no one of them. ye have done sitting is unto me.For he that of one sanctifieth. in this passage.Verily. where 1 all observe. page 338 of this Essay. n &quot. in asmuch as ye have done it unto one of the it of these it my the brethren. &quot.Saying declare thy name unto my brethren. and helpless his brethren. explained in Eph. only the creation of as is all the things in the Christian dispensation. ix. (Father) .Then said Jesus that unto them. and say unto to my Father and your Father. ii. that whatever power Jesus already possessed either as man.&quot. i.As the : brethren Lord and Cephas.

in the course point s of the of of this very subject. I glorify me with ownself. he came Does not he to avow his here. but God sent him. And now. quoted nity. the Most High. Is not this petition God for with God glory. coming to this world was not owing being ? own but to the will of another Was he not entirely at the disposal of before his coming into this God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 5. saith. and that he comes to the world to do the will of God. Christ. or fold nature. a man. In John thine xvii. with that under which he lived with God before the creation of the to world. thai . that God had Had he been 2 God before he had come to this world. which he at one time had. that Jesus. but lost subsquently ? 2ndly. universe (&quot. not as a man. * i st. the anointed Son of I presume. before the foundation of the world. even world ? In Heb. with the glory which had with with thee before the world was/ same breath which he prays for glory. God almighty how could that God implore another being for the restoration of the glory. 5 7. therefore the assertion of the powers were conferred on Jesus. the world. who says he was the foundation of the world ? before Was he.certain 17 Editor. x. of a two human and divine ? If he was before the foundation of the world. that that not of himself. O with the Father.) is. in my is Second Appeal.&quot. at to time of his coming prepared him a body. one of the mysteries of the doctrine of Tri How can the Editor reconcile the passages. In John viii. God&quot. ho\v . 42. to this assertion ? Let him answer discussion I what there advanced. Jesus declares. the the apostle declares. of a few which beg to remind him. that his will. he identifies the nature in which he does so. but as the Messiah. by the same person.

therefore. Rom. 2 Tim. Version. John ii. are called as though they were.&quot. that I have contradicted s myself before by &quot. x. what God determines to decree. priests and rulers to betray his Master. 8 Heb. 34.These things saith the Amen.&quot. . is represented as actually accomplished thus. attribute own actions to the will of the ? Supreme Disposer i. having two with natures.&quot. in verse 12 of this chapter. that is. &quot.&quot. . bring to pass. : beginning. 30. and actually bargaining with the though See also verse 10 Eph.it God his the creation of the world/ idle to and that would have been that. of which his inferiority to is God. will justify i that assertion. Things that are not. (the Jews.&quot. (Improved i. xiii. after I had declared lived &quot. Luke xx. fathers. Christ purpose and decree* On John xvii.I because ye have known him that is from the Rev. . The Editor insinuates. in the Father s purpose and In the language of scripture. 13 : &quot.I 8 FINAL APPEAL in could he. which. in have informed them. . * This I have fully noticed another place.ridiculing the idea of Christ that Christ &quot. iv. 9 4 Rev. The Editor disapproves highly of my assertion. 29. 36 38. viii. Believers are spoken of as already glorified. the begin ning of the creation of God. of the events of the universe The art the Editor next quotes a part of Heb. have been his spiritual nature. 5. 17. i. the dead are represented as living.Thou same. And he was then living. 14 &quot. mere corporeal it Jesus was inferior to his Maker. I hope. iii. Judas is said to be destroyed. 12. write unto you. I therefore beg to quote one or two scriptural passages. and must.) nature. . Christ was vested with glory from the beginning of the world. he here avowed I cannot perceive that what contradiction there lived in the divine * in the assertion. in the Second Appeal. his all common with all other creatures. Rom.) . He had it (the same glory) with the Father before the world was.

The Editor adds. that he should empty himself of his glory. which his glory was merely a and then he recommends the term glory it me to reflect . on what implies understood either of praise or grandeur. addressing that often declared as to disqualify of having other self as his 10 own father since have hardened the heart of glory. but I find it inconsistent nature. and that he. for effecting human salvation. like Adam. which you offer if like. . it praise or grandeur. it was that of which his nature was worthy. the reflection or indication of a glorious with any idea I can admit of the eternal and unchangeable (call Almighty.) though for a season. is merely I have reflected. Supposing he. was inferior to his Creator. and do now seriously reflect. for some years past.) and afterwards was sent to the world. The Editor says. did he lay aside his divine nature. on the divine nature.&quot. which is said to be a spiritual gift. that when he (Jesus) empited himself &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. of shadow?&quot. not merely as a man. as John the Baptist was esteemed to be Elijah. and with the power of performing miracles. (accord ing to the doctrines maintained by some Christians. and the Father s giving &quot. even this doctrine does not preclude us from rejecting the idea of a two-fold nature of God and man. of his glory. before the 1 9 world was. and should afterwards glory to supplications for the . for a moment. or the grandeur which is inherent in his nature. same himself. God is men so instead them from perceiving his de- garded himself by setting aside his own title to praise. in the body of Jesus. as another being .&quot. If it was deserved glory. but that he was so even after he had been endowed with the Holy Spirit in the river of Jordan. before the assuming of the office of the Messiah. lived with God before his coming into this world.

Isaiah. eternal. from Parkhurst s everlasting. &quot. 12. 2 : Out of thee shall he come forth unto goings forth have will. 9. many . 8. 2. cxiii. as . 6. i.. in Micah is v. xxi. s eternal God the Father giving to Jesus deserved glory should be acknowledged as amounting to his attestation we must be under the necessity to the Son s Godhead. 10. Josh. xxvii.2O it FINAL APPEAL to him. xiii. quote explanation is of in the the original Hebrew word DJJT which &quot. for time hidden or concealed indefinite. Exod. 7. of admitting the attestation of Jesus to the enternal of his apostles. Sam. Psalm xli. ix. 03 Jf and Gen. Deut. xvii. Prov. that from everlasting. translated English version everlasting .And 1 them \hzsame deserved John I &quot. when no being s If existed to beside the sacred three. as well past. 2 Sam. that I He perhaps alludes to the phrase &quot.&quot. alludes. xxxii. xxxii. in the English version. Gen. comp. the glory which thou hast given me The Son is Editor twice says. everlasting. the was the Father head. iii. ver. i and xix. and then notice the trans in lation of this very Hebrew word. 3. can be on the phrase alluded to by from Parkhurst s Hebrew and English laid Lexicon. as finite. xxiv. that my readers may be able to Judge whether any the Editor. 23. deity from the circumstance of glory. stress First. 22. Gen. 8. Psalm 22. I wish he had have given them. xvii. from man. &quot. i D21JJ are used both as nouns and particles. whose I been from of old. i Sam. vi. 5 attestation s Son &quot. therefore. &c. 14. his having given 22. viii.&quot. Micah informs us that the mentioned the might have found chapter and verse to which he examined the passage. me that to be ruler in Israel. other instances. i4. lastly. 13.&quot. Sam.&quot. as well xii. &quot. I will by the authors of the English version and repeat the context. 28. 4.

his God. death of Christ/ 2ndiy. Sometimes it appears of the Jewish dis particularly to denote the continuance pensation or age. DSl^ or 2. found Micah of old. l (the &quot. ii. 4.&quot. Psalm xxxii.&quot. and the Here the term D&quot. Isaiah old. : and he in shall stand and feed in the strength of the Lord. by the coming and the period of time to the Jubilee.&quot. &quot. Those nations were for the same Hebrew term D^IJJ.D Messiah goings D from the days of Ixiii. Ixxvii. 21. for the same term Dvljf. Gen. for the old. from everlasting therefore will he give them up. s) forth pntfj^y and his have been from of old.&quot. 2. 5. xxvii. 8.. Gen. the author of this Lexicon (though devoted to the cause of the Trinity) gives the tran slation of the term oSl^ found in Micahv. xii.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 13. 24.&quot. in strength of the .&quot.of old. xvii. goings forth have been from of old. 7. of the word tf 2^ says he. It 21 seems to be much more frequently used for an infinite. 4thly. and the term are &quot. vi. Then he remembered is the days of v.&quot. the the majesty of the &quot. and sometimes which was an eminent type of the completion of the Jewish and typical dispensation. D 1 exactly as &quot. rendered in Micah v.&quot. indefinite than for time. translated the same verse &quot. or oSlJT xxvii. Can phrases. and aLfreq. his God. name of the &quot. 14. i. &quot. antiquity. Which were of men of renown. In the course of explaining the force &quot.Micah v. I years is of ancient in have considered the days of old. &quot.&quot. i Sam. both mentioned. the context is verses 2 4 : Whose . Lord the &c. 2. Deut. 2.&quot. Remember the days of old&quot. same Hebrew word.everlasting. until the time that she which travaileth had brought forth then the remnant of his brethren shall return unto the children of Israel .Tp which times. 3rdly. Exod. &quot. from the English in version. future.&quot.

Comp. his brethren&quot. equality of nature with the Father : certainly does when it referred signifies : a one carnally begotten. i Chron. Ixxv. in defiance of scripture. but otherwise. and ?&quot. by the mouths of the ancient prophets. learning. **-^O passage. that he will raise the Messiah to save the world. 1. Job. . be determined to support their long-esta blished inventions. reason. &quot. &quot.&quot.. and looking up &quot. xxviii. saying. a body of men. 3. will be his Job These are the seed of Abraham and that of David. xxviii. Solomon thy son. Vide ParkhurstV Hebrew Lexicon. distinguished creature. The place whence any thing comes. 9. 7 in which last 11. how can &quot.&quot. . Isaiah is Iviii. how can we reconcile of the to our understanding the idea everlasting God who s reigning in the strength of another. to another superior. through which God declares. be ruler whose sources* have been from of ancient. implies it an so. from the days of The Editor advances. i.&quot. his God If common when he is sense . and &quot. tf cometh e. (Bethlehem) shall forth unto me that of springing forth old.22 FINAL APPEAL Lord&quot. solar light xix. &quot. verse of Micah thus correctly stands (the to last Out of thee expected Messiah) come in Israel. the east. to 6 &quot. Not his (Messiah s) eternal generation from the Father.And he said unto me. 6. word has been tortured to signify. as this 7. fromtime to time. who is the everlasting God ? be consistently used for one If so. distinguish designated by ed for their talents. truth make its appearance 2 so violently resisted ? In : fact. that even son &quot.&quot. Psalm Parkhurst also rejects the popular meaning. he shall build my to house and my and courts I : for I have father. having the Jews as is his brethren. chosen him * be my son. Psalm Ixv. used for that part of the heavens whence the forth. and situation in life.

where he says. : will If be his (Solomon s) father. 22 14 : Israel I my son. viii 32. who can be against us ? He that spared not his own Son. that God by Christ adoption. metaphori being the only Son of God. I will and he shall be my the son. with the preceding fore quote What shall we Romans then say to these things ? If God be for us. Christ is. designated the sons of to &quot. 18 the Rock &quot. common with Jesus. according unquestion Deut. not merely the only I there son. 6 &quot.&quot. without limiting the to Jesus. here verse 32 in question. only proves. God/ Deity ? considered to be of the same nature with the &quot. that &quot. at the that son. : also. but the only-begotten son of the Father. or To establish s k the Holy Spirit also terms him. but deli vered him up for us all. Our (page 594. -enjoy able sacred authorities. how shall he not with him verse of the same chapter of &quot. however.&quot.Of : begat thee is thou art unmindful. 2 iv. birth risk of the life of spiritual honour of a and denying to others the it same distinction. while all others are the sons of cally. he commit iniquity. chasten with . adds. God came to them is selves before the &c. to who. xxxii. Exod. 23 present i. by nature. him vii. 16. in unlimited God of his own Son. the Son of God. he quotes Rom. in which Christ is termed God s own son. first-born&quot. : When the sons of Lord. mercy men. Are the angels. because he called a son of divine nature ? be considered a partaker of the God.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and John i. termed the sons of that God : this. even my Sam. as manifested by his appointment to save mankind from death. Is Solomon. Paul proves towards beyond doubt. freely give us the all things ? Here of St.&quot. however.) author hints that in the sacred writings others have been The Editor.

and reflect upon their purport. version violate the to original word &quot. from this spiritual dignity ? I firmly believe he did not. Gen. one of so attachment his subjects declares that his sovereign was deeply interested in the protection of his people as to send his own son. that war. or does of the king he I degrade other sons from that dignity ? beg my readers will Rom. but with or the loss of his the own life . in his son. Did the original writer of Genesis mean. even energy of expression ? Psalm our own God. God created man in his image? and in the English in his own image&quot.&quot. Paul of mean many of to destroy the validity of these. we find in the original Hebrew. the phrase the construction by adding the in his image?&quot. a king by the and excluding angels. 27. by presenting Christ as the only being distinguished title of Son Solomon.&quot. version. gained a complete victory if. and David. with a view to exalt this sovereign to magnify his people. 31. Besides. even the most beloved.own&quot. Or did &quot. royal birth to that son. they add ixvii. If who had and several children. Israel. it &quot.32. shall bless us. rod of men. &quot. so sent. &quot. to repel the enemies at the hazard of and that he had not spared his own son in does he confine the securing the lives of his people his life.24 FINAL APPEAL men. sent one of them depredations to fight battles against those who committed on and of his subjects. Adam. only for 6 : God. viii. as re a? other texts to a similar effect. that God created man in some fictitious or adopted image resem bling that of God ? Did the authors of the English read i. and with the stripes of the children of Did well St. Does the writer here exclude God from being the God . God.

3. xvi. Heb. 7. of the Gentiles also. had received the promises offered up son. to Jesus. i. It is worth noticing. this Or does he use especial to shew the i Israelites 2. his only-begotten &quot. offered up Isaac and he that to refer the Editor to &quot. xi. &quot. Is against the the of of Paul? Rom. in defiance of Heb. have begotten thee. I said to be &quot. since in Psalm ii. 5 I say in an accommodated sense. implies only most beloved among him the children. with consistency maintain the opinion. 15. 25 in iii. Were we to take the word of John. my own in the faith. we must Israel discredit his the express word of declaring begotten and first-born son. verse. 17. that declares. namely. Hebrews applies the last phrase. by the use declaration the of the word own the &quot. said unto me. 16. in an accommodated sense. that the author of the the Epistle to begotten son. to &quot. in its literal sense.&quot. at that time. : .TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. how can the orthodox Christians. xi. this day Besides. Ishmael. given Gen.&quot. in which Jesus the only-begotten Son of the Father.&quot. Heb. as Abraham had. by Hagar. exclude his thousands of spiritual his sons in the faith ? Did he thereby disciples from being is In reply to his allusion to John i. of the world. as his wife. and describing David to be his begotten son. Thou art my son.&quot. beg 17 By faith Abra ham. God. attachment expression. &quot. when he was tried.&quot. only-begotten. Whence he may perceive that the phrase only- begotten. God ? In Tim son i.The Lord hath 1 during the prosperous time of his reign. it is David .&quot. . who consider Jesus as the begotten Son of God from eternity. ? 29 : he God word Jews only Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes. Paul uses the Timothy. another son to beside Isaac.

the latter was made to the gainsaying Jews.&quot. The declaration. that no commentary upon.26 that FINAL APPEAL God had begotten him. which was. I only say. x. &quot. . and Heb. 22. among Father I and to my one. Jehovah God. pardon the my inability to comprehend them. during of the- the reign of David their They may.&quot. that they may to even as we are one. they may be one as we are&quot. and verse &quot. John xvii. was totally different made at a time. they are best calculated to work upon the minds of those that are brought Trinity. 30. Jesus removed the doubt that arose with regard to the sense in which the unity should be taken in John x. 22. the unity of will and design. will not return to the subject of Rev. ? at a particular clay. on which the Editor makesbe one the following remarks &quot. of course. I and my father to are one.) by representing the unity so expressed be such as he prayed might exist amongst his apostles. apply some to this Psalms mysterious interpretations but they will. of that I i. and not that identity of being. . perhaps. a tremendous being in his wrath. and the former in prayer to his heavenly Father nor is there the are- the least hint given that any doubt had arisen disciples respecting the expression &quot. though Editor recurs to them in this place. 8. 10. in . I and and person^ Father from that in John my are one. as is evident from John xvii. of course. As to his frequent repetition of such phrases as u Jesus is &quot. (&quot.. &c. 1 1. that they may be one even as we are one : . 30. but up in the notion of the do not carry any weight with them in an to the decision of argument subject I an enlightened public. &quot. i. that asserted in my Second Appeal. passage case.&quot. rule laid It astonishes me very much meet with a ne\\ down by the Editor.

and they &quot. I and my Father are &quot. whence we might . Jesus declares unity to subsist between himself and in ch. Although that unity may not be of the same between him and the Father. 8. have known surely And They have kept thy word. verse an unity in nature among them. that I came out from thee. xvii. x.&quot. they by praying that (his disciples) may be one. kind.&quot. 22). nature . evident from the passage of the very chapter. to be of use. without an express declaration- doubts as to the meaning of it. or before a body of of their new hearers. me. if it is made or given at a subsequent period in the course of a solemn prayer to God. he explains that the unity between him and the Father . 22. nor could he pray for a renewed spiritual nature to be given to them. 6. cannot be meant anything else than unity of will and design. If this rule stand good. as (xvii. They are no . 27 or explanation of a passage or phrase by the author of it. (as the Editor thinks to be the because they were already endued with that is 1 &quot. Jesus could not mean in praying for his apostles. many commentaries and notes by authors on their respective works must cease rule.&quot. and the of universally adopted that passages Scripture should be explained by their reference to one another. one. In ch. was of the same kind as .AS&quot. as he and the Father are one.&quot. God and n and &quot. must be annulled. that which he prayed to be granted to his disciples hence by the unity so prayed for. yet the degree force of the conjunction shews that it is of the same that subsisted &quot. can have any weight. 6. spiritual union. have believed that thou didst send &quot. have inferred unity in nature between him and his God since they were long before this prayer created in the one human case). 30.TO THK CHRISTIAN Pl BLIC. 1 1.

would it not be quite idle in Jesus to have his declared. &quot. To enable my readers I to take a clear view of this passage here quote the . for MY in nature with the we are taught to pray to OUR also verses i. Father and of your Father. vi. and of the same nature. FATHER 8. 3 : The Father mercies. (as the Editor believes. See 4. them. my Father. of his unity in nature with the Deity.&quot. heaven. Matt.&quot. as we daily find among s the children calling men ? Were the circumstance of one God the his Father received as a proof of his being actually son of God. Supposing unity of nature existed between Jesus Christ. thou art the guide of my must even admit all Christians to be one Father of the universe.&quot. we must consider David as a real son of God. Cor. 29 : He shall cry unto me. youth? ) We FATHER. my salvation art MY FATHER. world. &quot. &c. even FINAL APPEAL as of I am is not of the &quot. The glory which thou gavest me. 18. our Lord Jesus Christ. 9. unity in I have given Besides. xx. in nature with God .My and 32 of the same chapter. spiritual nature not the same kind of unity which subsists between the individuals of one nature. and that Jesus actually meant by the words. 2 &quot. and.&quot. since the former natural and obvious. 17: &quot. 4. John i. to affirm God to be his real is found in &quot. (Jer. instead of saying that he was a the Son entertaining and design with his Father. and the Father of &c.&quot. Father. in verse 30. Psalm Ixxxix. and the rock and we also must esteem Israel one &quot. 14.&quot. but the latter is not circumstance will is same always found to of exist. iii. Wilt thou not from this time cry unto me. my God. of course. in 15.&quot. 6.) in the as it God and same manner one begotten by a man or animal and his parents. that he as a Son was of the same nature with Father. of Thou .28 the world.

) Both in the Scriptures. and God in me. 29. and they two shall be one flesh&quot. Jesus. iii. when referred to two will.&quot. n. 21. 17 : For we being many are one bread. in him . and I in him &quot. substances. xxxvii.&quot. &quot. context. one body. 8 are one.&quot. and make them ONE stick.&quot. . even with the stick of Judah. : Now and in ordinary composition. : that &quot. &quot. verses And he (the husband) 24 &quot. Cor. To I snatch my true of disciples out of my s hand would be to snatch them out my almighty Father . unity. nor did I ever rejoice at the idea that &quot. : shall cleave unto his wife. action. is. was one in nature with the Most High if Second Appeal. who gave them me. I prove the deity of Jesus Christ from a the Father perverted interpretation of such phrases as he dwelleth in God. &quot. in the Improved Version upon Vers. and them with him. a fact which tion to the following my readers will perceive by a slight atten common usage of language. implies invariably perfect concord of or some other qualities and by no means oneness of nature. See ch. 22. their attempt to that only observed in my Trinitarian authors succeeded in . and my Father are one one in design. &quot. : ii. affection. Ezek. and also to the Gen. and he that watereth (Improved Version. and they shall be one in mine hand. a man approved invisible of God. xvii. x. they would unavoidably increase the number of .&quot. i agreement.&quot. is greater than all and none is able to pluck them out of my Father s hand. 19: will put I will take the stick of Joseph. I &quot. 29 as well it. for we never amused myself with the thought that Christ did pray that his disciples might be one with him and his heavenly Father. i Cor. as the note : found &quot. and are all partakers of that one bread. he that planteth. I and my Father are one &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN* PUBLIC. hand because . 30 : My Father.

as well as to church history. &quot. that nothing can be more assertion. possessed of human and subject to the calls of nature. and he in That by these ye might be par &quot. invisible. Father. and ye in me. since similar expressions are disciples of Jesus. shall confess that of i. my countrymen the whole New I having under gone therefore of Testament. p. 21 Thou. The Editor seems displeased to at my having declined to submit indiscriminately doctrine of the therein.&quot. creating &c.&quot. three. was the very God whom he defines as existing for ever. xvii.&quot. and &quot. be one in me. : takers of the divine nature.O FINAL APPEAL the persons of the Godhead much beyond John xiv.) that am my &quot. art in and I I : in in you! &quot. does the Reverend Editor justify the idea. John 56 eateth I my in flesh. and above all mortal causes or effects ? The Reverend incorrect than Editor says. who used to accomodate their instructions to the gradual progress of their followers. him. that they also that may us. viz. (addressing himself to his disciples.Whosoever Jesus is the 2 John Son Peter iv. immaterial. God: 4 God. because certain passages human distortions. God dwelleth in him. and drinketh i my 15: blood.^7 . thee. Father. How was it that I did not all feel struck with the absurdity of a creature s things. . that Jesus in my John x. dwelleth in me. 130. to the which shew that laid my plan was conformable example down by the apostles and primitive Christians. : At that day ye I shall in : know. this beg to refer all him to another Essay. In answer to his question. How beg reply by another question. that ? I only to one who was feelings. in the human shape. occasion much portion dispute.He Ch. and vi.&quot. frequently found applied to the 20 &quot.

length prevaricates and retracts for fear death. him given that sent me. following sayings of Jesus.&quot.&quot. So hath he to the Son to have life in him I authority. &quot. but hath committed all judgment unto He that heareth my word.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. finish.&quot. and of viii. * 3 1 disavowed the charge of making himself God: fullest after having borne the testimony to his equality with at I God v.. Neither &quot. and believeth on the Son. I Ch. the same time entreat the Kditor to point out a single quite different from As to John v. everlasting life. me to viii.&quot.&quot. &quot. So the &quot. &c. but the me. the Son. Father who For the works which the Father &c. &quot. and sheweth him all things that Son quickeneth whom he will. and hath given 0im*owns6lf do nothing. I beg to refer my readers to the subsequent Chapter of this Essay. found in chapters v. where I will examine the same verse fully. a my man that hath told you the truth which I have heard of me. For the Father loveth himself doeth. of himself. and &quot. am come in my me is Father I s true. will of the seek hath not sent mine own will. therefore refer to chapters calls and viii. hath &quot. came I of myself.. speak these things/ Father hath taught me I But now ye seek to kill me. &quot. 23. but he sent I seek not mine own glory/ I know him (God) and keep his saying&quot.&quot. with God ? The Son can do nothing &quot.&quot. : But he that sent but as &quot.&quot. hath given name&quot. equality of Jesus with his God and that Father ? If so. I can of himself.* Do these testimonies amount to the (rod&quot. 1 at equa maintained by the world. and now ask the Editor whether he the viii. do nothing of myself. the fullest testimonies to his equality &quot.. for the Father judgeth no man.&quot. the Kditor must have in view a definition of the term lity&quot. in chapters v. * .

and that they sought again to take him on account of another subsequent assertion of his. believe the works sent into the world. (34) Jesus answered them. I hope. x. spare the charge. Gospels. the Editor will. evangelical and precepts that he taught in the of the four (Vide the whole &quot. Is it not written in your law. makest thyself God. for. which our author terms a disavowal of was the very confession for which they sought again to take him. . : . setting in de fiance all the phrases I have now quoted from the these very chapters. and Thou blasphemest. though ye that ye may know and believe not me. . because I said I am the Son of God ? (37) If I do not the works of my Father. I am. under the necessity of quoting the context.) the confession. &quot. either of these equality of Jesus two chapters containing a proof Christ with God. death. being a man. The Editor then adds. therefore. After reflecting upon above-cited phrases. for . (36) Say ye of him whom (and the scripture cannot be broken. that 36.32 verse of the in FINAL APPEAL. because they still thought he made himself God.&quot. 34 deity. The context is. I said ye are gods? (35) If he called them gods unto whom the of word God came. disavowal all of deity was quite consistent with the doctrines writings.&quot. saying.) the Father hath sanctified. 36. as to misunderstanding of him. that Jesus at length prevaricates his and retracts for fear of in ch. to shew that the Jews seemed appeased their at the explanation given by Jesus himself. (32) Many good works have I shewed you from my which of those works do ye stone me? (33) The Jews answered him. &quot. believe me not (38) but if I do. (in x. For a good work we but for blasphemy and because that stone thee not Father-. thou.

* and him. ? Does not Jesus here of God. on the ground is the sacred writings. he of ? prophets among course relinquishes his claim to the use of the phrase Israel &quot. are justified in calling- magistrates and prophets gods. would himself against this charge he not by saying. I have already &quot. who holds suffers a high situation himself to be called under government.&quot.&quot. the sanctified Messiah of God. God. implies in scriptural language only unity in design and will. conse &quot. (39) Therefore they sought out of their again to take him. and &quot. as it is fre quently applied to the apostles in reference to God. If a commoner. You call all the judges Lords in their judicial capacity though they are not noblemen by birth yet you charge me (who hold a more dignified situation than the judges) with arro . because able a title I suffer myself to be addressed as honour which the children of noblemen enjoy ? I In following the example of Jesus. Does not Jesus that if here appeal scripture. every assertion of which but true. on the ground &quot. in &quot. of blasphemy. in its real sense.&quot. in conformity to their Scriptures. and to their Lord and Master Jesus Christ. honourable and. * now appeal to scrip- in a preceding page (440) stated that such a another. justify the phrase phorical Son sense himself.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and the other is in him. but he escaped to hand. gance.one phrase as is in . and Scriptures styled that the Jews by in reading the those superiors the epithet gods. for his of having for called himself only the use of the Son God &quot. they could not in justice accuse him. be accused of presumption in permitting himself to be designated by that title. the same meta that the term gods was used for the magistrates and If so. believe that 33 I in the Father is in me. quently. Son of God &quot. that he was justify not actually the son of a nobleman.

but even with wilful exaggerations. John ii. Editor must be well aware that the Jews had such an inveterate because he made himself the Son of God. (Jesus. lastly.22. Godhead. raise it again in three days. (To perform a cure on the sabbath day supposed by the Jews to be a breach of the traditions of the elders.&quot.) but other instances he left them in ignorance.) and sought because he had done these things on the sabbath is day. me. 425. to Jews persecute him. that my readers may judge thereby whether verses 34 of 36 contain a confession deity. &quot. viii. or a disavowal of made by Jesus omitted himself. 34 36. 21. they misunder might stood him. from that he this 21 : misconceived notion. well as in John vii.&quot. enmity against Jesus. and I in him. that in they not only to. him contrary The man departed and told who had made him whole. the Jews. correct Jews in in their misconceiving the phrase. Ver. as I noticed that before at last Editor. . chose to die under this very charge. and found fault with him. and by that law he ought The which they esteemed blasphemy worthy of death. It is not only a single instance in which Jesus the is to &quot. before the high-priest.Jesus pages 333.) When Jesus told the Jews to destroy the temple. FINVL APPEAL and also to common sense. &quot. (verse 38. : The and grand charge to die.&quot. and supposed that he intended to raise the temple of Jerusalem. 16. rather than This was their last clear up the mistake. says. (John many The Father 19. in ii. And there fore did the slay him. charged him with what they found their law. &quot. if it was such. 15 : John v. 21. as But he spake of the temple of his body.34 lure. We have a law. Jesus &quot. that it was &quot. and not a crime worthy of death yet they .

17 answered them. made . without subjecting themseves charge of blasphemy. calling God his Father. yet they sought to kill Jesus on the false ground. Jesus firmly in whatever he had say unto you.Verily. himself. being unable and left any plea for his destruction. and Jesus Jews sought the more to kill him.&quot. and (Vide the whole of ch. him with having perver and : having forbidden to give tribute to Caesar which was full of misrepresentation. and by our law he ought to die. the Jews charged ted the nation by representing himself as their king. &quot. and his entire in avows dependence on God verse 19. It is worth observing. Let us return now to the text quoted by the Editor : a charge Reverend have a law. called to the God Father. remained quiet. because he not only had broken the sabbath.We is evident.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. My father worketh hitherto. lest the Jews should infer his independence in doing his and wrest words from the purpose.) Ver. I Son CAN do nothing following verses.&quot. My Father worketh hitherto. (&quot.&quot. 41. Although the their Jews in their own defence. v. 2. that he equalized himself with God by miracles. but said also that God was his Father. 35 : But sought to kill Jesus under that pretence. that. the performed.&quot. whence it &quot. We have one Father. the severest charge which they preferred that &quot.) (&quot. notwithstanding the great hatred which the Jews entertained towards our Saviour. even God. Luke xxiii. their and the misrepresentation they were guilty of in against accusation him. I work&quot.he under the pretence of religion was.. (18) Therefore the equal with God. that. in so to find of &c. (John viii.) and also in the much that the Jews. making himself I work. because he made himself the Son of God.) In Jesus in peace.

that Jesus also admitted them children of the Deity. Psalm Lxxxii. to Pilate. and they would have. this being better calculated and horror of the former. ever. be the particular &quot. Thy O God.) that &quot. who cannot also. and to High (correctly speaking. The Editor expresses his astonish ment &quot.&quot.our author queries on what principle any stress can be laid on the prophetic expression quoted throne. &c. or say anything that amounted to his claim to the Godhead. Editor says.&quot. 6) and this idea was so familiar among . . accused him of having made himself God. spoken verse of * by Him who Is not the is very Hebrews.&quot.&quot.for at what I say in Second Appeal. is for ever it is and We are reply merely on this principle. in I will &quot. and in to excite the wrath of the latter presence of the multitude. and. an accommodated sense. them. for ever and ever. Are not these words cannot lie gods. it not introduce the having been noticed in page 344. (page 597.Ye lie.Thy throne. applied originally to Solomon by Him who cannot lie. The high-priest and other chief accusers knew very well were taught to consider God as their call themselves the children of the Most that their people Father. that the phrase to ever&quot. in The Heb.36 himself the FINAL APPEAL Son of God. ? &quot.But Mark first vii. must mean a limited time when referred it an earthly king or a creature. i. O God. Let the children be filled. from the Psalms. The reason which he assigns for his surprise is. and therefore carries no weight in proof of the deity of Jesus when applied to him. 27 Jesus said unto her. of course. whom they found inclined to release Jesus. the sons of the Most High. to . had the Jews ever heard him declare himself God. to Jesus by the apostle ? subject again. that spoken by God.

honoureth him. that will sometimes be obliged. From his general lie mode of reasoning. when referred to Jesus that &quot.&quot. try to quote to some other term the deity God. with authorities for the distinction. that all men should honour the Son even as they honour : the Father. and another shewing such declarations in he made in his divine nature. 22. in explaining a single sentence in the scriptures. and another part to him in his divine nature.for duration purpose of understood by the phrase ? 7 ever.for As he admits ever when . must spare this phrase. 37 sense How could I take this phrase in a finite when applied to Jesus. I am induced to think. and then employs the for the circums tance of the eternal deity of Jesus. to ascribe a part of it to Jesus as a man. the eternal Jehovah ? Did not the Editor feel astonished at the idea that he employs the application of the phrase &quot. attentively their authorities. (John xx. enumera in his ting expressions that Jesus Christ made human as capacity. I ascend unto my Father and your Father. in his attempt to .) Go to my brethren. John v.&quot. and to my God and I your God. was merely in his wish the Editor had furnished us with a those human list.&quot. nature. implies a limited time only he. not the Father which hath sent The first part of . referred to a creature. 23 &quot. I might have.For the Father judgeth no man. 17. examined them as well as that case.prove the deity of Jesus. in his endeavour establish The Editor says. and peculiar to of Jesus. but hath committed all judgment unto the Son. As for example. therefore. and say unto them. that the expression of Jesus to Mary.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC.for ever&quot. He that honoureth not the Son. is proving that infinite &quot.

My It is neither a confession of the Lord and my God As to the !&quot. and having perceived his heart.hath FINAL APPEAL committed all judgment unto the Son/ in the in must have been (according to the Editor) spoken human s nature of Jesus Christ. resurrection in . &quot. and almost struck other Asiatic nations. exclamation of Thomas. the invariable and being struck with such a Lord and my &quot. that is.all even as they honour the Father. that Thomas without any reference to the print of doubted Christ his s resurrection that. nor is it a vain exclama from verse 25. thou hast believed. in has no allusion to the deity of Jesus is and the form which a confession made. by him. And the last part. supreme tion. for the subject in question. does not stand in need of another of the The second part vesting him with that power. his exercising power. often who. is totally . from these apparent circumstances. make exclamations name of the Deity . &quot. (verse by which Jesus acknowledges the belief of Thomas the fact which he doubted in verse 25. 28. this evidence of Christianity on which the orthodox divines lay stress ? Surely not.&quot. (John xx. when in the wonder. since the Almighty. according to with Arabs. and that Jesus. as it stands . &quot. deity of Jesus it since is evident. he believed circumstance. says. must be ascribed by the Editor to Jesus as God. the nails.) &quot. relates again to Christ s human capacity. his . same sentence. he having been worthy to be honoured as the Father is.which hath sent since Is it him. the context.&quot. &quot. made all the exclamation.38 this sentence.My habits of the Jews. deity . God !&quot. men should honour the Son. and when he saw Jesus and it.because 29) in thou hast seen me. implies his subjection to the disposal the internal of another.

since God&quot. both in the scriptures and in ordinary to language. beginning&quot. existed such a &quot. v. four of which I have already Editor quotes The examined. i. and the John word was with God.My Lord and my God &quot. different 39 from that of exclamation. How can Thomas be supposed have meant to confess the deity of a mere exclamation. such as &quot. word was e.In whether it is. its The quotes sorts of 37. Revelation manifesting .&quot. 28. word was the deity. in the first time &quot. first take this verse in or not i. context.in attempts to prove the eternity of the son (&quot. intelligible. and First. my Lord and my God attentively refer to beg the context.From the beginning the word of God. personality -.The sound as was capable of conveying word was with God&quot.was the word&quot. 1 : I notice &quot. and as &quot. by the second. and art&quot. this sound no sound can the exist of itself. John xx.I !&quot. in that case. the beginning (&quot. passages from the Gospel and the book of the Revelations. subject. By the first the beginning was the word ) the Editor sentence.The a meaning.the God&quot.In now the remaining two verses. Jesus in without adding some phrase conveying confession. its literal sense. e. and the word was God. and ? I that my readers will to the common and form Editor all habits their of Asiatics on occasions similar to this. or it a diety. e.) his deity. &quot.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. which. i. the i.) his distinct and by the Let us certain word was God&quot. e. opinion respecting this Matt. The whole verse thus stands or &quot. or being like other attributes of the : Deity. was divine. forbid this swearing of but what relation I has to the exclamation Thomas. word was with third (&quot. i. with . existed &quot.the . in the Deity. be&quot.Thou believe you to my Lord and my God. was the word. six am unable to discover.

and believed the author detailed throughout vers. To explain metaphorical representation. is called the by that name.the word&quot. and with additional God.of Jesus by the this in his name. 8. as the original word \o7oc is masculine. Rev. xix. he communicated that Revelation (as testified 3. writer indentifies love the Deity. all as the Jewish and believe. is 2 12.4O his will FINAL APPEAL himself lished well as .and dwelt among us/ &c. existed with him as God and by the same word God made or estab things .The word of words called &quot. once of in .* In verses 13.His name is the word God whereby he manifests that Jesus. is signifying the &quot. Revelation &quot. on the ground that love * The reason for the verses.word. obvious. with the additional words Epistle.&quot.&quot.&quot. as the deliverer of the word of God. i John i. is not the only instance in which an with attribute of the Deity is thus represented as . his Gospel.&quot. This 14. once life. that God (Vide things by his word only. in Jesus. and commandments. one with is God for the very i same 16. as the bearer : John expressly personifies and deliverer of tha flesh. i. &quot. &quot. John i. both in the original Gospel use of the masculine gender in these and in the English version. Baptist. i. in John iv. et seq. 13.) beforehand by John the for the purpose of effecting the salvation of those that received ity of that Revelation.) And world through Jesus Christ. &quot. acknowledged by them. Mohummudan as of Hindoo theologians established all on the authority the works respectively made and Gen. to the i. and not actually identified with word. i. .&quot. as otherwise might have been supposed from i.) &quot. John designates &quot.of life.The word was made (or the word fully was this flesh.&quot.&quot.

word. entirely inadmissible. equally unscriptural.all 4. as as a passage can be consistently in its literal sense.word. 1.&quot.&quot.word. 44. that is. and he was also God.) and to assume this word as existent in the beginning. revolting to the First. The his Gospel. and iv.TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. and for several reasons taken and As long understood it can be no apology for taking find Here we the no authority or for identi fying that Jesus with in &quot. ii. opposed to the sense adopted In the throughout the first whole of &quot. designating . i. Under these circumstances.&quot. under &quot.&quot. xv. from all the son of God existed with God. the same phrase. I presume. there in a figurative one. of God.) (John and not once for the xvi. distinct in interpretation is : person. in an sense. as signifying all eternity. ning. in in a finite sense. in moral and physical creations. verse of Genesis. &quot.beginning of the 25. &quot.In his Gospel. by the he only &quot. earth. I Secondly.&quot. and by the term they understand Jesus the son of eternity God . 3rdly. zndly. the verse in have to notice the orthodox