GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FOCUS: SCIENTIFIC TRAITS AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD LET COMPETENCIES: 1. identify scientific traits and attitudes exhibited in various situation; and 2. use scientific inquiry to investigate materials, events, and phenomena in natural world (designing, collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data, making conclusion and communicating result)



requiring knowledge of the physical science and mathematics. Critical-Outlook 5. It is inherently interdisciplinary. Biology is a huge subject that gets bigger every year because of the great discovery explosion. INTRODUCTION: Since the very beginning of human history.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 IN THE NUTSHELL I. A person who possesses a critical outlook does not readily believe things he sees. We can think of biology’s enormous scope as having two major dimensions. he asked questions on the veracity of a statement in relation to the evidence presented. or performing with care is free from mistake or error. Biology is the name given to this study of living things. Critical-Mindedness 4. exact. A biologist bases suggestion and conclusion on evidences. life is structured on size scale ranging from the molecular to the global. reads or hears. Accuracy DESCRIPTION This term refers to the attitude of being precise. Biologists continually check or recheck not only their own finding but also those other biologist all over the world. The second dimension of biology’s scope structures across the enormous diversity of life on Earth. now and throughout life’s history. A biologist should be eager to know the answer on what’s happening on surrounding through asking questions. Curiosity . Belief 3. First. 2. A biologist believes that everything that happens in this world has a cause or reason. particularly in everything that moves or grows and can be called alive. SCIENTIFIC TRAITS/ ATTITUDES What attitudes do scientists manifest when engaged in an inquiry or investigation? Below are list of scientific attitudes that are qualities of scientists: SCIENTIFIC TRAIT 1. II. men have taken an interest in what they saw. When in doubt. This trait implies careful judgment.

Responsibility 11. He accepts criticism and changes his mind if reliable evidence contradicts his believes. scientists in all fields approach the problem in the same way. SCIENTIFIC METHOD (A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH) There are so many different kinds of phenomena to be explained those scientists have had to become specialist – physicist. Imagination 8. He should admit that he is not free from committing errors. Even so. . so on… With in each of these fields there are numerous subdivisions. Open-mindedness 10. In conducting experiment or observation a biologist should not be influenced by his opinions or feelings in abler to avoid biases. chemist. The universal approach to scientific problems is called scientific method. The scientific method took centuries to develop and has to be learned by every science student. Risk-taking 12. This trait implies on the creative ability of a biologist by forming a new idea from the things experienced or observed and also being resourceful in overcoming practical difficulties. It helps them find the reasons for the facts or ides they are puzzled about. Objectivity 9. A biologist expresses his opinions and tries new ideas even at the risk of failure or criticism. biologist. an English Philosopher. a new idea. an Italian physicist. When a scientist announces a finding on proposes. and Francis Bacon. astronomer. arrogant or assertive. Humility A biologist should not be proud. A biologist actually participates in a task and also dutifully performs task assigned to him. other scientist may repeat the work or test its conclusions. are considered the principal founders of the scientific method. 7. A biologist should be ready to consider any suggestions or ideas.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 3 6. He recognized that there maybe better ideas and realizes that there are other biologist or scientist whom may have to consult to arrive at correct observation and conclusion. A hunch is a strong intuitive impression that something will happen. Scientific Hunch III. Galileo Galilei. earth scientist.

GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 4 The basic steps in the scientific method are: 1. DEFINING OR STATING THE PROBLEM (What question should be asked?) This includes questioning. (Gay. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same. Controlled variable – are quantities that biologist wants to remain constant. from this process of observation. What. 1976) Types of Hypothesis • • Null Hypothesis Ho. It is important to clearly define the problem in order to delimit it. 2. Types of Variables • • • Independent variable. and How. The successful solution of the smaller parts of the problem permits gradual solution of the whole. You should also repeat your experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident. FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS (What are possible answers to our problem?) A hypothesis is a statement that can be used to predict the outcome of future observation. phenomena or events which occurred or will occur.a claim that there is no difference between the population mean and the hypothesized value. If the null hypothesis is rejected. OBSERVING AND GATHERING INFORMATION A scientist does not merely wait for things to happen. we are left with no choice but to fail to reject the alternative hypothesis that is population mean is not equal to hypothesized value. The biologist observed how it responds to the changes made to independent the outcome or objective of the study. Dependent variable. Alternative hypothesis H1-a claim that disagrees with null hypothesis. he will be able to gather data to further understand the problem. .is the one that is changed by the biologist. 3. It is a tentative explanation for certain behaviors. Why? Because one question frequently leads to another or even top a host of new questions. The usual questions that arise in science include the Why. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. a good experiment has only one independent variable. He should go around and observe the things around him. 4. TEST THE HYPOTHESIS Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false. To insure a fair test.

the biologist will communicate his results to others by publishing their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting. RECORDING AND ANALYZING DATA After collecting the data. STARTING A CONCLUSION After the process of experimentation and data gathering. . and hence uncontrolled. Your conclusions summarize how your results support or contradict your original hypothesis: • Summarize your science fair project results in a few sentences and use this summary to support your conclusion. making comments about its success and effectiveness.. Include key facts from your background research to help explain your results as needed. If scientists cannot duplicate their first results. or chart. state the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Its cause is usually some unrecognized. REPEATING THE WORK The single feature that is most characteristic of science is its reproducibility. Suggest changes in the experimental procedure (or design) and/or possibilities for further study. such as a table. you will need to analyze the result of the experiment. 8. (Engineering & programming projects should state whether they met their design criteria.g. The results can be presented in various forms.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 5 5. State whether your results support or contradict your hypothesis. graph. 6. • • • • 7.) If appropriate. they are forced to conclude that these were invalid. the inability to reproduce experiments will be discovered by the same scientists who did the first experiments. it is now important that the scientist make a conclusion. unrecognized variation in the properties of different batches of the materials used in the experiment). With luck. This problem occurs often. factor in the experiment (e. Summarize and evaluate your experimental procedure. This is why scientists generally repeat their experiments several times before reporting them in a scientific paper. COMMUNICATE YOUR RESULTS To complete.

Mr. 1. He expresses his opinion even the risk of failure or criticism. Louis did not accept the idea instead he goes against it. Scientific Hunch The correct answer is B. What trait does Student Z posses? A. Option C. Curiosity is the desire to know. He done it even though many scientists during that time criticized his work and the possibility of failure is quite high. Even though during that time people believe more about it. Curiosity D. Option D. Open-mindedness B. Student Z maybe wants to know the result but being accurate shown more than being curious. Pasteur contradict on the idea not make a new one. Option D. Honesty is being truthful. a French microbiologist proved to his experiment that this is false. Humility shows when a biologist admits that he is not free from committing error. He wants to make sure that his experiment is free from error. What scientific attitude does Louis Pasteur posses based on this situation? A. Louis Pasteur did not have a hunch about the situation. Louis Pasteur conducted his experiment against spontaneous generation. Option B. In the 1850’s many scientist thought that living things could arise from nonliving things. Imagination is the creative ability of a biologist to invent a new idea. 2. Student Z tries to be accurate to his experiment. Option C. Honesty The correct answer is A. Competency No. Scientific hunch is a strong intuitive feeling concerning a future event or result. Open-mindedness is being receptive to arguments or ideas. Student Z maybe honest but it did show in the situation. Accuracy C. Students Z tries to make sure that he will not committing mistake. Louis Pasteur. Student Z conducts an experiment. Imagination C. He done it with care and he make sure that each procedure is based on the accepted standard. 1: Identify scientific traits and attitudes exhibited in various situations. . Option A.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 6 QUESTION AND ANSWER Direction: Select the best answer from the given choices. Risk-taking D. Humility B.

Option A. HB’s classmate told him that he get skin disease if he touched a toad. “Shallow men believe in luck. HB does not seek for the cause or reason why toads associated with skin disease instead he what’s to know if it is true or not. Responsibility D. Risk-Taking The correct answer is A. HB shows that he did not easily believe what somebody told him. and C did not have connection about the quote. Before he conducts the research he asked for advice of a biologist. Belief. B. HB does not conduct an experiment but still he is not influenced by his feeling or opinion regarding on toads.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 7 3. What attitude does HB shown in this situation? A. Paolo is humble because he knew that there will be better ideas by consulting other science expert. 5. 4. A biologist believes that everything that happens in this world has a cause or reason not by pure luck. What attitude Paolo posses? A. Belief C. Option B. the words cause and effect strongly support the trait belief. D. Responsibility. Still the best answer is D.Emerson What scientific trait this quote pertains to? A. C. . Objectivity B. HB does not show that he participates in a certain task. Option D. Objectivity C. HB went to the library and began to read all about toads to see if they really cause skin disease. Objectivity Imagination Curiosity Belief The correct answer is D. He tries to seek for the truth through reading books. Responsibility D. If we analyzed the quote of Emerson. Strong men believe in cause and effect. Objectivity. In a biology class. Humility B. chemist and physicist. C. Each trait has been explained in previous questions. Paolo makes a research proposal. Option C. Option A. B.” . and D These trait did not showed by Paolo in this situation. Critical Outlook The correct answer is D.

analyzing. organizing.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 8 Competency No. 2: Use scientific inquiry to investigate materials. and phenomena in natural world (designing. 56 D. Record and analyze data The correct answer is D. Every month 12 toads are added in the list for that we can predict based on three consecutive months that on April there will be 56 toads already in that certain place. 7. Usually chart and graph done during record and analyze data. They are designed to help users obtain at a glance an intuitive feeling of the data. 49 C. Constructing charts and graphs and looking for patterns are part of which step of the scientific method? A. making conclusion and communicating result) 6. Gather Information. Option C. collecting. Students A already test the hypothesis. and interpreting data. . it is a step in scientific method which seeks for a problem or question. it from a scientific guess on what will be the answer to the problem. Form a hypothesis. The table below shows the number of toads at a certain time in a certain place. 63 B. Option A. Student A does not go around and observed things or look for possible answer in books or other references. Graphs and Charts give the users a nice overview of the essential feature of the data. and D is maybe possible but the trend of the information in the table shows there’s higher probability that 56 toads will be in that place. C. State the Problem. MONTH NUMBER OF TOADS January 20 February 32 March 44 April ? What will most likely be the number of toads in April? A. State the problem B. Gather information C. Option A. Form a hypothesis D. events. 70 The correct answer is B. Option B.

The problem has already resolved that means we already reached the conclusion. B. 10. Experiments is the best answer because the words places. stirs or mixes are done during the executing or conducting an experiment. and D are not related on these action words. and the internet are ways of obtaining information for that the best answer is gather information Option B. D. C. Action words such as places. or mixes indicate which step of the scientific method is being used. D. Experimental State the problem Form a conclusion Record and analyze data The correct answer is C. B. C. A. Experts. Option B. The definition of determines is to make up one’s mind or resolved. Information from Books. Books. B.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 9 8. and D are not the right answer because you need to gather first the needed information before you proceed in these three procedures. and the Internet is used for which step of the scientific method. The word Determines usually means this step of the scientific method is being used. B. and D are not the correct answer because if you use determine you already done these steps. A. Option A. 9. EVALUATE YOURSELF Direction: Select the best answer from the given choices. . C. stirs. experts. Form a conclusion Form a hypothesis Gather information Record and analyze data The correct answer is C. C. C. D. A. Experiment State the problem Form a conclusion Record and analyze The correct answer is A.

D. D. D. D. In a biology class. What scientific trait does Ramon have? A. A biologist believes in a Chinese proverb that “If one does not dare to enter the tiger’s liar. Humility C. The Scientific Exploration The Scientific Method A Theory Logic 4. Belief Risk-Taking Open-Mindedness Critical-Mindedness . What do you think Aida’s trait based on this situation? A. D. Ramon a sophomore student is one of the participants.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 10 1. One of the judges approaches him and criticizes his work. Curiosity D. What does a person possess when he respects the ideas and opinions of others. B. Insecure Curiosity Objectivity Accuracy 3. B. B. He accepts all of these. B. She compares her findings to others. C. A curious mind An open mind A Intelligent mind Compassion 2. Student K always states to his fellow classmates that everything that happens in this world has a cause or reason. Aida already finished her experiment. C. Objectivity 6. how can one obtain tiger clubs?” What is the scientific trait pertaining this quote? A. B. C. C. He believes through criticisms he will be better someday. even if they contradict his own ideas? A. This is the set of steps that scientists follow A. Belief B. What trait does he posses based on his statement? A. C. In science fair. Critical Mindedness Scientific Hunch Critical Outlook Risk Taking 5.

C. Experimentation Statement of the problem Forming hypothesis Gathering information 10. Data C. Humility Curiosity Accuracy Risk-Taking 8. C. She checks the growth of the corn over the course of 5 months. D. Theory . It is an orderly. A. Law B. C. Asking a question is part of which step of the scientific method? A. C. A. Problem Hypothesis Experiment Observation 11. it is the factor being tested. What is a constant in this experiment? A. When a biologist performs an experiment. B. D. B. Experiment Conclusion Scientific Method Dimensional Analysis 9.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 11 7. Both rows receive the same amount of water and light intensity. Conclusion 12. A botanist plants two rows of corn for experimentation. A. systematic approach to the problem solving. A. This is a proposed solution to a scientific problem. C. D. B. D. Plant height Amount of water Corn with fertilizer Corn without fertilizer 13.” What scientific trait does this imply? A. She puts fertilizer on row 1 but does not put fertilizer on row 2. B. B. This is the starting point of any scientific investigation. D. “He who never made a mistake. According to English Biologist Samuel Smiles (1812-1904). never made a discovery. Theory D.

Tessa designed an experiment to find out which mouthwash was most effective against some bacteria. She cut out four different circles from a paper towel and soaked each circle in a different mouthwash. 17. Nitrogen concentration affects the growth of algae. Which hypothesis best explains these observations? A. Precipitation affects the growth of algae. Variable D. D. D. Control C. B. An experiment for a new asthma medication was set up into two groups. C. C. A scientific study showed that the depth at which algae were found in a lake varied from day to day. What purpose does the sugar pill serve? . Hypothesis 14. There are no constants present B. while group 2 was given a sugar pill. The same kittens were used and the milk was served at the same temperature. If and then are words used for which step of the scientific method? A. D. B. Use the same type of mouthwash on each paper circle 18. She put out a cup of milk for 5 kittens and then measured how much the kittens drank over the course of a day. B. There is no independent variable. Group one was given the new drug for asthma. What is wrong with the above experiment? A. The picture shows the results of this test. C. Which of the following should Sarah do to improve her experiment? A. Wind currents affect the growth of algae Light intensity affects the growth of algae. D. Repeated experimentation is needed. A student decided to set up an experiment to see if cats preferred skim milk over 2%milk. the algae were found as much as 6 meters below the surface of the water but were only 1 meter below the surface on cloudy days. She then incubated the plate for 24 hours. Experiment State the problem Form a hypothesis Form a conclusion 15.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 12 B. Use a smaller Petri dish. On clear days. C. Use different kinds of bacteria Use the same size paper circles for all mouthwashes. The student discovered that the cats liked the 2% milk more than the skim milk. The milk should be served at different temperatures. She put the circles on a nutrient agar-coated Petri dish that was covered with bacteria commonly found in the mouth. 16.

C. C. What is the step in the scientific method that requires an educated guess? A.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 13 A. A scientist testing the effects of a chemical on apple yield sprays an orchard with the chemical. 20. All 10 seed pots will receive the same amount of water. C. He sets up 10 seed pots. C. A second orchard does not receive the chemical. B. Communicating result D. Which of the following is the independent (manipulated) variable in the experiment? A. D. Observation C. The orchard sprayed with the chemical yields an average of 60 apples per tree. More than one variable is being tested. The student should have a larger number of pots. Report his data Test the chemical on other plants Determine that the results were inconclusive Determine that the chemical increases apple yield 22. What is the basis for a conclusion? A. Testing the data C. B. and the same type of seeds. In the fall. Based on the data. Experimentation B. Formulating a hypothesis 23. the same number of seeds. D. Control Constant Dependent variable Experimental variable 19. Experimentation . The other 5 seed pots will not receive detergent and will be placed in the shade. He grows the seeds for two months and charts the growth every 2 days. Five of the seed pots will receive a small amount of detergent in the soil and will be placed in the sun. What is wrong with his experiment? . There is no way of measuring the outcome. The chemical The first orchard The number of apples The second orchard 21. D. A. what should the scientist do? A. There is no control set-up B. while the other orchard yields an average of 40 apples per tree. the number of apples harvested from each forest is counted. A student decides to set up an experiment to see if detergent affects the growth of seeds. B. D. Hypothesis B.

D. C. C. C. Guess Theory Factual Barometer 28.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 14 D. In order for the apple tree experiment to be valid scientifically. B. Conclusion Observation Tentative answer All the above 25. D. A. B. B. B. C. Textbooks Observation Experimentation both experimentation & observation 27. Prove hypotheses Determine truth from lies Explain large bodies of data Propose new ideas about how the world works . all scientific knowledge come which of the following: A. B. Experimental result 24. Control Constant Dependent variable Independent variable 26. D. D. how should both orchards be treated? A. C. In science. Ultimately. Receive the same amount of sunlight Have the same species of apple tree Receive the same amount of water all of these 29. How do theories help scientists? A. D. D. C. It is the measurable factor in an experiment. Which of the following describe a hypothesis? A. B. what is the logical explanation for observed fact called? A.

If a theory is challenged by new evidence. which of the following could occur? A. The theory could be altered C. not the evidence D. The theory is accepted. The evidence is wrong B. A vote is taken on whether to accept the new evidence KEY TO CORRECTION 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B D B D A C D C B A D B C C C C C .GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 15 30.

Company. Bernie E. (1979). (1996). Inc. Bohnenblust (2005). et al. Inc. Neil A. Consuelo G. (2001). Chemistry. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies. Tracy I. and Jane B. Kuzma. . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Raymond. Storer. Basic Statistics for Health Sciences. Reece. Jan W and Stephen E.GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 A B A D D D C C D B D C B BIBLIOGRAPHY Campbell. (2005). Biology. et al. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing. Chang. Zoology. Quezon City: re printing Company. Research Methods. Essenfeld. Essential Biology. Sevilla. General. et al. (1992). Inc.

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