SSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENNAI 603 110

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING









LAB INCHRAGES: Mrs.R.Ramaprabha (Sec-A)
Mrs.R.Deepalakshmi (Sec-B)







131353 - MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION
LABORATORY


NAME OF THE STUDENT: Mr. /Ms.
REG. NO.:
YEAR/SEM: II/ 3
ACADEMIC YEAR: 2011-2012

2

SYLLABUS

131353 - Measurements and Instrumentation Laboratory
P = 45 Total = 45

AIM
The aim of this lab is to fortify the students with an adequate work experience
in the measurement of different quantities and also the expertise in handling the
instruments involved.

OBJECTIVE
To train the students in the measurement of displacement, resistance,
inductance, torque and angle etc., and to give exposure to AC, DC bridges and
transient measurement.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Study of displacement and pressure transducers
2. AC bridges.
3. DC bridges.
4. Instrumentation amplifiers.
5. A/D and D/A converters.
6. Study of transients.
7. Calibration of single-phase energy meter.
8. Calibration of current transformer.
9. Measurement of three phase power and power factor.
10. Measurement of iron loss.
3
CONTENTS

Name: ---------------------------Reg No:: --------------------------- Batch No: :--------------


S.
No.
Name of the Experiment
Page
No
Marks
(10)
Signature of
the Staff
1
Measurement of Resistance [Wheat-stone’s
Bridge& Kelvin’s Bridge]

2
Measurement of Capacitance [Schering Bridge]
3
Measurement of Inductance [Maxwell’s
Inductance-Capacitance Bridge]

4
Measurement of Iron Loss and Permeability of
Ring Specimen [ Maxwell’s Bridge]

5
Calibration of Single Phase Energy Meter
6
Measurement of Three Phase Power & Power
Factor

7
Study of Current Transformer
8
Design of Instrumentation Amplifier
9
Study of LVDT & Pressure transducer
10
Digital to Analog Converter & Analog to Digital
Converter

11
Study of transients

TOTAL MARKS: -------/10






4
Expt.No: MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE
Date: [USING WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE]


AIM
To Measure the unknown value of resistance using Wheat stone’s bridge
network, and to study the sensitivity of the bridges.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
• Wheatstone bridge trainer
• Galvanometer
• Unknown resistances
• Patching wires.
• Multi-meter
• DC power supply

FORMULAE

2
3 1
R
R R
R
X
=
Bridge Sensitivity
R / R
S
B

=
θ


Where, R
X
=Unknown value of resistance,
R
1
=Standard resistance
R
3
&R
2
=Resistances of ratio arms.
θ = Deflection of the galvanometer
R / R ∆ = Fractional change in unknown resistance

THEORY:
A very important device used in the measurement of medium resistances is the
Wheat stone’s bridge. It has four resistive arms, together with 1 kHz oscillator. The
output of 1 kHz oscillator is given to the bridge circuit through an isolation
transformer. Suppose a galvanometer is connected across the points B & D, the bridge
is set to be balanced if the potential difference across the galvanometer is 0 Volts, so
that there is no current through galvanometer. This condition occurs when the voltage
from point B to point A equals the voltage from point D to point A or by referring to
the other terminal when the voltage from point B to point C equals the voltage from
Point D to point C. Hence, the bridge is balanced when
x x
R I R I =
1 1
(1)
5
Also
[ ]
2 1
2 1
R R
E
I I
+
= = (2)
and
[ ]
3
3
R R
E
I I
x
x
+
= = (3)
Combining the equations1, 2 & 3 and simplifying, we obtain
[ ] [ ]
3 2 1
1
R R
R
R R
R
X
X
+
=
+

From which
X
R R R R
2 3 1
=
or
2
3 1
R
R R
R
X
= (4)
PROCEDURE

1. Switch ON the trainer and check the power supply to be +15 V.
2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.
3. Connect the unknown resistance in the arm marked R
X
.
4. Observe the sine wave at the secondary of the isolation transformer on an
oscilloscope.
5. Select some values of R
2
& R
3
.
6. Adjust R1 for balance and then at balance, measure the value of R
1
.
7. Calculate the value of unknown resistance as per the formula.

Circuit Diagram



6
Wiring Diagram



Tabulation

S.No. Rx (Measured
Value) Ω
Rx (True
Value) Ω
Error =
Measured-True
%Error








Model Calculation







RESULT
7
Expt.No: MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE
Date: [USING KELVIN’S BRIDGE]


AIM
To Measure the unknown value of resistance using Kelvin’s bridge network,
and to study the sensitivity of the bridges.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
• Kelvin’s bridge trainer
• Galvanometer
• Unknown resistances
• Patching wires.
• Multi-meter
• DC power supply

FORMULAE

S
Q
P
R × =
Where, R =Unknown value of resistance,
S=Standard resistance
P &Q=Resistances of ratio arms

THEORY:
Kelvin Bridge is a modification of Wheat stone’s bridge and provides
increased accuracy in measurement of low resistance. Kelvin double bridge
incorporates two sets of ratio arms and the use of four terminal resistors for the low
resistance arms. Consider the circuit shown in Fig (2). The first of ratio arms is P and
Q. The second set of ratio arms, p and q is used to connect the galvanometer to a point
c at the appropriate potential between point’s m and n to eliminate the effect of
connecting lead of resistance r between the known resistance R and the standard
resistance S. The ratio p/q is made equal to P/Q. Under balanced condition, there is
current through the galvanometer, which means that the voltage drop between a and d,
Ead is equal to the voltage drop Eamc between a & c.
Now,
( )
ab ad
E
Q P
P
E ×

+
=
And,
|
|
¹
|

\
|

×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ + = r
r q p
q p
S R I E
ab
1.1
8
And,

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
+
+
+ = r
r q p
q p
q p
p
R I E
amc
1.2

For zero galvanometer deflection, Ead = Eamc
or

×
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
+
+
+ × =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ + ×

+
r
r q p
q p
q p
p
R I r
r q p
q p
S R I
Q P
P
1.3

or


+ +
+ × =
q
p
Q
P
r q p
qr
S
Q
P
R 1.4
Now if
q
p
Q
P
= Eqn.1.3 becomes, S
Q
P
R × =
Eqn. (1.4) is the usual working for the Kelvin Bridge. It indicates that the resistance of
connecting lead, r has no effect on the measurement, provided that the two sets of
ratio arms have equal ratios. Eqn. (1.3) is useful, however, as it shows the error that is
introduced in case the ratios are not exactly equal. It indicates that it is desirable to
keep r as small as possible in order to minimize the errors in case there is difference
between ratios
q
p
and
Q
P
.
PROCEDURE:
1. Study the front panel configuration given an the front panel of the trainer.
2. Energize the trainer and check the power supply to be +5V.
3. Connect externally a galvanometer Q as indicated on the trainer.
4. Connect the unknown resistance RX as marked on the trainer.
5. Select the values of P & Q such that P/Q =p/q =0.01.
6. Adjust S for balance and then at balance, measure the value of S.
7. Calculate the value of unknown resistance as per the formula.
Circuit Diagram


9

Wiring Diagram



Tabulation

S.No. Rx
(Measured
Value)Ω
Rx (True
Value) Ω
Error =
Measured-True
%Error








Model Calculation







RESULT






10


Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE
Date: [USING SCHERING BRIDGE]

AIM
To measure the unknown value of Capacitance using Schering bridge and to
find the dissipation factor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
• Schering bridge kit
• Unknown Capacitances
• Patching wires.
• Multi-meter
• CRO
• AC Source-1 KHz Oscillator

FORMULAE

3
2
1
C
R
R
C
x

=

Where, CX =Unknown value of resistance,
R1=Resistance of arm 1.
R2=Resistance of arm 2
C3 =Standard capacitor.

THEORY

The balance conditions require that the sum of the phase angles of arms 1 and
4 equals the sum of the phase angles of arms 2 and 3.Since the standard capacitor is in
the arm 3, the sum of the phase angles of arm 2 and arm 3 will be 0o+90o= 90o.In
order to obtain the 90o. phase angle needed for balance, the sum of the angles of arm
1 and 4 must equal 90o.Since in general measurement work the unknown will have a
phase angle smaller than 90o.It is necessary toj give arm 1 a small capacitive angle by
connecting capacitor C1 in parallel with resistor R1.A small capacitive angle is very
easy to obtain, requiring a small capacitor across resistor R1. The balance equations
are derived in the usual manner, and by substituting the corresponding impedance and
admittance values in the equation, we obtain

1 3 2
Y Z Z Z
x
= or

+


= −
1
1 3
2
1 1
C j
R C
R
C
j
R
x
x
ω
ω ω

and expanding
11

= −
1 3
2
3
1 2
R C
jR
C
C R
C
j
R
x
x
ω ω

Equating real terms and the imaginary terms, we find that
3
1 2
C
C R
R
X
=
2
1 3
R
R C
C
x
=
As can be seen from the circuit diagram of fig. the two variables chosen for
the balance adjustment are capacitor C1 and resistor R2.There seems to be nothing
unusual about the balance equations or the choice of variables components, but
consider for a moment how the quality of a capacitor is defined.

PROCEDURE
1. Switch ON the trainer and check the power supply to be +15 V.
2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.
3. Connect the unknown capacitance in the arm marked CX .
4. Observe the sine wave at the secondary of the isolation transformer on an
oscilloscope.
5. Select some value of R2.
6. Connect the oscilloscope between the ground and the output point.
7. Vary R1 from the minimum position in a clockwise direction. If the selection
of R2 is correct the balance or null point can be observed on the oscilloscope
i.e. the amplitude of the output waveform comes to a minimum for a particular
value of R1 and then again increases by varying R1 in the same clockwise
direction. If that not the case, select another value of R2.
8. Vary the capacitor C1 for fine balance adjustment.
9. The null condition can also be observed by using loudspeaker. Connect the
output of the bridge to the input of the detector. The loudspeaker is connected
at the output of the detector. Adjust R1 and proper selection of R2 for a
minimum sound in the loudspeaker.
10. The process of manipulation of this resistance is typical of the general
balancing procedure for bridges and is said to cause convergence of the
balance point.
11. Finally calculate the value of the unknown capacitance using the equation by
substituting the measured value of R1 at the balance point.
12
Circuit Diagram



Wiring Diagram





13
Phasor Diagram




Tabulation

S.No. C3
µF
R1

R2

CX nF
(Measured
Value)
CX nF
(True
Value)
% Error









Model Calculation









RESULT:


14
Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE
Date: [USING MAXWELL’S INDUCTANCE-CAPACITANCE
BRIDGE]

AIM

To Measure the unknown value of Inductance using Maxwell’s Inductance-
Capacitance bridge and to determine the Q factor of the coil

APPARATUS REQUIRED

• Maxwell’s Inductance-Capacitance bridge kit
• Unknown Inductances
• Bridge Oscillator.
• Patching wires.
• Multi-meter
• Loud Speaker.
• CRO
FORMULAE

4
3 2
1
R
R R
R =
4 3 2 1
C R R L =

Q Factor =
4 4
1
1
R C
R
L
Q ω
ω
= =
L1 =Self inductance to be measured,
R1 =resistance of self inductor L1,
R2, R3,R4 =known non-inductive resistance,
and C4 =fixed standard capacitor.

THEORY
In this bridge an inductance is measured by comparison with a standard
variable capacitance.
Let L1 =Self inductance to be measured,
R1 =resistance of self inductor L1,
R2, R3,R4 =known non-inductive resistance,
and C4 =fixed standard capacitor.
Writing the balance equations,
[ ] ( ) [ ]
3 2 4 4 4 1 1
1 R R L C j R L j R = + + + ω ω
or
4 4 3 2 3 2 4 1 4 1
R C R R j R R R L j R R ω ω + = +
Equating real and imaginary parts, we get
4
3 2
1
R
R R
R = and
4 3 2 1
C R R L =
15
Thus we have two variables R4 and C4 which appear in one of the balance equations
and hence the two equations are independent.

PROCEDURE

1. Lab Maxwell’s Inductance-Capacitance bridge consists of built-in +15 V
power supply, 1kHz oscillator & the detector.
2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.
3. Switch on the training board and check the power supply and oscillator
output. Connect oscilloscope output to AF input of bridge circuit.
4. Vary R from the minimum position in a clockwise direction to obtain
balance condition. Output should be connected to oscilloscope to observe
convergence and to get precise balance.
5. The null condition can be observed by using loudspeaker. Connect the
output of the bridge to the input of the detector. The loudspeaker is
connected at the output of the detector. While adjusting R &C the sound in
the loudspeaker should decrease to minimum and then increase. Similarly
in the oscilloscope the output of the bridge comes to a minimum and then
increases. The point of balance is indicated by flat waveform.
6. For further fine balance vary C4 which will compensate for negative
component of the inductor because every inductor has some resistance.
7. Finally calculate the value of the self inductance of the coil in terms of
standard capacitor can be calculated using the equation
Circuit Diagram




16
Phasor diagram:



Wiring Diagram



Tabulation


S.No. R4in Ω L1 = LX
mH
(Practical
value)
L1 = LX
mH (True
value
C4 %Error










17
Model Calculation























RESULT:


















18
Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS AND
Date: PERMEABILITY [USING MAXWELL’S BRIDGE]

AIM:
To measure the iron loss and permeability of the given ring specimen.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
• Maxwell’s Bridge Kit
• Digital Multimeter
• Microphone
• Patch Chords
• CRO

FORMULAE USED

Unknown inductance C R Std R Std L
s
× × =
3 1
. .
Unknown resistance
2
3 1
. .
R
R Std R Std
R
s
×
=
R
2
Standard resistance measured by using multi meter across pot 2.

Iron loss = ( )
w S l
R R I − ×
2

Where I
l
– current flow to specimen
Rs – Specimen resistance
R
w
– Winding resistance
Permeability
s
s
A N
C R R l
2
3 1
= µ
l
s
– Specimen’s winding length [coil] in meter
R
1
, R
3
– Standard Resistances
C – Standard Capacitance
N – Number of turns [coil]
A – Area of specimen in M
2


THEORY:

The Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge is most commonly used bridge for
measurement of inductances of Q value less than 10. A typical Maxwell’s bridge
consists of an inductance measured in comparison with a capacitance in laboratory
operations. The input of the bridge is given through a standard 1 KHz oscillator which
produces a 1 KHz sine wave at constant amplitude.
Let L
1
be the unknown inductance
R
1
be the resistance of inductor
19
R
1,
R
3
& R
4
be the known non-inductive resistances.
L
4
be the variable standard capacitor
At balanced condition
( )
3 2
4 4
4
1 1
*
1
R R
R C j
R
L j R =

+
+
ω
ω
4 4 3 2 3 2 4 1 4 1
R C R R j R R R L j R R ω ω + = + ⇒
Separating into Real and Imaginary terms we have,
4 3 2 1
4
3 2
1
C R R L and
R
R R
R = =
The Maxwell’s bridge is limited to the measurement of medium Q coils. Hence high
Q coils are measured on Hay’s bridge. The main advantage of the bridge is that if we
choose R4 and C4 as variable elements and also the frequency does not appear in any
of the equations. In a ring specimen the iron loss meant for the power loss due to
magnetization loss. The power loss in the specimen includes both copper and iron
loss. Permeability of the ring specimen is dependent on the length of the winding
number of turns, area of the specimen and the arm parameters. Normally these values
are given by specimen manufacturers.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the diagram.
2. Connect the ring specimen to the bridge arm, for which measurement to be
made.
3. Keep the POT 2 in maximum position and switch on the unit.
4. The output can be detected by microphone or CRO.
5. For detecting the output by CRO, vary the POT1 from lower to higher value.
At one stage the output goes to minimum value.
6. Now note down the resistance of POT1 by using multi-meter.
7. In this condition note down the AC current through ring specimen, POT1 and
the source current by using milli-ammeter.
8. Apply these values in to an approximated formula and find out the iron loss
and permeability of the given ring specimen.
9. Repeat the same procedure for different ring specimen.


20
Wiring Diagram



TABULATION:
Inductance (L
s
) mH
Sl
No
Theoretical
Value
Practical
Value
Resistance R
s

Ohms
Current I
1

mA
Iron
Loss
Permeability





21

MODEL CALCULATION











RESULT:
Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3
Iron Loss
Permeability
















22

Expt No: CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER
Date: (Phantom Loading)


AIM
To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power
factors and to draw the calibration curve..

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No Apparatus Name Type Range Qty
1
Single phase energy meter

Induction type 1
2
Standard wattmeter

300 V; 10A,
UPF

1

3
Voltmeter

MI

(0-300) V

1
4
Ammeter

MI

(0-10) A

1
5
Lamp Load


230 V, 5 Kw

1
6 Phase Shifting transformer 1
7.
Single phase auto
transformer

230/(0-270 V
1
8 Stop watch
9 Connecting wires

FORMULAE

Energy meter specification =
Kwh
rev
750
True energy (Pt) = Kwh
Time Power
1000 3600×
×

Measured energy =
750
n
, n Number of revolutions
% Error = 100 ×

True
True Measured


THEORY

The energy meter is an integrated type of instrument where the speed of rotation of
the aluminum disc is directly proportional to power consumed and the number of
revolution per minute is proportional to the energy consumed by the load. The ratings
associated with the energy meter are
1. Voltage rating
23
2. Current rating
3. Frequency rating
4. Meter constants
The driving system of the meter provides the rotational torque for the
moving system, which in turn activates the energy registration system for reading
purposes. The energy meter is operated on induction principle, in which the eddy
current induced in the aluminum disc interacts with the main field and creates the
driving torque.
This system employs phantom loading. Here, the phase shifting transformer
to supply the voltage of varying power factor to the potential coil of energy meter.
The system phase supply is used to supply current of energy required value to the
current coil of energy meter. Thus energy meter is tested under various power factor
loads without applying any actual load. This is called phantom loading.

PROCEDURE

1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the three phase supply through phase shifting transformer. Also
switch on the single phase supply through autotransformer. The
autotransformer should be kept in minimum position before switching on.
3. Set the 5A current in ammeter with the help of auto transformer.
4. Now note down the voltage, current and power from the respective meters.
Also note the time required for the disc to rotate hundred times.
5. Repeat step 3 for various power factors The power factor is set with the help
of phase shifting transformer.
6. Tabulate the readings and do the necessary calculations.

















24

Circuit Diagram

Tabulation

Wattmeter Power
Sl
No
Observed
Reading
(Watts)
Actual
Reading
(Watts)
Time for
n rev
Seconds
Power
Factor
Measured
Energy
KwH
True
Energy
KwH
%
Error







Model Calculation









RESULT:
25
Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF THREE PHASE POWER & POWER
Date: FACTOR

AIM

To measure the three phase power and power factor using two wattmeter
method given load. Also to draw the phasor diagrams

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No Apparatus Name Type Range Qty
1
Voltmeter

MI (0-600)V 1
2
Ammeter

MI (0-10)A 1
3 wattmeter 600V,10A,UPF 2
4 Three phase resistive load 1
5 Three phase inductive load 1
6 Three phase capacitive load 1
7 Connecting wires

FORMULAE
Power factor = cos φ =

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+


2 1
2 1 1
3
P P
P P
tan cos
THEORY

Power Measurement
There are different methods to measure three-phase power. They are one wattmeter
method, two-wattmeter method, three-wattmeter method & also using three-phase
wattmeter. Reactive power can be measured by using varmeter (volt ampere reactive
meter).
PROCEDURE
1. Give the connections as per circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the three-phase supply. Also Switch on the resistive load.
3. Note down the wattmeter reading and voltmeter and ammeter reading for a
particular load.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different loads.( RL, L alone ,C alone and RC )
5. Tabulate the readings and calculate the real power and reactive power.
6. Calculate power factor also draw the phasor diagrams for all cases.




26

Circuit Diagram:

















Connection Diagram :
Case:1 Normal Connection















Case:2 Connection for watt meters if one of the wattmeter reads negative













27
Phasor Diagram:




















Reference Table:

S.No Load Power
factor
Power
factor
angle
Φ
W1=√3VI
Cos (30-
Φ)
W2=√VI
Cos
(30+Φ)
Active
Power
(P)
W1+
W2
Reactive
Power
(Q) √3
(W1-
W2)
Tan
Φ
1 R
alone
1 0 (3/2) VI (3/2) VI 3VI 0 0
2 RL 0.5
Lag
60 (3/2) VI 0 (3/2)
VI
(3√3/2)
VI
√3
3 L
alone
0.5
Lag
90 (√3/2) VI (-√3/2)
VI
0 3VI ∞
4 C
alone
0.5
lead
-90 (-√3/2) VI (√3/2)
VI
0 -3VI -∞
5 RC 0.5
lead
-60 0 (3/2) VI (3/2)
VI
(-3√3/2)
VI
-√3

V-Phase to neutral voltage: I- Current per phase










28
TABULATION:
M.F= M.F=
W1 W2
S.No Load
Voltage
(V) in
Volts
Current
(I) in
amps
Observed Actual Observed Actual
1 R alone
2 RL
3 L alone
4 C alone
5 RC

S.No Load
W1
(Watts)
W2
Watts)
Real
Power
(P)in
Watts
Reactive
Power
(Q) in
vars
Power
factor
CosΦ
Power Factor
angle,
Φ=

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+


2 1
2 1 1
P P
P P
3 tan

(degrees)
1
R
alone

2 RL

3
L
alone

4
C
alone

5 RC


RESULT:














29
Exp No:
Date: STUDY OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER ERRORS

AIM
To study the working of current transformer and also to calculate the various
errors.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No Apparatus Name Type Range Qty
1
Current
Transformer


2
2
Single Phase auto
transformer

230/(0-270)V,8
A
1
3
Ammeter

MI (0-10) A
1
4
Ammeter

MI (0-5)A
1
5
Wattmeter(W1)

300V,5A,LPF
1
6
Wattmeter(W2)

300V,2.5A,LPF
1
7 Phase shifting Transformer 1
8 Single Phase transformer LV, HC 1
9 Burden
10 Connecting wires
FORMULA:
Ratio error:

W
1P

R
X = -------------

W
1P
–W
2P

Phase Angle error:
W2Q
30
θ
X
= ------------- +
θ
S


W
1P
–W
2P



PRECAUTIONS:
1.

The Primaries of 2 CT’s should be correctly connected.
2.

The Secondaries of 2 CT’s should be correctly connected.
3.

The Secondary of CT should never be opened when primary is energized.
THEORY
The current transformer is used with it’s primary winding connected in series with line
carrying the current to be measured and, therefore, the secondary current is dependent
upon the load connected to the system and is not determined by the load (burden)
connected on the secondary winding of the current transformer. The primary winding
consists of very few turns, and, therefore there is no appreciable voltage drop across it.
The secondary winding of the current transformer has large number of turns, the exact
number being determined by the turns ratio. The ammeter or wattmeter current coil is
connected directly across secondary winding terminals. Thus a current transformer
operates its secondary winding nearly under short circuit conditions. One of the
secondary winding is earthed so as to protect the equipment and personnel in the vicinity
in the event of insulation breakdown in the current transformer.
The various ratios of instrument transformers are:
Transformation ratio: It is the ratio of magnitude of the primary phasor to the secondary.
Nominal ration: It is the ratio of rated primary winding current (or voltage) to the
secondary winding current (or voltage).
Turns ratio: It is the ratio of number of turns on secondary winding to the number of turns
on primary winding.
Errors in Current Transformer: The value of transformation (actual ratio) is not equal to
turns ratio. Also the value is not constant and it depends upon magnetizing and loss
components of the exciting current, the secondary winding load current and its power
factor. This means that the secondary winding current is not a constant fraction of the
primary winding current. In power measurements, owing to use of C.T two types of errors
are introduced; namely ratio error and phase angle error.
31
Ratio error is defined as 100 ×

ratio actual
ratio actual ratio al min no

Phase angle error is defined as


s
e m
nl
Sin I Cos I δ δ
π
180


Silsbee’s Method:
It is a Comparison method which is used to calculate ratio error and phase angle error
by using two current transformers. The ratio error and phase angle error of test
transformer X are determined in terms of that of a standard transformer S having the same
nominal ratio. Two transformers are connected with their primaries in series. An
adjustable burden is put in the secondary circuit of transformer under test. An ammeter is
included in the secondary circuit of standard transformer so that current may be set to
desired value.
The Current coil of wattmeter W1 is connected to carry secondary current of standard
transformer. The Current coil of wattmeter W2 carries a current ∆I which is the difference
between the secondary current of the standard and test transformers. The voltage coils of
the wattmeter’s are supplied in parallel from a phase shifting transformer at a constant
voltage V.
(1) Phase angle of voltage is so adjusted that wattmeter W
1
reads zero
Voltage V
1
is in quadrature with current Iss.
Reading of wattmeter W1, W1q=Vq Iss Cos 90 =0
Reading of wattmeter W2, W2q= Vq X Component of current ∆I in phase with Vq.
Vq=vq Isx Sin (θx-θs)
θx- Phase angle of CT under test.
θs-Phase angle of standard CT.
(2)

The Phase of voltage V is shifted through 90 so that it occupies a position Vp and
is in phase with Iss.
Reading of wattmeter W1, W1p=Vp Iss Cos θ =Vp Iss
Reading of wattmeter W2, W2p= Vp X Component of current ∆I in phase with Vp.
= Vp X ∆Ip= Vp[ Iss- Isx Cos (θx-θs)]
32
If V is kept same for both sets of readings.
V=Vp-Vq
W
2
q=V Isx Sin (θx-θs)
W
1
p=V Iss
W
2
p= V [ Iss- Isx Cos (θx-θs)]= V I
ss
- V I
sx
Cos(θx-θs)
+ W1p-V Isx Cos (θx-θs)=1p-V Isx
V Isx=W1p-W2p
Actual ratio of transformer under test, Rx= Ip/ Isx
Actual ratio of standard transformer , Rs= Ip/Iss

Rx Iss V Iss W1p
------ = ----- = ------ = ---------
Rs Isx VIsx W1p-W2p

Rx 1 W2p
----- = -------------- = 1+ ----------
Rs 1- ( W2p/W1p) W1p

Rx = Rs {1+(W2p/W1p)}
W 2q
Sin (θx-θs)= -------
V Isx
VIss-W2p W1p-W2p
Cos (θx-θs) = ----------------= ------------------
VIsx V Isx
W2q
tan (θx-θs) = -----------
W1p-W2p
W2q
(θx-θs) = ----------- + θs ; radian
W1p-W2p
33
=(W2q/ W1p) + θs, radian ( as W2p is very small.)

PROCEDURE:
1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply through phase shifting transformer. also switch on the
supply through single phase autotransformer( also through q single phase transformer
which provides low voltage and high current to the primaries of CT’s)
3. The single phase autotransformer should be kept in minimum position before
switching on.
4. Now adjust the single phase autotransformer to set a desired primary current for
both CT”s.
5. Adjust the phase shifting transformer until the wattmeter W1 reads maximum
(which corresponds to UPF). Note down this value as W1p also note down the reading of
W2 as W2p.
6. Adjust the phase shifting transformer until the wattmeter W1 reads zero( which
corresponds to ZPF). Note down this value as W1q also note down the reading of W2 as
W2q.
7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for different values of primary current as well as for different
values of burden.
8. Tabulate the readings. And calculate ratio and phase angle errors.
9. Draw the graph between burden Vs ratio and phase angle error.












34
Circuit Diagram
































35


Model Graph:
[Ratio error Vs Burden] [Phase angle error Vs
burden]






TABULATION
UPF LPF
W1p
(M.F= )
W2p
(M.F= )
W1q=0 W2q
(M.F= )
S.No
Primary
current
Burden
Obs Act Obs Act Obs Act
Ratio
error
Phase
angle
error
1 0.33

2 0.66

3 1

4 1.33

5 1.66

6

2

7 0.33

8 0.66

9 1

10 1.33

11 1.66

12

2


MODEL CALCULATION:



RESULT
36
Expt No:
Date: DESIGN & TESTING OF INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

AIM
To design and test an Instrumentation amplifier.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

1.Op-Amp IC 741
2.Resistors
3.AFO
4.C.R.O.
5.Decade Resistance Box
6. Bread board
7. Dual RPS
8.Connecting wires

FORMULA


( )
1 2 1
2
2
1
V V R
R
R
R
V
f
o

|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
DESIGN

V
1
= ---------- V.
R
4
= R
f
= 10 KΩ.
R
1
= 33 KΩ.
Let V
2
= 0, A = -16
16
2
1
1
2
1
0
− = |
¹
|

\
|
+ − = =
R
R
R
R
V
V
A
f

R
2
= ----------KΩ.




37
THEORY
An Instrumentation amplifier is used for high gain accuracy, high CMRR,
high gain stability with low temperature co efficient, low dc offset & low output
impedance. A high resistance buffer is used preceding each input to avoid loading. The
Op-Amps A1 & A2 have zero differential input voltage. For V
1
= V
2
,i.e. in common
mode condition, the voltage across R is zero. As no current flows through R & R ‘ , the
non-inverting amplifier A1 acts as a voltage follower. So its output V
2
‘ = V
2
.Simillarly
A
2
acts as voltage follower with output V
1
‘ = V
1
. If V
1
≠ V
2
, Current flows in R & R’
,(V
2
’-V
1
’) > (V
2
-V
1
) .This circuit has differential gain & CMRR more than the single
Op-Amp circuit. The output voltage is
( )
1 2 1
2
2
1
V V R
R
R
R
V
f
o

|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
The difference gain can be varied using a variable resistance R.
PROCEDURE
1. Give the connections as per circuit diagram.
2. Set the input Voltage at a particular value.
3. Vary the frequency & note down the corresponding output on CRO.
4. Tabulate the readings & Draw the Graph.
Circuit Diagram


38
Model Graph



Tabulation
Vin = -------volts,R = --------- Ω


S.No.

Frequency (Hz)

Vo (volts)

Gain dB










39

f = 1 KHz


S.No.


R Ω

Vo in volts








RESULT


















40
Expt No:
Date: STUDY OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

AIM
To measure the Pressure using Pressure transducer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED


Power Supply


Pressure measurement trainer kit


Display unit


Connecting Chords.

THEORY
Pressure is basically a physical parameter encountered in many fields. It is defined as
the force acting per unit area measured at a given point or over a surface. Most pressure
measuring devices use elastic members for sensing pressure at the primary stage. These
elastic members are of many types and convert the pressure into mechanical displacement
which is later converted into an electrical form using a secondary transducer.
The principle of working of these devices can be explained as: the fluid or gas whose
pressure is to be measured is made to press the pressure sensitive element and since the
element is an elastic member, it deflects causing a mechanical displacement. This
displacement is proportional to the pressure applied. This displacement is then measured
with the electrical transducers. The output of the electrical transducer is proportional to
the displacement and hence to the applied pressure. The commonly used pressure
sensitive devices are Diaphragms, capsule, Bourdon tube & Bellows. The commonly used
electrical transducer is Strain gauge whose resistance is varied with the input
displacement caused by pressure sensitive elements. Four strain gauge elements are
interconnected to form a Wheat stone’s bridge. The imbalance of the bridge is a measure
of applied pressure on the elastic membrane.
PROCEDURE
1.

Swiitch ON the instrument by rocker switch at the front panel.
2.

Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 minutes for “initial warm up”
41
3.

Adjust the potentiometer in the front panel till the display reads “000”
4.

Apply pressure on the sensor using the loading arrangement provided.
5.

The instrument reads the pressure coming on the sensor and displays through
LED.
6.

6. The readings can be tabulated and % error of the instrument can be calculated.
Block diagram







42









43
Tabulation

S.No. Actual pressure
in kg/cm2
Indicator Reading
Kg/Cm2
Error=Actual
pressure-
Indicator reading
% Error

















MODEL CALCULATION:





RESULT

.


44
Expt No: STUDY OF LVDT
Date:

AIM
To measure the displacement using LVDT (Linear Variable Differential
Transformer).

APPARATUS REQUIRED


Power Supply


LVDT trainer kit


Display unit


Connecting Chords.


Multi-meter

FORMULAE

Error = Actual micrometer reading – Indicated reading.
% Error = (Error / True value) * 100

THEORY
The Linear Variable Differential Transformer is the most widely used inductive
transducer. The arrangement is such that it has a primary coil, two secondary coils and a
rod shaped magnetic core at the center. The magnetic core is made of Nickel alloy and is
slotted. The displacement to be measured is applied to the arm attached to the core. When
the core is placed symmetrically with respect to the two secondary coils , equal voltage is
induced in the two coils. When these voltages are in phase opposition, the resultant
becomes zero. This is called null position of the core. When the core moves from its null
position due to the displacement of the object linked mechanically to it, the voltage
induced in the secondary coil toward with the core has moved, increases, simultaneously
reducing the voltage in the other secondary winding. The difference of the two voltages
induced in the secondary appears across the output terminals of the transducer giving a
measure of the displacement.

45
PROCEDURE
1.

Connect the power supply chord at the rear panel to the 230 V, 50Hz supply.
Switch on the instrument by pressing down the toggle switch. The display glows
to indicate the instrument is ON.
2.

Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 minutes for initial warm up.
3.

Rotate the core of the micrometer in steps of 1 of 2 mm and tabulate the readings.
The micrometer will show the exact displacement given to the LVDT core and
display will read the displacement sensed by the LVDT. Tabulate the readings
and plot the graph as Actual Vs Indicated reading.
Basic Schematic Diagram


46

Model Graph


47
Tabulation

S.No. Actual
micrometer
reading(mm)
[B]
Indicator
Reading(mm) [C]
Error
[B –C]
mm
%Error
(B-
C)/C*100
Output
Voltage
(in mV)

















RESULT









48
Expt No:
Date:
(a)DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER

AIM
To obtain the corresponding analog output for a given digital input, to generate
different waveforms and to study the linearity of digital to analog converter.

APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Digital to Analog Converter Kit
Patching Wires
Multi-meter
CRO

FORMULA USED:

Vout=Vref[(2x-255)/256]
x=Decimal value
THEORY:
In electronics, a digital –to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device which
is used for converting (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or
electric charge).
The DAC fundamentally converts finite-precision numbers (usually fixed-point
binary numbers) into a physical quantity, usually an electrical voltage. Normally the
output voltage is a linear function of the input number. Usually these numbers are
updated at uniform sampling intervals and can be thought of as numbers obtained from a
sampling process.
These numbers are written to the DAC, sometimes along with a clock signal that
causes each number to be latched in sequence, at which time the DAC output voltage
changes rapidly from the previous value to the value represented by the currently latched
number.
The effect of this is that the output voltage is held in time at the current value until
the next input number is latched resulting in a piecewise constant output. This is
equivalently a zero-order hold operation and has an effect on the frequency response of
the reconstructed signal.

49
The most common types of electronic DACs are:
Binary Weighted DAC:
It contains one resistor or current source for each bit of the DAC connected
to a summing point. These precise voltages and currents sum to the correct output value.
This is one of the fastest conversion methods but suffers from poor accuracy because of
the high precision required for each individual voltage or current. Such high precision
resistors and current sources are expensive, so this type of converter is usually limited to
8- bit resolution or less.
R-2R ladder DAC:
It is a binary weighted DAC that uses a repeating cascaded structure of resistor
values R and 2R.This improves the precision due to the relative ease of producing equal
valued matched resistors ( or current sources). However, wide converters perform slowly
due to increasingly large RC-constants for each added R-2R link.

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the power supply.
2. The jumpers J9 through J!6 should be in S/W (right) position.
3. The switches SW1 throughSW8 are placed appropriately to represent the
desired digital input of00h through FFh.
4. Draw the graph between digital word and analog output.
5. The Output voltage can be observed using a CRO at the terminal pin P2.
WAVEFORM GENERATION:
1. Switch on the power supply.
2. The jumpers J9 through J16 should be in “E” (Left) position.
3. The position of the jumpers for different waveform is selected from the table below.
Waveform Position of J4 Position of J5
Sine wave High High
Triangular wave Low High
Square wave Low Low
Saw-tooth wave High Low
4. The output voltage can be observed using a CRO at the terminal pin P2.5.The
amplitude and frequency of the output waveform can be varied by using potentiometer
PT1 and PT2 respectively.

50


51
.TABULATION:
Input Data In
Binary
Input Data in
Hex
Output Voltage
(Observed)
Output Voltage
(Calculated)
Input Data In
Decimal












MODEL GRAPH:



RESULT




52
Expt No.
Date:
(b). ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
AIM:
To obtain the digital output for the given analog input, to calculate its input
voltage and to study the linearity of the analog to digital converter.
APPRATUS REQUIRED:
Analog to digital converter kit
Patching wires
Multi-meter
CRO
FORMULA USED:
Vin=Vr(b1*2-1+b2*2-2+b3*2-3+…..+bn*2-n)
Vs=4.99V
THEORY
An analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic integrated circuit,
which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. Typically, an ADC is an
electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number.
A Successive –approximation ADC uses a comparator to reject ranges of voltages,
eventually settling on a final voltage range. Successive approximation works by
constantly comparing the input voltage to the output of an internal digital to analog
converter (DAC, fed by the current value of the approximation) until the best
approximation is achieved.
At each step in the progress, a binary value of the approximation is stored in a successive
approximation register (SAR).
The SAR uses a reference voltage (which is the largest signal the ADC is to convert) for
Comparisons. The analog value is rounded to the nearest binary value below, meaning
this converter type is mid-rise.
Because the approximations are successive, conversion takes one clock-cycle for each bit
of resolution is desired. The clock frequency must be equal to the sampling frequency
multiplied by the bits of resolution desired.

53
A ramp-compare ADC (also called integrating, dual-slope or multi-slope ADC) produces
a saw-tooth signal that ramps up, then quickly falls to zero. When the ramp starts, a timer
starts counting. When the ramp voltage matches the input, a comparator fires, and the
timer’s value is recorded. Timed ramp converters require the least number of transistors.
The ramp time is sensitive to temperature because the circuit generating the ramp is often
just some simple oscillator. There are two solutions:
*Use a clocked counter driving a DAC and then use the comparator to preserve the
counter’s value.
*Calibrate the timed ramp.
A very simple (non-linear) ramp converter can be implemented with a micro-controller
and one resistor and capacitor.
A/D converters are used virtually everywhere where an analog signal has to be processed,
stored, or transported in digital form. Fast video ADCs are used in TV tuner cards. Very
fast ADCs are needed in digital oscilloscopes.
PROCEDURE:
1. The power supply is switched on.
2. The variable terminal of the potentiometer is given to the analog input channel2.
3. The following table shows that the switches SW1 through SW3 position and the
corresponding channel section.
4. The start of conversion (SOC) button is pressed once to start the conversion from
analog signal to digital form. The LED L9 glows on pressing start of conversion button.
5. The Address Latch Enable (ALE) button is also pressed once, so as to enable the digital
data to be sent to the output.
SWITCHES
SW1 SW2 SW3
CHANNEL
0 0 0 CH0
0 0 1 CH1
0 1 0 CH2
0 1 1 CH3
1 0 0 CH4
1 0 1 CH5
1 1 0 CH6
1 1 1 CH7
54
LINEARITY OF DAC:
1. The power supply is switched on.
2. The channel 3 is selected.
3. The analog input voltage is fed to the channel 3 by connecting variable terminal in the
potentiometer.
4. The digital data corresponding to analog input is displayed on the LED and the digital
data value is noted.
5. Now the potentiometer is varied and the analog input is measured using CRO>
6. Now the position of the potentiometer, the corresponding digital data is noted.
7. Graph is drawn between the analog input values and the corresponding digital data
displayed on the LED.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




55
TABULATION
Input data
in Volts
Output data in binary Output Output data in Hex















RESULT:










56
Exp No:
Date:
STUDY OF TRANSIENTS

AIM

1. To study the transient response of RC circuit for Step input and to draw the
response.
2. To study the transient response of RC circuit for the following inputs using
Psim/Matlab-Simulink/Pspice.
a. Pulse excitation
b. Sinusoidal excitation v(t) = 100 sin 40 t
3. Derive the expression for part 2

APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Sl.No APPRATUS RANGE QTY
1 Regulated power supply (0-30) V 1
2 Resistor 220 ohms 1
3 Capacitor 1uF 1
4. SPST switch 1
5. Connecting wires Reqd
6. CRO 1

THEORY

Any switching operation within a network causes transient conditions in the
network. This switching operation may be a change in applied voltages or a change in
one or more elements of the network. During the transient period, the mathematical
expressions for currents and voltages contain certain terms other than the steady state
terms. These additional terms known as transient terms are damped out by certain
damping factors.
STEP RESPONSE OF R-C CIRCUIT:

The Figure shows a capacitor and a resistor connected in series. The capacitor has an
initial charge
0
q . At t=0, the switch K is closed, causing a voltage E to be applied to
the circuit,
57
The KVL equation for the circuit is
( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
t
dt t i
C
t Ri t U E
0
1

Taking Laplace transform on both sides
where ( ) ( )
0
0
1
0 q dt t i i = =

∞ −


Then ( )

+ = −
Cs
R s I
Cs
q
s
E 1
0

or
( )
|
¹
|

\
|
+

=
|
¹
|

\
|
+

=
RC
s R
C
q
E
Cs
R s
C
q
E
s I
1 1
0 0


Taking inverse Laplace transform
( )
RC / t
e
RC
q
R
E
t i

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
0

The voltages across R and C are
( )
RC / t
R
e
C
q
E t Ri v

|
¹
|

\
|
− = =
0

( )
RC / t RC / t
R R
e
C
q
e E V E v
− −
+ − = − =
0
1
If the initial charge
0
q is zero
( )
RC / t
e
R
E
t i

|
¹
|

\
|
=
The above equation shows that the charging current decays from its initial value
|
|
¹
|

\
|
R
E

to zero in RC circuit.

MODEL CALCULATION:
R = 220 ohms: C = 1uF








RESULT

2

SYLLABUS
131353 - Measurements and Instrumentation Laboratory
P = 45 Total = 45

AIM The aim of this lab is to fortify the students with an adequate work experience in the measurement of different quantities and also the expertise in handling the instruments involved.

OBJECTIVE To train the students in the measurement of displacement, resistance, inductance, torque and angle etc., and to give exposure to AC, DC bridges and transient measurement.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Study of displacement and pressure transducers 2. AC bridges. 3. DC bridges. 4. Instrumentation amplifiers. 5. A/D and D/A converters. 6. Study of transients. 7. Calibration of single-phase energy meter. 8. Calibration of current transformer. 9. Measurement of three phase power and power factor. 10. Measurement of iron loss.

3

CONTENTS
Name: ---------------------------Reg No:: --------------------------- Batch No: :--------------

S. No. 1 2 3

Name of the Experiment Measurement of Resistance [Wheat-stone’s Bridge& Kelvin’s Bridge] Measurement of Capacitance [Schering Bridge] Measurement of Inductance [Maxwell’s Inductance-Capacitance Bridge] Measurement of Iron Loss and Permeability of

Page No

Marks (10)

Signature of the Staff

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Ring Specimen [ Maxwell’s Bridge] Calibration of Single Phase Energy Meter Measurement of Three Phase Power & Power Factor Study of Current Transformer Design of Instrumentation Amplifier Study of LVDT & Pressure transducer Digital to Analog Converter & Analog to Digital Converter Study of transients

TOTAL MARKS: -------/10

4

Expt.No:
Date:

MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE [USING WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE]

AIM To Measure the unknown value of resistance using Wheat stone’s bridge network, and to study the sensitivity of the bridges. APPARATUS REQUIRED • Wheatstone bridge trainer • Galvanometer • Unknown resistances • Patching wires. • Multi-meter • DC power supply FORMULAE

RX =

R1 R3 R2
θ
∆R / R

Bridge Sensitivity S B =

Where, RX =Unknown value of resistance, R1=Standard resistance R3 &R2=Resistances of ratio arms. θ = Deflection of the galvanometer ∆R / R = Fractional change in unknown resistance THEORY: A very important device used in the measurement of medium resistances is the Wheat stone’s bridge. It has four resistive arms, together with 1 kHz oscillator. The output of 1 kHz oscillator is given to the bridge circuit through an isolation transformer. Suppose a galvanometer is connected across the points B & D, the bridge is set to be balanced if the potential difference across the galvanometer is 0 Volts, so that there is no current through galvanometer. This condition occurs when the voltage from point B to point A equals the voltage from point D to point A or by referring to the other terminal when the voltage from point B to point C equals the voltage from Point D to point C. Hence, the bridge is balanced when I 1 R1 = I x R x (1)

5

Also I 1 = I 2 = and I x = I 3 =

E [R1 + R2 ]

(2) (3)

E [Rx + R3 ]

Combining the equations1, 2 & 3 and simplifying, we obtain

R1 RX = [R1 + R2 ] [R X + R3 ]
From which R1 R3 = R2 R X or R X =

R1 R3 R2

(4)

PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. 4. Switch ON the trainer and check the power supply to be +15 V. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram. Connect the unknown resistance in the arm marked RX . Observe the sine wave at the secondary of the isolation transformer on an oscilloscope. 5. Select some values of R2 & R3 . 6. Adjust R1 for balance and then at balance, measure the value of R1. 7. Calculate the value of unknown resistance as per the formula.

Circuit Diagram

Rx (Measured Value) Rx (True Value) Error = Measured-True %Error Model Calculation RESULT .6 Wiring Diagram Tabulation S.No.

there is current through the galvanometer. S=Standard resistance P &Q=Resistances of ratio arms R= THEORY: Kelvin Bridge is a modification of Wheat stone’s bridge and provides increased accuracy in measurement of low resistance. p and q is used to connect the galvanometer to a point c at the appropriate potential between point’s m and n to eliminate the effect of connecting lead of resistance r between the known resistance R and the standard resistance S.No: Date: MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE [USING KELVIN’S BRIDGE] AIM To Measure the unknown value of resistance using Kelvin’s bridge network. Consider the circuit shown in Fig (2). Kelvin double bridge incorporates two sets of ratio arms and the use of four terminal resistors for the low resistance arms. E ad =   × E ab  (P + Q )    p + q     And. The second set of ratio arms. Ead is equal to the voltage drop Eamc between a & c. The first of ratio arms is P and Q. which means that the voltage drop between a and d. E ab = I  R + S +   p + q + r  × r        1. R =Unknown value of resistance. APPARATUS REQUIRED • Kelvin’s bridge trainer • Galvanometer • Unknown resistances • Patching wires. Under balanced condition.1 .  P  Now.7 Expt. and to study the sensitivity of the bridges. • Multi-meter • DC power supply FORMULAE P ×S Q Where. The ratio p/q is made equal to P/Q.

Ead = Eamc   P    p+q   p  p+q   or   × I R + S +  p + q + r  × r  = I ×  R + p + q  p + q + r  × r    P +Q         1. Q q PROCEDURE: 1.2 For zero galvanometer deflection. Connect the unknown resistance RX as marked on the trainer. It indicates that the resistance of connecting lead. E amc = I  R +  p + q  p + q + r        1. Circuit Diagram . Eqn.1. Connect externally a galvanometer Q as indicated on the trainer.8  p  p + q    × r  And. Energize the trainer and check the power supply to be +5V. provided that the two sets of ratio arms have equal ratios. 5. Study the front panel configuration given an the front panel of the trainer.01. r has no effect on the measurement. however. 6.3 becomes. Adjust S for balance and then at balance.4) is the usual working for the Kelvin Bridge. Select the values of P & Q such that P/Q =p/q =0. R = × S Q Q q 1. 3. (1. It indicates that it is desirable to keep r as small as possible in order to minimize the errors in case there is difference between ratios P p and .4 Eqn.3) is useful. 4. (1. 7. measure the value of S. 2. as it shows the error that is introduced in case the ratios are not exactly equal.3 or R = Now if  P p P qr ×S + − Q p + q + r Q q    P p P = Eqn. Calculate the value of unknown resistance as per the formula.

Rx (Measured Value) Rx (True Value) Error = Measured-True %Error Model Calculation RESULT .No.9 Wiring Diagram Tabulation S.

APPARATUS REQUIRED • Schering bridge kit • Unknown Capacitances • Patching wires. we obtain Z x = Z 2 Z 3Y1 or Rx −  −1  1  j = R2    + jωC1  ωC x   ωC3   R1 and expanding . The balance equations are derived in the usual manner.It is necessary toj give arm 1 a small capacitive angle by connecting capacitor C1 in parallel with resistor R1. CX =Unknown value of resistance. the sum of the angles of arm 1 and 4 must equal 90o. the sum of the phase angles of arm 2 and arm 3 will be 0o+90o= 90o. requiring a small capacitor across resistor R1. R2=Resistance of arm 2 C3 =Standard capacitor. R1=Resistance of arm 1. and by substituting the corresponding impedance and admittance values in the equation.Since in general measurement work the unknown will have a phase angle smaller than 90o.In order to obtain the 90o. • Multi-meter • CRO • AC Source-1 KHz Oscillator FORMULAE R  C x =  1 C 3  R2  Where.Since the standard capacitor is in the arm 3.A small capacitive angle is very easy to obtain.10 Expt No: Date: MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE [USING SCHERING BRIDGE] AIM To measure the unknown value of Capacitance using Schering bridge and to find the dissipation factor. phase angle needed for balance. THEORY The balance conditions require that the sum of the phase angles of arms 1 and 4 equals the sum of the phase angles of arms 2 and 3.

5. Connect the output of the bridge to the input of the detector. Finally calculate the value of the unknown capacitance using the equation by substituting the measured value of R1 at the balance point. 4. . The process of manipulation of this resistance is typical of the general balancing procedure for bridges and is said to cause convergence of the balance point. the two variables chosen for the balance adjustment are capacitor C1 and resistor R2. If that not the case. Vary the capacitor C1 for fine balance adjustment. Connect the unknown capacitance in the arm marked CX . Select some value of R2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram. 7. the amplitude of the output waveform comes to a minimum for a particular value of R1 and then again increases by varying R1 in the same clockwise direction. The null condition can also be observed by using loudspeaker. Observe the sine wave at the secondary of the isolation transformer on an oscilloscope. select another value of R2. 3. 6. PROCEDURE 1. Switch ON the trainer and check the power supply to be +15 V. Adjust R1 and proper selection of R2 for a minimum sound in the loudspeaker. 9. If the selection of R2 is correct the balance or null point can be observed on the oscilloscope i. 2. 11. Connect the oscilloscope between the ground and the output point. Vary R1 from the minimum position in a clockwise direction.There seems to be nothing unusual about the balance equations or the choice of variables components. The loudspeaker is connected at the output of the detector.e. 10. 8. we find that RX = Cx = C3 R1 R2 As can be seen from the circuit diagram of fig. but consider for a moment how the quality of a capacitor is defined.11 Rx −  R C   jR2  j =  2 1−  ωC x  C3   ωC3 R1  R2 C1 C3 Equating real terms and the imaginary terms.

12 Circuit Diagram Wiring Diagram .

13 Phasor Diagram Tabulation S. C3 µF R1 R2 CX nF (Measured Value) CX nF (True Value) % Error Model Calculation RESULT: .No.

• CRO FORMULAE R2 R3 R4 L1 = R2 R3C 4 R1 = Q Factor = Q = ωL1 R1 = ωC 4 R 4 and L1 =Self inductance to be measured. C4 =fixed standard capacitor. R2. THEORY In this bridge an inductance is measured by comparison with a standard variable capacitance.R4 =known non-inductive resistance. • Multi-meter • Loud Speaker. R3. [R1 + jωL1 ][R4 + (1 + jωC 4 L4 )] = R2 R3 or R1 R4 + jωL1 R4 = R2 R3 + jωR2 R3C 4 R4 Equating real and imaginary parts. R1 =resistance of self inductor L1. R1 =resistance of self inductor L1. R2. and C4 =fixed standard capacitor. Let L1 =Self inductance to be measured. we get R1 = R2 R3 and L1 = R2 R3C 4 R4 .R4 =known non-inductive resistance. • Patching wires.14 Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE Date: [USING MAXWELL’S INDUCTANCE-CAPACITANCE BRIDGE] AIM To Measure the unknown value of Inductance using Maxwell’s InductanceCapacitance bridge and to determine the Q factor of the coil APPARATUS REQUIRED • Maxwell’s Inductance-Capacitance bridge kit • Unknown Inductances • Bridge Oscillator. R3. Writing the balance equations.

While adjusting R &C the sound in the loudspeaker should decrease to minimum and then increase. Lab Maxwell’s Inductance-Capacitance bridge consists of built-in +15 V power supply. Connect oscilloscope output to AF input of bridge circuit. Output should be connected to oscilloscope to observe convergence and to get precise balance. 2. 4. The loudspeaker is connected at the output of the detector. 1kHz oscillator & the detector. For further fine balance vary C4 which will compensate for negative component of the inductor because every inductor has some resistance. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram. Similarly in the oscilloscope the output of the bridge comes to a minimum and then increases. The null condition can be observed by using loudspeaker. 3. 7. 5. The point of balance is indicated by flat waveform. Connect the output of the bridge to the input of the detector. 6. PROCEDURE 1. Vary R from the minimum position in a clockwise direction to obtain balance condition.15 Thus we have two variables R4 and C4 which appear in one of the balance equations and hence the two equations are independent. Finally calculate the value of the self inductance of the coil in terms of standard capacitor can be calculated using the equation Circuit Diagram . Switch on the training board and check the power supply and oscillator output.

R4in L1 = LX mH (Practical value) L1 = LX mH (True value C4 %Error .No.16 Phasor diagram: Wiring Diagram Tabulation S.

17 Model Calculation RESULT: .

R1 × Std .18 Expt No: Date: MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS AND PERMEABILITY [USING MAXWELL’S BRIDGE] AIM: To measure the iron loss and permeability of the given ring specimen. R3 – Standard Resistances C – Standard Capacitance N – Number of turns [coil] A – Area of specimen in M2 THEORY: The Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge is most commonly used bridge for measurement of inductances of Q value less than 10. A typical Maxwell’s bridge consists of an inductance measured in comparison with a capacitance in laboratory operations. Let L1 be the unknown inductance R1 be the resistance of inductor . The input of the bridge is given through a standard 1 KHz oscillator which produces a 1 KHz sine wave at constant amplitude.R1 × Std . Iron loss = I l2 × (RS − Rw ) Where Il – current flow to specimen Rs – Specimen resistance Rw – Winding resistance l RRC Permeability µ = s 12 3 N As ls – Specimen’s winding length [coil] in meter R1. APPARATUS REQUIRED • • • • • Maxwell’s Bridge Kit Digital Multimeter Microphone Patch Chords CRO FORMULAE USED Unknown inductance Ls = Std .R3 Unknown resistance Rs = R2 R2 Standard resistance measured by using multi meter across pot 2.R3 × C Std .

The output can be detected by microphone or CRO. Keep the POT 2 in maximum position and switch on the unit. 7. for which measurement to be made. Permeability of the ring specimen is dependent on the length of the winding number of turns. POT1 and the source current by using milli-ammeter. Normally these values are given by specimen manufacturers. L4 be the variable standard capacitor At balanced condition (R1 + jωL1 )   R4  = R2 * R3 1 + jωC 4 R4  ⇒ R1 R4 + jωL1 R4 = R2 R3 + jωR2 R3 C 4 R4 Separating into Real and Imaginary terms we have. 6. In this condition note down the AC current through ring specimen. 9. Repeat the same procedure for different ring specimen. Connections are made as per the diagram. 3. At one stage the output goes to minimum value. Now note down the resistance of POT1 by using multi-meter. The main advantage of the bridge is that if we choose R4 and C4 as variable elements and also the frequency does not appear in any of the equations. area of the specimen and the arm parameters. For detecting the output by CRO. R3 & R4 be the known non-inductive resistances. 2. Connect the ring specimen to the bridge arm. R1 = R2 R3 and L1 = R2 R3C 4 R4 The Maxwell’s bridge is limited to the measurement of medium Q coils. In a ring specimen the iron loss meant for the power loss due to magnetization loss. Apply these values in to an approximated formula and find out the iron loss and permeability of the given ring specimen. 4.19 R1. 5. . 8. vary the POT1 from lower to higher value. Hence high Q coils are measured on Hay’s bridge. PROCEDURE: 1. The power loss in the specimen includes both copper and iron loss.

20 Wiring Diagram TABULATION: Sl No Inductance (Ls) mH Theoretical Practical Value Value Resistance Rs Ohms Current I1 Iron mA Loss Permeability .

21 MODEL CALCULATION RESULT: Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3 Iron Loss Permeability .

10A. UPF MI MI (0-300) V (0-10) A 230 V. 8 9 Type Induction type Range Qty 1 Single phase energy meter Standard wattmeter Voltmeter Ammeter Lamp Load Phase Shifting transformer Single phase auto transformer Stop watch Connecting wires 300 V.. Voltage rating rev Kwh Power × Time Kwh 3600×1000 n . The ratings associated with the energy meter are 1. n Number of revolutions 750 Measured − True × 100 True . APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No Apparatus Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.22 Expt No: Date: AIM CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER (Phantom Loading) To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power factors and to draw the calibration curve. 5 Kw 1 1 1 1 1 230/(0-270 V 1 FORMULAE Energy meter specification = 750 True energy (Pt) = Measured energy = % Error = THEORY The energy meter is an integrated type of instrument where the speed of rotation of the aluminum disc is directly proportional to power consumed and the number of revolution per minute is proportional to the energy consumed by the load.

. Meter constants The driving system of the meter provides the rotational torque for the moving system. Also note the time required for the disc to rotate hundred times. The energy meter is operated on induction principle. 6. Also switch on the single phase supply through autotransformer. 3. The system phase supply is used to supply current of energy required value to the current coil of energy meter. Thus energy meter is tested under various power factor loads without applying any actual load. Now note down the voltage. PROCEDURE 1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram. the phase shifting transformer to supply the voltage of varying power factor to the potential coil of energy meter. Set the 5A current in ammeter with the help of auto transformer. This is called phantom loading. in which the eddy current induced in the aluminum disc interacts with the main field and creates the driving torque. 5. This system employs phantom loading. Current rating 3. Frequency rating 4.23 2. 4. The autotransformer should be kept in minimum position before switching on. Here. which in turn activates the energy registration system for reading purposes. current and power from the respective meters. Tabulate the readings and do the necessary calculations. 2. Repeat step 3 for various power factors The power factor is set with the help of phase shifting transformer. Switch on the three phase supply through phase shifting transformer.

24 Circuit Diagram Tabulation Wattmeter Power Sl Observed Actual No Reading Reading (Watts) (Watts) Time for n rev Seconds Measured Energy KwH True Energy KwH Power Factor % Error Model Calculation RESULT: .

Reactive power can be measured by using varmeter (volt ampere reactive meter). Tabulate the readings and calculate the real power and reactive power. 4. . Repeat the same procedure for different loads. 6. PROCEDURE 1. Switch on the three-phase supply. 2. They are one wattmeter method. two-wattmeter method. Note down the wattmeter reading and voltmeter and ammeter reading for a particular load. three-wattmeter method & also using three-phase wattmeter. Also Switch on the resistive load.25 Expt No: Date: AIM MEASUREMENT OF THREE PHASE POWER & POWER FACTOR To measure the three phase power and power factor using two wattmeter method given load. Also to draw the phasor diagrams APPARATUS REQUIRED S.( RL.10A.C alone and RC ) 5. Give the connections as per circuit diagram.No Apparatus Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type MI MI Range (0-600)V (0-10)A 600V.UPF Qty 1 1 2 1 1 1 Voltmeter Ammeter wattmeter Three phase resistive load Three phase inductive load Three phase capacitive load Connecting wires FORMULAE   P − P  Power factor = cos φ = cos tan −1 3  1 2  P +P   1 2   THEORY Power Measurement There are different methods to measure three-phase power. L alone . Calculate power factor also draw the phasor diagrams for all cases. 3.

26 Circuit Diagram: Connection Diagram : Case:1 Normal Connection Case:2 Connection for watt meters if one of the wattmeter reads negative .

5 Lag 0.No Load Power factor Power factor angle Φ 0 60 90 -90 -60 W1=√3VI W2=√VI Active Cos (30Cos Power Φ) (30+Φ) (P) W1+ W2 (3/2) VI (3/2) VI 3VI (3/2) VI (√3/2) VI 0 (3/2) VI 0 0 (3/2) VI Reactive Tan Power Φ (Q) √3 (W1W2) 0 0 (3√3/2) VI 3VI -3VI (-3√3/2) VI √3 ∞ -∞ -√3 1 2 3 4 5 R alone RL L alone C alone RC 1 0.5 lead 0.Current per phase .27 Phasor Diagram: Reference Table: S.5 Lag 0.5 lead (-√3/2) VI (-√3/2) VI (√3/2) VI 0 (3/2) VI V-Phase to neutral voltage: I.

Φ= tan    −1  P − P  3  1 2  P +P   1 2   (degrees) RESULT: .No 1 2 3 4 5 Load R alone RL L alone C alone RC Real Reactive W1 W2 Power Power S.No Load (Watts) Watts) (P)in (Q) in Watts 1 2 3 4 5 R alone RL L alone C alone RC vars Power factor CosΦ Power Factor angle.F= W2 Observed Actual S.28 TABULATION: Voltage (V) in Volts M.F= Current W1 (I) in Observed Actual amps M.

29 Exp No: Date: STUDY OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER ERRORS AIM To study the working of current transformer and also to calculate the various errors.5A. HC 1 1 FORMULA: Ratio error: R W1P X = ------------- W1P –W2P Phase Angle error: W2Q .No Apparatus Name Current 1 Transformer Type Range 2 Qty 2 Single Phase auto transformer 230/(0-270)V.2.8 A MI (0-10) A 1 3 Ammeter 1 4 Ammeter MI (0-5)A 1 5 Wattmeter(W1) 300V.LPF 1 Phase shifting Transformer Single Phase transformer Burden Connecting wires LV.5A.LPF 1 6 7 8 9 10 Wattmeter(W2) 300V. APPARATUS REQUIRED S.

The ammeter or wattmeter current coil is connected directly across secondary winding terminals. Also the value is not constant and it depends upon magnetizing and loss components of the exciting current. The secondary winding of the current transformer has large number of turns. the secondary current is dependent upon the load connected to the system and is not determined by the load (burden) connected on the secondary winding of the current transformer. . the exact number being determined by the turns ratio. namely ratio error and phase angle error.30 θX = ------------- + θS W1P –W2P PRECAUTIONS: 1. and. Thus a current transformer operates its secondary winding nearly under short circuit conditions. owing to use of C. 2. Nominal ration: It is the ratio of rated primary winding current (or voltage) to the secondary winding current (or voltage). Turns ratio: It is the ratio of number of turns on secondary winding to the number of turns on primary winding.T two types of errors are introduced. therefore there is no appreciable voltage drop across it. the secondary winding load current and its power factor. THEORY The current transformer is used with it’s primary winding connected in series with line carrying the current to be measured and. The primary winding consists of very few turns. Errors in Current Transformer: The value of transformation (actual ratio) is not equal to turns ratio. 3. The Secondary of CT should never be opened when primary is energized. In power measurements. therefore. This means that the secondary winding current is not a constant fraction of the primary winding current. The Secondaries of 2 CT’s should be correctly connected. One of the secondary winding is earthed so as to protect the equipment and personnel in the vicinity in the event of insulation breakdown in the current transformer. The various ratios of instrument transformers are: Transformation ratio: It is the ratio of magnitude of the primary phasor to the secondary. The Primaries of 2 CT’s should be correctly connected.

W1q=Vq Iss Cos 90 =0 Reading of wattmeter W2. 1 Reading of wattmeter W1. Vq=vq Isx Sin (θx-θs) θx. = Vp X ∆Ip= Vp[ Iss. The voltage coils of the wattmeter’s are supplied in parallel from a phase shifting transformer at a constant voltage V. W2p= Vp X Component of current ∆I in phase with Vp. W2q= Vq X Component of current ∆I in phase with Vq. An ammeter is included in the secondary circuit of standard transformer so that current may be set to desired value.Isx Cos (θx-θs)] . (1) Phase angle of voltage is so adjusted that wattmeter W reads zero 1 Voltage V is in quadrature with current Iss.31 Ratio error is defined as no min al ratio − actual ratio × 100 actual ratio Phase angle error is defined as 180  I m Cos δ − I e Sin δ    nl s π   Silsbee’s Method: It is a Comparison method which is used to calculate ratio error and phase angle error by using two current transformers. θs-Phase angle of standard CT. Reading of wattmeter W1. The ratio error and phase angle error of test transformer X are determined in terms of that of a standard transformer S having the same nominal ratio. (2) The Phase of voltage V is shifted through 90 so that it occupies a position Vp and is in phase with Iss.Phase angle of CT under test. W1p=Vp Iss Cos θ =Vp Iss Reading of wattmeter W2. An adjustable burden is put in the secondary circuit of transformer under test. The Current coil of wattmeter W1 is connected to carry secondary current of standard transformer. Two transformers are connected with their primaries in series. The Current coil of wattmeter W2 carries a current ∆I which is the difference between the secondary current of the standard and test transformers.

32 If V is kept same for both sets of readings.+ θs .= ----Rs Isx -----. Rs= Ip/Iss Rx Iss = V Iss W1p -----.V I Cos(θx-θs) 2 ss sx + W1p-V Isx Cos (θx-θs)=1p-V Isx V Isx=W1p-W2p Actual ratio of transformer under test. radian W1p-W2p V Isx .= --------VIsx W1p-W2p Rx 1 W2p = 1+ ---------W1p ----. Rx= Ip/ Isx Actual ratio of standard transformer .( W2p/W1p) Rx = Rs {1+(W2p/W1p)} W 2q Sin (θx-θs)= ------V Isx VIss-W2p W1p-W2p Cos (θx-θs) = ----------------= -----------------VIsx W2q tan (θx-θs) = ----------W1p-W2p W2q (θx-θs) = ----------.= -------------Rs 1. V=Vp-Vq W q=V Isx Sin (θx-θs) 2 W p=V Iss 1 W p= V [ Iss.Isx Cos (θx-θs)]= V I .

33 =(W2q/ W1p) + θs. 5. . Draw the graph between burden Vs ratio and phase angle error. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram. Tabulate the readings. 9. Note down this value as W1p also note down the reading of W2 as W2p. 4. 8. Adjust the phase shifting transformer until the wattmeter W1 reads zero( which corresponds to ZPF). 7. 6. The single phase autotransformer should be kept in minimum position before switching on.) PROCEDURE: 1. Note down this value as W1q also note down the reading of W2 as W2q. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for different values of primary current as well as for different values of burden. 2. also switch on the supply through single phase autotransformer( also through q single phase transformer which provides low voltage and high current to the primaries of CT’s) 3. And calculate ratio and phase angle errors. Switch on the supply through phase shifting transformer. Now adjust the single phase autotransformer to set a desired primary current for both CT”s. radian ( as W2p is very small. Adjust the phase shifting transformer until the wattmeter W1 reads maximum (which corresponds to UPF).

34 Circuit Diagram .

F= ) Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.F= ) Obs Act Ratio error Phase angle error MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT .33 0.66 1 1.66 2 0.33 1.F= ) Obs Act W1q=0 LPF W2q (M.35 Model Graph: [Ratio error Vs Burden] burden] [Phase angle error Vs TABULATION S.33 0.33 1.No Primary current Burden W1p (M.66 1 1.66 2 Act UPF W2p (M.

Dual RPS 8. 4 f R = 33 K . 1 Let V = 0.O. 5.C.V.36 Expt No: Date: DESIGN & TESTING OF INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER AIM To design and test an Instrumentation amplifier.Op-Amp IC 741 2.AFO 4. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. 2 .Resistors 3.Decade Resistance Box 6. A = -16 2 V  2R  R f A = 0 = − 1 + 2  = −16 V1 R  R1  R = ----------K . Bread board 7.Connecting wires FORMULA Rf  2R  Vo = 1 + 2  R  R1 (V2 − V1 )  DESIGN V = ---------. 1 R = R = 10 K .R.

Set the input Voltage at a particular value. high gain stability with low temperature co efficient. So its output V ‘ = V . Give the connections as per circuit diagram.i. the voltage across R is zero. Current flows in R & R’ 2 1 1 1 2 .e. 4. A high resistance buffer is used preceding each input to avoid loading. Vary the frequency & note down the corresponding output on CRO. the non-inverting amplifier A1 acts as a voltage follower. If V ≠ V . Tabulate the readings & Draw the Graph.37 THEORY An Instrumentation amplifier is used for high gain accuracy. high CMRR. As no current flows through R & R ‘ .This circuit has differential gain & CMRR more than the single 2 1 2 1 Op-Amp circuit. 3. The Op-Amps A1 & A2 have zero differential input voltage. For V = V . in common 1 2 mode condition. The output voltage is Rf  2R  Vo = 1 + 2  R  R1 (V2 − V1 )  The difference gain can be varied using a variable resistance R. Circuit Diagram . PROCEDURE 1.(V ’-V ’) > (V -V ) . low dc offset & low output impedance. 2.Simillarly 2 2 A acts as voltage follower with output V ‘ = V .

Frequency (Hz) Vo (volts) Gain dB .38 Model Graph Tabulation Vin = -------volts.R = --------- S.No.

No. R Vo in volts RESULT .39 f = 1 KHz S.

The imbalance of the bridge is a measure of applied pressure on the elastic membrane. The output of the electrical transducer is proportional to the displacement and hence to the applied pressure. 2. capsule. Swiitch ON the instrument by rocker switch at the front panel. Four strain gauge elements are interconnected to form a Wheat stone’s bridge. The commonly used pressure sensitive devices are Diaphragms. THEORY Pressure is basically a physical parameter encountered in many fields. it deflects causing a mechanical displacement. The principle of working of these devices can be explained as: the fluid or gas whose pressure is to be measured is made to press the pressure sensitive element and since the element is an elastic member.40 Expt No: Date: STUDY OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCER AIM To measure the Pressure using Pressure transducer. The commonly used electrical transducer is Strain gauge whose resistance is varied with the input displacement caused by pressure sensitive elements. Most pressure measuring devices use elastic members for sensing pressure at the primary stage. Bourdon tube & Bellows. These elastic members are of many types and convert the pressure into mechanical displacement which is later converted into an electrical form using a secondary transducer. PROCEDURE 1. This displacement is proportional to the pressure applied. APPARATUS REQUIRED • Power Supply • Pressure measurement trainer kit • Display unit • Connecting Chords. This displacement is then measured with the electrical transducers. It is defined as the force acting per unit area measured at a given point or over a surface. Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 minutes for “initial warm up” .

5. Block diagram . 6. The readings can be tabulated and % error of the instrument can be calculated. Apply pressure on the sensor using the loading arrangement provided. 6.41 3. Adjust the potentiometer in the front panel till the display reads “000” 4. The instrument reads the pressure coming on the sensor and displays through LED.

42 .

43 Tabulation S.No. . Actual pressure Indicator Reading in kg/cm2 Kg/Cm2 Error=Actual pressureIndicator reading % Error MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT .

APPARATUS REQUIRED • Power Supply • LVDT trainer kit • Display unit • Connecting Chords. the resultant becomes zero. When the core moves from its null position due to the displacement of the object linked mechanically to it. The arrangement is such that it has a primary coil. The magnetic core is made of Nickel alloy and is slotted. . increases. When these voltages are in phase opposition. • Multi-meter FORMULAE Error = Actual micrometer reading – Indicated reading. This is called null position of the core. The difference of the two voltages induced in the secondary appears across the output terminals of the transducer giving a measure of the displacement. simultaneously reducing the voltage in the other secondary winding. two secondary coils and a rod shaped magnetic core at the center.44 Expt No: Date: STUDY OF LVDT AIM To measure the displacement using LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). When the core is placed symmetrically with respect to the two secondary coils . % Error = (Error / True value) * 100 THEORY The Linear Variable Differential Transformer is the most widely used inductive transducer. equal voltage is induced in the two coils. the voltage induced in the secondary coil toward with the core has moved. The displacement to be measured is applied to the arm attached to the core.

2. The display glows to indicate the instrument is ON. Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 minutes for initial warm up.45 PROCEDURE 1. Basic Schematic Diagram . Rotate the core of the micrometer in steps of 1 of 2 mm and tabulate the readings. Connect the power supply chord at the rear panel to the 230 V. 50Hz supply. 3. Switch on the instrument by pressing down the toggle switch. Tabulate the readings and plot the graph as Actual Vs Indicated reading. The micrometer will show the exact displacement given to the LVDT core and display will read the displacement sensed by the LVDT.

46 Model Graph .

47 Tabulation S.No. Actual micrometer reading(mm) [B] Indicator Reading(mm) [C] Error [B –C] mm %Error (BC)/C*100 Output Voltage (in mV) RESULT .

This is equivalently a zero-order hold operation and has an effect on the frequency response of the reconstructed signal. APPRATUS REQUIRED: Digital to Analog Converter Kit Patching Wires Multi-meter CRO FORMULA USED: Vout=Vref[(2x-255)/256] x=Decimal value THEORY: In electronics. Usually these numbers are updated at uniform sampling intervals and can be thought of as numbers obtained from a sampling process. Normally the output voltage is a linear function of the input number. usually an electrical voltage. . voltage or electric charge). to generate different waveforms and to study the linearity of digital to analog converter. These numbers are written to the DAC. sometimes along with a clock signal that causes each number to be latched in sequence. a digital –to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device which is used for converting (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current. at which time the DAC output voltage changes rapidly from the previous value to the value represented by the currently latched number. The DAC fundamentally converts finite-precision numbers (usually fixed-point binary numbers) into a physical quantity.48 Expt No: Date: (a)DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER AIM To obtain the corresponding analog output for a given digital input. The effect of this is that the output voltage is held in time at the current value until the next input number is latched resulting in a piecewise constant output.

5. R-2R ladder DAC: It is a binary weighted DAC that uses a repeating cascaded structure of resistor values R and 2R. PROCEDURE: 1. wide converters perform slowly due to increasingly large RC-constants for each added R-2R link. The switches SW1 throughSW8 are placed appropriately to represent the desired digital input of00h through FFh. Draw the graph between digital word and analog output. WAVEFORM GENERATION: 1.This improves the precision due to the relative ease of producing equal valued matched resistors ( or current sources).5.The amplitude and frequency of the output waveform can be varied by using potentiometer PT1 and PT2 respectively. Waveform Sine wave Triangular wave Square wave Saw-tooth wave Position of J4 High Low Low High Position of J5 High High Low Low 4.bit resolution or less. . The Output voltage can be observed using a CRO at the terminal pin P2. The jumpers J9 through J16 should be in “E” (Left) position.49 The most common types of electronic DACs are: Binary Weighted DAC: It contains one resistor or current source for each bit of the DAC connected to a summing point. These precise voltages and currents sum to the correct output value. The jumpers J9 through J!6 should be in S/W (right) position. 3. However. 2. 3. The position of the jumpers for different waveform is selected from the table below. Switch on the power supply. so this type of converter is usually limited to 8. The output voltage can be observed using a CRO at the terminal pin P2. 4. This is one of the fastest conversion methods but suffers from poor accuracy because of the high precision required for each individual voltage or current. Such high precision resistors and current sources are expensive. Switch on the power supply. 2.

50 .

51 .TABULATION: Input Binary Data In Input Data in Output Voltage Hex (Observed) Output Voltage (Calculated) Input Data In Decimal MODEL GRAPH: RESULT .

to calculate its input voltage and to study the linearity of the analog to digital converter. APPRATUS REQUIRED: Analog to digital converter kit Patching wires Multi-meter CRO FORMULA USED: Vin=Vr(b1*2-1+b2*2-2+b3*2-3+…. eventually settling on a final voltage range. The clock frequency must be equal to the sampling frequency multiplied by the bits of resolution desired. Typically. a binary value of the approximation is stored in a successive approximation register (SAR). A Successive –approximation ADC uses a comparator to reject ranges of voltages. At each step in the progress. Date: (b). . meaning this converter type is mid-rise. Because the approximations are successive.52 Expt No. an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number. Successive approximation works by constantly comparing the input voltage to the output of an internal digital to analog converter (DAC. A/D or A to D) is an electronic integrated circuit.+bn*2-n) Vs=4.99V THEORY An analog-to-digital converter (ADC. which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The SAR uses a reference voltage (which is the largest signal the ADC is to convert) for Comparisons. fed by the current value of the approximation) until the best approximation is achieved. conversion takes one clock-cycle for each bit of resolution is desired. ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER AIM: To obtain the digital output for the given analog input.. The analog value is rounded to the nearest binary value below.

SWITCHES SW1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 SW2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 SW3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 CH0 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 CHANNEL . The following table shows that the switches SW1 through SW3 position and the corresponding channel section. *Calibrate the timed ramp. The variable terminal of the potentiometer is given to the analog input channel2. Fast video ADCs are used in TV tuner cards. The ramp time is sensitive to temperature because the circuit generating the ramp is often just some simple oscillator. The Address Latch Enable (ALE) button is also pressed once. then quickly falls to zero. 5. There are two solutions: *Use a clocked counter driving a DAC and then use the comparator to preserve the counter’s value. A/D converters are used virtually everywhere where an analog signal has to be processed. a timer starts counting. 3. When the ramp voltage matches the input. The LED L9 glows on pressing start of conversion button. or transported in digital form. A very simple (non-linear) ramp converter can be implemented with a micro-controller and one resistor and capacitor. dual-slope or multi-slope ADC) produces a saw-tooth signal that ramps up. a comparator fires. so as to enable the digital data to be sent to the output. stored. 2. Timed ramp converters require the least number of transistors. 4. and the timer’s value is recorded. The power supply is switched on. When the ramp starts.53 A ramp-compare ADC (also called integrating. The start of conversion (SOC) button is pressed once to start the conversion from analog signal to digital form. Very fast ADCs are needed in digital oscilloscopes. PROCEDURE: 1.

54 LINEARITY OF DAC: 1. The power supply is switched on. The digital data corresponding to analog input is displayed on the LED and the digital data value is noted. 4. 3. Now the position of the potentiometer. The channel 3 is selected. The analog input voltage is fed to the channel 3 by connecting variable terminal in the potentiometer. Graph is drawn between the analog input values and the corresponding digital data displayed on the LED. 2. 7. Now the potentiometer is varied and the analog input is measured using CRO> 6. the corresponding digital data is noted. 5. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: .

55 TABULATION Input data in Volts Output data in binary Output Output data in Hex RESULT: .

During the transient period. This switching operation may be a change in applied voltages or a change in one or more elements of the network. 2.No 1 2 3 4. To study the transient response of RC circuit for Step input and to draw the response. STEP RESPONSE OF R-C CIRCUIT: APPRATUS Regulated power supply Resistor Capacitor SPST switch Connecting wires CRO RANGE (0-30) V 220 ohms 1uF QTY 1 1 1 1 Reqd 1 The Figure shows a capacitor and a resistor connected in series. a. At t=0. Sinusoidal excitation v(t) = 100 sin 40 t 3. the switch K is closed. The capacitor has an initial charge q0 . 5. 6. Pulse excitation b. To study the transient response of RC circuit for the following inputs using Psim/Matlab-Simulink/Pspice. THEORY Any switching operation within a network causes transient conditions in the network. causing a voltage E to be applied to the circuit. These additional terms known as transient terms are damped out by certain damping factors. Derive the expression for part 2 APPRATUS REQUIRED: Sl. .56 Exp No: Date: STUDY OF TRANSIENTS AIM 1. the mathematical expressions for currents and voltages contain certain terms other than the steady state terms.

57 The KVL equation for the circuit is t 1 E U (t ) = Ri (t ) + ∫ i (t )dt C0 Taking Laplace transform on both sides where i Then or −1 (0) = ∫ i(t )dt = q 0 −∞ 0 E q0 1   − = I (s ) R +  s Cs Cs   q q0 E− 0 C = C I (s ) = 1  1    s R +  R s +  Cs  RC    E− Taking inverse Laplace transform E q  i (t ) =  − 0 e −t / RC  R RC  The voltages across R and C are q   v R = Ri (t ) =  E − 0 e −t / RC C  q v R = E − V R = E 1 − e −t / RC + 0 e −t / RC C If the initial charge q0 is zero ( ) E i (t ) =  e −t / RC R E The above equation shows that the charging current decays from its initial value     R to zero in RC circuit. MODEL CALCULATION: R = 220 ohms: C = 1uF RESULT .

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