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Agilent Technologies Solutions for 3GPP LTE

Technical Overview

Move Forward to What is Possible in 3GPP LTE

When it comes to providing solutions for designing, testing, and manufacturing devices using emerging technologies, companies around the globe depend on innovative solutions from Agilent Technologies. Our engineersexperts in test and measurementhave dedicated their careers to understanding the intricacies of these evolving technologies, to provide you with the solutions you need, when you need them. So, as you move LTE forward, were here to clear the way. One of the latest industry developments is the creation of long term evolution (LTE) standards by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). Currently under development, the LTE specications are scheduled to be nalized by the end of 2007, for deployment in the 2009 to 2010 timeframe. This document provides an overview of LTE and demonstrates how Agilent solutions can help you introduce quality LTE 3GPP devices. Agilent is committed to the continued development and introduction of new products to meet specic LTE measurement challenges as they are identied. For example, as LTE moves toward commercial deployment, Agilent will provide manufacturers and wireless communication service providers with the tools to successfully speed time-to-market and maximize their return-on-investment.

Note: The 3GPP LTE standardization process is on-going. The information covered in this document is based on 3GPP TS 36.211 V1.1.0. Many of the technical details presented here may change or evolve into different forms.

Table of Contents

LTE Overview ..................................................................................................................... 2 LTE Physical Layer ............................................................................................................ 2 LTE Testing ......................................................................................................................... 8 Designing LTE Systems and Circuits ............................................................................ 8 Generating LTE Signals ..................................................................................................10 Performing LTE Signal Analysis ...................................................................................14 Glossary ............................................................................................................................ 19

LTE Overview

Third-generation (3G) wireless systems, based on W-CDMA, are now being deployed all over the world. W-CDMA maintains a mid-term competitive edge by providing high speed packet access (HSPA) in both downlink and uplink modes. To ensure the competitiveness of the 3G systems into the future, a long term evolution (LTE) of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) access technology is being specied in Release 8 of the 3GPP standard. The LTE specication provides a framework for increasing capacity, improving spectrum efciency, improving coverage, and reducing latency compared with current HSPA implementations. In addition, transmission with multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antennas will be supported for greater throughput, as well as enhanced capacity or range.

Key attributes for LTE

Downlink capacityPeak data rates up to 100 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth Uplink capacityPeak data rates up to 50 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth Spectrum exibilityScalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, covering 1.4, 1.6, 3, 3.2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz in both uplink and downlink Spectral efciencyIncreased spectral efciency over Release 6 HSPA by a factor of two to four LatencySub-5 ms latency for small internet protocol (IP) packets MobilityOptimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h; higher mobile speeds up to 120 km/h supported with high performance Support for packet switched domains only

LTE Physical Layer

This section provides a high-level description of the unique LTE physical layer. By understanding the physical layer, the need for new testing solutions becomes clear. Only through the use of tailored solutions are the unique LTE properties addressed, ultimately helping to ensure the quality of your leadingedge products.

Transmission bandwidth
In order to address the international wireless market and regional spectrum regulations, LTE includes varying channel bandwidths selectable from 1.4 to 20 MHz, with sub-carrier spacing of 15 kHz. In the case of multimedia broadcast multicast service (MBMS), a sub-carrier spacing of 7.5 kHz is also possible. Sub-carrier spacing is constant regardless of channel bandwidth. To allow for operation in different sized spectrum allocation, the transmission bandwidth is instead altered by varying the number of OFDM sub-carriers.

Multiple access schemes

Multiple access schemes for the LTE physical layer are based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in the downlink (DL), and single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) in the uplink (UL). The OFDM in the DL is well suited to achieve a high peak data rate and the SC-FDMA in the UL is well suited, compared to OFDM, due to a lower peak to average power ratio (PAPR), which maximizes power efciency and ultimately battery life.

Duplexing techniques
To support transmission in paired and unpaired spectrum, the LTE air interface supports both frequency division duplex (FDD) and time division duplex (TDD) modes.

Physical layer channels

The LTE DL and UL are composed of two sets of physical layer channels: physical channels and physical signals. Physical channels carry information from higher layers and are used to carry user data, as well as user control, information. Physical signals do not carry information from higher layers and are used for cell search and channel estimation purposes. The DL physical channels are physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH), physical downlink control channel (PDCCH), and common control physical channel (CCPCH). The DL physical signals are reference signal (RS) and synchronization signal. UL physical channels are physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) and physical uplink control channel (PUCCH). The UL physical signals are reference signal (RS) and random access preamble.

Modulation and coding

Just like high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), LTE also uses adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) to improve data throughput. This technique varies the downlink modulation coding scheme based on the channel conditions for each user. When the link quality is good, the LTE system can use a higher order modulation scheme (more bits per symbol), which will result in more system capacity. On the other hand, when link conditions are poor due to problems such as signal fading, the LTE system can change to a lower modulation scheme to maintain an acceptable radio link margin. The allowed modulation schemes for DL and UL are shown in the following tables.

Downlink channels PDSCH PDCCH Downlink signals Reference signal Synchronization signal Primary Secondary Modulation scheme QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM QPSK Sequence Orthogonal sequence Pseudo-random sequence Zadoff-Chu Binary sequence

Uplink channels PUSCH PUCCH Modulation scheme QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Not yet dened in 3GPP TS 36.211 V1.1.0 Sequence uth root Zadoff-Chu Zadoff-Chu1

Uplink signals Random access preamble Reference signal


1. Not dened by V1.1.0 of the standard, however Agilent solutions use Zadoff-Chu sequence for the demodulation reference signal.

The channel coding is turbo coding with coding rate of (for every bit that / / goes into the coder, three bits come out), based on turbo encoder used in 3GPP Release 6.

DL frame structure
Two radio frame structures are dened in LTE: frame structure type 1, which uses both FDD and TDD duplexing, and frame structure type 2, which uses TDD duplexing. Frame structure type 1 is optimized to co-exist with 3.84 Mcps UTRA systems. Frame structure type 2 is optimized to co-exist with 1.28 Mcps UTRA TDD systems, also known as TD-SCDMA. This document focuses on frame structure type 1. Figure 1 shows frame structure type 1. A DL radio frame has a duration of 10 ms and consists of 20 slots with a slot duration of 0.5 ms. Two slots comprise a sub-frame. A sub-frame, also known as the transmission time interval (TTI), has a duration of 1 ms compared to 2 ms TTI for HSPA systems. Shorter TTIs reduce the latency in the system and will add further demands to the mobile terminal processor.

NsymbDL OFDM symbols (= 7 OFDM symbols at normal CP) 160 2048 0 144 2048 1 144 2048 2 144 2048 3 144 2048 4 144 2048 5

1 slot = 15360 144 2048 6 (x Ts) 1 slot = 0.5 ms

Cyclic prex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

P-SCH S-SCH 1 sub-frame = 1ms CCPCH PDCCH Reference signal





















1 frame = 10 ms

Figure 1. Frame structure type 1

As shown in Figure 1, the physical mapping of the DL physical signals are: Reference signal is transmitted at OFDM symbol 0 and 4 of each slot. This depends on frame structure type and antenna port number. P-SCH is transmitted on symbol 6 of slots 0 and 10 of each radio frame; it occupies 72 sub-carriers, centered around the DC sub-carrier S-SCH is transmitted on symbol 5 of slots 0 and 10 of each radio frame; it occupies 72 sub-carriers centered around the DC sub-carrier CCPCH physical channel is transmitted on 72 sub-carriers centered around the DC sub-carrier. Agilents current LTE solutions support up to three symbols in the rst slot of each sub-frame for CCPCH.

Downlink slot structure

The smallest time-frequency unit for downlink transmission is called a resource element. A group of contiguous sub-carriers and symbols form a resource block (RB) as shown in Figure 2. Data is allocated to each user equipment (UE) in terms of RB.

One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms One slot, Tslot = 15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms One downlink slot, Tslot #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19

One sub-frame

Resource block RB NDL x NBW resource elements symb NDL sub-carriers BW NRB sub-carriers BW Resource element

NDL OFDM symbols symb

Figure 2. Downlink resource grid (Ref 3GPP TS 36.211 V1.1.0)

For a frame structure type 1 using normal cyclic pre x (CP), a RB spans 12 consecutive sub-carriers at a sub-carrier spacing of 15 kHz, and 7 consecutive symbols over a slot duration of 0.5 ms as shown in Table 1. A CP is appended to each symbol as a guard interval. Thus, a RB has 84 resource elements (12 sub-carriers x 7 symbols) corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz (12 sub-carriers x 15 kHz spacing) in the frequency domain. The size of a RB is the same for all bandwidths, therefore, the number of available physical RBs depends on the transmission bandwidth. In the frequency domain, the number of available RBs can range from 6 (when transmission bandwidth is 1.4 MHz), to 100 (when transmission bandwidth is 20 MHz).

Table 1. Resource block parameters (Ref 3GPP TS 36.211 V1.1.0) Conguration Normal cyclic pre x = 15 kHz Extended cyclic pre x = 15 kHz = 7.5 kHz N RB BW 12 24 N DL symb Frame structure type 1 Frame structure type 2 7 9 6 8 3 4

Uplink frame and slot structure

The UL frame structure type 1 is the same as DL in terms of frame, slot, and sub-frame length. An UL slot structure is shown in Figure 3. The number of symbols in a slot depends on the CP length. For a normal CP, there are seven SC-FDMA symbols per slot. For extended CP there are six SC-FDMA symbols per slot.
NsymbDL OFDM symbols (= 7 OFDM symbols at normal CP) 160 2048 0 144 2048 1 144 2048 2 144 2048 3 144 2048 4 144 2048 5 1 slot = 15360 144 2048 6 (x Ts) 1 slot = 0.5 ms

Cyclic prex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Reference signal (Demodulation) 1 sub-frame = 1ms





















1 frame = 10 ms

Figure 3. Uplink frame and slot format for frame structure type 1

UL demodulation reference signals, which are used for channel estimation for coherent demodulation, are transmitted in the fourth symbol (i.e symbol number 3) of the slot.

LTE Testing

Agilent Technologies provides technology expertise and comprehensive, exible, multi-format verication products that can be scaled and upgraded to meet the needs of design and test engineers throughout the R&D lifecycle from early design to nal conformance testing. Today, for early R&D, Agilent Technologies provides LTE design automation tools and exible instrumentation based on measurement platforms currently available. These tools include the Advanced Design System (ADS) LTE library, Signal Studio software, MXG vector signal generators, ESG vector signal generators, 89600 VSA Series vector signal analyzers, PSA Series spectrum analyzers, and MXA signal analyzers. These powerful tools give design engineers the ability to design, troubleshoot, and evaluate the performance of LTE-capable transmitters and receivers.

Designing LTE Systems and Circuits

Advanced Design System

Advanced Design System (ADS) is the industry leader in high-frequency design tools. The software platform contains a complete set of technologies for RF and microwave circuit and system design and simulation. The wireless libraries available for ADS help shorten product development cycles by building the latest signal formats into ADS for testing and verication ahead of prototyping. Verifying system performance early, and often, mitigates integration risks later in the product development cycle and gets products to market faster.

The ADS 3GPP LTE Wireless Library

The ADS 3GPP LTE Wireless Library helps wireless-systems designers and verication engineers speed development of 3GPP LTE designs for next-generation mobile communications products, enabling designers to verify system and circuit design performanceeven as the standards evolve. The 3GPP LTE Wireless Library contains exible DL and UL signal sources and receivers to speed up system and circuit design, and allows quick and easy variation of parameters such as signal bandwidth and modulation type. The ADS 3GPP LTE Wireless Library also comes complete with simulation measurement capabilities for key system design measurements such as error vector magnitude (EVM) and uncoded bit error rate (BER). Custom algorithm internet protocol (IP) for emerging standards such as 3GPP LTE can also be co-simulated and combined with the existing algorithm capability in ADS. LTE: Downlink transmitter EVM measurement

Figure 4. An example schematic for performing an EVM measurement using the ADS LTE Wireless Library 8

ADS LTE Wireless Library features Uncoded downlink and uplink sources with selectable bandwidths (1.4, 1.6, 3, 3.2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz) Selectable modulation types: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM Uncoded downlink and uplink receivers EVM, BER, constellation, CCDF, waveform, and spectrum measurements Downlink source

Figure 5. Example ADS LTE Wireless Library downlink source

Uplink source

Figure 6. Example ADS LTE Wireless Library uplink source

Connected Solutions
Connected Solutions from Agilent Technologies combine ADS 3GPP LTE Wireless Library with Agilent test equipment to enable RF, IF, digital-IF, and digital baseband hardware performance to be veried. Connected Solutions extend the functionality of Agilent test equipment such as Agilents new MXG signal generator by allowing simulated signals to be turned into real-world test signals for device under test (DUT) testing. Simulated impairments, such as multi-path and fading, can be introduced into the simulated signal for real-world system testing. A digital stimulus can be created with Connected Solutions using a pattern generator board or an ESG combined with the N5102A Baseband Studio digital signal interface module. The DUT output signals can then be captured by an Agilent signal analyzer or the Agilent 16900 Series Logic Analyzer, and read back into ADS for system-level hardware testing, such as EVM or uncoded BER measurements. Co-simulation of custom algorithms with ADS Connected Solutions can also enable powerful testing capability for emerging standards such as 3GPP LTE.

Figure 7. VSA analysis of a signal generated in ADS

For more information about the ADS 3GPP Wireless Library, visit ADS 3GPP Wireless Library:

Generating LTE Signals

Agilent signal generators coupled with Signal Studio software have built a solid reputation as the benchmark test stimulus in the mobile communications industry. A comprehensive suite of signal creation software is available for the development and manufacturing of existing and evolving 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G communication systems. Quickly and easily create performance-optimized LTE reference signals for component level parametric test, baseband subsystem verication, receiver performance verication, and advanced functional evaluation.

N7624B Signal Studio for 3GPP LTE

The rst release of the software creates spectrally correct signals for designing and testing components in LTE-enabled mobile handsets and base transceiver stations. The software features exible adjustment of LTE parameters to ne tune signal characteristics such as spectral shape and peak-to-average ratio for specic applications. Adjustable parameters include bandwidth, modulation type, number of channels, channel power level, payload data, resource block allocation, and more. A graphical user interface simplies signal conguration while the .NET API enables integration into a test executive. Future releases of the software will be available as the standard continues to evolve. Although the rst release of the software is tailored for component test applications, it can also be used for early receiver design and testing. The data to be transmitted can be pre-coded to simulate the transport layer coding and then imported into the software through the use of a user le. Future releases of the software will include transport layer coding capabilities.


Signal Studio for 3GPP LTE user interface showing the channel conguration and resource block allocation of a downlink LTE signal

General Signal Studio features Optimized for the ESG and MXG vector signal generators Add calibrated AWGN Create multi-carrier signals Pre-lter and post-lter clipping Graphical display of resource blocks Save and recall signal congurations Programmable control with built-in .NET API Key Signal Studio LTE downlink features OFDMA modulation Sub-carrier modulation (QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM) Selectable LTE bandwidth (Up to 20 MHz) Selectable cyclic pre x Selectable reference and synchronization signal parameters User-denable data patterns CCPCH, PDCCH, and PDSCH channels


Key Signal Studio LTE uplink features SC-FDMA modulation Sub-carrier modulation (QPSK and 16QAM) Selectable LTE bandwidth (Up to 20 MHz) Selectable cyclic pre x Selectable reference signal parameters User-denable data patterns PUCCH and PUSCH channels

Industry-leading RF performance with the Agilent MXG and ESG vector signal generators
The N5182A MXG offers the industry-best adjacent-channel power (ACPR) performance and switching speeds making it ideal for the characterization and evaluation of single and multicarrier power ampliers. The E4438C ESG provides lower phase noise, excellent level accuracy, fading capabilities digital I/Q inputs and outputs making it better suited for early receiver test.

Agilent N5182A MXG vector signal generator

Features of the N5182A MXG for LTE Frequency coverage up to 6 GHz Fast switching speeds: frequency, amplitude, and waveforms Industry-best ACPR Analog I/Q inputs and outputs for testing at baseband Small form factor LAN (LXI compliant), USB, and GPIB connectivity


Agilent E4438C ESG vector signal generator

Features of the E4438C ESG for LTE Frequency coverage up to 6 GHz Digital I/Q inputs and outputs for testing at baseband Analog I/Q inputs and outputs for testing at baseband Fading capability with Baseband Studio Internal BER analyzer Low phase noise LAN and GPIB connectivity

Ordering information
N5182A MXG N5182A5031 N5182AUNZ N5182A6541 N5182AUNV N5182A403 N7624BSW31 E4438C ESG E4438C5031 E4438C6021 E4438C005 E4438CUNJ E4438C403 N7624BSW11 250 kHz to 3 GHz frequency range Fast switching Internal baseband generator (125 megasample per second (Msa/s), 8 Msa) Enhanced dynamic range Calibrated AWGN Signal Studio for 3GPP LTE (with connectivity to MXG)

250 kHz to 3 GHz frequency range Internal baseband generator (64 Msa memory) 6 GB internal hard drive Enhanced phase noise performance Calibrated AWGN Signal Studio for 3GPP LTE (with connectivity to ESG)

1. Required options. The baseband generator may be option E4438C-001, -002, -601, -602 or N5182A-652, -654.

More information
Agilent signal generators: Signal Studio software: Baseband Studio:


Performing LTE Signal Analysis

The ever increasing complexity of the emerging broadband communication systems demand exible signal analysis with in-depth modulation analysis as well as RF power measurements. The Agilent signal and spectrum analyzers ease measurements on complex signals by providing world-class accuracy, exibility, and standard-specic measurement applications. In addition, the world renowned Agilent 89600 Vector Signal Analysis (VSA) software in combination with Agilents signal and spectrum analyzers offer the industrys most sophisticated general purpose and standards specic signal evaluation and troubleshooting tools for the R&D engineer.

LTE signal analysis evaluation software

Agilent proves its commitment to LTE signal analysis by providing an early demonstration of a measurement functionality today that will become a fully supported solution once the LTE standard becomes more stable. This evaluation software is a stand-alone software extension to the industry-leading Agilent 89600 VSA software. It supports both downlink and uplink LTE signal analysis based on the updated 3GPP TS 36 series standard. Use this evaluation software, along with your existing Agilent signal and spectrum analyzers, to gain insight into the performance of your prototype LTE-capable devices. 1st reference symbol pilots (occur every 6th subcarrier in RS1 symbol)

64QAM Data symbols

LTE DL 5 MHz bandwidth signal gated RF spectrum

Time gate set to ~1 OFDM symbol length, aligned to one of the 64QAM data symbols. Shows data activity across entire 5 MHz DL signal within specic gated OFDM symbol

CCDF indicates PAPR of ~8.5 dB for this particular signal measured over all regions


Key features of the Agilent LTE evaluation software Works with the Agilent PSA, MXA, and 89600 spectrum and signal analyzers Supports LTE downlink (OFDMA) and uplink (SC-FDMA) analysis based on 3GPP TS36 standards Supports all LTE bandwidths: 1.4, 1.6, 3, 3.2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz Supports FDD mode of frame structure type 1 Demodulation of user-specied slot number and symbol number within radio frame Supports user denition of up to six PDSCH two-dimensional data bursts for downlink EVM analysis (format QPSK, QAM16, QAM64) Supports user denition of PUSCH two-dimensional data bursts for uplink EVM analysis (format QPSK, QAM16, QAM64) Supports both normal and extended CP modes Connectivity with Advanced Design SystemConnected Solutions LTE signal simulation and analysis

LTE DL measurement showing OFDMA IQ constellation diagram, demodulated symbol bits, as well as measurement metrics including EVM, channel power, common pilot error, and CP length


LTE UL measurement showing SC-FDMA IQ constellation diagram, demodulated symbol bits, as well as measurement metrics including EVM, channel power, common pilot error, and CP length

LTE measurement metrics Sync correlation, frequency error, IQ offset Composite EVM, data EVM, pilot EVM Channel EVM metrics (DL = P-SCH, S-SCH, RS pilot, P-BCH, PDCCH, PDSCH 01-06, UL = DM pilot, PUSCH) Channel power metrics (DL = P-SCH, S-SCH, RS pilot, P-BCH, PDCCH, PDSCH 01-06, UL = DM pilot, PUSCH) Common pilot error, symbol clock error CP length LTE measurement traces OFDMA and SC-FDMA symbol demodulation magnitude OFDMA and SC-FDMA symbol demodulation IQ vector/constellation Error vector spectrum (composite percent EVM per data/pilot sub-carrier Error vector time (composite percent EVM per OFDMA and SC-FDMA symbol) Channel frequency response (magnitude/phase/group delay) Pilot tracking (CPE magnitude/phase, pilot timing error) Symbol data (demodulated symbol bits represented as Hex values per sub-carrier)


Depending on your performance requirements, you can choose either the PSA series high performance spectrum analyzer, the MXA signal analyzer, or the 89600 VXI-based vector signal analyzer as the acquisition and capture hardware for your signal.

Features of Agilent PSA for LTE High performance spectrum analyzer and signal analyzer in a single box Frequency range of 3 Hz to 6.7, 13.6, 26.5, 44, and 50 GHz Analysis bandwidth of 8 MHz/40 MHz/80 MHz1 LTE software runs on external PC
1. 40/80 MHz analysis bandwidth available on 6.7, 13.2, and 26.5 GHz models

PSA high performance signal analyzer with LTE software on PC

Features of Agilent MXA for LTE Mid-range spectrum and signal analyzer in a single box Frequency range of 20 Hz to 3.6, 8.4, 13.2, and 26.5 GHz
MXA signal analyzer with LTE software running inside the MXA

Analysis bandwidth of 10 MHz/25 MHz LTE software runs inside the analyzer

Features of Agilent 89600 VSA for LTE Frequency range of DC to 6 GHz Analysis bandwidth of 36 MHz BBIQ input Two-channel RF conguration up to 6 GHz
89600 VSA with LTE software on PC


Ordering information
The LTE evaluation software requires users to have a licensed copy of the 89601A VSA software. The recommended conguration for using the LTE evaluation software is as follows:

PSA spectrum analyzer E4443A, E4445A, or E4440A (6.7, 13.2, or 26.5 GHz frequency range respectively) Option 140(40 MHz analysis bandwidth) 89601A VSA software with Option 200 and 300 MXA signal analyzer N9020A Option 503, 508, 513, or 526 (3.6, 8.4, 13.2, and 26.5 GHz frequency range respectively) N9020A Option B25(25 MHz analysis bandwidth) 89601A VSA software with Option 200 and 300 89600 VXI 89641A 6 GHz vector signal analyzer or 89640A 2.7 GHz vector signal analyzer

More information
PSA spectrum analyzer: MXA signal analyzer: 89600 VSA software:


3rd Generation Partnership Project 3rd generation Adjacent channel power ratio Advance Design System Adaptive modulation and coding




Additive white Gaussian noise Bit error rate Complementary cumulative distribution function Common control physical channel Cyclic pre x Common pilot error Downlink (base station to subscriber transmission) Demodulation pilot Device under test Error vector magnitude Frequency division duplex Fast fourier transform High speed packet access High speed downlink packet access Internet protocol Long term evolution Multimedia broadcast multicast service Multiple input multiple output Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Orthogonal frequency division multiple access Peak-to-average power ratio Primary broadcast channel Physical downlink control channel Physical downlink shared channel Primarysynchronization channel Physical uplink control channel Physical uplink shared channel Quadrature amplitude modulation Quadrature phase shift keying Resource block Reference signal Single carrierfrequency division multiple access Secondarysynchronization channel Time division duplex Time divisionsynchronous code division multiple access Transmit time interval Uplink (subscriber to base station transmission) UMTS terrestrial radio access Widebandcode division multiple access


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