A Letter Head Memorandum from J. Edgar Hoover to President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 23, 1963, "set forth the fact that Agents reviewed the tape [of OSWALD speaking with the Soviets], and concluded the voice was not that of OSWALD." That was because the CIA gave them a tape of someone other than OSWALD to listen to. Gaeton Fonzi developed evidence that William Coleman and David Slawson both heard scratchy versions of the tape. [Last Investigation p286] In a letter dated December 4, 1992 (published in The Investigator), W. David Slawson wrote: “Yes, I listened to the tape of Lee Harvey Oswald’s telephone conversations with the Soviet Embassy In Mexico City I did not feel that the voice sounded any different from what I expected his would sound like.” If you believe Slawson you believe that OSWALD was the lone gunman. Why didn’t the Warren Commission get a dub of the actual tape so the Commissioners could hear these conversations? Because there was more on the tapes than there was in the transcripts and they had been deliberately or routinely erased shortly after they were made. There was a conversation on the tapes about OSWALD getting money and a visa in return for vital information. In November 1976 DAVID PHILLIPS told the HSCA that the CIA monitored and taped OSWALD'S telephone conversations with the Soviet Embassy. According to PHILLIPS the tape was transcribed by Boris and Anna Tarasoff and then routinely destroyed. [The Washingtonian 11.80] During SENSTUDY, (a review of FBI files on behalf of the SSCIA) it was determined that the CIA on November 23, 1963, "provided the FBI’s

Legal Attaché in Mexico City with a transcript of said tape recording and advised the Legal Attaché that the original tape had been erased..." As of 2010, only the transcripts remain. PHILLIPS was asked about the tapes during the course of HUNT v. WEBERMAN "Of course, I do know about it. Obviously I cannot, and will not, answer that question." The CIA released a document that stated …the tape of the first conversation (September 28, 1963) had been erased before the second call (October 1, 1963) had been received...On November 26, 1963, the Mexico Desk of the Western Hemisphere Division disseminated a transcript of the telephone call of September 28, 1963, and a transcript of the telephone call made on October 1, 1963, in which the caller identified himself as LEE OSWALD. The Mexico Desk included a transcript of three other telephone calls made on September 27, 1963, October 1, 1963, and October 3, 1963. The Mexico Desk commented that 'Voice comparisons indicated that the 'North American' who participated in several of these conversations is probably the person who identified himself as LEE OSWALD on October 1, 1963.' (CSCI-3/778,829) This latter statement is not entirely accurate. According to a previous cable from Mexico City - MEXI 7023, November 23, 1963, - the tapes of the September 28, 1963, telephone call had been erased. If that were so, the tape of the September 27, 1963, call must have been erased. Analysis by voice comparison could not be made; however the monitor based his analysis upon what he could recall of the conversations as they were recorded on tape.

All the tapes had to be eventually erased after two weeks but some tapes, in which OSWALD said off-the-wall things that would have triggered an all out investigation of

OSWALD were erased immediately. If the FBI opened up a counter-espionage case on Comrade OSWALD his value as a patsy in the upcoming “big event” would be nil. GOODPASTURE Who could have erased the tape or tapes prematurely? Once this happened it was easy enough to alter the content of the transcripts. Who worked closely with ANGLETON and PHILLIPS? Anne Goodpasture. Goodpasture the daughter of two schoolteachers, was born in Tennessee. During the Second World War she joined the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and served in Burma. After the war Goodpasture was recruited by the CIA. Eventually she went to work for JAMES ANGLETON. According to ANGLETON, Goodpasture was "very close" to William K. Harvey. Goodpasture was involved in the investigation and arrest of Rudolph Ivanovich Abel. In 1957 ANGLETON sent Goodpasture to investigate a Soviet Spy in Mexico City. Winston Scott, who was the CIA's station chief in Mexico. was so impressed with Goodpasture that he arranged for her to become his reports officer. In December 1958, Scott initiated operation LITEMPO, a network of paid agents and collaborators in the Mexican Government. This included Luis Echeverria. After Fidel Castro took power in Cuba Scott was asked by Allen W. Dulles to use his LITEMPO to help overthrow the government. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, who was now president of Mexico resisted this idea. He told Dulles covert action was a different matter. What was in those tapes that had to be erased? THE RONALD KESSLER REPORT Evidence existed that the transcripts did not reflect the true nature of OSWALD'S contacts with the Soviets. The translator and typist's wife, Mrs. Anna Tarasoff, remembered the word "information" being used. Journalist Ron Kessler was told by DAVID PHILLIPS that during one of OSWALD'S conversations with the Soviets he stated: "I have information you would be interested in, and I know you can pay my way to Russia." The stenographer who typed up the transcript and the translator who prepared it had similar recollections: "OSWALD said he had some information to tell the Russians. His main concern was getting to one of the two countries (Russia or Cuba), and he wanted them to pay him for it. He said he had to meet them." [Washington Post 11.26.76] The HSCA verified this: "The HSCA has contacted the persons who allegedly translated and typed the manuscripts. Both of them said that in his conversations with the foreign embassies OSWALD did talk of a 'deal' to go to Russia." [CIA George T. Kalaris IG Memo 77-0244] The CIA did a paragraph-by-paragraph analysis of Ron Kessler's article which was highly deleted. [Allen v. DOD CIA 21689-0843] The HSCA questioned Boris Tarasoff, a Staff CIA Officer who started working in Mexico City in June 1963, and continued there until October 1970. Boris Tarasoff received the

tapes the day after they were made, and he remembered translating OSWALD'S broken Russian. Q. Would you tell us what your duties were? A. My duties were on a more or less permanent basis to receive the tapes first, then to translate from Russian into English the conversation that was on the tape, and to transcribe the whole thing. The tapes originated right there in Mexico City, because some of the telephone wires leading to areas, establishments, tapped. Therefore, as a result, we had these conversations on the tape...There were several operations going on as a result of which we got tapes also, but they were taken of the so-called bugs, were planted in several strategic spots, dealing with Soviet nationals. Therefore I had to transcribe them too. Q. Would you receive the tapes the day after they were made? A. Yes. Q. And you would deliver them the following day, after you transcribed them and translated them? A. Yes. Q. In conjunction with your transcribing and translation operation, did you ever have occasion to make personality assessment, or voice identification, of the people whose voices you heard on the tapes? A. That was my idea that I suggested to them after I came for my regular tour of duty, to have the voice sample. The idea was rejected. On what grounds I do not know. Anyway, after about three or four months, they did come out with a suggestion that I start saving these voice samples. We got quite a collection of voice samples. Q. In conjunction with the personality assessment which you sometimes made based on what you heard from tapes, did you have occasion to make comments on the transcription sheet when you detected something about the person's personality from the tapes? A. First, I used to make just a short synopsis saying, well, "This fellow is saying in an agitated voice" and so forth. I would inject some of my personal feeling about a person. I put these on a separate piece of paper. Q. Mr. Tarasoff, in the course of your duties, did LEE HARVEY OSWALD come to your attention as a result of your duties in the surveillance operation?

A. At the end of September I think it was, 1963. First of all he called -- as far as I recall, he tried to speak Russian, but I think his Russian was so poor that I did not understand. I cannot recall without seeing the transcript. He called the Soviet Embassy as far as I can remember. As far as I remember there were two conversations. There might have been more. I am not certain. I cannot recall the tone of his voice or what he said. [After he gave the CIA Station the OSWALD transcriptions] I got a request from the station to see if we can pick up the name of this person because sometimes we had so-called 'defectors' from the United States that wanted to go to Russia and we had to keep an eye on them. Not I - the station. Consequently, they were very hot about the whole thing. They said, "If you can get a name rush it over immediately." Therefore it is very seldom that I underlined the name because I put them in capitals. In this case I did it because it was so important to them. Q. Can you tell us exactly what lead to his request? A. I have no idea what lead to it. That was my only main point, to find the name, to get the name of this person and deliver it as soon as possible to the station. Q. Can you speculate as to why this request was made? A. If would be simply a speculation. If he called the Cuban Embassy and our people knew about it, then they really would be pressed to get the name. Q. Are you saying that there is a possibility that OSWALD spoke to the Cuban Embassy personnel, in addition to the Soviet Embassy personnel, and that the people you dealt with in your operation made that connection, and consequently made an urgent request that this person be identified? A. There is a possibility, I think, that that is exactly what happened. Q. Do you remember of OSWALD spoke English or Russian during that conversation? A. As far as I remember he was speaking English. Whenever he did slip a couple of words of Russian in, it must have been unintelligible. Q. There is a comment between the slash marks on this page which states "The same person who phoned a day or so ago and spoke in broken Russian." Based on this possible discrepancy, do you have any feeling as to whether this document is authentic, as opposed to being a forgery, or an amended version of the original document?

A. I cannot conceive of this document being a forgery. I have an idea in the back of my head that it was much stronger. There is the whole thing, the spacing, I cannot say that it was longer than it is now. Q. Do you have any independent recollection of OSWALD having mentioned his financial situation during this conversation? A. No, I do not have any recollection of that. Q. Were you able to identify the speaker in the September 28, 1963, conversation? A. No. Q. Did you ever make the inference that the speakers on September 28, 1963, and October 1, 1963, were one and the same person? A. I sure did, right here, under item 151, under P1. Mrs. Anna Tarasoff remembered: Q. Aside from what appears on these three documents, do you have any independent recollection of conversations dealing with LEE HARVEY OSWALD which were part of the surveillance operation in Mexico City? A. According to my recollection, I, myself, have made a transcript, an English transcript, of LEE OSWALD talking to Russian Consulate or whoever he was at that time, asking for financial aid. Now that particular transcript does not appear here, and whatever happened to it, I do not know, but it was a lengthy transcript between him and someone at the Russian Embassy. Q. How long do you recall this conversation was? A. This conversation, I would say, at least covered a page and a half or two. Q. Is it your recollection that the person speaking identified himself as LEE OSWALD? A. He definitely identified himself as being LEE OSWALD. Q. Earlier you spoke of an urgent request for a transcription of a conversation. Could you tell us the circumstances surrounding this urgent request?

A. This urgent request either came from the party that was doing the monitoring of the transcripts, and it came through and when these reels are delivered to us, if there is any request, it is also included with a - well, on a regular copy of the whole transcript, it would be included with the reels, "In number so and so there is a conversation. Will you please handle this prior to anything other than what is on the sheet originally?" Q. Do you recall the names of the contact who made the urgent request? A. This was written on a piece of paper, and was enclosed in with the reels. So, I would hardly know who that particular party was who requested this. Q. What did you do after you received this request? A. We went ahead and transcribed whatever was on that particular reel in the space allotted or space designated. After it was transcribed, we contacted whoever it was then. They, in turn, came by and picked it up. Once it left our hands we have no knowledge of what happened to it. It was our normal contact at the time. Q. Do you remember any other details of the conversation which you say involved LEE HARVEY OSWALD? A. Well, for one thing, he was persistent in asking for financial aid in order to leave the country. They were not about to give him any financial aid whatsoever. He had also mentioned he tried the Cuban Embassy, and they had also refused financial aid. Q. I believe you stated earlier that the person speaking identified himself as LEE OSWALD in the conversation? A. Yes, he definitely did identify himself as LEE OSWALD Q. On the basis of this identification were you able to infer that the person who spoke on September 28, 1963, was also LEE OSWALD. A. Not listening this particular tape or the other one, I would not know whether it was the same party or not. Q. Do you recall any other subject that was covered in that conversation that you transcribed other than the requests for financial aid? A. That was his main purpose sir, just getting financial aid, because he had said he was broke and he wanted to leave the country, and he was seeking financial aid, and he thought he was contacting the Russian

Embassy or Cuban Embassy, I think, would be willing to finance his passage to wherever he wanted to go. There was nothing - the conversation was a repetition of questions and answers really, and the party who spoke to him spoke in English, so there was no difficulty in understanding either one of them as to what they were saying to each other. Q. As you recall it, the net effect was they turned him down? A. Yes, they definitely turned him down. In fact, if I recall, they finally got disgusted and hung up on him. [CIA 429-149; HSCA Test. 4.12.78] The Tarasoffs created summaries of their transcriptions. The CIA: About mid-1962 (check date) LIENVOY telephone numbers of the Soviet, Cuban and Satellite Embassies. (Deleted) LIFEAT (deleted) was (deleted) conntected 5 Cuban lines, 5 Soviet lines, 3 Czech, 2 Polish and I Yugoslav line. The base house listening post had a live monitor who made short summaries of conversations of interest which were then included in a daily resume for the Chief of Station which was received each day around 8:00 a.m. passed by (deleted) to Goodpasture to get to Scott before 9:00 a.m. Later, when a reel was completely recorded, full transcripts were typed and passed to the Station; however, there was usually a time lag of a day or two. Reels which contained Russian, or a language other than Spanish or English, were taken to another location for translation and typing. In the case of the Russian translations Boris Tarasoff usually ran about a week behind the date of the conversation because of the volume of Russian conversations, the translations usually ran about a week behind the date of the conversation. During this period (Fall of 1963) the reels were probably being brought into the station and carried to Boris by one of the people from the Soviet Section, or they may have been carried to him by (deleted), but I think I brought the reel in and gave it to (deleted) to take to Boris. (Deleted) handled all of the processing of Soviet transcripts.

Boris Tasaroff died November 15, 1995 and Anna died January 1, 2001. HEMMING told this researcher: He was gonna tip the Cubans and Soviets off about Banister and all the CIA punks in New Orleans who were plotting and scheming something serious. That was the 'information.'

THE MEXICO CITY CIA STATION'S EARLY OSWALD CABLES PHILLIPS was still in Mexico City when Oswald arrived and was intent on facilitating OSWALD’s trip to Cuba by coaching him, using CIA assets and keeping surveillance off OSWALD. ANGLETON would do the same out of Langley. On OCTOBER 8, 1963, a cable went out from the CIA's Mexico City Station to the component of the CIA that logged American's contacts with the Soviets:

Origin: LADILLINGER [Barbara Murphy Manell] Distribution: Communications; Chronology; Soviet Contacts 50-8-10-6 ROUTINE

To: Director Info. Cite Mexi 6453 LC IMPROVE [Counter-espionage involving Soviet intelligence services worldwide] 1. According LIENVOY [the bugging operation in Mexico City] on October 1, 1963, American male who spoke broken Russian and said his name was LEE OSWALD (phonetic), stated he was at Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963, when he spoke with Consul who he believed to be Valeriy Vladimipovich Kostikov. Subject asked Soviet guard Ivan Obyedkov who answered, if there anything new regarding telegram to Washington. Obyedkov, upon checking, said nothing received yet, but request had been sent. 2. Have photos male appears be American entering Soviet Embassy 12:16 p.m., leaving 12:22 p.m. on October 1, 1963, apparent age 35, athletic build, circa 6 feet, receding hairline, blading [sic] top. Wore khakis and sport shirt. Source LIEMPTY 3. No local dissem. Authenticating Officer Releasing Officer LADILLINGER [Barbara Manell] Willard C. Curtis [WINSTON SCOTT]

ORIGINATED BY [Barbara Manell aka LADILLINGER] WIFE OF [Herbert Manell aka Gerald F. Gestetner Birth: September 15, 1925 Massachusetts Death: March 24, 2006 Chile 1966-1969 Venezuela 1971-1973].

There was no conspiracy on the part of the Manells to deliberately include a wrong description of OSWALD. She looked at the surveillance photos and found a shot of a man leaving and entering the Embassy in the corresponding temporal parameters of the

telephone call and figured this must be the man who initiated the call. Manell had no idea that PHILLIPS had made sure OSWALD would not be photographed as he entered the Soviet Embassy. The photo above shows the man thought to be connected to the telephone call outside the Sov Emb. He has been the fictional character in a lot of disinformation about the coup and has never been identified. That was the last time OSWALD appeared on the CIA’s radar until October 1, 1963 however the information was withheld until October 9, 1963 when OSWALD was back in Dallas-Fort Worth. On OCTOBER 9, 1963 the Director of the CIA was sent this cable:

October 9, 1963. To: Director. From: Mexico City. Action: Western Hemisphere 8 Info: CI [Counter-Intelligence-ANGLETON'S General Staff] CI/OPS [Counter-Intelligence / Operations]

CI/IC 2 [Counter-Intelligence/ Intelligence Community 2] FI [Foreign Intelligence] SR 7 [Soviet Russia - Division 7] RF [?] VR [?] ROUTING: Charlotte Bustos [Elsie Scaleti] Secret 090043Z DIR CITE MEXI 6453 LCIMPROVE 1. According LIENVOY on October 1, 1963, American male who spoke broken Russian and said his name was LEE OSWALD (phonetic), stated he was at Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963, when he spoke with Consul who he believed to be Valeriy Vladimipovich Kostikov. Subject asked Soviet guard Ivan Obyedkov who answered, if there anything new regarding telegram to Washington. Obyedkov, upon checking, said nothing received yet, but request had been sent. 2. Have photos male, appears be American entering Soviet Embassy 12:16 p.m., leaving 12:22 p.m. on October 1, 1963, apparent age 35, athletic build, circa 6 feet, receding hairline, blading [sic] top. Wore khakis and sport shirt. Source LIEMPTY 3. No local dissemination. Willard C. Curtis [Winston Scott] releasing officer THE CIA'S DELAY IN SENDING THE OSWALD OUTCABLE A document dated January 31, 1964 that the CIA gave to the Warren Commission, stated that news of the OSWALD/Ivan Obyedkov telephone conversation was cabled to CIA Headquarters "the same day it was received. A file check in Washington which is routine in these matters revealed the possibility of an identity between the LEE OSWALD who had spoken with Ivan Obyedkov, and presumably with Kostikov, and the defector returnee, LEE HARVEY OSWALD." The cable from the Mexico City CIA Station, to Headquarters, went out nine days later (October 9, 1963), and not on the day after the transcripts had been reviewed. In Nightwatch, PHILLIPS wrote: "Mr. Manell the Case Officer in charge of Soviet Operations, was the first to become aware of OSWALD on the basis of the latter's contact with the Soviet Embassy...Herbert procrastinated...his wife typed out the cable." [PHILLIPS Nightwatch p80 et. al.] In 1977 the CIA generated a document titled, "Delay in Sending the First Cable about OSWALD," which stated: 1. Much has been written about the delay (by the Mexico Station) in sending the first cable requesting traces on the name LEE OSWALD. It was discussed in DAVE PHILLIPS' book as a case of laziness on the part of the Soviet case officer (which, in my view, was unjust and unnecessary

and indicates that DAVE PHILLIPS did not know what he was talking about). 2. Normally, the Spanish transcript for the October 1, 1963, conversation would have been picked up upon the morning of October 2, 1963. The Russian language portion would have gone to the Russian/English transcriber on October 3, 1963. The translation would have been returned the following day (October 4, 1963), at which time the Soviet case officer would have asked for the photographic coverage. That coverage would not have been in the station before October 7, 1963, since the film was still in the camera on the October 3, 1963, and it was picked-up probably on the October 4, 1963, processed and passed to the Station on the next work day which would have been Monday, October 7, 1963. 3. Later, the film was taken out of the camera every day, but at that time, the film stayed in the camera until a full roll was completed, which might take three or four days. 4. A name trace could have been requested on the basis of the name alone, but that wasn't the way Winston Scott ran that Station. He wanted the photographic coverage tied in with the telephone coverage. Sometimes there was a U.S. automobile license number. It was also part of the numbers game of justifying a project by the number of dispatches, cables, or reports, produced. [NARA 1993.07.0616:17:21:930150]

On OCTOBER 10, 1963, CIA Headquarters sent the Mexico City CIA Station a cable that read: Origin: CHARLOTTE VIDELA BUSTOS:jpm [Elsie Scaleti] Unit: Western Hemisphere/3/Mexico. Ext: 5940. To Mexico City From Director Conf Western Hemisphere 8, Info ADDP [Assistant Director/Directorate Plans] CI, [Counter-Intelligence] CI/OPS, [Counter-Intelligence Operations] CI/SP [Counter-Intelligence/Special Projects AKA Special Activities Group] FI, SR [Foreign Intelligence, Soviet Research] 7, RF, VR. [one of these acronyms has got to be CUBA] To Mexi Ref: Mexi 6453 (IN 36017)* 1. LEE OSWALD who called SOVEMB on October 1, 1963, probably identical LEE HENRY OSWALD (201-289,248) born October 18, 1939, New Orleans, former radar operator in the United States Marines who defected to USSR in October 1959." As you can see the cable contained an accurate description of OSWALD based on FBI documents in his 201 file, “OSWALD is five feet ten inches, one hundred sixty-five pounds, light brown wavy hair, blue eyes” background on OSWALD'S defection and redefection, including his statement that he wished to return to the United States if "we could come to some agreement concerning the dropping of any legal proceedings against me." This was the only piece of derogatory in the cable. 3. Latest Headquarters information was ODACID [State Department] report dated May 1962, saying ODACID had determined OSWALD is still US citizen, and both he and his Soviet wife have exit permits, and the Department of State had given approval for their travel with their infant child to USA. 4. Station should pass information reference and paragraph one to TPELIDE, ODENVY [FBI], ODOATH, [NAVY] and ODURGE [Immigration and Naturalization Service] locally. Information paragraphs two and three originates with ODACID. 5. Reference and possible identification being disseminated to Headquarters of ODENVY, ODACID, ODOATH, and ODURGE. Please keep Headquarters advised on any further contacts or positive identification of OSWALD. END OF MESSAGE

Western Hemisphere Comment: According to LIENVOY October 1, 1963, an American male who spoke broken Russian said he name LEE OSWALD (phonetic) stated he was at the Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963, when he spoke with Consul. He discussed sending a telegram to Washington. No local Dissemination had been made. T. Karamessines ADDP [Assistant Deputy Director Plans] SR/CI/A/Roll (in draft) - [Stephan Roll, Angleton’s Soviet Russia Counter-intelligence liaison] William Hood, Releasing Officer CI/Liaison/Jane Roman (in draft) J. C. KING CWHD [Chief Western Hemisphere Division] Authenticating Officer CI/SPG/Ann Egerter (in draft) [Counter-intelligence Special Projects Group] C/WH/3 (Scelso) [John Moss Whitten Chief Western Hemisphere 3] WH/COPS [Western Hemisphere Covert Operations] [Another version contained the name "J. White." Possibly Allen White] William Hood was questioned about this document in November 1993: Is that the real OSWALD? The 'Henry' puts me off. Is the birth date correct? Do you know how many documents I looked at each day? I almost certainly didn't originate it. I would have released it. The document contained this stamp: "See Sanitized File A, Number 3, For Sterile copy of this document." No date was affixed to the stamp, which meant it originated when the document did. Thomas B. Ross and David Wise reported that when John McCone became the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in 1962 he instructed "the Plans Division to keep the Intelligence Division [Counter-Intelligence] posted on all its activities. Thereafter, the Intelligence Division received 'Sanitized' reports (names of agents removed) on all current operations." [Ross & Wise Inv. Gov. p239] John Caldwell King, Chief of the Western Hemisphere Division was the Authenticating Officer. Colonel J.C. King was stationed in Argentina from 1941 to 1945 and in Guatemala from 1952 to 1953 where he worked closely with HOWARD HUNT and DAVID PHILLIPS on OPERATION PBSUCCESS, the overthrow of the Arbenz Government. In December 1956, J.C. King met with HUNT in Cuba. During this meeting, J.C. King stated that Fidel Castro had been heavily involved in Bogotazo riots. On December 11, 1959, Colonel J. C. King wrote a memorandum to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Allen Dulles, which observed that the far left dictatorship which existed in Cuba would, if permitted to stand, encourage undesirable actions against United States holdings in other Latin American countries. One of J. C. King's four recommended actions was that: "Thorough consideration be given to the elimination of Fidel Castro...Many informed people believe that the disappearance of Fidel would greatly accelerate the fall of the present government." Richard Bissell told the SSCIA that he discussed with J. C. King

using syndicate members in a Fidel Castro assassination attempt. [SSCIA, Alleged Ass. Plots Inv. For. Lead. 11.20.75 p93] Five days after the explosion aboard La Coubre, a Western Hemisphere-4 meeting, headed by CIA Colonel J. C. King, took place to execute the Operation Pluto plan of covert actions against Cuba signed by President Eisenhower. Colonel King was in contact with Rolando Masferrer Rojas, one of the counterrevolutionary leaders in Miami and an old henchman of the Batista dictatorship. Through a U.S. mine engineer, Masferrer informed King in advance of the arrival of arms shipments to Cuba and the ports at which they were to dock. J. C. King was Chief of the Western Hemisphere Division of the CIA during the Bay of Pigs. HUNT reported that J. C. King was the "general factotum" of the Green Committee, a Bay of Pigs fact-finding body comprising United States Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Allen Dulles and retired General Maxwell Taylor. HUNT wrote that its "unannounced aim became clear: to whitewash the New Frontier by heaping guilt on CIA." [HUNT Day p213] STURGIS knew Colonel J. C. King and reported "he was the top man for the Bay of Pigs Brigade in Central America." [] HEMMING told this researcher: If OSWALD was used for a task in the Soviet Union and Hood knew about it, along with a group of other people within his own office, would he call attention to himself by looking into OSWALD? Fuck, no. If you are a cohort, and you're involved in dirty business, are you going to build a file that's traceable to you? He's a defector. He goes to a communist embassy in a foreign country. Of course they're going to be interested in him. How many turkeys like this you think were floating around? ANGLETON had a heavy fucking responsibility in this.

ORIGIN. CHARLOTTE BUSTOS [Elsie Scaleti]:jpm. UNIT: Western Hemisphere/3/Mexico EXT: 5940 DATE: October 10, 1963 CONF. Western Hemisphere 8 INFO: CI, CI/OPS, CI/SI, FI, SR 7, RF, VR... 1. On October 1, 1963, a reliable and sensitive source in Mexico reported that an American male, who identified himself as LEE OSWALD, contacted the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City...

This document contained the description of the wrong man seen entering the Soviet Embassy, along with the information that OSWALD was a defector but did not mention that he had contact with KGB Agent Valeriy Kostikov. The document was signed Jane Roman CI/SIG/ Ann Egerter (in draft) [Counter-Intelligence Special Investigation Group - ANGETON] L. N. GALLARY CI/Liaison SR/CI/Roll (in draft) [Stephan Roll, Angleton’s CI liaison to the SR (Soviet Russia) division] C/WH/R [Chief/Western Hemisphere/Russia] Releasing Officer. Coordinating Officer Authenticating Officer What government agency was xxxxx’d out in this document? Could it have been the Secret Service? When the Department of State received its copy, it sent copies to its Department of Security and Consular Affairs, Passport Office, Soviet Department, American Republics Research and Analysis Office, the First Consul and Ambassador at the American Embassy, Mexico City, and to Intelligence and Research. [DOS ltr. Abrams/Cheyes 1.17.64 rel. 5.25.76] When the FBI, Mexico City, received its copy on October 18, 1963, it increased its interest in OSWALD. The Dallas FBI was notified about OSWALD'S visit, and was ordered to notify William C. Sullivan, of the CounterEspionage Section of the FBI, if OSWALD'S name came up in any context. FBI Mexico City Legal Attaché Clark Anderson arranged with the CIA to follow up on this cable and to verify OSWALD'S entry into Mexico. The FBI was more interested in OSWALD than the CIA was. The CIA explained: Our Mexico City Station very often produces information on U.S. citizens contacting Soviet bloc embassies in Mexico City. Frequently the information we get is extremely incriminating, and on one or two occasions we have been able to apprehend and return to the U.S.A. American military personnel attempting to defect. In all such cases, our Headquarters desk requests and obtains the special permission of the Deputy Director for Plans to pass the derogatory information on a U.S. citizen to other government agencies. Derogatory information on Americans is not treated routinely; in each case the DDP or his Assistant personally scrutinize the information, make sure it is credible, and decide whether and to whom it will be passed. Only in absolute emergencies is the Mexico City Station authorized to pass such information directly to the FBI office in the U.S. Embassy...To avoid crossing lines with the FBI, our Mexico Station undertook no local investigation of its own. As we now know, OSWALD left Mexico on October 3, 1963, and was no longer there when our report was put out. (Deleted as of 2010). November 22, 1963. When word of the shooting reached our operating divisions and staffs on the afternoon of Friday November 22, 1963, transistor radios were turned on everywhere to follow the tragedy. When the name of LEE OSWALD was heard, the effect was electric. A phone message from the FBI came at about the same time, naming OSWALD as the possible assassin and

asking for traces. The message was passed on at once by the Chief CI, Mr. ANGLETON, to Mr. Birch O'Neal of his Special Investigations Unit. Ann Egerter of this unit immediately recognized the name of LEE OSWALD and went for his file. At the same time, Mrs. Bustos [Barbara Manell] of the Mexico Desk, who had written our first report on OSWALD on October 19, 1963, recognized the name from radio reports and went after the same file. Mr. Reichhardt Mexico Desk Chief, who was home on leave, heard the news and phoned in a reminder that we had something on OSWALD. The Secret Service was not sent a copy of this report, although OSWALD had been in contact with KGB Agent Valeriy Kostikov, a KGB assassin. In fact the name Kostikov or the initials KGB were nowhere to be seen. Did ANGLETON make sure this information was not given to the United States Secret Service so that OSWALD could play his part in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy undisturbed by that Agency? Although not listed as recipient on the cable, the CIA claimed the United States Secret Service received the information electronically, and it was "printed out in their communications section." The Warren Report stated: "No information concerning LEE HARVEY OSWALD appeared in Protective Research Service files prior to the President's trip to Dallas." [ltr. 8.18.77 Gene Wilson/CIA/A J WEBERMAN with enc. R162612Z 10.11.63; WR p433]

On October 15, 1963, CIA Station/Mexico City sent a telex to the DD/Plans: "Action Western Hemisphere 8 INFO: ADDP, CI, CI/OPS, CI/SP, FI, SR 7, RF, VR. Please Pouch Photo of OSWALD. Secret Chief of Station. Comment by Winston Scott: Attempts Of LEE OSWALD And Wife To Reenter U.S." [CIA 8-4] What? No mention of KGB contact? The cable should have read “LEE HARVEY OSWALDCIA Station/Mexico City received no response. [D:200-5-41 Mexi 6534 October 15, 1963] It was too late for the CIA. OSWALD was long gone by the time Winston Scott requested his photo.

CIA HEADQUARTERS: NO PHOTOGRAPH OF OSWALD On October 24, 1963, the CIA cabled the Navy and requested a photograph of OSWALD: Routing: (illegible). October 24, 1963. Origin: T. Ward:dd in Unit WH/3 Mexico Unit: Western Hemisphere/3/Mexico Ext: 5940; Date: October 23, 1963 To: Department Of Navy From: CIA No Index X File in CS file 201-289248 CONF: Western Hemisphere 8; INFO: CI, CI/OPS, SR 7, RF, VR

Reference is made to CIA out teletype number 74673, dated October 10, 1963 regarding possible presence of Subject in Mexico City. It is requested that you forward to this office as soon as possible two copies of the most recent photograph you have of Subject. We will forward them to our representative in Mexico who will attempt to determine if the LEE OSWALD in Mexico City and subject are the same individual. END OF MESSAGE CI/OPS/Western Hemisphere (typed in HUGHES) (in draft) SR/CI/A (draft) (Stephan Roll, Angleton’s CI liaison to the Soviet Russia division); Acting Chief /Western Hemisphere /3/ Mexico (Bernard E. Reichardt) Jane Roman CI/Liaison L. N. Gallary Chief / Western Hemisphere / Research Authenticating Officer. Document # 104-10015-10049 is a one page CIA report dated October 24, 1963. It is from the CIA to the Department of the Navy. The subject is Lee Henry Oswald. On October 25, 1963, this highly deleted dispatch was sent:

DISPATCH SECRET / RYBAT CHIEF WH DIVISION FROM: CHIEF OF STATION, MEXICO CITY SUBJECT: ZRTAFFY "Deleted" Please transmit the attached envelope to Mr. Fletcher M. Knignt only. Willard C. Curtis Attachment sent DDP by C/WH Attachment: Envelope Distribution 3 WH w/attention Chron 15027 Dispatch Symbol and Number HMMA-22390 HQS File Number 201-(deleted) Date October 25. October 30, 1963 The CIA had OSWALD'S photograph in CIA file #593-252C, an article from the Washington Post dated November 16, 1959. When the CIA first released this article, the Xerox was done so that OSWALD'S picture was not visible. In November 1992 he became visible. William Stuckey obtained this article. [CIA 8-4] The CIA could have obtained a glossy photograph from The Washington Post. Because the CIA did not

locate this article, OSWALD'S photograph was never sent to the Embassy, and it could not be compared to the surveillance photographs. The investigation of OSWALD by the Mexico City Station of the CIA was stalled. Had it received a photograph, it would have been obvious that of the men photographed entering the Embassy, none of them was OSWALD, and the investigation could have progressed. Did Jane Roman go to ANGLETON for this photograph?

A Memorandum for the Ambassador drafted by Winston Scott on October 16, 1963, titled "LEE OSWALD/Contact with the Soviet Embassy" began: The following information was received from a usually reliable and extremely sensitive source. On October 1, 1963, an American male contacted the Soviet Embassy and identified himself as LEE HARVEY OSWALD. This Officer determined that OSWALD had been at the Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963, and had talked with Valeriy Kostikov, a member of the Consular Section, in order to learn if the Soviet Embassy had received a reply from Washington concerning his request. We have no clarifying information with regard to this request. Copies of this memorandum were also sent to "The Minister; Counselor for Political Affairs; Regional Security Officer; Legal Attache; Naval Attaché; Liaison with Legal Attaché; Liaison with Naval Attaché; Immigration and Naturalization Service, LEE HENRY OSWALD P-." (P- was an OSWALD Embassy file - P8593). Copies were sent to “a CIA file number.” On Friday, September 27, 1963, and on Saturday, September 28, 1963, OSWALD talked over a tapped telephone line. Sylvia Duran made several references to OSWALD over another tapped line. She furnished descriptive data on him. The CIA claimed that it could not associate the OSWALD who spoke to Ivan Obyedkov on October 1, 1963, with the North American who had been picked up on telephone taps of the Soviet Embassy and the Soviet Military Attaché, asking for a visa. The CIA also claimed it did not associate OSWALD with the North American Sylvia Duran referred to when she spoke with the Soviets. In 1977 Sylvia Duran was asked if she said "LEE HARVEY OSWALD," rather than "North American," when she spoke to the Soviets. She said she supposed that she used the name "OSWALD." The transcripts revealed that she did not. The HSCA: The Agency maintained that prior to the assassination, its field sources [the Tarasoffs] had not actually linked OSWALD to the person who visited the Cuban Consulate in October 1963. Testimony obtained directly from these sources, however, established that this connection had in fact been made in early October 1963, [CIA Station, Mexico City] however, was not informed about OSWALD'S visa request, nor of his visits to the Cuban Consulate. PHILLIPS In PHILLIPS' autobiography, Nightwatch he wrote that the CIA was aware of OSWALD'S request for a Soviet visa: The circumstances were such, LEE HARVEY OSWALD wished to return to the Soviet Union via Cuba, that a cable to Headquarters asking for a Washington file check was in order." In his deposition during HUNT v.

WEBERMAN, PHILLIPS stated, "We became aware in the CIA office about his visit to the Cuban Embassy some -- almost immediately after the assassination occurred. It was because information concerning that visit was in the system, and was retrieved almost immediately. PHILLIP'S had two different stories about when the CIA first became aware OSWALD want a Soviet visa. PHILLIP'S made certain that the investigation of OSWALD by the CIA in Mexico City was deliberately slowed down by having GOODPASTURE slow down and minimize the information about the call wherein the name OSWALD was mentioned then he blamed it on "Craig's wife." The translators told the HSCA that they knew that the man who was discussed over the Cuban and Soviet telephone line was the same man who called the Soviet Embassy in regard to an unspecified request, using the name OSWALD. The translators put two and two together, but that was as far as it went. Their information was suppressed and some of their transcripts were destroyed. NO PHOTOGRAPHS OF OSWALD AT THE CUBAN CONSULATE The CIA had an elaborate system of surveillance focused on the Cuban Consulate. Why didn't OSWALD turn up on CIA photographic surveillance of the Cuban Consulate, which was located in the same building as the Cuban Embassy? OSWALD had gone there three times. NO PHOTOS: FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1963 OSWALD visited the Cuban Consulate on Friday, September 27, 1963. OSWALD came to Mexico City on the last day the CIA's cameras were down. Former CIA Director Admiral Stansfield Turner told the HSCA: There was no pulse camera opposite the entrance to the Cuban Consulate until December 1963. Your investigators have seen the documentation recording this fact. In fact, there had been no photographic coverage of the Consulate entrance prior to the visit of LEE HARVEY OSWALD to Mexico City. The documentation for this statement has been made available to investigators. The Cuban Consulate entrance had been closed for some time [as the result of a CIA stench device operation in 1961] and after it was reopened, Friday, September 27, 1963, was scheduled as the day for installation of photographic equipment for its coverage. Difficulty was encountered in its installation, and technicians had to machine a part for the equipment. Your investigators have seen the documentation on which these statements are based. The technicians probably had to return to their shop to make the part in question. On that date, or at some date not long afterwards, there was test photography of the entrance; that photography has been reviewed by your investigators. They also have seen documentation stating the photographic coverage of the Consulate did not commence until sometime in October. Various

difficulties were experience with the equipment, which seems to have been resolved by installation of the pulse camera in December 1963. A CIA report indicated that the coverage was not perfected until mid-November 1963. During the first two weeks of operation, the VLS-2 would trigger traffic entering and leaving the target entrance. Concerned with the necessity of reloading the camera twice daily, LIFEUD/22 devised a system whereby the VLS-2 would only photograph people leaving, but not entering the target building. LIFEUD/22's system works about 80% of the time, cutting film consumption considerably...The Robot Star camera which was given to LIFEUD/22 with the VLS-2 broke down after four days of photographing. PARMUTH replaced this with another Robot. Five days later, the second camera failed to advance properly. In both cases the spring would not advance the film for more than 15 exposures at a full winding...It is requested that a substitute camera be shipped to the Station as soon as possible to replace the Robot Star camera on this project...Willard C. Curtis. [Winston Scott CIA FOIA 02815 11.7.63] Another of these visits was on a Saturday, September 28, 1963, when the CIA had no coverage. A CIA document stated: "Note only visit we know he made was Cuban Embassy Saturday, September 28, 1963, on which Embassy was closed and we have not had coverage. In future will require at least half day photographic coverage both Soviet and Cuban Embassies. [CIA 59-23] The CIA's cameras that were focused on the Cuban Embassy and Cuban Consulate were positioned in a vacant apartment across the street. The CIA: "The Cuban Embassy coverage had more sophisticated equipment, using an impulse camera which frequently developed mechanical difficulties. [This device was not installed until December 1963.] (Deleted as of 2010) (I think) handled this film - pick up and delivery. Lorna MacKay screened the film inside the station." A CIA document dated February 10, 1977 stated: SOURCE: Notes made by Ann Goodpasture for John Leader, IG Staff SUBJECT: Background on Mexico Station Support Assets (Coverage of Soviet and Cuban Embassies) 1. (Deleted) Coverage: From the time the Mexico Station was opened (deleted) arrival of Mr. Winston Scott, Chief of Station (deleted) (still in LA/HQ) had had developed a support apparatus to exploit leads from the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. This umbrella type project (LIPSTICK) consisted of multiline phone taps, three photographic sites, a mobile surveillance team, and a mail intercept operation. Telephone taps (LIFEAT) were placed by (Deleted) handled by a Station case officer. The number of lines tapped

was limited only by the availability of a listening post nearby and the availability of language (English, Spanish, Soviet, Polish, Czech etc.) Generally these were Mexican or Mexican-Americans recruited agents who were related (which the Station at that time felt was good security in that if they talked shop, they would talk to each other.) Three photographic sites were handled by a Station case officer, assisted by TSD technicians on TDY from Headquarters, who advised the stations on the best types of cameras, films, and concealment devices. The operations had sub-crypts under project LIPSTICK namely LIMITED, LILYRIC and LICALLA). LIMITED was a fixed site bang opposite the Soviet Embassy (across the street) which had both a vehicle and pedestrian entrance. The gate to the Soviet Embassy was on the northwest corner of the Soviet compound and the LIMITED site was diagonally across double laned street on the southeast corner of that block. (See attached diagram). LIMITED was the first photo base, and operated strictly on an experimental basis in the early stages. I think the Station bought this property (a one story Spanish Colonial stone house) through LIMOUSINE (check to be sure). Later, this house began to fall apart. This base, however, was closed when the Station received word that the photograph of the "unidentified man" was being released by the Warren Commission. The photo operators were moved to another apartment nearby. The property was sold (under an operational agreement with LIMOUSINE for a long term lease on the top floor of a new apartment building to be built on this site). LILYRIC was planned as an alternative photographic base. It was located in an upper apartment building on the same side of the street as the LIMITED site but in the middle of the block south. It had a slanted view of the front gate of the Soviet Embassy. The agents in LIMITED and LLYRIC and LICALLA as far as we knew, were not acquainted with each other. LLYRIC was a rented apartment. LICALLA the third photographic site, was located in one of a row of four houses on the south side of the Soviet Embassy compound. The site overlooked the back garden of the Soviet Embassy compound. The purpose of this operation was to get good identification photographs of Soviet personnel (who at the time were largely unidentified in Mexico Station records). The three photographic sites were managed by a recruited agent who was a Mexican citizen, the son of an American mother, and Mexican father (deceased). This agent collected the film from the LIMITED and LILYRIC sites three times a week. The film was then developed and printed into 9 X 10 contact sheets contact print strips by his sister's husband. The master plan was for LICALLA film to be processed inside Station, but TSD man from 1957 to 1959 resigned, could not handle the volume, and as the unprocessed film began to accumulate, the inside CO Mahoney became disgusted and took the film out for (Deleted's) brother-in-law to process probably early 1959. This (Deleted) became the handler for all three photo bases. A sensitive Staff D monitoring operation

was run out of another of these houses (crypt for the four house was LIMOST-1 etc). This was handled by Glenn Widden (outside TSD officer) and Mahoney using HQ TDY teams for monitoring. This operation was also separate from LICALLA. The two houses in between were rented to unsuspecting tenants. Mobile surveillance was developed by Anderson and later placed under Mahoney and Joseph Sancho. These two officers organized a surveillance team of six recruited agents which used late model cars and a panel truck for surveillance. The team could be activated by radio from the LIMITED site whenever someone of interest left the gate of the Soviet Embassy. They would stay with them until they made their meetings. These agents were aware of the LIMITED site since they had been issued LIMITED photographs for identification purposes. This worked fairly well until about the middle of 1958, when one of the surveillance agents got too close to his target and was arrested by Mexican transit police and turned over to the Mexican Secret Service. By the time the Station could arrange a cleared attorney and bail him out the agent had identified Sancho, (who was evacuated across the border at Nogales by Bob Shaw) and the inside phone number of Maloney (who was subsequently replaced by Louis Puckett. As a result of this flap, the LIFFAT project was broken up into several others. The agents were not changed, but given new crypts. (Deleted) and (Deleted) replaced Anderson in handling the (deleted phone) taps. Puckett replaced Mahoney and handled the surveillance team LIENTRAP and the photo bases through (Pages Deleted). The Station also conducted a mail operation, LIBRIGHT which was handled by an American case officer, Charlie Anderson III. (Deleted) obtained selected letters from a subagent. 2. (Deleted) Coverage: (Deleted) was unreliable and insecure as characterized by the nature of the Mexican Services at that time. The Mexican Direction of Federal Security (DFS) (Deleted) was a hip-pocket group run out of the Mexican Ministry of Government. This Ministry was principally occupied with political investigations and control of foreigners. Their agents were brutal and corrupt. (Deleted) 3. OSWALD Coverage The base house listening post had a live monitor who made short summaries of conversations of interest which were then included in a daily resume to the Chief of Station which was received each day around 8:00 a.m. passed by (Deleted) to Goodpasture to get to Scott before 9:00 a.m. Later, when a reel was completely recorded full transcripts were typed and

passed to the Station, however, there was usually a lag of a day or two. Reels which contained Russian or a language other than Spanish or English were taken to another location for translation and typing. Boris did the Russian translation but because of the volume or Russian conversations, the translations usually ran about a week behind the date of the conversation. During this period (fall of 1963) the reels were probably being brought into the station and carried to Boris by one of the people from the Soviet Section or they may have been carried to him by (Deleted) but I think I brought the reel in and gave it to (Deleted) to take to Boris. (Deleted) handled all the processing of Soviet transcripts. Goodpasture's job involved screening the photographs as soon as we learned that the man calling himself OSWALD was probably an American. However, here again, there was a backlog because the photographs were picked-up three times a week, but those picked up were usually for dates a few days before, since the technician who was processing the film did so on a night-time basis. Further, photographs were not made initially until a complete roll of film was used. Later, this was changed, and the operator cleared the camera each day. The instructions were to cover the entire work day (office hours 10:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. 2:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. weekdays) and to photograph all Soviets, their families, all foreigners, and cars with foreign license plates. Human error did occur, but generally the agents were conscientious. The Cuban Embassy coverage had more sophisticated equipment using a pulse camera which frequently developed mechanical difficulties. (Deleted as of 2010) (I think) handled this film pick up and delivery. Lorna MacKay screened the film inside the station. OSWALD came to the attention of the listening post operators from a tap on the Soviet line. It was picked-up and taken to Tarasoff for translation because the caller was trying to speak in Russian. There was some delay, because Station personnel waited to compare the photographs with the typed transcript. All transcripts were made in either Spanish or English, since the Chief of Station could only read these two languages, and because he personally screened the transcripts for operational leads. My memory is a little vague about the origins of the Cuban Embassy, but I think the staff first developed from a pro-Castro group celebrating on New Years eve 1959. As I recall, it was a makeshift arrangement of volunteers through most of 1960 and 1961 with Tom Hazlitt producing voluminous reports on their activities and recruiting agents right and left among Cuban Nationals in Mexico City. Personnel assignments: Of interest to us now is who was in Mexico during the period prior to OSWALD'S visit, and the subsequent investigation by the Warren Commission. To determine who was there, and what they were doing, I have grouped persons together chronologically with areas of their assignment (Deleted) so that as the name pops up, one can tell what

period they were in Mexico and what their assignments were at the time. (Deleted) COS Winston Scott (deceased) DCOS (Deleted) Covert Action (Deleted) Cuban Operations (Deleted) Soviet Target (Deleted) Soviet Transcribers (Deleted) Support Assets (Deleted) [This was a combination of two highly deleted documents]. ^ The Cubans knew of this operation in 1963, but were powerless to do anything about it, since the project had Mexican Police approval. [CIA Cuba Accuses Havana 1978] PHILLIPS stated: "I know there are a lot of stories about photographs of OSWALD taken in Mexico City. None were taken. The cameras were not working that day." In a deposition PHILLIPS repeated: "There were no photographs taken by the CIA of OSWALD, as far as I know, or by anybody else during his visit to Mexico." OSWALD was told to go to Mexico City Cuban Consulate at a time when the old surveillance system was being replaced by a new surveillance system. He was told this by DAVID PHILLIPS who, as the man in charge of Cuban Operations, was in charge of putting it in place. NO PHOTOGRAPHS OF OSWALD AT THE SOVIET EMBASSY OSWALD visited the Soviet Embassy at least twice. The CIA: Of the photographic coverage of the entrance to the Soviet Embassy, the Agency has been able to locate the photography of only one of the two cameras involved. It is believed this is all that exists. The last picture taken by that one camera on Friday, September 27, 1963, was at 11:46 a.m. OSWALD did not appear in the day's photography, so it is safe to say he did not go there prior to that time. OSWALD returned to the Soviet Embassy on Saturday, another day that there was no coverage. DAVID PHILLIPS said he had studied the photographs: "John and I spent several days studying literally hundreds of photographs available to the CIA before, and during, OSWALD'S trip to Mexico City." Asked about accusations that the pictures had been destroyed PHILLIPS answered, "Absolutely untrue. I was there and I know." On September 30, 1980, PHILLIPS was deposed in HUNT v. WEBERMAN: Q. OSWALD had a conversation on October 1, 1963 with Soviet guard Ivan Obyedkov. A. Counselor, since I retired from the CIA five years ago, I have been a professional writer. I have had three books published by major firms. Based on that experience I have the eerie sensation that these questions are aimed at producing some sort of manuscript, rather than court records.

What possible reason is there in this case to ask me, a CIA agent who's already made it obvious that I am not going to violate my secrecy oath, to describe what happened at the Soviet Embassy? Q. My concern is to establish truth as a defense to the libel action and the slander action. A. Well, perhaps we can save a little time. I do want to make a general statement because, apparently, of what you are leading to. One, I am absolutely convinced that LEE HARVEY OSWALD had no connection with the CIA. If HOWARD HUNT ever met LEE HARVEY OSWALD, I certainly never knew about it. Judging from what I know about being in Mexico City at the time, during the time period we are talking about, both the Soviets and the Cubans thought that LEE HARVEY OSWALD was some sort of kook and sent him back to Dallas alone. And during that period -- right now, there's been so much about perhaps the CIA was behind the assassination. I would like to say to you, ah-ha. I would love to prove Castro was behind it or the Soviets. I can't. LEE HARVEY OSWALD to my knowledge had no connection with the CIA, no connection with HOWARD HUNT. And finally, addressing another thing, a moment ago Mr. Weberman mentioned a statement by Mr. Tad Szulc. Tad Szulc is a widely known journalist. He made a statement, I believe it was in the book about HOWARD HUNT, in which he said that HOWARD HUNT was Acting Chief of Station in Mexico City in the 1963 area. I am convinced that Mr. Szulc making that statement was in error. Q. All right. Do you know whether or not Mr. OSWALD ever offered any information to the Soviets in exchange for a visa and whether or not he identified himself during the various calls by name or just said "It's me" expecting them to know who he was? A. I'm aware of various things that had been printed in the newspapers, including the story printed about me which incorrectly said that I destroyed various matters and so forth. I'm aware of those stories. But I'm afraid we are right back to the business that I will get in the same kind of trouble that I have gotten into in the past if I try to go into facts any further. There were no pictures of OSWALD, because PHILLIPS and HUNT had instructed him to enter the Soviet Embassy and Cuban Consulate at a time there was no photographic coverage. Evidence of this was presented in Nodule 16.

D. E. BOSTER AND PHILLIPS PHILLIPS: "None of the CIA Mexico City personnel knew anything about LEE HARVEY OSWALD." There was, however, someone at the Embassy who did. D. E. Boster was stationed at the American Embassy, Mexico City, in October 1963. Boster became a political officer there in September 1962. In June 1993 D. E. Boster stated, PHILLIPS was in the Embassy in Mexico City when I was there. We knew each other, but we didn't know each other well. I was in the Foreign Service, not the CIA. I don't know who PHILLIPS consulted about OSWALD. I mean, I was never consulted. I was never aware of any... PHILLIPS refused to answer any questions regarding D. E. Boster. CLARK ANDERSON FBI Legal Attaché Clark Anderson worked in the American Embassy, Mexico City, at the time HUNT worked there. Clark Anderson told this researcher he was assigned to Mexico City from 1948 through 1958 and …during that period of time I have no recollection of HUNT. It wouldn't be unusual. They had their operation, we had ours. I did know DAVID PHILLIPS. PHILLIPS described Clark Anderson as "the senior FBI station man in Mexico...the CIA and FBI in Mexico worked together over many years." Clark Anderson conducted the investigation of OSWALD'S activities in Mexico City for the Warren Commission. He wanted J. Edgar Hoover to send him three agents who would help him bring the Kennedy investigation matter to its "logical end" - two veterans of the Mexico City Field Office, and Dallas FBI S.A. Wallace Heitman. Clark Anderson believed "there was more to this matter than simply a 'nut' shooting the President." [FBI DL 89-43-103] J. Edgar Hoover never sent these particular agents, although Wallace Heitman did conduct 12 interviews concerning the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. PHILLIPS, and an associate he called "John," helped Clark Anderson conduct his investigation of OSWALD'S activities in Mexico City. During HUNT v. WEBERMAN PHILLIPS was asked: Q. Clark Anderson was the FBI investigator down in the Mexico City area after November 1963. Were you aware of his investigation in Mexico City? A. I was aware that Mr. Clark Anderson was chief of the FBI. He was not an investigator. He was the senior FBI station in Mexico. Q. Did he ever request any assistance of you on working on the investigation in that area at that time?

A. The CIA and FBI in Mexico worked together over many, many years. The FBI consulted with PHILLIPS who described the CIA's surveillance operation as a "plant." [Legat Mexico City 105-3702 3.6.64 - NARA FBI 124-10162-10023] THE DEATH OF WINSTON SCOTT

During a telephone conversation in 1993 with this researcher Ambassador Thomas Mann stated: I never saw the CIA's incoming and outgoing messages, and I don't even know what - who killed Winston Scott or why? He died in his own backyard. It was a very mysterious death. Thomas C. Mann had been Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs during the early stages of Bay of Pigs. He pondered the legality of the invasion, finally concluding it was justified because Cuba was a Soviet satellite. Dick Russell reported: It was on a late weekend night, and, the way family members recall it, Scott had gone outside alone and climbed up the gangplank to get a better look at a new brick wall that was being built in his backyard. His tumble into the rose bushes seemed more embarrassing to him than anything else. He went to bed, awoke in some pain with bruises and cuts, then experienced trouble breathing at breakfast. He was taken to the hospital where a doctor found nothing seriously wrong and sent him home. On April 26, 1971, as he was preparing to go to his office, his wife, Janet, found Scott slumped over a chair at his breakfast table. No autopsy was performed, and a postmortem suggested he had apparently suffered a blood clot to his heart during the fall." [Russell, Man Who Knew Too Much p460] ANGLETON ANGLETON flew to Mexico City to attend the funeral of Winston Scott. According to the family of Winston Scott, ANGLETON was interested obtaining all of Winston Scott's papers. Scott Breckinridge wrote:

MEMO FOR FILE SUBJECT: Win Scott MSS 1. Ben Evans spoke with Colonel White (White phoned him) yesterday. After finishing their discussion Ben asked White what he recalled about Scott's diary/mss. 2. White says that Readers Digest had a copy, which led to our interest. Mr. ANGLETON went to Mexico City and got the manuscript. It was a lousy thing, filled with Scott's sex life and operations, and someone 'deepsixed' it. I didn't get out of this whether that meant it was destroyed, although it seems this is what happened. Ben spoke with George Lauder (DC/LA) who confirmed this outline. Ben felt that someone had been doing work on it, and he told Lauder of my interest. SDB WINSTON SCOTT'S MANUSCRIPT Raymond M. Reardon located the manuscript in the possession of the CI Staff: "Since the CI Staff is the office of record in regard to the Kennedy assassination material, they are in the best position to comment on the factual errors in Mr. Scott's account of OSWALD'S activities in Mexico City." Reardon was afraid that Readers Digest had obtained a copy of the manuscript through Scott's friend, John Barron, and was going to publish it. [NARA 1993.07.21.17:02:09:060280] Winston Scott's manuscript differed from the CIA's version of events. Winston Scott wrote: I learned something of LEE HARVEY OSWALD in the period from Friday, September 27, 1963, when LEE HARVEY OSWALD, having just arrived in Mexico City, made his first contact with the Soviet Embassy in Mexico. He said that he wanted to go to the Crimea. In fact, LEE HARVEY OSWALD became a person of great interest to us during his September 27, 1963, to October 1, 1963, period. He contacted the Soviet Embassy on at least four occasions and one once went directly from the office of Sylvia Duran. Because we thought at first that LEE HARVEY OSWALD might be a dangerous potential defector from the U.S.A. to the Soviet Union, he was of great interest to us, so we kept a special watch on him and his activities. He was observed on all his visits to each of the two communist embassies, and his conversations with personnel of these embassies were studied in detail, so far as we knew them. OSWALD told a highranking officer of the Soviet Embassy that that officer should have had word from the Soviet Embassy in Washington about his visit and its purpose, after he had spelled out his full name, slowly and carefully, for this Soviet. He gave them his name very slowly and carefully and saying

the Soviet Embassy in Mexico should have received word from the Soviet Embassy in Washington that he (OSWALD) would contact them about a visa for himself, his wife, who he said was a Soviet citizen and their child....He further told this Soviet that he should know that OSWALD, his wife and child wanted to go to the Crimea urgently and he (OSWALD) had learned that he would have to go by way of Cuba. OSWALD was then directed to the Cuban Embassy by the Soviet, who told OSWALD he would need a Cuban transit visa. These visits are no hearsay; for persons watching these embassies photographed OSWALD as he entered and left each one; and clocked the time he spent on each visit. The conversations are also known to have taken place, including the one in which he told the Soviet to whom he was talking that he should have heard, received a message, from the Soviet Embassy in Washington indicating obviously that a Soviet Embassy official in Washington had offered to help OSWALD...OSWALD'S visits at both the Communist Cuban Embassy and the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City are, together with what is known of what took place during these visits, sufficient to make him a suspect agent, acting on behalf of the Soviets, in several things, including the assassination of Kennedy. When one studies the conversations OSWALD is known to have had with officials of both these communist embassies, it is evident that there are sufficient data for this suspicion... [Leader IG Staff to Reardon OS 12.21.70; NARA 1993.07.21.19:54:08:930590] ANGLETON knew that OSWALD had been instructed by PHILLIPS and HUNT in regard to CIA surveillance, and how to avoid it, and that OSWALD did not show up on the CIA's cameras. ANGLETON knew that Scott was lying. Dick Russell believed Winston Scott possessed tapes of the Cuban Consulate and Soviet Embassy telephone taps during the period OSWALD telephoned. The CIA CI Staff commented: "OSWALD identified himself only as LEE OSWALD and did not spell out his name. NB: The only explanation is that the transcript is not literal but only a summary." Scott said that OSWALD wanted to go to the Crimea. This referred to the Odessa phone call that the CIA said was not linked to OSWALD. SCOTT was about to inadvertently double-cross ANGLETON when he suddenly died. WINSTON SCOTT’S MISSING MANUSCRIPT Winston Scott died in April 1971. His widow discussed his death with the CIA Station in Mexico City: (2 - Deleted) turned to planned Scott trip to see Director of which she aware and covered chief parts of manuscript of which she aware but which she said she had not seen. She told ANGLETON on April 29, 1971, that she and others have heard much talk of manuscript from Scott. For example, Burnell Goodrich claims to have read one chapter. She thinks (Deleted) may have helped with (5 - Deleted) parts. This discussion of manuscript by Scott, although not clear who all may have read it, means it

is well known and, according to her, looked for with some anticipation by friends in his U.S. circle here. (2 - Deleted) advised her against reading manuscript, as it discusses in open way intimate matters of previous marriage. Importantly (2 - Deleted) pointed out, information therein would violate two different secrecy agreements (Deleted and U.S.) as well as doing great damage to our relationships with other governments. The information is, as it were, U.S. Government property and (2 - Deleted) said that the publication would dismay Scotts' friends and harm his reputation and memory. She seemed appalled at the idea of publishing manuscript, saying that she realized when Scott told her of visit to Director that something was wrong. She also asked (2 - Deleted) about Scott’s motivation in this. In discussion of these and other papers she agreed (although it then seemed to ANGLETON somewhat hesitant) to cooperate with ANGLETON on getting Agency papers from Curtis' belongings. (2 Deleted) will remember Barron statement late night of April 28, 1971, that he would forget the manuscript, taking no steps to go forward with publication...With her efficient cooperation ANGLETON spent several hours going through safes and cabinets and valises in study, and loaded three large cartons and four valises with file folders and notes and memoranda of classified Station files. Also, when she and brothers at Curtis office the previous day, they had pulled out, under lawyer's eyes, number of documents which obviously classified or Agency oriented (Curtis name in pseudonym, Secret stamps and so on.)...While we shall inventory later, to at least cursory extent, importantly we got two original drafts (apparently the second and rewrite) and two carbons of manuscript. Plus there were a number of drafts, some repetitive of what appears to have been the final manuscript. She knows of no other copies extant, save what Barron may have. She says manuscript typed in final in English by woman in Mexico unknown to her, and we will trace this. Not sure we have all classified papers, and think she and lawyer will cooperate in turning over other finds. There is one locked box in safe which, when she has key, she promised to open with ANGLETON. We suspect this may contain missing tapes on (Deleted) case and 'Lesbians" which Barron spoke of to (2 - Deleted). (We have found Huey Newton and Cleaver tapes but these only tapes so far.)...Manuscript. It appears to ANGLETON that she is not even wistful about it at this point, and when she commented that Scott must have had money in mind it apparent that she did not want money that badly (although clear she quite uncertain about her financial status or future.) ANGLETON warned her that Scott’s friends may feel Agency has pulled a fast one with manuscript but that ANGLETON was prepared to weather that one...On April 30, 1971, Mrs. Scott turned over further classified papers to (Deleted) along with a small arsenal of weapons... [CIA 300115Z April 1971 Cit (Deleted) 16466] THE CIA DOCUMENTS ABOUT THE FIRST ARREST OF SYLVIA DURAN

After November 22, 1963, at the request of United States Ambassador Thomas Mann, the Mexican CIA Station cabled Headquarters: Paragraph 3. Mexi suggesting to (deleted) that Sylvia Duran...who put OSWALD on telephone from Cuban Embassy to talk to Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963, be arrested immediately by Mexican authorities and held incommunicado until she gives all details on OSWALD known to her. [CIA 56-20] This request was sent to Luis Echevarria who was on the CIA’s pad, though his private secretary (Accacer) on November 23, 1963. Copies were put in OSWALD's file at the Mexican Embassy P - 8593, in Duran's file and in Deleted's file. [CIA 64-552] In another document Mann suggested: We should immediately request Mexicans to arrest Sylvia Duran so as to eliminate possibility of her being smuggled out of Mexico or killed here. This should be done immediately and irrespective of whether Washington decides to authorize us to act along lines of other foregoing recommendations. [CIA 128-590] Thomas Mann was contacted in June 1993. He stated: "I don't know anything about that message. The Embassy had over a thousand people, and the CIA and the FBI had their own people. I never heard tapes of OSWALD nor did I see any transcriptions. I'm 80 years old." When Assistant Deputy Director / Plans, Thomas Karamessines, discovered the arrest of Sylvia Duran was imminent, he contacted Mexico City Stations (KUBARK) and told the Kubarkers to cancel it: Memo for the Record: After receipt of MEXI 7029 at about 5:15 p.m. on November 23, 1963, saying that the Mexican Federal Police arrest Sylvia Duran, Mr. Karamessines ADDP, ordered us to phone the Mexican Federal Police and tell them not to do it. We phoned as ordered, against my wishes and also wrote a flash cable which we did not then send. Mr. Scott answered and said it was too late to call off the arrest. He emphasized that the Mexicans had known of the OSWALD involvement with Sylvia Duran through the same information. He agreed with our request that the arrest be kept secret and that no information be leaked. [CIA 36-540] The unnamed CIA agent Thomas Karamessines spoke with recalled: "I told him it was too late, I could not reverse the request."

ANN EGERTER Note Written by COS: At 4:20 p.m. on November 23, 1963, [written with Roman numerals] I had a call from Scelso (Washington) asking that I not do paragraph 3. (to arrest Sylvia Duran para 36 above) I told him it was too late, I cannot rescind request. I told him, in what I hope was secure language, that he already should have received a cable in which I told them that (President) here had knowledge which made this action (against Duran) so that it could be Mexican initiative. He said 'O.K.'. (Deleted.) Note: I had return call from Echevarria (at about 3:15 p.m. on November 23, 1963) saying they wanted to get 'Mujor' and he would immediately notify me. He thanked me for info on her. Signed COS [CIA 56-20] Another CIA note regarding the arrest of Duran had this note on it in Egerter's handwriting "Echevarria said she was arrested with seven others including her husband. They were having a fiesta and Echevarria had just had a meeting with the President (Who apparently said 'Proceed' and interrogate forcefully)." [CIA 3-526]

Thomas Karamessines released a FLASH cable that read: ORIGIN: Scelso [John Moss Whitten] UNIT: C/WESTERN HEMISPHERE 3 EXT: 5613 DATE: NOVEMBER 23, 1963 TO: MEXICO CITY FROM: DIRECTOR CONF: WESTERN HEMISPHERE 8 INFO: DCI, D/DCI, DDP, ADDP, CI, CI/OPS, FI, SR7, Special Activities Staff 8, Office of Security 2, VR To: FLASH MEXI 1. Arrest of Sylvia Duran is extremely serious matter that could prejudice ODYOKE [United States] freedom of action on entire question of

PBRUMEN [Cuban] responsibility. With full regard for Mexican interests, request you insure her arrest is kept absolutely secret, that no information from her is published or leaked, that all such information is cabled to us, and that the fact of her arrest and her statements are not spread to leftist or disloyal Mexican Government circles. 2. We are trying to get more info on OSWALD from ODENVY and will advise directly through ODENVY Mexi. Thomas H. Karamessines SCELSO C/WH 3 [John Moss Whitten] ADDP RELEASING OFFICER Authenticating Officer [CIA 37-529; NARA JFK 10015-10118] Note: The definition of ODYOKE as "the United States" and PBRUMEN as "Cuban" came from earlier versions of this document in which these words were substituted for the digraphs which appeared in the 1995 release. John Scelso [John Moss Whitten] or Thomas Karamessines believed that if the Mexican Police tortured Sylvia Duran, the CIA - rather than Cuba - might have to take the blame for the Kennedy assassination. What could Sylvia Duran have known that would have hurt the right and benefited the left? Maybe OSWALD confided in her when they were having sexual intercourse? Maybe she had spied on OSWALD? When questioned by the SSCIA about this, on this author's suggestion, Thomas Karamessines "could not recall preparing the cable or his reasons for issuing such a message." [CIA 37-52911.23.63; SSCIA Hearings-V5 p25] President Echevarria promised to keep the arrest secret. [CIA 70-557] Richard Helms sent this cable to the Mexico City CIA Station:

For you private information, there distinct feeling here in all three agencies (FBI, CIA and State) that Ambassador is pushing this case too hard (see paragraph 5 of MEXI-7104 and that we could well create flap with Cubans which could have serious repercussions. Understand from Mr. Johnson that he sent State Channels telegram to Ambassador this afternoon attempting to give him better perspective on this whole problem. We hope this will be some assistance in reducing his pressures on you. [CIA 8546 11.27.63, Class. Message] Thomas C. Mann wanted the Mexican Police to inform Sylvia Duran, "her only chance for survival is to come clean with the whole return for Mexican Government protection." [CIA 128590] On November 23, 1963, the Mexican Police followed Sylvia Duran until she stopped at the home of her brother-in-law. They then arrested everyone there, including Barbara Ann Bliss, who had lived in pre-Castro Cuba for many years. Barbara Ann Bliss declared that her father, Alonzo Bliss, owned numerous Cuban sugar plantations before the revolution. Now, she lived "on $800 a month from a Washington company that administered the estate of her father" although her rent was $1,200. An Alonzo Bliss who owned valuable Washington, D.C. real estate was mentioned in a 1919 Congressional Report. Barbara admitted to the Mexican Police that "she maintains a correspondence with a Cuban who sends her information which she passes to her father." A Barbara Ann Cera, (ne Bliss); 56 died on November 21, 2002. Charles Bentley was arrested. He told the police that "He is in the process of getting a job as salesman with the Sonora Cattle Company, and that he has worked in Minneapolis as an assistant business manager. From 1954 through 1957 he served in the U.S. Marine Corps." Ruben Duran Navarro, a native of Los Angeles, was arrested. Ruben was married to Betty Serratos; he was 38 years old, and was in the process of obtaining his Mexican citizenship. Betty Serratos De Duran was a Honduran who had been residing in Mexico for ten years. She had the status of "familiar" immigrant, was 33 years old, and had taken a secretarial course in Kentucky. SYLVIA DURAN'S RE-ARREST On November 27, 1963, Sylvia Duran was re-arrested because she was expected to leave Mexico for Cuba. The CIA reported: "Second pickup which was made on Government of Mexico initiative, without prior consultation with Station or with PBSWING obviously evidence great desire Mexican authorities to be of service." [CIA 195-627] Richard Helms ordered the Mexico City Station to "insure that neither Sylvia Duran, nor Cubans get the impression that Americans are behind re-arrest. We want Mexican authorities to take responsibility for whole affair." This time, the Mexican Police questioned her about her ability to facilitate travel to Cuba. She claimed she had no such ability, since she "lacked contact with Cuba." [CIA 189-623, 177-618] The CIA prepared a set of questions for Sylvia Duran.

THE TELEPHONE INTERVIEW Sylvia Duran was told that this researcher believed that she was starting employment with the CIA around the time OSWALD visited her in the Cuban Consulate in Mexico City. She was questioned about why the CIA reacted as it did to her arrest. Sylvia Duran: That is something I do not know. The CIA can think whatever they want. This is the first time I hear that. I mean I hear a lot of nonsense, but this is the most...I mean it is completely. I was not arrested. I was holded to answer some questions. They told me it was not an arrest. Afterwards, the Cuban Government protested, I guess you could call it my arrest, and I was questioned again. I stopped working at the Cuban Consulate because my government tell me I need permission. I didn't want to apply, so I stopped work there. PHILLIPS was asked why the CIA was concerned about the arrests of Sylvia Duran. He refused to answer: "I would like to say that with this last question, you have come to a new part of this thing. Before there were these questions that bothered me so much. Now you are asking me to analyze CIA traffic written by other people." He was asked to comment on these names: "Maria Carmen Olavarri, Maria Teresa Proenza, Barbara Ann Bliss or Horacio Duran?" He responded: "Counselor, I am not going to comment on the list of names and groups." BIRCH O'NEAL On November 22, 1963, CI/SIG Staffer Birch D. O'Neal cabled the Mexico City CIA Station to find out what it had on OSWALD: "Important you review all LIENVOY tapes and transcripts since September 27, 1963, to locate all material possibly pertinent to Subject ref. Dispatch soonest by special courier, staffer if necessary, full transcripts and original tapes if available all pertinent material." [CIA 40-541] According to author Paul Hoch: "On the day of the assassination, an FBI agent from the Washington Field Office [S.A. Courtland J. Jones] interviewed Birch O'Neal for the purpose of obtaining 'any information' in the CIA files on OSWALD." [Hoch Con. Dallas & Beyond p478] Birch O'Neal replied the only documents CIA possessed were those originating with the FBI and the State Department. This was untrue. There was cable traffic from Mexico City. In July 1993 Birch D. O'Neal stated: I've been contacted by many people who write books. I took an obligation to my government with regard to information that I had years ago. I was a close contact, I worked with JAMES ANGLETON, and I refuse to take any position about what anybody writes about him in this day and age. And I feel that anyone that was engaged in these activities during the war, or any other time, has a obligation to do the same. I can't even talk about it to

my fellow employees. I have an obligation to other people that have real interests. I could die and go to hell before I will talk to anybody about it. I just don't feel anything is to be gained in our society by talking about these things and there's nothing in world wrong with JIM ANGLETON. He lived just like you do and I do. Edward Petty was asked about Birch O'Neal: "He was, in essence, the beginning of CI/SIG. He's the fellow that keeps all the secrets." In January 1964 the FBI requested that Birch O'Neal determine whether any of the listed names, addresses or telephone numbers linked to OSWALD were connected to Soviet intelligence. Birch O'Neal assigned the task to Bruce Solie of the CIA's Office of Security. Bruce Solie was an associate of ANGLETON and William Branigan. [CIA 506-213] Bruce Solie's normal job was to investigate the evidence against suspected moles as speedily as possible. ANGLETON AND PHILLIPS FILTER CIA INFO GOING TO WARREN COMMISSIOM The matter was discussed with Mr. [03] and he subsequently advised that as a result of a conference with Mr. Helms and others in which he was directed to prepare certain materials to be passed to the Warren Commission, he was quite sure it was not the desire of the Agency to make available to the Commission at least in this manner – via the FBI – sensitive information which could relate to phone taps. Mr. Papich again raised the question on December 19, 1964 and after consultation with Mr. ANGLETON and Mr. Papich that when the Bureau of facing problems of this nature in meeting the needs of the Commission, the Bureau should not pass to the Commission information from this Agency, but should refer the Commission to the Agency for additional information. [CI-SIG Memo For Record December 20, 1963]


FORMER SA HOSTY FLOGGING HIS BOOK For the most up-to-date version of this Nodule go to

HOSTY'S SEPTEMBER 10, 1963 REPORT ON OSWALD On September 10, 1963, New Orleans was made the new office of origin of the OSWALD FBI case. On September 12, 1963, the FBI in New Orleans, asked Headquarters for a characterization of Corliss Lamont. [FBI 100-10468-44 NARA FBI 124-10171-10135] On September 10, 1963, S.A. Hosty generated a report on OSWALD "Subject subscriber to The Worker while resident of Fort Worth, Texas. Subject reportedly drank to excess and beat his wife on numerous occasions. Subject presently residing and working in New Orleans, Louisiana." The two-page report of S.A. Hosty included information on OSWALD from Jesse James Garner, from Mary Bertucci of William Reilly Coffee Company, and from Mrs. Tobias. S.A. Hosty found two connections between OSWALD and the Communist Party. One was supplied by Dallas T-1 who, in September 1962, reported that OSWALD subscribed to The Worker. T-1 was a postal official. The other was Dallas confidential informant T-2, who advised on April 21, 1963, that OSWALD was in "contact with The Fair Play for Cuba Committee in New York City at which time he advised that he passed out pamphlets for The Fair Play for Cuba Committee. According to T-2, OSWALD had a plackard around his neck reading 'Hands Off Cuba Viva Fidel.'" This was followed by a four page appendix that included characterizations of The Fair Play for Cuba Committee, Corliss Lamont, Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. Evidence suggested S.A. Hosty informed Headquarters of OSWALD'S contact with the Fair Play for Cuba Committee for the first time in September 1963, rather than on June 27, 1963, when he received this information from New York City. The New York FBI Office report that stated OSWALD'S name appeared on its Fair Play for Cuba Committee mail cover was not sent to Headquarters. James Hosty claimed, "This was already known. It always goes to Headquarters. They would have a record of it. You don't know the system." DeBRUEYS INVESTIGATION OF OSWALD DeBRUEYS explained: "I contacted a number of people, including numerous antiCastro Cubans, who conceivably would be aware of OSWALD'S pro-Castro activities, and when pressed for names, I suggested I may have talked to CARLOS BRINGUIER, Frank Bartes, Arnesto Rodriguez and others." Congressman Christopher Dodd (Dem.Conn.) asked DeBRUEYS: "Did you make any effort to contact people in the New Orleans area who would have been identified with leftist tendencies, rather than the anti-Castro normally perceived rightist tendencies, in order to determine the legitimacy of his activities?" DeBRUEYS: "I probably did, but I don't recall that I did." MARINA AND RUTH TRAVEL BACK TO TEXAS On October 1, 1963, Mrs. Jesse Garner advised the FBI in New Orleans that on September 25, 1963, Mrs. Oswald and a young child left in a station wagon bearing

Texas license plate driven by same woman who brought Mrs. Oswald to New Orleans. "She said OSWALD left owing her 17 days rent." [FBI 105-1435-11 10.3.63] THE YMCA OCTOBER 3, 1963 OSWALD returned to Dallas Thursday, October 3, 1963. OSWALD did not immediately contact Marina Oswald when he returned. He checked into the YMCA on that day and remained there until Friday, October 4, 1963. He gave his address as U.S. Marine Corps, El Toro, California the same base HEMMING had been stationed at. Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission about this telephone call: Marina said that he had said that he was at the Y, staying at the Y, and had been in town a couple of days, to which she said, 'Why didn't you call right away?' in other words 'Why didn't you call right away upon getting to town?' Then he also asked whether he could come out for the weekend, and I said, yes, he could. I believe it was also said he wanted to look for work in Dallas. So then they hung up and I went grocery shopping...[When I returned LEE was at my home] which surprised me greatly because I thought he would have to take a public bus to Irving, they run very rarely if at all during the afternoon, and I thought he would have considerable difficulty getting out. I thought it would be at least supper time before he got out there. Perhaps an hour, perhaps a little less [elapsed]. [I went shopping at the grocery store about three long blocks away]. He then said that he had hitchhiked out, caught a ride with someone who brought him straight to the door, a Negro man...He said to me that he had been in Houston, and that he hadn't been able to find work there and was now going to try in Dallas.

A CIA Routing and Record Sheet dated September 24, 1963 indicated that an FBI Report dated September 10, 1963, was routed to ANGLETON subordinates Jane

Roman and Stephan Roll. A CIA Routing and Record Sheet dated October 4, 1963 indicated that an FBI Report dated September 24, 1963, was routed: FROM: RECORDS INTEGRATION DIVISION/ANALYSIS 6 TO: 1. CI/LS (Counter-Intelligence Liaison) October 4, 1963 (Initials Jane Roman) 3. SAS (Special Affairs Staff) /CI (Counter-intelligence) Horn Received October 8, 1963. Forwarded October 11, 1963. (Initials L.D. 9. SAS/CI/CONTROL October 10, 1963 (Initials CR) 10. CI/SI Received October 11, 1963 (Initials Ann Egerter) 11. CI/IC (Initials C7) 12. (Deleted). 14. Annette CI Staff 2B03. ANGLETON loyalists Roll, Egerter and Roman fronted for him and put their initials on the Routing and Record sheets when the documents were going to ANGLETON. Why were the mole-catchers interested in OSWALD? Wasn’t their job dig up moles? On Saturday, October 5, 1963, OSWALD was with Marina Oswald at the home of Ruth Paine, where he spent only part of the weekend. MRS. LOVELL PENN Mrs. Lovell Penn was a schoolteacher who thought she had seen OSWALD firing a rifle near her property shortly before the assassination. The FBI reported: Mrs. Lovell T. Penn, Belt Line Road, Cedar Hill, Texas, telephone number CY-9-4463, advised that she and her husband live on a farm located 3.7 miles from Cedar Hill toward Grand Prairie on Belt Line Road. On October 6, 1963, she was at home preparing six-weeks tests, as she is a teacher at Cedar Hill High School. Sometime between 1:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. on October 6, 1963, she heard someone fire a high caliber rifle in her pasture. They have cattle in this pasture, and she was concerned that the person might wound or kill some of the cattle. Her husband was also working in a field not too far from where the shooting was taking place. She got into her car and drove to where the men were. Two men were standing by a car, which was a 1957 black and white Chevrolet, bearing Texas license. The third man was standing some distance away in the field with a rifle. She could not describe this rifle, and did not know if it had a scope on it or not. She asked one of the men by the car if they had permission to hunt of shoot on the property. This man asked her what reason she had to ask such a question. She then told the man the property belonged to her, and since they had some cattle in the pasture she was afraid they might shoot them. This made the man with the rifle

angry, and he walked back toward the car and made several nasty remarks which she could not recall. At the time, the man by the car she had been talking to told the man with the rifle to keep quiet. The man by the car then told her he could understand her situation. She then advised them that she was leaving. and if they did not leave she would call the police when she got to the house. She took the license number of the car and left; these three men left, and she did not call the police. After a check of the cattle revealed none of them had been shot, she threw away the license number. She cannot recall any part of this number. Since thinking about this incident, and in view of the assassination of President Kennedy with a rifle, she has wondered if this man with the rifle was OSWALD. She saw a photograph of OSWALD in the newspaper and stated that a side view of OSWALD does not look like this person. The full face photograph, however, she believes does resemble him...She stated that the man by the car who she talked to was about 40 years of age, dark complexion, medium height and weight. She could not describe this person any further but believes she would know him if she were to see him again. She could not give any description of the other man by the car at all. The man with the rifle was a young white male or medium height and slender build. Mrs. Penn stated that the field where the man was shooting has been plowed since the incident, and she did not feel there was any possibility that any of the shells could be located. She advised that she would return to the field where the incident took place and look carefully for any of the shells and would advise the results of this search. Mrs. Lovell Penn was able to recover a 6.5 millimeter spent shell casing from the area. The FBI determined that it had not been fired from OSWALD'S Mannlicher-Carcano. [FBI DL-89-43 Henry J. Oliver dictated 12.2.63] HOSTY REOPENS THE OSWALD CASE OCTOBER 1963 It was around this time that S.A. Hosty reopened OSWALD'S case in Dallas to assist the New Orleans FBI. S.A. Hosty said he checked the Dallas-Fort Worth area, but was unable to locate OSWALD.


On Monday, October 7, 1963, Ruth Paine drove OSWALD to the bus station, and he returned to Dallas. OSWALD did not rent an apartment and move Marina and June Oswald into it. Instead, he inquired about a room at 1026 North Beckley. There were no rooms available, so he took one elsewhere from Mary Bledsoe, paid the weekly rent of $7 in advance, and moved in on the same day. OSWALD looked for work. He went to the unemployment office and showed up for a job offer or two, which took only a few hours. There was no hard evidence that OSWALD was job hunting at this time, and the Warren Commission placed him in an environment devoid of witnesses: "He spent much of the time when he was not looking for work in his room." OSWALD distanced himself from his family. OSWALD told Ruth Paine that "as soon as he gets enough money and his new baby is old enough, he will get an apartment for his family in Dallas." [FBI 105-92555-48] THE CANCELED FLASH At this time the FBI was looking at OSWALD as a possible espionage agent: The following FBI record number 327 925 D is furnished for official use only. FLASH BY BUREAU: LEE HARVEY OSWALD (maybe identical) Any information or inquiry received notify Espionage Section, Division Five, Bureau (Reference memorandum dated November 4, 1959, captioned LEE HARVEY OSWALD Internal Security - Russia). FLASH CANCELED information received October 9, 1963. [Unmarked FBI Document - Arrest record format] After the events of November 22, 1963, the FBI was critical of this decision: It will be noted that stop placed against the Subject in the Identification Division which was removed by (Deleted) on October 9, 1963, after Subject arrested in New Orleans for Fair Play for Cuba Committee on August 9, 1963. Geesling advised stop was placed in event Subject returned from Russia under an assumed name and was inadvertently not removed by him on September 7, 1962, when case was closed. Inspector

feels Geesling in error in removing stop on Subject in Ident on October 9, 1963, particularly after arrest on August 9, 1963, for Fair Play for Cuba activity in New Orleans. We might have missed further arrests without stop identification. Geesling erred in not having additional investigation conducted when Subject returned to the United States and Geesling wrong in not having Subject placed on Security Index. [FBI Memo Gale to Tolson 12.10.63] According to Ruth Paine, OSWALD spent the weekend of October 12, 1963, to October 13, 1963, at her home, allegedly taking a driving lesson. On Monday, October 14, 1963, Ruth Paine drove OSWALD to Dallas. He went back to 1026 North Beckley, and rented a room from landlady Mrs. Arthur Carl Johnson under the name O.H. LEE. Why did OSWALD return to 1026 North Beckley? The Warren Commission Report suggested it was because of the television and refrigerator. Evidence suggested OSWALD believed this address was a safehouse. This was the first time that OSWALD rented an apartment under a false name. Michael Paine commented, I don't know how he was spending his time and especially before the assassination, he was particularly secretive. I wondered at the time, who does he talk to? Why he rented an apartment under a false name, and why it hit a raw nerve when my wife called him, I must confess, remain mysteries. THE TEXAS SCHOOL BOOK DEPOSITORY

Ruth Paine testified that she was having coffee with four young mothers when she remarked that LEE OSWALD needed a job: Jenner: Now there came an occasion, did there not, that weekend or the following weekend at which there was a discussion at least by you with some neighbors with respect to efforts to obtain employment for OSWALD? Paine: As best as I can reconstruct it was while having coffee at my immediate neighbors, Mrs. Ed Roberts, and also present was Mrs. Bill

Randle, and LEE had said over the weekend that he had gotten the last of unemployment compensation checks that were due him and that it had been smaller than the others had been, and disappointing in its smallness and he looked very discouraged when he went to look for work...And the subject that he was looking for work, and that he hadn't found work for a week, came up while we were having coffee, four young mothers at Mrs. Robert's house, and Mrs. Randle mentioned that her younger brother, Wesley Frazier thought they needed another person at the Texas School Book Depository where Wesley worked. Marina then asked me, after we had gone home, asked me if I would call the Texas School Book Depository to see if indeed there was the possibility of an opening and at her request I did telephone...I looked up the number in the book, and dialed it, was told I would need to speak to Mr. Truely who was at the warehouse. The call was transferred to Mr. Truely and I said I know of a young man whose wife was staying in my house, the wife was expecting a child, they already had a little girl, and he had been out of work for a while and was very interested in getting any employment and his name, and was there a possibility of an opening there, and Mr. Truly said he didn't know whether he had an opening, that the young man should apply himself in person. This was on Monday, October 14, 1963. Ruth Paine had been instructed to find OSWALD a job in downtown Dallas. She was not told that it was supposed to be in building that was likely to over look the route of the a Presidential motorcade. Ruth Paine knew that Buell Wesley Frazier, the younger brother of Linnie Mae Randle, was employed at the Texas School Book Depository. Temporary stock-boy jobs were always open there, and so it came as no surprise to Ruth Paine when Linnie Mae Randle suggested that LEE OSWALD try the Texas School Book Depository, after Paine brought up the subject of OSWALD and a job. Gerald Posner claimed that OSWALD'S placement in the Texas School Book Depository was pure coincidence since Roy S. Truly (the superintendent of the Texas School Book Depository who died in 1988), Linnie Mae Randle, Ruth Paine, and a dozen others, would have had to have been part of the conspiracy. Ruth Paine could have placed him there alone. On Monday, October 14, 1963, Ruth Paine called Roy Truly and secured a position for OSWALD. Marina Oswald told the HSCA: "She went to all the trouble to get the job for him." Michael Paine was asked, "Was it mere coincidence that your wife placed OSWALD in Dealey Plaza?" He responded, "That is so simple that it should not be a part of this. He lost his job at the photo lab and you've heard the story - and it's true. Ruth was discussing it over coffee with some neighbors and they thought there was a job opening at the Texas School Book Depository." He was asked, “Did she know this neighbor's son worked at the Texas School Book Depository?" He responded, That is how come she knew. I think he had a job there, and he spread the news in that household that they might be still be looking for other

employees. So Ruth took the number down that he should call and told it to OSWALD. He called and was interviewed. We were trying to get him a job to help him out. Ruth had no idea where it was. We thought it was somewhere other than Dealey Plaza. There was absolutely no input from the CIA to get him a job there. It was Ruth's idea. There might have been a conspiracy, but that was not a part of it. And we know we had no CIA connection, we didn't know the Texas School Book Depository was there. We didn't know that President Kennedy was going to come by. We had absolutely no part of it. If there was any conspiracy, it could only have been that they knew OSWALD was a Communist, and would pick on him. Hosty came around, he knew where OSWALD was working. We had no CIA contact. It was pointed out to Michael Paine that his wife's father had CIA contact: No, he worked for the Agency for International Development. The CIA may have used the Agency for International Development as a front for awhile, but it doesn't mean that every Agency for International Development employee is CIA. Bill Hyde was vehemently opposed to the CIA using the Agency for International Development for these purposes. Ruth was a very truthful person and she really knew Bill well enough to know where he would stand on a matter like that. Michael Paine was again told William Hyde had CIA contact: "Sure, okay, that's possible." Ruth Paine wrote this to her mother: "Big news. LEE was accepted for a job this am. Minimum wage and nothing special about it, but he is very happy and I think things will ease for them." [FBI CV 105-7674] James Hosty was asked about Ruth Paine and the Texas School Book Depository: At that time, no one knew the motorcade was going to pass by. That's just pure happenstance. Nobody knew there was going to be a parade until the Tuesday before. Before that they said there would be no parade. They didn't know what the route was going to be, until they knew where the luncheon was going to be. And the luncheon was not decided until that Saturday. It wasn't until Tuesday they decided to even have a parade. Remember they called off the parade in Miami the weekend before. The Secret Service picked... The CIA's Counter-Intelligence Staff provided intelligence to the Secret Service when the President traveled abroad. [CIA DDCI Memo: The CIA Role in Support of Presidential Trips Abroad 5.31.63]

MANNER BAKERY AND THE TEXAS GYPSUM COMPANY Linnie Mae Randle had also suggested two other jobs for OSWALD. One with the Manner Bakery, and the other with the Texas Gypsum Company. Ruth Paine told the FBI she ruled out the Manner Bakery because OSWALD could not drive a bakery truck; but she could not recall Linnie Mae Randle having suggested Texas Gypsum. Jenner: Do you recall whether or not Mrs. Randle, as a friendly gesture her suggestions were friendly, were they not, in connection with his securing employment? Paine: Oh yes. Jenner: Did she mention the Manner Bakery? Paine: Possibly, yes. I do recall saying that LEE doesn't drive, making the point that this was a hampering thing for him. And therefore it made it impossible for him to drive a truck for the Manner Bakery. Jenner: And in that connection, had she mentioned the Texas Gypsum Company? Paine: I don't recall that. Jenner: At least you do recall that it was impractical to consider possible positions which would require him to operate an automobile. Paine: Yes, I believe I do recall a reference now to driving a truck, delivery truck. Jenner: You have no recollection of any other suggestion as to possible places of employment? Paine: I have no recollection of that. During another part of her testimony before the Warren Commission Ruth Paine stated: Jenner: You have no recollection of any other, at least two other places being suggested, and you, in turn, stating that they would be unsatisfactory, one because an automobile had to be used, or it would be necessary for LEE to have an automobile, and the other that he was lacking in the possible qualifications needed? None of that refreshes your recollection? Paine: None of that refreshes my recollections.

OSWALD turned down a job at Love Field Airport in Dallas that paid $310 per month for a job in the Texas School Book Depository - that paid $210 per month. The Warren Report stated …the Texas Employment Commission attempted to refer OSWALD to an airline company which was looking for baggage and cargo handlers at a salary which was $100 a month higher than that offered by the Depository Company. The Employment Commission tried to advise OSWALD of this job at 10:30 a.m. on Wednesday, October 16, 1963. Since the records of the Commission indicate that OSWALD was then working, it seems clear that OSWALD was hired by the Depository Company before the higher paying job was available. It is unlikely that he ever learned of this second opportunity. [WR p247] The HSCA questioned Marina Oswald about this: Q. If he would have had another job offer at the same time for more money, can you think of any reason he might have taken the job in the Texas School Book Depository instead of another job? A. I do believe he did like Ruth, and, since she went to all the trouble to get the job for him, I think that would have been the courteous thing to do. Q. Do you think he would have taken a job for less money just because he liked Ruth? A. No, it doesn't sound logical...To tell the truth we were very poor and I think a better offer of a job would probably be more likely he would take. The Warren Commission questioned Ruth Paine: Q. Did you ever hear anything by way of discussion or otherwise by Marina or LEE of the possibility of his having been tendered or at least suggested to him a job at Trans-Texas, as a cargo handler at $310 a month? A. I do not recall that. Q. This was right at the time he obtained employment at the Texas School Book Depository? A. And he was definitely offered such a job? Q. Well I won't say it was offered - that he might have been able to secure a job through the Texas Employment Commission as a cargo-handler at $310 a month.

A. I do recall some reference of that sort, which fell through - that there was not that possibility. Q. Tell us what you know about that. Did you hear of it at the time? A. Yes. Q. Now would you please relate that to me? A. I recall some reference to Q. How did it come about? A. From LEE as I recall. Q. And was it at the time or just right A. It was at the time, while he was yet unemployed. Q. And about the time he obtained employment at the Texas School Book Depository. A. It seemed to me he went into town with some hopes raised by the employment agency, I don't know - but then reported that the job had been filled and was not available to him. Q. But that was A. That is my best recollection Q. Of his report to you and Marina. A. Yes. Q. But you do not recall discussing it? A. I recall something of that nature. I do not recall the job itself. On Tuesday, October 15, 1963 OSWALD called Marina and told her he had secured employment. On Wednesday, October 16, 1963, 35 days before the assassination, OSWALD began working at the Texas School Book Depository. The Warren Commission did not say how the Employment Commission tried to advise OSWALD of the job at Love Field. OSWALD used Ruth Paine's address and telephone number as a contact point at this time. Ruth Paine, who had been instructed to place OSWALD in downtown Dallas, never told OSWALD about the job at Love Field. OSWALD'S job at the Texas School Book Depository required less skill, and was of a lower status, then

his previous jobs, in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. It involved moving book cartons. The Warren Commission: "OSWALD'S employment at the Texas School Book Depository was wholly unrelated to the President's trip to Dallas." [WR p247] The Texas School Book Depository was in the geographic area where Ruth Paine had been instructed to find OSWALD a job in by her father or sister. Ruth Paine was not a professional assassin like GERRY PATRICK HEMMING, or a professional spy like HUNT, yet it was not by accident that Ruth Paine got OSWALD a job along a likely parade route. This does not mean she was a part of any conspiracy. All it means is that someone told her to babysit OSWALD and get him a job in downtown Dallas. When OSWALD began working at the Texas School Book Depository, the conspiracy to assassinate President John F. Kennedy was well under way. OSWALD had ordered the rifle, visited the Soviet Embassy and Cuban Consulate in Mexico City and was ripe for a setup. It was not by accident that, through her father, her brother, her brother-in-law and her sister, Ruth Paine traced back to ANGLETON and ANGLETON led to HUNT, PHILLIPS et. al. On Friday, October 18, 1963, Buell Frazier drove OSWALD from the Texas School Book Depository to Irving. Since it was OSWALD'S birthday, Marina Oswald and Ruth Paine had arranged a small celebration. HOSTY TOLD OF SOVIET CONTACT BY INS OCTOBER 18, 1963 The FBI: "A Secret, October 22, 1963, Airtel, from Dallas to the Bureau, bearing dictator initials of 'JPH' advised FBI Headquarters that S.A. Hosty received information from Immigration and Naturalization Service, Dallas, Texas, on Friday, October 18, 1963, that 'an individual, possibly identical with LEE HARVEY OSWALD, was in contact with the Soviet Embassy, Mexico City.' S.A. Hosty explained: "Immigration and Naturalization Service, Dallas, merely advised that they were in possession of a communication indicating CIA Mexico City identified an individual possibly identical with LEE OSWALD was in contact with the Soviet Embassy, Mexico City. Because of the third agency, this write was not permitted to actually see the communication." A copy of this communication only reached Dallas after the November 22 CIA coup. [Hosty to Shanklin FBI Dallas-10461 12.6.63 also 62109060-7959]] The FBI: "On October 18, 1963, Mr. Jeff Woosley, Supervisory Clerk, INS, Dallas, advised S.A. James P. Hosty that their office was in receipt of a communication, classified 'Secret' from CIA Mexico City. This communication indicated copies were furnished to the FBI. This communication indicated that an individual, possibly identical with OSWALD, was in contact with the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City." [FBI 100-10,461-47; NARA FBI 124-10171-10138] James Hosty stated: I found out from the Dallas Immigration and Naturalization Service that they had gotten a CIA communication. It was verbal information [I received] from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. I then wrote to FBI Headquarters, and then to New Orleans, and they sent me a copy of another CIA communication. The FBI sent the communication to New Orleans, which was the office of origin at the time. The Dallas Office did not get a copy. [FBI DL 100-10461-47; FBI Bufile 105-82555-39]

In 1978 James Hosty's attorney, Francis X. Lilly, told the FBI: …prior to the assassination, certain information was not known to S.A. Hosty. In particular he had not been advised of the visit of OSWALD to Mexico City, and was not aware of the people to whom OSWALD spoke in Mexico City. Nor did he know the real identity of these people...this information was not made available to S.A. Hosty...and it is doubtful whether Bureau regulations would have allowed Mr. Hosty to interview OSWALD even had additional information been made available to him " [FBI Bassett/Ryan 10.4.78 re: Hosty's attorney Francis X. Lilly] The FBI document that concerned OSWALD'S Soviet-contact was routinely channeled to S.A. Hosty. S.A. Hosty's name appeared in the appropriate place in the block stamp. After the assassination, S.A. Hosty's name was erased from the block stamp, and the serial was initialed to file by FBI Supervisor Kenneth Howe. [FBI ltr. Ryan to Bassett 10.4.78] James Hosty; "It was crossed out, not erased. That's when they were hiding things from me. They took it out of my workbox. My lawyer was confused." [Interview with A.J.W. 1993] Hosty told the Warren Commission he first became aware of OSWALD'S contact with the Soviets in Mexico City on October 25, 1963. The minute Hosty discovered that OSWALD was in touch with Soviet Intelligence he should have interviewed him immediately. He lied to the Warren Commission and told them he first became aware of OSWALD'S contacts with the Soviets on October 25, 1963 rather than October 18, 1963. He never interviewed OSWALD. On Sunday, October 20, 1963, OSWALD stayed with Ruth Paine's children, while Ruth Paine drove Marina Oswald to Parkland Hospital, where she gave birth to a second daughter, Rachel Oswald. On Monday, October 21, 1963, OSWALD visited Marina Oswald in the hospital and spent the night in Irving. Why would OSWALD assassinate the President one month after his wife had given birth to another child? Was he untroubled about the prospect of abandoning his newborn daughter? THE NATIONAL INDIGNATION COMMITTEE MEETING

OSWALD had words Dallas Texas State and a listing for Robert Adam at the Dallas office of the Texas State Employment Agency. Next was "Randau at Jobco" On December 12, 1963, information was obtained from the Jobco Employment Agency in Dallas, Texas, concerning a "cotton picking application" for Lee H. Oswald, dated October 4, 1963. This application was submitted to the FBI Laboratory which concluded that the signature en the reverse side of the application was prepared by Lee Harvey Oswald. Ray Randuk had indeed interviewed him at Jobco and sent his to the DeVilbiss Company where he was not hired. The number RI-8-7604 did not trace back to JOBCO or DeVilbiss, instead it traced back to McGehee Investments in the Texas Bank Building. This firm was not listed by Dunn and Bradstreet. There was no indication it existed other than a listing in the 1963 Dallas Chris-Cross Directory. I cannot locate any reference to it in an FBI document nor any investigation of this telephone number. Scott Malone stated that when OSWALD was questioned about his address book by the Dallas Police he told them that this was where he was debriefed on his return from Russia. I have never seen a document where OSWALD was questioned about his address book. Another possibility is that McGehee Investments was an instrument of the The National Indignation Convention started in October 1961 by Dallas Garage Owner Frank McGehee, 32, to protest the training of Yugoslav pilots in Texas. The National Indignation Committee was an anticommunist umbrella group with Birchite and Walkerite ties. By February 1962 the National Indignation Committee had held 175 rallies and was tooling up a pressure campaign to force Congress to halt all military aid to any Communist regime anywhere and to fire any government official responsible for any in the past. [Life Magazine 2.9.62 pages 110 to 129] The Convention spread across the country through supporting committees. With a keen eye peeled for "modern traitors" in government, the movement held evangelisticlike meetings at which members heard the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations condemned as "treasonous" along with suggestions for lynching Earl Warren. During Mr. Stevenson's speech in Dallas, protesters coughed in unison. They walked the aisles with upside-down American flags. Frank McGehee, leader of the National Indignation Committee, stood up and began shouting until police removed him. OSWALD wrote the Communist Party that, on the evening of Wednesday, October 23, 1963, he had attended a meeting sponsored by General Edwin A. Walker. [11WH425] This meeting was co-sponsored by the National Indignation Committee. Ruth Paine described the gathering on Wednesday, October 23, 1963, as a meeting of The National Indignation Committee. William Coleman and David Slawson: "Investigation has led to the conclusion that this must have been an anti-Castro meeting." [WC To: Rankin Summary of Evid. of For. Inv.] JOHN MARTINO had spoken to a group of John Birch Society members in September 1963. A member of the Dallas Chapter of Alpha-66 attended

this meeting in September 1963 and informed the FBI that bumper stickers bearing the words "Kan the Kennedy Klan" had been sold there. One member of Alpha-66 changed the word "Kan" to "Kill" before pasting the bumper sticker on his car. [FBI 105-96777 6.25.64] It looks like the FBI was not into exposing the connection either between either OSWALD and McGehee or OSWALD and the Domestic Contacts Division. Edwin Steig, a DRE sympathizer reported having seen OSWALD at a DRE meeting on October 13, 1963. [WCD 205 p646 cited by Scott] AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION MEETING: OCTOBER 25, 1963 OSWALD lost touch with the White Russian exile community after he returned to Dallas. The only people known to have been associated with OSWALD at this time were the Paines. On Friday, October 25, 1963, OSWALD accompanied Michael Paine to a meeting of the American Civil Liberties Union, at Methodist University. OSWALD spoke at this meeting. He said that two days earlier he had infiltrated General Edwin Walker's meeting and General Edwin Walker and his fellow John Birchers were anti-Semitic and anti-Catholic. General Edwin Walker had been responsible for the violence directed at U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson. OSWALD associated with George DeMohrenschildt and Guy Banister, two anti-Semites. As stated, OSWALD'S believed the opposite of what he said and wrote. If OSWALD said he was against anti-Semitism, he was for it. If OSWALD said he was for communism, he was against it. Michael Paine believed OSWALD was sincere: I didn't know DeMohrenschildt. But I should say that I had, at the time, absolutely no question in my mind that LEE described himself as Communist." Michael Paine equated OSWALD with his father: "He thought his important mission in life wasn't working, he wanted to raise a family, but that was kind of trivial. A more important activity was social change. And I accepted that, I had no quarrel with it." Michael Paine was asked if it had even crossed his mind that OSWALD was a tool of right wing forces: "No. Definitely not. He resented authority. He resented his employer at the photo company. This was not part of his cover. I wouldn't have said LEE was a powerful intellect. He said you got your directions from reading between the lines in The Worker and The Militant, and I asked him to show me how to do it. So he got out the paper, and put it across our knees, and he wasn't actually able to do it, but I accepted that as that's what he felt - I could see that. I remember the newspaper had many articles from Italy criticizing David Rockefeller. I don't know why they had such a vendetta against David Rockefeller. OSWALD DENOUNCES FRANK KRYSTINIK Michael Paine brought his friend, Frank Krystinik, to the American Civil Liberties Union meeting with OSWALD. Krystinik told the FBI:

There was a question and answer period, and the presiding officer made reference to the fact that Ambassador Stevenson had been struck on the head by a sign poster at a meeting in Dallas the day before. LEE OSWALD jumped to his feet and interjected himself into the discussion by stating that General Walker was both anti-Semitic, and anti-Catholic. Krystinik, a member of the Roman Catholic faith, followed OSWALD from the room when the meeting adjourned at approximately 10:00 p.m. and began questioning him in general about the anti-Catholic allegation against General Walker. The discussion between them became rather heated, and OSWALD told Krystinik that Krystinik was a 'petty capitalist.' This apparently arose because OSWALD had learned that Krystinik had a home wood-workshop where he manufactures birdhouses and occasionally employs three men in the manufacture of these birdhouses. OSWALD told Krystinik that he was exploiting workers. Frank Krystinik asked OSWALD about his political belief, and OSWALD stated he was a Marxist. Frank Krystinik asked, "Does that mean you are a communist?" OSWALD then said, "All right, if you want to call me that, that is what I am, a Communist." In 1964 Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission that OSWALD I would say that he was a combination, that the man within was an introvert, preferred the company of the television set or a book, but that he could, as I have said, be a genial host or go to a meeting of the American Civil Liberties Union with my husband and I understand that he made a fairly good impression upon some of the people there...I have recently, perhaps a year ago, became [sic] on the membership committee of the Dallas ACLU Chapter. That chapter only just opened a year and a half ago. DOCUMENTS START BEING GENERATED ABOUT OSWALD On Friday, October 25, 1963, S.A. Milton Kaack learned from the FBI's contact at the Post Office, that when OSWALD left New Orleans, his mail was forwarded from Box 30061 to Ruth Paine in Irving. On October 25, 1963, the FBI Headquarters and Dallas were advised of OSWALD'S new address. [FBI 105-1435-13; FBI 100-10461-51 NARA 124-10171-10141] On Friday, October 25, 1963, S.A. DeBRUEYS prepared an FBI report on OSWALD and the New Orleans Fair Play for Cuba Committee. This report was generated because of OSWALD'S brush with the New Orleans Police Department. It dealt with the BRINGUIER incident, and OSWALD'S appearances on William Stuckey's radio program. It did not mention OSWALD'S change of address, although it contained information developed by S.A. Kaack, as well as a four-page appendix, and another copy of S.A. Agent Quigley's interview with OSWALD. On Friday, October 25, 1963, an index card on OSWALD was created by Plans. This card read: OSWALD, LEE H.

SEX M DOB OCTOBER 18, 1939 100-300-011 USA NEW ORLEANS DBA-55777 OCTOBER 25, 1963 P2 CIT ? OCC ? USA, NEW ORLEANS 4709 MAGAZINE. MEMBER OF THE FAIR PLAY FOR CUBA COMMITTEE WITH HEADQUARTERS AT 799 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. SEE DOCUMENT REGARDING DISTRIBUTION OF CUBAN PROPAGANDA. On November 23, 1963, OSWALD told the FBI he lived at 4706 Magazine Street. The card contained the number 100-300-011. This was the CIA's Fair Play for Cuba Committee file. The CIA stated it contained 30 CIA-originated documents. OSWALD allegedly spent the weekend of Saturday, October 26, 1963, to Sunday, October 27, 1963, with his wife and newborn infant in Irving. JOHN MARTINO was in Dallas at this date. HOSTY RECEIVES 3 REPORTS ON OSWALD OCTOBER 28, 1963 BUT DOES NOT LOOK AT THEM The FBI: Three communications relating to and setting forth some details of OSWALD'S contact with the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City, including the name of a Soviet that OSWALD contacted [Valeriy Kostikov], were block stamped into the Dallas Office on Friday, October 25, 1963, were routinely channeled to S.A. Hosty by the Desk on Monday, October 28, 1963, and were not retrieved from S.A. Hosty's personal work box until after the assassination on November 22, 1963, according to a notation on Dallas serial 100-10461-50 by Dallas Supervisor Kenneth C. Howe. This document stated: Re: New Orleans airtel to Dallas October 2, 1963. Enclosed for Dallas is a copy of a radiogram from Legat, Mexico City, to Bureau October 18, 1963, and a copy of Bureau cablegram to Legat, Mexico City October 22, 1963. For the information of the Bureau, New Orleans Airtel to Dallas October 2, 1963, requested Dallas to locate Subject and his wife...48-49-50 go to James P. Hosty October 28, 1963. Obtained from his box and initialed into file to complete his file following November 22, 1963 - Howe. [FBI File 100-10461] S.A. Hosty had failed to add these documents to the other serials on OSWALD when he received it on his desk on October 28, 1963. Dallas Supervisor Kenneth C. Howe had to do it after November 22, 1963. Hosty was again staying away from OSWALD. The FBI

wondered why Hosty had not glanced at these documents prior to the Kennedy assassination. The FBI: "In short, absent mitigating circumstances, it is unusual for any Agent to claim ignorance of the contents of three communications residing in his personal workbox for approximately 26 days. "Dallas file 100-10461-48, -49, -50, and Bureau file 105-8255542 and -43. Bureau file serial 43 corresponds to Dallas serial 48 and is classified SECRET." Serial 48 was the CIA'S report on OSWALD'S visit to the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City, and included the name of Valeriy Kostikov, serial 49 was a summary of information that FBI Headquarters had on OSWALD. James Hosty stated that he neglected to retrieve these three documents (in addition to the October 22, 1963 Immigration and Naturalization Service document) from his personal work box until after the assassination, however, in a report dated December 6, 1963, S.A. Hosty wrote he postponed a interview with Marina Oswald "despite the information received shortly prior to that time to the effect LEE OSWALD had been in touch with the Soviet Embassy, Mexico City..." That indicated that he had looked at least one of the reports. James Hosty remarked, [The FBI reports about OSWALD] disappeared from my workbox. They took them out of my workbox. See, the Bureau is trying to cover up the fact that they were doing the coverup. They took that stuff out of my file drawer because it referred to Valeriy Kostikov. See, I was aware he had made contact with the Embassy, but I didn't know who Valeriy Kostikov was, and anything that had his name on it, disappeared. They put it back in the file later. [FBI Dallas 100-10461-48, 49, 50] James Hosty's explanation made no sense. S.A. Hosty was avoiding the OSWALD case by not serializing and filing "hot" reports on OSWALD. S.A. Hosty explained why OSWALD'S name had not been entered on Security Index of the FBI or furnished to the Secret Service despite OSWALD'S contact with Valeriy Kostikov, who was believed to be a KGB assassin: Dallas was not in possession of any information indicating OSWALD had any vicious potential or capabilities [S.A. Hosty knew OSWALD beat his wife], nor any other information concerning him which would have made it appear desirable to furnish Secret Service information concerning him. WHEN DID S.A. HOSTY LEARN THAT OSWALD WAS IN DALLAS? FBI Serial 50 informed the Dallas FBI Office that OSWALD had returned to Dallas. S.A. Hosty should have known OSWALD was in Dallas on Monday, October 28, 1963. On Tuesday, October 29, 1963, S.A. Hosty received additional notification of OSWALD'S new address from S.A. Milton Kaack. S.A. DeBRUEYS had not furnished the address to S.A. Hosty in an earlier report. James Hosty: "I did not know OSWALD was in Dallas at

this time. As far as I knew, he was in New Orleans. I was told he had returned to Dallas on Friday, November 1, 1963, when Ruth Paine told me that. I got that lead from New Orleans." [Dallas FBI 100-10461-47 Bufile 105-82555-39]. James Hosty stated: "I got the address on Tuesday, October 29, 1963, and I had to verify it and check Ruth Paine out. I went out on Friday, November 1, 1963. Two days." HOSTY INTERVIEWS RUTH PAINE'S NEIGHBORS OCTOBER 30, 1963 The FBI: "On Wednesday, October 30, 1963, S.A. James P. Hosty, Jr. reported a pretext interview in the vicinity of 2515 West Fifth Street, Irving, Texas. Such interview revealed Marina Oswald was residing with Mrs. R. Paine, and that LEE HARVEY OSWALD visited Marina Oswald at this address, but was not living there." [WCE 834] POST OFFICE BOX 6225

On Friday, November 1, 1963, OSWALD opened Post Office Box 6225 at the Dallas Post Office Terminal Annex. OSWALD listed his address as Beckley Avenue, although he gave a false house number. [WR p313] He paid the rent in advance through December 31, 1963. There was no indication in the Warren Report that the FBI authenticated the signature on the application for Post Office Box 6225 or on the change of address card that routed his mail from Post Office Box 30061 to Ruth Paine's address. [WR p312, 566] JOHN ABT OSWALD stated that he wanted John Abt (born May 1, 1904; died August 10, 1991) for an attorney. Abt spent most of his career as chief counsel to the Communist Party USA (CPUSA). Abt was a graduate of the University of Chicago, and from its law school. He practiced real estate and corporate law in Chicago from 1927 to 1933. He was the Chief of Litigation, Agricultural Adjustment Administration from 1933 to 1935, assistant general

counsel of the Works Progress Administration in 1935, chief counsel to Senator Robert La Follette, Jr.'s Committee from 1936 to 1937 and special assistant to the United States Attorney General, 1937 and 1938. In 1948, he worked with the Progressive Party of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Abt was also a member of the Ware group, a covert organization of Communist Party operatives within the United States government in the 1930s which actively aided Soviet intelligence by passing on government information, as well as furnishing assistance to members of the CPUSA. Abt's sister, Marion Bachrach, was also a member of the group. After the group's founder, Harold Ware, was killed in an automobile collision in 1935, Abt married Jessica Smith, Ware's widow. The name of John Abt was mentioned by Whittaker Chambers during the Alger Hiss trial. [FBI CG 62-6115 2.20.64] Ruth Paine testified that OSWALD called her from jail to communicate: …he wanted to ask me to call Mr. John Abt in New York for him after 6:00 p.m. He gave me a telephone number of a New York office and a New York residence...Then he called back almost immediately. I gather he had made the call to me on the permission to make a different call, and then he got specific permission from the police to make a call to me, and the call was identical...This is speculation, but the content of the second call was almost identical." Ruth Paine was asked by this researcher whether she commented to him about the fact "that he had already just called you about the same subject matter?" Ruth Paine replied, "No." Michael Paine: He called Ruth and wanted us to get Abt as an attorney and I was offended at that. It was a dumb thing. It illustrates his incompetence to really function in this world. After OSWALD was killed, the home and office telephone numbers of John Abt, and the number for The Worker, were found in his pockets. [WCD 1406] OSWALD was a Nazi at heart and even if it meant him taking a fall for the Kennedy assassination he was still intent on blaming it on the Communists. Assuming that those government agencies who questioned OSWALD after his arrest on November 22, 1963, told the truth about the interrogation, OSWALD was unwilling to reveal his ties to HEMMING et. al. This might have been a result of his having been involved in illegal acts with HEMMING, dirtied up, involved in another homicide. Why did OSWALD make the same call twice? To make sure the Commies got dirtied up good. OSWALD'S ACLU DALLAS CHAPTER On Friday, November 1, 1963, when OSWALD rented Post Office Box 6225, he indicated that the box would be used to receive mail for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee and the American Civil Liberties Union, which he had recently joined. Under "Kind of Business" OSWALD wrote 'non-profit.'OSWALD wrote the Communist Party:

"Could you advise me as to the general view we have on the ACLU? And to what degree, if any, I should attempt to heighten its progressive tendencies?" Louis Nichols was head of the Bar Association of Dallas. He visited OSWALD on November 23, 1963. OSWALD told him he wanted John Abt for an attorney. Abt defended numerous Communists. Nichols wrote: He then asked me if I knew any Dallas lawyer who was a member of the American Civil Liberties Union. I told him I did not. He then stated that he was a member of the American Civil Liberties Union. I again asked him whether he desired that either I, or anyone else of the Dallas Bar Association, do anything at that time toward getting him an attorney to represent him. He stated that if he could not get the New York lawyer, or if he could not get a lawyer who was a member of the American Civil Liberties Union to represent him, and if there was an attorney in Dallas who believed as he did, and believed in the things he believed in, and believed in his innocence as much as he could, that he might call on us in the following week about getting such as lawyer. Michael Paine was asked why OSWALD opened a post office box in the name of the American Civil Liberties Union? He answered, I didn't know he did that and I can't begin to guess why. [Paine was mailed documents] I was surprised and confused. The last thing I heard from him was that he couldn't join the organization. The reason he couldn't, was that he really didn't approve of protecting the rights of people like General Walker to talk. Then I learned he had joined, after the assassination. Becoming a American Civil Liberties Union member, then committing a heinous crime, would sully it. OSWALD hated the ACLU just as he hated the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. OSWALD had no affiliation with the ACLU and had no right to receive mail in the name of the ACLU. OSWALD was about to launch an operation against the ACLU. After he was arrested as a suspect in the assassination he used the opportunity to further "dirtyup" the ACLU by associating himself with it. S.A. Hosty was determined to avoid OSWALD, however, he had to conduct a superficial investigation of OSWALD due to OSWALD'S contact with the Soviet espionage apparatus. Instead of beginning his investigation of OSWALD with a personal interview of the Subject that would have given him first hand insight into OSWALD'S personality, S.A. HOSTY interviewed Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald about LEE HARVEY OSWALD. Why did Hosty go to secondary sources when the primary source was available on weekends or at work? In 1993 HOSTY stated that he was not avoiding OSWALD:

I could not interview OSWALD since he had been in touch with the Russian Embassy. Are you aware of that? I was aware of this prior to the assassination and that put a bar on any interview. It's the rules, go check the rules. See, you're supposed to be an expert on this. Stop and think. If I went up and talked to him and said, 'Hey, why are you visiting the Russian Embassy?' wouldn't that have given away our technique? It's in the Senate Intelligence Committee Report. The damn Warren Commission, those idiots, didn't understand that. But the intelligence committee got it straight. I was following the rules. Question Headquarters. The damn Warren Commission shot off its mouth, they didn't know what the hell they were talking about, and they didn't bother to ask me why I didn't interview him. I didn't think an interview would be productive. He'd been interviewed three times unsuccessfully. WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE INTERVIEW? 1. After the assassination Ruth Paine stated that S.A. Hosty had visited her "for the purpose of arranging an interview with OSWALD." S.A. Hosty denied this: "One of the purposes of the visit was to arrange an interview for Marina Oswald. It would appear either Mrs. Paine has been misquoted by the newspapers or she may have been confused on November 1, 1963, and thought I desired an interview with LEE OSWALD rather than Marina Oswald. This could explain the Subject's having the my name and the office telephone number in his possession. It should be noted at the time of this interview, Mrs. Paine was speaking in Russian and in English to this writer and to Marina Oswald and may have confused my request. This should be a matter of record in view of the allegations in this case." [FBI 100-1944-285A 12.3.63 to SAC] 2. James Hosty said he was trying to interview Marina Oswald: "One of the purposes of the visit was to arrange an interview for Marina Oswald. [Mrs. Paine] may have been confused on Friday, November 1, 1963, and thought I desired an interview with LEE OSWALD rather than Marina Oswald." Why was S.A. Hosty more interested in Marina Oswald than LEE HARVEY OSWALD? Marina Oswald was not a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. She had not visited the Soviet Embassy and Cuban Consulate in Mexico City. 3. When Hosty testified before the Warren Commission he stated: "I then told her the purpose of my visit, that I was interested in locating the whereabouts of LEE OSWALD..." S.A. HOSTY INTERVIEWS RUTH PAINE NOVEMBER 1, 1963 On Friday, November 1, 1963, at approximately 2:30 p.m., Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald received a visit from S.A. Hosty in Irving, Texas. OSWALD was at work. S.A. Hosty said he had no information on Ruth Paine, but after a background check, he found she was "a responsible and reliable citizen." Hosty checked with Bell Helicopter and discovered Michael Paine had a security clearance. He checked with Edward T.

Oviatt, the headmaster of the St. Marks School where Ruth Paine was employed as a Russian teacher. The Paines had good credit and no criminal record. The interview with Ruth Paine lasted about 20 to 25 minutes. Ruth Paine told S.A. Hosty that Marina Oswald and her two children were living with her, and that OSWALD was in Dallas. Ruth Paine told S.A. Hosty OSWALD was living in Dallas because she did not want him at her home, although she was willing to let him visit his wife and children on weekends. Hosty "I asked her if she knew where he worked. After a moment's hesitation, she told me he worked at the Texas School Book Depository near the downtown area of Dallas. She didn't have the exact address and it is my recollection she went to the phone book, found it to be 411 Elm Street." Ruth Paine: "We did talk about the importance of Hosty not going to where he was working. I got Hosty's card and told him if you want to see LEE, he's coming out this evening. You can certainly see him here. Hosty never came." Ruth Paine had no reason to withhold this information from Hosty- she knew nothing about the Kennedy assassination plot nor the part that the Texas School Book Depository would play in it. If S.A. Hosty wanted to interview OSWALD, he could have driven to the Texas School Book Depository, or he could have returned to Irving that evening. He could have interviewed OSWALD on Saturday. He did not. OSWALD'S HOME ADDRESS IN DALLAS Hosty asked Ruth Paine if she knew OSWALD'S address in Dallas. Ruth Paine, who knew OSWALD'S telephone number in Dallas, indicated that she thought she could find out where OSWALD was living, and would let S.A. Hosty know. Hosty was asked by the Warren Commission if he asked Ruth Paine for OSWALD'S telephone number: "No sir, I didn't ask her about a telephone number and she didn't volunteer. She told me she did not know where he lived." Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission: Paine: He asked me if I knew where LEE lived. I did think of these phone numbers but Jenner: During the course of the Paine: Or later. Jenner: Of the interview? Paine: At least between that time and the time he came again, but I have been impressed with what I have now concluded was a mistaken impression I have which effected my behavior; namely that the FBI was in possession of a great deal of information, or so I thought, and certainly would find it very easy to find out where LEE OSWALD was living. I really didn't believe they didn't know, or needed to find out from me. This is a feeling stemming from my understanding of the difficulties they faced working in a free society. I would behave quite differently now, but I have learned a lot from this particular experience.

Jenner: Did you make any effort to obtain OSWALD'S address so that you could give it to the FBI? Paine: No. As I have testified, I really thought they had it. Ruth Paine wrote: I assumed [S.A. Hosty] wanted to see LEE. The FBI has to follow the activities of a good many two-bit communists, and I was certain they kept themselves informed on LEE'S whereabouts...It was the first time I had talked personally with an FBI agent and my already great respect for the agency went up. We discussed the difficulty in a free society of politely watching people with queer, possibly dangerous ideas. Unlike public opinion or a congressional committee, the FBI never even mentions an individual in public until they have evidence that will stand up in court. I never felt so proud to pay my taxes, and to live in this country as after talking with the FBI man. [WCE 460 p191] Ruth Paine gave Hosty OSWALD'S work address. If the FBI visited OSWALD on the job it would have caused him more problems than if the FBI visited him at his rooming house. If Ruth Paine was told by a family member that OSWALD was 'alright' perhaps she believed his covert activities centered around his rooming house? Ruth Paine's story that she believed the FBI already had OSWALD'S home address in Dallas was absurd. If the FBI already had OSWALD'S address, why had S.A. Hosty asked her for it? Ruth Paine said OSWALD told her: "He had been upset by the FBI's coming out and inquiring about him, and he felt it was interference with his family. He said to me that the FBI was inhibiting his activities...I asked whether he was worried about losing his job, and he was." Albert Jenner asked Paine: "Did he say so, Mrs. Paine?" She responded: "I recall particularly a telephone conversation with him. On one of those in which he called out to talk to Marina...I said to him if his views, not any references now to the FBI or their interest in him, but if his political views were interfering with his ability to hold a job, that might be a matter of interest to the American Civil Liberties Union, that he should, in our country, have a right to unpopular views or any other kind. This I believe was after he had been to a ACLU meeting with my husband, that meeting having been Friday, October 25, 1963." S.A. Hosty told the Warren Commission that OSWALD "had alleged that the FBI had him fired from every job he ever had. I told her this was not true...I wanted to know his place of employment for the purpose of determining whether or not he was employed in a sensitive industry, and when I found out he was working in a warehouse as a laborer, I realized that this was not a sensitive industry." S.A. HOSTY AND MARINA OSWALD S.A. Hosty testified that when Marina Oswald came into the room during his interview with Ruth Paine, Marina Oswald became very disturbed. According to S.A. Hosty, Ruth

Paine had to assure Marina Oswald that the FBI was not a secret police force like the KGB, and would not harm her. Ruth Paine testified that Marina Oswald had not been intimidated by S.A. Hosty: And I can't recall certainly who brought it up, but I think Marina asked of Hosty what did he think of Castro? He said, 'Well, he reads what is printed and from the view given in the American newspapers of Castro's activities and intentions, and he certainly didn't like those intentions or actions.' And Marina subsequently expressed an opinion, but contrary, that perhaps he was not given much chance by the American press, or that the press was not entirely fair to him. This I translated. Ruth Paine said that S.A. Hosty had also asked her if OSWALD had been active in the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Marina Oswald told this interviewer in 1994: "I discussed nothing with Hosty. No questions. Never expressed any favorable opinions of Castro to him. I do not know what they were talking about." S.A. Hosty told the Warren Commission that he did not question Marina Oswald; instead he asked Ruth Paine to assure Marina that the FBI was not like the KGB or Gestapo. On another occasion, Hosty said he asked Marina Oswald only one question, using Ruth Paine as an interpreter; it concerned "approaches by foreign agents." He told his FBI superiors that "no interview was conducted of Mrs. Oswald because Dallas was awaiting information from New Orleans." S.A. Hosty advised them that the investigation was designed to avoid having OSWALD'S wife "gain the impression she was being harassed or hounded because of her immigrant status so that the interview, when conducted, would be as productive as possible." J. Edgar Hoover commented: "I just don't understand such solicitude." [HSCA V8 p516] James Hosty commented, "He was a horse's ass. The solicitude is referring to my not interviewing Marina. He thought that if I interviewed Marina, she would have confessed her husband was going to kill the President six months ahead. And besides, that's what the Manual said, I was just goin' by the Manual." FBI S.A. HOSTY'S CARD When OSWALD saw Ruth Paine that evening, she said she gave him information on S.A. Hosty. Ruth Paine said Hosty gave her his card. Hosty told the Warren Commission: I then gave her my name and telephone number. I wrote it down on a piece of paper for her. I am fairly certain I printed it so she would be able to read it alright. I printed my name and wrote down my office telephone number, and handed it to Mrs. Paine. No address, no license number. It was my recollection it was on my paper. I took a piece of paper off, tore it in half...we don't carry cards. We are not allowed to carry cards. Neither the card nor the slip of paper was recovered.


On November 22, 1963, the FBI found S.A. Hosty's name, telephone number, license plate number (one digit off), and office address, in OSWALD'S address book, all written in the same ink. How did OSWALD find out S.A. Hosty's license plate number? Was it on Hosty's first visit or his second visit? Or was it from another source? FIRST VISIT Marina Oswald testified to the Warren Commission that while S.A. Hosty was talking with Ruth Paine during his first visit on, Friday November 1, 1963, she went outside and copied down S.A. Hosty's license plate number, as OSWALD had instructed her to do if S.A. Hosty harassed her. Marina Oswald: "LEE had asked me if an FBI agent were to call, that I note down his automobile license number, and I did that." [Marina Oswald WC Test. P48] James Hosty stated, "She snuck out and copied the plate numbers." S.A. Hosty told the Warren Commission that he parked his car down the street so that Ruth Paine's neighbors would not become aware of his presence. If this was true how could Marina have found the vehicle and copied it during Hosty's first visit? SECOND VISIT During his second visit to Ruth Paine on Tuesday, November 5, 1963, Hosty parked in front of the house; however, Ruth Paine testified that Marina Oswald remained in her room throughout the short interview, and that she could not have seen S.A. Hosty's car except when he pulled away. Ruth Paine told this researcher: "So far as I can recall Marina wasn't present [during the second visit from S.A. Hosty]." Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission: "To the best of my recollection I have to say to you that I cannot be absolutely certain that the blue Oldsmobile was in front of my house on that day. I don't remember for certainty. My best recollection was that it was on the street." Albert Jenner went to Ruth Paine's home and determined that if the car was parked on the street it would have been impossible for anyone inside Ruth Paine's home to have copied the plate number. Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission:

Paine: Hosty, I, and a second agent was with him, I don't know the name, stood at the door of my home and talked briefly about the address of OSWALD in Dallas. Marina was in her room feeding the baby, or busy some way. She came in just as Hosty and I were closing the conversation, and I must say we were both surprised at her entering. He then took his leave immediately. I was aware that he had parked his car out in front of my house. My best judgement is that the license plate number was not visible, however, while it was parked; not visible from my house. Jenner: Did you see the car? Paine: I saw the car. Jenner: Parked? Paine: Yes, I noticed it particularly. Because the first time he had come on November 1, 1963, he had parked down the street, and he made reference to the fact that they don't like to draw attention for the neighborhood to any interviews that they make, and in fact my neighbor also commented when she had talked with him a few days previously that his car was parked down the street and wasn't in front of my house. So I noticed the change that he had parked directly in front. But to the best of my recollection, in back of the automobile of my husband. James Hosty told this researcher: "The car was right in the driveway and there were two license plates. She was there at the front door with Ruth Paine. She could have just looked over her shoulder and saw it." Hosty was asked by this researcher, "I thought she said she snuck out and copied it?" James Hosty stated, "Why don't you ask Marina about that?" Marina Oswald told this interviewer in 1994: It was during the second visit. [The car] wasn't at the front. Hosty doesn't remember. It doesn't mean he's lying. Yes, I copied the plate number. Anything coming from me, you don't believe it, do you?" There is a lot of conflicting testimony regarding this notation in OSWALD'S address book. Ruth Paine testified that she did not see Marina Oswald copy the plate number on a piece of paper immediately after Hosty left nor did Marina mention anything to Ruth Paine about a plate number. Ruth Paine testified she gave OSWALD S.A. Hosty's address and phone number on Friday November 1, 1963. Marina Oswald said she gave him the license number on that same day. How could she have given him this information when S.A. Hosty's second visit had not yet occurred? Was the plate number written in the same ink as the rest of the information? Oswald obtained the number himself, and this was why the address of the FBI also appeared. HOSTY'S NAME IN OSWALD'S ADDRESS BOOK After the assassination, the notation in OSWALD'S address book of S.A. Hosty's name, address and license plate number led to speculation that OSWALD was an FBI

informant. S.A.'s Robert Gemberling and John T. Kessler covered up the S.A. Hosty/OSWALD contact and omitted S.A. Hosty's name, address, telephone and license plate number in the early report on OSWALD'S address book that was sent to the Warren Commission. S.A. John T. Kessler admitted to the HSCA that he did it because "He did not want to cause Hosty any unnecessary unpleasantness or exposure." OSWALD NOVEMBER 1963 HOSTY'S ALLEGED CALL TO THE SCHOOL BOOK DEPOSITORY The weekend after S.A. Hosty's visit, Saturday, November 2, 1963 to Sunday, November 3, 1963, OSWALD was allegedly in Irving, Texas. Marina Oswald testified that OSWALD told her he was going to the FBI "to ask them to leave you out of all these visits." [HSCA V12 p328] On Monday, November 4, 1963, S.A. Hosty allegedly telephoned the Texas School Book Depository and found that OSWALD was working there. He was given the address of Ruth Paine as OSWALD'S residence "which I knew not to be his correct address." This was what S.A. Hosty told the Warren Commission. [Hosty's WC test. p452]. It was not recorded in the OSWALD Dallas Field Office file, nor did anyone in the Texas School Book Depository remember the call. James Hosty recalled, "I did a credit verification type of pretext call. I didn't identify myself. They wouldn't have remembered it that much later. It was a routine call. It is in the file." S.A. Hosty told the Warren Commission that on Monday, November 4, 1963, he requested that Dallas again be made the office of origin for the OSWALD case. On Monday, November 4, 1963, S.A. Hosty sent a letter to the Little Rock FBI Office advising it to discontinue its investigation of OSWALD'S whereabouts. (Robert Oswald lived in Little Rock, Arkansas) S.A. HOSTY'S SECOND VISIT TO RUTH PAINE NOVEMBER 5, 1963 On Tuesday, November 5, 1963, S.A. Hosty, and Gary S. Wilson, an FBI Agent-intraining, drove to Irving. S.A. Hosty said he stood at the door and talked briefly with Ruth Paine. She told him that OSWALD had been there that past weekend. She testified: "Agent Hosty asked me, and I am not certain which time, but more likely the second, since so far as I can recall Marina wasn't present, if I thought this was a mental problem, his words referring to LEE OSWALD. I said I couldn't understand the mental processes of anyone who could espouse the Marxist philosophy, but this was far different from saying he was mentally unstable or unable to conduct himself in normal society." S.A. Hosty said Ruth Paine told him OSWALD was "a very illogical person and that he had told her that weekend that he was a 'Trotskyite Communist. Since she did not have his address she thanked him and left.'" S.A. Hosty did nothing further with the OSWALD case. HEMMING ON HOSTY HEMMING told this researcher:

Oh boy. Hosty is gonna get pissed off. Don't play this for Hosty. This is your deep throat word on Hosty. Hosty, on more than one occasion, used his good offices for the Domestic Contacts Division people in dealing with the émigré community. Quite often these immigrant assholes did not want to talk to CIA, or did not want to talk to FBI. So they traded back and forth. In fact, a couple of the Domestic Contacts Division people were given the ID card with the badge to pose as FBI people questioning these emigres. Because nobody wanted an official record of a CIA operative, even Domestic Contacts Division, talking to these people. They didn't want any dangles. And they wanted to keep Hoover happy that the Bureau was handling all this shit. So Hosty did this on a fairly frequent basis. Now if he was the guy that was told by the Agency to lay-off OSWALD, it would have been a completely normal thing. THE FBI: SOMETHING WRONG WITH HOSTY'S INVESTIGATION S.A. Hosty was censured and put on probation forinadequate investigation, including earlier investigation of OSWALD'S wife, delayed reporting, failure to put Subject on Security Index, and for holding the investigation in abeyance after being in receipt of information that Subject had been in contact with the Soviet Embassy, Mexico City. [HSCA V8 p519] James Hosty: "That Security Index means you get picked-up in times of national emergency. If he was on that, it would not have prevented the assassination. Only two people were on the Index in Texas." The FBI: "Past research in the OSWALD file discloses no justification for a statement that Bureau regulations would have precluded an OSWALD interview prior to the assassination." A December 10, 1963, memo from J. H. Gale to Clyde Tolson stated in part: His wife should have been interviewed before the assassination and investigation intensified, not held in abeyance after OSWALD contacted the Soviet Embassy in Mexico. While reference to 'investigation intensified' does not specifically state that OSWALD should have been interviewed, there is no justification for assuming that an intensified investigation would have excluded an interview of OSWALD. An Agent with Hosty's experience (Entered On Duty January 21, 1952) would be expected to conduct the interview of a security Subject without compromising classified information. Also, OSWALD had been interviewed previously by Bureau Agents on June 26, 1962, August 16, 1962 and August 10, 1963. [FBI Memo From D. Ryan to Bassett 10.4.78] William C. Sullivan commented: "His activities as disclosed by sources and interviews did not warrant day-to-day surveillance." James Hosty:

They are damned liars. You can put that in there. It was only if I had been granted permission. CIA would have had a say so in it. Somebody in the Bureau is just trying to cover their ass. Michael Paine: I think Hosty was coming around and trying to be quite circumspect. He was coming around when LEE wasn't there, asking to talk to people like Ruth Paine or Marina. OSWALD didn't want to talk to the government. He didn't want to allow the government to ask him questions. He hated authority. Hosty tried to be discreet about it. He must have felt a little embarrassed. I thought he was a nice gentleman, and I'm sorry it turned out so unfortunate for him. I assume Hosty also felt that he had to do his job, but he was watching a lot of people who he didn't think were too significant. I think he didn't think LEE was significant. On Wednesday, November 6, 1963, OSWALD charged out, from the Dallas Public Library, The Shark and the Sardines, by former President of Guatemala Juan Jose Arevalo. This book was translated by June Cobb. The book was due on November 13, 1963. The book was never returned to the library. [WCE 2642] OSWALD'S FBI DOCUMENTS END UP WITH ANGLETON On Thursday, November 7, 1963, J. Edgar Hoover sent S.A. Milton Kaack's October 31, 1963, New Orleans FBI report on OSWALD to the CIA. [CIA DBA-55715] J. Edgar Hoover hadn't sent the CIA anything on OSWALD since the interview in August 1962 conducted by S.A. John Fain, which had been sent in September 1962. These reports were shopped by the Records Integration Unit and CI/SIG had a look at them. CI/SIG's interest in OSWALD was understandable in 1963: it knew of OSWALD'S visit to the Soviet Embassy, Mexico City, and contact with the KGB. On Friday, November 8, 1963, J. Edgar Hoover sent a report dated September 24, 1963, on OSWALD, to Richard Helms. The CIA received it on Tuesday, November 12, 1963. This was a New Orleans FBI Letter Head Memorandum on OSWALD'S Fair Play for Cuba Committee activities. On November 8, 1963, the FBI received a report from MEX-118. The report was received by Matthew D. Crawford Jr. in person on November 6, 1963: "Brief description of activity or material: NO INFO LOCATED RE LEE HARVEY OSWALD - Gobernacion. File Where Original is Located 134-325A Remarks NO CC negative info. 1-105-3702 L H OSWALD (PECK)." [FBI 1053702-10; NARA FBI 12410230-10425] FROM CI/SIG OSWALD CAME /TO CI/SIG HE MUST RETURN On Thursday, November 14, 1963, the CIA received S.A. Kaack's report dated October 31, 1963, on OSWALD'S activities in New Orleans. The S.A. Milton Kaack report was

sent with a cover letter dated November 7, 1963. The CIA described to the HSCA the Routing of this FBI document: It was transmitted to CIA by the FBI under a cover note dated November 8, 1963. The date stamp on the reverse of the cover sheet indicates it was logged into the Agency on November 12, 1963. The Deputy Director of Plans (DDP) Counter-Intelligence Staff liaison office received it on November 15, 1963. The report then went to DDP Special Activities Staff Counter-Intelligence Office that was then concerned with Cuban matters. The registry for the Special Activities Staff, Counter-Intelligence Office, handled the report on November 21, 1963. On November 22, 1963, the report was received by the DDP Counter-Intelligence Staff CI/SIG presumably because it concerned a former defector to the Soviet Union. Apparently it was being processed by that office when President Kennedy was assassinated. Prior to the assassination the CIA had no information concerning OSWALD'S activities in New Orleans beyond this report. [CIA 1634-1088 p3] A CIA Routing and Record Sheet was dated November 14, 1963. FROM: RECORDS INTEGRATION DIVISION/ANALYSIS-4 TO: 1. COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE/LS November 15, 1963. (Initials JAN) 3. SAS/CI Horn. (Initials AN) 9. SAS CI CONTROL November 21, 1963 (Initials CR) 10. CI/SI November 22, 1963 (Stamp CI/SI, not Officer's Initials) 11. CI/IC DBA-55715 File Title (None) Abstract X Index File Number (Primary Code) 201-289248 Document Date: October 25, 1963. A Routing and Record Sheet from RID/AN -6 contained this additional information: The words "Cuban WAVE" in the comments section, "Microfilmed November 14, 1963, Doc. Micro. Ser." "Index" now had an X next to it. The "File Number (Primary Code) E 100300-11" was present but was crossed out. In all of the Routing and Record sheets this researcher has examined I have never seen Officer's Initials entered with a rubber stamp. S.A. Milton Kaack's widow was contacted in August 1993. She said her husband died "a long time ago." Before this final report, DeBRUEYS reports on OSWALD reached the CIA. S.A. DEBRUEYS report contained New Orleans Police Department report on OSWALD and part of S.A. Quigley's report on OSWALD. S.A. Quigley's interview with Frank Bartes that concerned OSWALD was absent. The only additional information in S.A.

DEBRUEYS report was interview with Jessie James Garner regarding a Fair Play for Cuba Committee meeting at Magazine Street and that "On October 7, 1963, NO T-1 advised that there is no such Post Office Box as 30016 in the New Orleans area." [WCD 692]

DIAL RYDER The Warren Commission reported: Ownership of a second rifle: The Commission has investigated a report that, during the first two weeks of November 1963, OSWALD has a telescopic sight mounted and sighted on a rifle at a sporting goods store in Irving, Texas. The main evidence that OSWALD had such work performed for him is an undated repair tag bearing the name "OSWALD" from the Irving Sports Shop in Irving, Texas. On November 25, 1963, Dial D. Ryder, an employee of the Irving Sports Shop, presented this tag to agents of the FBI, claiming that the tag was in his handwriting. The undated tag indicated that three holes had been drilled in an unspecified type of rifle and a telescopic sight had been mounted and the rifle bore sighted. As discussed in Chapter IV, the telescopic sight on the C2766 Mannlicher-Carcano was already mounted when shipped to OSWALD, and both Ryder and his employer, Charles W. Greener, feel certain that they never did any work on this rifle. Although this would not alter the evidence which establishes OSWALD'S ownership of the rifle used to assassinate President Kennedy, the possession of a second rifle warranted investigation because it would indicate that a possibly important part of OSWALD'S life had not been uncovered. Since all of OSWALD'S known transactions in connection with firearms after his return to the United States were undertaken under an assumed name, it seems unlikely that if he did have repairs made at the sports shop he would have used his real name. Investigation has revealed that the authenticity of the repair tag bearing OSWALD'S name is indeed subject to grave doubts. Ryder testified that he found the repair tag while cleaning his workbench on November 23, 1963. However, Ryder spoke with Greener repeatedly during the period between November 22, 1963, and November 28, 1963, and, sometime prior to November 25, 1963 he discussed with him the possibility that OSWALD had been in the store. Neither he nor Greener could remember that he had been. But despite these conversations with Greener, it is significant that Ryder never called the repair tag to his

employer's attention. Greener did not learn about the tag until November 28, 1963, when he was called by TV reporters after a story appeared in the Dallas Times-Herald. The peculiarity of Ryder's silence is compounded by the fact that, when speaking to the FBI on November 25, 1963, Ryder fixed the period during which the tag had been issued as November 1, 1963, to November 14, 1963, yet, from his later testimony, that he did so on the basis that it must have occurred when Greener was on vacation, since Greener did not remember the transaction. Moreover, the FBI had been directed to the Irving Sports Shop by anonymous telephone calls received by its Dallas office and by a local television station. The anonymous male who telephoned the Bureau attributed his information to an unidentified sack boy at a specified supermarket in Irving, but investigation has failed to verify this source. Neither Ryder, nor Greener, claimed that OSWALD had ever been a customer in the Irving Sports Shop. Neither has any recollection of either OSWALD or his Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, nor does either recall that transaction allegedly represented by the repair tag, or the person for whom the repair was supposedly made. Although Ryder stated to the FBI that he was "quite sure" that he had seen OSWALD, and that OSWALD may have been in the store at one time, when shown a photograph during his deposition, Ryder testified he knew the picture to be of OSWALD, "as pictures in the paper, but as far as seeing the guy personally, I don't think I ever have.” Subsequent events also reflect on Ryder's credibility. In his deposition, Ryder emphatically denied that he talked to any reporters about this matter prior to the time a story about it appeared in the November 28, 1963, edition of the Dallas-Times Herald. Earlier, however, he told an agent of the United States Secret Service that the newspaper had misquoted him. Moreover, a reporter for the Dallas Times Herald has testified that on November 28, 1963, he called Ryder at his home and obtained from him all of the details of the alleged transaction, and his story is supported by the testimony of a second reporter who overheard one end of the telephone conversation. No other person by the name of Oswald in the Dallas-Fort Worth area has been found who had a rifle repaired at the Irving Sports Shop.

THE ORIGIN OF THE RYDER STORY Officer F. M. Turner of the Dallas Police Department reported that on Sunday, evening, November 24, 1963, that department had received a telephone call from one Ray John of Channel Eight News, presumably in Dallas, advising that the news office had received an anonymous phone call in which the called had stated that "he (she) thought OSWALD had a rifle sighted in on Thursday, November 21, 1963, at a gun shop at 211 or 212 Irving Boulevard." Officer Turner reports that he checked, and found the Irving Sports Shop at 221 East Irving Boulevard. Officer F.M. Turner spoke to Mr. Charles Woodrow Greener, (born January 16, 1918; died May 1987), time not indicated, who said he and Dial Ryder had discussed the matter, but that neither could remember having done any work for LEE OSWALD, or remember the assassination weapon. Mr. Greener said he would check his files for names and re-contact the Dallas Police Department. Charles Woodrow Greener told Officer F.M. Turner the rifle in question had been brought in between Monday, November 4, 1963 and Friday, November 8, 1963. After the assassination Ryder discussed the possibility that OSWALD had been in the Irving Sports Shop with his boss, Mr. Greener. He might have also discussed it with his friends, and one of them might have phoned in the tip to the television station. The fact that the caller was unable to pin point the date of the visit, and did not know the exact address of the Irving Sports Shop, supported this possibility. The reason Ryder had not discussed the repair tag with Greener, was that he did not want to get involved. When the FBI showed up on November 25, 1963, he reluctantly gave the Bureau the repair tag, but he did not tell Greener that he did this. (Greener was not there at the time). By this time the press was aware of the story, and although he denied to his boss that he

spoke with the Dallas Times Herald, he in fact did grant the newspaper an interview. Ryder was afraid of loosing his job if he brought adverse publicity to the store. Gerald Posner called Dial Ryder an attention seeker who refused to be polygraphed. [Case Closed p214] Ruth Paine testified that At no time after Marina and I and our children arrived in Irving, Texas, on September 24, 1963, from New Orleans, Louisiana, did I ever take LEE OSWALD or Marina Oswald to the Irving Sports Shop, which is located at 221 East Irving Boulevard, Irving, Texas. I was quite aware during all of this period of Marina's activities and where she was. I know of no occasion when either she, or LEE OSWALD, visited either the Furniture Mart or the Irving Sports Shop. There was no occasion during the period when Marina resided with me in the Fall of 1963, of which I was aware, or now recollect, that Marina rode either in my station wagon or any other automobile or means of conveyance with LEE OSWALD at the wheel. Neither the Irving Sports Shop, nor Mrs. Whitworth, nor Dyal Ryder, was ever mentioned in my presence by either of the OSWALDS. GARLAND SLACK ON DIAL RYDER Garland Slack was a witness who observed OSWALD at the Sportsdrome Rifle Range. He believed Ryder's story. Slack: But I do know that they got the boy that worked on his rifle scope on Wednesday. That was in the middle of the week, between Sunday, November 10, 1963, and Sunday, November 17, 1963. They got his deposition because the boy, I know, put his scope on his rifle for him. No, sir; I don't know his name. Never tried to find out his name. I never talked about it, because [FBI Agents] Charlie Brown and Doc Carter asked me not to tell what I knew, and that is all. I had nothing to gain. In other words, they took it up, what they found, I never knew. Liebler: When you mentioned this fellow that put the scope on the rifle, how do you know? Slack: Because I read it in the newspaper about a week afterwards. Liebler: You have no direct knowledge yourself about the scope? Slack: No; there were so many different fellows working on the rifle range, there was possibly three or four boys who did it, and I never really connected which one it would be, because I wasn't doing any investigating anyway. See what I mean? I felt like that knowing the guy, and connecting it together, if I just kept my mouth shut, and tried to just remember seeing the fellow, there was a lot of that done. It was done in our own family.

THE GERTRUDE HUNTER AND EDITH WHITWORTH The Warren Report stated: Possible corroboration for Ryder's story is provided by two women, Edith Whitworth, who operates the Furniture Mart, a furniture store located about one and a half blocks from the Irving Sports Shop, and Mrs. Gertrude Hunter, a friend of Mrs. Whitworth. They testified that in early November 1963, a man who they later came to believe was OSWALD, drove up to the furniture mart in a two tone blue and white 1957 automobile, entered the store and asked about a part for a gun, presumably because of a sign that appeared in the building advertising a gunsmith shop that had formerly occupied part of the premises. When he found that he could not obtain the part, the man allegedly returned to his car and then came back into the store with a woman and two young children to look at furniture, remaining in the store for about 30 to 40 minutes. Upon confronting Marina Oswald, both women identified her as the woman they had seen in the store on the occasion in question, although Mrs. Hunter could not identify a picture of LEE HARVEY OSWALD and Mrs. Whitworth identified some pictures of OSWALD, but not others. Mrs. Hunter proported to identify Marina Oswald by her eyes, and did not observe the fact that Marina Oswald had a front tooth missing at the time she supposedly saw her. After a through inspection of the Furniture Mart, Marina Oswald testified that she had never been on the premises before. The circumstances surrounding the testimony of the two women are helpful in evaluating the weight to be given to their testimony, and the extent to which they lend support to Ryder's evidence. The women previously told newspaper reporters that the part for which the man was looking was a 'plunger,' which the Commission has been advised is a colloquial term used to describe a firing pin. This work was completely different from the work covered by Ryder's repair tag, and the firing pin of the assassination weapon does not appear to have been recently replaced. At the time of their depositions, neither woman was able to recall the type of work which the man wanted done. Mrs. Whitworth related to the FBI that the man told her that the younger child with him was born on October 20, 1963, which was in fact Rachel Oswald's birthday. In her testimony before the Commission, however, Mrs. Whitworth could not state that the man had told her the child's birth date was October 20, 1963, and, in fact, expressed uncertainty about the birthday of her own grandchild, which she had previously used as a guide to remembering the birth date of the younger child in the shop. Mrs. Hunter thought that the man she and Mrs. Whitworth believed was

OSWALD drove the car to and from the store; however, LEE HARVEY OSWALD apparently was not able to drive an automobile by himself, and does not appear to have access to a car. The two women claimed that OSWALD was in the Furniture Mart on a weekday and in mid-afternoon. However, OSWALD had reported to work at the Texas School Book Depository on the dates referred to by the women and there is no evidence that he left his job during business hours. In addition, Ruth Paine has stated that she always accompanied Marina Oswald whenever Marina left the house with her children and that they never went to the Furniture Mart, either with or without LEE HARVEY OSWALD, at any time during October or November 1963. There is nothing to indicate in November the Oswalds were interested in buying furniture. Finally, investigation has produced reason to question the credibility of Mrs. Hunter as a witness. Mrs. Hunter stated that one of the reasons she remembers the description of the car in which OSWALD supposedly drove to the furniture store was that she was awaiting the arrival of a friend from Houston, who drove a similar automobile. However, the friend from Houston had advised that in November 1963, she never visited or planned to visit Dallas, and that she told no one she intended to make sure a trip. Moreover the friend added, according to the FBI interview report, that Mrs. Hunter has a 'strange obsession for attempting to inject herself into any big event which comes to her attention' and that she is likely 'to claim some personal knowledge of any major crime which receives much publicity.' She concluded that 'the entire family is aware of these tall tales Mrs. Hunter tells and they normally pay no attention to her.' [WR 316] The FBI reported: The Commission requested several investigative steps to be taken to substantiate or disprove an allegation that prior to the assassination OSWALD and his wife, Marina, visited the Irving Sports Shop to have a telescopic sight mounted and sighted on a rifle. This was initially reported by an employee of the store, Dial D. Ryder, who allegedly found a repair tag with the name OSWALD on it. This allegation has been somewhat supported by Gertrude Hunter and Edith Whitworth who claimed they saw the OSWALDS [between Wednesday, November 6, 1963 and Friday, November 8, 1963,] and directed them to the sport shop. The circumstances of this whole situation indicated Ryder prepared the repair tag after the assassination. However, he is so involved he can't back out now. Then women appear mistaken in their identification as the supporting data furnished by them is not consistent with what we know of the OSWALDS' background. Current info further substantiates our findings. The enclosed communication from Houston discloses that Mrs. Hunter is known to exaggerate and has an 'obsession' to inject herself into any big

event. Her family reportedly knows she has a tendency to tell tall tales. When the remaining investigation is received, the Commission will be notified. [FBI 105-82555-5298] After the Warren Report was published, Gertrude Hunter twice told the FBI she was going to sue her sister-in-law, Doris M. Dominey, for giving the Bureau this false information. THE ORIGINS OF THE HUNTER & WHITWORTH REPORTS The FBI reported on July 18, 1964: Mr. Herald advised that on November 22, 1963, he arrived in Dallas, Texas, at approximately 4:45 p.m. on an assignment from the New York Office of the Paris Match magazine to make photographs regarding the assassination of President Kennedy. He advised that approximately five days after arriving in Dallas he and Miss Jean Campbell, a correspondent for the London Evening Standard, were in Irving, Texas, to contact people regarding Mrs. Oswald. He stated that as he and Miss Campbell were driving down the street they noticed a sign that said 'Gun Shop' and decided to stop at this place to see if anyone there might know OSWALD. Upon entering the shop they found it had been converted into a used furniture store and was no longer a gun shop. He advised they talked to a woman in the store, a Mrs. Edith Whitworth, and asked her if she knew the Oswalds. Mrs. Whitworth advised them that LEE HARVEY OSWALD was in her store on a Wednesday, or Thursday, afternoon about the first week in November 1963. Mrs. Whitworth told them that OSWALD asked for a gun part, and Mrs. Whitworth specifically named this part, calling it a plunger. Mr. Herald advised that Mrs. Whitworth then stated that OSWALD became interested in some of the furniture in this store, and a woman entered the store, whom she assumed to be OSWALD'S wife, and this woman had two children with her, one being a very young baby. Mr. Herald stated that he recalls that Mrs. Whitworth gave a very detailed description of how OSWALD was dressed, and she also stated that the man conversed with this woman in a foreign language. Mrs. Whitworth advised Herald and Campbell that OSWALD talked of furniture, and stated that he would need some furniture for an apartment or a house in about three or four weeks. Mr. Herald advised that Mrs. Whitworth stated OSWALD had remained in the store for approximately 20 minutes, and that when he and his wife left, they entered a 1955 blue sedan, possibly a Ford, which automobile was parked directly in front of the window of the store. He stated that Mrs.

Whitworth said that OSWALD did not bring any weapon in the store, and that she did not see him with any weapon of any kind at that time. He stated that Mrs. Whitworth advised them she had seen OSWALD on television and she was certain that he was the person who had been in her store. Mr. Herald stated that Mrs. Whitworth advised them that there was another woman in the store at the time the Oswalds were in there, however, she did not recall the name of this woman. He advised that he and Miss Campbell, upon leaving the store, telephonically contacted this other woman, and she told them basically the same story that Mrs. Whitworth told them. Mr. Herald further advised the Mrs. Whitworth had referred OSWALD to a local sporting goods store in Irving. Paul Matthian, a reporter for the Paris-Match, accompanied Miss Jean Campbell on an interview with Mrs. Hunter in Irving, Texas, regarding Mrs. Hunter's comments concerning the visit of the LEE HARVEY OSWALD family to the store of Mrs. Edith Whitworth, an acquaintance of Mrs. Hunter. Matthian recalled that Mrs. Hunter, in attempting to determine the date of the OSWALD visit to the store, associated the date with a particular bus trip her husband had taken, and she decided that the OSWALD visit must have occurred on either Wednesday November 6, 1963, or Thursday, November 7, 1963, a day or so subsequent to her husband's bus trip. He advised that Mrs. Hunter stated that she devoted more attention to Marina Oswald than to LEE HARVEY OSWALD, because Marina was carrying an infant, approximately two to three weeks old, in her arms. Mrs. Hunter voiced some nice remark about the baby and recalls that Marina did not reply to Mrs. Hunter's comment. Mrs. Hunter then stated, according to Matthian, that OSWALD spoke to Marina in a foreign language, apparently apprising Marina of Mrs. Hunter's comments. Matthian advised that he does not recall whether Mrs. Hunter mentioned exactly what it was that OSWALD needed for his gun. He also does not recall whether Mrs. Hunter stated that Mrs. Whitworth referred OSWALD to the 'Irvington Sports Shop' or merely indicated in the direction of the Irvington Sports Shop. Matthian stated that when Mrs. Hunter remarked that the OSWALDS entered a 1957, or 1958, two tone blue and white Ford, he asked her why she remembered the type of car used by the Oswalds. He stated that Mrs. Hunter's reply was that OSWALD, operating the vehicle, made a "U" turn and was about to proceed in the wrong direction on a one way street. Matthian did not recall whether Mrs. Hunter stated that she informed OSWALD of the illegal turn, or he became aware of his error in some

other way, but he does believe that Mrs. Hunter stated that OSWALD was then instructed to back the vehicle down the street toward the Irvington Sports Shop. OCTOBER 20, 1963 Either Hunter and Whitworth saw the Oswalds or they conspired to perpetrate a hoax. There was no middle ground where they thought they saw a family that resembled the Oswalds. Either Whitworth obtained the birth date of Rachel Oswald from public sources in furtherance of this hoax, or she obtained it from OSWALD. There was a one in 365 chance that she picked this date randomly. She told the FBI her grandchild was born on the same day, and that was why she remembered it. The FBI was asked to check this out. The outcome of the investigation was unclear. The FBI checked a listing which contained all female, white, legitimate, babies born in the Dallas area in on October 20, 1963, but could not locate the couple Edith Whitworth had confused the OSWALDS with: "Our investigation did not establish any of the parents whose children were born on October 20, 1963, were in Whitworth's store, and were possibly mistaken by Mrs. Whitworth for the Oswalds." ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE OF RYDER On November 17, 1963, one day before the article about Dial Ryder appeared in the Dallas Times Herald, Whitworth told Campbell about the visit by the OSWALD family to her store. She also told Campbell that she directed OSWALD to the Irving Sports Shop, one and half blocks from her store. At the time, only associates of Ryder and the FBI and Dallas Police knew about the repair tag. The FBI: "Our investigation indicates Ryder may have fabricated the repair tag. The only fact that lends credence to his story are the comments made by Whitworth..." [FBI 105-82555-4558; FBI 62-109060-NR 170 8.4.64] J. Lee Rankin noted: "The significance of Officer Turner's report that Greener had told him that the rifle had been brought in between November 4, 1963, to November 8, 1963, is clear when considered in connection with your report on Mrs. Edith Whitworth who said she had, on November 6, 1963, November 7, 1963, or November 8, 1963, directed LEE HARVEY OSWALD to a gun shop one and a half blocks from her used furniture store." Mrs. Hunter said Edith Whitworth directed OSWALD to the "Irvingtown Sports Shop." There was a repair tag at that very sporting goods store with the name OSWALD on it. Was this coincidence? On December 23, 1963, Whitworth told S.A. John Gemberling her story. [FBI 62-109060 NR 12 4.30.64] Edith Whitworth said that OSWALD entered her store and asked for a rifle part, which she called 'a plunger.' The Warren Report stated that this was different than having a scope mounted and boresighted. OSWALD always had to throw in a lie, or two, when he communicated with others, and after he found out he was in the wrong place, he did not have to convey the true nature of the work he wanted done. ANALYSIS: MARINA AND HER CHILDREN

Whitworth and Hunter said OSWALD was accompanied by Marina Oswald, June Oswald and their newly born child. Marina, June and Rachel were in Irving, Texas, at the time, not far from this store. The witnesses with opposing testimony were Marina Oswald and Ruth Paine. The Warren Commission believed Ruth and Marina. Why? Mrs. Hunter and Mrs. Whitworth were not subject to deportation as Marina Oswald was. Mrs. Hunter and Mrs. Whitworth did not trace back to the intelligence community as Ruth Paine did. Whitworth and Hunter said the family appeared on a weekday, during working hours. OSWALD could have slipped away from the Texas School Book Depository for a few hours. OSWALD had stayed in the Furniture Mart for 20 minutes, then left in a 1957 or 1958 Ford, immediately making a U-turn on a one way street. Evidence presently in this data base indicates that OSWALD was in the process of learning to drive during the Fall of 1963 and was planning to take his driver's test. [FBI 62-109060-944, NR 4. 30. 64] OSWALD knew how to drive by this time. PINPOINTING OF THE DATE BY MRS. HUNTER The Warren Report: "Mrs. Hunter stated that one of the reasons she remembers the description of the car in which OSWALD supposedly drove to the furniture store was that she was awaiting the arrival of a friend from Houston, who drove a similar automobile. However, the friend from Houston had advised that in November 1963, she never visited or planned to visit Dallas, and that she told no one she intended to make sure a trip." On August 11, 1964, Mrs. Gertrude Hunter, 141 South Hastings, Irving, Texas, furnished the following information to the FBI regarding the proposed trip of her relatives, "James and Doris Dommney" of Houston, Texas: "Mrs. Hunter stated that the Dommneys had not directly told her that they planned to visit her in November 1963, but that her sister-in-law and mother of Doris Dommney, one Mrs. Paterson, had written her that the Dommneys were planning to visit the Dallas area in November 1963, and would probably visit her in Irving, Texas. Mrs. Hunter stated that Mrs. Paterson died on or about June 13, 1964." Mrs. Hunter told Miss Campbell that she used her husband's but trip to pinpoint the date. Mrs. Hunter's sister-in-law did not like Mrs. Hunter: "Mrs. Hunter has a 'strange obsession for attempting to inject herself into any big event which comes to her attention' and that she is likely 'to claim some personal knowledge of any major crime which receives much publicity.' She concluded that 'the entire family is aware of these tall tales Mrs. Hunter tells and they normally pay no attention to her." [WR 316] Did Mrs. Hunter have a criminal record for filing false police reports? If she had, the FBI would have certainly used this to discredit her. What other crimes had she injected herself into? What crimes had Mrs. Whitworth injected herself into? Whitworth changed her story when she testified before the Warren Commission. Had she been pressured into doing this?

The Warren Commission, on the advice of the FBI, ignored physical evidence (the tag) and eyewitness testimony (Hunter and Whitworth) and chronological synchronicity (early November 1963) and concluded OSWALD had not visited the Irving Furniture Mart and had not done business with the Irving Sports Shop. It was more logical to conclude that OSWALD went to the Irving Sport Shop from the Irving Furniture Mart that day. He was only a block and a half away. OSWALD was associated with a group of paramilitarists who were always doing something with arms, such as having sights mounted on them. OSWALD may have gone into the Irving Sporting Goods Shop to have a scope mounted on a rifle for a friend of his, a friend named GERALD PATRICK HEMMING, and had been told by HEMMING it was alright to use the name OSWALD. HEMMING knew this would leave traces that would be discovered after the assassination that indicated OSWALD was involved with weaponry. Why did the FBI have to discredit this story? The FBI was intent on not uncovering a broader conspiracy which it had overlooked. Admitting that OSWALD had access to two weapons would have complicated things, because it would have meant acknowledging OSWALD had a life the FBI was unaware of. The FBI called Ryder a liar: "Previous investigation conducted in this matter indicates the employee, Dial D. Ryder, may be lying. However, he has become so involved he apparently is sticking with his story." It was the FBI that was lying, not Ryder, Whitworth or Hunter. LETTER TO E. HOWARD HUNT: KGB FORGERY OR THE REAL THING? NOVEMBER 8, 1963

THE FBI'S HANDWRITING ANALYSIS In August 1975 a copy of OSWALD'S letter to HOWARD HUNT was mailed to researcher Penn Jones. It was postmarked Mexico City. After a reproduction of this letter was turned over to the FBI, Director Clarence Kelley stated: "Investigation to date has failed to produce evidence that the alleged letter was written by OSWALD." This was untrue. The Justice Department reported, The copy of the purported OSWALD letter has been subjected by the Bureau to handwriting analysis. The results are inconclusive. The writing is sufficiently similar to known samples of OSWALD'S handwriting, that Bureau experts cannot eliminate the possibility that the letter is genuine. Neither can they say definitely that it is OSWALD'S writing." The FBI: "The photocopy...does not reproduce the handwriting on the original document with sufficient clarity of line detail for adequate handwriting comparisons or any definite determination whether that handwriting was, or was not, prepared by LEE HARVEY OSWALD, whose available genuine writings consist of a large number of documents previously submitted in this investigation. However, from such comparisons and examinations as

could be made, significant similarities in letter formations were noted as well as a number of unexplained handwriting variations. In the absence of the original document...or a clear photograph of the original document it is doubtful whether OSWALD can be definitely identified ,or positively eliminated, as the writer of the questioned letter." [FBI 62-2115-760] THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS HANDWRITING ANALYSIS Three handwriting experts retained by the Dallas Morning News in 1977 concluded that the letter was "OSWALD'S authentic writing, written by him." OSWALD had misspelled the word "concerning" the same way once before. [Summers Conspiracy p626] THE HSCA'S HANDWRITING ANALYSIS The HSCA could not discredit the letter from OSWALD to HUNT. HSCA investigator Kenneth Klein questioned handwriting expert Joseph P. McNally: Klein: At this time I would direct your attention to the document marked JFK-506, dated November 8, 1963...For the record could you read that document please. McNally: 'N-o-v 8, 1963: Dear Mr. HUNT: I would like information concerning (concerding) my position. I am asking only for information. I am suggesting that we discuss the matter fully before any steps are taken by me or anyone else. Thank you LEE HARVEY OSWALD. Klein: Using the blowup, will you explain why the panel could not reach a conclusion with respect to that document? McNally: Number one, this is of course a photo reproduction. It is a peculiar type of photo has some of the characteristics of being a photo reproduced from a microfilm enlargement which was originally out of focus...This is an extremely good reproduction of that particular fuzzy original photo reproduction...this document itself, although the writing pattern, or the overall letter designs, are consistent with those as written on other documents, this is much more precisely and much more carefully written. There is no great deviation from the writing of OSWALD insofar as individual letter design forms are concerned... According to Joseph P. McNally, the forger composed the text of this letter. After that he studied OSWALD'S handwriting, and did a good job of reproducing it. Upon completion, he misspelled LEE HARVEY OSWALD'S middle name when he signed it. Instead of correcting this error, he microfilmed it slightly out of focus, developed the microfilm negative, and printed it. Then he photographed that print. These last steps were unnecessary. Why didn't the forger simply photograph the original forgery? This indicated the letter was opened, microfilmed, then resealed, and sent to its original destination. Someone obtained a print made from an original microfilm negative, photographed it, and mailed it to Penn Jones. The HSCA testimony continued:

Klein: I have but one question. On balance, this HUNT letter, do you find more similarities or dissimilarities overall in the comparison to the other writings or letters, words that all seem to agree in other documents? McNally: There are no dissimilarities in the body of this particular letter, the context, until you come down to the signature...a part of the signature agrees with OSWALD'S signature...and part of it does not agree...and for these reasons we were unable to come to any firm conclusion regarding this particular document...we are not able to accurately determine that it is specifically a forgery... Klein: Is it in your opinion a fake? McNally No, I am not certain on this particular document. According to Joseph P. McNally there were no dissimilarities in the body of the letter and part of OSWALD'S signature "agreed with the signature." The HSCA focused on the one part that did not agree. The preponderance of evidence showed that OSWALD wrote the letter, and a small part indicated he did not. Shouldn't the HSCA have concluded OSWALD wrote it? Instead, the HSCA, like the FBI, said it could not come to a firm conclusion regarding it. The HSCA's handwriting experts were "not able to accurately determine that it is specifically a forgery." If something was not a forgery, it was authentic. There was no twilight zone. Joseph McNally's statement that this letter was "much more precisely and much more carefully written" was interesting considering that the day after OSWALD wrote this letter, he wrote a letter to the Soviet Embassy, Washington, which the Warren Report stated was much more carefully written than his previous letters. OSWALD prepared two handwritten preliminary drafts: "According to Marina Oswald, OSWALD he retyped the envelope 10 times." [WR p309] HUNT'S MEXICO CITY SAFEHOUSES Was the letter mailed to Penn Jones by a Mexican police official? HUNT'S Mexico City address was an anti-Castro safehouse, in which the Mexican police had an interest, since anti-Castro attacks had been planned from there. During his HUNT v. ajweberman deposition, HUNT stated: "I traveled down there [Mexico] in 1960, I was there with my family until the early fall when it became apparent that the Cubans [exiles] had incurred the hostility of the Mexican Government. At that point I sent my wife and my family back to the United States..." In Give Us This Day, HUNT wrote: "In Mexico I was to be treated by the station as a separate unit responsible for all frente matters including the Mexico City delegation of the Cuban Revolutionary Front. We found a small furnished house in Lomas de Chapultepec...I established a private office, moved in a large safe and worked out operation schedules with my station contact...the delegation reported increasing harassment from Mexican officials. Finally Sam reported having been trailed to the safehouse and when I looked down from the third floor window, I could see a

sloppily dressed surveillant slouched against a lamppost. A counter-surveillance team traced the man to Mexican Police Headquarters." [HUNT Day pp. 51-58] LETTER ADDRESS The CIA reported that HUNT had set up a Washington, D.C., "Letter Address" in 1963 and terminated it in 1965: "Address still being used by (deleted)." DO/SEC 63-72 June 18, 1963 MEMO FOR: Deputy Director of Security (Investigations and Operational Support) ATTENTION: Mr. (Deleted). SUBJECT: (Deleted) Request for This will confirm a verbal request to your office for a (deleted) in Washington, D.C. to be set up in the (Deleted). It will be used for an indefinite period of time, should be service daily and the volume should be light. Please confirm the activation of this facility as soon as possible. The (deleted) is being forwarded under separate cover. Joseph R. Murphy DODS Security Officer. THE COVER LETTER AND THE RETURN ADDRESS Penn Jones received a cover letter with the HUNT note: At the end of the last year I gave Mr. Kelley, FBI Director, a letter from LEE OSWALD. It is my understanding it could have brought out certain circumstances in the Kennedy assassination. Since Mr. Kelley has not responded to that letter, I've got the right to believe something bad might happened [sic] to me, and that is why I see myself obligated to keep myself away for a short time... This letter was originally sent to the FBI with a return address "Insurgentes, Sur No. 30, Mexico, D.F., Mexico" on it, and it bore the initials "P.S." Whoever sent it, mistakenly expected a response. Earl Goltz reported that the address was a working class apartment building in Mexico City. The FBI reported that this address "is a postal box for 'The Picadilly,' a hotel for transients in Mexico City." When the sender failed to receive a response from FBI Director Clarence Kelley, he decided to avoid the address on the letter for a short time, or had moved permanently. The letter was from someone who had experience with the heavy-handed tactics of the Mexican police. The FBI denied having received this letter: "After a check of all appropriate personnel and files, the Bureau reports it has no record or other indication of receiving this letter. FBI Agents

interviewed the now retired documents analyst who would have been responsible...He has no recollection of the OSWALD letter." [DOJ File Hantman to Civiletti 6.24.77] ANALYSIS: THE TEXT OF THE LETTER This letter gave some idea of what really went on between HUNT and OSWALD: November 8, 1963 I would like information concerding [sic] my position. I am asking only for information. I am suggesting that we discuss the matter fully before any steps are taken by me or anyone else. The letter seems to place OSWALD in a plot to kill the President because of the date when it was allegedly written and this tends to discredit it, however it could be referring to another operation. The date is also significant because on November 8, 1963 OSWALD visited the Dallas FBI Office and left a note threatening to blow it up if the FBI did not stop bothering his wife. OSWALD believed he was working on behalf of the CIA and thought they should have informed the FBI that he was an Operation and told it to lay off. In the disputed note to HUNT he is also unsure of his status. Penn Jones received the letter in August 1975, the news of OSWALD threatening to bomb the FBI Office first surfaced in September 1975 so the KGB could not have chosen this date because of this, however ,it was known that OSWALD visited the FBI office on this date prior to the OSWALD to HUNT letter being mailed. Could all this uncertainty be a result of HEMMING having conned OSWALD into thinking that OSWALD worked for the CIA, and that HUNT and PHILLIPS were his Case Officers? HUNT and PHILLIPS could easily have shown him their CIA identification cards. But if HUNT and PHILLIPS were working for the CIA, and not a rogue element within that agency, why couldn't they prevent S.A. Hosty from bothering his wife? A phone call from the CIA to the FBI should have put an end to this. Just what was OSWALD'S position anyway? Was he a snitch who was not carried on the books, or was there paperwork about his undercover work at the Agency? "I am asking only for information." OSWALD was not asking for documentation. He just wanted a verbal report. "I am suggesting that we discuss the matter fully..." OSWALD was willing to discuss the matter with his Case Officer "before any steps are taken by me or anyone else." Before he or HEMMING did anything else on behalf of the Agency. James Hosty was asked about the HUNT letter: "Well it was a forgery, and I can tell you the guy who did it. How did OSWALD sign his name? The only trouble is he signed it 'LEE HARVEY OSWALD.' He never used his middle name. He spelled his own middle name wrong." [see LEE HENRY OSWALD] Recently declassified Justice Department documents revealed that its investigation of the HUNT note focused on Nelson Bunker and H.L. Hunt. E. HOWARD HUNT was not mentioned. Internal Revenue Service informant Paul Rothermel brought the letter to the attention of the FBI coupled with allegations that the Hunts had been involved in the JFK assassination. Robert Keuch drafted a Memorandum dated January 27, 1977, which suggested various prosecutorial

strategies, should a conspiracy in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy come to light, which involved the Hunts. THE FBI'S HANDWRITING ANALYSIS After a reproduction of this letter was turned over to the FBI, Director Clarence Kelley stated: "Investigation to date has failed to produce evidence that the alleged letter was written by OSWALD." The Justice Department reported, The copy of the purported OSWALD letter has been subjected by the Bureau to handwriting analysis. The results are inconclusive. The writing is sufficiently similar to known samples of OSWALD'S handwriting, that Bureau experts cannot eliminate the possibility that the letter is genuine. Neither can they say definitely that it is OSWALD'S writing. THE KGB TAKES CREDIT FOR THE HUNT LETTER In the mid 1970’s the dramatic revelations of real conspiracy in the Nixon White House and of CIA assassination plots against several foreign statesmen gave the conspiracy theorists a new lease on life. The KGB, predictably, was anxious to lose no opportunity to promote active measures which supported the increasingly popular theory that the CIA was behind Kennedy’s assassination. It’s chief target was the former CIA officer turned Watergate conspirator E. Howard Hunt. Who HAD BEEN WRONGLY ACCUSED OF BEING IN DALLAS ON THE DAY OF THE ASSASSINATION. The centerpiece of the active measure against Howard Hunt, codenamed ARLINGTON, was a forged letter to him from Oswald, allegedly written a fortnight before the assassination. The letter used phrases and expressions taken from actual letters written by Oswald during his two years in the Soviet Union, was fabricated in a clever imitation of his handwriting. The implication, clearly, was the Oswald wanted to meet Hunt before going ahead with the assassination. Before being used the forgery was checked twice for “authenticity” by the Third Department of the KGB’s OUT (operational technical) Directorate. In 1974 photographs of it were sent to the most active conspiracy buffs, together with covering letters from an anonymous wellwisher who claimed that he had given the original to the Director of the FBI Clarence Kelly, who appeared to be suppressing it. The center was doubtless disappointed that for almost two years its forgery received no publicity. In 1977 the letter was published by Penn Jones. The New York Times reported that three had authenticated the letter. Oswald’s widow identified her husband’s handwriting. Expert summoned by the HSCA in 1978 concluded more prudently that they were unable to reach a firm conclusion because of the absence of the original document.

[The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB by Christopher Andrew MI-5 historian] Neither the Justice Department, nor the FBI nor the HSCA could rule out the possibility that the letter was authentic. Did the KGB put one over on this researcher? As for Christopher Andrews statement the KGB did not believe HUNT was present on the scene of the Kennedy assassination, I wonder about its validity as a result of Andrew’s anti-Communist intelligence community background. He is the official historian for British Intelligence which is closely linked to CIA and has an interest in covering up HUNT’s role in the Kennedy assassination. The fact that the operation has an English name, ARLINGTON, is also suspect. This Soviet operation may never have existed. HUNT threw some light on this in American Spy: Another reason my name has become involved with the assassination is a notorious letter that was allegedly written by Oswald on November 8, 1963, reading: Dear Mr. Hunt: I would like information concerding [sic] my position. I am asking only for information. I am suggesting that we discuss the matter fully before any steps are taken by me or anyone else. Thankyou [sic], Lee Harvey Oswald In 1974, after my name had been exposed in Watergate, the letter was mailed by the KGB to at least three conspiracy advocates, one of whom published it in a book. Afterward, the HSCA had the document examined by a handwriting expert, who pronounced it a forgery. Most likely, it was part of a clumsy disinformation campaign by the KGB. It certainly doesn't read as if the person who wrote the letter was very conversant in English, even misspelling the word concerning. It may have been written by a person with a thick accent, spelling the word the way he pronounced it. Defecting agents have confirmed that the KGB was involved in many strange and, to us, patently ridiculous propaganda campaigns. Trying to connect the CIA with the assassination of a beloved president may certainly have been on their agenda. The forger may also have been trying to implicate another famous Hunt: H. L. Hunt of Texas fame. HUNT told St. John Hunt, “Well it’s claimed that [OSWALD and PHILLIPS] did meet and apparently there is some documentary evidence to that effect but at that time PHILLIPS was Chief of Station in Mexico City.” PHILLIPS was in Washington either after OSWALD was in Mexico or just before he left. A CIA document that I cannot relocate read Philips was in Washington from (deleted) October 1963 to October 10. Tad Szulc reported that HUNT was Acting Station Chief. If the name HUNT is substituted for the name PHILLIPS the documentary evidence that HUNT is referring to might in fact be this letter.

OSWALD'S NOTE TO S.A. JAMES P. HOSTY FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1963 On Friday, November 8, 1963, the same day he wrote to HUNT, OSWALD went to FBI headquarters in Dallas and asked to speak with S.A. Hosty. Ruth Paine testified to the Warren Commission: LEE told me he had stopped at the downtown office of the FBI, and tried to see the agents, and left a note. And my impression of it is that this notice irritated, that he left the note saying what he thought. This is reconstructing my impression of the fellows bothering him and his family and this is my impression then. I couldn't say this was specifically said to him later...I will just go on to say that I learned only a few weeks ago that he never did go into the FBI office. Of course knowing, thinking, that he had gone in, I thought that was sensible on his part. But it appears to have been another lie. Nancy L. Fenner, the secretary at Dallas FBI Field Office who spoke with OSWALD, gave the following statement to the FBI: I, Nannie Lee Fenner, being duly sworn, hereby make the following free and voluntary statement to Assistant Director Harold N. Bassett, and the Special Agent in Charge of the Dallas Office, Theodore L. Gunderson. Mr. Bassett advised me that information had come to the Bureau's attention indicating the possibility that LEE HARVEY OSWALD had personally appeared at the Dallas Office sometime prior to the assassination of former President Kennedy. He also advised that as a result of the information received, indications were that I was the receptionist who was present when OSWALD appeared at the office. The following, to the best of my recollection, is what occurred relative to the above. Approximately one week or ten days prior to November 22, 1963, an individual appeared at the reception desk and asked to see S.A. HOSTY. I checked to see if he was in, and learned that he was not, and so informed this visitor. He then left a note. On the envelope there appeared the name 'S.A. HOSTY.' The envelope was not sealed, and the note was partially sticking out from the envelope. Accordingly, I pulled the note out and it said something along the following: 'Let this be a warning. I will blow up the FBI and the Dallas Police Department if you don't stop bothering my wife. Signed, LEE HARVEY OSWALD.' From photographs I saw in the newspaper, I recognized the person who delivered the above note to be LEE HARVEY OSWALD. As best I can recall, I took the note in to the ASAC, Kyle Clark. Kyle Clark, after reading the note, stated that he was just a nut, and gave it to S.A. Hosty. Following return from Kyle Clark's office, I showed the note to

Helen May and sometime shortly thereafter, when James White and Joe Pearce were near my desk, Helen May told me to show the note to them and I did so. Sometime later in the day, S.A. HOSTY came to the office and I personally gave him the note, he read it and made some comment to the effect that OSWALD was a nut... Nancy Fenner, contacted in August 1993, declined comment. Nancy Fenner was reinterviewed by the FBI on September 2, 1975. She stated that the statement she initially furnished on July 15, 1975, was accurate. She categorically stated that the note which she received from OSWALD made absolutely no mention concerning President Kennedy. It is her recollection that the note was handwritten, which she described as a large scrawl, very childlike in nature. She indicated that on giving this matter additional thought she was now of the opinion that Miss Helen May may have seen OSWALD as he was departing the office after he delivered the note. It may be recalled that in Mrs. Fenner's initial statement of July 15, 1975, she advised that she had shown the note in question to Joe Pearce. On September 5, 1975, an additional statement was taken from Mrs. Fenner, and at this time she advised that it is her clear recollection that Pearce did not see the OSWALD note, but that he had the envelope and/or letter in his hand, and she is certain now that he did not read the letter. She claimed that she told Pearce that 'some nut' had left the letter and he merely picked it up and laid it down. Miss Helen Lee May was reinterviewed on September 2, 1975, and she categorically denied ever seeing OSWALD at any time, or ever seeing the note or letter which he delivered. She did recall that sometime subsequent to the assassination, Mrs. Fenner again brought up the subject of the OSWALD note, and stated that Clark (former ASAC Clark) had told her to forget about it. Miss Marian F. Roberts, the former secretary of SAC Gordon Shanklin, was interviewed on September 6, 1975, in Sun City, Arizona. She advised that she was aware that OSWALD appeared at the reception desk and left a note with a Mrs. Fenner for S.A. Hosty prior to the assassination of President Kennedy. She stated that she had never seen the note and was not aware of its contents although she had heard the letter wanted Hosty to stop harassing OSWALD'S wife. She related that she recalled entering the Dallas Office at about the same time that Helen May was entering, at approximately mid-day. To her recollection, this was a few weeks before the assassination, and she and Mrs. May saw a slender, dark haired, young man hand something to Mrs. Fenner. This was not significant to her at the time; however, following the assassination Helen May said something to her to the effect, 'You remember, Marian, we were coming into the office about the time OSWALD handed Fenner the note.' She stated that after she saw pictures of OSWALD after the assassination she

can easily assume that he was the individual she saw handing something to Mrs. Fenner. She recalled that on the same day she observed this person, Mrs. Fenner told her a short time later a man had left a note for Hosty to quit bothering his wife. She said that Mrs. Fenner told her the man did not say much, but he was 'teed off' at Hosty. This, according to Mrs. Roberts, tended to further her belief that the man she and Miss May saw was OSWALD. She said, in her opinion, OSWALD'S appearance at the Dallas Office, and the note he left for Hosty, were common knowledge among Dallas Office personnel, who were there at the time of the assassination. She stated that after the assassination, she heard from an unrecalled source that it was decided to destroy the note, but she does not know who made this decision to have the note destroyed. She stated she recognized the importance of the note after she heard of the decision to destroy it. On September 5, 1975, S.A. Joe A. Pearce was re-interviewed. He categorically denied he ever saw OSWALD, that he had ever had in his hands or in his possession any note left by OSWALD, and that he ever read any note left by him. He said that after deliberating on the matter since his prior affidavit of July 22, 1975, he recalled that there were several discussions in the latter part of the 1960's concerning a note left by OSWALD for Hosty. During some of these discussions Mrs. Fenner remarked to others in his presence that Pearce had seen the note. He admitted that he did not contradict the statement, and explains his failure to do so on his lack of appreciation of the seriousness of what she was communicating to the people involved. S.A. Drain said he heard about the letter from Fenner. S.A. Charles T. Brown Jr. told the FBI he first heard of the note in the early part of 1964, during a conversation with S.A. Vincent Drain. When Mrs. Martha Ann Campbell heard about the note from Fenner, she brought it to the attention of her boss, Kenneth Howe. "She said that upon hearing Fenner's name, Howe made a 'face,' and Howe told her that she was not to discuss the visit or the note any more and it was emphatic enough that she followed his instruction. She said that she had enough sense to realize that something was being held back at that time but she said nothing about it." ROBERT GEMBERLING On August 31, 1975, Tom Johnson, publisher of the Dallas Times Herald telephonically contacted Assistant to the Director, Deputy Associate Director (Investigation) James B. Adams. Tom Johnson stated that he received an anonymous call from a female who stated: Not everyone in Dallas knew about it, and she thinks it is unfair to leave the impression that many of the men knew about it. In case you are

interested, Mr. Hosty destroyed the note on orders of Mr. Howe. Mr. Gemberling was handling the case. Mr. Bill Anderton, and Mr. Urial Horton, also know if it. Mr. Gemberling knew about the note, and saw it, but it was destroyed on the instructions of Mr. Howe... At the time of this current inquiry, S.A. Robert Gemberling was on sick leave, having been diagnosed by his doctor on August 2, 1975, as having had a heart attack. In the absence of obtaining clearance from his physician, who was out of town, and whereabouts unknown, Gemberling was not interviewed at this time." S.A. Gemberling was out for about two months. S.A. James Anderton said he heard about the note from Fenner. S.A. Ural Horton could not recall the circumstances when he first learned about the note. The FBI interviewed S.A. James W. Bookhout on September 2, 1975. "He advised that sometime during the investigation of the assassination case, he greeted S.A. Gemberling in the office, and asked him how it was coming. He recalled that Gemberling responded that everything was fine, and his only current problem was to decide to propriety of putting a certain OSWALD letter into the assassination report. Gemberling said it was not so much his problem as it was of S.A. Hosty. According to Bookhout, he immediately terminated the conversation, since Hosty had already received newspaper publicity in connection with the assassination. and he did not want to have any knowledge of Hosty's problems, and did not want to get involved with them. Special Agent J.V. Almon heard of the note, possibly from Gemberling. [FBI 62-190607302X] Another former FBI agent, Joseph L. Schott, told the Associated Press that the note threatened the life of S.A. Hosty. S.A. KENNETH C. HOWE On September 8, 1975, S.A. Howe... Advised that while he can't remember specifically why he knew the note in question was from OSWALD, he knows it was either signed by him, or OSWALD'S wife's name, Marina, was mentioned therein. He stated at that time they had a case on Marina, and he knew her to be the wife of LEE HARVEY OSWALD. He recalled that the note was on plain paper, and was either handwritten, or hand printed, and was threatening in nature either concerning some action OSWALD said he was going to take possibly against S.A. Hosty, or against the FBI Office. He said he can't remember whether he found the note before, or after, OSWALD was shot, but believes it was after. He advised that he found the note in Hosty's workbox, and considered it of sufficient import to be brought to the attention of the SAC, and took it immediately to Shanklin. He can't

remember what wording he used to convey to Shanklin what he had, but knows that Shanklin was made aware by him of what he had. He recalls that Shanklin's reaction was to wave him away and say, 'Don't tell me about it. I don't want to hear, and I don't want to know anything about it.' He said from this reaction it was his impression that Shanklin had possibly heard of the existence of the note, but he does not know this to be a fact. Continuing, Howe stated that he cannot remember whether he left the note with Shanklin, but feels that at this point one of three things had to have occurred: (1) He left the note with Shanklin. (2) He returned the note to Hosty's workbox. (3) He held the note and personally gave it to Hosty. He claims that he subsequently told Hosty what had happened, but he does not recall having any discussion with him concerning it. He stated that at that stage he felt it was a matter for the SAC to resolve with Hosty, and having told them both about the matter, he took no further action. He claims that he did not subsequently discuss it with Shanklin, Hosty or anyone else. He denies instructing Hosty to destroy the letter, and denies receiving any instructions from anyone else that he should tell Hosty to destroy the letter. He said he never knew of the ultimate disposition of the letter. He claims he has no recollection of having prepared a memorandum, or having made any written record of the note. Howe was confronted with the information furnished by his former secretary. He advised he does not recall this, nor under the circumstances as they existed at that time can he categorically deny it didn't happen. He said at the time the matter was still in the hands of the SAC, and until some adjudication by him, he felt the matter should not be discussed. He claims that if any decision was made that information concerning the note should or should not be included in a communication, he had no part in that decision. James Hosty was re-interviewed on September 22, 1975. Hosty stated that his best recollection is that the note sent by OSWALD was in the nature of a complaint, complaining about Hosty having interviewed OSWALD'S wife. He stated that he recalls it said: 'If you have anything you want to learn about me, come talk to me directly. If you don't cease bothering my wife, I will take appropriate action and report this to proper authorities.' [Hosty: "Which he did. He reported it to the Soviet Embassy, right? It was not threatening."] Hosty did not recall a signature, and did not recall the name of Marina Oswald having been mentioned. He still maintains at the time he received the note he thought it was from a prior

Subject, Jimmy George Robinson, but realizes how stupid such an assumption was on my part when advised that his interview with Robinson took place in June 1963. OSWALD would not have threatened S.A. Hosty by saying he was going to report him to higher authority. OSWALD threatened some sort of violence in that note, yet S.A. Hosty did nothing about it. Could anyone, even S.A. James P. Hosty, be that stupid to confuse these two cases? S.A. Hosty ignored it because he believed OSWALD was part of a government operation, and was ultimately on the same side he was on. WILLIAM C. SULLIVAN'S STATEMENT The FBI: He refused to sign an Interrogation; Advice of Rights form, and also refused to be placed under oath. However, upon arrival of the Inspector, he made available a three-page typed statement concerning this matter. Among other things, Mr. Sullivan, in his statement, noted that on one occasion during a conversation with Mr. Shanklin that latter mentioned that he had internal personnel problems in the OSWALD case because one of his agents (the name was not given to Sullivan or if so he had forgotten) had received, while OSWALD was alive, a threatening letter from him because of the agent's investigation of OSWALD. According to Sullivan, he raised a question as to the details, and Shanklin seemed disinclined to discuss it other than to say he was handling it as personnel problem with Mr. J. P. Mohr. He advised he did not press the matter, and they went on to other topics. Further, no mention was made of anything being destroyed. Continuing, Mr. Sullivan advised that in another later conversation, Mr. Shanklin mentioned to him that Director J. Edgar Hoover was furious at one of his agents, James Hosty, and was going to give him a transfer out of Dallas. When he inquired why, Shanklin replied that Mr. Hoover did not like the way Mr. Hosty had handled his part of the OSWALD investigation, it was then Mr. Shanklin told Sullivan that it was Hosty who had received the threatening message from OSWALD before the assassination. He stated that Shanklin did not mention that any message had been destroyed. GORDON SHANKLIN FBI Dallas SAC Gordon Shanklin was re-interviewed on September 25, 1975. He was allowed to review the four affidavits previously furnished by Howe, and two affidavits furnished by Hosty and the and the affidavits of Ural Horton of July 23, 1975, and of Marian F. Roberts of September 6, 1975, as well as the FD-302 concerning the interview with William Sullivan. He categorically denied having any knowledge or

recollection of S.A. Kenneth C. Howe having brought the matter he mentioned to Shanklin's attention either before, or after, the assassination. He also had no independent knowledge of S.A. Hosty ever discussing OSWALD being in the FBI office, or leaving a note, or telling him to type up a memorandum and later telling him to destroy it...Concerning Sullivan's comments, Mr. Shanklin stated that he is completely at a loss to understand why any comments Sullivan made concerning their conversation regarding any note received from OSWALD. He said he did discuss the OSWALD investigation on a number of occasions with Sullivan, and certainly Hosty's name came up, particularly in connection with the allegation that OSWALD was an FBI informant. He also notes that on a number of occasions he may have discussed disciplinary action against Hosty and other Agents with Sullivan, and certainly with John P. Mohr, but categorically denied that there was any such comment made as it relates to a note. He also denies having any knowledge of a meeting which allegedly transpired for the purpose of making a decision as to whether the note should be destroyed." The FBI reported: "Two Special Agents in Charge who were assigned to Dallas during periods covering the OSWALD investigation were censured for their overall responsibility in the matter." Gordon Shanklin died in July 1988, at age 78. THE NOTE GOES INTO HOSTY'S WORKBOX The note from OSWALD was put in S.A. Hosty's work box, where it joined the other documents on OSWALD. As stated, in S.A. Hosty's statement on July 17, 1975, he told the FBI that, at the time he received the note, He thought it was from another Subject of his, one Jimmy George Robinson, a Ku Klux Klan leader from Garland, Texas, who had made a complaint to the Dallas Office of the FBI alleging his civil rights had been violated by the Garland Texas Police Department. Hosty stated that he and another agent went to Robinson's residence and not finding him at home, interviewed his wife, who gave them a completely different version of his allegation against the Garland Police Department. Her statement completely wiped out the civil rights complaint according to Hosty...Robinson was placed in jail in June 1963, for assaulting his wife. While in jail his wife allowed Garland Police Department officers to search his residence, including the area claimed to be his study. He claimed that his wife had no right to let the police search his office as it was not under her control; hence he felt his civil rights had been violated. As noted in this report, Hosty in company with another agent, interviewed Robinson's wife on June 24, 1963. She said that while still married to Robinson she left him following the assault on her person. She stated she allowed the police officers to conduct a search.

HOSTY MEETS OSWALD NOVEMBER 22, 1963 When OSWALD saw S.A. Hosty during his interrogation by the Dallas Police Department on November 22, 1963, OSWALD was angry. OSWALD became upset when he identified himself, and OSWALD accused him of having bothered his wife. S.A. Hosty quoted OSWALD as saying: "'So you are Hosty. I've heard about you." All during this interview OSWALD was extremely hostile toward the FBI an uncomplimentary toward the Director and all FBI agents. At one point in the conversation, OSWALD stated 'I'm going to fix you, FBI.'" [FBI Memo from Hosty to SAC 11.29.63 100-10461134] Captain Will Fritz, who headed the Dallas Police Department Homicide Squad, told the Warren Commission that OSWALD had said S.A. Hosty "accosted his wife on two occasions. He practically told her she would have to go back to Russia." THE NOTE ON NOVEMBER 22, 1963 After the assassination the note was discovered by Hosty's Supervisor, S.A. Kenneth C. Howe. James Hosty explained, "That's when he came to take the Kostikov stuff out of my workbox. He was getting the stuff away from me, and that's when he found it." S.A. Hosty told the FBI in 1976: About an hour following his interview with OSWALD, on the day of the assassination, he received a message at the police department to return to the Dallas Office. He recalled Mr. Gordon Shanklin, and Mr. Kenneth Howe, being present. They had his work box in their possession, and either Gordon Shanklin or Kenneth Howe showed him the note from OSWALD, and asked him what it was all about. He then explained his previous interview of Mrs. Paine, and OSWALD'S wife, at the Paine residence on Friday, November 1, 1963, and the vehement protest that OSWALD made to him during the interview on November 22, 1963. [James Hosty told this researcher in 1993: "They just had the note, not the work box."] After explaining this to Mr. Shanklin, he instructed him to set forth in memorandum form the information which he had orally explained, making specific reference to the note. He stated he dictated this memorandum, as instructed, to Miss Martha Connally (now Martha Campbell), and that the memorandum was addressed to the SAC under the caption 'LEE HARVEY OSWALD aka: IS-R-CUBA.' He stated he did not have the note from OSWALD in his possession when he dictated his memorandum, it having been left with Mr. Shanklin. He said the memorandum, when typed, was an original, and there was one copy, and was possibly three or four pages in length. He said he remained in the office while Miss Connally transcribed his dictation, and when it was completed, carried the memorandum to Mr. Shanklin, and it was probably about 8:00 or 9:00 p.m. He handed this memorandum to Mr. Shanklin, and recalls no pertinent comment made at that time.

Lt. JACK REVILL In the late afternoon of November 22, 1963, S.A. Hosty spoke with Dallas Police Lt. Jack Revill. Lt. Jack Revill testified that S.A. Hosty had said the FBI had information that OSWALD was "capable of committing this assassination." Lt. Jack Revill noted this, and his secretary testified that she prepared a report for him that afternoon. S.A. Hosty denied, under oath, making this statement to Lt. Jack Revill. He told this researcher, "Revill was a typical Texas redneck and he hated Kennedy. He wouldn't believe a Communist did it. The word 'capable' is inaccurate. I said he did do it." According to S.A. Hosty, nothing further occurred concerning the memorandum or note until Sunday, November 24, 1963. When Hosty told Revill that the FBI had information that OSWALD had violent tendencies, he was making reference to the threatening note OSWALD left for him. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE NOTE: SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1963 Nancy Fenner: It is my recollection that I was called to work on Sunday, which would have been November 24, 1963. Sometime during my working on that date, ASIC Kyle Clark said to me 'Forget about the OSWALD letter.' At a subsequent date, while assembling a report on the assassination case, S.A. Hosty was present, and at that time I asked S.A. Hosty whatever happened to the OSWALD letter to which S.A. Hosty stated 'What letter? -- I don't know what you are talking about.' Sometime after this, perhaps two or three days, Supervisor Kenneth Howe said, 'Nan, forget the letter.' The foregoing are the only individuals to my personal knowledge who apparently read the letter delivered to me as mentioned previously. All of the above people are either working or did work for the FBI. Other than advising my husband, I have never furnished this information to anyone either in or out of the Bureau. [Fenner 7.15.75] According to S.A. Hosty nothing further occurred concerning his memorandum about the threatening note until Sunday, November 24, 1963. He said he was on duty in the office on that date handling various duties, when he learned that OSWALD had been shot. Approximately two hours later he met with Gordon Shanklin and Kenneth Howe: "On entering, Gordon Shanklin stated 'OSWALD is dead now. There will be no trial.' He then handed S.A. Hosty his Memorandum dated November 22, 1963 , with the OSWALD note attached, and told him to get rid of it. He claimed the memorandum had not been block stamped or serialized. He tore up both copies of the memorandum, and the note, in Gordon Shanklin and Kenneth Howe's presence, and threw them in the wastepaper basket in Gordon Shanklin's office. He advised that Gordon Shanklin, then said: 'Get rid of it, get it out of here!' He said he then took the torn pieces out of the wastepaper basket, went to the men's wash room and flushed the scraps of paper down the commode. He said that no one was with him when he did this."

S.A. Hosty was asked if the fact the memo had not been block stamped or serialized indicated the FBI never intended to include it in the OSWALD file. He stated, "That's an assumption on your part. They hadn't decided what they were going to do. It was never a government record. It was never accepted into the records. It's possible they had no intention, but we don't know. We didn't do it until after he was dead." Between 1963 and 1975, the existence of the note was kept secret by the Dallas FBI. In 1975 FBI Director Clarence Kelley stated: "The note contained no reference to Kennedy, or in any way would have forewarned of the subsequent assassination." The HSCA regarded all of this as "a serious impeachment of Gordon Shanklin and S.A. Hosty's credibility..." [HSCA R p196] S.A. Hosty stated that he had not destroyed evidence, or obstructed justice, since OSWALD was dead, and the Warren Commission had not been formed at this time. WAS SHANKLIN TOLD TO DESTROY NOTE BY MOHR & ADAMS? James Hosty: "I was ordered to do it. I didn't want to do it, but I was told to do it. I figured he had to know some reason." The FBI: In the September 15, 1975, issue of Time magazine there appears an article on page 19 captioned 'The OSWALD Cover-up.' This article makes reference to OSWALD'S visit to the Dallas Office prior to the assassination and delivery of a threatening note. This article claims that FBI sources close to the investigation believe the note was more ominous than Director Kelley implied, and that the Bureau's Inspectors have learned that OSWALD specifically threatened to take action against the government. This article points out that, according to present and former FBI officials John P. Mohr, then the Bureau's administrative chief, told the Dallas agents to destroy it. Continuing, the article claims that Mohr, who retired in 1972, denies any knowledge of OSWALD'S note or its disappearance. So too do his former aides in the Administrative Division, Nicholas P. Callahan, James B. Adams and Eugene W. Walsh...On September 11, 1975, Time Magazine reporter Sandy Smith came to Bureau Headquarters to see Mr. John B. Adams. Mr. Smith had previously indicated a desire to to talk with Mr. Adams. On this occasion Smith was advised that his article troubled Mr. Adams because for the first time there was an allegation that any cover-up which might have taken place could be an institutional cover-up by involvement of FBI superiors in Washington, concerning the OSWALD note. Mr. Adams noted that if Smith did not act in good faith in preparation of the article, and if he could not back it up, such might be construed as being malicious, and grounds of libel. Mr. Smith stated that he received this information from four, five or six separate officials, present or former, and he was sure the information was true...In view of the above, Mr. John P. Mohr was re-interviewed on September 12, 1975...Mr. Mohr was advised of the information which Mr. Smith had furnished, and he advised he had no intention of filing a libel

suit because of the high costs involved, and the fact that he was already engaged in a suit that which may prove financially burdensome. Nevertheless, he stated that if the Government could file a suit in his behalf, he would be more than willing to appear before any body, including a grand jury, to testify to the accuracy of his prior sworn statement in which he denied having any knowledge of the OSWALD visit until it appeared in the newspapers. In 1974 FBI Director Clarence Kelley ordered "J. Adams" to help conduct the FBI investigation of many of the allegations in Coup D'Etat in America. Circa 1975 James B. Adams testified before the SSCIA about a letter and magnetic tapes that had been sent to Martin and Coretta King by William C. Sullivan. The tape contained evidence of infidelity on the part of Martin Luther King, and the note urged that he commit suicide, "the one honorable thing left for you to do." James B. Adams testified he could find no basis for the conclusion of the staff of the SSCIA that the letter was a "suicide urging." That annoyed Senator Frank Church and he asked: "It is certainly no Christmas card, is it?" James B. Adams agreed. [Wise The American Police State 307 f.n.] FBI Director Clarence Kelley and James B. Adams questioned S.A. Hosty about the note on July 7, 1975. James Hosty stated: "James B. Adams was to low-down on the totem pole to have ordered the destruction of the note. James B. Adams never interviewed me." In July 1975 J. B. Adams of the FBI noted: Mr. (Deleted) dictated to Mrs. Metcalf his recollection of the information furnished to him, pointing out that he did not take notes at the time the source was furnishing him the information, but later made notes. The results of this dictation are attached, along with other notes dictated during the interview with Mr. (Deleted). Mr. (Deleted) specifically requested that his identity as a source of this information be concealed and not revealed without his permission since his motives might be misunderstood (deleted) but he felt that (deleted) this unverified information at this point, which could do harm to the FBI if untrue, he would prefer to report it to us and if we could determine there was nothing of substance to the information it could be put to rest (deleted). Mr. (Deleted) was advised by FBI Director Kelley that his motives were appreciated. Mr. Deleted's source told him I think some information may come out which is going to blow the whole lid off this damn OSWALD case. OSWALD was mad (upset) because the Bureau had his wife under surveillance. He wanted the case Agent (who was working on Marina)...Hosty to quit harassing Marina. When he came by the FBI Offices he was looking for Hosty. He made a threat, I understand left a threatening letter. After the assassination the letter was brought up...things really hit the ceiling. I heard they destroyed the letter. I am convinced Mr. Hoover and

Mr. Shanklin were never told about OSWALD coming by...There were at most five or six, maybe even seven, a secretary who is now in New England...Hosty and his supervisor Ken Howe. The secretary said something about it to a friend. The major thing that was wrong, we didn't notify other agencies...the police and Secret Service of OSWALD'S visit. There are so many people who have come in, letters have come in, somebody could have put it aside...didn't make much of it. That changed the whole course of history. OSWALD was very upset. He wanted Hosty to stop harassing her. He threatened Hosty. Nobody did the follow up on this. That's where it went wrong. [FBI 62-109060-7226X 7.14.75] After he dropped off the note, OSWALD went to Irving for the weekend. He told Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald that he had "visited the FBI office or building and told them to stop the harassment." Marina Oswald told the Warren Commission she thought this was bravado. [FBI 62-109060-7193, 62-109060-7302X, 7226X, 7314X, 7314; Anson Kill Pres. p85; WR p364; 11 WH 367] Marina Oswald HSCA testimony contained this excerpt: Q. Are you aware that a short time before the assassination, LEE HARVEY OSWALD delivered a note to the FBI Office in Dallas addressed to agent Hosty? A. When I heard this on the news, I was surprised. Q. When you heard it on the news, was this the first time you knew anything about it? A. That was news to me that a note like that ever existed. I had my doubts, because knowing a little bit of LEE'S personality and my knowledge he had been annoyed by the FBI and wanted to be left alone, I wondered if he would go - I don't know the right word for it - and threaten somebody with a note. The content of the note I found out through the news media. I seriously doubtQ. Forgetting what the news media said the content of the note was, you had no indication from him that he has ever written a note to them? A. I do not remember that. He slightly mentioned something. I do not recall at all because I was surprised when I heard it on the news. It didn't bring any memories, like, well, I forgot. Lee said, "Well I am going" - he mentioned he was going to talk to them and tell them to stop harassing him, that is true, but I don't recall that he mentioned anything about the note...He said he was going to ask them to leave me out of all these visits. [HSCA Test. P328]

In 1994 Marina Oswald told this researcher: "I knew nothing about it. That's what they [the Warren Commission] say. I don't know." In 1975 the FBI questioned former Special Agent Bardwell Odum about the note. He advised that until he read recent newspaper publicity he had never heard any reference made to a note left by OSWALD for Hosty, or that OSWALD had ever been in the Dallas Office of the FBI...Odum stated he did not make any statement to Mr. Hosty at any time that Mr. Shanklin had ever said anything to Mr. Odum about destroying anything or telling Hosty or anyone else to destroy anything. He stated that any statement by an FBI Agent pertaining to the destruction of anything which might be considered evidence would be a matter which would be so unusual, that he would not forget it. Moreover, Odum advised that he does not recall ever specifically being sent by Mr. Shanklin to interview Mrs. Paine, except on one occasion when Mr. Shanklin stated go back out there and be sure we don't miss anything. As to interviewing Mrs. Paine on a late Saturday evening or early morning hours of the following day, he does not recall making a visit to Mrs. Paine's house at 'such an ungodly hour.' Bardwell Odum went on to state that, approximately three weeks before this FBI interview, he had received a telephone call from Ruth Paine, who had asked him about the note. Bardwell Odum commented to this researcher in 1993, "I don't remember the call from Paine. They retired me from the FBI in 1968 and by 1975, when I was questioned, I told them, 'Unless Hosty says there was a note, I did not believe it. I want something besides Nancy Fenner's statement.' Well you know, Hosty took the assassination very personally. He was a good Catholic, and Kennedy was the first Catholic President. The case on OSWALD was assigned to Hosty. I talked to him almost daily after the assassination. He never mentioned the note. That's a historic document. He's a guy that's aware of historical significance. If he had one like that, I can't see him destroying it. The only letter that I can remember is a note that OSWALD left in a Russian cookbook, the Secret Service found it. They gave it to us. It pertained to the Walker thing. That's the only note I can remember getting from Ruth Paine. I don't even remember ever seeing that letter, and right now I can't remember even hearing about it. It must have been somebody else who got that from Ruth Paine. The FBI report is not right. I sure don't remember. I was working around the clock and not sleeping much. If I got the letter, all I did was deliver it to Hosty or something, because I don't remember anything about it. I wasn't in on that conversation. I didn't anything know about it. Hosty never told me anything about it. This is the first time I heard about it." James Hosty said that he and Bardwell Odum each submitted their copy of the letter as a Warren Commission Exhibit. Gordon Shanklin thought S.A.'s Odum and Hosty had discovered another threatening note from OSWALD and began to freak out. His first thought was to destroy another important piece of evidence.

HOSTY: DESTRUCTION OF OTHER EVIDENCE S.A. Hosty told the Warren Commission: Hosty: This is an interview form which I made for my interview with OSWALD on November 22, 1963. It was dictated, as the form will indicate, on November 23, 1963. Stern: Let me ask you there Mr. Hosty, about your practice in reducing to formal form your notes of interviews. This happened the next day? Hosty: Right. Stern: Is that faster than usual because of the circumstances? Hosty: Because of the circumstances. We have to reduce them to writing within five days. Stern: In five days? Hosty: Five working days. Stern: Did you retain the notes of this? Hosty: My notes are then destroyed because this is the record. Stern: And in this particular instance did you destroy your notes of this? Hosty: Yes, sir. Stern: Now you say that you are required to reduce your notes of an interview to writing within five working days. Hosty: Right. Stern: Did that happen with respect to the interviews you conducted on October 29, 1963, November 1, 1963, and November 5, 1963. Hosty: To make this a littler clearer, this would be an interview of a Subject, not of a witness, unless this witness has something that was quite pertinent to the investigation. Routine type matters do not have to be put on these interview forms, but pertinent interviews would be. Now everything in this case after the assassination was declared to be pertinent. All interviews, regardless of how insignificant, were to be put on these forms.

Stern: But the interviews you conducted at the beginning of November, and the end of October, were not within this rule? Hosty: No; because they were not an interview of the Subject or anything that contained anything of major importance. Stern: Do you, yourself destroy the notes? Hosty: Yes. Stern: Do you recall specifically destroying the notes of your interview? Hosty: Yes sir; in the waste basket. Stern: Your interview of OSWALD on November 22, 1963, you put the notes in the waste basket? Hosty: Right. Stern: Do you recall specifically what you did with the notes of your interviews of October 29, 1963, November 1, 1963, and November 5, 1963? Hosty: After I reduced them to writing, such as I did here, and I got the form back, I proofread it, then I threw them away. Stern: And you testified that the notes of your end of October - early November interviews were transcribed after November 22, 1963. Hosty: Yes. Stern: Did you give any consideration to retaining the notes in view of the turn the case had taken? Hosty: No. Stern: The intervening assassination? Hosty: No because this is the record and the notes would not be as good as this record, because the notes are not written out fully as this is. It would just be abbreviations and things of that type. Stern: And you received no instructions about retaining these notes? Hosty: No; we had no instructions. We were following the same rule we always had.

OSWALD'S OVER-REACTION TO HOSTY'S VISITS OSWALD was angry with S.A. Hosty because he felt S.A. Hosty knew of OSWALD'S connection to the CIA. OSWALD did not want his family involved in his clandestine activities. He did not see his mother from October 8, 1962, to November 23, 1963. OSWALD could have taken his pregnant wife and child to Mexico City, and had Marina Oswald apply for a visa to the Soviet Union with him. It would have been highly effective, but even a deep-cover operative like OSWALD drew the line somewhere. James Hosty told this researcher: Now wait a minute, don't forget this. Marina Oswald knew about his attempt on General Walker. If he was any kind of a KGB plant, she would have also known that too. Maybe he didn't want me talking to her for fear she'd slip up and say something implicating him. That's what he was worried about. S.A. Hosty, however, was not Russian-speaking and would have had to have used Ruth Paine as an interpreter. Ruth Paine believed the reason OSWALD reacted in this fashion was because, I told OSWALD, 'You've been to Russia, you've come back so they're going to try to keep track of what you are doing. Don't worry about it. If you have legitimate things you want to say, this is a free country, you talk.' But it is quite different if he was also shooting at people. I can imagine he would be pretty nervous if he knew he had done criminal activity. They might figure out the Walker shooting or something. That's the only thing I can think of. But who knows? He had a fairly strange mind, and it was hard to say what was going on. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 9, 1963: OSWALD'S LETTER TO SOV EMB FIRST DRAFT This is to inform you of events since my interview with comrade Kostine in the Embassy of the Soviet Union, Mexico City, Mexico. I was unable to remain in Mexico City because I considered useless indefinitely because of my visa Mexican visa restrictions which was for 15 days only. I had a I could not take a chance on applying for an extension unless I used my real name so I returned to the U.S. SECOND DRAFT This is to inform you of recent events since my meeting with comrade Kostin in the Embassy of the Soviet Union, Mexico City, Mexico. I was unable to remain in Mexico City indefinily because of my Mexican visa restrictions which was for I5 days only. I could not take a chance on

requesting a visa unless I used my real name, so I retured to the United States. OSWALD admitted that he deliberately used a false name. The Warren Commission: "The fact is that he did use his real name for his Tourist Card, and in all the dealings with the Cuban Embassy, the Russian Embassy and elsewhere. OSWALD did use the name of [HARVEY OSWALD LEE] on the trip but he did so only sporadically and probably as the result of a clerical error." OSWALD'S Tourist Card would not have expired for another week. He could have remained in Mexico City and made more attempts to secure a visa, only he considered it useless to do so.

FIRST DRAFT It was unfortun that the Soviet Embassy was unable to aid me in Mexico City but I had not planned to contact the Mexico City Embassy at all so of course they were unprepared for me. Had I been able to reach Havana as planned I could have contacted the Soviet Embassy there for the completion of would have been able to help me get the necessary documents I required assist me would have had time to assist me, but of course the stuip Cuban consule was at fault here. I am glad he has since been replaced by another. SECOND DRAFT The final draft read: I had not planned to contact the Soviet embassy in Mexico City so they were unprepared, had I been able to reach the Soviet Embassy in Havana as planned, the Embassy there would have had time to complete our business. Of corse the Soviet embassy was not at fault, they were, as I said, unprepared, the Cuban Consulate was guilty of a gross breach of regulations, I am glad he has since been replced. OSWALD had discussed a deal with the Soviet Military Attache in Mexico City, in which he promised information, in return for a visa. Note how OSWALD stopped in midsentence. Could the next words have been "our deal" or "our arrangement?" The word business indicated some sort of two-way transaction, when the only business OSWALD allegedly had at the Soviet Embassy in Havana was his visa stamp. What did OSWALD mean by the word "unprepared?" OSWALD insinuated that had the Soviet Embassy had time enough to check his bona fides, the Soviet Embassy would have discovered that he did business with the KGB in the past. Or did he mean that they had not be "briefed" or "prepared" for his arrival by other KGB elements?

Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission: "He typed it early in the morning of November 9, 1963, because after he typed it we went to the place where you get the test for the drivers. It was that same day." Paine said she read the letter on the morning of November 10, 1963. Paine: Well I read it and decided to make a copy...And I decided that I should have such a copy to give to an FBI agent coming again, or to call. I was undecided what to do. Meantime I made a copy. Jenner: But you did have the instinct to report this to the FBI? Paine: Yes. Jenner: You made a copy of the document? Paine: And having made it, while the shower was running, I am not used to subterfuge in any way, but then I put it back where it had been, and it lay the rest of the Sunday on my desk top, and of course I observed this too...This was the first indication I had that the man was a good deal queerer than I thought, and it didn't tell me, perhaps it should have, but it didn't tell me what sort of a queer he was. He addressed it "Dear Sirs." It looked to me like someone trying to make an impression, and choosing the words he thought were best to make that impression, even including assumed name as a possible attempt to make an impression on someone who was able to do espionage, though I left that open as a possibility, and I thought I'd give it to the FBI, and let them conclude, or add to it what they know. I regret, and I would like to put this on the record, particularly two things in my own actions prior to the time of the assassination. One, that I didn't make the connection between this phone number that I had of where he lived and that of course this would produce for the FBI Agent who was asking the address of where he lived. Well that is regret 1. But then of course you see in light of events that followed, it is a pity I didn't go directly, instead of waiting for the next visit, because the next visit was November 23, 1963. I put my copy of the letter away in my desk. I then, Sunday evening, also took the original. I decided to do that Sunday evening...I was disturbed about it. I didn't go to sleep right away. He was sitting up watching the late spy story if you will, on the TV, and I got up and sat on the sofa with him saying "I can't speak" wanting to confront him with this and say "What is this?" But on the other hand I was somewhat fearful and didn't know what to do. Rep. Ford: Fearful in what way? Paine: Well, if he was an agent I would rather just give it to the FBI, not to say, "Look, I am watching you" by saying "What is this I find on my desk?"

Jenner: What led you to hold on to this rather provocative document [and not give it to the FBI]? Paine: It is a rather provocative document. It provoked my doubts about this fellow's normalcy more than it provoked thoughts that this was the talk of an agent reporting in. But I wasn't sure. Warren Commission Counsel David Slawson: "The letter undoubtedly constitutes a disturbing bit of evidence, and will probably never be fully explained...He seems to have written it in the hope that by inferring that he had somehow been 'in on' some secret and mysterious dealings involving the Soviet Embassy, Mexico, some benefit, however small, could be salvaged from the otherwise total failure of the trip." [HSCA V12 p157] OSWALD AND THE DISMISSAL OF CONSUL EUSEBIO AZQUE In his last letter to the Soviet Embassy OSWALD wrote that Azque had been replaced. Consul Eusebio Azque would be replaced on November 18, 1963, but it was not until December 4, 1963, that Consul Eusebio Azque's replacement was publicly announced. How did OSWALD know? David Slawson asked the CIA: In OSWALD'S letter to the Soviet Embassy in Washington written after he returned to the United States from his trip to Mexico, he refers to the Cuban Consul (presumably, Azque) as having been 'replaced.' Do you know whether Mr. Azque was fired, transferred, or otherwise moved in such a manner that OSWALD might have been mislead into thinking he had been replaced? Or was any other consular official whom OSWALD might have believed had been the Consul, transferred or replaced? If Azque or some other Cuban Consular official was in fact replaced, do you have any information on how OSWALD would have learned this, and learned it so quickly? [CIA 519-219A] The CIA Station in Mexico City reported: The allusion to a man, presumably a Cuban Consular official, who has since been replaced, may be explained as follows: As Sylvia and her husband stated OSWALD has an argument with Cuban Consul Azque. Doubtless OSWALD meant Azque when he said he was glad a certain man had been replaced. By coincidence, Azcue, who had been in Mexico for about 18 years, was due to be transferred. It was known early in September 1963 that Subject, from a reliable source, that Azque's replacement would arrive about September 9, 1963, and that Azque would leave Mexico permanently to return to Cuba late in October. He was still in Mexico doing his Consular job through September, and early October, and he finally departed for Cuba by air from Mexico City on November 18, 1963, using Cuban Diplomatic Passport 63/357...We do not know how OSWALD might have learned that Azque had been or was to be replaced,

but we speculate that he might have heard it from Sylvia Duran during one of his visits. [CIA 201-334089 doc. trans. & cross ref; CIA 273-103] In 1994 the CIA released a highly deleted Memorandum for the Record about a meeting in "B's" car on November 4, 1963, during which Consul Eusebio Azque's departure was discussed. Another CIA document indicated that the Agency was that Azque was going to be recalled in early August. [CIA 201-334089] The Warren Report: We do not know who might have told OSWALD that Eusebio Azque, or any other Cuban, had been, or was to be, replaced, but we speculate that Sylvia Duran or some Soviet official might have mentioned it if OSWALD complained about Eusebio Azque's altercation with him. [WR p310] Sylvia Duran denied that she told OSWALD Azque was replaced, however, she did have this knowledge. OSWALD'S statement betrayed his foreknowledge of Consul Eusebio Azque's removal and his intimate connection with Duran. FIRST DRAFT I and Marina Nicholyeva are now living in Dallas, Texas. You already ha The FBI is not now interested in my activities in the progessive organization FPCC of which I was secretary in New Orleans, La. New Orleans, Louisiana, since I am no longer connected with live in that state. November the November the FBI has visited us here in Texas on Nov. 1st. Agent of the FBI James P. Hasty warned me that if I attempt to engage in FPCC activities in Texas the FBI will again take an "interest" in me. The agent also "suggested" that my wife could "remain in the U.S. under FBI protection," that is, she could refuse to return to the defect from the Soviet Union. Of course I and my wife strongly protested these tactics by the notorious FBI. THE SECOND DRAFT The Federal Bureu of Investigation is not now interested in my activities in the progressive organization 'Fair Play for Cuba Committee' of which I was secretary in New Orleans (state Louisiana) since I no longer reside in that state. However, the F.B.I. has visited us here in Dallas Texas, on [Friday] November 1, 1963. Agent James P. Hasty warned me that if I engaged in F.P.C.C. activities in Texas the F.B.I. will again take an 'interrest' in me. This agent also 'suggested' to Marina Nichilayeva that she could remain in the United States under F.B.I. 'protection', that is, she could defect from the Soviet Union, of course, I and my wife strongly protested these tactics by the notorious F.B.I. Please inform us of the arrival of our Soviet entrance visa as soon as they come.

OSWALD stated that the FBI was no longer interested in his work with the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, because he had moved from Louisiana. OSWALD had not engaged in any activities on behalf of the Fair Play for Cuba after he returned to Dallas from Mexico City. He said that S.A. Hosty "visited us here in Dallas." OSWALD never received a personal visit from S.A. Hosty in Irving, Texas. He added, "on November 1, 1963 Agent James P. Hasty warned me that if I engaged in Fair Play for Cuba Committee activities the FBI will again take an interest in me." Again? The FBI took no interest in OSWALD in New Orleans until he summoned it after he was arrested. Why Hasty instead of Hosty? In his address book, the entry concerning S.A. Hosty read, "- Nov. 1, 1963, FBI agent (RH121) James P. Hasty, MU 8605, 1114 Commerce St., Dallas." Why are there only six digits in the telephone number? Telephone numbers in this area contained seven digits. James Hosty said the misspelling of his name was proof that OSWALD did not really know him. James Hosty: "Had he known me he would have had it right, or I would have bounced him off the wall a couple of times." Ruth Paine testified that S.A. Hosty gave her his card. Was OSWALD unable to copy the information correctly? OSWALD hinted that if he did not receive a Soviet visa soon, his wife might "defect" to the United States. What did OSWALD mean by "F.B.I. protection"? Did OSWALD imply that in exchange for citizenship, Marina Oswald would willingly become an FBI anti-communist puppet? Scott and Allen did an article regarding OSWALD'S premature knowledge of Azcue's departure: "According to the FBI's findings, there was absolutely no way OSWALD could have obtained this information during his September visit to Mexico City, since the secret recall orders from Havana were not transmitted until after he had returned from Dallas. Even then, there was no publicity and only a handful of persons knew about the order, one FBI report states." [Northern Virginia Sun 11.21.67] The CIA took note of this article: "Memo for Chief LEOB From (Deleted) SUBJECT: Article in Northern Virginia Sun for November 21, 1967 entitled Oswald’s Letter Still a Puzzle by Robert S. Allen and Paul Scott. According to Mr. (Deleted) RA/CI Staff, CIA liaison representative with National Archives there is little substance to the inference in Allen and Scott's column that there is a great mystery about OSWALD'S knowledge of Azque's recall." The CIA claimed that OSWALD learned about it from Sylvia Duran. Scott and Allen surmised that OSWALD got this information from the KGB, when in fact it came from Sylvia Duran. The Warren Commission never asked Duran if she knew the Azque was being recalled before OSWALD'S visit to Mexico City or whether she told OSWALD about Azque's recall. [CIA 1342-485A]

Ruth Paine saw the letter to the Soviet Embassy on Sunday, November 10, 1963, and copied it, yet she testified she never asked OSWALD about his trip to Mexico City. She showed her husband the copy: "Ruth showed it to me. And he was complaining about being mistreated from his point of view, about not being allowed to go to Cuba." This letter in itself, was suspicious, was highly suspicious. Additionally, Ruth Paine had these facts available her: OSWALD was a former Marine who defected to the Soviet Union and married a Russian; he had contact with the Communist Party and subscribed to its publication, The Worker; he lived under a false name in a Dallas rooming house; the FBI was interested in him. Ruth Paine testified: "The FBI came as I thought they well might, and was interested in this man who had been to the Soviet Union, and I felt that if he had any associations this would be very easy for them to know. I didn't see any, that would tend to point to the possibility of his being a spy or a subversive...I felt happy that they were charged with the responsibility of knowing about it." [WCE 460 p12] Ruth Paine should have concluded OSWALD was a possible Communist agent, unless she had been told otherwise. RUTH PAINE DID NOT SUSPECT OSWALD WAS A KGB AGENT Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission she did not suspect OSWALD worked for the KGB. Ruth Paine: I have no reason to believe he was associated with anyone else...I thought that he was not very intelligent. I saw as far as I could see he had no particular contacts. He was not a person I would have hired for a job of any sort, no more than I would have let him borrow my car. Jenner: Did his level of intelligence affect your judgement as to whether the Russian Government would have hired him? Paine: Yes, I doubted if they would have hired him. I kept my mind open on it to. Well, as I have described in my testimony, I asked myself whether or not he might be a spy. I was not at all worried about ideology contrary to my own, or with which I disagreed, and it looked to me that he was a person of this ideology or philosophy which he calls Marxism, indeed nearly a religion. But not that he was in any way dangerous because of these beliefs. Sen. Cooper: Thinking now and then that he might be a spy, or in the employ of the Soviet Union, were you concerned about the fact that such a person was living in your house? Paine: Well, if you recall my testimony, I concluded that he was not, and I was also pleased that the FBI had come, and I felt that they would worry about that, and that I didn't need to worry about any risk to me of public censure for my befriending such a person.

Sen. Cooper: You had said that prior to the assassination you considered LEE OSWALD as being violent or dangerous? Paine: Well, now I have said that the thought crossed my mind once in relation to myself. Senator Cooper: What caused that? Paine: That he might be violent, because I thought he might resent my stepping in to do for his wife, what he was not doing. Senator Cooper: You said at one time you came to the conclusion that he wasn't an agent or spy because you didn't think he was intelligent enough. Paine: That, and the fact as far as I could see, he had no contacts or any means of getting any information that would have been of interest to the Soviet Union...As regards he might be a Soviet agent, what does this man know that would be of interest to judge he didn't know anything that the Soviets might be interested in. I never gave it any thought of the possibility of his being employed by this government...OSWALD was not a person that would have been hired by the FBI...I simply cannot believe that the FBI would find it necessary to employ such a shaky and inadequate person... Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission she did not suspect OSWALD worked for the KGB. Ruth Paine: I judged by the fact that they didn't come [back to interview OSWALD] that this was not someone they were terribly worried about talking to immediately...It seemed to me that a goodly portion of it [the letter], the part upon which I could judge, was false... I have no reason to believe he was associated with anyone else... How did Ruth Paine know that OSWALD "didn't know anything that the Soviets might be interested in?" Shouldn't she have left that up to the FBI? Herbert Philbrick : "Ruth Hyde Paine did not feel duty-bound to notify the FBI that OSWALD was a self-proclaimed Communist, that he subscribed to The Worker, that he was a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee." Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission that she was unaware "of any contact by [OSWALD] with either the Communist Party or the Socialist Workers Party." OSWALD had his subscription to the Communist Party newspaper, The Worker, and the Socialists Workers Party newspaper, The Militant, mailed to Ruth Paine's home. Ruth Paine explained: Paine: He lived in Dallas, but he used my house as a residence, as a mailing address. Never asked to, and I never complained, but I noticed, of course, he was using it as a mailing address...He subscribed to the

Militant. It is a paper in English, newspaper style and I would say these next two Jenner: Published by whom? Socialist Workers Party? Paine: I have been told so. I don't know. Jenner: But was it a political tract? Paine: I don't know that. Jenner: Did you read it? Paine: No. I wasn't interested. If I had time to do much reading, I might have taken an interest but I had insufficient time to do the reading I really wanted to do. He also subscribed to The Worker. Jenner: Is that a Communist Party publication? Paine: I have been told so. Jenner: Did you read that? Paine: No. I might say that my awareness of his subscribing to these last two, The Militant and The Worker, came after the assassination. There was mail awaiting for him for that weekend which he did not pick up on the 21st , and after the assassination, indeed, after Saturday evening, the 23rd, when it was announced on television they had a photograph of LEE HARVEY OSWALD holding two papers. I looked at this pile of mail waiting for him, which consisted of these two newspapers, The Militant and The Worker, and I threw them away. Jenner: You threw them away? Paine: Without opening them. Jenner: Why did you throw them away? Paine: I was pleased to throw away anything I could. I just didn't want it. Jenner: Well, my question or query, and I think expression of surprise, is activated by what I am about to ask you as to whether you might call that to the attention of the FBI? Paine: Oh, I am sure they knew.

Jenner: How are you sure they knew? Paine: Because mail stopped coming on the spot, nothing came after the assassination, I was certain it was still coming to someplace... Jenner: Well, it occurred to me you might have called the FBI's attention to the fact that it had come to the house. But you didn't in any event. Paine: No; I didn't. Jenner: Did you report to the FBI in any of these interviews you had subsequently with them, or did they ask? It is two questions if you will answer both. Paine: If so it was quite recently. Jenner: When did the papers different from The Worker and The Militant begin to arrive at your home? Paine: Well, they began to arrive, I would say, some time after October 4, 1963. That is of course my judgement. That is a rationalization. Ruth Paine was asked by this researcher if she really did not see these papers until after the assassination. She responded, "That doesn't add up, does it? No, I think they came in before the assassination. What I knew was that he was subscribing to their newspapers. Two groups that hated each other." Ruth Paine never subscribed to a Communist newspaper. Yet she allowed OSWALD to have a Communist newspaper sent to him at her address. FBI field offices had been ordered to investigate any who subscribed to The Worker, because it was the official organ of the Communist Party of the United States of America. This would have sent the message to the FBI that Ruth Paine was a communist sympathizer. Ruth Paine endangered her husband's security clearance by allowing OSWALD to do this. She knew what happened to her sister after she received a call from Dorothy Wilson's tapped telephone. Why would Ruth Paine endanger the father of her children over OSWALD? The answer was the same once again, OSWALD was recommended by someone connected with the intelligence community, and Ruth Paine felt that there would be no repercussions from the FBI. Ruth Paine admitted that she lied to the Warren Commission about having seen the newspapers after the assassination. What else did she lie about? Dorothy Gravitis was interviewed in the presence of her son-in-law, Mr. Ilya Mamantov, at whose home she resides. In as much as Mrs. Gravitis speaks no English and is of Russian nationality Mr. Mamantov acted as a translator for her. Gravitis was acquainted with Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald: After the initial conversation with Marina Oswald, Mrs. Gravitis had approximately two other conversations over the telephone with Marina Oswald, in addition to other conversations with Mrs. Paine. Mrs. Gravitis

never met Mrs. Oswald in person. Mrs. Paine asked Mrs. Gravitis why Mrs. Gravitis and her family did not want Marina Oswald's husband to come to their house. Mrs. Gravitis told Mrs. Paine that she herself felt that OSWALD was a traitor to the United States, inasmuch as he had gone to Russia, and then had come back to the United States. Mrs. Gravitis made comments to Mrs. Paine to the effect that Mrs. Oswald was likely in the underground in the United States as a Communist, and Mrs. Paine did not reply, therefore, Mrs. Gravitis presumed this to be true. [FBI DL 100-10461 Kenneth B. Jackson & William O. Johnson 12.12.63] Jenner: Did you ever make a statement to anybody that you can recall that OSWALD in your opinion was doing underground work? Ruth Paine: That has never been my opinion. I would be absolutely certain that he never - that I never said such a thing. Jenner: To Mrs. Dorothy Gravitis? Ruth Paine: Absolutely certain. Never said to anyone I thought LEE was doing undercover work. Dorothy Gravitis is my Russian tutor in Dallas. Ruth Paine: Would you clarify for me, someone is of the opinion that I thought that OSWALD was an undercover agent for whom? Jenner: For the Russian Government. Did you give consideration in that connection? Ruth Paine: I kept my mind open on it to wonder. Simply because he had gone to the Soviet Union and announced that he wanted to stay, and then came back, and I wasn't convinced that he liked America...I asked myself whether or not he might be a spy. Both this letter, and the telephone conversation really, the one that followed it, where Marina reported to me that he was using a different name, were something new and different in the situation that made me feel this was a man I hadn't accurately perceived before. The FBI had reported: "Mrs. Dorothy Gravitis made comments to Mrs. Paine to the effect that Mrs. (sic) OSWALD was in the underground in the United States as a Communist." Albert Jenner choose to interpret this to mean OSWALD was part of the Communist underground, rather than that OSWALD was part of the clandestine services of the United States, and was posing as a Communist. On November 11, 1963, the FBI Field Office in Washington, D.C. obtained a copy of OSWALD'S letter to the Soviet Embassy: "According to informant, OSWALD had originally intended to visit Soviet Embassy in Havana, Cuba, where he would have had time to complete his business but could not reach Cuba." [NARA FBI 124-10171-10147] A Freedom of Information Act request for this document, which was originally known as Qc563 was

designated as D-198. "Four photographs of D-198 are transmitted to your office herewith to be handled in accordance with existing instructions concerning "D" number photographs. (Deleted as of 2010) It should be noted that D-198 resulted from highly confidential coverage, and Dallas should take this into account in any report." The FBI Lab Report on D-198 was deleted except for this paragraph: "Result of explanation. The hand printing on D-198 was not identified in the Anonymous Letter File. A photograph of this hand printing will be added to this file. The evidence submitted is retained." This researcher applied for this document, but it was denied, because it was information "which is currently and properly classified pursuant to Executive Order 11652 in the interest of National Defense and Foreign Policy." [ltr. re: req. of AJW 8.24.78; FBI LAB report d-436518 11.26.63] JAMES HOSTY AND BARDWELL ODUM NOVEMBER 23, 1963 S.A. Hosty obtained the first draft of this letter from Ruth Paine on Saturday, November 23, 1963: Mr. Hosty advised that on November 23, 1963, he interviewed Ruth Paine and during this interview she made available to Hosty what appeared to be a rough draft handwritten letter prepared by OSWALD and addressed to the Soviet Embassy in Washington. He said that on the following Monday or Tuesday, November 25, 1963, or November 26, 1963, in preparation to dictate the results of his interview with Paine, he was not sure how to report OSWALD'S rough draft letter, so he went to discuss the matter with Mr. Shanklin. He said he told Gordon Shanklin he had a letter written by OSWALD which mentioned S.A. Hosty's name and Gordon Shanklin became highly excited and agitated and started screaming at him, stating 'I thought I told you to get rid of that letter. Get rid of it!' He realized that Mr. Shanklin had been under extreme pressure, possibly verging on a nervous breakdown, and decided not to discuss the matter with him further and left. On leaving Mr. Shanklin's office, he met S.A. Bardwell D. Odum, who had apparently overheard Mr. Shanklin yelling at him, and inquired as to what the problem was. He claims he then told Odum what had transpired, and at that point, according to Hosty, Odum confided in him that on late Saturday night, November 23, or in the early morning hours of November 24, 1963, he Odum, had been sent by Mr. Shanklin to interview Mrs. Paine in order to verify Hosty's story as to his prior interview of Mrs. Paine and Marina Oswald on November 1, 1963, and to determine if he had in any way mistreated any of these individuals. According to Hosty, Odum told him Mrs. Paine had advised him that she had given Hosty OSWALD's rough draft letter to the Russian Embassy, but had retained a copy of the rough draft she had made in her own handwriting. Odum told her she should give him the rough draft which she did. Odum said he took this rough draft to Mr. Shanklin sometime on November 24, 1963, or November 25, 1963, and told Mr. Shanklin about it

and that Mr. Shanklin told Odum. 'I thought I told Hosty to get rid of that note' and according to Odum, Mr. Shanklin became hysterical. THE TEST DRIVE Ruth Paine testified that on Saturday morning, November 9, 1963, she drove OSWALD "to a station in Dallas where you can take the written test and eye test that permits you to get a learner's permit [to drive an automobile]...when we got there it was closed being Election Day." Ruth Paine stated he was not out of her sight for a sufficient portion of the day to have gone anywhere. Ruth Paine was telling the truth about having driven to a station in Dallas in the morning, but she lied about being with OSWALD in the afternoon. OSWALD had been told that he would be receiving remuneration for his services sometime in late November and on the afternoon of November 9, 1963, he visited a car dealer. The Warren Report stated: The testimony of Albert Guy Bogard has been carefully evaluated, because it suggests the possibility that OSWALD might have been a proficient automobile driver and, during November 1963, might have been expecting funds with which to purchase a car. Bogard, formerly an automobile salesman with a Lincoln-Mercury firm in Dallas, testified that in the early afternoon of November 9, 1963, he attended a prospective customer who he believes was LEE HARVEY OSWALD. According to Bogard, the customer, after test driving an automobile over the Stemmons Freeway at 60 to 70 miles per hour, told Bogard that within several weeks he would have the money to make a purchase. Bogard asserted that the customer gave his name as 'LEE OSWALD,' which Bogard wrote on a business card. After OSWALD'S name was mentioned on the radio on November 22, 1963, Bogard assertedly threw the card in a trash can, making the comment to co-employees that he supposed OSWALD would no longer wish to buy the car. Bogard's testimony has received corroboration. The assistant sales manager at the time, Frank Pizzo, and a second salesman, Eugene M. Wilson, stated they recall an instance when the customer described by Bogard was in the showroom. Another salesman, Oran Brown, recalled that Bogard asked him to assist the customer if he appeared during certain evenings when Bogard was away from the showroom. Brown stated that he too wrote down the customer's name, and both he and his wife remember the name 'OSWALD' as being on a paper in his possession before the assassination. However, doubts exist about the accuracy of Bogard's testimony. He, Pizzo, and Wilson, differed on important details of what is supposed to have occurred when the customer was in the showroom. Whereas Bogard stated that the customer said he did not wish credit, but wanted to purchase a car for cash, Pizzo and Wilson did indicate that the man did

attempt to purchase on credit. According to Wilson, when the customer was told he would be unable to purchase a car without a credit rating, substantial cash, or a lengthy employment record, he stated sarcastically, "Maybe I'm going to have to go back to Russia to buy a car." While it is possible OSWALD would have made such a remark, the statement is not consistent with Bogard's story. Indeed, Bogard has made no mention that the customer ever spoke with Wilson while he was in the showroom. More important, on November 23, 1963, a search through the showroom's refuse was made, but no paper bearing OSWALD'S name was found. The paper on which Brown reportedly wrote OSWALD'S name has never been located. The assistant sales manager, Mr. Pizzo, who saw Bogard's prospect on November 9, 1963, and shortly after the assassination felt that OSWALD may have been this man, later examined pictures of OSWALD, and expressed serious doubts that the person with Bogard was in fact OSWALD. While noting a resemblance, he did not believe that OSWALD'S hairline matched that of the person who had been in the showroom on November 9, 1963. Wilson has stated that Bogard's customer was five feet tall. Several persons who knew OSWALD testified that he was unable to drive, although Mrs. Paine, who was giving OSWALD driving lessons, stated the OSWALD was showing some improvement since November. Moreover, OSWALD'S whereabouts on November 9, 1963, as testified to by Marina Oswald and Ruth Paine, would have made it impossible for him to have visited the automobile showroom as Mr. Bogard claims. [WR 321] Albert Guy Bogard was born in Cowshatta, Louisiana. When he reached the 11th grade he joined the Navy for four years, then sold automobiles. Albert Bogard said he was hospitalized at the North Louisiana Sanitarium, Shreveport, Louisiana, following a car wreck in 1951, for a fractured skull. Bogard told the FBI that on June 6, 1959, he had a light heart attack at Shreveport, Louisiana, but did not consult a doctor for two days afterward. He was questioned by Joseph A. Ball of the Warren Commission: Ball: Who did you work for last fall, 1963? Bogard: Downtown Lincoln Mercury, 118 East Commerce, Dallas, Texas. Ball: Shortly after the death of President Kennedy you notified the FBI, didn't you? Bogard: I did not notify the FBI. Ball: Did you notify someone that you had information? Bogard: Was the other salesman notified the FBI.

Ball: Who was he? Bogard: I forget the name. Ball: But he notified the FBI that you have some information? Bogard: Yes. Ball: And did some special agent from the FBI come and call on you? Bogard: Yes, sir. Several times. Ball: And took a statement from you? Bogard: Yes, I took a lie detector test. Ball: You told him about an incident which occurred some time before? Bogard: Just one week before. Ball: Just one week before? Bogard: Yes, sir; just one - one week before - two weeks before. Ball: About what date? Do you remember? Bogard: Ninth day of November, I think it was, to be exact. Ball: 1963? Bogard: 1963. Ball: What day of the week was that? Bogard: That was on a Saturday. Ball: When was it, in the morning or afternoon? Bogard: Afternoon. Ball: About what time? Bogard: I think it was around 1:30 p.m. or 2:00 p.m., as I was leaving town shortly after I gave the demonstration in the automobile, and I was in a hurry.

Ball: Tell me just what happened there. Bogard: A gentleman walked in the door and walked up and introduced himself to me, and tells me he wants to look at a car. I show him a car on the showroom floor, and take him for a ride out on the Stemmons Expressway and back, and he was driving at 60 to 70 miles an hour, and came back to the showroom. And I made some figures, and he told me that he wasn't ready to buy, that he would be in a couple or three weeks, that he had some money coming in. And when he finally started to leave, I got his name, and wrote it on the back of one of my business cards, and never heard from the man any more. And the day that the President was shot, when I heard that - they had the radio on in the showroom, and when I heard the name, that he had shot a policeman over in Oak Cliff, I pulled out some business cards that I had wrote his name on the back on, and said "He won't be a prospect any more because he is going to jail," and I ripped the card up an threw it away. Ball: Threw it away? Bogard: Threw it away. Ball: And when the FBI agent came to see you, the card had already been thrown away? Bogard: Yes sir, I tore it up that very day. Ball: This was Friday, November 22, 1963? Bogard: Yes sir, the day I heard that Kennedy had been killed. I hadn't heard that the President had been killed; just heard a policeman had been shot and that's when I tore up the card and said, "He won't want to buy a car." Ball: Now what kind of a looking man was he, or could you describe him? Bogard: I can tell you the truth, I have already forgotten what he actually looked like. I identified him as in pictures, but just to tell you what he looked like that day, I don't remember. Ball: You don't have a memory of it? Bogard: No, sir. Ball: Was he tall or short? Bogard: About medium build I would say.

Ball: Do you remember what name he gave you? Bogard: Gave me LEE OSWALD. Ball: Did he give you that when he first introduced Bogard: He give me that when he started to leave. Ball: Oh, gave you that when he started to leave? Bogard: Yes. Ball: And didn't give you any name when he first introduced himself? Bogard: No, sir. Ball: Did he tell you what kind of a car he wanted? Bogard: Yes, sir. Wanted a Caliente, two door hardtop. Ball: What kind of make is that? Bogard: Mercury Comet. Ball: And did you show him one? Bogard: Yes sir. Ball: What color did you show him? Bogard: Red. Ball: You took a ride with him? Bogard: Yes, sir. Ball: Did he drive, or did you drive? Bogard: He drove it. Ball: Drive it right out of the shop, or did you drive it first and then Bogard: No; he drove it right offhand. He got in driving it. Ball: Did he appear to know how to drive the car?

Bogard: Well, he had drove before, I am sure, because he took off. Ball: Did he Bogard: He might have drove a little reckless, but other than that, he knew how to drive. Ball: What do you mean "He might have drove it a little reckless?" Bogard: Well, going 60 and 70 miles an hour right up a freeway and took curves kind of fast. Ball: Did it appear to you that he knew how to handle the car? Bogard: Yes. Ball: Now, when you got back from the showroom, you said you did some figuring. What kind of figuring. Bogard: Just took out some papers and going to write up how much the car would cost, and, just like with anybody else, just trying to close the deal, and he said he would have the money in two or three weeks and would come in and Ball: Did you tell him you needed a down payment? Bogard: He said he would have it. Ball: Did you tell him how much? Bogard: Yes. Ball: How much? Bogard: Three hundred dollars, I think. And he said he didn't have the money then and would just pay cash for it at a later date... Ball: Did you tell anybody about it at that time? Bogard: Now, at the time, I don't know whether - Now Mr. Pizzo, I think I introduced him to him. I introduced him to Mr. Pizzo. He asked what was wrong with him, and I said he hasn't got the money right now. Will be back in couple or three weeks...he was expecting some money - to have the money in two or three weeks...

Ball: Now what was your impression when you saw OSWALD on television? Bogard: All my impression was that he had been in and tried to buy a car, that he wasn't a prosect any more. Ball: What about his picture in the paper? Did you recognize him from the picture? Bogard: Yes; I recognized him as being the same fellow who had been in. Ball: And did you tell anyone out there that you thought it was the same person? Bogard: They began asking me then and I said "Yes" and this Pizzo recognized him too. Ball: What did Pizzo say? Bogard: Said, "Yes" that is the same man. And Pizzo also has been questioned by the FBI. Ball: How do you spell his name? Bogard: P-I-z-z-o. Ball: He was the sales manager? Bogard: Yes, sir. Ball: Is he still the sales manager out there? Bogard: No sir... Ball: Now when was it that you talked with the other salesmen about this, and told them that you thought the man had been in to see you? Bogard: We were all standing there listening to the radio, and the name came on the radio, and I pulled this business card out with LEE OSWALD wrote across it. Ball: Who were some of the men standing by the radio when you pulled this business card out?

Bogard: Oh, I think Oran Brown was there, Mr. Wilson was there, and this other little boy, hadn't been there very long. I can't remember his name at this time right now. BOGARD'S REPORT TO DeBRUEYS At about 3:00 to 4:00 p.m., Saturday, November 9, 1963, a young man came to the automobile showroom walking and alone, stating that he was interested in a car. Albert Bogard said he introduced himself, and asked the prospective customer his name about twice before the individual gave his name as LEE OSWALD. Albert Bogard said he seemed to recall OSWALD said he had previously looked at a Rambler and Plymouth automobiles, although he could not be certain. He said he showed OSWALD 'every car in the showroom and on the Lot,' following which he took OSWALD back inside in an effort to 'close' with him. At this time OSWALD said he had no money, but he would have money in a couple or three weeks. Albert Bogard said he suggested a down payment and tried to find out where OSWALD intended his money would come from. OSWALD replied: 'I've got it coming.' He was particularly interested in a two-door Mercury hardtop which sells for about $3000. OSWALD asked for a demonstration drive. Bogard said he and OSWALD got in a demonstration car, with OSWALD driving, that OSWALD drove to Industrial Boulevard, south on industrial about two or three blocks, and made U-turn, proceeding north on Industrial, and thence to Stemmons Freeway. He drove out Stemmons at a rapid rate of speed, 75-85 miles per hour, to the Inwood Road exit to the right, back to the left under the freeway, and again to the left and on to the freeway, where he proceeded in a southeasterly direction. OSWALD continued on Stemmons Freeway to R.L Thornton Freeway, turned to the right at the Colorado Avenue exit, made a left back under the freeway, and thence back up on the freeway and proceeded in a northwesterly direction. At a point where OSWALD had a choice of continuing on the freeway which would mean bearing to the left, he started to go straight northward on Cadiz Street. Bogard called his attention to the fact the car had little gasoline in it, whereupon OSWALD turned back onto Industrial and thence to the automobile concern. Bogard said he again approached OSWALD on the proposition of a down payment, stating he could proceed with a credit check. OSWALD declined, stating he would pay cash. He would not give his address, but said he lived in the Oak Cliff section of Dallas. He said, as he recalled, OSWALD wore no coat or tie and was believed dressed in a 'sweat shirt' was bareheaded, and did not look like a $3,000 car man. Bogard said he wrote

OSWALD'S name 'LEE OSWALD' on the reverse side of one of his, Bogard's, business cards. He related that on November 22, 1963, he heard the name of OSWALD on a radio broadcast and recognized the name as that of his prospective customer. He said he remarked on this to others and pulled a number of cards out of his pocket, selected the card with OSWALD'S name on it, and threw it in the wastepaper basket. He said he saw OSWALD'S picture on television, and confirmed that this was the name individual who had come to his place of business on November 9, 1963, but who had never returned to his knowledge. He stated OSWALD did not enter into any conversation except as to the car, and he observed no unusual actions. Albert Bogard remarked that he has been in Dallas for a short time only, and that OSWALD appeared much more familiar with the streets than he is. Agents requested Albert Bogard to travel the same route OSWALD had driven. Agents observed this route carried Albert Bogard and OSWALD on Stemmons Expressway, on a portion of the route traveled by President Kennedy's motorcade on November 22, 1963, and that the site of the proposed luncheon for Mr. Kennedy was on this route. A total distance of some 13 miles was traveled. It was observed the Texas School Book Depository Building is within sight of Downtown Lincoln-Mercury showroom, perhaps threefourths mile distant. Upon return to the motor company, agents asked Bogard to locate his business card on which he said he had written the name of OSWALD. He stated trash had been picked up by the janitor and placed in a large receptacle to the rear of the building, somewhat inaccessible for a through search. He did not locate the card. [FBI Report of Manning C. Clements and WARREN C. DEBRUEYS 11.23.63 WCE3071 On January 14, 1964, William A. Branigan sent a Memorandum to William C. Sullivan concerning Bogard: "This recommends Dallas be authorized to afford polygraph examination to one Albert G. Bogard, a Dallas automobile salesman, who states that OSWALD, on November 9, 1963, made inquiry concerning the purchase of a Mercury car. Observations: Bogard's story is know to several people in Dallas. Bogard's comment that OSWALD inferred that he had money coming to him would, if true, be of pertinence to our investigation. Our inquiry has established that OSWALD did not have sufficient funds in November 1963 to make even the $300 down payment necessary to purchase the car. Moreover, his wife has stated that OSWALD was opposed to purchasing a car due to the expense of maintaining one, and there is no evidence to establish that OSWALD could drive. In addition, Mrs. Ruth Paine places OSWALD in her home on November 9, 1963, (election day) and states that in her opinion it

would not have been possible for OSWALD to have traveled to the automobile agency on November 11, 1963, as he was not out of her sight for a sufficient portion of that day to have made the trip. Accordingly, it appears that Bogard's story is untrue. Recommendation: That Dallas be authorized to proceed with the polygraph examination. Attached for approval is an airtel to Dallas. On February 24, 1964, Albert Guy Bogard underwent an FBI lie detector test: "The report indicates the emotional responses recorded by the polygraph were those normally expected of a person telling the truth. [WCE 3031] Albert Guy Bogard told the Warren Commission, "I can tell you the truth, I have already forgotten what he looked like. I identified him as in pictures, but just to tell you what he looked like that day I don't remember. Gave me the name LEE OSWALD." Eugene M. Wilson was interviewed by the FBI shortly after the Kennedy assassination. Wilson related that another salesman at Downtown Lincoln Mercury, known as Al Bogard, on some day about the first part of November 1963, believed to be a Saturday, but exact date not recalled, came to him with a customer. The company had a policy that if a salesman had a prospective customer that the salesman could not sell a car, the salesman was supposed to bring the prospect to a senior salesman before letting the customer go. On this occasion, Bogard brought this customer to him, and introduced the customer, but Wilson does not recall the customer's name. Bogard told Wilson that the customer had no cash, no credit, and had been employed on his job for only a short period of time, and Bogard had not been able to sell him a car. Wilson said he talked to this customer for only a minute or so, and told him that if he did not have a credit rating, or a substantial amount of cash, and had not been employed on his job for some time, they would be unable to sell him a car. This customer than said rather sarcastically, 'Maybe I am going to have to go back to Russia to buy a car?' Wilson then told the customer, 'Maybe that is where you should go.' The customer immediately walked away without further conversation, and Wilson did not pay any attention as to where the customer went. Wilson is now of the opinion that this event occurred sometime during the morning, before noon, on a Saturday, sometime during the first part of November 1963, but cannot be more specific as to the date of the month, day of the week or hour of the day. After this customer left, Guy Bogard mentioned to Wilson that he had used the red demonstrator car that Eugene M. Wilson had been using the car, and the car did not have much gasoline in it when he let the customer drive it. Guy Bogard also stated that the customer drove like a madman, driving much too fast, as it had been raining and the pavement was slick. Bogard seemed very unhappy with the way this customer drove, commenting that he drove 'like he was crazy.' Wilson described this customer as a white male, between 26 and 30 years old, weighed about 135 pounds, and was

only about five feet tall, and he definitely recalled that the customer was much shorter than he, Wilson, because he looked down, when talking to the customer. After the customer left, Wilson dismissed the matter from his mind. The next day after President Kennedy was assassinated, Bogard walked up to Wilson and mentioned that the man who had shot President Kennedy was the customer to whom Bogard had introduced Wilson. Wilson stated he did not see Bogard with a card in his pocket with the name OSWALD on it, did not hear Bogard say anything about having the name OSWALD on a card, and did not see Bogard throw a card away, and state that he had no further use for this prospect's name. After Bogard mentioned to Wilson that he had introduced OSWALD to Wilson, Wilson saw photographs of LEE HARVEY OSWALD in the newspapers and on television, but he could not say that LEE HARVEY OSWALD was, or was not, the customer who said he might have to go back to Russia to buy a car. Wilson explained that he had cataracts on his eyes, and cannot see out of his left eye, and has only 20/15 vision in his right eye. Due to his poor vision, and the fact that he talks to many prospects during a period of two or three weeks, he could not remember enough about what this customer looked like, to know whether or not this customer was identical with LEE HARVEY OSWALD. Mr. Wilson stated that his company had five red demonstrators, all just alike, and they were not assigned specifically to any salesman. Various salesmen usually drove the same car, but they were all parked outside with the keys in them, and if the vehicle was not in use, any salesman could go out and get one without seeking permission from anyone else. [FBI Dallas 100 - 10461 C. Ray Hall 9.8.64] At first, Eugene M. Wilson said he was sure it was OSWALD, but when the FBI returned on September 9, 1964, he told them he had cataracts and was unsure. He said he never saw the card on which Albert Guy Bogard claimed he had written "OSWALD." However, he did remember a customer who said he had to go back to Russia to buy an automobile. How many other people in Dallas would have made such a remark? Wilson remembered Bogard complaining about the way the customer drove. The customer who visited Downtown Lincoln Mercury was LEE HARVEY OSWALD. The FBI showed Frank Pizzo photographs of OSWALD. He expressed "serious doubts that the person with Bogard was, in fact, OSWALD. While noting a resemblance, he did not believe OSWALD'S hairline matched that of the person who had been in the showroom on Saturday, November 9, 1963." Frank Pizzo said "his face resembles him more than his hairline" since the man he had seen looked older and his hairline had receded more. Frank Pizzo, 63, died of a heart attack in 1991. His daughter stated: "He could never say for sure if it was him or not. Whoever it was who was driving, couldn't drive very well, and he drove the same route Kennedy took." [FBI Administrative DL 100-10461 AEC:LAC D Cover page,2,3; FBI 62-109060-3761; WC Pizzo test. to Jenner; WCE 3071] The FBI: In the report prepared by Special Agents C. Ray Hall and Maurice J. White on December 11, 1963, covering an interview with Mr. Oran Paul Brown,

it appears that Mr. Brown provided corroboration for the testimony of Mr. Bogard. Mr. Brown stated that one to two weeks before the assassination Guy Bogard asked him to service OSWALD if he appeared in the salesroom while Guy Bogard was not in, and that Brown wrote OSWALD'S name on a slip of paper which at some time he brought home with him. Oran Paul Brown further stated that when he returned home on the evening of November 22, 1963, his wife asked him what he knew about OSWALD, since she had seen OSWALD'S name on a piece of paper among his effects. Please interview Mrs. Oran Paul Brown to determine whether or not she ever observed the name 'LEE OSWALD' on a piece of paper among Oran Paul Brown's effects, and whether or not she ever made the remark her husband ascribed to her. This second notation of OSWALD'S name proved unrecoverable as well. The Warren Commission: "Mr. Oran Paul Brown provided corroboration for the testimony of Mr. Bogard." Oran Paul Brown, 64, died of cancer on February 24, 1991. Salesman Jack A. Lawrence, who moved to South Charleston, West Virginia, after the assassination, told the FBI that Albert Guy Bogard "wrote up papers covering the sale of this car to OSWALD." The FBI reported: On September 14, 1964, Jack A. Lawrence, 205 Ninth Avenue, South Charleston, West Virginia, was re-interviewed and advised that he did not know and had never seen LEE HARVEY OSWALD. He said that a day after the assassination of President Kennedy, a group of salesmen at Downtown Lincoln-Mercury in Dallas, Texas, including Mr. Bogard, Mr. Pizzo, himself and others, were standing around listening to a radio in the salesroom when the news that OSWALD had been arrested for the assassination came over the air. When the name OSWALD was spoken, Mr. Bogard said OSWALD was the man who had been in the Downtown Lincoln-Mercury about ten days before to look at cars and was to return later concerning buying one. This was the first time that Mr. Lawrence knew that OSWALD had been in the automobile agency and was a prospective customer of the firm. Mr. Lawrence said that at no time did he see Mr. Bogard take any papers or card out of his pocket and say the name OSWALD was on them. He said that Mr. Pizzo told Mr. Bogard to go get 'the papers' on OSWALD, but that Mr. Bogard never did this. He said that whenever they have a prospective customer, it is a rule of the firm that they take the name and address of the prosect and write up a possible sale on paper in each case, even though no sale is actually made. This gives them prospects for possible future sales. These papers are filed and maintained for some period of time. He said he never saw any papers that had been drawn up with OSWALD as a prospective buyer, and that Mr. Bogard never did go get the papers, if there ever were any."

Mr. Lawrence continued that during the conversation among the men at the time they were listening to the radio, someone, he believes it was Mr. Bogard, said that he had used Mr. Wilson's demonstrator when OSWALD was in, and that he and OSWALD took a ride in Wilson's car on the day OSWALD was there. After this conversation, Jack A. Lawrence said that he told Frank Pizzo and Albert Bogard that they should call the FBI and give them this information because everyone should cooperate in helping to clear up this matter. He said that when he suggested this, Mr. Guy Bogard seemed a little nervous and walked off, but would not make the call. He told Frank Pizzo he was going to call the FBI and Mr. Pizzo was in favor of the call. Therefore he called the FBI reporting the above concerning OSWALD, and that then Mr. Pizzo became miffed and appeared angry that the call had been made. Mr. Lawrence said that shortly thereafter, William Faller, 'the big boss' called him into his office and had a check for Mr. Lawrence, telling him that his services had been good, and they would like to keep him on, but since he had already given notice and decided to leave in a few days, they felt it best that he leave then, and he was paying Mr. Lawrence what was due him. This action caused Mr. Lawrence to believe that Mr. Pizzo had gone to Mr. Faller and told him about the call to the FBI and that Mr. Faller had let him go right away, instead of letting him stay on till the end of the month as he had planned when he gave notice he was leaving. Mr. Lawrence said that on the day of the assassination, he felt rather bad because he had been out the night before. He did go down to a sales meeting that morning, but left afterwards, driving in his assigned demonstrator to the YMCA where he stayed in Dallas, so he could get some rest and sleep. He said that right after noon he was on his way back to the Downtown Lincoln Mercury Company and was going along the same way that the Presidential party had ridden. When he approached the place where the assassination took place, the police stopped all traffic and he could go no farther. He said since he was due back at the salesroom, he parked the car because he could go no farther and walked the rest of the way. He said he was nervous mainly because of his having been 'out on the town' the night before and because of the shock of learning of the President's assassination. [NARA FBI 124-10268-10303] The salesman and management of Downtown Lincoln Mercury did not want their establishment associated with OSWALD. This was why Wilson and Pizzo were reluctant to positively identify OSWALD. If not for Jack Lawrence, Bogard's story would never have come to light.

ALBERT BOGARD IS BEATEN On January 24, 1964, Bogard appeared at the Dallas Office and advised he was willing to be interviewed with the polygraph. He related to Special Agents Arthur E. Carter and C. Ray Hall that on Saturday night, January 11, 1964, while worked as the manager of the Bent L-Bow Tavern is Dallas, Texas, several men came into the tavern, asked to see the manager, then, when Bogard appeared, they proceeded to hit him about the head with a beer bottle, then knocked him down and stomped him about the head. "He said he never had seen these men before, could not identify them, and had no idea why they assaulted him. He said he was hospitalized at Baylor Hospital, Dallas, Texas, for concussion and head cuts, from January 11, 1964, to January 18, 1964. Since his release, he has been taking Dramamine for dizziness, and took his last medication at about 11:00 p.m. on January 23, 1964." [FBI Dl-10010461 Arthur E. Carter: LAC] In September 1964 Albert Guy Bogard was in jail for having passed bad checks. [FBI 62109060-3761] On February 14, 1966, at 41, Bogard allegedly committed suicide by inhaling car exhaust somewhere in Louisiana. Researcher Penn Jones wrote: "Bogard was from Hallsville, Louisiana. He was found dead in his car at the Hallsville Cemetery on St. Valentine’s Day, 1966. A hose had been connected to the exhaust end, and the other end inside the car, with the windows up. The ruling was suicide." The Warren Commission acknowledged that: The testimony of Albert Bogard received corroboration. The assistant sales manager at the time, Frank Pizzo, and a second salesman, Eugene M. Wilson, said that they recalled an instance when the customer described by Bogard was in the showroom." Paul Oran Brown recalled the name OSWALD as did his wife. You had three people who recalled the name OSWALD. None of these men had ties to the intelligence community, as did Ruth Paine, who said she was with OSWALD during the time he took the test drive with Bogart. Bogart, who spent the most time with OSWALD, remembered his face. Shortly after the assassination Pizzo felt that OSWALD may have been this prospective customer, but was unsure later on. Had any pressure been exerted on him by his boss? Gerald Posner wrote that no other employee of this Lincoln-Mercury dealership corroborated Albert Guy Bogard and so he was "fired soon after the told the story. The Warren Report stated: Whereas Bogard stated that the customer said he did not wish credit but wanted to purchase a car for cash, Pizzo and Wilson did indicate that the man did attempt to purchase on credit. Perhaps Bogard was not privy to these conversations? Why split hairs? Bogart was no a publicity seeker. He said "Was the other salesman notified the FBI." He passed a lie detector test. According to the Warren Report: "On Saturday, November 23, 1963, a

search through the refuse of the showroom was made, but no paper bearing OSWALD'S name was found." S.A. DeBRUEYS was one of the FBI Agents who questioned Albert Guy Bogard and made this search. If such a card existed DeBRUEYS would have destroyed it or not conducted a through enough search of the large garbage bin behind the showroom to locate it. The FBI ignored Bogard's testimony because it indicated OSWALD did, in fact, know how to drive. More importantly, his testimony indicated that OSWALD was under the impression that he was going to have some money, for the first time in his life, in two or three weeks. This sounded like a promise that was made to someone who was going to be dead in two or three weeks. It was clear from this incident that OSWALD had another life that was unbeknownst to the FBI. Bogard's beating came around the same time that the FBI was debating how to discredit his testimony. The circumstances surrounding his suicide deserves a closer look. Additional evidence that OSWALD was able to drive came from insurance agent Edward A. Brand who told this researcher: My office was diagonally across the street from the rooming house on North Beckley where OSWALD stayed. He came in to buy some insurance. I said, 'Let's see your drivers license.' It was in the name of O.H. LEE. I said, 'Well, what kind of a car do you have?' He said, 'I don't have one right now but I'll be buying one in a short time - in another week or so. This was about a week from the assassination. And he said, 'I'll be paying cash for it, so I won't need collision, but I will have to have liability.' I asked him if he had an accidents or tickets. He said he had gotten a speeding ticket in San Antonio. I was questioned by the FBI about this, but they took the viewpoint that he couldn't drive, and did not have a license, so my testimony was disregarded. OSWALD allegedly stayed with Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald through Monday, November 11, 1963, which was Veterans Day. That Monday, Ruth Paine was away from home from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. On November 27, 1963, Cecil A. Hamblen, the early night manager of the Dallas Western Union Office told his superior that about two weeks earlier, circa Wednesday, November 13, 1963, he remembered OSWALD sending a telegram from the office to Washington, D.C., possibly to the Secretary of the Navy, and that the application was completed in an unusual form of hand printing. The next day Cecil A. Hamblen told a magazine correspondent that he remembered having seen OSWALD on prior occasions collecting money orders for small amounts of money. Soon thereafter, Cecil A. Hamblen signed a statement relating to both the telegram and the money orders, and specifying two instances in which he had seen the person he believed to be OSWALD in the office; in each instance the man had behaved disagreeably, and one other Western Union employee had been involved in assisting him. The second employee, A. Lewis, did recall one of the occurrences described by C.A. Hamblen, and believed the money order in question was delivered to "someone at the YMCA." At the request of the FBI, officers of Western Union conducted a complete search of their records in Dallas and other cities for money orders payable to LEE HARVEY OSWALD or to any of his known aliases or for telegrams sent by OSWALD or by his known aliases. In addition, all money orders addressed to persons at the Dallas

YMCA, during October, and November 1963, were inspected; as were all telegrams handled from November 1, 1963, through November 22, 1963, by the employee whom Cecil A. Hamblen assertedly saw service OSWALD; as were all telegrams from Dallas to Washington sent in November 1963. No indication of any such money order, or telegram, was found in any of these records. Note that Western Union conducted this search, not the FBI. The style of OSWALD'S handwriting was unknown to Western Union officials and if OSWALD used an unknown alias they would have been unable to identify OSWALD as the recipient or originator of the document. A Justice Department document revealed the conclusions of the Warren Commission "could not include the possibility of money sent, or received (deleted), if OSWALD had used any other name than that of LEE HARVEY OSWALD, or his known aliases." [CIA 454, 423-152] A Memorandum for the Record signed by Richard Helms that concerned OSWALD'S bank accounts, safety deposit records and general finances remained deleted. [CIA 454, 423152] The FBI: Hamblen informed the Warren Commission representative he could not state for certain whether the individual in question was OSWALD or not. He furnished conflicting information to the Warren Commission representative, and was unable to produce any evidence that OSWALD had ever received, or sent, a telegram or money order through the Western Union office in Dallas. Hamblen claimed a fellow employee, Mrs. McClure, could verify his information...Mrs. McClure denied ever seeing OSWALD in the Western Union office. "Hamblen's superiors" concluded "that this whole thing was a figment of Mr. Hamblen's imagination." The Warren Commission agreed. [WR p332] Cecil A. Hamblen, born August 2, 1907, died in June 1971. On Thursday, November 14, 1963, Ruth Paine drove OSWALD'S daughter June to a T. B. Clinic: "There was a slight suspicion that she might have been exposed to T. B." FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 15, 1963 TO SUNDAY NOVEMBER 17, 1963 On November 15, 1963, OSWALD did not visit Marina Oswald and Ruth Paine. Marina Oswald remembered that during a telephone conversation that took place on Monday, November 18, 1963 OSWALD said he had waited for some time on line on Saturday, November 16, 1963, to take his driver's test. Eventually he gave up, and went home to 1026 North Beckley. Ruth Paine testified: Then he called us Saturday afternoon of November 16, 1963, to say he had been and tried to get his driver's permit but that he had arrived before closing time but still too late to get in because there was a long line ahead of him, the place having been closed the previous Saturday for election day and the following Monday, November 11, 1963, Veterans Day. There

were a lot of people who wanted to get permits and he was advised that it wouldn't pay him to wait in line. He didn't have time to be tested. An undated application for a Texas Drivers License was found among OSWALD'S effects. No one who took a driver's test on Saturday, November 16, 1963, verified OSWALD'S presence on line. The Warren Report cited no witnesses to OSWALD'S whereabouts on Saturday, November 16, 1963, except for Sterling and Homer Wood, who placed OSWALD at the Sportsdrome Rifle Range. Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission that the reason OSWALD did not go to Irving that weekend was because Marina asked him not to: She felt he had overstayed his welcome the previous weekend which had been three days, November 9, 1963, November 10, 1963, November 11, 1963, because he was off Veterans Day, November 11, 1963, and she felt it would be simpler and more comfortable if he didn't come out. Jenner: It is your definite recollection that the failure to come on the weekend preceding the assassination was not at his doing but at the request of Marina, under the circumstances you have related? Paine: I am absolutely clear about that. GLADYS JOHNSON As for Sunday, November 17, 1963, S.A. Bardwell Odum questioned Gladys Johnson, OSWALD'S landlady about OSWALD'S whereabouts. During the period he stayed at this address OSWALD would customarily leave home on Friday morning for work and not return to the house until Monday afternoon after work. The only exceptions to this routine were as follows: 1. On Monday, November 11, 1963, he did not return since after being gone since Friday morning November 8, 1963, but returned the night of Tuesday, November 12, 1963, after work. 2. On the weekend of November 15, 1963, November 16, 1963, and November 17, 1963, OSWALD was at the house and was not absent to any extent. Mrs. Johnson remembers seeing him on Saturday November 16, 1963, when he made a trip to a nearby washateria and she recalls seeing him in the living room on Sunday, November 17, 1963, watching television. 3. On the night of November 21, 1963, OSWALD did not return to the house, and Mrs. Johnson has not seen him since that time.

Mrs. Johnson stated that OSWALD stayed 'closer to home' than any roomer she has ever had before. He did not drink or smoke and rarely left his room in the evening except to watch television in the living room or to go to the nearby Cabell's Market where he usually got bread, lunch meat and jelly to prepare meals in his room. He did not talk to anyone, and had no visitors. To her recollection he never spent an evening away from the house except the evenings previously mentioned when he indicated he was going to Irving, Texas. When Gladys Johnson testified before the Warren Commission she stated: Ball: Now in the weekend, that would be the weekend before the assassination, he stayed there. Johnson: He remained there. Ball: Did you, or did you not, see him go out that weekend? Johnson: I did not see him go out, I did not, no sir." (Mr. Johnson leaves room) Ball: Let me ask you this; did he, that weekend, on Saturday, make a trip to a place where they wash clothes? Johnson: Well, I think he did go across to that Washeteria. I think he did. Ball: Did you see him go any place, except for that, on that weekend. Johnson: That's the only time. I had just forgotten that, but I do remember he carried some clothes out of the house that morning and the Washeteria is right across the street, less than a block. Ball: But he left his room? Johnson: And he wasn't gone long, and I didn't see him return with any clothes, but I do know that he was gone just about long enough to do a wash. The testimony of Gladys Johnson was questionable. Firstly, the FBI agent who questioned Johnson was suspected of having taken part in the FBI cover-up. Secondly, why would OSWALD miss a weekend with his family just to stay in his room or watch television or do his laundry? Thirdly, the only witness to his whereabouts was Gladys Johnson. None of the other roomers observed him nor did anyone in the laundermat. [WC Test. Mrs. Arthur Carl (Galdys) Johnson; WR p740; Johnson Lee & Marina p410]

THE TELEPHONE CALL TO OSWALD On Sunday, November 17, 1963, Ruth Paine telephoned OSWALD at 1026 North Beckley. Ruth Paine recalled: "June was fooling with the telephone dial, and Marina said, 'Let's call papa' and asked me ..." She asked for OSWALD by his real name, and was told that he did not live at that address. Ruth Paine: "I said, 'Is LEE OSWALD there?' He said 'There is no LEE OSWALD living here.' As best I can recall. This is the substance of what he said. I said, 'Is this a rooming house?' He said 'Yes.' I said 'Is this WH 3-8993?' And he said 'Yes.' I thanked him an hung up...I said to Marina, they don't know of a LEE OSWALD at that number. She looked surprised." Ruth Paine stated: "I think the guy was not too well put together. He gave us a phone number for us to call so we could let him know if his baby came. But he didn't tell us he was using an assumed name. After he hadn't been out that weekend, Marina wanted to talk to him. I didn't think of it, quite frankly." Sunday, November 17, 1963, was the day that OSWALD was sighted at the Sportsdrome Rifle Range. MANUEL OCCARBERRO: SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 17, 1963 THE THEORY On the morning of Sunday, November 17, 1963, evidence suggested that HEMMING flew OSWALD and several members of Alpha-66 to Sulphur, Oklahoma. On November 23, 1963, Willis Price, a service station owner in Sulphur, Oklahoma, told the Police Chief Charles J. McBee that on November 17, 1963, …a person believed to be identical with LEE HARVEY OSWALD accompanied by two Cuban males, and one Cuban female, were in a service station in Sulphur operated by Price. The female made two local telephone calls from a telephone at the service station, speaking in Spanish. It is not known to whom she was speaking. These people were driving a 1958 Ford, two tone color, dark brown and lighter color, no license plate information obtained. The Chief of Police stated there are some Cubans in Sulphur. Willis Price is considered reliable as he operates a service station and is well-known to the Chief of Police and other members of the Police Department. Willis Price identified the person referred to above as OSWALD on the basis of pictures of OSWALD shown on television and in newspapers. Willis Price, according to the Chief of Police, was positive of his identification. [FBI OK City 89-41-46] The FBI questioned Willis D. Price on November 23, 1963: Willis D. Price, 1123 Broadway, advised he is the operator of the FINA Service Station at 1123 Broadway, and at about 2:00 p.m. on Sunday, November 17, 1963, a group of people who appeared to be Cubans, with a light complexioned man who resembled LEE HARVEY OSWALD, drove up beside his service station in about a 1958 Ford Station Wagon, and

some of them came to his station. He has seen a photograph in the Daily Oklahoman newspaper of OSWALD, and the light complexioned man with the Cubans resembled OSWALD. He has since however seen television pictures of LEE HARVEY OSWALD which did not very much resemble the man in the company of the Cubans. The automobile which they parked by the side of his station appeared to be of white and tan color with a white center and tan bottom. He did not know what license the vehicle carried. In the station wagon were two women who never got out of the vehicle. One of these women appeared to be about 40, and the other older. The following described people got out of the station wagon and came into the service station: a woman in her late 20's or early 30's; a tall slender girl about 13 years of age; a child 2 or 3 years old; two men, both dark complexions, and wide across the face. Both appeared to be Latins, were about 5' 6" to 5' 7" tall and wore slacks. One man who resembled the photograph of OSWALD, was light complexioned, pale, appeared to be in late 20's or early 30's, about 6' tall, 170 pounds, thin and slender, light brown hair, reasonably high forehead, thin lips, and wore slacks. The man who resembled OSWALD spoke in the language of the other people who looked like Cubans. Before getting out of the station wagon they asked if they could use the telephone in the station, and he gave consent. When they first drove up, the man who resembled OSWALD was in the back seat and by motion attracted his attention and motioned for one of the women to talk to him. She held up a small black book with a name and box number on it which he does not remember. From actions they thought the box number was a street number or address. The woman who held up the black book spoke broken English. Price told her it was a mailing address and not a street address. When the group of people came into the service station the woman, who appeared to be in her 20's, asked for a telephone directory, and on obtaining the directory, she looked up a number. She made a telephone call. The first number she attempted to call did not answer, and she looked up another number. She telephoned a second time and spoke in broken English. At the last of her telephone conversation she gave some name as though referring to her own name, and said 'from Cuba.' She then hung-up and talked to the light complexioned man resembling OSWALD in a foreign language. These people then left, driving west of Highway 7, after getting into their station wagon. He does not remember which direction they came from. The man resembling OSWALD never spoke English in the station, but only used motions to Price. He looked American, but spoke in the same language as the people he was with. Willis Price, 62, died of a heart attack in 1989.

OSWALD'S ADDRESS BOOK: "TO SULPHUR" The last page of OSWALD'S Spanish-English, English-Spanish dictionary contained an illegible phrase. On April 2, 1964, the FBI sent this analysis to the Warren Commission: TRANSLATION OF UNKNOWN PHRASE Commission Exhibit 116 Illegible phrase contained on the last page of the University of Chicago Spanish-English, English-Spanish Dictionary. On the assumption that the last two penciled lines on the last page of this dictionary may be Spanish, it appears that the first word could be "YO" and the second word either SOPA or SOPLE and the third word EL. The fourth word is not readable from a Spanish aspect. YO-I SOPA - SOUP SOPLE - I BLEW EL - THE On the assumption that the questioned phrase is written in Russian and English using a combination of Latin and Cyrillic script, it is possible that the first word could be TO, '20' or '70.' The second word could be Russian for '88 GUM,' '88 SULPHUR,' or 'SARA. The third word could be the Russian word AND. The last word in this phrase could possibly be the Russian word LETTERS or the Russian name NINA. [FBI 105-825552419 NARA FBI 124-10047-10005] DR. MIGUEL L. DESOCARRAZ, M.D. The FBI interviewed every Cuban in Sulphur, Oklahoma. Dr. Miguel L. DeSocarraz at the Oklahoma Veterans Hospital residence, Post Office Box 200, advised the FBI on November 23, 1963, that …he is a Cuban refugee and very anti-communist. The following people contacted him on Sunday, November 17, 1963: Manolito Rodriguez, [Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro] with his wife and two or three year old baby; two other men, both of whom were dark complected, one having the name of Salazar and the other Chito Rivero. With Salazar and Rivero were their wives, and a girl about 13 or 14 years of age. Salazar is dark, short, husky and in his 20's. Rivero is dark, short, thin and in his 50's. All

of these people were in an older Ford Station Wagon of cream color. He did not know a 1958 Ford from other year models. Socarraz, after examining a photograph of LEE HARVEY OSWALD which appeared in the Daily Oklahoman newspaper, stated the Manolito Rodriguez possibly did resemble OSWALD. However, he is certain Rodriguez is not identical with OSWALD. Rodriguez cannot speak English. He resides at 1208 Huspeth (Oak Cliff) Dallas, Texas, with telephone number FR-4-5923...Rodriguez is employed as a welder in Dallas. Miguel L. DeSocarraz, contacted in June 1993, asked: "How did you get my telephone number? Did you pose as someone else when you spoke to my brother in Miami? You were not that doctor that he was thinking of, were you? I think what you find in the document there is all I can tell you. There is nothing else I can add. I don't want you to call me anymore." [DeSocarraz telephone 210-428-7559 423-8094] DORA CAUSA A Miami FBI report stated: "Another government agency which conducts intelligence and personnel investigations [CIA]," advised that one of its sources reported hearing from Dora Causa Ramirez this statement by Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo, the leader of Alpha-66, on November 21, 1963: 'Something very big would happen soon that would advance the Cuban cause.'" Dora Causa told the FBI that Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo referred to an anti-Castro action, and added that her sister had married a member of Alpha-66. The CIA commented: "This remark, when taken out of context, is impossible to evaluate, but it is typical of exile rumors which, being interpreted by exiles, support whatever hypotheses they are expounding on at any given moment." [CIA 88-27] The CIA planned to screen the Cuban rumors by "preliminary investigating of more plausible ones before passing them on to the U.S. agencies." The teletype continued: 'D' reports one Manuel Rodriguez (Matronym unknown) living in Dallas, Texas, was known to be violently anti-President Kennedy. WAVE traces indicate 'E,' 5310 Columbia, Dallas, Texas, as a member of the Second National Front of Escambray, and organizer of Dallas Second National Front of Escambray. Reference are (deleted) Volume 7, DBA 49531 Dated August 28, 1963 pages 14 and 18. This nebulous identification may be in some way related Paragraph 2 statement which Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo is reported to have made. While this relationship is obviously most circumstantial and nebulous, it is being passed to FBI and Secret Service Miami as a reflection of the rumors which are currently circulating. Information will be carefully identified as rumor. C/S COMMENT: “Reaction of exile community to sudden death of President Kennedy is one of shock and grief.” [CIA 88-27]

The United States Secret Service issued a Protective Research Memorandum on Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro which described him as known to be "violently antiKennedy." MANUEL RODRIGUEZ OCCARBERRO On May 25, 1964 MANUEL RODRIGUEZ ORCARBERRO voluntarily appeared and was interviewed at the office of the FBI in Dallas, Texas. He furnished his home address as 2311 Nicholson Street, Apartment D, home telephone, WH 6-8429. He said he was employed. at the Curtis Mathes Manufacturing Company 2220 Young street, Dallas, Texas. RODRIQUEZ advised further concerning his background and indicated he had taken primary school work in Cuba and had finished one year of commercial school in Camaguey, Cuba in 1942. Due to a large family end economic necessity, he had become employed at a very young age when he was approximately fifteen years old. He had first worked for a number of years at grocery store called Casa Estrada in Camaguey, Cuba until about 1955. He thereafter took a Job with Coca-Cole Company in Camaguey where he worked until about 1958. In about February, 1958, he joined the FIDEL CASTRO army in the mountains and served under HUBERT MATOS until shortly after October 21, 1959. It was on this latter date that HUBERT MATOS defected from CASTRO. RODRIGUEZ said he thereafter worked for a short time at the Coca-Cola Company in Camaguey. Because he desired to fight against CASTRO, he left his job and took asylum as an exile in the Brazilian Embassy in Havana on September 9, 1960. He remained in the Brazilian Embassy until November 29, 1960 on which date he entered the United States at Miami, Florida as a refugee. RODRIGUEZ said that desiring to engage in activities against FIDEL CASTRO, he had organized a cell Unit of the Second National Front of the Escambray (SNFE). RODRIGUEZ advised, at the present time he is the president of SNFE at Dallas. He said this group is sending an average of $200 a month to the national headquarters of the SNFE at Miami, Florida for the purpose of furthering the aim of the organization which has as its final goal the ousting of FIDEL CASTRO. Rodriguez pointed out that the SNFE had until very recently been very inactive. He said however, a national officer of SNFE ANTONIO VECIANA had come to Dallas and made a speech on about April 19, 1964 at which time he outlined the purpose of SNFE - Alpha 66. RODRIGUEZ said that since the arrival of VECIANA in Dallas for the purpose of this speech, the members of the SNFE had shown a greater interest in the organization. He advised meetings are held on a regular bi-weekly basis. He stated members in attendance vary in number with a maximum of approximately twenty. He said these meetings are almost always held in the home of JORGE SALAZAR’s residence, 3126 Hallandale, Dallas, Texas.

Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro, born in Cuba on November 8, 1928, was a former Officer in the Army of Fidel Castro. Occarberro had worked for the Coca-Cola Company until February 1958, when he joined the rebel army of Fidel Castro. He served with Fidel Castro until October 21, 1959. He entered the United States around this time, then returned to Coca-Cola in Cuba, where he worked clandestinely against Castro. He worked as a dishwasher in Miami Beach, and remained there until September 6, 1963, when he registered as an alien in Dallas. RODRIGUEZ advised he had made no contacts in Dallas with any American persons or other persons concerning the purchase of arms or ammunition by SNFE. He said members of the Dallas Unit of this organization are to collect whatever money they can and send that money to the national headquarters of SNFE to serve the national purposes of this organization. RODRIGUEZ explained that the SNFE - Alpha 66 is a exile Cuban organization which is anti-CASTRO and anti-Communist /which has for its goal the ultimate ousting of CASTRO and his purchase of power in Cuba. Concerning the report he was violently anti-President KENNEDY, RODRIGUEZ stated he had been an admirer of President KENNEDY, both as a person and as a politician. He said he recognized that the policies of President KENNEDY concerning politics in Cuba had been directed by the whole international situation. He said he believed President KENNEDY had been a fighter against communism and a friend of the Cuban people. He said he had never made any derogatory statements against President KENNEDY and did not recall that such statements had been made in any of the SNFE meetings at Dallas. RODRIGUEZ pointed out the SNFE had bought and placed flowers at the place of the KENNEDY assassination in Dallas. He said he had heard rumors that many Cubans were critical of the policies of President KENNEDY as regards the Cuban situation, but he thought that most of the critics of the United States Cuban policy were ex-Batista followers. The FBI never interviewed any of the individuals name by Miguel L. DeSocarraz except for Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro. In 1993 Wallace Heitman stated, "I may have interviewed him. I spoke Spanish, I did interview a lot of Cubanos. I remember Alpha66, but Manuel Rodriguez is too common a name.” The Dallas Chapter of Alpha-66 picketed U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson when he spoke at Dallas Municipal Auditorium in October 1963. They staged a protest march to advertise the plight of Cuban exiles. According an FBI informant in Alpha-66: "The occasion of Stevenson's speech was selected because he is the U.N. Ambassador and was involved in the decision which reportedly withdrew air support from the invasion forces at the Bay of Pigs." [FBI 105-96777 6.25.64]

BUDDY WALTER'S INFORMANT LINKS OSWALD WITH ALPHA-66 After the Kennedy assassination, Detective Buddy Walthers of the Dallas Police Department wrote: November 23, 1963. Mr. Decker: At about 8 a.m. this morning, while in the presents (sic) of Allan Sweat, I talked to Sorrel, Dallas Secret Service head. I advised him that for the past few months at a house at 3128 Harlendale some Cubans had been having meetings on the weekends and were possibly connected with the 'Freedom for Cuba Party' of which OSWALD was a member. November 26, 1963. I don't know what action the Secret Service has taken, but I learned today that sometime between seven days before the President was shot these Cubans moved from this house. My informant stated the Subject OSWALD had been to this house before. Buddy Walthers. [County of Dallas Supp. Inv. Rep. Sheriff's Dept; 7 WH 548; cf. 19 WH 503,505] Buddy Walther's lead was never followed up. The Secret Service never contacted Buddy Walther's informant or traced down the occupants of 3128 Harlandale to question them about OSWALD. An investigation of this nature was never conducted, since it might have linked OSWALD to Alpha-66. The bottom of the Buddy Walthers document indicated no action was ever taken on it by the Dallas Police Department. THE CIA WAS UNAWARE OF 3128 HARLANDALE In 1975 the CIA advised: "Our file search to date had revealed no information concerning [3126 Hollandale or 3128 Harlendale]. However, we are not satisfied that all possible CIA records have been consulted. A final report concerning this question will be forwarded to the [Rockefeller] Commission by May 2, 1975." [CIA 1643-1088 p24] Later that year the CIA concluded: The files of appropriate components of the Plans Directorate have been checked and show no record of any CIA contact with any anti-Castro group in Dallas. Alpha-66 is not listed in the 1963 Dallas telephone directory. Dallas city map and 1963 crisscross directory reveal no street named Harlendale. There is no Hollandale Street in Dallas. However, there is a Hollandale Lane in Farmers Branch, Texas - a Dallas suburb. Numbers on Hollandale Lane run from 2800 to 3028. There is no 3126. In 1963 one Lloyd Humphreys resided at 3028 Hollandale Lane, the last house on the street. CIA has no record of Humphreys. [CIA 1636-1086 rel. 4.22.82] THE FBI LOCATES 3128 HARLANDALE In December 1975 FBI Bureau Supervisor William O. Cregar, the FBI/CIA liaison in 1967, revealed the results of a review of information in the Dallas file on the 3126

Harlendale, Rodriguez, OSWALD connection conducted by FBI S.A. Gemberling just before he had his August 1975 heart attack. It revealed: In connection with the above enclosure it was noted from review of Dallas files that the address referred to by Deputy Sheriff Walthers was erroneously listed as 3128, but the actual address was 3126 Harlendale Street. Review of Dallas file reflects that the original organization known as Alpha-66 held meetings during early 1963 at 3126 Harlandale Street, Dallas, Texas, and a letter furnished to the FBI Dallas by a Mrs. Dorothy Keasler Klein, 4141 Prescott Street, Dallas, Texas, reflects that she had received an unsolicited form letter from that organization on November 19, 1963, asking for donations. The letter from Alpha-66 was on letterhead stationery, which reflected the above address and was signed by Manuel Rodriguez, General Secretary of Alpha-66. The FBI added: A review of Dallas file 134-332 reflects that former DL 282-S whose identity is known to the Bureau, Bufile 105-131209 with in a top leadership position in Alpha 66 at Dallas Texas in 1963 and 1964 and he reported to the Dallas Office during 1964 that meetings of this group were held during 1963 at the residence of one Jorge Salazar 3126 Harlendale Street, Dallas, Texas. According to this source, as well as other informants familiar with Cuban matters during the period 1963 to 1964, LEE HARVEY OSWALD was not known to have ever associated with, or been known to, Alpha-66 members, and there is no information that he ever visited 3126 Harlendale Street, Dallas, Texas as reported by Deputy Sheriff Walthers. Dallas Office files contain no identifiable information regarding “Freedom for Cuba Party” or JORGE SALAZAR. According to Dallas file 134-332, DL 282-S moved to Puerto Rico during 1972 and accordingly Dallas file 134-332 was closed on November 28, 1972. This source’s last known symbol number was SJ 1140-S. The FBI located Harlendale Street, a fund raising letter from Alpha-66 with the return address of 3126 Harlendale Street, and an informant who had attended Alpha-66 meetings there. This information was no doubt passed to the CIA by the Dallas FBI or by Headquarters in 1963 - it was clearly of interest. Yet the CIA denied that 3126 Harlendale Street existed. The CIA attempted to conceal the Alpha-66 connection. PHILLIPS, Antonio Veciana and Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro were all associated with Alpha-66; OSWALD was tied in with Alpha-66 by a Dallas Police informant and by Antonio Veciana, who had seen him with PHILLIPS, the mastermind of Alpha-66. Antonio Veciana said he had been to Harlendale Headquarters but had never seen OSWALD there. Antonio Veciana told Gaeton Fonzi: They found out OSWALD had a neighbor called Rodriguez. He was surprised because one of the heads of Alpha-66 in Dallas was named

Rodriguez and Veciana was afraid that they would think that he was involved, and that's why he didn't say anything to Diosdado. But later he found out it wasn't the same Rodriguez, that OSWALD'S neighbor was a Mexican. Further explanation: He says he heard that afternoon when Kennedy was killed that a Latin named Rodriguez may have been involved in the assassination and when he heard that he got scared because he knew that he knew a Rodriguez in Dallas who was connected with Alpha-66. [SSCIA 157-10007-10311] On July 16, 1964 MANUEL RODRIGUEZ ORCARBERRO who resides at 2311 Nicholson Drive, Apartment D, home telephone number WH 6-6429, and is employed at Curtis Mathes Manufacturing Company, 2220 Young Street, Dallas, Texas, telephonically communicated with Special Agent WALLACE K. HEITMAN and desired to furnish information. He appeared at the FBI Office in Dallas, and was interviewed. RODRIGUEZ stated he desired to inform that a new group of Second National Front of Escambray (SNFE; (Operation Alpha 66) had been formed in Fort Worth, Texas. The president of this new group is RENE de la MAZA whose residence is 2701 Springdale Avenue, Fort Worth 68, Texas, telephone TE 4-2068. De la MAZA is an attorney by profession. The secretary of the organization of the new group is ARMAND GATELL, 313 Sergeant’s Street, Fort Worth. Both de la MAZA and GATELL speak good English as well as Spanish, their native tongue. RODRIGUEZ stated further the Cuban refugees in Fort Worth had arranged a musical to be held in some public gathering place in Fort Worth Texas, to which Cuban refugees and other interested persons were invited. The purpose of the musical was to raise money to send to the national headquarters of SNFE. RODRIGUEZ stated the Dallas group of SNFE had collected $580 from its members during the month of June, 1964. This money was forwarded to the national headquarters of SNFE. The monthly quota for the Dallas group is $300. RODRIGUEZ said the group invariably meets its quota. RODRIGUEZ advised the Dallas group of SNFE meets every other Sunday, and the meeting place has invariably been at the home of JORGE SALAZAR, a SNFE member. RODRIGUEZ advised meetings are attended by approximately 20 to 25 members. He stated the topics of discussion at these meetings are generally how to raise money to send to national headquarters; the distribution of the English and Spanish publications of the organization which are labeled "News Front Cuba" and "Noticias de Cuba;" and for the actual collecting of dues and other monies from members. RODRIGUEZ advised the Dallas group has confined its efforts solely to trying to unite the Cuban refugee elements in Dallas into one group and to the collection of money which is forwarded to the national headquarters in Miami, Florida. He said no effort has been made nor will Any such effort be made to procure arms and supplies for revolutionary elements within Cuba as such procurement is performed by national headquarters. RODRIGUEZ advised there has been no change in

the officers and directors of the Dallas unit of the SNFE. He listed these officers and directors as follows: President MANUEL RODRIGUEZ ORCARBERRO Secretary of ANTONIO-NAVARRO Organization Secretary of EDE GUTIERREZ Finances Secretary of JOSE LECUSAY Propaganda Secretary of Acts ARMANDO-ORDONEZ Rodriguez stated he is aware it would extremely easy for any anti-Castro group in the United States to become infiltrated with pro-Castro elements. He has met with and discussed politics with all of the officers and directors of the SNFE group at Dallas and he does not think that any these person are pro-Castro in sympathy. He pointed out, however, that he had known the majority of these persons prior to his arrival in Dallas. THE DEATHS OF BUDDY WALTHERS AND ALLEN SWEATT In 1969 Buddy Walthers was shot and killed in the course of his police duties. Buddy Walthers was accompanied by Deputy Sheriff Allen Sweatt on November 22, 1963, when he referred the 3126 Harlendale Street matter to the United States Secret Service. Allen Sweatt died of heart disease in 1975. JOHN THOMAS MASEN During the FBI's investigation of Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro, it discovered that when undercover Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agent Frank Ellsworth questioned Dallas gun dealer John Thomas Masen, the name of Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro was mentioned. John Thomas Masen reported that Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro, or one of his associates, had contacted him "for the purchase of weapons in connection with a clandestine Cuban operation, and that he might possibly be involved in other political type activities." Frank Ellsworth stated that Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro was a member of the DRE and John Thomas Masen was a Minutemen. Frank Ellsworth, a former Army Intelligence agent, policeman, and FBI confidential informant was contacted in May 1993: "Well, I worked undercover on him at that time. We were investigating Mr. Masen for gun law violations. He was a licensed gun dealer. But he was making machine guns. I saw him do it, the jury agreed that he did it, and he did time for it. He was apparently connected with the Minutemen. Specifically, he talked about it. I really couldn't say how much of it was hot air, and how much of it was truth. I really wasn't interested in his political affiliations. The name Manuel Rodriguez came up very vaguely." Frank Ellsworth told the Warren Commission that investigating the political affiliations of Thomas Masen and Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro was the responsibility of S.A. Hosty. [WC Griffin Memo 4.16.64]

Frank Ellsworth: My initial interest in Mr. Masen was two-fold, neither one of which had anything to do with the Cubans. They were stealing Fort Hood blind, hauling weapons out the back gate on 18-wheelers - this wasn't no little bitty job - some GI taking a box or two of ammunition. This stuff was going off in flat bed trailers. They even got away with a medium-sized tank. As far as I know, that thing is still hidden someplace. Our understanding, the snitches that we had, it was the Minutemen. Masen was having this stuff stolen from the National Guard Armory. There was a Master Sergeant that ultimately went to the penitentiary over this. Masen was putting me in touch with him. A couple of guys [Lawrence Reginald Miller and Donnell Darius Whitter] were bringing it to him one night. They ran a red light, and there was a big chase. They ended up wrapped around a telephone pole, and guess what they found in the trunk? All of this stuff. We didn't know anything about this. We were supposed to meet Masen in his place of business at 7:00 a.m. to look the merchandise over. When we showed up there Masen was, to say least, somewhat peeved. We couldn't figure what, in God's name, was the matter with this guy. We'd watched him make machine guns for six weeks and all of a sudden we had to peel him off the ceiling. He finally told us to go next door and get the newspapers. We figured out what happened. The FBI did have a good deal of information on the Minutemen, but they might not have chosen to talk about it. Quite frankly, it was a real nebulous organization and we weren't sure who belonged to it, and who didn't. There was a lot of overlapping of groups, there was a lotta people claiming to be purchasing for the Cuban revolution, the purchasers were purchasing for resale to all sorts of places. A lot of the deals were set-ups. A real barrel of snakes. John Thomas Masen was arrested on November 21, 1963, and charged with possession of dynamite by the Dallas Police Department. Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms also filed charges against him. John Thomas Masen was contacted in June 1993. He was asked about Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro. He answered: You know, let me ask you, 30 years ago, what happened with your conversation with your mother? I didn't know Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro. When I spoke to the Senate Intelligence Subcommittee guy, I asked: 'Do you think we had any knowledge or had anything to do with this?' His comment was 'Yer still alive, aren't ya?' The people who had anything to do with this are all dead and gone. John Thomas Masen claimed he was not incarcerated, but was placed on probation and fined $500. He said that Frank Ellsworth suspected that he had the tank. Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro "advised he does not know (deleted) [Masen?] and the latter has

not been in contact with him or any of the other Dallas Alpha-66 officers for the purpose of discussing the collection of arms, or money for the purchase of arms, or for any other reason in connection with anti-Castro activities." John Thomas Masen was one of the two gun dealers in the Dallas area who sold ammunition for OSWALD'S MannlicherCarcano. In 1993 John Thomas Masen claimed "Most of the gun shops in the area sold it." The FBI studied samples of the bullets John Thomas Masen sold, and determined that there was no way to know for certain if they were the same bullets fired at President John F. Kennedy. Frank Ellsworth was interviewed by Warren Commission Counsel Burt Griffin. Burt Griffin had a Secret Service agent drive him to the home of Frank Ellsworth. Frank Ellsworth told him he had arrested John Thomas Masen two days before the assassination for seven violations of the Federal Firearms Act. Frank Ellsworth was asked why he was interviewed at his home. He stated: "I don't have any recollection of where he interviewed me. I frankly thought we did this in the old Federal Building. I don't have any recollection of anyone coming to my house..." [FBI Bufile 105-133465 9.18.64] ALPHA-66 POST COUP After November 22, 1963, the FBI kept a close watch on Alpha-66 in Dallas and it notified FBI S.A. Clark Anderson about its investigation. [FBI 105-112098-433] On April 19, 1964, Antonio Veciana gave a speech in Dallas which alluded to the Bay of Pigs fiasco. Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro was interviewed by the FBI in May 1964, during a investigation of Alpha-66 in Dallas. Copies of the interview were sent to the Warren Commission. In November 1964, the investigation of Dallas Alpha-66 was placed on inactive status for six months. By this time, most members were "primarily concerned with making a living for their families instead of engaging in political activities," and most of the leadership of Alpha-66 was employed by Curtis-Mathes. The meetings of the group were held biweekly in the home of Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro. A document dated December 3, 1964, about Alpha-66 was about an interview of Rodriguez and other SNFE members and contained no new information. [FBI 105-112098-537] In 1966 the FBI stated Dallas Alpha-66 no longer existed. Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo had been taken prisoner by the Government of Cuba at the beginning of 1965. Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo was released in 1987. [FBI 105-66754-234] In 1975 Michael Canfield interviewed Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro in Puerto Rico. Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro said he moved there because he had been persecuted in the United States for being an anti-Communist. Fidel Castro had betrayed him and he vowed to dedicate his life to fighting Communism. He had played an important part in the anti-Batista struggle, and was imprisoned in Cuba for doing so. Upon his release, he joined the army of Fidel Castro. After the revolution he was made a Province Leader. When he discovered that Fidel Castro was a Communist, he fled to the United States, where he worked with the Cuban Revolutionary Council and helped found Alpha66/Second National Front of Escambray. When questioned about the Oklahoma service station incident, he said "someone thought one of his friends was OSWALD" but "it was just one big mistake that was soon cleared up." At first Manuel Rodriguez Occarberro

said the FBI never questioned him about the incident. Michael Canfield produced an FBI report and he remembered, but he said he did not want to talk about the assassination. OSWALD REACTS TO THE CALL FROM THE ROOMING HOUSE On the evening of Monday, November 18, 1963, OSWALD called Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald and admonished them for having asked for him by his real name at the rooming house on Sunday November 17, 1963. Ruth Paine testified: Marina said immediately after [the call] he didn't like her trying to reach him at the phone in his room in Dallas yesterday. That he was angry with her for having tried to reach him. That he said he was using a different name, and she said 'This isn't the first time I felt 22 fires' a Russian expression. How OSWALD found out about the call was never explained. Presumably he would have found out about it when the call came in, on Sunday, November 17, 1963, since he was supposed to be at the rooming house that day. If he was angry because of a breach of security, why did he wait until the next evening to call Marina and discuss it with her. The answer to this was that OSWALD was not in the ROOMING HOUSE on Sunday, and found out about the call when he returned home from work on the evening on Monday, November 18, 1963. THE CALL TO OSWALD FROM COVINGTON, LOUISIANA TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 1963 On Tuesday, November 19, 1963, OSWALD received a call from Covington, Louisiana, one of his childhood homes, and the place where the INTERPEN training camp had been located. HEMMING told this researcher: "We had an interest in that place for months." A telephone operator in Covington, Louisiana, with eight years on the job remembered: November 28, 1963. Security Office, Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph, New Orleans, advised November 27, 1963, that a long distance operator in Covington, Louisiana, advised she recalled placing a pre-paid person to person call to Dallas, Texas, two or three days prior to November 24, 1963. This call was made to LEE HARVEY OSWALD at the Texas School Book Depository, Dallas. Operator recalled she contacted Dallas information and obtained number for Book Depository and was connected without difficulty. Call reportedly was placed by adult female, very polite, with no speech impediment or accent. Operator stated that answering party in Dallas, who was a female, was asked by operator for LEE HARVEY OSWALD. Answering party advised she did not know OSWALD. Operator recalled that calling party then stated OSWALD was a new employee. Operator believes calling party said OSWALD was the janitor. Operator states that answering party said "Oh" as if she knew who

it was and call was completed. Security office of Southern Bell has checked all toll tickets for November 21, 1963, and November 22, 1963, without locating ticket for above call. As Covington, Louisiana, exchange handles call for six Louisiana cities it will be necessary to make IBM run on more than 70,000 tickets in an attempt to locate this call. Security Manager for Southern Bell Telephone advised operator appears sincere, is levelheaded and has seven to eight years service. Security office tried to break her story but were unsuccessful. Operator stated she worried about this information on November 23, 1963, and November 24, 1963, and consulted her parents about same prior to reporting this to her supervisor November 24, 1963. Fact that this matter was discussed with parents was verified by Security office. The Security office subsequently advised the FBI that all toll tickets in the accounting section were run through IBM November 27, 1963, and no such toll ticket located. Checks included tolls for metropolitan New Orleans, Slidell, Covington, Mandeville, Madisonville, Pearl River and LaCombe, Louisiana. Bonnie Richey, the secretary in the Texas School Book Depository who took the call, stated she had some Faint recollection of receiving a call on or about November 21, 1963, or November 22, 1963, for some person, name not recalled, whom she did not know, and recalls that during the conversation some mention was made of the person sought being employed as a janitor. She stated that her recollection is very hazy in this regard, and she cannot be more definite about the call, cannot state that she did or did not receive the call, and has no recollection of receiving a call for LEE HARVEY OSWALD. [FBI 62-109060-1603; FBI DL 89-43 Horton 11.28.63; FBI NO 89-69 11.27.63, 11.30.63, S.A. Nathan O. Brown] OSWALD did not telephone Marina Oswald that day. MARINA OSWALD AND SOBIR On November 15, 1963, the Dallas Division was considered the new office or origin of Marina Oswald SOBIR case. On the Tuesday, November 19, 1963, the Washington FBI Field Office sent this airtel, still highly deleted, to the Director. [FBI 105-8255-78] This Airtel was received by the FBI Office in Dallas on Friday, November 22, 1963. November 19, 1963 TO: DIRECTOR, FBI (105-82555) FROM: SAC, WFO (105-37111) (RUC) LEE HARVEY OSWALD IS - R SOBIR (OO:DL)

Re cablegram to Director from Legat, Mexico City, October 18, 1963, captioned LEE OSWALD, IS-R. An informant who has furnished reliable information in the past (documentation – anonymous) advised on November 18, 1963 the Lee H. Oswald was recently in contact with the Consular Office, Soviet Embassy, Washington, D.C. at which time he related had recently met with Comrade Kostin, Soviet Embassy, Mexico City. At this time OSWALD indicated to Soviet Embassy that he was unable to remain in Mexico because of Mexican visa restriction of 15 days and that he could not request a new visa unless he used his real name. According to the informant, OSWALD had originally intended to visit Soviet Embassy in Havana, Cuba, where he would have had time to complete his business but could not reach Cuba. The informant stated OSWALD is married to Marina Nichilayeva Oswald, a Soviet citizen, and has a new daughter, Audrey Marina Oswald, born October 20, 1963, Dallas, Texas. OSWALD'S address is known to informant as Box 6225, Dallas, Texas.An additional copy of airtel sent Bureau for transmittal to Legat, Mexico City and one copy being sent New Orleans for information.Should information from informant be utilized in any communication prepared for dissemination, it must be suitably paraphrased to protect source and classified 'Confidential' due to the sensitive nature of investigative technique used and since it reveals investigative interest in a foreign diplomatic establishment. Information being furnished Dallas for whatever action deemed necessary since that office is origin and status of investigation unknown to WFO. 4- Bureau (1- Legat, Mexico City) (Info) 2- Dallas (100-10461) (RM) 1 - New Orleans (100-16641) (Info) (RM) WRM:mfm (8) 100-10461-57 [Blockstamp reads] "November 22, 1963 Hosty H." The cablegram that was made reference to in this document dealt with OSWALD'S contact with Valeriy Kostikov. This airtel dealt with his contact with his contact and his wife's contact with the Soviet Embassy in Washington and the fact that Kostikov was a KGB assassin. James Hosty: You know when I got that? It was after the assassination. Then it disappeared from my workbox. Of course I had gotten earlier communications saying he was at the Russian Embassy, and mentioning Kostikov's name, but not saying Kostikov was a Soviet hit man. S.A. Hosty told his superiors in the FBI: To: SAC Kansas City

From: S.A. JAMES P HOSTY JR. The area of concern to me in any testimony before any committee concerns B. V. Kostikov. It was attached to OSWALD'S file in CCO where I found it after the assassination. This airtel later disappeared. It did not reappear until after I testified before the Warren Commission. Former Assistant to Director Belmont told me I was not to have seen that Air Tel. Former ASAC Clark had hidden this Air Tel from me on orders of Belmont. In view of K’s this is understandable, but if the committee begins pressing me this could be a very touchy area. HOSTY'S SWORN STATEMENT Kansas City, Missouri November 14, 1975 I, James Hosty, having been duly sworn make the following statement: I wish to bring the following information to the attention of the FBI at this time not that I am alleging any wrongdoings on anyone's part but in anticipation of possible questioning about LEE HARVEY OSWALD before any Congressional Committees, the possibility of asking about the handling of any other communications in this case might cause me to have to furnish the following story which could cause considerable difficulty. On November 22, 1963, shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and shortly after learning that LEE OSWALD was a prime suspect, I attempted to locate his pending file and, after determining the file was out of the jacket, search the Chief Clerk's office. One of the supervisors, Joseph Loeffler, located this file and immediately handed it to me. I noticed on the top of the file was an airtel from the Washington Field Office to the Bureau dated either November 18, 1963, or November 19, 1963, block stamped into the Dallas Office on November 22, 1963. Supervisor Kenneth Howe had apparently seen this airtel since he had written my name in the blockstamp. I don't recall if the airtel had already been serialized. On the way to the SAC's office I read this airtel and was able to determine that it was a letter intercept to the Soviet Embassy in Wash. D.C. telling of his recent contact with V. V. Kostikov, KGB agent in Mexico City. I took this file to the SAC and was shortly thereafter instructed to proceed to the Dallas Police Department to interrogate OSWALD. I never received this airtel through normal channels. On the afternoon of November 22, 1963, I had advised the Special Agent in Charge of the U.S. Secret Service in Dallas, Texas, that his office in

Washington should contact our office in Washington since we had two items of secret information which I could not give him. The two items of secret information were this airtel in question and an earlier CIA communication dated October 10, 1963, from Mexico City concerning OSWALD'S contact. In the early part of May 1964, while reviewing the file on OSWALD prior to my testimony before the Warren Commission, I was unable to locate this airtel which I considered to be highly pertinent since it involved my knowledge of OSWALD'S contacts with the Soviet authorities. On approximately May 4, 1964, while being questioned by Warren Commission Staff Attorney Samuel Stern in the presence of former Assistant to the Director Alan Belmont concerning my conversation with Secret Service, I mentioned to Stern the Washington Field Office airtel. Belmont immediately stated in anger 'I told them not to let you see that airtel!' Upon return to Dallas Office following annual leave, I had occasion to look in volume one of the OSWALD file, and noted both copies of this airtel were now the top serial in volume one. I noted my name had been crossed out and former Assistant Special Agent in Charge Kyle Clark had written his name below mine and initialed it for filing. It should also be noted that shortly after the assassination the case on OSWALD was reassigned from me to ASAC Clark. It would appear that from the afternoon of November 22, 1963, until sometime in May 1964, former ASAC Clark had retained the serial in his possession which would be proper in view of the fact that the case was assigned to him. I wish to point out I have no contact with any past or present FBI employees who were assigned to the Dallas Field Office on November 22, 1963, in the past year. I have not previously furnished this information because it did not appear to be pertinent to previous inquiries until it became apparent that the House Committee might reopen the entire OSWALD case. I have read the foregoing statement consisting of four pages. HOSTY'S STATEMENT FOR THE FBI Kansas City, Missouri November 26, 1975. I, James Hosty, having been duly sworn make the following sworn statement:

On November 25, 1975, Inspector E. N. Best in regard to issues I raised in my sworn statement of November 14, 1975, made available to me copies of serials 48, 49, 50 and 57 of Dallas file 100-10461, on LEE H. OSWALD. These four serials reflect my name, which was in the blockstamp of all four serials, had been crossed out and what appears to be the initials of S. A. Kenneth Howe, former Dallas supervisor, appears in the blockstamp. On serial 50, there is a notation which appears to be in S.A. Howe's handwriting which reads as follows: "48 - 49 - 50 c/o to JPH October 28, 1963, obtained from his box & initialed into file to complete file following November 22, 1963. H" Serial 57 is a Washington Field Office airtel dated Tuesday, November 19, 1963, which is the airtel referred to in my sworn statement of November 14, 1975. I was unable to locate either copy of this airtel when I reviewed this file in the early part of 1964 prior to my testimony before the Warren Commission. I later discovered both copies of this airtel were in the OSWALD file when I reviewed it in the middle of May 1964 following my return from Washington, D.C. I can now see that S.A. Howe and not former ASAC Kyle Clark had initialed this serial into file. I had assumed Clark's initials would have been on this serial since this case had been reassigned to Clark sometime after November 22, 1963. Shortly after I was interviewed by Samuel Stern, Warren Commission Attorney, in the presence of former Assistant to the Director Alan Belmont, on or about May 4, 1964, during which time Belmont stated "I told them not to let you see that Airtel." Belmont and I left the building where the interview occurred to go to lunch. While en route to lunch Belmont told me I had to be careful not to divulge FBI "Z" coverage. It is possible Belmont had this technique in mind when he made the statement "I told them not to let you see that Airtel" although I cannot be certain of this. Inspector Best on November 25, 1975, also advised me that two reports were sent to the Warren Commission by Washington Field Office concerning the contents of OSWALD’s letter to the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C. which was the subject of Wash. Field Office airtel dated November 19, 1963. The first report gave the Soviet Embassy as the source of the letter; the second report of S.A. C. E. Graham dated Wash. Field Office December 2, 1963, stated an anonymous source furnished the same letter. Inspector Best advised this report was furnished to the Warren Commission December 23, 1963. It is now clear to me that not only did we furnish information on the obtaining of this letter from the Soviet Embassy but we also furnished to the Commission our obtaining this letter from an anonymous source.

After reviewing the above serials it appears that serials 48, 49 and 50, which I had previously received, were placed in the file as the note indicated to bring the file up-to-date. It is possible 57 was handled in the same manner; however, I still have doubts this was true with serial 57, because I was unable to locate either copy in the file, and because of the statement made by Belmont that I was not to see this airtel. James Hosty, Inspector E.N. Best, FBI, Bill D. Williams, SAC Kansas City Missouri. The FBI did not buy this: A review of the Dallas Field Office file reflects that S.A. Hosty, the Case Agent, was routinely furnished classified information and communications in the LEE HARVEY OSWALD case. Also, on November 22, 1963, Dallas received a communication dated Tuesday, November 19, 1963, from the Washington Field Office containing classified information relating to OSWALD'S visit to Mexico City. This communication was routinely channeled to Hosty as indicated by Hosty's name appearing in the appropriate place in the block stamp. Hosty's name was then crossed out and the serial was initialed to file by Kenneth Howe. It appears that this communication, while originally directed to Hosty, was retrieved from channels by supervisor Kenneth Howe after the assassination on November 22, 1963, whereupon he crossed out Hosty's name on the block stamp, as was done on Dallas serials 48, 49, 50 and initialed them to file in order that a complete file on OSWALD be assembled. Hosty may or may not have seen this serial prior to the assassination, but there is certainly no data to suggest he was ever denied classified information pertinent to his case on OSWALD prior to the assassination. Hosty claimed he never saw this document until after the assassination. S.A. Hosty accused Kenneth Howe of having forged his name on this document. This was clearly untrue and even the FBI could not accept this. If S.A. Hosty became aware, on the same day that the President was to visit Dallas, that one of his Subjects had been in contact with a Soviet assassin, he should have contacted the Subject immediately. S.A. Hosty should have contacted OSWALD when he found out he was in contact with the Soviet Embassy. He should have contacted him upon his return to Dallas from New Orleans to ascertain if he intended to open a Dallas Chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Also on Tuesday, November 19, 1963, the New Orleans FBI sent a letter to FBI Headquarters changing the office of origin of the OSWALD investigation from New Orleans to Dallas. The Bureau had sent a similar letter regarding Marina Nikolaevna Oswald on November 15, 1963. On Wednesday, November 20, 1963, OSWALD visited the Post Office and filled out a postal form. [Dallas PD Form 209 Invoice of Search Warrant of Ruth Paine’s home 11.26.63 G. F. Rose] That day he received "One notice of attempt to deliver mail, card dated November 20, 1963, to Mr. LEE OSWALD, 251 West 5th Street, Irving, Texas - a parcel to be picked up."

BUELL WESLEY FRAZIER On the morning of Thursday, November 21, 1963, OSWALD asked Buell Wesley Frazier to drive him to Irving that evening. Scott Malone reported: "Marina was fucking Buell Wesley Frazier, for god sake!" On January 3, 1968, a male who identified himself as Harvey Drown called the FBI Office in Portland, Oregon, and reported that Buell Wesley Frazier was in the process of breaking up the marriage of Robert and Dorothy L. Wilson. Buell Wesley Frazier was having an affair with the wife of Robert Wilson. [NARA FBI 124-10267-10191] At 4:40 p.m., Buell Wesley Frazier accompanied OSWALD on an uncharacteristic trip to the residence of Ruth Paine. Ruth Paine testified that before this visit, he had always asked her permission in advance. Buell Wesley Frazier asked him why he was going to Irving, Texas, on a Thursday night, rather than on Friday. OSWALD replied, "I'm going home to get some curtain put in an apartment." Mrs. A. C. Johnson testified that OSWALD'S room had curtains, and curtain rods, and that OSWALD never discussed the subject with her. [WR p130] Linnie Mae Randle commented to her brother about OSWALD'S unusual midweek trip to Irving. Buell Wesley Frazier told her about the curtain rods. OSWALD arrived at the home of Ruth Paine about 5:30 p.m. Ruth Paine was not there. She arrived at about 6:00 p.m. and saw OSWALD playing with his children on the front law. She prepared supper; she OSWALD and Marina Oswald had dinner that evening at about 6:30 p.m. OSWALD IN THE GARAGE Ruth Paine had two versions of what OSWALD did next. Jenner: Were you interviewed by the FBI agents Hosty and Abernathy on November 23, 1963? Paine: Yes. Jenner: And in the course of that interview do you recall having stated to these agents that on the evening of November 21, 1963, LEE OSWALD went out to the garage of your home, where he had many of his personal effects stored, and spent considerable time, apparently rearranging his personal effects. Paine: I don't recall saying exactly that. Jenner: Could you have said that to the agents? Paine: I could have said as far as spending considerable time. Jenner: Now that your recollection is possibly further refreshed, please tell us what you did say to the agents as you now recall.

Paine: You have refreshed nothing. You have got all there was of my recollections in previous testimony... Jenner: You did not see him in the garage at anytime that evening? Paine: Did not see him in the garage; no. Paine testified, however, that when she went to the garage at 9:00 p.m. she noticed that the light was on: Jenner: The light was on in the garage? Paine: The light was on in the garage. Jenner: Was this unusual? Paine: Oh, it was unusual for it to be on, yes. I realized that I felt LEE, since Marina had also been busy with her children, had gone out to the garage, perhaps worked out there or gotten something. Most of their clothing was still out there, all of their winter things. They were getting things out from time to time, warmer things for the cold weather, so that it was not at all remarkable that he went to the garage, but I thought it was careless of him to have left the light on. I finished my work then turned off the light and left the garage. Jenner: You stated that he was in the garage, how did you know he was in the garage? McCloy: She didn't state that. Paine: I didn't state it absolutely. I guessed it was he rather than she. She was busy with the children and the light had been on, and I know I didn't leave the light on. OSWALD took the disassembled Mannlicher-Carcano rifle out of its hiding place in Ruth Paine's garage. He removed it from a blanket tied with string. The rifle was wrapped in brown paper, and brown paper tape, obtained at the Texas School Book Depository. OSWALD retired by 9:00 p.m., about one hour earlier then he normally would on a night before work. He slept through the night, untroubled by the events he had supposedly planned for November 22, 1963. Isaac Don Levine had a different version of events. He claimed Marina Oswald told him that OSWALD wanted her to leave Ruth Paine's house, and that OSWALD was awake all night. Priscilla Johnson wrote: "She thinks that he fell asleep about 5:00 a.m." Marina Oswald told the FBI "he did not seem particularly excited or agitated..." [WCE 1401 12.4.64] Ruth Paine reported that Marina "said just the night before [November 21, 1963] LEE had told her he wanted to get an apartment soon, just as soon as he could, together again." Ruth Paine retired at 11:30 p.m.




For the most up-to-date version of this Nodule go to

HEMMING told this researcher: When Kennedy flew out of Miami, and went back to Washington, nobody was even sure then he was going to Dallas. That was November 18, 1963. But just in case, they were ready. That's how it's done, still done today. OSWALD had no idea what was going down. He hadn't done a goddamn thing, so there's no reason for him not to have a calm demeanor all morning. This guy ain't never killed anybody in his life. OSWALD had never had the opportunity to get into anything except a fucking fistfight. You know? That's why I always figured, they picked the wrong fucking guy. That's where they fucked up. They should have dirtied him up a little bit. But in doing that, they might have changed his personality. Then he wouldn't have been such a good fucking patsy. OSWALD'S ACTIVITIES: MORNING NOVEMBER 22, 1963 7:00 A.M. THE WEDDING RING

Marina Oswald told the Warren Commission that her husband woke up about 7:00 a.m. on November 22, 1963, and uncharacteristically left his wedding ring behind when he went to work at the Texas School Book Depository. The wedding ring was found in the home of Ruth Paine, after the assassination. RANKIN: Had your husband ever left his wedding ring at home that way before? MARINA: At one time, while he was still in Fort Worth, it was inconvenient for him to work with his wedding ring on and he would remove it, but at work - he would not leave it at home. His wedding ring was rather wide and it bothered him. I don't know now, he would take it off at work. RANKIN: Then this is the first time in your married life that he had ever left it at home where you live?

MARINA: Yes. In one FBI interview Marina Oswald stated "that the following day (Friday November 22, 1963) when she got up from bed, after the departure of her husband, she noticed his wedding ring laying on the top of their bedroom dresser." [WCE 1787 11.30.63] In another FBI interview she stated "that she had not discovered OSWALD'S wedding ring on the dresser in her room at the Ruth Paine home the morning of November 22, 1963, upon getting up that morning. She said she had not seen it until the police came to her house to search it, following the arrest of OSWALD on Friday November 22, 1963." [FBI 11.30.63 WCE 1820] In another interview she said "she remembered that OSWALD had on his marriage ring on the evening of Thursday November 21, 1963. Marina advised that on Friday November 22, 1963, when the police came to the Paine house and searched it, they found OSWALD'S marriage ring on a dresser in the room which she, Marina, used. She said she had not seen his ring on the dresser before that. She advised the last time she had seen the ring was on the hand of OSWALD the evening before." [FBI 12.4.63 FBI File #DL 89-43] The FBI took note of this: "In the same report, Gopadze reported that Marina said she noticed OSWALD'S wedding ring lying on top of her bedroom dresser when she got up from bed on the morning of November 22, 1963. This is in direct contradiction to statements Marina has made to us --- these being that she did not know OSWALD had left his wedding ring until after the police found it." [NARA FBI 124-10171-10399] 7:00 A.M. Tom Bargas told the FBI: "...he knew OSWALD was married only because he noticed this fact on OSWALD'S employment application." [FBI DL 89-43 11.23.63 Madland and Jennings] Marina was just telling the authorities what they wished to here because she was scared. OSWALD'S wedding ring was found in the Paine residence. The only evidence that it was not OSWALD'S usual custom to leave his wedding ring at home was the testimony of Marina Oswald and Ruth Paine. Tom Bargas contradicted them. If OSWALD'S ring bothered him, why would he wear it to a job that involved moving books? He would’ve had to remove it and chance loosing it. The Warren Commission was attempting to convict a man for murder because he forgot his ring that day? Also if OSWALD had planned to shoot the President that day, wouldn't he at least have awakened his wife and said goodbye? Kissed his children goodbye? OSWALD seemed to take pride in his family. Most contemporary assassins did not have families. Yigdal Amir, Arthur Bremer, Sirhan Sirhan and John Hinkley all were single. OSWALD did not bother to leave Marina a note similar to the one he prepared in regard to the Walker Incident. If he planned to kill President John F. Kennedy why didn't OSWALD take his revolver to work that morning, with the rifle? He might have needed it. Why did he only take $20 with him? Why hadn't he formulated an escape plan? OSWALD'S activities during the early morning hours of November 22, 1963, were no different than usual for OSWALD, except that he brought a package to the Book Depository that morning. Maybe he concentrated on the package and this caused him to forget his wedding ring?

7:15 A.M. THE MANNLICHER-CARCANO OSWALD left Ruth Paine's house at 7:15 a.m. Ruth Paine testified that she did not see him leave. Marina Oswald agreed - except for one occasion - when she said OSWALD had his lunch sack with him when he left: "I think he had a package with his lunch." [1WH73 - cited by Mary Farrel] OSWALD told the Dallas Police that his "lunch consisted of cheese, bread, fruit and apples, and was the only package he had with him when he went to work." [WR p622] OSWALD was not about to give the police evidence against himself. RANDLE & FRAZIER SEE OSWALD WITH A PACKAGE

About a half block away from Ruth Paine's house was the home of Linnie Mae Randle. Linnie Mae Randle said that on that morning, while her brother was eating breakfast, she looked out her window and saw OSWALD cross the street and walk toward her home. This was the first time OSWALD came to her house for a lift - Buell Wesley Frazier usually picked him up at Ruth Paine's house. OSWALD was carrying a "heavy brown bag." Linnie Mae Randle recalled: "It tapered, like this, as he hugged it in his hand. It was...more bulky toward the bottom." Linnie Mae Randle thought the color of the bag was similar to the bag found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository that afternoon. Buell Wesley Frazier greeted OSWALD at the kitchen door, and they walked to the car together. From the open kitchen door, Linnie Mae Randle saw OSWALD open the right rear door of her brother's car, and place a package on the back seat. Buell Wesley Frazier asked, "What's in the package, LEE?" OSWALD replied, "Curtain rods."

BUELL WESLEY FRAZIER Buell Wesley Frazier and Linnie Mae Randle testified that from what they could ascertain from the shape of this package, the rifle it contained was different from a Mannlicher-Carcano rifle. They told the FBI OSWALD had carried the package with his hand cupped beneath it, (OSWALD'S palm print was found on the bottom of the bag), tucking the upper part under his armpit. [WR p133-135] A disassembled MannlicherCarcano was too long to be carried in this fashion. Both said the package was shorter than a disassembled Mannlicher-Carcano. All of a sudden they are experts on Mannlicher-Carcano configurations? Gimme a break. Buell Wesley Frazier and Linnie Mae Randle later admitted that they were mistaken about this minor detail. Buell Wesley Frazier: "I only glanced at it...hardly paid any attention to it. He had the package parallel to his body, and it could have extended beyond his body, and I wouldn't have noticed it." [London Weekend Television - Trial of LHO cited by Posner] In any event, they both agreed OSWALD had a package with him that morning. During post-assassination interrogation, OSWALD told the FBI: He had a cheese sandwich and some fruit and that was the only package he had brought with him to work, and he denied that he had brought the package described by Frazier and his sister. [WR p605] OSWALD also denied he told Buell Wesley Frazier that he had curtain rods in the package. When asked if he owned a rifle, OSWALD claimed he did not. [WR p600] OSWALD realized that his Mannlicher-Carcano rifle had been used to assassinate President Kennedy and he had to disassociate himself from it.

OSWALD ENTERS THE TEXAS SCHOOL BOOK DEPOSITORY Buell Wesley Frazier parked in the company parking lot, two blocks north of the Texas School Book Depository. OSWALD took his package, quickly got out, and headed for the Texas School Book Depository. Frazier "states that OSWALD left the automobile ahead of him and in fact preceded him all the way to the building. Frazier informed that he did not catch up to OSWALD and that OSWALD entered the building through the doorway referred to as the Houston Street loading dock. Frazier stated that OSWALD was about 50 feet in front of him as he entered the building." [FBI 105-82555-260] As they crossed the railroad tracks, Buell Wesley Frazier paused to watch the railroad cars. This was the first time OSWALD had not accompanied Buell Wesley Frazier from the lot to the entrance of the building. OSWALD was up to something that morning. When Buell Wesley Frazier entered the building, OSWALD was gone. Jack Dougherty, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository, believed that he had seen OSWALD coming to work, but he did not remember if OSWALD had anything in his hands as he entered. No other employee had seen OSWALD enter that morning. [WR p133; 6WH337; FBI-105-82555-260] OSWALD brought his disassembled Mannlicher-Carcano with him to the Texas School Book Depository on the morning of November 22, 1963, because he had been instructed to do so. HEMMING had fired the weapon on the weekend before the assassination, and told OSWALD that he liked it a lot and would purchase it for him on next Friday. HEMMING: Just offer him double the value of his gun. It wouldn't make anyone nervous. A crime like this hadn't occurred since McKinley, it wouldn't have been uppermost in his mind about the President, or any other kind of bullshit. OSWALD entered the Texas School Book Depository carrying the package, and went up to the sixth floor. He hid the package between some book cartons. HEMMING had assured OSWALD it was to be picked up. OSWALD was told to go to the lunchroom between 12:15 p.m. and 12:45 p.m. so he would not see the person who picked up the rifle. HEMMING: I would presume he was in the lunchroom. Maybe he was waiting to meet somebody there? Would these people anticipate pictures being taken? What if it was OSWALD in the doorway of the Texas School Book Depository and not Lovelady? Billy Lovelady, who looked like OSWALD, was photographed in the doorway of the Texas School Book Depository. This led to speculation that he was OSWALD. OSWALD'S Mannlicher-Carcano rifle was used to murder President John F. Kennedy, and then left in the Texas School Book Depository to incriminate OSWALD. The Mannlicher-Carcano rifle could easily be traced to OSWALD'S Post Office box. According to Frank Ellsworth, a former Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Agent, after the

Kennedy assassination, Dallas Homicide Detective Will Fritz cabled Washington and asked if Frank Ellsworth could be in charge of tracing the weapon: "A mail order place in Chicago came forward without effort on my part. So that ended my part of the firearms investigation. We were gearing up to do some major weapons tracing. It turned out it was unnecessary." FBI S.A. Nat Pinkston disagreed. He said that an informant told him two gun vendors specialized in Mannlicher-Carcanos. He checked with the one in Chicago and found OSWALD'S order form. S.A. Nat Pinkston was listed as having been present at OSWALD'S interrogation, but when questioned, he said he did hear any of it since a plate glass window separated him from the suspect. [Interview with Pinkston by AJ in 1994] OSWALD'S MOVEMENTS IN THE BOOK DEPOSITORY The morning passed uneventfully at the Texas School Book Depository. OSWALD was seen on the sixth floor by Charles Douglas Givens, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository, at approximately 35 minutes before the assassination, at 11:55 a.m. [WR p143] At 12:00 p.m., Eddie Piper, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository (born January 23, 1908; died November 1984) said he had seen OSWALD on the first floor of the Texas School Book Depository. [9WH499; 6WH383] At 12:10 p.m. Carolyn Arnold, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository, saw OSWALD on the first floor of the Texas School Book Depository. [WCD 5] Carolyn Arnold's estimate of the time as "a few minutes before 12:15 p.m." may have been early; in a later, signed FBI statement, Carolyn Arnold said 12:25 p.m. [22WH635] Gerald Posner wrote: "In a second statement she did not see him at all." The statement cited read: "I did not see LEE HARVEY OSWALD at the time President Kennedy was shot [12:30 p.m.]." [WCE 1381 V10 p635]

If we allow Carolyn Arnold's testimony, it would have been impossible for OSWALD to have shot the President Kennedy. Someone had been spotted in the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository before 12:25 p.m. If we accept the 12:15 p.m. figure, OSWALD still could not have done it: it took two minutes to walk up the six flights of stairs - longer if he took the elevator; 30 seconds to remove the rifle from the paper;

two minutes to assemble it (HEMMING claimed that after reassembly the sight on the rifle would have to realigned); 30 seconds to load it; two minutes to set up the cartons which shielded OSWALD from anyone on the sixth floor who failed to go behind them. He would not have been ready to fire until 12:22 p.m., three minutes before the motorcade speeded by. Had the President's motorcade been on time (the motorcade was due at the Trade Mart, where the President was scheduled to speak, at 12:30 p.m.) he would have missed his window of opportunity. [WR p.49] OSWALD worked in the Texas School Book Depository. He could have set up his nest and the cartons behind him, hidden the rifle between some boxes, and waited there without drawing suspicion. Why show up at the last moment? When Carolyn Arnold saw OSWALD at 12:25 p.m. (or 12:15 p.m.), he was going to the domino room, which doubled as a first floor lunchroom. When OSWALD got there, the room was empty. No witnesses who were in the domino room at the time of the assassination have ever come forward to testify that OSWALD was not there. Similarly, no one could testify that he was there. OSWALD'S jacket was recovered from the domino room in late November. [WR p163] Gerald Posner: "Troy West was in the domino room eating lunch from nearly 12:00 p.m. to 12:30 p.m. and did not see OSWALD during that half hour." Gerald Posner cited Volume Six of the Warren Commission Hearings, pages 360 to 361, however, when we examine this text we find no support for Posner's contention: Belin: How old are you Mr. West? West: Well, I was born in 1907. That would be 57, I think...I went to the seventh grade, I had to come out of school and go to work on the farm...I have been working at the School Book Depository for 16 or 17 years. Belin: Are you still working for them? West: Yes, sir, I am a mail wrapper. Belin: Where did you go when you got to work? West: Well, when I first got to work I always made coffee in the morning at the store. That is the first thing I do in the morning. Belin: Where do you make the coffee? West: Well, it is down on the first floor in the same department where I wrap mail at. Belin: I have here a first floor map of the School Book Depository. Here is Elm Street and here is the front entrance. Here is Mr. Truly's office, and here is Mr. Shelly's office. There is the stairway down to the basement and there are elevators and the back stairway. There are the toilets there. About where would you wrap mail there? Here is the domino room and the

shower. You are looking here, that is north, that is north Elm Street runs this way and Houston Street runs that way. It is shown on that diagram. West: Well, my place was in the west side of the other building. Belin: Was it near the stairway? West: No; it wasn't close to the stairway. Belin: Was it closer to the Elm Street side of the building. West: No, sir. Belin: What was it close to? The west side is the side near the railroad tracks and the triple underpass. Is that what you think is the west side? West: Yes sir, that is what I would call the west side. Belin: Well, now the northwest part is by the stairway and the southwest part would be toward the corner near Elm Street. Do you mean toward the Elm or more toward the wooden dock in the back? West: Well, it was about, I would say middle ways between Elm and the dock. Belin: Well, there are a couple of overhead doors on that west side, aren't there? West: Yes, sir. Belin: You see where it is marked on the first floor diagram, overhead door and overhead door? Two doorways here on the west side. West: Yes, sir. Belin: Then it was near either one of those doorways? West: Well it was near this one, pretty close to this one. Belin: Well, it was close to what I would call a doorway, approximately at the middle side of the west wall of the first floor? West: Yes. Belin: That is where you wrapped the mail?

West: Yes. Belin: That is where you have your coffee machine? West: Yes... Belin: When did you quit for lunch that day? West: We always quit at 12:00 p.m. in the day. Belin: Is that when you quit on November 22, 1963? West: Yes sir. Belin: Then what did you do? West: Well I went in and washed my hands and face and then got ready to put my coffee on. Make it in the morning, and then I make it about 12:00 p.m., between 12:00 p.m. and 12:30 p.m. Belin: Then what did you do? Did you put your coffee on? West: Yes sir. Belin: In the west part of the first floor where you generally work? West: Yes. Belin: Then what did you do? West: I went to get my lunch to eat a bite right there close to my machine, by my wrapping machine that I use all the time, that I always kept my lunch. I have a little place underneath and I keep it there all the time... Belin: Now after you quit for lunch you made coffee then? West: Yes sir. Belin: Where did you make the coffee? West: I made the coffee right there close to the wrapping mail table where I wrap mail. Belin: Then what did you do? West: Well, I sit down to eat my lunch.

Belin: Then what did you do? West: Well, I had just, after I made the coffee, I just had started to eat my lunch because I was a little hungry - I didn't eat anything that morning before I went to work - and I had started to eat my lunch. But before I got through, well, all of this was, I mean the police and things was coming in, and I was just spellbound. I just didn't know what was the matter. So I didn't get through eating. So I had to eat about half my lunch and that is all. Belin: Did you hear any shots fired? West: I didn't hear a one. Belin: Did you see anyone else on the first floor when you were eating your lunch? Anyone else at all did you see on the first floor? West: It wasn't anybody. I didn't see anybody around at that time. Belin: At any time while you were making coffee or eating your lunch, did you see anyone else on the first floor? West: No sir, I didn't see. Belin: Where did you make the coffee? West: I made the coffee right there close to the wrapping mail table. Belin: Then what did you do? West: Well, I had just, after I made coffee, I just started to eat my lunch because I was a little hungry. But before I got through...the police and things were coming in. Belin: Did you see anyone else on the first floor while you were eating your lunch? Anyone else at all did you see on the first floor? West: No sir, I didn't see. Belin: Did you see Roy Truly coming in at all that time? Do you know Mr. Truly? West: Yes, sir I think he came in with the police. Belin: Were you facing the elevator when you were eating your lunch?

West: I would always be with my back towards the elevators. Troy West was on the same floor as OSWALD, not in the same room. Troy West's statement to the FBI read: "When JFK was shot I was on the first floor making coffee for the employees. I was alone at the time and did not know JFK had been shot...I do not recall seeing LEE HARVEY OSWALD at any time on November 22, 1963." [FBI 3.18.64 Trettis] Gerald Posner's book fell apart when his references were examined. During his post-assassination interrogation, OSWALD created alibi witnesses. The FBI reported: "He recalled possibly two Negro employees walking through the [lunch] room during this period." In another interview he stated: "He ate his lunch with the colored boys who worked with him. He described one of them as 'Junior,' a colored boy, and the other was a little short Negro boy." OSWALD'S alibi was non-existent because he was alone in the Domino Room at the time of the assassination, so he had to invent an alibi. NO ONE SAW OSWALD ON THE SIXTH FLOOR AT 12:30 PM The Warren Commission could not place OSWALD on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository at 12:30 p.m. A section of the Warren Commission Report was titled: "OSWALD'S Presence on Sixth Floor Approximately 35 Minutes Before the Assassination." It quoted Charles Douglas Givens. When Charles Douglas Givens was arrested in 1978, he told Dallas Police he was disabled. The HSCA studied OSWALD'S whereabouts at 12:30 p.m. The Committee considered the testimony of OSWALD'S fellow employees at the Texas School Book Depository. Although a number of them placed him on the fifth or sixth floor just before noon, a half-hour before the assassination, one recalled he was on the first floor at that same time. The committee decided not to try to reconcile the testimony of these witnesses...There was no witness who said he saw OSWALD anywhere at the time of the assassination, and there was no witness who claimed to have been on the sixth floor, and therefore in a position to have seen OSWALD, had he been there. OSWALD AT 12:30 P.M. OSWALD faintly heard shots while in the domino room, followed by sirens. HEMMING told this researcher: "I would think he would have thought it was backfiring." He left the domino room and went to the better equipped lunchroom on the second floor of the Texas School Book Depository. THE BOTTLE OF COKE The Warren Commission claimed that OSWALD "descended by stairway from the sixth floor to the second floor lunchroom," despite testimony from Texas School Book Depository employees James Jarman, Norman, Williams and Jack Dougherty, who all ran to the back of the fifth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, where the

stairwell was located. The Warren Commission attributed their failure to see OSWALD racing down the stairs was due to the "anxiety of the moment, and because of the books which may have blocked the view." [WR p154] Victoria Elizabeth Adams, who worked on the fourth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, claimed that within a minute following the shots she ran down the rear stairs to the first floor. She did not encounter OSWALD. OSWALD purchased a Coca-Cola at approximately 12:31 p.m. in the second floor lunchroom. He was the only one in the second floor lunchroom. Patrolman Marion L. Baker had been riding a two-wheeled motorcycle behind the first press car in the motorcade. When he reached Main and Houston, he heard shots, and then saw pigeons fly from the roof of the Texas School Book Depository. He screeched to a halt. While parking, he noticed that people were "falling, and they were rolling around down there...grabbing their children."

Patrolman Marion L. Baker was at the crime scene seconds after the assassination. If OSWALD had assassinated President Kennedy he would have been either still been on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository or on his way down the stairs or elevator.

Patrolman Marion L. Baker ran up to the entrance of the Texas School Book Depository, and entered the lobby, where he "spoke out and asked where the stairs or elevator was." Roy Truly introduced himself. Patrolman Marion L. Baker and Roy Truly (photo holding dog) ran to the elevators, then up the stairs and into the vestibule. They had to choose which of the two areas they wished to search. One door led to the office space, the other to the second floor lunch room. Patrolman Marion L. Baker chose the lunchroom, looked through the glass on door, and saw OSWALD leaving: "I was kind of scanning, you know, and I caught a glimpse of this man walking away from this - I happened to see him through this window in this door. I don't know how come I saw him, but I had a glimpse of him...go away from me...I ran on over there...and when I got to where I could see him he was walking away from me about 20 feet...I hollered at him at that time and said, 'Come here.' I had my gun...approximately three feet [from OSWALD]. He turned and walked right straight back to me...He appeared normal you know. He never did say a word or nothing. In fact, he didn't change his expression one bit." Roy Truly, who had searched the third floor, came back to the lunch room just as this confrontation was taking place. Patrolman Marion L. Baker turned to Roy Truly and said: "Do you know this man, does he work here?" Roy Truly said: "Yeah." The two men went on with their search. Marion Baker had seen pigeons fly from the roof of the Texas School Book Depository. They would do this when the first shot rang out. Marion Baker ran as fast as he could into the Texas School Depository to see what happened. He began his search and the first man he found was OSWALD. OSWALD was calm and was not out of breath when he encountered Marion Baker. OSWALD did not know the President had been shot.

HEMMING told this researcher: Baker coming in was OSWALD'S first clue that's something's happened, when he sees a cop with a gun in his hand. How many times did anyone ever see a cop with gun in his hand in the Texas School Book Depository? The first thing going through his mind is 'There's been a robbery in the fucking place.' It probably doesn't take a few seconds but he's wondering, he's probably stunned, 'What the fuck this guy's got to do with me?' And he continues drinking his fucking coke. Not until either people pouring back into the building, or as he's going out, does he get the word. Everyone's excited. He's not a guy that gets excited, he's not a guy that thinks that anybody knows as much as he does. He's a smart ass. He don't let people tell him something, until he takes an interest in it, and asks a fucking question. He probably asked, 'How do you know it was shots and not backfire?' That was probably his fucking attitude for a time. OSWALD knew President Kennedy's motorcade was going to pass the Texas School Book Depository. When OSWALD found out that an assassination attempt had occurred nearby, OSWALD knew he would soon be a prime suspect. OSWALD was first beginning to suspect that he had been set up, however, he had no concrete evidence. HEMMING told this researcher: OSWALD caught on earlier than he was supposed to. I think that's what caused the grief. That's why you, and other people, are doing research now. They fucked-up. They should have taken him out in the lunchroom. That would have ended it. They were in too big of a fucking hurry to bug out of the place. DAVID BELIN AND THE BOTTLE OF COCA COLA OSWALD had a bottle of Coke in his hand. The Warren Commission's conclusion that OSWALD was the lone assassin of President Kennedy rested on the assumption that OSWALD did not have the bottle of Coca-Cola in his hand when he first encountered Patrolman Marion L. Baker. Something was going on inside the Texas School Book Depository that OSWALD was unaware of. Would he have stopped to purchase a Coca Cola before he began to inquire 'What the hell has happened here?' OSWALD had purchased the Coca Cola before encountering Marion Baker because he did not bring any lunch to work on November 22, 1963, and he was hungry. DAVID “TWITCH-FACE” BELIN Warren Commission Counsel David Belin stated this in his book, You Are The Jury that OSWALD could not have killed the President, wiped his fingerprints off the rifle, hidden the rifle, run down the six flights of stairs, then purchased a Coca-Cola in approximately one minute - and not have been out of breath when he talked to Patrolman Marion L. Baker because it would have taken him more than 14 seconds to fish out a nickel from

his pocket, buy the Coca-Cola, then open it. The case formulated by David Belin rested on the trivial question of whether or not OSWALD purchased the Coca-Cola before or after he encountered Marion Baker. We are talking about a matter of seconds, not minutes. The Warren Commission admitted it was improbable OSWALD could have been in the second floor lunch room so quickly, even if OSWALD did not buy the coke before Patrolman Marion L. Baker walked in. To prove it could be done, the Commission reenacted the scene, with Patrolman Marion L. Baker on his motorcycle and an FBI agent at the sixth floor window playing "OSWALD." The FBI found that the time it took Patrolman Marion L. Baker to enter the Texas School Book Depository and make his way to the lunch room (First trial: A minute, 30 seconds. Second trial a minute, 15 seconds) was within three seconds of the time it took the FBI agent to go from the sixth floor window, hide the rifle, and walk downstairs to the lunchroom - without wiping his fingerprints off of the rifle. It was impossible to replicate the events of November 22, 1963, and the sense of panic they engendered in Patrolman Marion L. Baker. He might have ran much faster and been in the building seconds after the shots. By this time Baker knew that the conclusions of the FBI rested on him. Walking from one end of the Texas School Book Depository to the other, walking, not running, down 6 flights of stairs then walking to the lunch room in one minute 15 seconds seems improbable. How long would it have taken him to wipe off his prints? Who was to say the agent and OSWALD were in the same physical condition? Patrolman Marion L. Baker said nothing about OSWALD having the bottle of Coca-Cola in his hand or not having the bottle in his hand until the question was posed after the reenactment. It was then that he decided that OSWALD did not have a bottle of Coke in his hands when they met. Patrolman Marion L. Baker told the Warren Commission: "He had nothing [in his hands] at that time." [WC Test. p251] A statement by Patrolman Marion L. Baker dated September 23, 1964, read: "On the second floor where the lunchroom is located I saw a man standing in the lunchroom drinking a coke. (MLB)." [WCE 3076] Another witness as to whether OSWALD had a Coke in his hand was OSWALD. After the assassination, he said he "was on the second floor drinking a CocaCola when the Officer came in." [WR p600] He also said he "was on the second floor of said building, having just purchased a Coca-Cola from the soft drink machine, at which time a police officer came in the room with his pistol drawn." [WR p619] Could OSWALD have know that the State's case would rest upon the Coca Cola issue and lied about when he purchased the Coca Cola. How could OSWALD have been aware of the significance of this minor detail at so early a stage? OSWALD could not have killed the President and Marion Baker was a witness to this. OSWALD IS LEAVING THE TEXAS SCHOOL BOOK DEPOSITORY The Warren Commission: "Within a minute after Marion Baker and Roy Truly left the lunchroom, [12:32 p.m], Mrs. Robert A. Reid, a supervisor at the Texas School Book Depository, saw him walk through the second floor clerical office toward the door leading to the front stairway...He was walking into the office from the back hallway, carrying a full bottle of Coca-Cola in his hand, presumably purchased after the

encounter with Baker and Truly." David Belin asked Mrs. Robert A. Reid, "Was the Coke full or empty?" She answered "It was full." He then asked if she remembered in which hand OSWALD was carrying the Coke bottle. She answered: "His right." Earlier in her testimony she had stated: "He had gotten a Coke and was holding it in his hands..." When she wrote her statement for the Dallas Police Mrs. Robert A. Reid added this to it after completion: "He had a Coke in his hand." How could Mrs. Robert A. Reid have known if the bottle was full or empty? OSWALD'S hand was wrapped around it. Even if she had observed it, how could she have remembered such a minute detail? Additionally, OSWALD could have purchased the Coke just before Marion Baker came into the lunchroom, and not have had time to drink it. When questioned about a less minute detail - the color and pattern of the shirt OSWALD wore when she had seen him - Mrs. Robert A. Reid's memory failed her: "What he was wearing, he had on, a white T-shirt and some kind of wash trousers." She was shown the trousers that OSWALD had on, but she could not identify them, nor could she identify his shirt: "I have never, so far as I know, seen that shirt." OSWALD left the Texas School Book Depository at 12:33 p.m. When OSWALD reached the street, it was filled with police cars. What had happened that day in Dealey Plaza? THE TEAM'S ACTIVITIES HEMMING told this researcher: The squad had keys to the building. They got in there the night before and went up on the roof. Nobody had been up on that roof under the Hertz sign since the Hertz guy checked it out a month before. Nobody went up on the roof. That's where they would stay. Then they would come down a separate ladder to the seventh floor. And they'd do their operation moving down from the seventh floor. Always control the high ground. They got there around three or four o'clock in the morning. The roof was locked. The weapons were stashed. Who gave a shit about the Texas School Book Depository? THE EYEWITNESSES LEE BOWERS Lee Bowers, a railroad employee, was standing in a 14-foot high tower behind the Texas School Book Depository, and had an unobstructed view of the back door of the Texas School Book Depository. He could also see the area behind the fence on top of the grassy knoll on Elm Street. The Dallas Police Department cut off traffic into the area at 10:00 a.m. At 11:55 a.m., a blue over white 1959 Oldsmobile station wagon with out-of-state plates, covered with red mud and Goldwater-for-President stickers circled in front of the tower, catching the attention of Lee Bowers.

It was occupied by a middle aged white male with partially grey hair. About 20 minutes later, a 1957 black Ford Tudor with Texas plates entered. Lee Bowers believed "the occupant of this second car was a police officer," because he observed him "talking into a radio telephone or transmitter." [1WH285] This car was driven by a white man, 25 to 35. At 12:22 p.m., a 1961 Chevy Impala (muddied, with bumper stickers and out-ofstate plates) "circled the area and probed one spot at the tower." This car was driven by a middle aged white male, 25 to 35, with blonde hair. HEMMING told this researcher: "This was a parking situation. The station wagon may have ended up being parked in the lot." After the last car left, Lee Bowers observed two men standing behind the fence on top of the knoll: "These were the only two strangers in the area. The others were workers whom I knew. They were standing within ten or 15 feet of each other and gave no appearance of being together..." One of them was middle-aged, heavy-set, and wearing a white shirt and dark trousers. The other man was in his mid-20's, wearing either a plaid shirt, or plaid jacket. Lee Bowers reported seeing the pair a few minutes later "following the caravan [motorcade] as it came down the street." After the assassination, Lee Bowers noticed a motorcycle officer run up the incline toward the trees in the general area of where the two men had been standing. [HSCA V12 p1; Interview with Bowers - Lane Rush To Judgement p32; 1WH284] About 12:15 p.m., when Lee Bowers observed the second car, people began to see figures in the eastcorner windows of the Texas School Book Depository. Carolyn Walthers saw two men, one with a rifle. In a FBI interview dated December 4, 1963, Carolyn Walthers stated that at the time of the motorcade, she looked up at the windows of the Texas School Book Depository and saw a man in the Southeast corner window of the fourth or fifth floor. Carolyn Walthers was positive the window was not as high as the sixth floor. Carolyn Walthers said the man was holding a rifle in his hands; the barrel of the rifle was pointing downward, and the man was looking toward Houston Street. Both his hands were extended across the window ledge. She described the man as having light brown or blonde hair and wearing a white shirt. She described the rifle as having a short barrel and being possibly a machine gun. She noticed no other features of the rifle. Carolyn Walthers said that she had seen a second man standing in the same window to the left of the man with the rifle. He was wearing a brown suit coat; she could only see his body from the waist to the shoulders and his head was hidden by part of the window. [HSCA V12 p4] According to Carolyn Walthers, the man without the rifle was standing erect, with his head high enough to be seen from the street. Carolyn Walthers told the FBI that the motorcade approached Houston Street almost immediately after she had seen the second man in the window. Carolyn Walthers was not called to testify before the Warren Commission. Carolyn Walthers was contacted in April 1993. She refused comment. Gerald Posner attempted to discredit Carolyn Walthers and wrote that she never told her story to Pearl Springler, who watched the motorcade with her. Posner omitted the statement by Carolyn Walthers that she "thought that apparently there were guards everywhere." If she had believed these men were from the United States Secret Service, she would not have mentioned their presence to her friend. [24WH522-23; Posner p231] Josiah Thompson's book, Six Seconds In Dallas, contained a photograph

of the Texas School Book Depository seconds before the shots were fired; two figures could be seen in the sixth floor window. In 1979 the HSCA uncovered a new film of the Texas School Book Depository shot minutes before the assassination. The film, taken by Charles Bronson, shows two figures in the sixth floor window. The HSCA: "The film came to the attention of the HSCA toward the end of its investigation...the limited review conducted was not sufficient to determine definitively if the film contained evidence of motion made by human figures. Because of its high quality, it was recommended the Bronson film be analyzed further." [HSCA R p49] Gerald Posner: The Hughes and Bronson film were enhanced "by the HSCA." [Closed p231] Like Carolyn Walthers, Arnold Rowland (born April 29, 1945), told the Warren Commission that there were two men in the window of the Texas School Book Depository. Arnold Rowland and his wife were awaiting the motorcade, standing on the east side of Houston Street, between Main and Elm. At 12:15 p.m. Arnold Rowland looked toward the Texas School Book Depository and noticed a man holding a rifle and standing back from the sixth floor Southwest corner window of the Texas School Book Depository: "We looked and at that time I noticed on the sixth floor of the building that there was a man back from the window, not hanging out the window. He was standing and holding a rifle. This appeared to me to be a fairly high powered rifle because of the scope and the relative proportion of the scope to the rifle, you can tell about what type of rifle it is. You can tell it isn't a .22 you know, and we thought momentarily that maybe we should tell someone, but then the thought came to us that it is a security agent. We had seen in the movies before where they have security men up in windows, and places like that, with rifles to watch the crowds, and we brushed it aside at that, at the time, and thought nothing else about it until after the event happened." Arnold Rowland was unable to identify the person as OSWALD. When they looked back at the window, the man was gone. Arnold Rowland signed an affidavit to this effect. In his Warren Commission testimony Arnold Rowland claimed to have seen a second person on the sixth floor. Before he noticed the man with the rifle, Arnold Rowland had seen an elderly black man "hanging out that window...very thin, an elderly gentleman, bald or practically bald, between 50 to 60 years of age, 5'8" to 5'10" tall, with fairly dark complexion." [WR p251] As a further description, Arnold Rowland stated the person "had on a plaid shirt..Seemed like his face was either, I can't recall detail, but it was either very wrinkled or marked in some way." The man appeared in the window five or six minutes before the motorcade came. About ten minutes after the assassination, Arnold Rowland told a representative from the Dallas Sheriff's Office that he had seen "two men on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository over there, one of them had a rifle with a telescopic sight on it, but he thought they were Secret Service agents or guards and didn't report it."

The Warren Report contained a section titled: "Eyewitness Identification of Assassin." In the six- to eight-minute period before the motorcade arrived, Howard Leslie Brennan saw a man leave and return to the Northeast corner window on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository "a couple of times." Upon hearing the first shot, which he thought was a motorcycle backfiring, Howard Leslie Brennan glanced up at the window: "This man I saw previously was aiming for his last shot..." Howard Leslie Brennan saw the man fire the last shot, then disappear from the window. Within minutes, Howard Leslie Brennan described the man to the police. This description led to the police radio alert at 12:45 p.m., in which the suspect was described as "in his early 30's, about 5' 10" tall, 165 lbs., white, slender." In his statement to police later that day, Howard Leslie Brennan described the man as "white male, early 30's, appeared to be about 5'10", 165 pounds, no hat, wearing light colored clothes, possibly khaki, could have been wearing a sweater or light weight jacket." In his testimony before the Warren Commission, Brennan described the person he had seen as "a man in his early 30's, possibly 5' 10", 160 to 170 lbs., fair complexion, slender, but neat." OSWALD was 24, 5' 9" and weighed 140 lbs. Howard Leslie Brennan declared, "He looked much younger on television than he did from my picture of him in the window - say five years younger." [Addition To WC Test. of Howard Brennan V28 Hearings-3.24.64] During the evening of November 22, 1963, Howard Leslie Brennan identified OSWALD as the person in the lineup who most closely resembled the man in the window, but said he was unable to make a positive identification. Warren Commission Counsel Joe Ball attributed Howard Leslie Brennan's hesitation to positively identify OSWALD to, "a fear that the Communists would murder his family or something." [Mike Ewing HSCA interview with Ball 12.18.78 ARA doc.] Howard Leslie Brennan, born March 20, 1919, died in December 1983. Ronald B. Fischer and Robert Edwin Edwards were standing on the curb at the southwest corner of Elm and Houston when they noticed a man in the Texas School Book Depository window about a half-minute to one minute before the motorcade passed the Texas School Book Depository. They offered partial descriptions of the man, although neither witness had seen the rifle being fired. [2WH165; 24WH522; 6WH200; 6WH191; 6WH19?] Ronald Fischer was shown a photograph of OSWALD by the Dallas Police: "He could not say definitely this man was the man, but said that it looked like the man." [DPD Supp. Rep. 11.25.63 Turner] Ronald Fischer commented, No that's not true. I was never shown a photo by the Dallas Police. Never happened. I never talked to them. I gave a deposition on the late afternoon or evening of the assassination. They had 13 of us locked up as material witnesses in Sheriff Bill Decker's office. They took us one at a time. I don't think anybody ever showed me a photo. I could see his face, but he was far away. Then I gave a Federal deposition before David Belin. He got into a heated argument with me about the color of the man's hair. At one point he stopped the deposition taking, and stormed out of the room. Five minutes later he returned, he had himself composed, and we went on with the deposition. He only touched on the color once after that.

At the time, I didn't know what the hell was the matter with this guy. Looking back at it now, I realize he was angry because I didn't say 'the right thing.' His hairline fit OSWALD. Belin wanted me say he had dark hair. I wouldn't say that. He had light-colored clothes on. All I could see was just a little bit below his shoulders and up. He was facing the triple underpass. He was not facing Houston Street where the parade was going to come from. Most everyone was looking to the intersection of Houston and Main Street waiting for the parade. This guy was seated so that he was facing the triple underpass. What also caught my attention was that he didn't move. He didn't move at all. In fact, if you were watching him close enough and had binoculars, you might say 'he didn't bat an eye.' No movement whatsoever. He was staring. I watched him for about 30 seconds. Compare the descriptions of Arnold Rowland, Robert Edwards & Ronald Fischer and Carolyn Walthers of the man seen holding a rifle in the window with the description of TRAMP A who was arrested on November 22, 1963, in the vicinity of the Texas School Book Depository. George Smith of the Fort Worth Star Telegram took two pictures.


Photograph one [P1] is a frontal shot as the tramps marched past the cyclone fence in front of the loading dock of the Texas School Book Depository.

Photograph two [P2] was a profile shot taken as they passed in front of the Texas School Book Depository's distinctive masonry facade.

Jack Beers of the Dallas Morning News took two photographs. Photograph three [P3] had the front entrance of the Texas School Book Depository as a background.

Photograph four [P4] was taken as the tramps walked by the intersection of Houston and Elm.

William Allen of the Dallas Times Herald got three photographs. Photograph five [P5] was taken in front of the Texas School Book Depository.

Photograph six [P6] was taken as they crossed Houston and Elm.

Photograph seven [P7] was taken as they neared the Sheriff's Office. In the first two tramp shots the tallest tramp is in front. In the rest of the tramp shots another one of the tramps wearing a jacket leads the line. The oldest tramp is always in the back of the line. We will call the tramp who leads the three in Tramp shots 3 to 7 TRAMP A. We will call the oldest looking tramp, TRAMP B, and we will call the other tramp, TRAMP C. TRAMP A Arnold Rowland said the man he had seen in the window holding the rifle had a slender build, weighed 140 to 150 pounds, and had dark, close-cut hair. He was wearing a light shirt, collar open and dark pants. He was about 30. TRAMP A looked like he was of medium build, weighing about 160 pounds, and had dark brown close-cut hair. He was wearing a light shirt, collar open and dark pants. He looked about 30 to 35. Compare the combined descriptions of Robert Edwards and Ronald Fischer of the man they had seen in the Texas School Book Depository window with TRAMP A. They said the man in the window had short brown hair or light hair. He was wearing a long-sleeved lightcolored sport shirt open at the neck. He was between 22 and 25. The tramp had short brown hair. He was wearing a light shirt (assuming he had taken off his jacket) that could be open at the collar and dark pants. He looked 30 to 35. Carolyn Walthers had seen a brown-haired man with a white shirt. TRAMP A had brown hair and a white shirt. James Richard Worrell, (born July 1, 1943) and Jesse C. Price saw a man running from the rear of the Texas School Book Depository. (Bowers did not see anyone "racing around in the yard.") Their composite description: 155 to 165 pounds, 5'7" to 5'10", black or brown hair full in back, light pants, sports jacket flaring in breeze, dark in color,

late 20's or early 30's. Compare this with the description of TRAMP A: Looks 160 pounds, 5' 10", dark brown hair, full in back, light shirt, dark pants, herring-bone sports jacket, flaps in breeze, looks 30 to 35 years old. TRAMP B Compare the older man Arnold Rowland had seen (near the man with the rifle) with TRAMP B. The reason Arnold Rowland described this man as a Negro was because the top floors of the Texas School Book Depository were shadowy at noon, since the light was coming from directly overhead. Dallas Policeman D.V. Harkness sealed the Texas School Book Depository after Amos Lee Euins told him he saw a colored man firing a rifle from the southeast window. [WR p147] The man Arnold Rowland had seen was black-skinned, and had a marked and wrinkled face, with a very thin build and thin hair. He was wearing a bright colored red-green plaid shirt, and he was 50, or 55 to 60, years-old. TRAMP B can be described as: White, some wrinkles, thin build, plaid shirt, about 50. [Composites based on Rowland WCE 358; 2WH165; Memo Rankin/Hoover re: Rowland. Robert Edwards and Ronald Fischer 6WH200; 6WH191; Worrell WCD87; 2WH190; Jesse C. Price 19WH492] Arnold Rowland had been arrested in Topeka, Kansas for "Vag.(checks)" and was arrested in Dallas, for shoplifting, in 1967. [FBI rap sheet 921 481 F] The Warren Commission overlooked the correspondence between the gunman or gunmen's descriptions supplied by its witnesses and the descriptions of the tramps. The Warren Commission also overlooked the fact that these men were not tramps. They were clean-shaven and two of them recently had haircuts. According to one unconfirmed report, they smelled, and a reporter is seen holding her nose in P3 - yet there was no evidence of physical degeneration. Their scent was part of their disguise. They looked well-fed and their shoes were not worn out. The oldest tramp consistently tried to avoid being photographed. The other two switched positions. TRAMP A WAS DAVID LEMAR CHRIST Tramp A, who was seen in the window of the Texas School Book Depository was DAVID LEMAR CHRIST. He switched positions with TRAMP C because he was the least well known. HEMMING supplied me with this information in 1978: You know that tramp you keep buggin' the shit out of me about? 'Frenchy?' Look at these photos. And, A. J., when you give them back to me, make sure they don't stick together. The tramp's name is DANIEL CARSWELL. When CHRIST entered Cuba, his ID contained the following description: "Height 6', Weight 190, Age 41." CHRIST fit Howard Brennan's description of the assassin better than OSWALD did. TRAMP B WAS HUNT AND TRAMP C WAS STURGIS

This researcher first realized this on November 22, 1973. On that day I had organized a demonstration in front of the National Archives to protest the removal of President Kennedy's brain from that institution. When Tom Forcade and Aron Kay distributed leaflets about the demonstration at an assassination research conference staged by attorney Bernard Fensterwald at Georgetown University, in Washington, D.C., Bernard Fensterwald had his security guards eject my crew. I attended the convention the next day with Phil Ochs. When I arrived, researcher Sherman Skolnick was haranguing Bernard Fensterwald: "We all know about the Committee to Investigate Assassinations, all you want to do is pick our brains, Fensterwald. We know that Georgetown University's School of International Affairs is a CIA front. Why would they let us meet here? How about the money the CIA gave you? McCORD'S lawyer talked about it during Watergate, for Pete's sake! We demand an alternative panel!" The Washington Star News reported: "Another dissident, A. J. WEBERMAN, a well-known figure in the underground press, said that 'left-wing assassinologists have been excluded from the conference.' He added that the sessions at Georgetown University 'could be a CIA front to keep an eye on what people are learning about the assassinations.'" [Star 11.25.73] After having appeared on Sherman Skolnick's alternative panel this researcher proceeded smoke a marijuana cigarette on the steps of one of Georgetown University's buildings with a female student I had met during the conference, who did not like Fensterwald. When several nuns began walking in and out of this building were decided it would be safer to go to the room of the student. There, I was introduced to Steven Sotor, a Professor of Astronomy at Cornell University's Center for Radio physics and Space Research, who later became the chief of research for Carl Sagan's Cosmos series aired on the Public Broadcasting System. Steve Sotor showed me a photograph of FRANK STURGIS from The New York Times and compared it with a photograph of TRAMP C. He shook his head and said : "A. J., before I came to this conference I thought that one of the three tramps in this photograph was FRANK STURGIS. But Bud Fensterwald told me he had done a height study in Dallas and there was a discrepancy between STURGIS and the tramp." "Steve" I said, "Fensterwald is a slimy fucking CIA Agent, not a researcher. Don't believe a word he says." This researcher studied the tramp shots for the first time. STURGIS did look a little like the tramp but this was inconclusive. Then I realized that one tramp had a sort of washed-out Protestant face, devoid of any ethnicity, like a man named Harold Henkel who I rented a room to when I was a landlord at Michigan State University. Harold Henkel looked like HOWARD HUNT. One tramp picked up on the scene of the assassination of former President John F. Kennedy could look like STURGIS and not be him, but how could one tramp look like STURGIS and the other look like HUNT, both of Watergate fame, without there being an actual identity between the tramps and HUNT and STURGIS. THE LAW OF PROBABILITY Before examining the photographs remember this: Suppose you knew someone who resembled one of the tramps. This was within the realm of possibility. But suppose you knew two men who knew each other and each of these men resembled one of two tramps. There was much smaller chance of this happening than of having known one

man who looks like one of the three tramps. Finally, what is the likelihood of have known three men, all of whom knew each other, and each of whom looked like a different one of the three tramps? How were these odds affected by the fact that: (1) The men who resembled the tramps were all involved in CIAsponsored anti-Castro activity at the same time. (2) STURGIS and CHRIST had been imprisoned by Fidel Castro. (3) CHRIST was a CIA technical expert. (4) HUNT testified that his job at the CIA "had to do with the subversion of the prominent political figures abroad, the overthrow of governments and that sort of thing." [U.S. v. Erlichman p908] In regard to Jacobo Arbenz, he stated: "The Communists were thrown out. A dictatorship took place, which was supplanted by a democratic election." HUNT had his name on a letter written by OSWALD. (5) The name FIORINI appeared in OSWALD'S notebook. (6) STURGIS had been approached by the CIA and asked to do a domestic assassination. HUNT, STURGIS and CHRIST'S appearance in Dealey Plaza was logical. They all had the motive and the ability to assassinate a world leader. In this author’s estimation, if men with this sort of background left the slightest traces of their presence in Dealey Plaza, even traces that were in themselves indefinitive, chances are they killed President Kennedy. STURGIS and CHRIST were associated with HEMMING and as we shall see later on in the book, database, so was HUNT. REACTIONS TO THE TRAMP SHOTS SAINT JOHN HUNT My father served 33 months in federal prison with the longest stretch at Danbury, Conn. Frank Sturgis, the Cuban freedom fighter, arch nemesis of Castro, plotter in assassination attempt, and co-conspirator in Watergate served his sentence at Danbury as well. It was after my fathers' incarceration that the first accusations surfaced allegedly linking him and Sturgis to the murder of President Kennedy. I remember quite well how I first heard of this. I had moved to Oakland California and got a job driving a delivery truck for a local bakery. I stopped by a payphone on my route and as I was dialing the number something caught my eye. A familiar face stared at me from a crudely printed poster on a phone pole. It was my father’s face! His was among several on a poster that read "CIA KILLED JFK". I dropped the phone and carefully removed the poster. Back in my

delivery van, I looked at what it said. Below the large heading, it showed six photos; my fathers, Frank Sturgis', and a third I didn't recognize. Below my father’s picture was the picture of someone who looked exactly like my father, only older and dirty. Below Sturgis' picture was one of someone who looked a lot like Frank except older, and the third man had the same photo of him, but from a different angle. The type below the photos proclaimed E. Howard Hunt; convicted Watergate burglar and CIA assassin in 1974 and in Dealey Plaza in 1963. The poster advertised for a lecture the following day in San Francisco by Dick Gregory and was sponsored by a group calling themselves the JFK Investigating Committee or something like that. I was in shock! I could barely make it through the rest of my route. I didn't know what to think! I felt sick to my stomach. I couldn't believe something this bad could be happening to my family again! Hadn't we paid enough? Hadn't my mother died for the sins of my father? Why would these people think such a thing? Where would it all end? One of the first thoughts that occurred to me after I settled down was to think back and try and remember what happened the day Kennedy was shot. Surely this would clear up the question and perhaps I could attend the lecture and clear my fathers' name. As I thought about it, I felt a slow creeping illness overtake me. I remember very well that I was 9 years old and in the fifth grade at Brookmont Elementary School. I remember that they announced the news over the loudspeaker and subsequently the students were sent home. I can't remember how I got home; I may have been picked up, or taken the bus, but when I got home I remember my mother was there and she was very upset. I tried to picture my father but couldn't. Then like a bullet exploding in my brain, I remember my mother telling me that father had been to Dallas! I can't place the exact time she told me or if she was speaking in reference to the assassination, but I clearly recall her telling me this around that time period. It may have been before, but I also remembered something strangely coincidental; my father elected to have some sort of plastic surgery done to reduce the size and change the shape of his ears. In my mind these events occurred roughly at the same time. I looked at the poster, studying it over and over again. I thought of going to the lecture but chickened out. I didn't want to know any more details or speculations. The photos of the tramps, especially the one that was supposed to be my father looked amazingly like him. He has a very distinct nose and the shape of his mouth is very unique. I felt strongly that this could be him. Now, years later, we all know that the true identity of these tramps has been discovered due to the diligent research of devoted Kennedy assassination researchers. [This was a reference to the false news story

floated by former FBI SAC Oliver “Buck the Fuck” Revell and others in their attempt to confuse the first set of three tramps picked up that day with the second set picked up later on. The Rockefeller Commission reported that 8 tramps were picked up that day.] I wrote my father a letter asking him about the poster and its' accusations. He wrote back to me and said that "as you well know, I was at home that day, and we watched the news broadcasting the unfortunate events until late in the evening when you children went to bed." "I was in the house all day." Later, under oath he would change this story several times. He testified under oath that he had actually been at work that day. He left the CIA office and drove home early. Later he changed it again, saying that he had stopped by his favorite Chinese grocery store to purchase some items for a home cooked meal. Still, he maintained that he was with his children throughout most of the day. When asked what the name of his favorite Chinese store was, he couldn't remember. He did offer that it was located on a certain street in China town in Washington D.C. when investigators checked all the Chinese stores in that city; none were close to that location. My father testified that he had been seen at work that day by one of his co-workers, yet when that co-worker was cross examined, he could not specifically recall seeing my father, he only thought he might have seen him. How could a man whose life was in the intelligence business not be able to recall, without fail, where he was and what he did on the day that the President of the United States was murdered? How is that possible? Why did he change his story so many times? If his children were his alibi, why wouldn't his defense team call us to testify for him? This could have put the whole matter to rest once and for all! Why? Because it was a lie; I was at our home that day, and I never saw my father. That's not saying that he murdered the president, but it does serve to underline the life of lies and plausible deniability that was our life. I never spoke to my father about these outrageous contradictions, and he never addressed this topic…at least not until later…years later. In June 1994 Marina Oswald was sent the tramp shots by this researcher. She stated: I do not know. I like, by the way, you're little plastic overlay. It was wonderful. But I'm not expert. You have to have expertise. All this time I thought the HUNT was the oil man Hunt. I think you did very wonderful research. You want help with book? I do not know the answers. In August 1993 Michael Paine was sent Coup D'Etat in America. He commented, HUNT [resembles the tramp] maybe the most. I couldn't really decide on STURGIS. Actually, I wasn't sure of the picture with the overlay. When they're together like that they seem to fit. When I look at them individually, I'm not persuaded. All I can say is HUNT works especially for me. And I

didn't spend much time trying to analyze STURGIS. He was a possibility, but I didn't say 'Oh yeah, that's it!'" Paine was asked if the tramp shots made him wonder if there was a conspiracy. He responded, "I guess I've always had an opening for...We expected trouble from the right. The feeling in Dallas at the time invoked that kind of thought. I don't believe that OSWALD would knowingly participate with the right-wing in any way. I also believe he was acting like a spy, especially in the weeks before the assassination. But I didn't assume that had anything to do with the President. And if he been planning all along to kill the President, he wouldn't come out and get his rifle the night before. There are too many people in the CIA that have a patriotism that would not allow them to shoot the President. You might find one or two who would keep this a secret from the CIA. I think there are a lot of people like that. They honestly believed they were doing the right thing and protecting this country from tendencies they thought were dangerous. They felt they were doing a patriotic thing. A tiny percentage of CIA people. When I told Ruth Paine what Michael Paine said, she stated: "I didn't get that impression from him. What he told me was that he looked at the pictures. I said, 'Do you find these pictures pretty convincing?' and he said 'No, I really don't find them convincing.' I am also unconvinced." James Hosty agreed with Ruth Paine and he told this researcher: "They weren't there. It's just a figment of your imagination." Wallace Shanley stated to this researcher: Havana, Miami, and New Orleans, were headed toward Dallas. It's kind of hard to deal with. You stir up some rather deep soup and things come floatin' to the top. INTERPEN was a group into which OSWALD could have well have inserted himself. A man with pseudo-expertise in all sorts of things. He would certainly be with one of these groups. But FRANK is not the tramp. In 1975 Charles Ashmann wrote The CIA-Mafia Link, in which he stated that a "tramp" arrested on November 22, 1963, "bore a striking resemblance" to his former client, FRANK STURGIS. HEMMING told this researcher: I could not see where Ashmann would pick-up on any of this Kennedy shit, and all of a sudden, his pocketbook comes out. I said, 'What the fuck? What has Ashmann been reading? Why the fuck would Ashmann take a look at the Kennedy situation?' Last guy in the world. As far as I was concerned he had no connection, no knowledge, shit, I figured he must know something that I don't know. He cranked out a little rinky-dink book with all these speculations in it. STURGIS was asked:

Q. Do you know that your former attorney, Charles Ashmann, believes you to be the tramp in Dealey Plaza? A. Well, if he stated that he believed I'm the tramp in Dealey Plaza, it's a lie because I saw the pictures in Washington and these two people that I saw up there that look like me, forget it. Howard Kenneth Davis was mailed a copy of Coup D'Etat In America and recontacted in June 1993. He stated: "The one photograph you attributed to being STURGIS, in my mind that is absolutely not STURGIS. I don't know if he was in Dallas, or not, but I would give my eye teeth if that photograph were STURGIS.” Q. What about the overlay? A. That was very, very interesting. There are similarities there, absolutely, and I really can't say about the other tramps...I hate to say it, because if you were to tell me you have other evidence that FIORINI was involved, I could believe it wholeheartedly. If you tell me he was involved, I won't argue with you one bit. THE CUBAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE The Cuban Intelligence Service believed the tramp shots were significant. In Cuba, the HSCA was told: ANTONIO: I would like to point out that these speculations have been made by FRANK STURGIS, who has been the principal propagator of this supposed visit by RUBY to Cuba. Such a lie, as others, has been propagated also by this individual. It catches our eye also that in this campaign to try to tie Cuba with the assassination he has been using published theories. The same American press has related STURGIS with the assassination of President Kennedy. Perhaps yesterday afternoon one of the questions that most caught our attention, and which we asked Blakey, was on these individuals who appeared at Dealey Plaza where it is said that one of those who appear in the photograph was FRANK STURGIS. BUERGO: In relation to this question, it is also to keep in mind that STURGIS had a close relationship for many years with HOWARD HUNT. This must even be seen in relation to participation that both had in the events of Watergate, well known by you all, and the ties that this group had with President NIXON. It must also be viewed a little later; it is necessary to see the ties of these groups with the attitude maintained with respect to the Cuban Revolution. He was the first official of the American Government who recommended taking actions against Cuba after the interview that he held with President Castro during his visit to the United

States in 1959. These elements are to show the ties of these counterrevolutionary people with leaders of the United States and that the same ones had been used in matters such as Watergate and activities against Cuba and that, therefore, it is logical that they could be used for all of this false information. BLAKEY: Do you have knowledge of some documentary evidence that concretely ties HOWARD HUNT with STURGIS before 1964. VILLA: Before 1964, no, and later what we know of him has been generated by other newsmen and investigators. We knew some things about HOWARD HUNT when he was working against Cuba in Miami. [HSCA NARA 11710100 4.2.78] H. R. Haldeman was mailed a copy of Coup D'Etat in America then asked to comment: I glanced through the thing. I didn't see of any particular area that I could be of any help on. I'm not a photographic expert in any way, shape or form. I've never met HOWARD HUNT. When he was at the White House, Colson had contact. When he was in the Re-election Committee, it was Liddy. Edward Petty received copies of the tramp shots: I have to tell you I was pretty impressed by the comparison of the HUNT picture. Which surprised me. I didn't think I was going to be. I have done a lot of photo comparisons. Photo identity is a really difficult thing. But you did a good job on that. John Mertz commented: I think you're nuts! Did you read in the paper STURGIS died yesterday? He was a nice guy. That frontal picture, the photograph the CIA gave the HSCA, doesn't look anything like CHRIST as I remember him. I don't think that's CHRIST. It doesn't look anything like the guy. It doesn't ring any bells for me. I don't think that was a picture of him. Q. How about the photograph of the man coming off the plane with a pipe? Is that him? A. I didn't see any picture of him... Q. It's in the book. A. It's in the book, I haven't come across that. I checked a number of them but I never saw any coming off the plane with a pipe. I don't recall that he

smokes a pipe, and hell, he wouldn't have had a pipe comin' out of jail down there. He didn't have anything. It could have been, I don't know. Q. What about the tramp shots? A. I don't think any of them, I don't...I know HUNT better than I know CHRIST. I worked with him in Japan, shared an office with him. That sure as hell is no picture of HUNT. I never saw STURGIS. Dr. Peter Dale Scott, who now espouses World Trade Center revisionism, wrote that Fletcher Prouty "believes he could identify the back of Edwin Landsdale's neck in the so-called 'tramp' photographs." [Scott, Deep Pol. p377] Fletcher Prouty met with the leaders of the Cuban Revolutionary Council when they visited General Erskine on August 26, 1960. He sympathized with their plight. Fletcher Prouty told Senator Howard Baker that he met HUNT in the offices of Robert R. Mullen and Company: The date was in either February or March 1971. It was in the offices of the Mullen Company. The man I went to see was Bob Bennett. After a brief talk, primarily with what I wanted done, he said, well, I have a man that can help you with that. And he called in an office and said, HOWARD. And HOWARD came out, and it was HOWARD HUNT. I knew HUNT, I had known him at least since the Bay of Pigs program. But I knew in CIA practice you don't recognize people. So, I never said a word, never batted an eye at him. But I knew he was CIA and I knew in my mind he was on duty. I didn't know he had retired. That was immaterial. The subject didn't come up. Bennett introduced me to HUNT. And we shook hands. And he said he would take the account work. And the name Butterfield was the name that was mentioned, and the only name mentioned. I was satisfied...After putting in weeks of work and researching to find who was going to do the job for us, and after going there for no other reason than to get a firm that would contact the White House. Prouty said he knew that Mullen and Company was a CIA front from a long list of fronts he once possessed and that: I would tell any body today that I don't think McCORD ever served really as a CIA man. But you see, nobody can uncover that Sheffield Edwards, Bob Bannerman or JIM McCORD were anything but FBI men like me, an Air Force guy, but working for the CIA. That is the way they worked. And they kept their connection. And I have been at lunch with McCORD when FBI men went by and they were just like old buddies. And I have had him volunteer FBI support of something I wanted officially. And I would say, if I had to analyze in my years of experience with him... [NARA SSCIA 15710011-10041]

Fletcher Prouty was a consultant to Oliver Stone during the filming of JFK and was widely credited with convincing Oliver Stone that the military industrial complex was involved in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy rather than NIXON and the tramps. In 1991 the neo-Nazi group Liberty Lobby announced the creation of the advisory board of the Populist Action Committee. The Spotlight ran a major feature on the formation of the advisory board with photographs of the persons announced as appointed to launch the Committee. Fletcher Prouty was named to the advisory panel. Martin Larson, a contributor to The Journal of Historical Review which maintains the Holocaust was a Jewish hoax; Pauline Mackey, national treasurer for the 1988 David Duke Populist Party Presidential campaign; Tom Valentine, Midwest bureau chief for Spotlight and host of Liberty Lobby's Radio Free America. Prouty appeared at conferences and on radio programs sponsored by the Liberty Lobby, but claims "there was never a handshake" concerning his official appointment to the Populist Action Committee. (Telephone interview with Prouty.) Prouty nonetheless admits that he is aware his name is being publicized in that capacity and refuses to ask his name be dropped from the list. Ronald Fischer received the CHRIST/tramp shots: "I couldn't make out the face of the man I saw in the window."

HEMMING AT NO NAME KEY HEMMING: The first time I saw the tramp shots was through Garrison. Weisberg brought it to his attention. He was the first to have them. They were comparing the pictures with the No Name Key crew. Here are some videos of the assassination. As you can see the assassination was a professional job. Only Kennedy was killed, no one else although John Connelly was wounded. Click HERE to see the event from all angles at once. Click HERE to see digitally enhanced videos of the event.

THE SHOTS THE FIRST SHOT: THE MEAT SHOT The first shot was fired by HOWARD HUNT from the Southeast corner window of the Texas School Book Depository. HEMMING told this researcher: The shot came from the other end of the floor. Through the trees into the President's back. That's the shallow wound in his back. This shot penetrated Kennedy's back, and exited through his throat. This was the meat shot. This was for fucking planting evidence. This wasn't for killing anybody. If it kills him, that's good too. It has the force to penetrate. If you're dumpin' the blame, the set up weapon has to be fired into a soft area of the target. You don't want this round deforming, because it has to be identified later on by the lands and grooves on it. This is not a killing round. This one went in two and a half inches. We figured that CPR popped the fucker out. This was the magic bullet. It's the closest shot. You can't miss. It's from 60 feet away. That's what pistol people shoot at. He's up six floors and 20 feet across the street. With a shoulder stock and a scope you ain't gonna miss with a sabot round. A sabot round is a plastic and metal sleeve that holds a smaller round. The sabot round they used was copper. Remember somebody talking about something making marks on the sidewalk? That's the sleeve. The jacket around the sabot round that breaks. It's a small piece, it can't be identified. It's got a wax filler. As that hot powder is burning, those gases are pushing it out. As soon as it leaves the muzzle the wax melts in a sabot round jacket that has already started to separate. The whole idea is, they fucked up totally, it became a pristine round because it was so underpowered. That's why I figure it was a short barreled sabot round. If they fired it out of a Carcano, they'd have been nothing left of the slug, except cadaver samples, and you can't see any rifling at all. What sends the flag up is the pristine round that tells the whole fucking story of professionalism. The use of silenced weapons and sabot rounds. The first shot was designed to link the assassination bullet with OSWALD'S gun and was underpowered. This shot went through the President's back and out his throat and then entered Governor Connally. It, and all the shots fired that day, were fired from behind the President, so the autopsy evidence was relatively consistent with the shots having been fired from the Texas School Book Depository. No shots were fired from the grassy knoll. HEMMING told this researcher: The first shot that should have been fired would be right after the turn onto Houston Street. There you have the target moving towards you, it's a full frontal shot. There's no deviation, there's no declination. The guy's moving straight at your ass. You're looking him right in the eye. You can get him right between the headlights. A professional that has a plan to get away, not a kamikaze, would know the Secret Service are not allowed to fire

back, the ones that are on the outrider vehicles, and engage in a fire fight. They are there to take the spears. They are there to protect the President with their body. The outriders would be looking into the buildings where the shots are coming from. If you don't want to call attention to your shooting position for a variety of reasons, then you'll want a shot with the target moving away from you. They're going to be running away from you. They're not going to be looking at your ass. This messes memories up. This protects you in your E. & E. out of the area. If they looked up and saw someone poking a weapon out a window or suspected they saw a shooter in front of them, they'd carry it to their fucking graves. THE MEAT SHOT BECOMES THE MAGIC BULLET Shortly after Governor John Connally was removed from his stretcher, Darrell C. Tomlinson (died late 1993) took the stretcher to the first floor of the hospital and placed it alongside another stretcher. A few minutes later, he bumped a stretcher against the wall and the meat shot rolled out. Darrell C. Tomlinson was not sure whether the bullet came from the stretcher of Governor John Connally or an adjacent one. [WR p81] The FBI determined that the meat shot had been fired from OSWALD'S MannlicherCarcano, to the exclusion of all other weapons. The Warren Commission described the trajectory of the magic bullet: (1) Penetrated the back of John F. Kennedy. (2) Exited the throat of John F. Kennedy. (3) Entered the chest of Governor John Connally shattering his rib. (4) Exited below the right nipple of Governor John Connally. (5) Entered the wrist of Governor John Connally. (6) Exited the wrist of Governor John Connally. (7) Entered the thigh of Governor John Connally. (8) Exited the thigh of Governor John Connally when he was on the stretcher. (9) Still weighed a nearly pristine 158.6 grams. The meat shot was underpowered and could not have done that much damage. When the Warren Commission received the medical determinations regarding the wounds of John F. Kennedy and Governor John Connally, the findings had to be reconciled with the Commission's theory that OSWALD was the lone assassin. The Warren

Commission determined that three shots had been fired from the Texas School Book Depository - and one had missed. One of these had clearly struck the head of the President. The other, therefore, would logically have had to have done all the remaining damage. The Warren Commission had no idea about "meat shots" and it had to account for the pristine bullet. The Magic Bullet was born.

HEMMING told this researcher: That bullet, because of the bulge and the oval shape at the rear of the slug, shows that it was not fired into cotton wadding, it was fired into water. Who fired it into water to put lands and grooves on it so it would appear to have been fired? They were in a hurry. They fired it into a water tank. That distends the end. It causes the lead to bulge out the rear side and give an oval fish tail. That was a sabot round used to plant evidence. This whole thing of somebody dropping it on a stretcher. In a million fucking years who's going to find it? They're doing CPR on his ass and it popped out of the fucking hole. An underpowered round. It was supposed to go in about three inches, they didn't want any distortion on it. Someday I'll give you a demonstration of how it is done. When Governor John Connally died on June 16, 1993, it was suggested that the bullet fragments lodged inside him be removed and weighed. If the weight of these fragments added to the weight of the magic bullet exceeded 160 grains, then the magic bullet was planted. The Connally family, however, objected to this procedure. Gerald Posner cited a study by Failure Analysis Associates that stated the magic bullet wasn't magic, after all, then admitted: "A complete recreation of CE 399 may be impossible."


The cowboys of the CIA ambushed Kennedy in a classic Old West crossfire. Just as he passed the records building (the one with the vertical long windows) Kennedy got plugged. While visiting HEMMING'S private detective office, late one evening in 1978, he told me: "FRANK was firing from the Records Building." HEMMING later denied he had said this. HEMMING 1994: Take another fucking toke, A. J., STURGIS was a low echelon fucking throwaway. What were you taking, acid, that night? A. J., you know what you are? You're an unreconstructed hippie. You're stuck with having published a whole bunch of shit about the tramps which may lead somewhere someday. You have a team in the Texas School Book Depository. You have a team that's split up in another building. You probably have a team on the other side of the whole Plaza area. When the target makes it to the underpass, that's where they give him a blast. These people were trying to be selective. Jackie wasn't hit. Mrs. Connally wasn't hit. No Secret Service men were hit. These are bullets whizzing around these people.

Kennedy was caught in a classic crossfire ambush, right out of the old West. The second shot which was fired from the Records Building by STURGIS further wounded Governor John Connally but missed John Kennedy. Mrs. Connally, testified that she thought her husband was hit by a second shot fired immediately after President Kennedy grabbed his throat. Governor John Connally told Life magazine: "There is my absolute knowledge, and Nellie's too, the one bullet caused the President's wound, and an entirely separate shot struck me...I'll never change my mind." [Life 10.30.66] A CIA liaison man informed Congressional leaders investigating the Agency that "(Kennedy) Presidential aides Kenneth O'Donnell and David Powers are reported to have told investigators soon after the Kennedy assassination that they thought they had observed what might have been shots coming from a location other than the Texas School Depository. But sometime before O'Donnell and Powers submitted their report to the Warren Commission by deposition and affidavit either J. Edgar Hoover or his top aides prevailed on the men not to disclose their suspicions to the Commission." According to the report, "the FBI warned O'Donnell and Powers that testimony to that effect could lead to possible international incident and inflame public passions fed by other secret information then known by the FBI." [Bob Wiedrick The Chicago Tribune 6/15/75] Gerald Posner stated that after he informed Governor John Connally about new technologies, John Connally realized he had been mistaken: "It may well be that Mrs. Connally was mistaken about seeing the President raise his arms after the first shot. That might have been after the second shot. And if that is true, it would make it all very consistent...[and] the second bullet could have hit us both." Earlier accounts of an incident are often more accurate. When Failure Analysis Associates did a computer reconstruction of Dealey Plaza, creating a computer generated trajectory that "could then be splayed on to a cone," part of the cone covered the Records Building. [Posner Case Closed p477; Frontline: Who was LHO?] The height and isolation of the Records Building would have prevented the detection of STURGIS by eyewitnesses in Dealey Plaza. The roof lines of the Records Building were traced by low walls that hid him from the crowds below and provided a convenient gun rest. No one in Dealey Plaza saw any one fire from there.

WITNESSES WHO HEARD SHOTS FROM THE RECORDS BUILDING F. Lee Mudd reported that he thought one or two of the shots came from the direction of the Dal-Tex Building. Standing at the north curb of Elm Street, he dropped to the ground when the shots were fired and looked toward the corner of Elm and Houston Street: "He looked around him [the FBI report related] and he recalled that in looking toward the building nearby, he noted several broken windows on the fourth floor of the DalTex Building, and the thought occurred to him that possibly the shots had been fired through these broken windows...[He] stated that when the shots were fired, they sounded as if they came from the direction of the Dal-Tex Building." [24WH538]

Eyewitness Charles Brehm told the FBI that "it seemed quite apparent to him that the shots came from one of two buildings back at the corner of Elm and Houston Streets." [22WH837] In 1993 Charles Brehm stated, "They all came from the same place. Either the Records Building or the Texas School Book Depository." Assistant Dallas County District Attorney Sam Paternostro told the FBI that he recalled hearing a shot that

"came from the Texas School Book Depository building or the Criminal Courts Building." [24WH536] A physical feature of the Criminal Courts Building ruled it out as a source of the shots. A brick parapet 15 feet high and less than two feet wide bordered the Houston Street roof line, making a shot from there almost impossible. Other witnesses pointed specifically to the Records and Criminal Court Buildings. Elsie Dorman watched the motorcade from an open window on the fourth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Two days after the assassination, she advised the FBI that "she felt that these shots were coming from the area of the Records Building." Otis N. Williams watched the motorcade from the steps of the Texas School Book Depository. Just after the Presidential limousine had passed the building and dipped out of sight down Elm Street, Otis N. Williams heard "three loud blasts." Otis N. Williams told the FBI that he "thought these blasts came from the location of the court house." [WCD 5] Both the Dallas County Records Building, and the Criminal Courts Building, stood between Otis N. Williams and the Court House. Josiah Thompson wrote: "Such witness reports establish only the possibility that one or more shots may have come from the east boundary of Dealey Plaza. What turns this possibility into a probability is the web of evidence and logic that necessitates another gun besides OSWALD'S firing on the motorcade from behind...the most probable point of origin for such a bullet would be the roof of the Dallas County Records Building." STURGIS may have used one of HEMMING'S Mannlicher-Carcano rifles. HEMMING told this researcher: Rifle barrels produced in Italy at that time, the Carcanos, were out of 22 foot stock. So they ran the lands and grooves through 22 feet of pipe. The same tool is used on thousands of weapons. The factory, in the Pough Valley of Italy, only had two tools to do lands and grooves. Everyone had these same tool markings on them. THE THIRD SHOT The Warren Commission concluded that three shots were fired. On October 31, 2003 this finding was contradicted by Nellie Connally, the wife of John Connally, who told the New York Times that she heard three shots. CHRIST fired the last shot while standing at the northeast corner window. This was the shot that blew part of President Kennedy's head off. HEMMING told this researcher: One shot was fired out of OSWALD'S Mannlicher-Carcano. The gunman was standing up. He used a frangible round. It had been cut so it came apart on impact. It spread to a wide pattern on impact. You know what a dum-dum is? They used to say you carved an 'X' on the nose of it. You know what a hollow point is? It mushrooms. When it hits you it opens up a big goddamn hole. Frangible bullets don't mushroom. They become six separate slugs the minute they hit skin.

At least one Mannlicher-Carcano had been used in the assassination. Its accuracy was improved since its bolt did not have to be worked. HEMMING: "Every time you work the bolt you have to re-acquire the target." THEORY: DAVID LEMAR CHRIST'S FRANGIBLE AMMUNITION CHRIST was a CIA techie so the possibility existed that the bullet which exited from the head of President John F. Kennedy was a frangible round which threw the head of President Kennedy backwards, and blew away a quarter of his skull. This made it appear as if he had been hit from the front. An excerpt from President Kennedy's autopsy stated: "Clearly visible in the above described large skull defect and exuding from it is lacerated brain tissue which on close inspection proves to represent the major portion of the right cerebral hemisphere." [WR p541] The wound in the back of President Kennedy's skull measured six millimeters. The beveling or conning shape found was consistent with an entrance wound. In Deadly Secrets former Ramparts writers William Turner and Warren Hinckle wrote that they interviewed "a former Cuban mercenary for the CIA" who stated: "The array of outlawed weaponry with which we were familiarized included bullets that exploded on impact." [Hinckle Deadly Secrets p47] HEMMING: There are no bullets less than 20 millimeters that actually explode. Twenty millimeter is the smallest you can put a fuse assembly in. The Germans came up with the first one. Hydroshock rounds were developed in the last 20 years. It's a hydraulic function that turns it into a frangible bullet. They want the bullet to penetrate and then explode. Another procedure involves boring out a hole in the bullet, then the same exact weight of the lead that was removed is replaced with solder. Then a little brass plug is put in it. As that sucker is traveling through the air, it's getting hotter and hotter. The solder is melting. It melts at the back of the slug before it melts at the front. When that copper jacket hits anything that gives resistance, the little brass nut starts traveling forward and a hydraulic action occurs. It starts mushrooming and splitting the bullet. The bullet has started to stop, but that little brass plug in the rear of the bullet wants to keep on going. There's nothing to stop it but the liquid. This is squeezing the liquid. You can't compress liquids, and it transfers a foot pound energy throughout that liquid. If the fucker hits metal, it will explode like a fucking firecracker into many fragments. If it hits skin, it will only explode probably after it's penetrated three or four inches. Then it starts coming apart into a lot of small pieces. You'll recover solder, copper and lead. The solder melts. It becomes black speckles. It won't even seem metallic. THE MEDICAL EVIDENCE AND THE FRANGIBLE ROUND There was medical evidence a frangible round, or a hydroshock round, was employed. In the Warren Report, Dr. Alfred G. Olivier, who had spent seven years doing wounds ballistic research for the U.S. Army stated: "I didn't think this type of a stable bullet

would cause a massive head wound, I thought it would go through making a small entrance and exit..." In the May 1992 Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. James Humes wrote: The X-rays disclosed fine, dustlike, metallic fragments from back to front where the bullet traversed the head before creating an explosive exit wound on the right temporal-parietal area. These fragments were not grossly visible. Two small bullet fragments were recovered from inside the skull - measuring three by one millimeters and seven by two millimeters... The head was so devastated by the exploding bullet and the gaping jagged stellate wound it created...two thirds of the right cerebrum had been blown away...After the brain was removed, we looked more closely at the wound, and noted that the inside of the rear of the skullbone was absolutely intact and beveled and there could be no question from whence cometh that bullet - [from rear to front]. The Warren Commission stated that a bullet fragment from the head wound hit a curbstone causing a chip of concrete to hit bystander Walter Teague in the cheek, causing him to bleed. When the FBI ran a spectrographic analysis on the curb it showed "traces of lead with a trace of antimony." [15WH700] Since there was no copper found in the curb (the 6.5 mm ammo was copper-jacketed) S.A. Shaneyfeldt told the Warren Commission the lead came from the core of the bullet. Was the chip of concrete that hit Walter Teague in the face set into motion by a fragment from frangible bullet? Was this why, when the curbstone was tested, the traces on it were from the core of the bullet, rather than from the part of the bullet that came into contact with the copper shell casing, that is, the outside of the bullet? Or did the fragment of a jacket around a sabot hit the sidewalk, as HEMMING suggested? Gerald Posner believed: "What is likely is that after the bullet fragmented against a tree branch, the stable lead core remained in a straight line from the Depository and struck the curb, over 500 feet away. The destablized copper jacket hit the pavement, giving Virgie Rachley the impression of sparks. Neither fragment was every recovered...No part of a third bullet was ever found." [NYT 5.26.92; JAMA 5.27.92; Crenshaw JFK Conspiracy of Silence questionable book] J. Edgar Hoover disagreed with Gerald Posner: Assuming this mark was made by a fragment of a bullet from the assassin's rifle, the evidence present is insufficient to establish whether it was caused by a fragment of a bullet striking the occupants of the Presidential limousine, such as the bullet that struck the President's head, or whether it is the fragment of a shot that may have missed the Presidential limousine. [FBI Hoover to Rankin 8.12.64] J. Edgar Hoover also stated:

The piece of curbing containing the mark was removed on August 5, 1964, and examined in the FBI Laboratory. Small foreign metal smears were found adhering to the curbing section within the area of the mark. These metal smears were spectrographically determined to be essentially lead with a trace of antimony. No copper was found. The lead could have originated from the lead core of a mutilated metal-jacketed bullet such as the type of bullet loaded into the 6.5 millimeter Mannlicher-Carcano cartridges or from some other source having the same composition. The absence of copper precludes the possibility that the mark on the curbing section was made by an unmutilated military-type full metal-jacket bullet..." THE FRAGMENT SIZE The size of the fragments also indicated an frangible or hydroshock round was used. The FBI found: (1) A bullet fragment weighing 44.6 grains - about a quarter of a bullet, since each intact bullet weighed about 160 to 161 grains before firing, and 158.6 grains after firing. This bullet fragment was found in the seat cushion of the Presidential limousine. (2) One bullet fragment weighing 21.0 grains - about an eighth of a bullet, found beside the back seat of the limousine. (3) One metal fragment weighing 1.65 grains, taken from the head of the President. (4) One metal fragment weighing 0.15 grains, taken from the head of the President. (5) One metal fragment weighing 0.5 grains, removed from the arm of Governor Connally. (6) Three metal fragments weighing 0.9, 0.7, 0.7, removed from the rear floorboard carpet. When FBI firearms experts examined the two larger fragments, they concluded that they had been fired from OSWALD'S Mannlicher-Carcano rifle. However, it was not possible to determine whether the two bullet fragments were from the same bullet or from two different bullets. [FBI 62-109060-3452, 3440] The Warren Commission determined that the wounds of President Kennedy and those of Governor John Connally were consistent with a total of only two shots: "One shot passed through the President's neck and then most probably passed through the Governor's body and a subsequent shot penetrated the President's head." No other shots struck any part of the automobile. Therefore, if three shots were fired, it followed that one shot had missed the car. But which shot? The Warren Commission stated that "The evidence is inconclusive as to whether it was the first, second or third shot which missed." [WR p111] The Warren Commission could not present a clear picture of what happened in Dealey Plaza because the "bullet that missed" was never recovered.

The third shot was fired from the Texas School Book Depository, however, a firecracker was set off at the knoll, as a diversionary measure. The men observed standing behind the picket fence did not fire a weapon at President Kennedy. Lee Bowers perceived their activity as a "commotion." The firecracker sounded like a gunshot, and was followed by a puff of white smoke. When a gun discharges, black smoke is released or, if the bullet contains smokeless, the discharge releases a trace of smoke, visible only in strong sunlight. The smoke from a firecracker is white, and highly visible. The diversionary effort worked. Most of the people in Dealey Plaza looked toward the knoll as the shots were fired and immediately ran toward it. Even the stock boys in the Texas School Book Depository, who had been watching the motorcade from the window directly under the sniper's nest, ran to the other side of the Texas School Book Depository and looked at the railroad tracks that ran behind the knoll. One of them saw a policeman on top of a freight car. Could this have been an assassin going into hiding? Lee Bowers observed the area behind the fence, on top of the knoll, during the shooting. Asked by Joe Ball about what attracted his attention to this area, he replied: I just am unable to was something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around, but something occurred in this particular spot which was out of the ordinary, which attracted my eye for some reason, which I could not identify." Dallas Policeman Seymour Weitzman ran up on the knoll. He told the FBI: "As he came to the fence at the top of the grassy slope, some

bystander mentioned that the firecracker or shot had come from the other side of the fence, and he requested a bystander to bend over and he used the bystanders back as a step and vaulted over the fence. [WCD 5] Several railroad men standing on the railroad bridge near the triple overpass said they had seen smoke coming from behind the knoll fence. Sterling Mayfield Holland, who had been on the bridge since 11:45 a.m., testified: There was a shot, a report...and a puff of smoke came out about six or eight feet above the ground right out from under those trees. And at just about this location from where I was standing you could see that puff of smoke, like someone had thrown a firecracker, or something out, and that is just about the way it sounded. It wasn't as loud as the previous reports or shots. [6WH244] In 1966 Sterling Holland told Josiah Thompson: It was just like somebody had thrown a firecracker and left a little puff of smoke there. It was a white smoke; it wasn't a black smoke or like a black powder. It was like the puff of a cigarette, but it was about nine feet off the ground. It would be just about in line with, or maybe just a little bit higher than that fence, but by the time it got underneath the tree, well, it would be about eight or nine feet...(the ground slopes off sharply in front of the fence.) [Thompson Six Seconds in Dallas taped interview with Holland 11.30.66] Sterling Holland placed the time of the puff of smoke as coinciding with the first noise: When they got just about to the Arcade, I heard what I thought for the moment was a firecracker, and he slumped over..." Sterling Holland died on April 29, 1969. Gerald Posner called Sterling Holland "confused about several issues, thinking Mrs. Kennedy was trying to climb into the back seat to join her husband. Sterling Holland told the Dallas Police Department: I am signal supervisor for the Union Terminal and I was inspecting signals and switches and stopped to watch the parade. I was standing on top of the triple underpass and the President's car was coming down Elm Street and when they got just about to the arcade I heard what I thought for a moment was a fire cracker and he slumped over and I looked toward the arcade and trees and saw a puff of smoke come from the trees and I heard three more shots after the first shot, but that was the only puff of smoke I saw. I immediately ran around to where I could see behind the arcade and did not see anyone running from there. But the puff of smoke I saw definitely came from behind the arcade through the trees. After the

first shot the President slumped over and Mrs. Kennedy jumped up and tried to get over in the back seat to him, and then the second shot rang out. After the first shot the Secret Service man raised up in the seat with a machine gun and then dropped back down in the seat. And they immediately sped off. Everything is spinning in my head and if I remember anything else later I will come back and tell Bill. Gerald Posner attempted to discredit Holland's testimony about the puff of smoke in this fashion: [Holland stated] that a Secret Service agent in the President's car had 'raised up in the seat with a machine gun.'"Because Holland might have been in error, and Secret Servicemen in another vehicle had deployed their weapons, as was to be expected, and not in the President's vehicle, does not mean that Holland's testimony about the puff of smoke was in error. Posner did not take into account that Holland was dealing with a situation that was frightening, confusing and fast moving. We are talking about events taking place in fast moving cars - Holland said that his head was "spinning." [Decker Ex. 5323 page 480] Posner also questioned Holland's testimony that: "After the first shot the President slumped over and Mrs. Kennedy jumped up and tried to get over in the back seat to him and then the second shot rang out." Jackie Kennedy tried to get out of the limo by climbing over the trunk. Holland interpreted this differently. Holland was in error about the location of certain events, however, all these events did occur. Holland was a responsible citizen, a railroad signal inspector. People depended on him for their safety. He was not prone to hallucinate. Because he was confused, Posner attempted to make him into a liar. In a notarized statement dated November 22, 1963, for the Dallas County Sheriff's Department, Austin Lawrence Miller stated that when he heard three shots and saw people in the Presidential limousine react, he saw "something which I thought was smoke or steam coming from a group of trees north of Elm off the railroad tracks." At that time, Austin Lawrence Miller was standing on the bridge of the triple underpass. Four other railroad men had also seen the smoke. Patrolman J.M. Smith, the second policeman to scale the fence on the knoll, "smelled the parking lot near the Texas School Book Depository" and so did another patrolman. Lee Bowers noticed that "At the time of the shooting, in the vicinity of where the two men I have described were, there was a flash of light or smoke..." [6WH239; 24WH217; 22WH833; 22WH836; interview with Winborn Murphy cited in Rush To Judgment Lane p40; WCD 205 p39]

THE PHONY SECRET SERVICE AGENT SEYMOUR WEITZMAN AND J. M. SMITH Seymour Weitzman was the first Dallas Police Officer to scale the fence on top of the knoll. He told Warren Commission Counsel Joseph Ball that he "noticed numerous kinds of footprints..." Although Seymour Weitzman had scaled the fence first, the officer behind him, J. M. Smith, was the first to encounter a Secret Service Agent there: "I wasn't alone. There was some Deputy Sheriff and I believe one Secret Service man when I got there...I pulled my pistol from my holster, and I thought, 'This is silly, I don't know who I am looking for'...Just as I did he showed me he was a Secret Service Agent..." [7WH531] Weitzman had also seen this man and told Joseph Ball: "[There were] other officers, Secret Service as well." [7WH105] Sterling Holland, who had run to the area where he saw the puff of smoke, noticed footprints between a station wagon and the picket fence: "It was muddy...a hundred tracks in one location. There was mud on the bumper as if someone had cleaned their foot...there were 12 or 15 policemen, or plainclothesmen, and we looked for empty shells..." [7WH284; WNEW-TV transcript 3.24.66] The Warren Commission questioned every Secret Service Agent on the scene that day, and they stated that they went to Parkland Hospital or stayed at the Trade Center. [WCD 1095] The HSCA questioned J. M. Smith: "One witness who did not base his Secret Service identification merely upon observing a plainclothesman in the presence of uniformed police officers was Dallas police officer Joseph M. Smith. Smith, who had been riding as a motorcycle escort in the motorcade, ran up the grassy knoll immediately after the shooting occurred. He testified to the Warren Commission that at that time he encountered a man who stated that he was a Secret Service agent and offered supporting credentials..." Click HERE for video of area behind fence above grassy knoll is searched. S.A. HOSTY EXPLAINS The HSCA made an effort to identify the person who talked to Joseph M. Smith. "FBI S.A. James P. Hosty stated that Frank Ellsworth, then an Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agent, had indicated that he had been in the knoll area and for some reason had identified himself to someone as a Secret Service Agent. The HSCA deposed Frank Ellsworth, who denied S.A. Hosty's allegation." James Hosty: That's not what I said. I said Ellsworth told me after the assassination that he had gone over there and participated in the building and grounds search. I suggested to the HSCA that there were Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Agents at the scene and maybe they were the ones who had been mistaken for Secret Service Agents. It was a mass of confusion, you have to remember."

Frank Ellsworth: He was wrong. He knew precisely what I was doing that day. I spent the entire time searching the Texas School Book Depository. I talked to him about it later." Frank Ellsworth said he heard about the assassination on the radio, then ran to the Texas School Book Depository, where he found two uniformed officers: "This was three minutes or four minutes after the assassination. HEMMING told this researcher: Most of the time, if someone grabs one of your guys, you come up with I.D. and snatch him away. You make sure the cops closest to your guys are on your payroll. They don't know shit. They're not told a goddamn thing. Either they are given a code word, or are told to watch for a particular type of I.D. If some one from a particular agency tells you to boo, you boo. That's all. They don't know shit. A recent JFK Records Collection Computer search revealed that one page of a Warren Commission document that dealt with Seymour Weitzman and the tramps was referred to another agency for review. [NARA 180-10095-10367; see 180-10095-10355] When the HSCA attempted to question Seymour Weitzman, Dr. Charles Laburda objected: "Since Mr. Weitzman was treated for emotional illness for many years...information sought from him should be extracted from his testimony and depositions made at that time [1963 to 1964]." [ltr. VA Laburda 6.1.78] Seymour Weitzman, born January 28, 1922, died in July 1985. At first this researcher thought the phony Secret Service agent was Bernard Barker because I thought that the same crew was used in the Kennedy assassination as the Watergate Break-in. HEMMING told this researcher: BARKER never went on any operations. He was around these BRAC (Bureau for Suppression of Communism) assholes. Hey, if he'd gone out and done an assassination or two in Miami, like those are coward-assed motherfuckers, okay. He don't even do that. His job was to snitch us out. When BARKER was questioned, under oath, about his whereabouts on November 22 he stated: This is a question that came up during the Watergate Hearing. I said that since I was a Cuban Revolutionary Council agent, they would have me on record. I was working for the Agency, they know exactly everywhere I was, I reported to them daily. I can tell you I was watching the whole thing on T.V. when it happened. I was home, in Miami, Florida, I remember definitely. My wife was with me. I saw many people at the time. I was constantly seeing people. For your information, if it would help you any, I

was in Miami quite definitely because I remember seeing the thing on T.V. I don't recall who else saw me aside from my family, my neighbors [Peter Arent 4400 NW 5th St; 420 NW 44th Ave Miami], the people who lived next door. Then he was asked why he was at home watching television that day, instead of being at work? He responded: "I didn't report necessarily every day, but just about every day I would get a call or assignment." BARKER was asked what soap opera he was watching at 1:30 p.m., Friday, November 22, 1963. He could not remember. Then he was asked if he heard of the assassination via a news flash. He responded: "No, I think I saw the parade, how the whole thing happened." No evidence has surfaced indicating Barker was the phony Secret Service agent however a man closely resembling an associate of Bernardo Torres, who’s name appears in OSWALD’S address book, is right in front of the grassy knoll minutes after the assassination. He was free to walk away. ONE OF BERNARDO DE TORRES MEN WAS THE PHONY SECRET SERVICE AGENT BEHIND THE FENCE ON THE GRASSY KNOLL


The HSCA's photo enhancement of the Philip Willis photograph of the stockade fence atop the knoll, taken seconds before HUNT, STURGIS and CHRIST opened fire, showed:

…an object whose size and shape were consistent with a human being, positioned just inside the retaining wall. The object possessed colors with a distinct resemblance to flesh tones, as revealed on the color display. The Panel perceived the object to be that of a badly blurred image of a person, dressed in dark clothing, standing or leaning just inside the retaining wall. The HSCA continued: In this photograph, which shows the person standing behind the concrete wall, there is visible, near the region of that person's hands, a very distinct straight line feature which extends from the lower right to the upper right. Nevertheless, because of the blur of the object in the photograph, the panel was not able to determine the actual length of the object and could not conclude whether it was or was not a weapon. [HSCA V6 p123-127] The Nix film, which captured the area in question around the same time, revealed: An object that can be construed as having a shape similar to that of a person. It is also possible to interpret this object as being of the same general shape as the person identified at the wall of the Willis #5 photograph. [HSCA V5 p131] The HSCA found no photographic evidence this man had a rifle with him nor did it find photographic evidence of the puff of smoke. [HSCA V4 p424] Click HERE for Nix film. DE TORRES’ man set firecrackers off behind the fence on the grassy knoll as a diversionary effort. He turned into a Secret Service agent after the assassination. One of them was and associate of BERNARDO DE TORRES. STURGIS told the Rockefeller Commission about an attempt that he planned on the life of Fidel Castro: I again did these exercises to try to get a diversion that if I would get the nod to do the execution that I would have some means of diversionary tactics to draw attention away from the people who did the execution, and I was there with my people to prevent it because of security.


Is the man who is speaking into a walkie talkie at the very instant that Kennedy is shot David Morales? Later HUNT will implicate him in the assassination in a death bed confession. HEMMING AND THE NASH RAMBLER STATION WAGON DEPUTY SHERIFF ROGER CRAIG The Warren Commission Report stated: Roger Craig, a Deputy Sheriff of Dallas County, claimed that about 15 minutes after the assassination he saw a man who he later identified as

OSWALD coming from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository Building and running down the hill north of Elm Street toward a light colored Nash Rambler station wagon which was moving slowly along Elm Street toward the underpass. The station wagon stopped to pick up the man then drove off. Craig testified that later in the afternoon he saw OSWALD in the police interrogation room and told Captain Fritz that OSWALD was the man he saw. Craig also claimed that when Fritz pointed out to OSWALD that Craig had identified him, OSWALD rose from his chair, looked directly at Fritz, and said, 'Everyone will know who I am now.' The Warren Commission could not accept important elements of Craig's testimony. Captain Fritz stated that a deputy sheriff whom he could not identify did ask to see him that afternoon and told him a similar story to Craig's. Fritz did not bring him in his office to identify OSWALD but turned him over to Lieutenant Baker for questioning. If Craig saw OSWALD that afternoon, he saw him through the glass windows of the office. And neither Captain Fritz nor any other officer can remember that OSWALD dramatically arose from his chair and said, 'Everybody will know who I am now.' If OSWALD had made such a statement Captain Fritz and the others present would probably have remembered it. Craig may have seen a person enter a white Rambler station wagon 15 or 20 minutes after the shooting and travel west on Elm Street, but the Commission concluded that this man was not OSWALD because of the overwhelming evidence that OSWALD was far away from the building by that time. [WR p160] Click HERE to see Craig tell his embellished story. Roger Craig was interviewed by Mark Lane and Jim Garrison on October 25, 1967. He added this to his story: He recognized OSWALD, seated alongside the desk, as the man he had seen in Dealey Plaza. Fritz said to OSWALD that CRAIG saw him enter a car after the assassination. OSWALD became angry - stood up and raised his voice as he spoke to -- almost shouted at Fritz. OSWALD said that the station wagon and Mrs. Paine had nothing to do with it. Craig said that OSWALD then seemed to realize that he had revealed too much information -- having answered by referring to a station wagon. Roger Craig said his uncle was Roy Vaughn, one of the Dallas Police Officers who picked up the tramps. In an Affidavit Roger Craig said the man driving the station wagon was Eugene Edgar Bradley. Roger Craig might have seen someone get into a Rambler station wagon, but it was not OSWALD. Roger Craig had exaggerated and had outright lied about confronting OSWALD in Fritz's office. Roger Craig was twisting the truth and lying in order to make himself into a hero. Roger Craig resigned from the Sheriff's Department after eight years of service in July 1967 and became a private investigator for a bail bondsmen. Roger Craig told the Dallas Times Herald that on November 1, 1967, someone shot at him in a parking lot in Dallas."The article

contended that Craig said he believed his going to New Orleans last week for interrogation by District Attorney Garrison was probably connected with the attempt on his life. The article stated that Craig had indicated he was 'tailed' while in New Orleans and was still being 'tailed' in Dallas." [Dallas Times Herald 11.3.67] In 1968, Roger Craig served as a Municipal Judge in Midlothian, Texas. In 1973 he was injured in an automobile accident. He committed suicide on May 15, 1975, at the age of 39. Just before he shot himself with a .22 caliber rifle, the Social Security Administration had refused to pay him disability. On February 9, 1976, the widow of Roger Craig, along with her new husband, Jerry Hahn, Assistant Vice President-in-Charge of Loans at the National Bank of Commerce, Dallas, Texas, visited the Dallas FBI. They were accompanied by Mr. M.J. McNicholas, Attorney-at-law. Jerry Hahn demanded that the FBI stop harassing his wife. Mrs. Hahn was followed, and had photographed the men who had followed her. When she picked up these photographs from the developer, they all turned out blank. After Jerry Hahn's visit, the harassment ceased. Jerry Hahn stated: "Had the harassment of his wife not ceased after their visit to the Dallas FBI, he had planned to approach the CIA, because he felt that Agency could be the only other source of harassment." On December 27, 1976, Jerry Hahn returned to the Dallas FBI office. He told the agents he had heard S.A. Gemberling was retiring on December 30, 1976, and "desired to ascertain from S.A. Gemberling whether or not the FBI had conducted a surveillance of his wife, (deleted) in early 1976, or otherwise had investigated her in connection with the assassination investigation." The FBI assured him it had not harassed his wife. [FBI 62109060-7598] The testimony of Roger Craig about a man getting into the Nash station wagon was supported by Marvin Robinson. In a FBI interview dated November 23, 1963, Marvin Robinson said he was traveling west on Elm toward Houston Street after the assassination. Just as he crossed Elm and Houston and was in front of the Texas School Book Depository, a light-colored Nash station wagon appeared before him. He said the station wagon stopped, and he had seen a white male come down the grassy hill between the building and the street and enter the station wagon. Mr. Marvin Robinson did not testify before the Warren Commission and the HSCA was not able to locate him. [HSCA V12 p18] On December 17, 1976, the HSCA received a letter from Wilbur V. Gee of Oloa, Kansas. Wilber Gee: In April 1960 I returned from some years in Venezuela and I entered the group of Senator Rolando Masferrer in Miami, Florida. I remained active in this group until Masferrer was arrested by President Kennedy's orders at the commencement of the Bay of Pigs. I went then to live in Mexico and later Brownsville, Texas, but the day President Kennedy was killed I had just returned from Vera Cruz and was at my son's home in West Palm Beach, Florida. So much for myself. In reference to the photo that some believe is HUNT and STURGIS at Dallas and the mention of some of a 'Light colored Rambler station wagon.' Howard K. Davis, pilot, friend of STURGIS owned a such a car when I knew him in 1960 to 1961. This can

be checked out to his license plates & registration in Dade County Florida. (This type car is not too common)... Angus McNair, a member of FRANK STURGIS' group, was supposed to be related to Senator Smathers Florida. [LNA 406 West Madison Street, Iola, Kansas 66749 12.17.76 316365-5710] Howard K. Davis: What happened was HEMMING borrowed the station wagon to go to California with Richard Whatley and Robert Willis. They crossed the Mexican border, possibly to contact anti-Castro people in Mexico City, for what purpose I don't know. As they went through a security check they decided to run it - the guards had seen the stock of a submachine gun. The last I heard of the station wagon someone contacted me, it might have been the FBI, and said the station wagon was impounded someplace. This was 1963. It would have cost more money to retrieve it than it was worth. I think it was impounded on the border. I think it was before the assassination, but I don't know that to be true. Howard K. Davis was asked about HEMMING'S statement that the station wagon ended up in Dallas: "I would say it is highly, highly unlikely it was in Dallas but, hell, you never know." HEMMING told this researcher: Roger Craig was right on the fucking money. What he saw was what happened. That Nash fucking station wagon was Howard K. Davis' fucking car. The one that was supposedly stolen by Whatley and Willis and then returned by the Mexicans, so that FBI could hang them for Interstate Transportation of a Stolen Motor vehicle. Get their asses out of Mexico. Whatley and Willis followed me out to California in the station wagon. They headed for Guatemala via Mexico. Willis had been in prison with Castillo Armas' people in 1959 and had contacts. But they were stopped at a checkpoint. The Mexicans discovered a Schmizer and they did six months in a Mexican prison. This was the incident I wrote to Walker about. Walker sent them travel money. The car ended up in Brownsville, Texas, but then it disappeared. Jerry Buchanan picked-up the car and took it to Harlingin, Texas. Whatley was close with Buchanan. We're saying they stole the car so we can get them back to the U.S. and they don't have to rot in a Mexican prison. On November 27, 1963, Sam Papich telephonically provided the CIA information on Ruth Paine in response to a CIA teletype. The last line of the document that reviewed the information of Sam Papich read, "With respect to the station wagon in which she transported the OSWALDS, he advised (deleted as of 2010 - document ends)." [CIA

1534-1105 rel. 5.18.82] The FBI was looking at Ruth Paine's station wagon when it should have been looking at Howard K. Davis' Nash station wagon. ESCAPE FROM THE TEXAS SCHOOL BOOK DEPOSITORY THE ELEVATOR SHAFT HUNT and CHRIST made their escape as rapidly as possible. After completing the sniper's nest, they ran to the back of the Texas School Book Depository and entered the east elevator shaft. The elevator was put in a position where it would not move: Baker: [Truly]...was trying to get that service elevator down there. He ran over there to push the button to get it didn't...he hollered for it, said "Bring that elevator down here"...I said "Let's take the stairs." Belin: Was any elevator moving at the time you saw and looked up the shaft? Baker: No, sir. Belin: Did you hear any elevator moving? Baker: No, sir. Belin: Mr. Truly pushed the button, I believe you said. Baker: That is right, sir. Belin: When he pushed the button, did any elevator start moving? Baker: No, sir. Gerald Posner accounted for this lack of movement of the east elevator during a period when it should have been moving by citing Roy Truly's belief that OSWALD left the gate open on the sixth floor so the car could not be operated. The Warren Commission was presented with evidence that the west elevator was also behaving erratically. Jack Dougherty, a employee of the Texas School Book Depository working on the fifth floor, testified that he took the west elevator to the first floor, after hearing a noise which sounded like a backfire. When Patrolman Marion L. Baker reached the first floor, the west elevator should have been there, waiting for him. When he looked up the shaft, Roy Truly spotted it on the fifth floor. The Warren Commission claimed Jack Dougherty was "confused." After their encounter with OSWALD, Patrolman Marion L. Baker and Roy Truly ran up the stairs to the fifth floor and found that the east elevator was there but the west one was not. They attributed this to Jack Dougherty, despite his testimony that he took the elevator seconds after the shots were fired.

HUNT and CHRIST repelled down the elevator shaft on ropes. The elevator shaft opened on a loading dock in the back of the Texas School Book Depository and HUNT and CHRIST ran for the railroad cars. In 1978 the HSCA discovered that an unknown exit existed in the Texas School Book Depository. Prior to 1956, an add-on shed was attached to the building: "There is a door there at the Texas School Book Depository's west side, but the door is hidden by uncut bushes and trees; no determination was made of the age of the bushes and trees." [HSCA V12 p19] HEMMING told this researcher: If I had set up the fall guys in all that I don't think I would have used a Mannlicher-Carcano. If I had set up OSWALD he'd have been found at the bottom of the elevator shaft where he tried to repel down, where How, [HEMMING slipped and almost said HOWARD HUNT], where one of the teams got out of there repelling off the bottom of the fucking elevator. He would have fallen to his death with his little meat beaters wrapped around an M-1 rifle. The elevator was locked on the seventh floor. It could be locked in position up there in the old days, it could be put in a safety position, so they can work on the son-of-a-bitch. So at the sixth floor you're looking at the bottom of the fucking elevator. This is how professionals move. This scares the shit out of you to think about it, WEBERMAN. This is what we do for sport. To get off at the sixth floor, and we presume most of the shooting was done from the sixth floor, you run the elevator to the seventh floor. The torsion bar in the bottom is where you put your snap links in. Your ropes are all bundled up. All you have to do is raise the door, it doesn't have a safety on it, and slide up the cargo door and pull your string. Your ropes drop down to the bottom of the elevator shaft. It takes one second to do it. You're going with a double line so you can pull it through. You leave it in the bottom of the elevator shaft. No one would know what the fuck it was. No one ever checked the bottom of the shaft. In the basement, there is a caged panel with the master power switch. When the power is killed, two safety rods fly on springs and lock the fucker in place. If you wanted to stop anyone from using the sonof-a-bitch, you'd have someone in the basement throw the master electric. This only affects the motor up in the well, not the lights in the elevator. Once they left the Texas School Book Depository, the team was allegedly observed. Jean Hill claimed she was almost hit by a police motorcycle as she chased a man in a brown coat that was running from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository "to the railroad tracks to the West. I kept running toward the train tracks, and looked all around, but I couldn't see him." [WCD 81b; 6WH205] The Wilma Bond photographs, however, indicated that Jean Hill remained next to her friend Mary Moorman. Jean Hill declined to be interviewed and advised: "Buy my book." Less than a minute after the shooting, James Worrell had seen a man "run like a bat out of hell" from the rear exit of the Texas School Book Depository to the railroad cars. [16WH959] James Worrell told Warren Commission Counsel Arlen Spector that minutes

after the assassination "I saw this man come out of the back door here" who was "fast moving on." He furnished Arlen Spector with a description: 5' 7" to 5' 10" tall, weighing 155 to 165 pounds, in his early 30's, with brunette hair. He was wearing a dark jacket that was open in the front, and light pants. On November 30, 1963, James Worrell told the FBI "that last night, when he saw photographs of OSWALD on television, he felt this was the person he had seen running away from the building." James Worrel had seen HUNT and CHRIST in the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository and then had seen CHRIST make his escape. He was a key witness. James Worrel, 23, died in motorcycle accident in Dallas on November 5, 1966: "Accident Investigator J.N. Feinglass said James Worrel was headed north in East Dallas when he apparently lost control of the motorcycle, a 1966 Honda. It struck the median curb, jumped the median, and overturned in the southbound traffic lane. James Worrell was thrown against the curbing." James Worrell was carrying a passenger who was also killed. James Worrell's cause of death: "Severe head injury." Jesse C. Price, who was watching the motorcade from the roof of the Terminal Annex Building, gave his voluntary statement to the Dallas Police Department: This day about 12:35 p.m. I was on the roof of the terminal annex building on the North East corner when the presidential motorcade came down from Main to Houston, North on Houston, and then west on Elm. The cars had proceeded West on Elm Street and was just a short distance from the Triple underpass when I saw Gov. Connally slump over. I did not see the President as his car had gotten out of my view under the underpass. There was a volley of shots, I think five and then much later, maybe as much as five minutes later, another one. I saw one man run towards the passenger cars on the railroad siding after the volley of shots. This man had a white dress shirt, no tie, and khaki colored trousers. His hair appeared to be long and dark and judging by his agility running, could be about 25 years of age. He had something in his hand. I couldn't be sure but it may have been a head piece [a hat?]. [19WH492] Jesse C. Price died of a blood clot in 1972. The clot occurred during a lower back operation. Gerald Posner, cited the Voluntary Statement Jesse C. Price gave to the Dallas Police, and claimed he was not a credible witness. THE UNIDENTIFIED CITIZEN The original description of the assassin of President Kennedy may have been based on a report other than Howard Brennan's, which was more similar to the report of James Worrell. In a letter to the Warren Commission, J. Edgar Hoover admitted the original broadcast by the Dallas Police of the description of the assassin of President Kennedy was: initiated on the basis of a description furnished by an unidentified citizen who had observed an individual approximating OSWALD'S description running from the Texas School Book Depository immediately after the

assassination. Although the citizen was requested by Dallas authorities to proceed to the Sheriff's office for further questioning he apparently never appeared, as the Dallas Sheriff's Office can locate no record of this citizen. Information regarding the unidentified citizen whose information initiated the Dallas Police Department broadcast on November 22, 1963, was obtained from Inspector J.H. Sawyer, Dallas Police Department by our Dallas Office on January 9, 1964.

The man who was observed by both these individuals could not have been OSWALD, since OSWALD was being questioned by Marion L. Baker. [WR p156; Inv. 1-2 GA-3-1 1.14.64; Rankin/Hoover 11.18.64; Hoover to Rankin Memo 1.14.64] After the Warren Report went to press, J. Lee Rankin and Alfred Goldberg still wanted the FBI to resolve this contradiction: It was pointed out that the police department did not have the data available to pinpoint the identity of person who furnished the description that had been put out at 12:45 p.m. Alfred Goldberg advised that the

President's Commission had never questioned the information that the Bureau had submitted, and at the time, did not feel the necessity existed for attempting to delve any deeper into this situation; it being noted that the Bureau's investigation appeared to exhaust the possibilities that were available. Alfred Goldberg and J. Lee Rankin felt it would be to the advantage of the Commission, even though it was too late for the report, and to the advantage of the Bureau, to show an additional check was made concerning these items. J. Edgar Hoover commented: "They never had shown before any concern about the Bureau's advantage." The Warren Commission gave credit to Howard Brennan for the broadcast. Alfred Goldberg commented in 1994: "This is news to me. Send me a copy. I don't recollect that." The testimony of witness James Romack contradicted the reports of James Worrell, Jesse Price and the unidentified citizen. He told the FBI he started watching the back door of the Texas School Book Depository seconds after the shots were fired and had seen no one, except a policeman, who had run back there to check the fire escapes; yet Texas School Book Depository employee Victoria Elizabeth Adams said that she ran out the back door soon after the shooting. Why hadn't James Romack seen her? The report of Victoria Elizabeth Adams was supported by Deputy Sheriff Luke Mooney who said when he reached the rear of the Texas School Book Depository minutes after the shooting, "the door was wide open." [WCD 897 Sec. 1; 3WH281] Luke Mooney was contacted in November 1993: "I was in the railroad yards. The loading docks were open, there was no door there." The assassin in the Records Building could have gone down a staircase that was next to the elevator. HEMMING told this researcher: If they took the weapons with them once they left the building they would be exposed, linked directly, if they were found with the weapon. They had a good stash point within the building that did not take hours of preparation to get ready. And in a lot of buildings, if you know construction, there are dead zones where if you happen to drop something like a tool, you got to tear the building down to find the son-of-a-bitch. Once the authorities found OSWALD'S rifle, the search for the others ceased. HEMMING told this researcher: "The more you throw to them, the quicker they shut down the search." HEMMING said the weapons were retrieved later on. When Dallas Police Officer D. V. Harkness reached the back of the Texas School Book Depository, he found that "there were some Secret Service agents there, I did not get them identified. They told me they were Secret Service." James Romack had also seen the Secret Service Agents behind the Texas School Book Depository: "There were two other gentlemen, which I never said anything about, that had taken over. They were FBI or something, standing right here at the very back entrance and just stood there." [6WH308; 6WH277] At 12:30 P.M. the President of the United States had been shot. By 12:35 p.m. Officers Seymour Weitzman and J. M. Smith were joined by other officers

who were responding to an order sent out by Sheriff Bill Decker moments after the assassination: "Move all available men...into railroad yards and try to determine what happened." A Deputy Sheriff set up a command post behind the fence on the knoll, and ordered a search of the railroad cars. The employees of the Texas School Book Depository ran toward the railroad yards. Then the police - followed by numerous spectators - converged on the Texas School Book Depository. At 12:40 p.m. the Texas School Book Depository was sealed by Officer D. V. Harkness, who had received reports of a gunman in the sixth floor window. [3WH186] THE FIRST THREE TRAMPS ARE ARRESTED The first set of three tramps were arrested almost immediately after the assassination. The police radio: "Patrolman Whitman, contact Sawyer and notify him they are holding up a northbound freight train in the yard and want to shake it down before they go." Inspector J. Herbert Sawyer of the Dallas Police Department told the HSCA "he then organized a group of law-enforcement officers from the Dallas Police Department, the FBI, and Sheriff's Office, instructing them to find witnesses and possible suspects. These witnesses were brought to the Sheriff's Office. Inspector J. Herbert Sawyer had also sent a team to search the railroad yards, as there were reports that shots might have come from that direction...He recalls his men finding the three hobos in a boxcar. Sawyer did not personally interrogate these men, but said that they did look like hobos." [HSCA Sawyer interview 5.24.78 Basteri] Note that this broadcast occurred shortly after the event since a posse had not yet been formed. Lee Bowers recalled: "Since there was the possibility that someone could have...climbed aboard this freight primarily... I stopped the train and gave them a chance to examine it and to be sure that there was no one on it. As a matter of fact, there were three people on it who appeared to be winos, and perhaps were the most frightened winos I had ever seen in my life, since there were possibly 50 policemen with shotguns and Tommy guns and various other weapons shaking them out of these boxcars."

Ball: In this area around your tower? Bowers: That's right. Sealed off the area, and I held off the trains until they could be examined, and there was some transients taken on at least one train.

Ball: I believe you have talked this over with me before you [sic] deposition was taken, haven't we? Bowers: Yes. Ball: Is there anything that you told me that I haven't asked you about that you can think of? Bowers: Nothing that I can recall. Ball: You have told me all you know about this, haven't you? Bowers: Yes...

Harkness: We got a long freight that was in there, and we pulled some people off of there and took them to the station. Belin: You mean some transients? Harkness: Tramps and hoboes.

Belin: That were on the freight car? Harkness: Yes, sir. Belin: Then what did you do? Harkness: That was all my assignment because they shook two long freights down that were leaving, to my knowledge, in all the area there. We had officers working in that area. Belin: Do you know whether or not anyone found any suspicious people of any kind or nature down there in the railroad yard? Harkness: Yes, sir. We made some arrests, I put some people in. Belin: Were these what you call hobos or tramps? Harkness: Yes, sir. Belin: Were all those questioned? Harkness: Yes, sir, they were taken to the station and questioned. Belin: Any guns of any kind found? Harkness: Not to my knowledge. Belin: I want to go back to this Amos Euines... Since the police activity described by Bowers and Harkness took place immediately after the assassination it described the arrest of the first set of tramps.

The three winos taken off the boxcar immediately after the assassination by numerous law enforcement officials were Harold Doyle (born December 8, 1930), John Forrester Gedney (born February 2, 1925; SS# 253-26-4169) and Gus Abrams. They were the first set of tramps to be picked up that day. They were not finger printed or photographed, but they were incarcerated and a record of their incarceration was made. The fact that their arrest records contained no fingerprints, booking numbers, or photographs was not unusual. Two other men who were picked up that day had similar arrest reports with no photographs or prints.

It was about 12:30 p.m. when Gus Abrams and the others were arrested in the Texas and Pacific railroad yards at Elm and Houston. At 4:00 p.m., Gus Abrams was charged with vagrancy and possible robbery: "These men were taken off a train boxcar in the railroad yards right after President Kennedy was shot. These men are passing through town. They have no jobs or any means of making a living." Officer W.E. Chambers filled out the arrest form. Missing from the form was a home address, I.D. number, arrest number and thumb print. The arrest of John Gedney also generated paperwork. Except for a different name and date of birth, his arrest record was identical with that of Gus

Abrams. The last arrest record was on Harold Doyle, age 30, presumably the youngest of the three tramps. It was identical to the others, except in its description of the details of the arrest: "These men were seen getting on a boxcar in a train right after Kennedy was shot. These men are all passing through, they have no jobs..."


THE ELKINS DEPOSITION COUNTY OF DALLAS SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY INVESTIGATION REPORT Name of Complaint: Assassination of President Kennedy. Offense: (Report of activities of Deputy Sheriff Harold E.Elkins) On the day of this offense I was standing in front of the Sheriff's office at 505 Main Street which is a block south and just around the corner from the building from which the shots were fired. Just a few seconds after the President's car had passed my location I heard a shot ring out, a couple of seconds elapsed and then two more shots ring out. I immediately ran to the area from which it sounded like the shots had been fired. This is an area between the railroad and Texas School Book Depository which is east of the railroads. There were several other officers in this area and we secured it from the public. After searching this area for about ten minutes and not finding any evidence, I went to a tower that overlooks the railroad yards and I talked to an employee there and he gave me the descriptions of two automobiles that he had seen in the area just a few minutes earlier. When I went back outside I learned from the other officers that it had been established that the shots were fired from the school book building I went to the building and found that several officers were inside and others were gathering outside. I then went back to the street and mixed with the crowds trying to get people who were witnesses to the tragedy. After I had brought several people to the office I went to TV Station WFAA and I got two witnesses who had been taken there by reporters. A while later a City of Dallas policeman came to our office with three prisoners who he had arrested on the railroad yards. I took these three to the City Jail and turned them over to Captain Fritz. I then came back to the Sheriff's Office where I remained the rest of the day talking to witnesses and taking statements.. [Elkins Sup. Rep. 11.26.63; WC Decker Exhibit 5323] Sheriff Elkins did a number of things before receiving the three prisoners. This clearly indicated that a second set of tramps was arrested on November 22, 1963, since the first set of tramps were arrested and turned over to Detective Fritz immediately after the assassination. What happened that day was this: The Dallas Police continued to exhaustively search the freight on which Harold Doyle, John Gedney and Gus Abrams were found, as well as others in the yard. The search involved dozens of deputies, policemen, Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents, Army Intelligence Agents etc. They found no one on board. Bowers was told to sound the all

clear, and the trains left the yard. Several minutes later, at about 2:00 p.m., this police radio message was transmitted: [49] C.R. Gilbreath: 10-4, 1:56 p.m. Dispatcher Hulse and McDaniel: 32 Dispatcher: On Shorecoast at the end of the N/S runway, report to location, 1:57 p.m. [61] Patrolmen G.W. Temple and R. E. Vaughn: We have information from the agent out here at T & P. Said that the train is stopped on the overpass, the triple overpass; that there was a person jumping at the ninth boxcar from the front engine. Said he is hiding in a car. Dispatcher: Is the train stopped there now? [61] Temple and Vaughn: I'm in behind the Texas School Depository. He had the train stopped. He said it is in the ninth car from the engine. Gondola-type car; said he is hunkered down inside. Dispatcher: 393 (Criminal Investigation Division), did you receive information? 393 (Criminal Investigation Division): 10-4 En route. Hollingsworth: En route.

At about 2 PM, two hours after the coup, railroad tower man Lee Bowers had stopped the freight because he had seen someone "jumping at the ninth boxcar from the front engine." The second set of tramps, HUNT, STURGIS and CHRIST, who had cleverly hidden themselves to escape detection during the first search of the freight yard, were found in a boxcar by five Dallas Police Officers, not by 50 assorted law enforcement officials. HEMMING told this researcher: They went undetected because they were good. They were in the gondola car. And nobody could get up on the side of the gondola car to look in. They were looking in boxcars, not gondola cars. A gondola car, when you walk by it, appears to be full because the gravel or grain is up above the top level. It's like it's full, but there's a space in it, a bit of space along the sides. He wouldn't see them in a boxcar. He looked down from his tower and saw them in the gondola car. When Bowers saw the people in the gondola car he stopped the train. He called up on a radio in his base station. Every engineer carries a lunch box Motorola HT-100 VHF Radio. The hobos stole the radios so portables were used. There was one in the cab of this yardmule. This is not a freight train that goes cross country. This is a yardmule diesel engine that does short moving around the year. Maybe someone bailed out of this gondola because he realized he had been spotted from the tower and jumped in a box car, not necessarily on

the freight that was being searched, but had no way out. My old man worked for the railroad. He was a conductor. I was raised around railroads, I used to ride the freights. Robert Hemming confirmed this. D. V. HARKNESS' ROLE Inspector J. Herbert Sawyer assigned D. V. Harkness and a few other officers, "to some freight cars that were leaving the yard." D. V. Harkness was asked by this researcher: "About how long after the assassination did you search that train?" D.V. Harkness responded, "Oh, it was quite awhile, quite a time after that, they just didn't have anything leaving the freight yards till after they gave the all clear." When asked where the freight had been positioned during the assassination, D. V. Harkness replied: "It was in the railroad yards, right adjacent to the railroad yards when it happened." [tape rec. interview with Harkness] D.V. Harkness told the HSCA: "Either Inspector J. Herbert Sawyer or Lumpkin gave him an assignment to search the railroad cars and he helped roust the three tramps. He did not know their names or what happened to them." In 1968, while investigating the assassination of Martin Luther King, FBI S.A. Bardwell Odum questioned Dallas Police Officer William Lee Bass: "On May 15, 1968, William Bass, Identification Division, Dallas Police Department, identified the officer leading these three men as himself, and stated that on November 22, 1963, at which time photograph was taken, he, Roy Vaughn, and Marvin Wise had found three men in a boxcar about a mile from the Texas School Book Depository, down the railroad tracks. They brought them to the Dallas County Sheriff's Office and turned them over to an unknown deputy sheriff. He did not know the names of these individuals, and did not know if they were booked. When William Bass was questioned by the Rockefeller Commission in 1975 he added, "The men were removed from a boxcar on the tracks in the vicinity of the Houston Street Viaduct. This area is approximately one half mile south of the Texas School Book Depository. They were all standing at one end of a boxcar." William Bass told the HSCA: Somebody, maybe D.V. Harkness, said three men ran down the railroad yard and got into a grain car [the gondola car]. Me, Harkness, Wise, and Vaughn ran down the railroad tracks about one-quarter mile to the grain cars. Vaughn climbed up the ladder of one car and saw three men huddled in the corner of the freight car. Vaughn ordered the men out onto the ground and the men cursed at Vaughn. Vaughn then jacked a shell into the chamber of his shotgun, pointed it at the men, and ordered them out of the car. When the men got on the ground they were given a good pat-down for weapons - but none were found. The men were marched up the railroad tracks to Elm Street, across the front of the Texas School Book Depository, across the street to the County Jail, and

turned over to a Deputy Sheriff (name unknown). He observed that the men had hobo type clothing on, but from the neck up were clean shaven and had good haircuts. The men did not say anything while being taken to the Sheriff's office. [HSCA 11.11.77 Rose] Dallas Police Officer Roy Eugene Vaughn told the HSCA that on November 22, 1963, he was in a patrol car with G.W. Temple. After the assassination Roy Vaughn stayed in a patrol car next to the Texas School Book Depository, then took a suspect to the Sheriff's office: Vaughn then returned to the Texas School Book Depository and he heard someone say that some men had jumped into a boxcar down by Union Station. He told a Sergeant in front of the Texas School Book Depository. Vaughn, Bill Bass, Marvin Wise, and another officer, ran down the tracks for three or four blocks to the grain cars near Union Terminal. Vaughn climbed up and went to the rear of the car. He looked into an open car [HEMMING: "He climbed up the boxcar to look in the top of the gondola."] and saw three men at the opposite end of the car, kind of lying down. Vaughn pulled his revolver and ordered the men out of the car. Bass and Wise took the men to the Sheriff's office. Vaughn, and the other officers, rode the caboose back to the area of the Texas School Book Depository and got off. [Vaughn HSCA Depo.] Sheriff Roy Vaughn was contacted on November 22, 1993. Buck Revell's story was circulating at this time to the effect that Harold Doyle, Gus Abrams and John Gedney were the tramps who had been photographed being marched through Dealey Plaza. Roy Vaughn: I can't tell you if these guys were Harold Doyle, Gus Abrams and John Gedney. I don't know. A railroad man came down when I arrived on the scene. It was after lunch. 1:00 p.m., 2:00 p.m., 2:30 p.m., sometimes afterward. We were dispatched there. I was assigned to patrol in the South Dallas area. The dispatcher told us to report to that location - code three. And that's when I went. I was not there until sometime after the shooting occurred. This particular incident I am talking about was not immediately after the shooting, no. I was in between the Texas School Book Depository and what used to be a saw factory. And I did detain a man, a security guard brought him down. He had found that individual on the upper floors of the building. I took that man to the Dallas County Sheriff's Office that was directly across the street. Me and several others officers were involved in getting the people out of the open type car. If there was any arrests prior to these, I don't know. I can't say...I don't remember if they smelled. That was 30 years ago today. I was always under the impression there was no paperwork for 29 years then I heard about the arrest records [of Harold Doyle, John Gedney and Gus Abrams].

Marvin Lynn Wise told the HSCA that the police radio dispatcher told him to go to the Texas School Book Depository. He parked near the railroad tracks. He was sitting in his car and A man working in the railroad building waved at him. Wise and another officer (name forgotten) were told by the man that three men got into a boxcar about four or five hundred yards down the track. Wise, in company with Bill Bass, Vaughn and Middleton, went to the boxcars and took the men off the boxcar. Wise stated the men acted scared, and he could smell wine on the breath of one of them. Wise took the men over to the Sheriff's office and, while waiting to turn them over, asked the men for identification. Wise stated that he believes two of the men had documented IDs. He wrote the identification down on paper and put it in his hat. He turned the men over to the Sheriff's Office (Deputy's name unknown) and went back to his radio...Wise stated that he put the paper with the tramps' identification on it in his locker, where it remained for over a year. He cleaned his locker out, and just after that, people began asking him for information. But he had thrown it out. Marvin Wise, 60, was contacted in June 1994. He wanted $1000 to tell his story. Marvin Wise: The statement that I 'turned the men over to the Sheriff's Office (Deputy's name unknown) and went back to my radio' is not right. I did not go back to the car. I stayed with them. Number one, here's the deal: I was the junior man out of the five of us that was there. Everybody passed them on to me. Number two, how did they get from Sheriff Decker's up to Will Fritz? Will Fritz had them and had some kind of a record of having them up there. I never left them alone. That sure ain't right. I can't believe that guy [from the HSCA] took it that way neither. I had trouble with those people though, let me tell you right away. I had trouble with them. The Rockefeller Commission is what I always remembered it is, but you named what it really was. I had trouble with the Rockefeller Commission. They tried to browbeat me, and pressure me, and do everything to make me talk to them on the telephone. I had a lot of people calling me up in my office wanting to get...I told him 'Now, you bring yourself to Dallas, Texas or you won't get no interview.' He said, 'I'm calling from the White House.' I said, 'I don't care if you're calling from the moon.' I had a hellish deal with them, and I really had a bad attitude from the way they treated me. And I told my Captain and told the Chief, 'They act like they're gonna ramrod through my ass.' I was in a hurry to get the interview over. They took me to the Chief's office cause they figured I wouldn't give them an interview. When I give it, it was there. Marvin Wise went on to relate:

I went to work that morning at 7:30 a.m. I was a patrolman for the Dallas Police Department assigned to South Dallas, which was predominately black then, and is today. Up till about 11:00 a.m. I had numerous little calls of disturbances and thefts. About 11:30 a.m. I got a call of a robbery in progress over on South Lamar. And so I proceeded that way. I went on and got there, and while I was out of the car and talking to the victims they called me, and I said: 'I'm at the scene, I'm talking to the victims.' The dispatcher said 'Get back on the air here. I want you to report at Elm and Lemar.' I said 'Well, I'm interviewing the victims.' He said, 'Disregard that call, don't take no more information, report on down there.' Well, by then, it's already after 12:30 p.m. and the shooting had happened. This was around 12:35 p.m. or 12:40 p.m. Right after the shooting. See, I didn't know it at the time, I had no idea. I just figured the parade was downtown. We all knew the President was coming to the downtown, but I was lucky enough that I didn't have to be there and stop traffic. Me and one other squad was the only squad cars in South Dallas on that day. I still didn't know anything. He said 'You have an order Code 3-71 to Elm and Lemar.' So here I go. I thought 'What in the hell has happened down there?' I flip over to the b.s. channel and I heard 'He's expired.' It dawned on me then that they'd had a big shooting. I knew right then something drastic had happened. So I arrived down there and God, there's mass chaos. The police officers, deputy sheriffs and plainclothesmen were around that School Book Depository. Well, I parked nearly 50 feet from it. There was a vacant space right along the little street there, which was being, Elm Street goes on across Houston and you go right on, right in front of the School Book Depository, and it dead ends right in there. I parked right there on the right. I got out and got my shotgun, I don't what I got it for. By then everybody's talking. There was so many officers there they don't have real control of everybody. 'Surround the building!' A sergeant that I did not know told me 'Stay right here.' So I'm standing there, I been there probably 20 minutes after I got there. A guy from the railroad tower had told someone he wanted to speak with an officer. One of them sergeants out there said 'Go talk to that guy in the tower out there. He seen something.' We all run out there. I go out there and talk, to find what the hell he wants. I was with Roy Vaughn when we went up in the tower, to see Bowers. And he says, 'Down there in that boxcar' and he points way down. I'm talking three or four hundred yards, it's a long ways down there. Maybe seven. I can only guess. He said, 'I saw three men running down from there. Looked like they were running from down into the area of the underpass. Just running along the railroad tracks. They started running, I don't know why they run, and they run up and jumped up in the boxcar.' And he points down there and he gives a pretty good indication of which boxcar it is. But at that time, the boxcar was slowly moving. But evidentially they were shooting cars up in there from all them tracks. And it stopped by the time we got in there. We're talking about 90 minutes after the assassination. I mean the whole area is swarming with FBI agents.

This is when this occurred. So I run on down there. So we jump out, and so I go down and get the rest of the troops there, you know there's me, Roy Vaughn, Bill Bass, Middleton and Dave Harkness. So we all go down there to the boxcar, and when we got down there to the boxcar, everyone of us going down there had our thoughts about what it was. I wasn't the one that got them out. Maybe Vaughn. I talked to them in general conversation. Seems like one of those guys had a Midwest or and Eastern brogue. Not the old man. One of the others. After we got 'em and walked them away they didn't talk to nobody. No more conversation. I didn't try and interrogate them because I felt they were true winos. Their breath was unbelievable, smelling from wine. What we normally did with them, we had two options. If you couldn't find anything to put them in jail for, you could always city vag 'em. That's no visible means of support. Jails wouldn't hold all them people today. We get them and bring them back up. All of 'em. Of course in the meantime they done shot our man across over in Oak Cliff. Anyway, I march them back up and across the street. It took about 15 to 20 minutes to walk them to Decker's. We got there at 2:30 p.m. As we march along the senior officers in the group, which is number one, Dave Harkness, leaves. Dave fell off and did not walk with us. He stopped over there, and then as we got on closer over there to Decker's there was one old sergeant standing on the street. I said 'What you want to do with these three guys here? They told us to go down there and get them out of the boxcar.' Two or three sergeants standing there and an inspector said 'Take them over to Sheriff Decker's office.' So we took them over. So the closer we get over there, the thinner the ranks get. It becomes me Roy Vaughn, Bill Bass. By the time we get inside there Bill Bass has split and left me with them and Roy Vaughn. Then Roy Vaughn jumps out. I'm junior man and I got five years. They leave me with them. So I present them to Decker. Decker takes them. They say 'You wait.' So I waited and I waited and I waited. Finally, they brought them back out there an hour or 45 minutes later. They send them back out there and say 'Take these three guys up to Will Fritz's office.' It's 3:30 p.m. Of course I knew where Will Fritz was. I walked those three guys out, put them in a city squad car. One set up front by me. Two in the back. We didn't have no cages back in those days. I drove them straight down, right in the basement. And took them right up, just me and those three guys. And these guys, none of them had no weapons on them, the only one that had anything was the old man. If you look at them pictures you'll see he's the only one. He's got a sack. In that sack was a little wrapped up washrag with a bar of soap in it, and what had been in it that I took out that none of the other officers knew, was a brand new bone handled knife that I knew he had stolen. Winos and bums, during that time, do not have it. He got it somewhere. He wouldn't have spent his last money to get him a brand new knife. So he took that, got it from some place, I have no idea where. But the

thoughts running through my mind when they get through jacking around these guys is, 'I intend to put him in jail for theft.' And we could, back in those days, all you had to do was have something that was reasonable, a brand new knife, he's not working, no visible means of support. I was the one that got it out of there, nobody else handled that knife. So I take them to Will Fritz's office. And I walk in the office. I went through the whole story, where they come from. The boxcars. The whole bit. And they say 'Okay, sit down there and wait, Wise.' I knew everybody up there. I known them for years. They take the three in the back and I sit up front talking to one of the secretaries. I'm getting real impatient by now cause in those days you had to fill out an activity report at the end of the day on what you did. How many prisoners you arrested, how many tickets you wrote, how many calls you handled. Well, so far that day I had arrested nobody. So I'm thinking, look, I'm spending all this time, I've got to take credit for these guys in some kind of way. If anyone's gonna put them in jail, I sure as hell want to know, because my name ought to be on there. And Roy Vaughn's name on there and Middleton, who was an accident officer. They didn't care. Where they were at, they didn't have to worry about arrests, we did. So I'm waiting there and I thought, God, they're going to put these people in jail for something. I did not get to see Fritz. He was in his office. On any given day, you can't just walk in and see him. And there was no way that I was going to be able to take three winos in there and get to see him. One of his detectives who was milling around there, took these people after I told my lengthy story over once again, and told them all about them. It could have been Ernest Beck, it could have been anybody. There was so many of them in there. I don't even know if Will Fritz talked to them. I really don't. Beck was the number one man. When Fritz wanted anything done number one he'd call on Beck first. Beck was around there talking to everyone and chewing on a cigar. He may have took them. His name comes to mind, but I cannot say for sure that he was the one. I go in there, and I take them in there, and they kept them. They talked to them 45 minutes to an hour, maybe an hour and half. Then they come outside. This blew my mind. Here they come. 'Marvin, we don't need these. Take them back to Sheriff Decker." I looked at them and said, 'Do what?' They said 'Take them back to Sheriff Decker.' I never paid any attention to who it was. It could have been any number of people. I was so hot at the time. I sat out there 45 minutes to an hour, and it's nearly 4:00 p.m. I'm supposed to be off here. So they give 'em back to me. I was pissed. I looked at them and I said, 'Take them back to Decker? Man, these are goddamned bums here. You know, let's put them in jail, or throw them out on the street.' I was told 'Take them back to Decker, Marvin, I can only tell you what Captain Fritz said.' We go downstairs, all the way to the basement, right down there exactly where the man got shot on camera. Got in the car and drove straight back down there, and boy, I knew when I got down there with them they were going to be hot. I knew the Sheriff and his number one man and all them settin' around that office I don't know what they

were doing, what part they had with it, but I knew they would ask, 'Why are you bringing these bums back down here to me, these winos?' I take 'em back down there. They won't even see me. I knock on the door and a man comes out and I says, 'Captain sent these back down, he wants me to turn them back over.' I did not know anybody down there at that time. Decker was the only one I knew, when I saw him and knew his name. I had to go through the whole damn story and all this and I said 'Will Fritz has sent them back down here.' He said, 'Wait.' There was no waiting room there. You didn't sit, you stood right there. That's where we stood, right there in that little old room. I called in and was told 'We're holding the day shift over at least three hours. You just stay with what you're doing until you get off.' Finally they come out and say 'We'll talk to them, take them in here.' I said, 'I'm gone.' That's the end of it. That's how I got out of it. I said, 'That's the end of it, I'm out of it, I don't wait. I've turned them over to you.' And I went out in the car, cleared, and got on the air. I got off about 5:00 p.m. I have no idea who I turned them over to in Decker's office. I never seen them since then. The ones I had was bums and winos, because of the smell, the appearance of their old clothes. They weren't ragged. Like they'd been slept in. One of them had on a pretty good coat, but when you sleep in these things, a new dress coat, it will wrinkle. They had a social security card, no drivers license. It was social cards we had to go by. One of 'em had no I.D. I can't say which one. I was the only one originally that got these peoples names. I wrote them down. Before, back in those days, we had the hot sheets when we left the detail room. Folded those up. Instead of putting them on the dash, most of the Dallas officers put them in their hats. Then when you answered a call real fast and when you jumped out of the car and you was in a hurry what you wrote down your notes on was in your hat. I put their names on that hot sheet and kept it for years. Then I did away with it. I don't remember any of those names. I later asked a supervisor if I could carry the tramps as an arrest. As far as I was concerned they were technically under arrest. Marvin Wise was asked if the tramps were in a gondola or boxcar: It was a gondola filled with grain. Vaughn and Bass got up and got 'em. I stayed down, I knew what they were, I knew exactly what we were going to get out of them cars. You knew when you been there so long and I was hacked for having to go down there, so was Roy Vaughn. We were all pissed about it, and we are still pissed today. Doyle and Gedney never mentioned being shuttled back and forth between the Sheriff's office and the Dallas Police Department as Marvin Wise described. Clearly, there were two sets of tramps. In late September 1974, the FBI, acting on a request from FBI Director Clarence Kelley, located Will Fritz and showed him the tramp shots. He told the FBI that he did not

...recall having seen the three unidentified individuals in the above described photographs. He related that many people were taken to the Dallas County Sheriff's Office on November 22, 1963, by various law enforcement officers for questioning and undoubtedly many of them were released when eliminated from any implication, and such individuals were neither booked, photographed, nor finger printed. He added that he feels sure that if HUNT and STURGIS were interviewed on November 22, 1963, a record would have been made of their interviews and the Dallas County Sheriff's Office, Dallas Police Department, or Dallas FBI Office, would have a record of such interviews. He stated that it is possible the three unidentified men were interviewed, but without their names, there would be no way to definitely so state. When he viewed the photographs of HUNT and STURGIS, he stated he had no recollection of ever having seen or talked to either of them at any time on any matter. Captain Fritz concluded by saying that he is in full agreement with the findings of the Warren Commission."[FBI 62-109060-7136] Will Fritz, born June 15, 1896, died in March 1984. The FBI then checked with James Kitching, Chief of the Dallas County Sheriff's Office, Identification Division: He advised that he had personally looked up the jacket and photograph of each person booked on November 22, 1963, and did not find anyone who bears a resemblance to the persons appearing in the photograph with Dallas Police Officer Bill Bass. He advised that this indicates that these persons were not booked, but that they may have been interviewed. He advised that a sort of screening office was operated by the Dallas County Sheriff's Office on November 22, 1963, and numerous persons were interviewed. He advised that without the names of the persons, it would be almost impossible to develop the names of the persons in the photograph. Judging from the above testimony of the arresting officers, it is clear that considerable time elapsed between the assassination and the arrest of the tramps. Doyle and Gedney, by their own admission said they were picked up immediately after the assassination. There had to be two sets of tramps. The FBI interviewed W. E. Chambers in February 1992 who advised that though his name appears as the arresting officer, he did not have contact with the three individuals until they had already been brought down to the Dallas Police Department Headquarters. Chambers speculated that the three had probably been rounded up in a dragnet and were dropped off at the Station without any paperwork...He was assigned by his supervisor, Captain D.R. Jones, to initially watch the three individuals, and then later to interview them regarding the assassination. Chambers indicated that he was later advised by Jones that a suspect had been arrested in the murder of TIPPIT, and that the person was the main

suspect in the assassination of President Kennedy. Chambers indicated that he then released the three hobos, without booking them into the jail. During the course of the interview, Chambers was shown copies of the 'Arrest Report on Investigative Prisoner' and commented that though he did not recall filling them out, he recognized them as being written in his own handwriting. Chambers further noted that the three individuals were held in the City Jail until November 26, 1963. Chambers noted that the report reflected that they were released by Officer Marvin Buch. Chambers could provide no explanation as to how the three ended up in the jail facility. Chambers further added that because the reports bore no arrest numbers he believed there would be no record of them being booked into jail. As a result of the interview with Chambers, Dallas will attempt to locate and interview R.C. Wagner, Detective William Grinell, Captain Jones, and Marvin Buch. Dallas will attempt to determine whether or not any jail records exist regarding the incarceration of Gus Abrams, Harold Doyle and John Gedney, to include the mechanism by which the 'Arrest Report on Investigative Prisoner' were transferred to the City Archives section in 1989. Dallas will obtain photographs of the three individuals and display them to Officer Chambers in an attempt to determine whether or not they were the three hobos he interviewed on November 22, 1963. The same photographs will be displayed for the purpose of attempting to identify the uniformed officers accompanying the three. Dallas will provide copies of the aforementioned photographs to Portland and Tampa in order to have Harold Doyle and John Gedney identify the photograph as depicting them on November 22, 1963. Both have made reference to the photographs to the interviewing agents, but have not been presented with the photographs to positively confirm that they are the individuals depicted. [FBI 62-109060-8301] Contacted by telephone, W. E. Chambers, one of the arresting officers, denied his role in arresting the tramps: You mean all that stuff in the news about the tramps? They got that wrong. My name is on the document, but it is wrong, I never questioned them. I might have seen them, I don't remember. I signed the reports, but there was some mistake. I don't like discussing this with strangers. Retired Dallas Police Officer Ernest Beck, credited with releasing all five hobos, stated: "I don't know, I don't know. I don't remember anything about that was so long ago." WHO RELEASED THE TRAMPS? The second set of tramps were not booked, finger printed or photographed; the men were released. Why were they eliminated from implication? Why wasn't the second set of tramps locked up like the first set? Why were the first three tramps held for four days

in the Dallas County Jail and the second three released almost immediately? The most likely explanation came from Detective W.E. Chambers who said that after OSWALD was arrested in the Tippet shooting he released the tramps because the Dallas Police Department thought they had their man. Since the first set of tramps were picked up immediately after the assassination. When questioned about who released the tramps, Will Fritz told Michael Canfield: "Ask the FBI about that," and Fritz mentioned the "Dallas FBI Office" in his interview in 1974 with the FBI. Did someone from the FBI order the Dallas Police to let the tramps go, or tell them that their ID checked out? In July 1993 former S.A. James Bookhout, the FBI liaison man with the Dallas Police Department, said he had no information that the FBI released the tramps. Was the FBI man Hosty? S.A. HOSTY AND THE TRAMPS James P. Hosty was contacted in August 1993, before this interviewer spoke with Marvin Wise, and asked if he would help me correct misinformation about him in this data base. He stated: It all depends. I hope you are not going to say that I was responsible. Who you gonna say is responsible, Castro? Oh bullshit. It wasn't ANGLETON. If your going to go that route, I don't want to have anything to do with you. Okay? It's people like you who are screwing things up. You're just gonna have to face the facts OSWALD was a left-wing radical who killed Kennedy because Kennedy was trying to get Castro. Q. Hosty, you were part of this whole thing, weren't you? A. Bullshit. Q. You we're probably the guy who ordered the tramps released. A. Who released the tramps? Q. You did. A. Can you prove that? Q. Can I prove that? Yes I can. A. Okay, well very good then... Q. So you don't want to go over it? A. Go over it, okay, go over it. I was an ardent Kennedy fan, was then, and am now. I mostly investigated the right-wing, and I'm a liberal Democrat. Two thirds of my assignments were Ku Klux Klan, General Walker etc. I

definitely resent the fact that anyone would imply that I would go after Kennedy, when I'm a Kennedy supporter. I was a well known, outspoken supporter of President Kennedy. Got that in there? Are you aware of the fact that most CIA agents liked Kennedy? There was a near mutiny down in Mexico City when Johnson told them to stop investigating the Kennedy assassination. See, you're not looking in the right direction. They were told to stop investigating Castro for fear they would start World War III. Then they had to send an Assistant Director down there. Bobby Kennedy told them to lay off, and they finally did. Are you aware of that? To say the CIA is involved - that's ridiculous. The CIA down there in Mexico City all thought Kennedy was great. Q. What about the Bay of Pigs? A. That was a long time ago, and the same agents weren't involved. They got rid of E. HOWARD HUNT. Everybody cites the thing about Kennedy saying he was going to break up the CIA into a thousand pieces. He said that in April. Then in May he proceeded to do the exact opposite, and expanded the CIA. He was pushing them in OPERATION MONGOOSE and Second Naval Guerilla. Second Naval Guerilla was what caused Kennedy to be killed. When Kennedy threatened Fidel Castro, OSWALD went to Mexico City, met with the Cubans and Russians, and said he would kill Kennedy for them. He went back. Kennedy went to down to Miami and told the Cuba exiles, 'Go at it again boys' and that appeared in the paper on Monday. On Friday, OSWALD shot Kennedy. Q. I have a different version of events. A. That's because you are left-wing oriented. You can't accept the fact that he was one of your boys, and he killed Kennedy because he was trying to get at Fidel Castro. It's very simple. You don't want to accept the facts. Q. What about OSWALD'S association with DeMohrenschildt who was a Nazi spy during World War II? A. Well, some people said he was. They suspected him, yeah. He was very much leftist oriented, he liked to shock people. How could you be a leftist, but you are, and DeMohrenschildt was. See, there you go. I mean everybody's...I'm left of center myself. You know the FBI has identified the three tramps they found back in the railroad yards. The pictures they have of the guy they said was E. HOWARD HUNT was 5' 6" and HUNT is over 6' so that...What's this about me releasing the tramps. How could the FBI release them when they didn't have charge of the case?

Q. Fritz said 'Ask the FBI about the tramps' release.' A. Fritz is dead, that's convenient. Hoover becomes me? Where do I come in? Q. You knew he was an operation. A. How did OSWALD get through two weeks of intense KGB interrogation in that mental hospital after he defected, if he was an operation? How did he get through that, if he was an operation? Q. He provided them with information on the U-2. A. Therefore he worked for the KGB. Q. He was ANGLETON'S vestpocket operation. ANGLETON opposed the Summit Conference. A. Can you prove that? Q. For one thing early documents about OSWALD went to CI/SIG. A. That was after the assassination. Q. No, that was before. Was OSWALD upset because he knew, that you knew, he was an operation? He wondered why you were bothering his family, if he was working for the government. A. That proves that he wasn't working for the government, doesn't it? Q. True. He thought he was working for the government, but was managed by rogue agents. He wondered about this in the HUNT letter. A. The HUNT letter was a forgery, but go ahead. Q. The same day he wrote the HUNT letter he delivered the note to Mrs. Fenner. A. This is the letter that Nanny said she read without taking it out of the envelope? Is it that one? She changed stories. She's a little bit kooky. She was heavily medicated at the time. Q. Were the Paines part of the communist conspiracy? A. Of course not. Although Michael Paine's father was a Trotskyist. He was the one who made that call after the assassination about who was

responsible. Of course, he was talking about the Russians. Being a Trotskyite, he was very sensitive about the KGB, because they killed Trotsky. Let me get your full name here now. You know Posner's book is coming out tomorrow. That one is going to tell the truth. OSWALD did it alone. Upon further consideration this researcher determined that S.A. Hosty did not release the tramps. If had done so then he would have been part of the conspiracy, which he was not. Will Fritz testified he went directly to the Texas School Book Depository, and then back to Dallas Police Headquarters 20 blocks away. OSWALD was there when he returned. S.A. Hosty was at the Police Station with Will Fritz, interviewing OSWALD. James Hosty told this researcher: Jack Revell says it was 2:50 p.m. There's witnesses that could put me at the Police Station. I never saw the tramps. I wasn't with Fritz until 3:15 p.m. [The HSCA reported S.A. Hosty interviewed OSWALD from 3:15 to 4:45 p.m.] so I couldn't have told him to release the tramps. From 3:15 to 4:05 I was with Fritz. Fritz wouldn't have listened to us anyway. He didn't like the Bureau. Fritz was at the assassination scene and he came back from there at 2:15 p.m. or so. He probably released the tramps because there was no connection. The tramps were the usual suspects. They had no connection. Fritz could have released them by phone. Now are you convinced that I did not order the release of the tramps? Why would a lowly field agent...A Police Captain who was in charge of the case would not have listened to me. Are you going to put in your book that I was the one who authorized the release of the three tramps? What evidence is there? You don't have...You just have the quote Dallas FBI Office unquote, releasing them. But you don't have anything concrete. James Hosty was asked why he was so concerned if they were just tramps? He said he did not want to be mis-portrayed as he had in Oliver Stone's film. FBI S.A. Wallace Heitman stated: I was the first agent down at the scene of the crime. I remember telling Sheriff Bill Decker that, what I better do, is go into his office, which I did. I said 'Bill, you send me anybody in here who might have been a witness or has any information.' Some of these people became Warren Commission witnesses. If the FBI ordered the tramps release, it had to be Gordon Shanklin. This could go all the way up to Washington, William Sullivan. Bill Sullivan is dead and so is Gordon Shanklin. The line was pretty hot as you can imagine. Bill Sullivan called me several times. No minor agent would have that power.

DeBRUEYS John Gedney told the FBI that a federal agent verified his identification papers. WARREN C. DeBRUEYS flew to Dallas shortly after the assassination. Since the second set of tramps were shuttled back and forth until approximately 5:00 p.m. DeBRUEYS could have released the tramps or verified their ID. BONDED OUT? HEMMING 1994: People are brought in. They're arrested, the usual suspects are rounded up. They're handled, and put out of the way, very quickly. Any high profile case. Whoever you snatch up, whoever you wanna target for the press, this is all done selectively. All the other usual suspects are locked away. Ain't nobody seeing them but a fucking trustee. At that time, you could disappear someone's criminal record in a heartbeat, if you didn't mind paying for it. It was a primitive system. You got some people in a holding cell. Nobody knows. And really gives a fuck. And they're not going to call attention to them because it might fuck up the bosses' plan to go along with the press on his favorite theme. Getting arrested wasn't the worst case scenario for the tramps. Once OSWALD had been popped, everybody forgot about everybody else, okay? He was the logical suspect. Nobody was worried about anybody else. The hobos had a steak dinner that night and went back to wherever their base was, and that was it. No big deal. They'd been through worse than that in foreign countries. Some people were really worried the guys picked up as hobos were really guys, players. Somebody made a blunder, thought they were players, and attempted to intervene. A Miami bail bondsman was contacted. That scared the shit out of a couple of Dallas cops. This is not a street hustle, this is the big time hustle. This is where someone is inside a building and is doing shit. The bondsman hustle; usually the lowest rank is a Sergeant. He's a jailer. He's allowed to deal with bondsmen who bond people out. And they're not there for the Magistrate's hearing. And 21 days goes by for the arraignment. And things are taken care of. How the fuck are you going to have payoffs if you got a paper trail? It's all handled by the bondsmen coming in and bonding him out. The bondsman makes the payoff. No big deal, no big conspiracy. No HOWARD HUNT, no STURGIS. Now there's something STURGIS knows, he knows the bond routine. He knows how to get people out of jail. Did the bondsman know what's going on? Knowing who the people were who he was springing? Never in a million years. Oh, he would suspect down the road that he was part of something, but he would never know what. He'd keep his mouth shut, though, because it's bigger than him. It's a money deal, no government or spook bullshit. No 'I work for the government,

National Security' bullshit.' You wanna make a few dollars, you wanna do a job. The bondsman got all the paperwork from Fritz and from Decker. Because of the President's assassination, he dies. He had a heart attack. He was the first one.If I heard my people were arrested, I would have bailed them out. Fritz was probably just trying to blame it on the Feds. During the second HUNT v. SPOTLIGHT trial G. Gordon Liddy stated: We were both furnished for the FIELDING OPERATION alias documentation and pocket litter, and certainly we would have used it, which would have identified us as individuals who have never existed. The plan was if any of us were apprehended, we would be apprehended under bogus identification. Those who were not apprehended would see to bail, whereupon the individual would vanish. There would be no way of tracing him because the identity established was completely fictitious. THE TRAMP HOAX In 1991 the Dallas City Council voted to open the JFK files of the Dallas Police Department to the public. As a result, the arrest records of the first set of tramps were released. Freelance journalists Mary and Ray La Fontaine wrote an article that stated Harold Doyle, Gus Abrams and John Gedney's arrest records were the arrest records of the infamous tramps photographed in Dealey Plaza. This meant the tramps were not HUNT, STURGIS and CHRIST, but were just run of the mill tramps. The La Fontaines located Harold Doyle, who claimed he was the CHRIST tramp. Doyle does not have a pointy nose, as does the CHRIST tramp.

DOYLE AND THE CHRIST TRAMP The Dallas FBI reported: During the week of February 9, 1992, researchers discovered documents which previously the City of Dallas Police Department maintained did not

exist. These documents are 'Arrest Report on Investigative Prisoner' regarding three vagrants who were taken into custody by the City of Dallas PD shortly after the assassination of President Kennedy...On February 12, 1992, FBI Dallas obtained copies of the newly discovered reports. The reports indicate that the three individuals were taken off a boxcar 'right after President Kennedy was shot.' The reports were dated November 23, 1963, with the time of 4:00 p.m. The arresting officer was identified as W.E. Chambers." HAROLD DOYLE The Dallas FBI started its "investigation" by having agents question the owner of a pool hall at Klamath Falls, Oregon, frequented by Harold Doyle. This individual, Robert E. Downing, told the FBI that he "recalled that years ago, Harold Doyle had told him that he got picked up in sweep of numerous individuals by officers of the Dallas Police Department after President Kennedy had been assassinated." According to Robert E. Downing, Harold Doyle said that he had been in a railroad yard in Dallas, Texas, "waiting to catch a freight train and heard a number of emergency sirens, but did not even know that President Kennedy had been shot until the Dallas Police took him in for questioning." [FBI 62-109060-8290, 8295] On February 29, 1992, the FBI interviewed Harold Doyle at the Amtrack Station in Portland, Oregon. Harold Doyle advised that on November 22, 1963, he was riding the railroad cars with two other individuals...All three arrived in Dallas on November 22, 1963, sometime during the morning hours and had spent the day previously in Houston, Texas. They went to the Irving Street Mission, where they showered, cleaned up and received a noon meal. They then left the mission en route to the railroad yard, heading towards Fort Worth, Texas. After leaving the mission someone told them President Kennedy had been shot. They asked one of the employees at the railroad yard if President Kennedy had been shot, and the railroad man confirmed this. They then got on a gondola, also known as a coal car, and were heading toward Fort Worth when the train stopped. After the train stopped they were confronted by numerous police officers who informed them not to move or they would be shot. [FBI 62-19060-8299] Only four Dallas Police Officers arrested the second set of tramps. Lee Bowers said there were "possibly 50 policemen with shotguns" at the scene of the tramps' arrest. The arrest record of Harold Doyle indicated that he was arrested immediately after the assassination on a box car that had not left the railroad yard: "These men were taken off a train boxcar in the railroad yards right after President Kennedy was shot." If the FBI was seeking the truth instead of trying to cover it up it would have concluded then and there that these men could not have been the tramps who were photographed in Dealey Plaza.

JOHN GEDNEY John Gedney was easier for the FBI to locate than Harold Doyle, who had no permanent home address. John Gedney said they arrived by rail, spent the night of November 21, 1963, at the Salvation Army, had breakfast and lunch there on November 22, 1963, thereafter heard about the shooting of President Kennedy, then walked to the railroad yard where they got on a flatbed car that had large sheets of steel on it and shortly thereafter law enforcement officials swarmed the car, arrested them and took them back to the Dallas jail. John Gedney said he was not sure who actually arrested him, that he was probably fingerprinted and had a short interview at the jail by a Federal Agent who contacted Miami and verified his identity...John Gedney said they were in the jail approximately four to six days, released, and the three of them headed out by rail to Fort Worth, Texas, and then west to Arizona, where they picked lettuce." John Gedney was described as weighing 190 pounds and being 6'1" in height. [FBI 62109060-8306] INTERVIEW WITH JOHN GEDNEY In July 1992 a researcher located John Gedney, who had become a Code Enforcement Officer in Melbourne, Florida. John Gedney claimed that he was the STURGIS tramp and that Harold Doyle was the CHRIST tramp, but he refused to be taped or photographed. When asked why, he said that the tape might be altered and that someone might retouch any photographs of him. When he was shown photographs of STURGIS and the STURGIS tramp, he remarked: "Look at the head, he is awfully dark, he parts his hair, see how I part it, like right-handed people, unless you reverse the photos. You can screw anybody. My face is more Nordic, his face is more Indian or Greek or Latin, something like that." John Gedney claimed he was arrested one hour after the assassination. His arrest records indicated: "These men were taken off a train boxcar in the railroad yards right after President Kennedy was shot." John Gedney was asked how much time elapsed between the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and his arrest. At first he said, "Why are you asking me this?" and claimed he did not know. Later in the interview, he commented: "I think that guy was right, it probably was an hour after Kennedy was assassinated." John Gedney: "They arrested everyone in town, they even went into some guys homes." The investigator reported that John Gedney looked a little like the STURGIS tramp, but had to be ruled out since John Gedney was at least 6'2". The researcher asked John Gedney what his motivation in all of this was. He responded: "Not to let it go any further. If you don't stop these people out there it will go on and on. I am not worthy of a place in history any more than anyone else. The average man deserves a place in history, not the Iaococca's and the Schwartz's. Was it the patriotic duty of John Gedney to lay these false rumors to rest?

GEDNEY and the STURGIS tramp. Note the complete difference in skull shape. This is the only available photo of Gedney. It came from his drivers licence. Any other photos of Gedney would be greatly appreciated. Why did John Gedney mention doctoring? Why did he use the word "Nordic? What "guy" had he heard about who said the tramps were picked up an hour after the assassination? And who had he heard about him from? When the FBI questioned Gedney, the agents told him that they needed his help in getting this matter cleared up and explained that certain subversive elements were using this matter for their own ends. Gedney, a law enforcement agent, was happy to cooperate. The La Fontaines sold their story to A Current Affair, which calls itself "Tabloid Television." A Current Affair aired a piece on Harold Doyle on February 25, 1992, which proported to prove he was the CHRIST tramp. The program began: Conspiracy experts have claimed the hobos, all of them who appear to be unusually well dressed, might have been Watergate burglars HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS...even Oliver Stone's movie, JFK, suggests the mystery hobos had something to do with the President's death...Only yesterday Dallas Police told A Current Affair that the hobos were detained for a few hours and finding them now is highly unlikely. The La Fontaines traced Harold Doyle to Amarillo, Texas, where Kay Lyon remembered him talking about his arrest on November 22, 1963: "Well, he told me he was in jail for two or three days and during that time he had been finger printed and questioned. [No finger prints were located.] He showed me a photograph of him when he was arrested after they got off the train." From Amarillo, the La Fontaines tracked Harold Doyle to a pool hall in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Harold Doyle's story: The only thing I want to say about it, we had nothing to do with it. I am telling you the God's and honest truth. We was booked and I went in front of the judge. [Michael Canfield checked every courthouse in Dallas and

found no record that Harold Doyle, Gus Abrams, John Gedney, Douglas or John Francis Elrod were ever arraigned.] I got six days for vagrancy and turned loose. That morning we went over to the railroad yards. We was going to Fort Worth and I seen a guy in the railroad. Before we went to the railroad yards, sirens and everything was going on and all and we asked somebody what happened and they said the President's been shot. Then all at once someone said, 'Don't make a move'. We looked up the end we were sitting in, and the far end down the side, we were surrounded by policemans with guns drawn and they said don't make a move. Because they got us out of the boxcar, took us through the park...all the people was a holloran, was a going on and the sirens were going and people were taking pictures of us and people were holloran, 'Are they the ones that done it?'...They took us into the jail. They took us up and interrogated us. Kept us till they caught OSWALD. Harold Doyle did not display a photograph of himself circa 1963 to compare with photographs of the tramps. D.V. Harkness appeared on Dallas television and said that Harold Doyle was not the tramp he helped arrest. He also said the tramps he detained were released immediately. He had told the Rockefeller Commission: "Some bums were picked up from boxcars south of triple overpass 'couple of hundred yards' from overpass." A Current Affair ended when former Los Angeles Deputy District Attorney Vincent T. Bugliosi stated: "Finding the hobos can finally lay to rest irresponsible theories of conspiracy about them." Vincent T. Bugliosi was working on a book supporting the conclusions of the Warren Commission. On March 4, 1992, this article appeared in The New York Daily News: JFK TRAMPS, FBI SAYS, WERE JUST VAGRANTS Washington, D.C. Nearly 29 years after the assassination of John Kennedy, the FBI has finally tracked down the mysterious three tramps arrested that day in Dallas and concluded they were just tramps. The FBI's Dallas Office said it traced the tramps after their names were printed in Texas newspapers...One tramp, Gus Abrams, is dead, the FBI said, but agents found and interviewed John Forrester Gedney in Melbourne, Florida and Harold Doyle in Klamath Falls, Oregon. They said they were at a mission the day of the assassination, 'had gotten some food and had gotten cleaned up and were wandering back toward the railroad yard' when they were arrested, said Oliver Revell, Dallas FBI Office head. Some theorists postulated that the tramps were future Watergate burglars HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS." There were no photographs of John Gedney or Gus Abrams included in the article.

Gus Abrams and the HUNT tramp. On March 24, 1992, the FBI reviewed its progress in the tramp matter: During the interview of Marvin Wise, one of the officers actually involved in the arrest of the three hobos, a great deal of insight was provided regarding the records keeping procedure of the City of Dallas PD in 1963...Discovered along with the arrest reports for the three hobos were three other arrest reports. All six of the documents purportedly originated from the same area within the Dallas Police Department. Dallas intends to interview the Commander of the City of Dallas Police Department Records Division in order to determine the source of all six arrest reports. It is anticipated that the information obtained will provide an explanation for the lack of any 'official' record of the arrest of the three hobos during the past 28 years. Vaughn was also interviewed. [FBI 62-109060-8320] OLIVER REVELL Who circulated this news story before the FBI's investigation was complete? If the FBI conducted a real investigation it would have concluded that there were two sets of tramps, since FBI records indicated that the tramps were picked up on a freight train that had already left Dealey Plaza at least one hour after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and John Gedney, Gus Abrams and Harold Doyle were picked up immediately after the assassination, according to Dallas Police Department records. The FBI official behind this false news story was Oliver "Buck" Revell. Marvin Wise was contacted by Oliver Revell's agents: The FBI come got me two years ago. We went through this whole thing. They told me two of them were still alive. The old man was dead. They never showed me photographs of what they look like today. They showed me the tramp shots. I told them basically what I've told you. They said, 'Look, we've already interviewed two of them.' The FBI questioned me about the clothes they were wearing. Roy later tried to say the clothes was

real nice. I said, 'Roy,' (Me and Roy Vaughn were raised together in South Dallas. It used to be white.) I said 'Roy, you got to remember what that old man was wearing. It might look pretty good in that black and white picture but I guarantee you that these people were not neat people trying to...' There was a lot of people detained for several days and some of them detained for five or six hours and they were just not even booked and we let 'em go. I was not down there at the time of shooting. I was on that call in South Dallas. And there was no way in the world I could be down there at the time. I didn't get down there until 12:45. I was not down there or even close to that location and couldn't have got there when the shooting took place. If they arrested these men they did that prior to me going there. If you doubt the tramps were HUNT, STURGIS and CHRIST, ask yourself why Oliver Revell floated this false news story with the imprimatur of the FBI attached to it before the FBI's investigation was complete? Why go to all this trouble to discredit the tramp theory? As stated, the effect of these news stories was to convince many Americans that the tramps had been identified. People asked me "Do you still believe the tramps are HUNT and STURGIS?" since they were are under the false impression that the FBI had finally identified them. This was an abuse of authority by Revell. Former FBI S.A. Robert Gemberling remarked: "Since the JFK movie came out they've identified who the three tramps were." Robert Gemberling was informed that there were two sets of tramps. "If there were two sets, neither of them were in FBI custody. Why wasn't this pursued back in 1975 or was it? I mean, if this was an issue, why wasn't it pursued when the facts came to the [Rockefeller Commission]..." Robert Gemberling told this researcher that he would evaluate the contents of the pertinent tramp documents if they were mailed to him. He was sent the documents with a copy of Coup D'Etat. When Robert Gemberling was re-contacted, stated: "Yeah, I got it. I tell you I'm not going to give you a reaction because I know all you want is some more quotes for your next book, I guess. As far as I'm concerned, you sure did a lot of speculating. If you wanna quote me on that, you can do it." Robert Gemberling was asked if he had examined the tramp documents. "Yes." Gemberling was asked if he believed there were two sets of tramps. He stated, "I gave you my comment just a moment ago. I gave you my quote." When another researcher contacted Robert Gemberling several months later and asked him if the Dealey Plaza tramps were John Gedney, Gus Abrams and Harold Doyle he stated: "I believe that's right. One of them is dead. They were identified as the three tramps." To date, I can locate no further FBI serials on John Gedney, Harold Dolye and Gus Abrams beyond March 1992. [Gemberling 7106 Clemson Dr Dallas, TX 75214 telephone 214- 3483906] CLICK HERE TO SEE FIRST SET OF TRAMPS. They are in the background surrounded by numerous lawmen. Keep in mind the Rockefeller Commission determined there were six to eight “derelicts” picked up that day.


Note woman reporter who is seen holding her nose in one of the tramp shots. Note less policemen. Rockefeller Commission notes confirmed that Harold Doyle, John Gedney and Gus Abrams were not the infamous Dealey Plaza tramps: Several hours after the shooting, Dallas Police Department Officers checked all the railroad freight cars situated on tracks anywhere in the vicinity of Dealey Plaza. About six or eight persons, referred to as derelicts were found in or near the freight cars. These persons were taken either to the nearby Dallas County Sheriff's Office or to the Dallas Police Department for questioning. All were released without any arrest record being made, or any fingerprinting or photographing being done by the authorities. Among the six or eight 'derelicts' found in the vicinity of the freight cars were three men who, according to the arresting officers, were found in a boxcar about one half mile south of the scene of the assassination. They were taken to the Sheriff's office by the Dallas police officers, who walked northward along the railroad tracks to a point west of the Texas School Book Depository, then north to Houston Street and back south to the Sheriff's Office. This somewhat circuitous route was actually the most convenient one available, according to the Dallas policemen. As the police and the 'derelicts' passed the Texas School Book Depository

and headed for the sheriff's office, they were photographed by several press photographers on the scene. A map of Dealey Plaza prepared by the Rockefeller Commission confirmed that the tramps were picked up outside the railroad yard.

John Francis Elrod was arrested while walking along the railroad tracks. John Francis Elrod had been arrested in 1961 for barbiturates, DWI in 1962, simple assault in 1963. In 1964 John Francis Elrod was suspected of planning to kill his estranged wife. No record of his arrest in Dallas appeared on his rap sheet. [FBI 44-1639-6059, 5999] Daniel Wayne Douglas was picked up near the scene of the TIPPIT shooting. John Francis Elrod and Daniel Wayne Douglas were released on November 26, 1963. On August 7, 1994, the La Fontaines had a cover story in the Washington Post previewing their new book to be published by Pelican Press. The book was based on the testimony of John Francis Elrod. In August 1964 John Francis Elrod told the FBI that while he was in jail on November 22, 1963, his cellmate pointed out another prisoner with a battered face. According to John Francis Elrod's unidentified cellmate, the man had been arrested while driving a Thunderbird loaded with weapons, and that he had been involved with JACK RUBY in gun dealing. This story traced back to the arrests of Lawrence Reginald Miller and Donnell Darius Whitter. Donnell Darius Whitter knew

RUBY, and since RUBY was also involved in gun dealing, the two men may have worked together. The LaFontaines combined this information with a new claim by John Francis Elrod that Oswald was his unidentified cellmate and that OSWALD told him that he knew RUBY. They wrote: "Is John Francis Elrod's account really credible? Given John Francis Elrod's history of alcoholism his account must be treated with caution...The more basic question is: Would the Dallas Police really have put the accused assassin in a cell where he could talk with another prisoner. The answer it turns out is yes. A few hours after his arrest, OSWALD was allowed to make a phone call. On the log of prisoner telephone calls, OSWALD signed his name and wrote down his cell number which was F-2. John Francis Elrod's name does not appear on the phone log; he says he was not allowed to make a phone call. The only other prisoner listed in the log in an F Cell on November 22, 1963, between 3:00 p.m. and midnight was a Daniel Douglas whose scrawl indicates he was held in F-1 or F-4. John Francis Elrod knew who the other man in Oswald's cellblock was. This is a powerful point supporting his story. In an interview in July 1993 John Francis Elrod accurately described the other man in OSWALD'S cell as a 'kid from Tennessee who had stolen a car in Memphis.' Among Dallas Police Department arrest reports for November 22, 1963, was one for a Daniel Wayne Douglas, who was described as 19 years old, from Memphis and a confessed car thief. Douglas' current whereabouts are not known. Neither John Francis Elrod nor Daniel Wayne Douglas were anywhere near OSWALD. The Warren Commission: "OSWALD was delivered to the jailer who placed him in a maximum security cell on the fifth floor. His cell was the center one in a block of three cells that were separated from the remainder of the jail area. The cells on either side of OSWALD were empty and a guard was nearby whenever OSWALD was present." [WR p198] John Francis Elrod was "wandering on the railroad tracks," Daniel Wayne Douglas had been in the vicinity of the Tippit shooting. This was the only thing that linked them to the assassination. It was unlikely that they would have been placed in a maximum security cell. The La Fontaine's article contained this paragraph: The Legend of the Three Tramps - John John Francis Elrod might be called the fourth tramp of Dallas. His story is the legitimate offspring of a bastard parent i.e. the 'tale of the three tramps.' This trio of Dallas hobos inspired some of the most imaginative scenarios in the often bizarre Kennedy assassination literature. They were photographed in the company of a Dallas policeman shortly after the assassination. But the Dallas Police Department insisted - falsely it turns out - that it had no records of their arrest. Over the years conspiracy theorists claimed the men were actually assassination conspirators in the employ of either the CIA or organized crime. In 1991 the three tramps achieved pop icon status appearing ominously throughout Oliver Stone's conspiratorial epic, JFK. It

turns out that there were arrest records for November 22, 1963. The Dallas City Council, in response to Stone's hit movie, voted to make public all city documents concerning the assassination; among these files the long lost arrest records were found. When the names on records were traced, the three men were found to have been underemployed, harddrinking transients who like to hop rides on railroad trains - in a word, tramps. The debunking of the three tramps legend first appeared in our front page story for the Houston Post of February 9, 1992. On August 9, 1966, Lee Edward Bowers, 41, was killed in a one-car accident in Midlothian, Texas, when his car went out of control he plowed into a bridge abutment. His physician told researcher Penn Jones that he "never saw a case like this, that this man was in some sort of strange shock. I made mention to Jones that Bowers was sweating a lot. He was wringing wet when he came in and I wondered because of this whether he had a coronary." Lee Bowers was dead in three hours and cremated the next day. [Dr. Roy Bohl - Penn Jones] The HSCA questioned Lee Bowers parents who described their son as: …reticent by nature and protective insofar as his family was concerned...He mentioned, the less others thought they knew, the less problems they would have. Also added they were aware of the mounting of deaths of 'Kennedy witnesses.' Mrs. Bowers then informed us that 'Lee would have told his brother, if he told anyone,' but added that he had since succumbed to cancer. The brother died first at the age of 40 and later Lee at 41." Gerald Posner claimed Lee Bowers lied because he was busy at the time of the assassination, and in order to perform his duties at the control panel, his back would have been turned toward Dealey Plaza. HEMMING told this researcher: Bowers suspected something. Bowers got offed by a guy who worked with him all his life. He was in his 30's. Remember, Bowers ain't reading shit about nothing. There was just absolutely fucking nothing coming out except some jabber about OSWALD in the press. Nobody had a suspicion in 1964. Who gives a rat's fuck by 1966? But maybe Bowers thinks, wait a minute. Maybe he says the wrong thing to somebody, or somebody is searching and they're going to eliminate somebody that might be talked to. Who's searching at the time? When he was asked to elaborate on the death of Lee Bowers HEMMING stated: Who the fuck said this? You have bad fucking hearing, A.J. How would I know how Bowers died? Jesus Christ! All I meant was that perpetrators are usually well-known, if it's going to look like an accident.


When the authorities searched the Texas School Book Depository they found evidence that OSWALD had unwittingly planted. OSWALD'S rifle was found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. The Dallas Police Department discovered the rifle hidden between several book cartons. Click HERE to see video of this discovery. OSWALD had weapon, complete with serial numbers, fingerprints and fiber evidence on it, earlier sent to OSWALD'S Post Office Box, at the scene of the crime, thinking that someone was going to pick it up while he was in the lunchroom. OSWALD could have purchased a rifle anonymously in any Texas gun shop or hardware store. Why leave one that traced back to him behind? THE THREE CARTRIDGES

Evidence planted by the conspirators included the three shell casings. HEMMING obtained from OSWALD at the Sportsdrome Rifle Range. The witnesses there reported

that OSWALD and his friend collected their spent shells. HEMMING 1995: "Could be." As stated, three spent cartridges were left behind in the Texas School Book Depository. If OSWALD left a rifle behind, he would also have had to leave spent shell casings that bore markings indicating they had been loaded, and then ejected, from that rifle behind. This would further strengthen the case against OSWALD. This was the cover story: Three shots fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Three spent shell casings. The three spent cartridges, however, did not mean that the MannlicherCarcano had been fired three times from the Texas School Book Depository window that day - it only meant that someone left three shell casings behind that had once been fired in OSWALD'S gun. The Warren Commission determined that the three spent cartridges had been fired from the Mannlicher-Carcano. The HSCA agreed. [HSCA V7 p368] HEMMING told this researcher: No other ammo was found in OSWALD'S safe house or anywhere else. He didn't even have a full clip for the weapon. He had four rounds of live ammo maximum. Bad news, somebody fucked up. When the Dallas Police Department gave OSWALD a Paraffin test to determine if he had fired a rifle, …the cast of the right cheek showed no reaction." [WR p560] To show that the Paraffin test would have proven negative even if OSWALD had fired the Mannlicher-Carcano, the FBI had one of its Agents fire the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle three times in rapid succession. The right cheek of the Agent tested negatively, however, there is a question regarding the objectivity of the FBI when it conducted this test since it was apparent that an FBI agent tampered with OSWALD'S paraffin casts before sending them to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for neutron-activation analysis. The Oak Ridge analysis resulted in findings of barium and antimony on the cast of OSWALD'S cheek. Barium and antimony were generally present in the rifle cartridge cases. This was consistent with OSWALD having fired a rifle that day. The problem: there was more barium and antimony on the outside of the cast than on the inside, when the inside of the cast was the only part in contact with OSWALD'S skin. The Warren Report: "Since the outside surface had not been in contact with OSWALD'S cheek, the barium and antimony found there came from a source other than OSWALD.” [WR p562] Frank Ellsworth was asked about this. He stated: "That doesn't make sense at all. If that happened, it would seem that someone badly contaminated the sample. There should not have been any of that on the outside of the cast at all. It was improperly administered." OSWALD did fire a gun that day when he killed Officer TIPPET in selfdefense. The Dallas Police Department found OSWALD'S palm print under the barrel of the Mannlicher-Carcano and fingerprints around the trigger mechanism, yet the rest of the gun had been wiped clean. This made it seem as if OSWALD had made an effort to conceal his identity. Why wipe the fingerprints off a gun which could be traced to you

through your POB? OSWALD had assembled, disassembled and fired this gun before November 22, 1963, and his prints were on it. The Dallas Police Department and the FBI found OSWALD'S fingerprints and palm prints on the paper and tape used to cover the rifle. This bag was found near the assassin's window. The wrapper made by OSWALD had been left behind by the team to further incriminate him. The presence of the wrapper supported the testimony of Buell Wesley Frazier about the curtain rods and it was clear that OSWALD had brought something about the size of a disassembled Mannlicher-Carcano into the Texas School Book Depository that morning.When the FBI examined this wrapping paper, it determined that it carried blanket fibers. Three hours after the assassination, a detective saw a blanket roll, tied with a string, lying on the floor of Ruth Paine's garage. The fibers on the wrapping paper came from this blanket. The FBI linked the blanket to OSWALD by matching the limb and pubic hairs found on it, with OSWALD'S. [WR p590] No fibers found on the gun could be associated with the green blanket. This made sense since OSWALD had in fact stored the weapon in Ruth Paine's garage. The FBI examined a tuft of several cotton fibers that were found between the butt plate of the Mannlicher-Carcano and the wooden stock. These fibers matched, to a significant degree, the fibers in the shirt OSWALD was wearing on November 22, 1963: "In a crevice between the butt plate of the rifle, and the wooden stock, was a tuft of several cotton fibers of dark blue, grey black, and orange yellow shades. On November 23, 1963, these fibers were...compared with the fibers found in the shirt that OSWALD was wearing when arrested in the Texas Theater. This shirt was also composed of dark blue, grey black and orange yellow cotton fibers. S.A. Stombaugh testified that the colors, shades and twist of the fibers found in the tuft on the rifle matched those in OSWALD'S shirt...the fibers in the tuft on the rifle most probably came from the shirt worn by OSWALD when he was arrested." [WR p124] This tiny tuft of cotton linked OSWALD with the weapon on November 22.

Here are several possible explanations for the presence of the tiny tuft of cotton, the first being the mostly likely and the fifth being the least likely: (1) OSWALD had worn the shirt when his disassembled the rifle on the night of November 21, 1963. HEMMING told this researcher: OSWALD had at one time handled this weapon. In fact, he brought it to the Texas School Book Depository to sell to somebody. He needed the money. He left this weapon in a particular spot where it wouldn't be found. And it was found. I'm not saying it was found in the spot where he left it, but it was found. You can't say what day he dry fired this weapon, or practiced fired this weapon, or just held it up to his shoulder or whatever. He had custody and control of the rifle and clothing and that connected one with the other. OSWALD’S WARDROBE Marina Oswald testified that her husband only owned two jackets. [WR p175] Tom Bargas stated: "He wore the same old jacket." Ruth Paine said that she did OSWALD'S laundry, and he had plenty of shirts. Marina Oswald told this researcher: "I have no idea how many shirts. Not very many. I had to wash and iron one shirt like in an hour." Most of OSWALD'S shirts were in storage in Ruth Paine's garage. These included three civilian shirts and five khaki colored long sleeved shirts. [NARA 124-10022-10085] The FBI: "The clothing found in LEE HARVEY OSWALD's room...consisted of one belt, one necktie, two sweaters and five shirts...The shirts all appeared to have been freshly laundered by hand. Most exhibited signs of much wear and one shirt was practically worn out. No fibers on the gun could be associated with any of the above mentioned clothing." [FBI 62-109060-1150, 917] (2) OSWALD could have worn the shirt on another occasion when he fired the rifle, and worn that shirt again on November 22, 1963. (3) HEMMING told this researcher: "The FBI is lying." A FBI document stated: "Cotton fibers from gun are same colors as cotton fibers composing shirt; however, due to limited number of colors in shirt it is not possible to state shirt is positively the source of these fibers." [FBI Memo Jevons to Conrad 11.29.63] S.A. Stombaugh could only match two of the blue shades present in the tuft with three of blue shades present in the shirt. [FBI 62-109060-NR 9.8.64] (4) The fibers came from an identical shirt. The FBI fiber expert testified: "These fibers could have come from this shirt. There is no way, however, to eliminate the possibility of the fibers having come from an identical shirt." (5) OSWALD was told to wear a particular shirt that day. Before November 22, 1963, OSWALD'S Mannlicher-Carcano had been fired by OSWALD, or someone wearing OSWALD'S shirt, or a shirt identical to OSWALD'S. OSWALD wore that particular shirt

that day. It was interesting to note that while OSWALD was in police custody OSWALD claimed he had returned to his room and changed his shirt after the assassination. He claimed he had not been wearing the shirt he had on when he worked at the Texas School Book Depository that morning. The Warren Commission: "Although OSWALD returned to his rooming house after the assassination and when he was questioned by the police, claimed to have changed his shirt, the evidence indicates that he continued wearing the same shirt that he was wearing all morning and which he was still wearing when arrested...The testimony of those who saw him after the assassination was inconclusive about the color of OSWALD'S shirt, but Mary Bledsoe, OSWALD'S former landlady, saw him on a bus approximately ten minutes after the assassination and identified the shirt as being the one worn by OSWALD primarily because of a distinctive hole in the right elbow of the shirt. Moreover, the bus transfer which he obtained as he left the bus was still in his pocket when he was arrested." OSWALD had gotten off the bus and taken a cab to within a few blocks of his room. He had never used the transfer. Why did OSWALD'S lie about having changed his shirt? HEMMING told this researcher: "He didn't know the shirt would be connected with the rifle. You got an eyeball witnesses who saw him kill TIPPIT." THE SNIPER'S NEST

The sniper's nest used to frame OSWALD consisted of a 55-pound book box on which OSWALD allegedly sat. The Warren Commission stated this box was positioned nearby and OSWALD had not moved it. OSWALD'S right palm print was found on the carton, pointing west. The Warren Commission: "The position of the palm print on the carton was parallel with the long axis of the box, and at right angles with the short axis. The bottom of the palm rested on the box...Someone sitting on the box, facing the window, would have his palm in this position, if he placed his hand alongside his right hip." What about OSWALD'S left hand? Why didn't OSWALD do the same thing with it? This evidence was fragmentary and the palm print was also consistent with OSWALD having moved the box; his palm print was at a right angle to the edge of the box. The Warren Report wrongly concluded: "OSWALD'S palm print may have been placed there while he was sitting on the carton, rather than carrying it." But even if the Commission was

right, OSWALD could have sat on the box during the course of his normal activities at the Texas School Book Depository.

There was one 8-pound Rolling Reader box stacked on another Rolling Reader box. This one had prints on it which were consistent with OSWALD'S having handled it: Left palm print facing southwest, and right index finger also pointing southwest. There was one 55-pound book box placed under the window sill, and one 8-pound Rolling Reader box stacked on top of the 55-pound book box under the window sill. OSWALD'S prints were on neither of these boxes: "The carton on the window sill, and the large carton below the window, contained no prints that could be identified as OSWALD'S." [WR p140] OSWALD could have pushed the bottom box into its position with his feet, but how did the higher box get on to the window sill without his having handled it? If he wore gloves, why were his prints on the other two boxes? According to Frank Ellsworth: They did get a good many prints off those boxes. Normally, you don't expect to find fingerprints on cardboard boxes. If they would have put fingerprint ink all over this guy he wouldn't have done a better job leaving prints. HEMMING said he got OSWALD to bring the rifle to the TSBD by offering him double its worth. Did HEMMING have OSWALD hide the Mannlicher-Carcano specifically between the Rolling Reader boxes so OSWALD would have left his fingerprints on these boxes while moving them to hide the rifle? Did he tell OSWALD he was going to pick the rifle

up around lunchtime? HUNT and CHRIST would then use these boxes to construct "OSWALD'S sniper's nest." Or did they have OSWALD'S prints on them because he had handled them as part of his job? The Warren Commission: "In evaluating the significance of these fingerprint and palm identifications, the Commission considered the possibility that OSWALD handled these cartons as part of his normal duties." An effort was made to determine the freshness of one print. The Warren Commission: "The print...could have been placed on the carton at any time within a three day period." [WR p141] The other prints were lifted in a fashion that made it impossible to determine their freshness. THE SHIELD OF BOXES The Warren Commission found that several boxes had been stacked up behind the sniper's nest to "shield OSWALD from the view of anyone on the sixth floor who did not go behind them."

Frank Ellsworth disagreed: "He made himself a nest, but there wasn't any cartons to hide himself by." Why weren't OSWALD'S palm prints found on these boxes? The Warren Commission commented on the difficulty of constructing only one part of the nest: "The arrangement of boxes at the window from which the shots were fired was studied to determine whether OSWALD required any assistance in moving the cartons to the window...both of the 55 lb. cartons could have been carried by one man...although the Rolling Reader cartons had to be moved 40 feet from their normal locations at the southeast corner window, it would appear one man could have done this in a matter of seconds."


The HSCA autoradiographically enhanced the Dillard and Powell photographs. Thomas Dillard, a professional photographer, was riding in the press car of the Presidential motorcade. When he took his pictures of the Texas School Book Depository, he was approaching Elm and Houston. Thomas Dillard stated his picture was taken a few seconds after the last audible shot. In his photograph, only two boxes are visible in the southwestcorner window on the sixth floor, one each, to the left, and to the right, of the window frame. James Powell, an Army intelligence agent, was standing considerably to the right of Thomas Dillard, near the southeast corner of Elm and Houston. James Powell has estimated he took his picture one to two minutes after the last shot was fired. [HSCA V4 p401] The James Powell photograph showed at least four boxes in the southwest-corner window on the sixth floor. OSWALD'S sniper's nest was constructed after, not before, the assassination. The HSCA: "There are two possible explanations for this difference. (1) The James Powell photograph may reflect only an apparent change in the boxes; the different angle from which James Powell took his photograph may have caused a different set of boxes within the room to be framed in the window. (2) The boxes were moved during the time that elapsed between the Thomas Dillard and James Powell photographs. Since the precise positions of Thomas Dillard and James Powell at the time of the photographs were unknown, it was not possible to calculate precisely the region within the sixth floor that would have been visible to each photographer. In the Thomas Dillard photograph, the two boxes at the left and right of the window frame appear to be in the full light of the Sun, with no shadows cast on them by the frame of the partially opened window. In the James Powell photograph (left) it also appears that the boxes are in full sunlight, with no shadow cast on them by the window frame. A simple trigonometric calculation shows that the two boxes at the left

and the right lie approximately six inches from the window's plane. (If the additional boxes in the James Powell photograph were so far back into the room that the difference in viewing angle made them apparent in the James Powell photograph and not in Thomas Dillard's, then they would not appear to be in full sunlight. Since at the time of the assassination it was late fall, the midday sun was south of directly overhead and therefore would have been entering those windows of the Texas School Book Depository facing directly south.) For this reason the panel concluded that the additional boxes visible in the James Powell photograph were moved during the interval between the Thomas Dillard and James Powell photographs." [HSCA V6 p115] THE SNIPER'S NEST AND THE DEBRIS There was corroborative evidence that the sniper's nest was built after the assassination: Harold Norman, James Jarman (died 1989, age 57, stroke) and Bonnie Ray Williams were on the fifth floor - directly under the sixth floor window. Bonnie Ray Williams said he did not pay attention to the first shot because "I didn't know what was happening. The second shot, it sounded like it was right in the building, the second and third shot. And it sounded - it even shook the building, the side we were on. Cement fell on my head...gravel, dirt or something, from the old building, because it shook the windows and everything." James Jarman testified that Bonnie Ray Williams had "a few debris" on his head, "It was sort of white stuff, or something." [WR p70] Researcher Mary Farrell felt this was not extraordinary: "They were laying new flooring up there. There were holes in the floor from the fifth to the sixth floor." Harold Norman was contacted in July 1993: "I was sitting on the fifth floor. The floors were raggity. They was remodelin' the floors up there that day. The floors were in bad shape. Stuff hadn't fallen down in the past, just that time. I never said it was the rifle. I figured somebody was movin' around. It wasn't shaking. We just happened to look up, I think it was after the third shot that we noticed it. I saw it fall. It had to be some type of moving around up there. It was more like moving then stomping. I don't know how many peoples was up there at that time, you know." Was the debris caused by someone hurriedly moving boxes while building the sniper's nest? If OSWALD had been on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository firing his Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, any shock waves it generated when the gun discharged would have been absorbed by his shoulder. The 6.5-caliber ammunition OSWALD allegedly fired would not have caused the floors to shake, even the rifle was tripod-mounted. Frank Ellsworth: "I don't think that Mannlicher rifle would cause any floors to shake. That is ridiculous. I don't even think a 50-caliber machine gun firing a single shot would have shaken the building. Have you ever been around one of those little pop guns when they go off? They're not much of a gun. I don't personally think that even a 12-gauge shotgun would cause that sort of vibration. I can't imagine any weapon having such a recoil that it would have vibrated the floor, even if it was tripod mounted...with one exception. If you were to take a 50-caliber machine gun, bolt it to the floor and fire short bursts, four or

five rounds, then yes, but you would need a very strong contact between the mount and the floor. I think you could have fired a Mannlicher-Carcano all day up there and it wouldn't cause that sort of vibration." After Harold Norman and Bonnie Ray Williams told the FBI they heard the "shell being ejected from the gun and hitting the floor," the Warren Commission went to the Texas School Book Depository and had someone on the sixth floor drop shells directly above them. They heard each shell drop. The Warren Commission failed to have someone fire the rifle above them to see if firing 6.5-caliber ammunition would cause plaster to fall from the ceiling onto their heads. HEMMING told this researcher: "The sniper's nest was probably built after the assassination. Either the niggers were lying, or it was a result of building the nest." THE COKE AND THE SNIPER'S NEST Had David Belin known the sniper's nest had been built after the assassination, he would have been forced to direct the FBI agent to reenact the scenario by having the agent playing OSWALD wipe his prints from the rifle, move at least one 55-pound book carton under the window then put two 8-pound Rolling Reader boxes on top of each other. This is assuming that the Rolling Reader boxes were already moved from their original position - 40 feet away from the window - before the assassination, and placed close by. Then the agent would have to hide his rifle between two rows of boxes in the northwest corner, near the staircase, on the sixth floor, run down six flights of stairs and purchase a Coca-Cola (optional). The additional 30 seconds, to one minute, it took to construct the sniper's nest after the assassination, meant that OSWALD could not have rendezvoused with Marion L. Baker within the one minute the Warren Commission allotted, even if he purchased the Coca-Cola after encountering Patrolman Marion L. Baker. The assassin had not used the boxes for an arm rest. He stood in the window and fired the scoped weapon. The purpose of the sniper's nest was to link that area with OSWALD. The Warren Commission attached "some probative value to the fingerprint and palm print identifications in reaching the conclusion that OSWALD was at the window from which the shots were fired, although the prints do not establish the exact time he was there." Despite its finding that the nest was built after the assassination, "The HSCA believed that the way the boxes were stacked at the window...must be considered as evidence indicating that he handled the boxes in the process of preparing the so-called sniper's nest..." [HSCA R p57] THE UNIDENTIFIED PRINTS The FBI attempted to identify the prints on the book cartons that comprised the sniper's nest. Aside from OSWALD'S, none of the prints could be matched with those of any Texas School Book Depository employees, although some prints were unidentifiable because of poor quality. The Warren Commission explained: "The presence on these cartons of unidentified prints, whether or not identifiable, does not appear to be unusual, since these cartons contained commercial products which had been handled by many people...these cartons could contain the prints of many people having nothing to do with

the assassination...the fingerprints other than OSWALD'S on the boxes thus provide no indication of the presence of an accomplice at the window." J. Edgar Hoover commented on an undentified palm print: "There is no question in my mind but that we failed in carrying thru some salient angles of OSWALD investigation. It ought to be a lesson to all but I doubt if some even realize it now." [Memo to Tolson FBI 105-825555084] HEMMING told this researcher: "These guys were pros. They didn't leave prints." OSWALD'S PROPAGANDA COLLECTION When Dallas Police Officers searched 1026 North Beckley on November 23, 1963, they found letters to OSWALD from the Communist Party, the Socialist Workers Party, the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, the School for Marxist Studies, the Soviet Embassy and the Gus Hall Defense Committee. All of OSWALD'S correspondence with the left was found there. Three of the letters were dated 1962. The latest was dated September 19, 1963. Why did OSWALD keep these documents in his room instead of in Irving? When Dallas Police searched Paine's house they found "Fair Play for Cuba Committee papers in an envelope" and "Blue notebook with Cuba papers and other papers of a communistic nature." OSWALD'S blue suitcase contained a "Fair Play for Cuba Committee pamphlet" and "1 copy of October 20, 1963, Worker." His address book was also found at the Paine home, as was his Russian/English dictionary. FBI S.A.'s Hosty, DeBRUEYS and Kenneth C. Howe took possession of this evidence from the Dallas Police. OSWALD was politically inactive around this time. What use could he have had for this stuff? Was he told to bring them to his room? The Dallas Police also found Fair Play for Cuba Committee leaflets and application forms, articles concerning his defection, Russian identification documents, Marine Corps identification, OSWALD'S passport, letters from Jesuit Eugene Murret, a book on Communism - dozens of documents identifying OSWALD and linking him with both the domestic left and the Soviet Union.

The Dallas Police Department kept no records of the numbers that OSWALD tried to call. On November 22, 1963 OSWALD made a call at 8:00 p.m. that lasted 30 minutes. [WCD 1444] He made other calls at 12:30 a.m. 1:40 p.m. and 4:22 p.m. the next day. The Dallas Police records were censored. [WCD 1472] OSWALD called Little Rock, Arkansas, telephone number TU-3-0926. Of course OSWALD lied about having killed TIPPET. “I didn’t shoot anybody”. I work in that building, naturally if I work in that building I was there at the time. They are taking me in because of the fact that I lived in the Soviet Union. I’m just a patsy. Click HERE to see OSWALD in custody. OSWALD'S POST ASSASSINATION INTERROGATION

OSWALD lied about having owned a rifle, having brought a rifle into the Texas School Book Depository, having eaten with his fellow employees, and having gone to Mexico

City. Why didn't he tell the authorities the truth if he was working for what he believed to be the CIA? How do we know he didn't? There were no tape recordings of OSWALD'S interrogation. The men involved, except for James Hosty, refused comment. Will Fritz was the only one that took notes. No one knows for certain what OSWALD did, or didn't, say. Scott Malone claimed that documents dealing with OSWALD'S interrogation remain classified. Assuming the reports of OSWALD'S statements while in custody are true and do not contain any omissions, the reason he did not immediately expose his connection to CIA staffers was because OSWALD was himself an ideologue. Only a dedicated ideologue would devote years of his life to a "defection" and long term penetration that bore little monetary reward. OSWALD refused to implicate what he believed to be the CIA, even if it meant imprisonment or death. He might have appreciated this plot had he not been the patsy. OSWALD told reporters: "They've taken me in because of the fact that I lived in the Soviet Union. I'm just a patsy. No sir, I am not a communist..." He continued to pretend to be a leftist until the day he was assassinated by JACK RUBY. HEMMING told this researcher: OSWALD thought he was an actual intelligence officer of some sort. The guy had that aura about him in 1959 in Monterey Park. He thought he was somebody. You can't be somebody when you're that fucking dumb. You can tell by his demeanor that he believed he had done absolutely nothing wrong. Now if killing TIPPIT ain't wrong, he could have known some bad shit on TIPPIT. Killing the President ain't wrong? That's stretching it too far. That's his Commander & Chief. Whether he killed TIPPIT or not, this guy was walking around the fucking police station knowing he had done nothing wrong. He wasn't really sure what the fuck was going on. He figured that the Agency would come to his aid. JAMES WOLLWEBER One very hot lead on the team's escape that was never adequately investigated because the FBI was afraid of what it might find concerned a report by Atlanta Klansman James Wollweber.

James Wollweber, 3031 Rebecca Drive S.W. telephonically advised that he had received a telephone call at 5:00 p.m. on November 22, 1963 from a man who identified himself as (FNU) JOHNSON. Johnson told Wollweber that he knew Wollweber was a person who could keep quiet, and he wanted Wollweber to fly him to Dallas on the following day. There, they were to pickup an unknown individual and fly him to Nassau. Johnson wanted Wollweber to meet him at 12:00 noon on November 23, 1963 at Opa Locka Airport near Miami, but Wollweber was not certain that he would keep the appointment. Wollweber advised that he is a pilot and flies his own plane.

James Wollweber, 3031 Rebecca Drive, S.W. telephonically advised that he will not make the trip to Opalocka Airport near Miami, Florida, to meet (FNU) Johnson as he had planned because of the bad weather conditions in the Atlanta area and an unavailability of the specific airplane he wanted to use for the trip. Wollweber advised that he would advise the FBI if he should change his plans.

When the FBI checked its files on James Wollweber it found he had contacted its Miami and Atlanta offices in the past concerning Cuban matters "and he is believed to be unreliable." Regardless, the Atlanta FBI office was ordered to "run it out." The FBI stated: "In view of the extreme importance of this matter, possibility of WOLLWEBER contacting unknown individual with last name Johnson should be appropriately resolved. Keep Bureau and Dallas advised per all SAC Radiogram. Furnish results of inquiry in form suitable for dissemination. Must receive preferential treatment." The next morning, James Wollweber called the FBI and said that due to weather conditions in the Atlanta area, and the unavailability of a specific airplane, he would not make the trip. James Wollweber said he would contact the FBI should he change his plans. Had the FBI been interested in unearthing a conspiracy, an agent pretending to be James Wollweber would have made the trip. What struck this document analyst about the Wollweber investigation as reflected in the FBI files was it's brevity. In total, less than one page was devoted to it. In June 1993 STURGIS associate William Johnson, stated: Wollweber was a smuggler. He was a scam artist that was takin' money from all over the country. He'd buy an airplane and sell it to two people and never paid for it. He was a tall guy, about 50, out of Atlanta. He was tongue-tied. He had a wife that was like a show girl. And I was on a boat with him - we did a seizure for Customs of a narcotics shipment out of Jamaica. Wollweber had a record at the time. He was working-off a beef. I think the beef was out of Atlanta - it could have been Dallas. That would be interesting. There was a Wollweber. Now that was my name, but I didn't want to go to Dallas. I'll tell ya who could have called him. It's your buddy, STURGIS, he was using my name. Wollweber didn't come into my life till about 1970. He didn't know my first name. If my name popped in, they would have sure started lookin'. The mention of the Bahamas, that is

consequential. That's funny how that guy came to me - I got to think this one out. [FBI 89-43-1166, 62-109060-640, 790] William Johnson was mailed copies of the James Wollweber documents. He commented: Wollweber worked for Wallace Shanley. I got a picture of him. FRANK used my name. I confronted him with it. He didn't give me the right answers. I said to him that I was going through Freedom of Information papers and 'What do you think about this?' He says, 'There's a lot of Johnsons.' I said 'Not the one that flies to the Bahamas and not the one who knows Wollweber. Somebody used my name, and I think it’s you FRANK.'" HEMMING: The Johnson was Bill Johnson. Look at Johnson's attitude when he was asked about it. He ain't too happy with STURGIS. It puts FRANK in Florida trying to get somebody out of Dallas. Johnson ain't gonna pay for this shit. Johnson was a pilot and had access to aircraft. Why would he want this guy to fly him? Czukas knew Wollweber. William Johnson probably called James Wollweber on behalf of the crew. He wanted to evacuate a team member who had been left behind. HEMMING: "This is an indicator of the level of competence of a team. Team members aren't pilots? That tells me they're fucking amateurs." When the CIA stole STURGIS' briefcase Bahamian Air Navigational Charts were found. WOLLWEBER WAS PROFESSIONAL RELIABLE SNITCH TO: DIRECTOR, FBI AND SAC MIAMI NOVEMBER 27, 1959 FROM: SAC ATLANTA RE: JAMES WILLIAM WOLLWEBER- IS-CUBA ROLANDIO ARCADIO MASFERRER ROJAS James William Wollweber appeared Atlanta Division November 27, 1959 and advised he had been approached by Gaylord Saxton, address unknown, Miami, Florida to fly airplanes to Cuba and drop incendiaries on Cuban sugar crop. And Saxton were in Atlanta Penitentiary together. Wollweber stated advised by Saxton to come to Miami November 29, 1959 to make arrangements for flight to Cuba. Wollweber stated willing to go to help FBI but would need expenses paid. Wollweber was advised Bureau could not encourage him to go, and if he went he would be on his own. He was further advised Bureau would be glad to receive any information he might gather. Miami attempt. Miami attempt to identify

Saxton and Suarez through file reviews and logical sources. UACB by November 38. Miami advised interested federal agencies.

TO: DIRECTOR, FBI DECEMBER 3, 1959 FROM: SAC MIAMI SUBJECT: ROLANDO MASFERRER On December 3, 1959 James Wollweber telephonically contacted Miami Office and advised he arrived in Miami and was staying at the Biscayne Terrace Hotel. He went to see Gaylord Saxton, who told him plans to burn sugar cane in Cuba were still being considered, but Masferrer had no money and was waiting for Pedro Sanchez to obtain money for this operation. Saxton was occupied by some legal matter and did not indicate to Wollweber that this plan of burning sugar in Cuba would become effective in the immediate future. Wollweber did not meet Masferrer or Suarez and was unable to furnish any further indentifying info concerning Suarez. Attempts to contact Wollweber again have been negative. By letter post marked December 8, 1959, New Orleans, Louisiana Wollweber advised that after talking to Saxton, he learned it would be at least another week “before he could see the parties again.” Wollweber said he decided to go to New Orleans and sell aerial items for the Sugar Bowl game, and would return to Miami as soon as he was finished. When Wollweber returns to Miami and contacts this office, the Bureau will be advised.

OFFICE MEMORANDUM DATE NOVEMBER 30, 1959 TO: A. H. BELMONT FROM: S. B. DONAHOE SUBJECT: ROLANDO MASFERRER On November 28, 1959 Miami Office advised Saxton released from Alcatraz July 1954 having been arrested by Border Patrol for smuggling European aliens in US from Cuba and convicted for this offense. Miami had record of one Pedro Suarez Hernandez, wealthy Cuban contractor reportedly connected with Cuban gambling, residing in Miami. Miami did not know if Suarez Hernandez was identical with Pedro Suarez. Miami Office also advised that U.S. Customs, Miami, was in contact with Gaylord Saxton who had recently stated he had received proposition from Subject, former Cuban Senator and anti-Castro leader in Miami, to drop phosphorous in Cuba, but that no definite plans have been made as yet. We disseminated above data orally to State, CIA, Army, Navy, Air Force and Joint Staff November 28, 1959. On November 29, 1959 Atlanta advised Wollweber had been in contact with Saxton evening of November 28, 1959 and that Saxton wanted him to come to Miami. Wollweber plans

to go to Miami about December 2, 1959 and will contact Miami Office on arrival. OBSERVATIONS: Since Customs, Miami, has been in contact with Saxton, it appears Customs is already investigating this matter as case involving possible illegal attempt to take implements of war out of U.S. It is noted both plane and arms would be considered such and matter within primary jurisdiction of Customs. If Customs has matter under investigation, we should maintain liaison with Customs and Wollweber available to Customs if he is agreeable. Saxton’s approach to Wollweber may have been step in developing Customs’ case. [FBI 100-344127-32 URGENT TO DIRECTOR FBI AND SAC MIAMI FROM SAC ATLANTA December 2, 1959 SUBJECT: MASFERRER REMYTEL December 1, last captioned JAMES WILLIAM WOLLWEBER AND BUREAU TEL DEC ONE Atlanta recommends that Wollweber not be placed in contact with Customs. Wollweber has excellent potential as criminal informant in Atlanta area. He is completely willing to help FBI but wants identity to be kept confidential. Miami requested to instruct Wollweber to furnish all information he learns as result of contact with Saxton to Miami Division who can in turn furnish same to Customs. It is further requested Wollwebers identify not be revealed to Customs. FBI 100-334127-28 initialed by Hoover. JAMES EDGAR WETHINGTON John Robert Klinner, and nine others, were picked up by the Cuban coast guard while trying to infiltrate Cuba in February 1963. The group told the Cubans they were shipwrecked and drifted into Cuban waters, but the ruse was uncovered when a shipmate of John Robert Klinner was recalled as a previous CIA suspect. The FBI: The following investigation was conducted by Special Agent WILLIAM MAYO DREW, JR., on January 30, 1964: On December 27, 1963, JOHN C. SULLIVAN, JR., Attorney-At-Law, 2505 Ponce de Leon Boulevard, Coral Gables, Florida, telephonically advised Special Agent WARREN R. WELSH as follows: SULLIVAN represents MARGARITE PATRICIA DIGNUM in a divorce proceeding against JOHN ROBERT KLINNER. SULLIVAN volunteered

information to the effect that his client informed him on the day of the assassination of President JOHN F. KENNEDY that prior to the time of the assassination, KLINNER and his client were in Burdines' Department Store. After the news came that the President had been assassinated, his client stated that she and KLINNER immediately left the store and went home. At that time KLINNER made a telephone call to a person he addressed as "Major". The question to the "major" was to the effect "Was it one of our boys or was it one of our group that did it?" The files of the Miami Office of the FBI indicate that JOHN ROBERT KLINNER correct name is JAMES EDGAR WETHINGTON. He is white, and is approximately 40 years of age. He has FBI Number 2426610. He has been arrested on numerous occasions on various charges. On February 16, 1956, he was sentenced in the United States District Court, Savannah, Georgia, following conviction for violating the White Slave Traffic Act, to serve five years in the United States Penitentiary, at Atlanta, Georgia. He was conditionally released on January 29, 1960, in custody of the United States Probation Officer, Savannah, Georgia. A Conditional Release Violator's Warrant was issued for his arrest by the United States Board of Parole, Washington, D. C., on March 15, 1960, charging him with absconding supervision, loss of contact, and failure to report. KLINNER was apprehended by FBI Agents at Miami, Florida, on October 1, 1960, and turned over to the U. S. Marshal. KLINNER was one of a group of repatriates who arrived at Homestead Air Force Base, Homestead, Florida, on April 9, 1960, aboard a chartered Pan American Airways Flight from Havana, Cuba. The April 10, 1963 issue of the "Miami Herald" contained an article entitled "Nine Yanks Return After 43 Days in CASTRO Jail." This article described the repatriates as nine shipwrecked Americans who spent 67 days in Cuban prisons including 43 days in solitary confinement. On this occasion, information was received that JOHN KLINNER was born on November 13, 1923, at Detroit, Michigan. His U. S. address was shown as 200 S. E. 12th Street, Miami, Florida. On January 7, 1964, the following investigation was conducted by SA FRANK P. GRIFFEE: MARGUERITE PATRICIA KLINNER, nee DIGNUM, 5925 S. W. 42nd Terrace, Miami, Florida, furnished the following information: On July 20, 1963, she married a man known to het as JOHN ROBERT KLINNER. She later learned that true name was not "KLINNER" but was "WETHINGTON." Immediately following their marriage, they moved to Nassau, Bahamas, where they lived until MARGUERITE KLINNER returned alone to Miami approximately September 1, 1963. JOHN KLINNER remained in Nassau. About three weeks before Thanksgiving,

1963, JOHN KLINNER appeared in Miami, and was from time to time in contact with her. To the best of her recollection, about a week before Thanksgiving, 1963, JOHN KLINNER told her that he had just returned from Cuba. On November 22, 1963, she and JOHN KLINNER were in Burdine’s Department Store, Miami, when it was announced that the President had just been assassinated. KLINNER insisted that they return to her home at once. Immediately upon returning to her home, JOHN KLINNER made a telephone call to someone whom he addressed as "Major". She stated that to the best of her recollection KLINNER immediately asked the following question to the person to whom he was speaking: "Was it us?" or "Was he one of our boys or was he one of our group that did it?" She stated she could not further interpret the meaning of the telephone call. She said, however, that KLINNER had engaged in further conversation indicating that be and the person to whom he was speaking were speculating whether any persons would be arrested in Miami as a result of the assassination. Mrs. KLINNER stated that during the time she lived with JOHN MANNER he often made reference to the fact that he was associated with the "Cuban Freedom Fighters", and made frequent telephone calls to persons whom he addressed as the "Major" and "Wong". When speaking to Wong KLINNER often used words or phrases which she assumed were in the Chinese or Japanese language. Mrs. KLINNER said she did not know the substance of the telephone conversations. She said she got the impression at times that they were made solely for the purpose of creating an atmosphere of importance for her benefit on KLINNER's part. Mrs. KLINNER said she did not know what JOHN KLINNER did for a living; that he told her he received money from an aunt in Decatur, Georgia. While KLINNER lived with her he associated with M. B. and C. B. TAMAN'S, Blue Ribbon Shipping Company, Nassau, Bahamas, who owned the "British MV Inak.” The "Inak" docks at Miami every second Monday. When in Miami, KLINNER may stop at the Ocean Ranch Hotel, 200 S. E. 12th Street. Mrs. KLINNER said she is suing KLINNER for divorce and that she was then attempting to locate him for the purpose of serving him with process. Records of the Dade County Sheriff's Office indicated that KLINNER was arrested on January 11, 1964, on charges of selling property under lien - and for a traffic violation. He was released the same date on bond. Specific inquiry concerning JOHN ROBERT KLINNER was made of individuals familiar with the Second National Front of Escambry, Alpha 66. Each advised that they had to personal knowledge of JOHN ROBERT KLINNER.

JOHN ROBERT KLINNER, Room 123 Santa Anita Motel, 16421 Collins Avenue, Miami Beach, Florida advised as follows: He is employed as a swimming pool attendant at the Castaways Motel, which is located immediately adjacent to his place of residence at the Santa Anita Motel. KLINNER is separated from and is in the process of securing a divorce from MARGARITE PATRICIA DIGNUM. KLINNER advised that to the best of his knowledge on the afternoon of the data upon which President KENNEDY was assassinated, he heard of the assassination while in an automobile with his wife on the way to the Miami International Airport. He stated that he has no recollection whatsoever of having been in Durdines' Department Store, Miami, Florida, on that date. KLINNER stated he was on his way to the airport to catch a plane for Nassau. He said that after arriving at the airport, he and his wife did make some telephone calls concerning the assassination, but the only people to whom they talked were his wife's relatives. KLINNER specifically denied making a telephone call to anyone who he referred to as “Major". He stated he knew no one named “WONG". KLINNER stated he was acquainted with a man who referred to himself as "Major", that this individual is connected with the Alpha 66 Movement in Miami, and that he KLINNER had been approached by members of the Alpha 66 Movement in an effort to induce KLINNER to join them in their endeavors. KLINNER stated that he had refused to have anything to do with this group. KLINNER said he felt that his wife was merely trying to embarrass him due to their pending divorce action.

The FBI: "Mrs. John Robert Klinner said that during the time she lived with John Robert Klinner he often made references to the fact that he was associated with the Cuban Freedom Fighters." The Cuban Freedom Fighters was another name for the International Anti-Communist Brigade. [FBI 62-109060-3038 p655] HEMMING told this researcher: When STURGIS found out this International Anti-Communist Brigade shit was sticking in people’s throats, they created a Freedom Fighters thing with Alexander Rorke. Edith Kermit Roosevelt gave them $75,000. On July 21, 1962 The Long Island Press carried an article by Edith Kermit Roosevelt titled: "Freedom Fighters At Odds With CIA." The article stated: Rorke's group, the U.S. Freedom Fighters, has information that out of 400 Cubans sent by the CIA to Cuba in the last six months about 320 men or 80% have been captured and killed by Castro's police...U.S. Freedom Fighters organize phantom cells in Cuba, cells of from one to five persons, who carry out sabotage. Only last week Cuban guerillas were infiltrated in

40-foot boats by U.S. Freedom Fighters to aid rebels in the Matanzas Province. They were sent there to exploit last fall's phantom cell operation within the province which resulted from leaflet raids by Rorke, Bill Johnson, Bill Wall, and FRANK FIORINI, all of Miami. Dignum said that Klinner frequently made calls someone he called 'the Major' and 'Wong.' "For the information of the Bureau and Dallas, Dignum also advised that John Robert Klinner, on numerous occasions, told her he had been associated with the CIA. [FBI 62-109060-2272, FBI 62-109060-3083] The CIA advised the FBI it had "no interest whatsoever in John Robert Klinner." [FBI Miami 89-43-3123] Marguerite Dignum attorney, John C. Sullivan Jr. reported John Robert Klinner's suspicious activities to the FBI on December 27, 1963. Miami FBI indices reflected that John Robert Klinner was the Subject of Miami File 76-1938, and 105-7037. [NARA FBI 124-10268-10396, 10431] On January 11, 1964, John Robert Klinner was arrested for selling property under lien and for a traffic violation. He was released the same date on bond. On January 20, 1964, S.A. Frank P. Griffee questioned John Robert Klinner. Major Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo was the leader of Alpha-66. The FBI questioned Antonio Veciana about Klinner. "On January 30, 1964, (Deleted) advised that he had no personal knowledge of John Robert Klinner who was being investigated in connection with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy." [FBI DL 89-43 G Cover Page] Marguerite Dignum sought protection from the CIA in Miami in October 1964, because she believed her life was in danger: "She was afraid her husband was connected with the Kennedy assassination, and that he fears she will expose him." The last quotation was taken from a synopsis of a CIA document withheld because of National Security considerations. [WCD 1107; Miami Herald 4.11.63; FBI 62-109060-2272, 2442; CIA Index JFK Doc; CIA 891-908]


For the most up-to-date version of this Nodule go to

FRANK STURGIS IN 1963 AND TRAMP PICKED UP IN DEALEY PLAZA ABOUT AN HOUR AFTER THE KENNEDY ASSASSINATION BRUCE HALL: FIRST TO DISCOVER TRAMP IS STURGIS A document about journalist Bruce Hall appeared in the Watergate file at FBI Headquarters: The Bureau and Washington Field Office were furnished the following information by May 30, 1973, Dallas Nitel [Night Telex]: On May 5, 1973, Assistant Chief of Police Thomas A. Hutson, Dallas Police Department, advised that during the last week of January 1973, Bruce Hall, an Atlanta, Georgia, CBS representative, contacted the Dallas Police Department and showed them two photographs taken during the day of the Kennedy assassination in Dallas. The photographs depicted two Dallas police officers walking along the street near the assassination site with two white males. Hall asked that these persons be identified. The policemen are Marvin Wise and Billy Bass...Hall indicated that the man on the right in the photographs is FRANK A. STURGIS, without saying anything about his being connected with Watergate. The Dallas Police Department did not realize the connection until recently when Bob Shaw, Dallas Police Department, Press Officer, noticed STURGIS' name in the newspaper. Then on May 29, 1973, Shaw received a call from a UPI representative who stated that the rumor was all over Washington that STURGIS had been photographed in Dallas on the assassination day. Mr. Leopold, associated with the Senate Watergate Committee investigation, has contacted the Dallas Police Department and asked for any arrest record that they have on STURGIS under his true name and aliases. The Dallas Police Department has no record of any arrest under such names. Leopold is sending fingerprints to Dallas Police Department for checks against its identification records. Copies of the photographs mentioned in the above quoted nitel were obtained from the Dallas Police Department and were furnished to the Bureau and WFO by Dallas airtel to the Bureau and WFO, dated May 31, 1973, in the Watergate case. There were some cryptic handwritten notes on the right-hand side of the document: "No follow up (illegible) has a small ino. No interest. Photo (illegible)." This was followed by what appeared to be several initials. The "Thomas Hutson" mentioned in the document helped arrest OSWALD on November 22. Hutson was contacted in August 1993:

I don't grant interviews. I'm not interested in discussing anything that happened in 1963. I only deal with the facts. It's in the Warren Report. It's a bunch of bullshit - all the rest of it. Not fact. All these people writing and doin' all this is just tryin' t' enrich theirselves and gain a bunch a money. They can't deal with the cold, hard facts as it really happened. The document about Bruce Hall cited five reports of S.A. James J. O'Conner captioned "LEE HARVEY OSWALD - Miami," about, or mentioning, FRANK FIORINI. The FBI: This possible connection has come to the attention of the FBI from several different sources and centers around a series of photographs taken in Dallas, Texas..." Bruce Hall was one source. Bruce Hall was contacted in June 1993. He told this researcher: "I had reason to believe, at that time, that it [the tramp] was FRANK STURGIS. I had been given some information from someplace that it was, in fact, STURGIS. I will not disclose my source at this time, although I will say it came from another person within CBS who was dealing directly with the other person. In order to keep that person in the clear, we set up a system where he got the information, and it was passed on to me, and I would do the leg work and field on it. His source was within the government, but I do not know who his source was. I made my first trip to Dallas to investigate the information on Friday, January 19, 1973. I still think it is STURGIS. We spoke with a number of people in Dallas at that particular time who we thought might recognize the picture, or who we thought might comment, we wanted to see what their response and their reaction was. In the Spring of 1973 a rumor that circulated in Washington, D.C., placed STURGIS in Dallas on November 21, 1963. Bruce Hall said that his report to the Dallas Police and the rumor circulating in Washington that STURGIS had been arrested in Dallas on November 21, 1963, were unrelated. When the FBI checked its files on STURGIS, it found he had been questioned about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1964. STURGIS should have been questioned by the FBI in May 1973. The FBI erroneously concluded that: It appears possible that E. HOWARD HUNT and FRANK ANTHONY STURGIS were eliminated as being identical to the unidentified individuals in the photographs with the Dallas police officers taken November 22, 1963, during the Watergate investigation. If not, it would appear that the Miami Office would be able to establish STURGIS' whereabouts on November 22, 1963, outside of Dallas. The above would indicate that all logical investigation has already been conducted in the MURKIN case, and the Watergate Case, to identify the three unknown persons with the Dallas police officers, none of which, investigation has indicated, were finger printed. UACB, no further action taken by Dallas.

The Ervin Committee was given the tramp shots; however, it did not do a photo analysis. During the Ervin Committee Hearings in the summer of 1973, an alibi for HUNT, BARKER, McCORD and STURGIS could not be established. Congressman Henry Gonzalez (Dem.-TX) said that their alibis were all unsatisfactory. As stated, in November 1973 this researcher discovered the resemblance between HUNT and one of the tramps. An article about this discovery appeared throughout the underground press. When the Warren Report was released in September 1964, the CIA's Propaganda Notes Bulletin stated: "Covert assets should explain the tragedy wherever it is genuinely misunderstood and counter all efforts to misconstrue it intentionally." [CIA 871-388A] In 1973 Bernard Fensterwald and his associate, Richard E. Sprague, were the keepers of the tramp shot negatives. In the 1960's and 1970's Richard E. Sprague was a computer programmer who worked for Northrup Aircraft and Touche Ross, an accounting firm that handled Fortune 500 corporations such as Boeing Aviation, then Sprague opened his own business. As stated, Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig signed an affidavit in which he stated that he observed Eugene Edgar Bradley in Dallas on November 22, 1963, driving a get-away station wagon for OSWALD. Roger Craig was shown a picture of Bradley by a member of Jim Garrison's staff. Garrison had been led to believe that Eugene Edgar Bradley was involved in the Kennedy assassination. Vincent Salandria, an attorney from Philadelphia who was close to the Garrison investigation, commented: He's a clever one and he's one of them. Big Jim Garrison made a terrible error based on Sprague regarding Eugene Edgar Bradley. He's poison. He was first to bring out the Bradley thing. He almost destroyed Jim in the Bradley thing. He pushed Hoover-did-it and right-wing interpretations. He came around with bundles of beautiful pictures and reports. He was from Wall Street then. Garrison was also convinced that Fred Lee Chrisman, a right-wing radio personality from the West Coast, was involved in the Kennedy assassination. Sprague denied having given Jim Garrison the Bradley lead: Some guys and a woman tipped off Jim Garrison on Bradley. He was not there and was innocent. Garrison asked me to look through photographs and I found that Bradley had a close facial resemblance to the tallest tramp. That spurred Garrison on." Sprague said he went to Dallas and conducted a height study that indicated the tramp was 6' 2" to 6' 4". This eliminated Bradley who was 5'9" tall.

On July 18, 1968, the FBI generated this note regarding Sprague: Richard E. Sprague was the subject of memo 'A. Rosen to DeLoach March 26, 1968,' captioned 'Assassination of President Kennedy November 22, 1963, Dallas, Texas.' (Copy attached) It was approved that contact with Sprague should not be made. Sprague telephonically contacted Supervisor H.A. Schutz of the General Investigative Division on July 8, 1968, indicating he was in town attempting to obtain Government contracts for his computer business, company name, 'Personal Data Services Corp.' Sprague said he had his research monograph and desired to submit it to the Bureau. He was informed that any information he had would be accepted, and no commitments were made to Sprague whatsoever. Upon receipt of his monograph it was determined to be identical with that previously received. Therefore his communication is being answered as indicated, and the salutation 'Dear Sir' is being utilized since Sprague had been in close contact and assisted individuals who have been severely critical of the President's Commission and the FBI. [FBI 62-109060-6520] On March 24, 1970, Sprague again contacted the FBI. J. Edgar Hoover responded: With respect to your request, it will not be possible to furnish the assistance you are seeking as all pertinent material, including movies and photographs, relative to the assassination of President Kennedy, was made available by this Bureau to the Warren Commission. That Commission subsequently turned the material over to the National Archives. Note: Our files disclose in a Rosen to DeLoach memo dated April 26, 1968, it was noted that Richard E. Sprague had written the Administrative Assistant to Senator Robert F. Kennedy, enclosing a number of photographs taken at the assassination site and stated he was a proponent of the theory that more than one individual was firing shots at President Kennedy when he was assassinated. It had been determined

that Sprague assisted individuals who have been severely critical of the Warren Commission and the FBI. We wrote him on July 18, 1968, utilizing above salutation and complimentary closing in view of data in our files regarding him." [FBI-62-109060-6926] Richard E. Sprague published the tramp shots in Computers and Automation magazine in May 1970. They had already been published in Penn Jones' book Forgive My Grief. In 1973 Bernard Grossman called Richard E. Sprague and requested negatives, or prints, of the tramp shots. Richard E. Sprague was interested in the researcher's interest in the tramp shots, but refused to give him copies. When the researcher asked if Richard E. Sprague had seen this researcher's article about the tramps, he said: A.J. WEBERMAN is a CIA agent spreading disinformation. Tom Forcade is also an agent. He worked for the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP) and I can show proof. He worked for the FBI. The Fifth Estate [an underground paper in Detroit] people have proof of it. He should have been arrested. He was a government agent for ten years. This researcher obtained the tramp photographs from Jack Beers (two weeks before he died) and from Fred Newcomb thanks to researcher Bernhard "Gustave" Grossman. SPRAGUE'S LETTER TO THE BERKELEY BARB: MAY 1973 The article about the tramps is full of plagiarism, errors, misquotes and invented facts that mislead the readers of the Berkeley Barb in unfortunate ways. I suppose the reason the author, A. J. WEBERMAN of Greenwich Village, New York, did not sign the article (or at least the Barb did not publish his identity) was fear of a libel suit. Mr. WEBERMAN and the editors of the Barb opened themselves up to that possibility, when the article suggested the Committee to Investigate Assassinations is a CIA front organization and implied that I have been working for the CIA since before May 1970. WEBERMAN states in the article 'Judging from his (Sprague's) connection with the Committee to Investigate Assassinations, a CIA front group, the purpose of running these pictures was to make sure no-one was on to anything.' Much as I would like to have discovered HUNT and STURGIS in Dealey Plaza, I must tell the Barb editors that WEBERMAN is wrong. The short tramp with the felt hat bears a very strong resemblance to Fred Lee Chrisman, a Minuteman from Washington. He is also about the same age as Chrisman and has two identical scars on the right side of his face...I started on the project in 1972, as soon as HUNT, STURGIS, BARKER and Company surfaced, to see if I could find any of them in the thousands of still photos and movie frames taken in Dealey Plaza on November 22, 1973. (sic) I also began research to find out where each one was that day. I suspected, and still suspect, that all six of the Watergate men who were involved in the Bay of

Pigs (All but Liddy of the seven burglars) were involved in the assassination of John Kennedy. I could not find any of the six in Dealey Plaza. SPRAGUE'S LETTER TO JOSEPH OKPAKU After Coup D'Etat In America was published in 1975, Sprague sent a 30-page critique to its publisher in which he suggested that the book be taken off the market:

The widespread publicity given to the 'HUNT and STURGIS in Dealey Plaza' idea by Dick Gregory and others, the denial by HUNT under oath, the threats of law suits, the use of this 'tool' by David Belin and the Rockefeller Commission against qualified researchers and Warren Commission critics, and far more importantly, the potential future use of this gross error by the next official body set up to discredit the researchers and members of any House or Senate Committee investigating the assassination; all of these factors should have given you pause for deeper reflection and greater efforts to validate that author's claims. I assume in making this criticism, that your basic motivations are purely to seek the truth about the assassination wherever it may lead us. If Henry Gonzalez and Thomas Downing are successful in creating a special House committee to investigate the JFK assassination, they will need all the credibility they can muster. Both men are certain to come under personal attack from the powers on the other side of this giant battle

for truth. Those forces will no doubt use Mr. Gonzalez's writing of the foreword for your book, to discredit him, largely because of the HUNTSTURGIS-Dealey Plaza error. None of us who have been supporting Henry Gonzalez through the last year would want to see that happen, and I assume you would not either. In addition to the discrediting possibility, the book sets up, there is a more subtle negative impact of the HUNT portion of the error. Focusing attention on whether or not HUNT was in Dealey Plaza draws attention away from where he really was that day, and more importantly, what he was doing at the moment the shots rang out in Dallas. You are in a position to turn this around, again assuming your real motivations are to get at and print the truth about the assassination and HUNT'S true involvement. By doing your homework now you can easily determine that HUNT was involved on November 22, 1963, in a very important meeting in Washington, D.C. with Richard Helms and Lyman Kirkpatrick [Inspector General of the CIA at the time of the Bay of Pigs] to decide whether the CIA would back another attempt to invade Cuba. One meeting on your part with the fourth man who was there, can settle this matter. I believe it should be obvious to you why that was an extremely significant meeting, and why HUNT, Helms and Kirkpatrick would deny that it ever took place. Just six short months before, Jack Kennedy had ordered the CIA and its anti-Castro agents to cease and desist from their plans for another invasion. He ordered the funds withdrawn, the training camps closed, the weapons confiscated, and the men arrested. All of that did take place..." FORCADE TURNS THE TABLES ON THE CTIA WEBERMAN and Tom Forcade asked the CTIA people, Bud Fensterwald, Bob Smith and others, as well as the Georgetown University people, for permission to post signs on the campus near the auditorium where the CTIA meeting was being held. Georgetown University was a co-sponsor of the conference, supplying the auditorium as well as volunteer workers handling facilities, registration and other details. CTIA did not have the people or facilities of our own. Forcade and WEBERMAN also wanted to hand out the posters, or leaflets, as C calls them, both in front of the auditorium and inside the auditorium after the conference started. If you haven't seen one of the leaflets you should. It was in extremely poor taste. There was a horrible cartoon of RICHARD NIXON holding President Kennedy's brain (presumably) and leering at it. Large printed characters

said the President's brain is missing. The rest of the poster was equally distasteful. Several congressmen and their staff people were planning to attend the CTIA conference. It was not the kind of material any of us wanted to see associated with the conference. Nor did we want to have the CTIA conference in any way connected in the minds of the senators and representatives with the demonstration in front of the Archives. We preferred legal approaches taken under the Freedom of Information Act. The CTIA conference had been planned and announced publicly months before WEBERMAN and his friends dreamed up the Archives demonstration idea. At any rate, the Georgetown people, who had the final say as far as what could or could not be done on the campus was concerned, apparently must have given WEBERMAN and Forcade permission to post the posters near the auditorium and to hand them out near the front door. When I arrived there shortly before the conference began, I saw the horrible posters on trees and poles and the sides of buildings all around the area. I also saw people handing out the 'leaflets.' I must admit my immediate reaction was to want to vomit, and my next reaction was a desire to run around the campus tearing down all of the posters. However, I resisted the impulse and entered the auditorium, going upstairs to the registration foyer at the auditorium entrance...Shortly after the conference began I was aware of a disturbance in the foyer. The door between the foyer and the auditorium was partly open as people were still entering in large numbers. I looked out an saw two men in straw-like derby hats colored black with a gold or yellow trim, creating a scene with Sally. I later found out they were WEBERMAN and Forcade. I had never seen either of them before. Everyone from the registration group except Sally had moved into the auditorium to listen to the opening speeches. I could hear them yelling at Sally. I believe several people near the door went out into the foyer. Then I could see papers flying all over the foyer, some loud screaming and a big thudding noise. Fensterwald and Smith had gone into the foyer by then along with other Georgetown people. I did not find out what had happened until later when Sally and the Georgetown girl told me what had occurred. WEBERMAN and Forcade came storming into the foyer, demanding they be allowed to enter the auditorium while the conference was in progress and distribute the 'brain missing leaflets.' Sally told them no and before she could do anything else, Forcade grabbed one of the CTIA registration tables and literally threw it on top of Sally, scattering books, forms and literature in all directions, grabbing handfuls of them while wildly running around the foyer. Sally's finger was broken in the action and she was badly shaken up. I don't know exactly what WEBERMAN was doing during Forcade's performance, but he surely was making no effective effort to stop it.

The Georgetown girl and CTIA people tried to get WEBERMAN and Forcade under control and were having difficulty doing it. They finally called the campus police and had both of them thrown out of the auditorium, and I presume, off the campus. I had nothing to do with giving the campus police any orders. I assume that when campus police anywhere discover two ruffians disturbing a conference and breaking a young girl's finger in the course of violent actions, they need no orders from anyone... WEBERMAN and Forcade should have ended up in jail after that action at Georgetown, not demonstrating in front of the Archives. If Sally hadn't been too frightened to press charges, they probably would have. All you had to do to find out about the garbage in the book or any of the other errors I have pointed out to you, was to make a telephone call. It was even a local call, to my office in Manhattan. That is hardly a very great limitation on your ability...Eventually this book will bring discredit to you and your publishing company, which I doubt that you really want. It is that last item that I hope will cause you to take the turn around actions I suggested in the early part of this letter. Yours sincerely, Richard E. Sprague, 193 Pinewood Road, Hartsdale, N.Y. P.S. Friends have told me that Mr. WEBERMAN is telling people that I am a CIA agent. If everyone who disagrees with his conclusions turns out to be a CIA agent, the Agency will be employing a large percentage of the American population. Sprague did everything he could to have my work suppressed. He threatened to sue the Berkeley Barb for libel when they reprinted one of my articles. He implied that I was a tool of the Rockefeller Commission that David Belin used against qualified researchers. In other words, I was an intelligence operative. Why was Sprague worried about "Mr. Gonzalez's writing of the introduction to Coup?" Wasn't this Congressmen Gonzalez's worry? Sprague wrote "assuming your real motivations are to get at and print the truth about the assassination." This implied that there were other people who had a secret agenda in connection with the Kennedy assassination. Sprague stated: "HUNT, Helms and Kirkpatrick would deny that [the meeting] ever took place." Very convenient explanation of their denial of the Sprague story. Denial becomes confirmation. If there was such a meeting, why have HUNT, who was in the Domestic Operations Division, attend? Sprague wanted to set up a meeting between Enrique Williams and my publisher, Joseph Okpaku. What was Sprague's relationship with Williams? Sprague felt that it was illegal to hold a demonstration in front of the Archives: "We preferred legal approaches..." Sprague's true feelings: "WEBERMAN and Forcade should have ended up in jail after that action at Georgetown, not demonstrating in front of the Archives." Sprague's theory on the Kennedy assassination named Clay Shaw, HUNT, Guy Gabaldin, a CIA agent, Albert Osborne, Harry Dean, Richard Case Nagell, Fred Lee Chrisman, William Seymour, Ronald Augustinovich, Mary Hope, OSWALD and Emilo Santana, Jim Braden, Frenchy, Jim Hicks, Breck Wall, Jack Ruby and Larry Craford. How could someone of his intelligence possibly believe this scenario?

There was no way Richard Sprague was legitimate. Either Sprague was a free lance right-winger who decided help suppress the truth about the Kennedy assassination on his own, or he had some connection to the CIA. Sprague spent a lot of time dogging my tracks in Washington. Whenever I visited a member of Congress I would note in the guest book that Sprague had recently visited there. He would tell them that I was a crazy hippie/yippie from Greenwich Village whose theories should be dismissed out-ofhand. Why all this interest on the part of an executive level individual in this researcher? No CIA documents have surfaced that linked him with the Agency as of 1996. This researcher has been unable to determine if for certain if Sprague died so a Freedom of Information Act Request could be not filed for documents linking him with the Agency, however, one factor that makes me wonder about Sprague was how the FBI cleared him for an appointment by former Warren Commission member President Ford with the National Commission on Electronic Funds Transfer. In 1976 Richard E. Sprague was appointed by President Ford to the National Commission on Electronic Funds Transfer. Emilo Q. Daddario was on the National Commission on Electronic Funds Transfer. During World War II, Emilo Q. Daddario, a Connecticut attorney, saved Fascist Marshall Rodolfo Graziani from Socialist partisans. One day later, ANGLETON would similarly rescue Prince Valerio Borghese by disguising him as a U.S. Army officer. In 1958 Emilo Daddario was a Democratic Congressman from Connecticut. Daddario was listed in Who's Who in the CIA. Other members of the Electronic Funds Transfer Board included Thomas E. Kauper, former head of the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department. [Moldea, Dan Dark Victory 1986 page 277] Richard E. Sprague was a member of the Senior Staff and a Program Manager whose area of responsibility was "Use, Access and Control of EFT Systems and International Development." President Ford appropriated $1.8 million for this Commission. [Harris OSS p119; Laurent, Frederic, L'Orchestre Noir p43; Comm. on Elect. Funds Transfer brochure; Mader Who's Who in the CIA; Computers and Automation 5.70] Sprague croaked in 1996. May he got in hell along with the others who worked diligently to keep America’s history hidden. Journalist Jack Anderson was contacted about the tramp shots. On April 16, 1974, a column by Jack Anderson appeared in the Washington Post about STURGIS entitled A Bum Rap for FRANK STURGIS in Miami. After FRANK and his friends were arrested at gunpoint inside the Democratic Headquarters, they were pictured in the press as figures of fun, bunglers and petty thieves. On another level they became caricatures of Orwellian enemies of the American system. It was even whispered that they had been behind the plot to assassinate President Kennedy. As evidence, one group brought me a news photograph taken on the streets of Dallas on assassination day. They eagerly pointed out a man they said was STURGIS lurking in the shadows. The man resembled STURGIS, but was definitely not STURGIS.

The article made no reference to STURGIS being disguised as a tramp. Michael Canfield and this researcher displayed the tramp shots to Anderson as "walk ins" in his office in late 1973 or early 1974. We explained that they men were picked up behind the Texas School Book Depository, and never mentioned anyone lurking in the shadows. Jack Anderson had made up his mind that STURGIS had nothing to do with the Kennedy assassination before he observed the photos, based on his evaluation of FRANK'S personality and his close relationship with him - when STURGIS was arrested at Watergate Anderson offered to post bail for him. Anderson didn't even take the time to get the tramp story straight. It was not until April 12, 1975, that Anderson got his facts straight. He wrote: "The special commission, headed by Vice President Rockefeller, is examining "evidence" which allegedly links STURGIS and HUNT to the Kennedy assassination. The chief exhibit is a picture of two vagrants, resembling STURGIS and HUNT, who were picked up in Dallas after the assassination. Upon close examination, the picture of the man who is supposed to be STURGIS does not resemble him in some important details. The relative height of the two men in the picture also doesn't correspond to the actual height of STURGIS and HUNT." [Washington Post] Canfield and this researcher displayed a series of photographs to Anderson, not just one. On October 15, 1974, the CIA generated another Memorandum for the Record on STURGIS and HUNT. 1. This memorandum will record actions taken by the undersigned with respect to the allegation that the Subjects were arrested by the Dallas, Texas, Police as suspects in connection with the assassination of President Kennedy. 2. On October 10, 1974, the undersigned was requested to meet with Mr. Seymour Bolton Special Assistant to the DDO who had been contacted by Mr. Unumb, Deputy Assistant to the Director concerning the aforementioned allegation. According to Mr. Bolton an underground newspaper had photographs purported to substantiate the allegation that the Subjects had been arrested by Dallas Police. (See reference to same in the attached copy of Columnist Jack Anderson's April 16, 1974, column.) 3. I met with Mr. Bolton on October 10, 1974, at which time I discussed the action that I had taken with respect to this allegation approximately six weeks ago at the request of the Director of Security. At that time various courses of action were discussed our action was limited to a review of both Subjects' files and a search of our records which produced the Jack Anderson article referred to above and which is attached. (This article was made available to Mr. John Richard of the Inspector General Staff at the time.) 4. Mr. Bolton appeared satisfied and advised that no further action appeared necessary at this time. [Seven lines were deleted only to be

released in 1993.] However, he expressed some concern over the possibility that we might have to reopen the matter again if and when the Agency is ever asked about the same by one of the Congressional oversight committees insofar as the allegation pertains to HUNT because he was an Agency employee on the date in question. If this should occur, we would probably have to produce evidence that HUNT was not in Dallas on that day. We discussed various courses of action that we could take in this regard if necessary. 5. Mr. Gambino will be advised in the event that there are any future developments in this matter. (Ervan E. Kuhnke, Jr.) [Allen v. DOD CIA 41750, 41748] Seymour Bolton was involved with David Phillips in OPERATION MONGOOSE, a psywarfare project aimed at Castro’s Cuba. Bolton worked in the Plans Division. His son Josh became part of the Bush the Elder’s White House staff.

CLARENCE KELLEY: "STILL" THE TRAMP SHOT INVESTIGATION The tramps shots were displayed to Robert Horton, a reporter for the Reuters News Agency, in early August 1974 by Michael Canfield. Robert Horton called the FBI: For information of Miami: On August 7, 1974, a reporter for Reuters News Service contacted FBIHQ to advise he was in possession of photos depicting three individuals in custody of the Dallas Police on November 22, 1963, in the vicinity of the Texas School Book Depository. According to the above reporter, these photos were received from two young yippie individuals who were attempting to reopen the Kennedy assassination. Two of the individuals depicted in the above photos are purported to be HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS, both associated with the Watergate break-in. Leads: Miami locate STURGIS and attempt to establish his whereabouts on November 22, 1963. If STURGIS able to establish his whereabouts on that date, set forth leads to discreetly verify this information. S. A. W. Douglas Gow. [NARA FBI 124-10265-10134 FBI 89-35-409] W. Douglas Gow entered the FBI in June 1965 he served in the Dallas Field Office until his transfer to FBI Headquarters in 1974, where he was appointed a supervisor in the criminal investigative division and an associate deputy director. This came about as a result of Oliver Buck Revell choosing to become SAC in Dallas. By November 1990 Gow was an FBI assistant director who headed foreign counterintelligence operations. Gow acknowledged in a television interview that French intelligence agents took part in an attempt between 1987 and 1989 to collect industrial secrets at foreign offices of the American computer companies I.B.M. and Texas Instruments Corporation. The operation was uncovered by the Central Intelligence Agency and the FBI. In 1995 Gow was described as a “Former Associate Deputy Director of the FBI, Mr. Gow is a nationally recognized expert on terrorism and intelligence affairs. Currently Mr. Gow is a consultant to the CIA on counterintelligence policy.” You get the picture, the CIA investigating the CIA. []

On August 7, 1974, FBI Director Clarence Kelley, who been appointed by NIXON, wrote: The Los Angeles Times inquiry of Jack Nelson on the Wallace assassination continues to give us trouble. Please try to still present one to avoid the same situation as above, which continues.

Clarence Kelley joined the FBI in 1940 and in 1961 he was named Police Chief of Kansas City. In April 1968, after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Clarence Kelley ordered his police force to teargas black protesters. After the still order was given, the FBI's investigation was tainted. [FBI-62-109060-7121] [Kelley.JPEG] On August 14, 1974, the FBI tried to acquire the tramp shots from Michael Canfield, who refused to accommodate the Bureau. On August 17, 1974, Art Lundal, a former CIA employee received a call from Sam Jaffe: 1. I met Jaffe in the Dominican Republic during the time of Trujillo's assassination. I knew he left from there for Moscow as the ABC correspondent. I next heard from him when he called me in 1970 to say he was working with Metromedia in Washington, D.C. During this present conversation he told me he no longer needed the 'corporate body' and he was now a free-lance journalist operating out of his home. He said it was he who broke the story on United States companies' plan to exhibit surveillance equipment in Moscow. After the story was published, he said, Senator Mansfield gave the matter congressional recognition and stopped the exhibit of surveillance gear in Moscow. I told him I had read the story. 3. Jaffe went on to say that his friends (the "young guys on the hill") have photographs of a couple of derelicts ("bums")who were arrested in back of the Texas School Book Depository minutes after President Kennedy was assassinated. Jaffe said these bums look very much like HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS, the Watergate codefendants. [NARA 1993.]

On September 13, 1974, Scott Breckinridge generated this Memo For the Record regarding the "Press Inquiry Into Kennedy Assassination." 1. John Hicks phoned to say that he was passing to me what he had just passed to the DCI and OLC. 2. Hicks had a phone call from Art Lundahl, vacationing in Michigan. Lundahl's home is 616-731-5491. Lundahl was phoned by a man identifying himself as Sam Jaffe. Jaffe said that a couple of others are doing an investigation of the JFK assassination. In the course of this they were in Dallas where they reviewed photographs taken by the Dallas Police of persons rounded up following the assassination. Among these photographs were pictures of 3 hobos, two of which Jaffe said he identified as HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS. 3. The telephone call to Lundahl was at the suggestion of Victor Marchetti, who knew Lundahl's familiarity with photographic development. He wanted to know of a commercial place where they would do enlargements in order to study the pictures more carefully for a more certain identification. Lundahl avoided telling Jaffe anything, saying he was retired and out of contact. September 20, 1974, Memorandum for the Record/Subject: Inquiry - HUNT and STURGIS 1. Subsequent to Jaffe's inquiry to Art Lundahl last week, relayed to us by John Hicks, we have been in touch with the Office of Security (Charlie Kane) and have checked other records to ascertain HUNT'S whereabouts at the time of the Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. 2. The Office of Finance has checked HUNT'S leave and travel records for the period of September 1963 to January 1964, not knowing the purpose of our request. The record shows for the four week pay period ending November 23, 1963, that HUNT took 11 hours of sick leave an no annual leave. In the following pay period he took three hours sick leave and 27 hours annual leave, but this follows the particular period in question. His travel record shows official travel in September, October and December, but none in November. All this travel was to New York. John Richards states that we already know, as a result of responses to previous requests, that we have no records on STURGIS that would show similar information; he was not an Agency employee. 3. Security provided us with a column by Jack Anderson of April 16, 1974, in which he covered the HUNT-STURGIS rumor, dismissing it. A copy of

the news column is attached. This would suggest that, rather than police photographs of people rounded-up and booked, the photographs in question are random snapshots of crowds. If this is correct, there would be no related fingerprint records that could be checked for verification. 4. Kane feels that any inquiry would attract more attention then it would be worth. I agree. I suggest that we only hold this information against possible future inquiries on the subject. S. D. Breckinridge. Sam Jaffe contacted Art Lundahl regarding a possible photo analysis. Art Lundahl reported this contact to the CIA who, according to Victor Marchetti, advised Art Lundahl to steer clear of Sam Jaffe. After WWII Lundahl became chief of the Photogrammetry Division of the Naval Photogrammetry Division. In 1953 he moved to the CIA to manage both general photo-interpretation and then the products, in the late fifties, of the U-2 program. U-2 photographs taken on October 14, 1962, in which analysts, under Lundahl's direction, found visual evidence of the placement of Soviet SS-4 Medium Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBM), capable of hitting targets, in the continental United States, with nuclear warheads. This triggered the Cuban Missile Crisis, sending the US intelligence community into maximum effort and triggering an unprecedented military alert. Lundahl died in June 1992. [] The CIA's Office of the Inspector General generated this index card: JAFFE, Sam August 20, 1974 (Deleted) TRUJILLO August 17, 1974 MANSFIELD, Senator CHAVEZ, Frank 1961 KENNEDY, President HUNT, HOWARD December 1950 STURGIS, FRANK AGEE, Phil July 1953 July 1962 July 1964, June 1957, March 1960, April 1960, December 1963 January 1964, August 1966, September 1966, June 1967, July 1967, November 1968 IG FILE #49 TAB 24 MEMORANDUM FOR: Robert Wall, William Sturbitts, Ray Reardon December 17, 1976 FROM: S. D. Breckinridge, Acting Inspector General SUBJECT: Document on Kennedy Assassination 1. The attached paper was provided by the Office of the Assistant to the Director. 2. Paragraph 3 cites the story of photographs of vagrants in Dallas, which we understand has been refuted.

---------I.G. File #49 Tab #24

M/R (Deleted) Sub: Telephone Conversation with Sam Jaffe Jaffe went on to say that his friends (“the young guys on the hill”) according to his friends ("some of the young guys on the hill") have photographs of a couple of derelicts (“bums”) who were arrested in back of the Texas Book Depository minutes after President Kennedy was assassinated. Jaffe said these “bums” look very much like Howard Hunt and Frank Stugis, the Watergate codefendants. Jaffee said his information is that at the time of Kennedy’s assassination Howard Hunt was the Acting Chief of Station in Mexico City. I said I didn’t think so, and Jaffee responded that one man who should now “is that former CIA officer Agee.” I said I did not know Agee but read an account of him in the newspapers. In early September 1974, on the suggestion of Sam Jaffe, Michael Canfield gave a set of tramp and comparison photographs to Richard Pearle who worked for Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson (Dem.-WA). Michael Canfield told him that he wanted a nongovernmental agency to perform a photo analysis. Richard Pearle gave the photographs to Senator Jackson's aide, Don Donahue, who told Michael Canfield he would have a photographic expert look at the pictures and that he should have the results of this examination by September 16, 1974, when Michael Canfield was scheduled to return to Washington from New York City. The FBI reported: Donahue and Jaffe described Michael Canfield as a 'scared kid' who is possibly afraid for his safety...Donahue is reluctant to re-contact Jaffe or Canfield seeking the identity of the police officer unless absolutely necessary since he feels this may cause them to lose confidence in him. He indicated he would make further inquiry in this regard if we are unable to locate Harkness through the Dallas PD. Donahue said he intends to tell Canfield when he contacts him on Monday that he has had an expert look at the pictures and 'there may be something to this;' hence we would want to keep the photographs and refer them to the FBI. He said he would like to have the photos back by Monday to have them in hand when Canfield contacts him. It was pointed out to Donahue that should he make such a statement to Canfield this could be used by Canfield in giving credence to his story and might be interpreted as an acceptance of this story by Senator Jackson. Donahue then agreed he would make no statement whatever and would merely put him off should Canfield contact him before the Bureau is complete with its inquiry on this matter. [FBI 62-1090607131]

The FBI did not receive the shots from Don Donahue until September 10, 1974, more than one month after FBI Director Clarence Kelley issued his 'still' order. The FBI had determined the tramps were not HUNT and STURGIS before examining the tramp photographs. Why did the FBI need our tramp shots? The FBI had the tramp shots in its files because the Dallas Police Department had given the Bureau copies in 1968. [FBI 62-109060-7138] But either these shots were missing, or were overlooked. The CIA's Office of the Inspector General generated this index card on July 26, 1977: U.S. CITIZENS GENERAL TAB 15 Memo for the Record from Chief, CI/R&A. Subject: Probing of David Martin for Classified Case Information: David Martin, Peer Da Silva, William Harvey, Richard Kovich, Leonard McCoy, Sam Jaffe, George Kisevalter, JAMES ANGLETON, CI Staff, Popov, Golitsyn, Nosenko, Dolnitsyn. Peer Da Silva was chief of Security at Los Alamos and was mentioned in the Pentagon Papers: The efforts of those advocating reorganization began to bear edible fruit in December 1965 and January 1966, when a conference was held at Warrenton, Va., to which the Mission sent an impressive collection of Mission Council members…General Lansdale, CIA Station Chief Jorgenson, and Brigadier General Collins, representing Westmoreland. From Washington came the second and third echelons of the bureaucracy: …William Colby and Peer da Silva, CIA; Chester Cooper, White House; and Sanford Marlowe, USIA. Other participants included: Major General Hutchins, CINCPAC; Rufus Phillips of Lansdale's group; Charles Zwick and Henry Rowen of BOB; George Lodge, the Ambassador's son; Desmond Fitzgerald, CIA; and Leon Goure, of RAND. Richard Kovich was a SR (Soviet Recruitment) officer who had handled half a dozen of the CIA's most sensitive cases. He supported George Kisevalter in the running of Pyotr Popov, the GRU colonel who was the first major CIA penetration of Soviet intelligence. He was the case officer for Mikhail Federov, whose CIA code name was UNACUTE, a GRU illegal whom Kovich had recruited in Paris. With the knowledge and consent of the Norwegian secret service, he ran Ingeborg Lygren, a Norwegian woman who worked in her country's embassy in Moscow but reported through Kovich to the CIA. ANGLETON believed Kovich might have been a mole and damaged Kovich’s career. PHOTO ANALYSIS OF THE TRAMP SHOTS THE C. F. DOWNING REPORT Clarence Kelley's FBI issued a report that stated the FBI, preeminent in forensic examination, had determined the tramps were not HUNT and STURGIS. On September

12, 1974, FBI S.A. C. F. Downing, who had worked extensively on the FBI's investigation of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, [FBI 105-126032 NR 8.26.64] wrote: Reference is made to a memorandum from R.E. Gebhardt to Mr. Adams requesting that the FBI Laboratory compare photographs of three individuals arrested in the vicinity of the Kennedy assassination with known photographs of E. HOWARD HUNT, FRANK STURGIS...It was determined that the two individuals in these photographs suspected of being HUNT and STURGIS are not HUNT and STURGIS. This conclusion is based on the existence of differences in facial characteristics. There are no photographs available in the identification record for Thomas Arthur Valle or otherwise available in the Laboratory with which the third individual in the submitted photographs could be compared. [At this time Thomas Arthur Vallee was suspected of being the CHRIST tramp. Vallee was at work in Chicago on November 22.] Although the possibility of doctoring these photographs cannot be completely eliminated because of the possibility that such 'doctoring' can be done without detection, no evidence was found to indicate that any of these photographs have been 'doctored.' In a synopsis of the C. F. Downing Report, the FBI wrote: The FBI Laboratory has examined the photographs and advised that two of the persons under arrest are not HUNT and STURGIS, but they could not positively eliminate the possibility that the photographs had been doctored." [FBI 62-109060-7134] In a FBI Memorandum dated March 11, 1975, to the Rockefeller Commission, the disclaimer was eliminated: "There was no evidence found of retouching or alteration of the photographs of the three individuals in the vicinity of the Texas School Book Depository. A copy of the C. F. Downing Report was forwarded to S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt, the Bureau's photographic identification expert. S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt did most of the photographic work for the Warren Commission. S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt was granted CIA liaison clearances in December 1954, August 1962, and August 1968, at the request of the Technical Services Division. [CIA SRS/OS Sarah K. Hall 2.6.69] When a Freedom of Information Act request was filed for C.F. Downing's laboratory report, the FBI stated that no such report existed: Please be advised that the results of the Laboratory examination were furnished by the individual conducting the examination to his superiors by the memorandum which you enclosed with your request letter.

It was standard operating procedure for FBI laboratory technicians to file an FBI Work Sheet and an FBI Laboratory Report, accompanied by a memorandum that summarized the results of its findings. When the FBI obtained a photograph of Thomas Arthur Vallee from the Chicago Police Department, it turned it over to S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt, who did a FBI Work Sheet and Laboratory Report. [FBI 62-109060-10288] Where was C.F. Downing's HUNT and STURGIS Report and Work Sheet? Apparently there was no time to create them. FBI Director Clarence Kelley wanted the story quickly quashed. S.A. C.F. Downing had been ordered to still the investigation, and that meant issuing a negative report. C. F. Downing looked at the photographs, shook his head, and signed his memorandum. C. F. Downing claimed: "No evidence was found of doctoring." Where were the investigation notes concerning doctoring? C.F. Downing, who was not about to discredit his own previous work for the Warren Commission, had done what he could on short notice. Now the FBI was officially prepared to dispose of any serious journalistic or Congressional inquiry into the tramp shots and Watergate. On September 13, 1974, Don Donahue told Michael Canfield that "his contact does not believe the 'bums' are HUNT and STURGIS and that he does not want to become involved in this matter since he feels it is a situation which should be handled by the FBI." Don Donahue was a former Bureau Agent and the FBI protected him from being identified as the source of the photographs. [FBI 61-109060-7134] On May 23, 1975, the SSCIA requested the CIA do a photo analysis of the tramp shots. The CIA requested the photographs from the FBI. Don Donahue requested his identity be concealed as the source of these photographs. [FBI 62-109060-7193] On September 13, 1974, Sam Jaffe called S.A. Ruhl and asked him to evaluate Michael Canfield's credibility. S.A. Ruhl refused to do so. "Jaffe expressed concern that the FBI Lab would not do a proper evaluation of any photographs submitted by Michael Canfield because of a lack of confidence in Michael Canfield's theory." [FBI 61-109060-7127] Sam Jaffe died on February 8, 1985, at age 55, of cancer. Before he died Jaffe stated: "The last nine years have been incredible," Jaffe said in an interview with the Washington Post in 1985. If it weren't for a few friends I would be broken...I say I am not a Russian spy, the FBI says, 'Yeah, you are.' Well I want them to prove it. I want it all out in the open. I want my family cleared. If I should drop dead I don't want them living with this stigma. The CIA has cleared me. Now I want the FBI to do the same." Jaffe was member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Overseas Writers, the White House and State Department correspondents associations, and the Marine Corps Combat Correspondents Association. BEN BRADLEE, THE C. F. DOWNING REPORT AND THE TRAMPS On October 7, 1974, FBI Director Clarence Kelley conferred with Mr. Benjamin C. Bradlee, Editor of The Washington Post...Mr. Bradlee stated that certain photographs have come to his attention which allegedly showed E. HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS, of Watergate notoriety, in the custody of Dallas, Texas, police officers shortly after the

assassination of President Kennedy. Mr. Bradlee said that since The Washington Post Watergate investigation was just about over, they were looking for a new inquiry to direct their attention toward. He said he was considering sending a team of investigative reporters to Dallas to begin an investigation into these photographs, but decided to check with the Director beforehand to see if the Bureau was aware of the photographs and had possibly already resolved the matter. Mr. Bradlee was informed that this matter had come to our attention in August 1974, through A.J. Weberman and Michael Canfield, who were described as underground newspaper people from New York City...A copy of the March 15, 1974, to March 21, 1974, edition of The Berkeley Barb, a California underground newspaper, which contains the photographs in question...was given to Bradlee. An article from the May 24, 1968, edition of The New York Times pertaining to the photographs was also mentioned to Mr. Bradlee. Mr. Bradlee was also told Michael Canfield made a deal with the German magazine Stern in regard to selling his story." FBI Director Clarence Kelley continued: "The photographs have been compared by the FBI Laboratory with known photographs of HUNT and STURGIS with a determination being made that HUNT and STURGIS are not the ones in the photographs. He was also informed that all three officers in the photographs have been previously identified in relation to other investigations, and that all three officers advised that they took three individuals, names unknown to them, off a boxcar about a mile from the assassination site about 20 minutes after the shooting. They took them to the Dallas County Sheriff's Office where a screening office had been setup. Numerous people were taken to that office on that day and released without charges or booking, after being interviewed. No records have been located pertaining to these individuals arrest. It was also pointed out to Mr. Bradlee that there had been allegations that LEE HARVEY OSWALD had been in Miami, Florida, prior to the assassination and had been in contact with STURGIS, who was then using the name FRANK FIORINI. Extensive investigation, including interview of STURGIS, indicated that there was no substance to this. Michael Canfield had displayed the tramp photographs, and the HUNT and STURGIS comparison shots, to Ben Bradlee. Before he spoke with FBI Director Clarence Kelley, Ben Bradlee believed the tramps looked enough like HUNT and STURGIS to consider hiring a photo analyst to study the photographs. He was going to send a team of reporters to Dallas to investigate the circumstances of their arrest. After speaking with FBI Director Clarence Kelley, Benjamin Bradlee dropped the matter. FBI Director Clarence Kelley explained:

Mr. Bradlee then stated he was satisfied that the Bureau was well aware of these allegations and instead of investigating the matter, he planned to run a story to the effect that the FBI had checked these allegations and found no substance to them. After Mr. Bradlee's departure, the Director advised that Captain Will Fritz, who was the Dallas police officer in charge of its Kennedy case investigation, and who apparently authorized the release of the persons in the photographs, should be interviewed for any knowledge he might have of this matter. The Director also stated that HUNT and STURGIS should be contacted to ascertain their whereabouts on the day of the assassination. The Director pointed out that these interviews should be conducted to carry out our determination that HUNT and STURGIS were not the ones in the photographs one step further and hopefully lay these allegations to rest. [FBI 62-109060-7137] FBI Director Clarence Kelley suppressed the tramp story. Why bother investigating a story if the FBI Director, as well as the FBI Lab, has assured you that there was no substance to it? In any event, Ben Bradlee realized the story had already been published, and that Michael Canfield was trying to sell it to other publications while trying to sell it to The Washington Post. Ben Bradlee, however, was unjustified in turning it down. The FBI was intent on characterizing OSWALD as a loner, and not part of a broader conspiracy which it failed to detect. It could not be relied upon to be objective. In early 1979 Ben Bradlee was asked why he believed the FBI. In December 1981 he replied: You people die hard. If you believe in various conspiracies, as you plainly do, there is nothing I can say to convince you. I can only tell you that I did go to the FBI. I did talk to someone who was identified to me by FBI Director Clarence Kelley as the photo interpretation expert. He pointed out magnification of certain features, like ears, that satisfied me that the tramps were not HUNT or STURGIS... The tramp shots were doctored. No mention of possible doctoring of the photographs was made to Ben Bradlee by the FBI. Without taking this into account, at least one set of ears did not match. Thanks to the FBI, Stern Magazine, Reuters and other publications did not run the story. Klaus Liedke of Stern Magazine contacted the FBI about the tramps shots. The FBI: "In general terms he was advised that the FBI had looked into this matter and determined the individuals were not identical with HUNT and STURGIS." [FBI 62-109060-7150] By the end of 1974, the tramp story had been turned down by The New York Times, The Associated Press and by Mike Wallace and Les Midgley at Sixty Minutes. The Village Voice uncovered "a handwritten note on CBS stationary from Ellen McCloy [the daughter of John J. McCloy] to Les Midgley." Ellen McCloy, who was employed by CBS, was working on a program about the John F. Kennedy assassination. In September 1975 the former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency William Colby described a

meeting he had with Dan Rather and Les Midgley: "He referred to the work of Mark Lane in this field and I referred to Dick Gregory's paranoia on the subject of CIA connections with the Kennedy death." In February 1975 Clarence Kelley and Gordon Shankin visited the Texas School Book Depository. Kelley told the press that the FBI possessed no evidence that HUNT was at the scene of the Kennedy assassination. [Dallas Times Herald 2.13.75] PROFESSOR RAINER KNUSSMANN'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS In January 1975 a source at Stern magazine informed the CIA that the publication was working on the tramp shot story: To buttress this conjecture, Stern hired Professor Rainer Knussmann of the Anthropological Institute at Hamburg University, to do a 'scientific' comparison of the Dallas photographs with stock shots of HUNT and STURGIS. The total report is 37 pages, of which only the introduction and conclusion were provided. The translation commences with page 35: 'The given question about the identity of STURGIS and HUNT with the two designated persons on the Death Site pictures can only be answered clearly to the extent that a firm identity denial is not possible from the photographic documentation placed at my disposal. In this connection there is a noticeable discrepancy in the amount of ear protrusion, in the photographs of the man who could be HUNT which, however, fails by far to be sufficient for a sure negative identification. In all, the resemblance analysis with respect to both persons led to a clear majority of positive resemblance factors, which above all for STURGIS were in part very convincing since it concerned a clearly established similarity in relatively rare distinguishing marks. Because of the indifferent quality of the source photographs which handicaps a scientific comparison, and because of unsimilarities which cropped up in the course of the analysis - though these were nearly all of a minor nature - the total result is not adequate for the establishment of an absolutely sure identity. Such a result from photo materials such as were furnished me is in principle very difficult to achieve. The symptoms of identity never-the-less are so convincing that it must be advised in any case that the material be pursued further. A successful identity establishment could truly be expected if STURGIS and HUNT photographs, which should be obtainable, were prepared showing the Subjects from the same head angle and under similar lighting as in the Death Site photographs. The probable identity from the resemblance analysis is given a special weight because the margin of error is significantly reduced when both HUNT and STURGIS are analyzed in combination. This is on the common sense ground that while an accidental resemblance between HUNT or STURGIS on the one side, and one of the persons shown in the Death

Site pictures would be understandable, there is a very narrow probability that STURGIS accidentally resembles one, and HUNT accidentally the other of both persons shown in the Death Site photographs. Possibly what is finally expected of me is a precise probability quotient for the possible identity of STURGIS and HUNT with the questioned persons on the Death Site pictures. Such a numerical probability estimate can certainly be produced by mathematics, but would show false exactness. However, to give a preliminary examination, I estimate that the positive resemblance between STURGIS and the questioned person #1 in the Death Site photographs has a probability of 0.1 (10% error, that is 90% for identity). The similar value for HUNT being person #2, I estimate at 0.3 (that is a 30% chance of error and 70% probability of identity). From this a theoretical error probability for the combined results figures at only 0.03 (that is 3%, therefore, 97% probability). In closing I should like to assure you that in preparation of this evaluation I have taken pains to work according to the best conscience and knowledge without any political presumptions. Prof. Knussmann Officially Registered Court Hereditary Biology Expert, Examining Laboratory, Duesseldorf, Markenstr. 5, West Germany. [CIA Inspector General File #51 Tab 6 Gerard J. Hahn to Berns - source at Stern Frau Radziwell?] The CIA's Inspector General's Office had and interest in this photo study and it generated this index card: Sterns January 7, 1975 George J. Hahn HOWARD HUNT January 9, 1975 FRANK STURGIS President Kennedy October 1975 (Illegible) (Illegible) October 25, 1975 (Illegible) (Illegible) November 5, 1974 Frau Radziwell University of Hamburg IG FILE #51 Tab #6 C/DDO (Attention Mr. Berns) from Gerard J. Hahn. Subject: German Magazine Attempts to Tie HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS to the Dallas assassination of President Kennedy. Efforts by Der Stern to tie HUNT and STURGIS to the assassination of President Kennedy.

Attachment: (Illegible) translation by Prof. Knussmann of scientific (illegible) of Dallas photos (illegible) HUNT (illegible). A Magdelona Radziwill was mentioned in a book titled The Secret War Against the Jews by J. Loftus and J. Arons which was published in 1994: A top secret interrogation of a White Russian Nazi by General George Patton's intelligence chief names a Bishop Cikota as a 'Nazi agent' inside the Vatican. Princess Magdelona Radziwell is named in the same intelligence files as the corresponding Nazi agent in Switzerland. Her relative, Prince Radziwell, later surfaced as a petitioner to retrieve war German assets of Dulles's clients that had been seized by the United States. In 1996 Professor Knuessmann was a Consulting Editor of the international journal Collegium Antropologicum, which was published by the Croatian Anthropological Society. DICK GREGORY GETS THE TRAMP SHOTS NATIONAL PUBLICITY In January 1975 comedian Dick Gregory was contacted. He was given the comparison shots, and the work to date on the links between the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and HUNT and STURGIS. Dick Gregory held a press conference on February 5, 1975, during which he displayed the tramp shots and the photographs of HUNT and STURGIS. On February 16, 1975, about one week after Dick Gregory's press conference, Jacks Beers died of a heart attack. Mrs. Beers related that he had a long history of heart problems, including a heart attack in late November 1963. On March 8, 1975, the Rockefeller Commission agreed to investigate the tramps. After the Rockefeller Commission issued a press release, the tramps became the front page story in many newspapers. Headlines read: Rockefeller Panel to Probe CIA Role in JFK Death - Gregory Charges Founded on Photographs. Washington - The Rockefeller Commission on the CIA is looking into allegations that the CIA was somehow involved in the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, according to informed sources close to its investigation. One focus of the commission's inquiry is the recent assertion of a group headed by Dick Gregory, comedian and civil rights activist, that E. HOWARD HUNT Jr. was seized by Dallas police near the Kennedy assassination site within minutes of the shooting...The Gregory groups charge is founded on photographs published last year in underground newspapers and elsewhere purporting to show HUNT and FRANK A. STURGIS, another Watergate burglar, being led by the police from a

grassy knoll across from the Texas School Book Depository. [The Los Angeles Times Herald Examiner 3.9.75] The wire services reported: "Comedian and political activist Dick Gregory flew to Washington Thursday to deliver documents to the Rockefeller Commission..." The New York Times ran two stories: "Three Men Studied in Kennedy Assassination Photographs" which stated that the Rockefeller Commission was going to do a height study and "Rockefeller Unit Said to Check Report of CIA Link to Kennedy Assassination." HUNT wrote this in American Spy: But even that did not end the continuing harassment. Early in 1975, political activist Dick Gregory was given a series of photographs of the Dallas tramps together with several of Frank Sturgis and myself. In press conferences and talk shows, Gregory professed to see unmistakable similarity between the tramp photos and those of Sturgis and Hunt, and pressed the photographs upon the Rockefeller Commission with demands for satisfaction. Shortly thereafter, in a timing sequence not entirely coincidental, a book by Alan Weberman and Michael Canfield was published, Coup d' Etat in America, which relied heavily on a presumptive likeness of Sturgis and myself to the so-called Dallas tramps. The defamatory intent of the book was so clear that I sued the authors and publisher of the book for libel. The publishing company went out of business, and the publisher returned to his native Nigeria. Litigation against the two authors is active to this day. HUNT dropped the lawsuit two days before it was to come to trial.

When the media contacted HUNT and STURGIS about these allegations, HUNT denied having been in Dallas: Accusations made by Dick Gregory and others connecting me to the murder of President John Kennedy are totally without foundation. They constitute a false and vicious libel. These charges are bizarre products of sick minds. The political Left has never been able, or willing, to accept the fact that Kennedy's assassin was a man of the Left; thus the Leftist preoccupation with finding an alternate assassin. Dick Gregory's smear represents the ultimate in slander and innuendo customarily characterized as McCarthyism. The Rockefeller and other investigative committees will probably examine Gregory's charges as indeed they should. For my part I would welcome a through high-level investigation and a full airing of all relevant findings. Only if this takes place will I have any hope of clearing my name and living free from the threats made against my life already

made by neurotics. I was not in Dallas on November 22, 1963; in fact I never visited Dallas until eight years later. I did not meet FRANK STURGIS until 1972, nine years after we were allegedly together in Dallas. I was not in Mexico in 1963, and I did not meet LEE HARVEY OSWALD there or at any other place or time. Moreover I shared the nations grief over the murder of our President...Continued publicity given to these reckless charges could stimulate some yet-unpublicized maniac into violent action against me and my family. [RCD 2.5.75] CANFIELD GETS STURGIS' REACTION STURGIS would neither confirm nor deny his presence in Dallas that day. Michael Canfield called STURGIS to get his reaction to the story. STURGIS did not know where Dick Gregory had gotten his information or Michael Canfield's connection to this researcher. STURGIS acknowledged: Yeah, I saw the pictures. He's claiming that we were there in disguise and he swears that guy is me and hey, who knows? So I don't affirm or deny it...I doubt they've got any evidence. Really, I think they're just blowing smoke. I think that. Mike, between you and me, I think Dick Gregory is of the radical Left, and I think Dick Gregory and his group are being financed by foreign outsiders in order to put pressure on the CIA. He is using both HOWARD HUNT and myself as a tool for them. I don't think they can stand the idea that OSWALD, who was of the Left, one of their own people, you know, that took the rap, or at least one of the persons that took the rap for killing the President of the United States. He has to prove that HOWARD HUNT was in Dallas on that day and he has to prove I was in Dallas on that day. He's claiming that we're in disguise. O.K. Well, you know, you've got to have more proof than that, than just a picture. Because pictures really don't mean anything. D'you know? They don't mean a damn thing. Note how STURGIS did not deny he was one of the tramps: "Who knows?" Secondly he "doubts" and "thinks" Dick Gregory has no other evidence. If he were innocent, he would have known Dick Gregory had no evidence. When STURGIS said "took the rap," rather than "was guilty of," the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, he made a slip and realized it, so he tried to obscure his error with the next sentence which made little sense: "At least one of the persons who took the rap." Who else besides OSWALD took the rap for the assassination of President John F. Kennedy? STURGIS stated that Dick Gregory "had to prove I was in Dallas that day." He was saying that all Dick Gregory had to prove was his presence in Dallas. Numerous people were also in Dallas that day and did not take part in the assassination.

THE ITCHY TRIGGER FINGER STURGIS confided in Michael Canfield: Well, let me speak off the record, Mike. HOWARD and I are both concerned about it, you know what I mean? In more ways than one, because you know you can get some damn kookie guy come down here wanna kill him, kill me. You know. This is a terrible accusation he's made. You know, that we had something to do with killing the most powerful man in the world. It's a terrible thing to do. And I hope he can prove these accusations, because if he can't, he's gonna have problems. He'll have legal problems. But evidently he don't care. I'm hoping it will just die away, personally, you know. Like I told the press, you know, let the dead alone, let them be. It's a helluva mistake. He may be turning, you know, we're talking off the record, you know, but he may be digging up things that other people may not want dug up. You know what I mean? Well, let's say if there was a conspiracy, right? And people like him going around the country, not the fact that he's accusing HOWARD and me and the CIA, but let's say that other people, others in, you know, suppose he's wrong, okay, that's one thing. He may stumble across something or somebody, who probably might have been involved in it. And he may decide to go ahead and do something about it. You know, he's big enough stuff that maybe people will get a little itchy about, you know, and give him problems. Well I don't know (if it would be physical) it would be up to, you know, whoever the people are. I don't know. So I think he's wrong, you know, doing what he's doing, I think he should let things lie, you know, leave it alone... STURGIS also believed that the tramp shots could have triggered a violent reaction in someone. Note how STURGIS referred to President Kennedy as "the President of the United States, the most powerful man in the world." STURGIS was proud to have participated in a world class operation. If he hadn't, how would he have known what things were being dug up, (having nothing to do with HUNT and STURGIS, of course) which might result in the death of Dick Gregory? Whose trigger finger was getting itchy? THE TRAMP SHOT NEGATIVES The FBI received orders to contact the photographers who took the tramp shots and obtain negatives. The FBI: The files of The Dallas Times Herald have been thoroughly searched personally by S.A. Gemberling, and photographs numbered 2, 4, and 5 are believed to have been taken by photographer William Allen who, on November 22, 1963, was working in Dallas on assignment for The Dallas Times Herald, but was on the payroll of UPI. The Dallas Times Herald files do not reflect any photographic negatives identical to the other four

photographs described above. On April 14, 1975, The Dallas Times Herald made available two proof sheets, one 4" X 5" positive of each of the three photographs numbered 2, 4, and 5 above, and one 4" X 5" copy of each of the three copy negatives of the three was stated the original negative of these three photographs will be available for examination by an FBI representative at any time at The Dallas Times Herald. The Dallas Times Herald representatives indicated: It is possible some of the photographs from their files were taken shortly after the assassination, because many individuals were examining them and it is possible some original negatives or photographs may no longer be available. The FBI contacted The Dallas Morning News and was apprized that: Jack Beers was a photographer for that newspaper in November 1963 but had died in February 1975. He stated no photographic negative is available at The Dallas Morning News, and that the original negative would likely be in the possession of Mrs. Christine Beers. When the FBI questioned Mrs. Beers, she explained that the original negatives were in the possession of "some magazine" and she gave the FBI a contact sheet. That accounted for five out of the seven tramp shots. The FBI reported: "It should be noted that of the seven photographs furnished by the Bureau...all have been identified, with the exception of those numbered one and three." Despite extensive research, no FBI documents could be located on the photographs taken by George Smith of the Fort Worth Star Telegram. There was no way to determine if the FBI obtained all of the tramp shots. No reference to the last two tramp shots surfaced in any Freedom of Information Act-retrieved FBI documents. Dorothy Hopper at the Fort Worth Star Telegram recounted that she first noticed the tramp shots missing on December 3, 1973. Just before they were stolen someone called and inquired about them. A researcher reported that in 1974 someone entered his home and removed the prints of these two photographs, which he had recently obtained. On May 8, 1975, Earl Golz of the Dallas Morning News reported that the FBI found six of seven disputed photos. SHANEYFELDT'S PHOTO ANALYSIS FOR ROCKEFELLER COMMISSION The Rockefeller Commission did not conduct its own investigation of the tramp shots. It did not hire an independent photo analyst. Instead, the Rockefeller Commission used the FBI's report. On April 25, 1975, an investigator for the Rockefeller Commission interviewed S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt and was told "Shaneyfeldt is 'positive' has no reservations about these Dallas persons NOT being HUNT or STURGIS." [SSCIA 15710003-10001] In late April 1975 Warren Commission veteran S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt

telephoned Warren Commission veteran S.A. Robert Gemberling at the Dallas FBI. S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt told him the Rockefeller Commission wanted an on-site height study, as well as the negatives and the cameras with which the tramp shots were originally taken. THE CIA'S PHOTO ANALYSIS OF THE TRAMP SHOTS MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD, May 28, 1975 SUBJECT: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Operations (HUNT Photos) 1. On May 21, 1975, Mr. Tom Brown contacted the Security Analysis Group for copies of photographs of HUNT for use in the DDS&T responding to question #15 of a memorandum by E.H. Knoche, dated May 21, 1975, captioned, "Assassinations, Primarily Castro" for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Operations General File. 2. On May 27, 1975, Mr. John P. Dempsey gave the attached photographs to the writer, which Mr. Dempsey stated he had received from the Office of Security. Some of the photos are badge type photos apparently recovered by Tom Brown from the HUNT Office of Security file. Also returned were seven large glossy photos showing three individuals apparently under police detention. It is unknown where these photos originated, but they are believed to be the comparison photos for use in answering reference question number 15. It is further surmised that these glossy photos were taken in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, attendant to the arrest of three 'box car bums' in connection with the investigation of President Kennedy's assassination. Recently, numerous persons have alleged that HUNT and STURGIS resemble the "bums," thus necessitating the requested DDS &T comparison of the HUNT photograph. DDS & T's conclusions are unknown. Jerry G. Brown, Acting Chief, Security Analysis Group. [CIA FOIA F81-0351/ D0652] The CIA's Deputy Directorate of Science and Technology conducted a "physiological comparison" of the HUNT and STURGIS photographs with the tramp photographs. [CIA F81-0351 D0652] Before the CIA sent this photo report to the HSCA, Hal Clark SA/DDS&T, asked Ed Cates, NPIC, to sanitize it. Two experienced portrait artists and an expert in the field of disguise studied the four photographs of HUNT (1949, 1961, 1968, and 1974). It

was concluded that he was an ideal Subject for this sort of analysis for two reasons: (1) His features are prominent and angular, facilitating identification of key points and mesuration of distances and ratios. (2) his overall appearance varied insignificantly over the 25-year span of the data. These characteristics make positive identification of HUNT from a photograph of good quality highly probable. The physiological character of HUNT can be briefly summed up as: athletic, firm, and assertive with an overall tone of classic leanness. Neither of the two detained men in the Dallas scene had this character. The one with the hat is flaccid, atrophied and passive and has a general tone of deterioration. The hatless one is stocky, has a blocky face and has the overall appearance of a less sophisticated Subject. The unanimous and highly confident judgment of these experts is that neither of the detainees is HUNT. A similar, but less confident, conclusion was reached concerning STURGIS. This evaluation was performed with only the single snapshot of STURGIS from Newsweek, no other being available; it is believed that a higher confidence judgement concerning STURGIS would have been rendered if the STURGIS snapshot could be dated to the 1963 time frame. In addition to the basic comparative differences observed, the disguise specialist, (with almost 25 years experience) noted: (1) It would be physically impossible to reduce the height of a 5' 10 ½" man to the shorter man in the photograph. (2) Overall facial shapes could not be effectively changed with the use of cosmetic make-up. (3) Putty or facial masks could not be used to alter features because of the animation displayed between the various photographs. Three experienced photogrametrists who have previously worked on identification problems analyzed the four photographs of HUNT (1949, 1961, 1968, and 1974) and made measurements on non-changing facial distances. The dimensions on the known photographs of HUNT were compared with the two detained men in the Dallas scene and a unanimous and confident judgement was made that neither of these two men could be HUNT. A similar analysis was made between the Newsweek photograph of STURGIS. However, because of the quality of the Newsweek portrait, the data is inconclusive. The physiological and photogrammetric analysis were supplemented by visual comparison of all the photographs imagery

by experienced imagery interpreters. In the conduct of this examination, steps were taken to insure that: (1) All Subjects were magnified to the same scale, using the distances between the eyes and mouth as a standard. (2) Contrast and texture differences between images were minimized during the scaling process (continuous tone photographs were employed wherever possible). (3) Angular comparisons were made to offset errors incident with different head angles and tilts. From his visual comparison it was concluded that neither of the two men in the Dallas scene is HUNT, nor is STURGIS (utilizing the only photograph we have available, i.e. the Newsweek photograph) one of the two men in the Dallas scene. Why did the CIA have only one photograph of STURGIS? This was an agency with a billion dollar budget. Was the CIA reluctant to obtain better shots because it might have had to conclude the tramp was STURGIS? S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt was first brought into the tramp shot investigation by FBI Director Clarence Kelley when he was asked to determine whether the CHRIST tramp and Thomas Arthur Vallee were identical. As stated, he received the Downing Memorandum on the HUNT and STURGIS comparison to the tramps. When questioned in HUNT v. WEBERMAN, however, Shaneyfeldt said he was unaware of the tramp photographs until the Rockefeller Commission brought them to his attention in April 1975. Attorney Marvin Miller asked: "So, to your knowledge, to your recollection now, it was the first time anybody had asked you to do any work on these particular photographs?" He responded: "That's the, to the best of my recollection, yes." S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt lied to conceal his predisposition towards a particular conclusion. Like C. F. Downing, Shaneyfeldt was not about to discredit his work for the Warren Commission. The Downing report was a cue that the Director wanted a negative report. Not only Shaneyfeldt's veracity at risk, but there were serious questions about his qualifications as a photo analyst. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt: I started with the FBI in 1940 as a photographer, having been a photographer with the newspapers in the Midwest prior to that time. I worked in photographic work with the FBI from 1940 to 1948, at which time I was transferred to the FBI Laboratory as a forensic photographer taking photographs of evidence being examined by document examiners and other experts in the laboratory, firearms people and various others; making of photomicrographs, evidence-type photographs. And, during this period, except for 19-, see I was in the Service in 1945 for a year and, as a result of that, I used the GI Bill to get a degree to become a Special Agent. Went to Southeastern University in Washington, D.C., got an accounting degree, applied for a job as Special Agent, and was appointed Special Agent in 1951. I was, after agent training, assigned to the Detroit

FBI office as an investigator for approximately one year. After returning...I was transferred back to the Laboratory to be trained as a document examiner. This training covered about three years...and from 1955 until my retirement in 1975, I was a fully qualified document examiner. Because of my photographic experience, I also did photo-related examinations, comparison of photographs, identification with various examiners, various photo-related investigations. During this period of time that I was a document examiner, I was also doing photographic examinations and testifying in court. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt was a document examiner, not a photo analyst. Self-educated in the art of photography, he held no college or university degree or any official FBI documentation in photography or photo analysis. Attorney Marvin Miller called his background in photography "on the job training." In the Alger Hiss case, S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt identified the camera that took the "pumpkin pictures." S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt was one of the two FBI agents allowed to testify by the Justice Department at the trial of Clay Shaw in New Orleans. Memorandum For The Record: February 6, 1969 Subject, Lyndal L. SHANEYFELDT #363001-1152 (ser. 2) Reference: Washington Star clipping dated January 25, 1969 1. Subject, a former FBI agent and photo expert, has been subpoenaed by Garrison as a witness at the Clay Shaw trial in New Orleans. 2. Subject was granted continuing liaison clearances in December 1964, August 1962, April 1968 and August 1968 as the requests of TSD. His services were needed for coordinating technical skills with respect to photo comparisons. Sarah K. Hall SRS/OS ROBERT OLSEN'S PHOTO ANALYSIS In his deposition in HUNT V. WEBERMAN, Lyndal Shaneyfeldt testified that he did his first photo analysis after the FBI received two letters from Rockefeller Commission Senior Counsel, Robert B. Olsen, one dated April 2, 1975, and the other April 5, 1975. Robert B. Olsen was already convinced the tramps were not HUNT and STURGIS: A comparison was first made by Rockefeller Commission staff members, none of whom are photo identification experts. Even as non-experts, however, it appeared to the staff members that there was, at best, only a superficial resemblance between the Dallas 'derelicts' and HUNT and STURGIS. The derelict resembling HUNT appeared to be substantially

older and smaller than HUNT. The derelict allegedly resembling STURGIS appeared to be thinner than STURGIS and to have facial features and hair markedly different from those of STURGIS. The witnesses who testified to the 'striking resemblance' were not show to have any qualifications in photo identification beyond that possessed by the average layman...The photographs of the derelicts in Dallas have been displayed in various newspapers in the United States, on national television programs, and in the April 28, 1975, issue of Newsweek Magazine. No witnesses offered testimony to the Commission of its staff to the effect that either of the derelicts was personally known to be HUNT or STURGIS; and no qualified expert was offered to make such an identification. After S.A. Lydnal Shaneyfeldt's report was given to the Rockefeller Commission, Chief Counsel David Belin asked the Department Of Justice to "make available to us, for interviewing, the Bureau personnel who compared the photographs and reached the conclusion embodied in the report. Preliminary to such interviews, we would like to have a detailed description of the methods, processes and equipment used in making the comparisons." The FBI responded: "Portions of this study were made with a lowpowered magnifier to permit detailed study." [RCD Belin to Wilderotter 3.7.75] S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt's report was released circa July 1975 and his determination that the tramps were neither HUNT nor STURGIS was widely publicized. Bernard Fensterwald commented that the Rockefeller Commission examined the tramp shots because they were easily refuted. S.A. Lydnal Shaneyfeldt's analysis "involved visual comparison and study of the facial characteristics and contours of the individuals in the questioned and known photographs, including a comparison of the contours of the ears, noses, hairlines, chins and all other visible facial features." The Rockefeller Commission concluded: While the 'derelicts' were found in a boxcar not far from the assassination scene, that fact cannot form the basis for drawing any inference of involvement in the assassination. Neither can such an inference be drawn from the fact that the derelicts were relatively clean-shaven and showed signs of having had recent haircuts. The Commission believes that it is not uncommon for derelicts to shave and to receive haircuts, especially at such places as barber colleges, jails, and missions. In view of the absence of any credible evidence tending to identify HUNT or STURGIS with the 'derelicts' in question, or otherwise to establish the presence of HUNT or STURGIS in Dallas on November 22, 1963, the Commission finds that it is unnecessary to consider the allegations that other persons participated in the assassination. If there were other participants in the assassination, no evidence was found that would connect them in any way with the CIA...For the reasons expressed above the Commission concludes it found no evidence of CIA involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy. The products of the investigation of the Commission staff, however, will remain with the official records of the Commission.

Marina Oswald told this researcher: "David Belin is a Judas. He sold out his country. And that's the crime itself." The investigators for the Rockefeller Commission detected a superficial resemblance between the Dallas 'derelicts' and HUNT and STURGIS. However superficial, it was a resemblance. Why didn't the Rockefeller Commission investigators realize that even if the tramps slightly resembled HUNT and STURGIS, when this was put together with HUNT and STURGIS' backgrounds and their hatred for Kennedy, it meant that even if they left the slightest, most superficial traces of their presence at a crime of this magnitude, it meant that they were there. What prevented them from seeing the truth was a predisposition against something of this nature being true, because if one believes that coup d'etats do not happen in a country like the United States of America, you are not going to believe the tramps are HUNT and STURGIS. The implications of placing HUNT and STURGIS on the scene of the Kennedy assassination would mean the disbandment of the CIA, something the establishment could not accept. HSCA'S PHOTO ANALYST: CLYDE COLLINS SNOW The next photo study of the tramp shots was conducted by the HSCA. Clyde C. Snow headed the HSCA's investigation. Clyde C. Snow: "I guess you can say I was in charge of it. I had some other anthropologists working with me on that." Clyde Snow had received his B.S. in zoology from Eastern New Mexico University in 1950, an M.S. in zoology from Texas Tech University in 1955, and a Ph.D. in physical anthropology from the University of Arizona in 1967. He was Chief of the Physical Anthropology Division of the Federal Aeronautics Administration, Civil Aeromedical Institute. Clyde Snow was a forensic anthropologist who examined human remains, not a photo analyst. In 1985 he was sent to Paraguay by the Simon Weisenthal Center to examine the remains of Nazi war criminal Dr. Joseph Mengele. [Posner, Mengele, p320] Clyde Snow stated: "That's one of the things we do. Forensically we examine human skeletal remains. But we are consulted quite frequently in comparing photographs of people, for example, suspects in bank robberies. We're not just skeletal people. We do a lot of work in the variations of living people." [see HSCA V4 p381] In February 1992, Dr. Clyde Snow appeared on the national news program 60 Minutes and discussed Iraqi war crimes in Kurdistan. A few weeks later, Clyde Snow went to Bolivia in search of the remains of the Sundance Kid. Next, he was in Bosnia, examining remains. Clyde Snow was not a photo analyst. The HSCA did hire photo analysts: Robert R. Hunt, a Professor of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona who worked as a consultant to the Committee, was a member of the American Society of Photogrammetry. The HSCA did not use IDEB Digital Vidicon Scanning System (DVSS) and the Comtal Vision in its analysis, although this technology was available to it. These techniques involved processing categorization according to the Subject's look angle. Comparisons are done both visually and mathematically using photogrammetry

techniques. [CIA Memo from Dr. David L. Gifford, Chief, Interactive Digital Exploitation Branch APSD/TSG/NPIC 12.15.78] An April 10, 1978, HSCA Outside Contact Report indicated a telephone call was initiated by HSCA employee Michael Goldsmith regarding Clyde C. Snow: "Summary of contact: regarding consulting work as forensic ID specialist. He's interested. Suggested we contact the Federal Aeronautics Administration Air Surgeon to get approval. That way there would be no expense for HSCA." [HSCA 180-1007-410425] Clyde Snow was originally asked by the HSCA to "reconstruct a 3-D model of President Kennedy's head from 2-D photographs and X-rays." Clyde C. Snow told this researcher: "They called me. My guess is that they may have talked to some people over at the Smithsonian. At that time, Doctor Larry Angel, and T. Dale Stewart, were the Smithsonian's physical anthropologists. Traditionally, they had done the forensic work for the FBI. I never found out for sure, but I think that was it. They could have gotten it from other sources. At that time I was fairly well-known." ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND THE CIA A report dated January 1967 by the Committee on Research Problems and Ethics of the American Anthropological Association stated that in many parts of the world, American anthropologists were believed to be engaged in intelligence activities. Members of the Association reported that CIA agents had posed as anthropologists, or used anthropological research as a cover. Qualified anthropologists were hired by the CIA for intelligence work either directly or through a roster of CIA fronts. [Donner, Frank Age of Surveillance p161] Clyde C. Snow was asked if the CIA Domestic Contacts Division had ever debriefed him. He stated: The only time I've been - during the HSCA investigation I went over to the CIA building there and they gave me a stack of photographs of HOWARD HUNT. That was arranged by the HSCA. I had quite a collection. I have never had any direct CIA contact on anything involving any of my missions. I know it used to be very common for the CIA to debrief people who came back from various places. I almost felt neglected, but that's never happened to me. Snow is a Forensic anthropologist, has helped investigate many massacres and political killings. Snow has worked extensively with Americas Watch and other human rights groups. In the 1980's he went to Argentina to exhume mass graves filled with innocent civilians who had been killed by government death squads during the war. He has worked in Argentina, Guatemala, Ethiopia, Philippines, Croatia and in former Yugoslavia, near Ovcara. Snow still teaches at the University of Oklahoma and sometimes lectures to Forensic Science organizations and Law Enforcement personnel. Snow worked in Guatemala where CIA has always had an interest. When thousands of

pages of documents regarding the CIA's complicity in Latin American death squads were released Snow was called upon to investigate. There is no doubt in my mind that Clyde lied to me when he said the Domestics Contacts Division of the CIA overlooked him. The Agency has an interest in anything to do with Guatemala” Anthropologists, led by Clyde Snow, dug away at a village site. The Guatemala Forensic Anthropology Team, working under the authority of the United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA), will begin gathering evidence from a remote mass grave site in Guatemala. Initial training was directed by Clyde Snow, Ph.D. (Norman, Oklahoma), internationally known forensic anthropologist who has worked in Chili, El Salvador, Argentina, Guatemala, and Bosnia, and is currently investigating human rights abuses in the Congo.” In 1991, Snow was appointed by President George Bush to the United Nations Human Rights Commission, held in Geneva, Switzerland. Clyde Snow testified before the HSCA: Genzman: What were the issues before the panel of anthropologists? [Snow, Ellis Kerley and Stephen Rosen, Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland] Snow: We were asked, again using the best available information and materials, to metrically and morphologically compare these photographs with those of the tramps to see whether or not any of these individuals could be identified as one or more of the tramps. Fithian: It is my understanding that the CIA and the FBI conducted their own analyses of the tramp photographs that attempt to identify the individuals. Did you get into that? Snow: We didn't participate in either of those analyses. However, after being called as consultants to this committee, we were furnished copies of the reports of the CIA and FBI analysis. Fithian: Did you then study those reports? Snow: Yes, we have looked them over and we found that although they varied in method from our approach, to some extent, with some overlapping, they came to the same conclusions. Edgar: Do we have any evidence of the identities of the three tramps? Genzman: Not to my knowledge, Mr. Edgar. There is an on-going staff project. Once the anthropologists received the CIA and the FBI's reports on the tramps they realized that a higher scientific authority had already made a determination on their

identity. They would be risking their careers by going up against these two prestigious institutions. Again, the implications of their findings had to be taken into consideration. A positive finding would have decimated the Warren Commission and the Rockefeller in one swift blow. Who are these men to challenge the findings of numerous employees of the federal government? The photo study should have been conducted overseas, in a politically different environment. When this was done, by Stern Magazine, a positive match was obtained. THIS RESEARCHER'S PHOTO ANALYSIS OF THE CHRIST TRAMP DISGUISE (1) Wore old clothes. (2) Had a different hairline. (3) Flexed his nostrils and elongated his lips. ANALYSIS: CHRIST COMPARISON SHOTS OSWALD/CHRIST CHRIST, out of disguise, did not look anything at all like OSWALD.. OSWALD/CHRIST Compare Oswald to the CHRIST tramp. Could the CHRIST tramp have been mistaken for OSWALD if he were standing in a sixth floor window and someone tried to identify him from the street? When Marguerite Oswald was shown a photograph of the CHRIST tramp, she told this researcher: "That looks just like my son, LEE." She would not say anything more at the time because we did not have the funds to pay her for an interview.


The CIA gave Clyde Snow an undated photograph of CHRIST. The CIA's photograph of CHRIST looked like it was taken much later than 1963. It was a front view. The configuration of CHRIST'S ear was not visible in the CIA shot, nor was the profile of his nose. In 1994 the CIA released a better photograph of CHRIST.


CHRIST deplaning after being released from prison in Cuba

CHRIST and the CHRIST tramp. Note the identical noses. When comparing the mouths, remember that the lines of CHRIST'S mouth were distorted by his pipe. Compare the photograph of CHRIST boarding the bus, on the right side of the composite, and the tramp photograph. Note the angular features and identical nose.

CHRIST and Tramp comparison shots.

Photograph created by electronic imaging to give some idea of what the tramp would look like with CHRIST'S pipe.

EAR STUDY so the reader might observe the identical ear cartilage configurations of CHRIST and the CHRIST tramp. Click HERE to see a digital morph of DAVID CHRIST and the CHRIST TRAMP.

Clyde Snow stated that "of the three men who have been proposed as tramp A, the resemblance between the latter and CHRIST is the least impressive. As noted previously, they diverge in facial index values by an average of 7.0 points." This was false. Clyde Snow compared the CHRIST tramp to Thomas Arthur Valle and STURGIS. He found the resemblance to STURGIS the least impressive with an 8.6 divergence. Next came CHRIST with 7.0 divergence, and then Thomas Arthur Valle, with a 4.0 divergence. Little space was devoted to CHRIST in the HSCA Report, and it did not include even a brief biography. The HSCA described HUNT as a "principal figure in the Watergate burglaries and a CIA employee at the time of the Kennedy assassination." STURGIS was described as a "Watergate burglar," but nothing was said of CHRIST. He was immediately ruled out as the tramp: CHRIST'S face is relatively long and narrow; Tramp A's is short and broad. This length difference is especially expressed in the lower face, with CHRIST'S chin and upper lip being very long when compared to the tramp's. CHRIST'S nose is also much longer, relative to its breadth. Differences in ear structure are also striking. In the tramp, the lobes are attached, whereas in CHRIST, the lobes are 'welded' - that is they attach to the side of the cheek with no discernible lobe at all. The antihelix of the ear (the elevated ridge just in front of, and parallel to, the outer margin of the ear) is well developed in Tramp A, but very poorly developed in CHRIST. ROBERT GENNA AN INDEPENDENT PHOTO ANALYSIS In 1991 Attorney Jeremiah Gutman sent the negatives of CHRIST and the CHRIST tramp to two forensic photo analysts without mentioning the purpose or reason. To do this, the tramp shot was cropped so that only the outline of Tramp A was visible - this eliminated the other tramps and the Texas School Book Depository. Robert Genna was one of the photo analysts. Robert Genna was Assistant Chief of the Suffolk County, New York, Crime Laboratory. He had a B.S. in forensic science since 1975, and an M.S. in forensic science since 1987, from the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He was a member of the American Academy of Forensic Science. He stated: The three negatives submitted for examination and comparison were developed and made into print 8" X 10" photographs to assist in the analysis. The following facial characteristics were noted in all photographs, and, in my opinion, are significant: The nose has a characteristic slope that terminates into a distinctive point. The nostrils are elongated as a result of the sloping nose. The opening in the right ear has a geometrical shape consistent in all photographs. Furthermore the ear lobe in all photographs is continuous and is attached to the face. Although the hair length differs, the hairline appears to be consistent both horizontally and vertically with respect to the face line. Finally and most

significantly, there is a skin blemish on the right cheek noted in all three photographs. This blemish appears located in the same area of all the photographs. The blemish is located by fixing a horizontal parallel line along the right nostril following front to rear. Furthermore, the blemish can be located by fixing a vertical parallel line along the hairline, on the right side of the face, following top to bottom. As a result of the above-listed characteristics, specifically the skin blemish, it is my opinion that the same person appears in all of the submitted photographs. Robert Genna's contention that CHRIST'S earlobe and the CHRIST-tramp earlobe is continuous and attached to the face contradicts the finding of Clyde Snow that, "In the tramp the lobes are attached, whereas in CHRIST, the lobes are welded - they attach to the side of the cheek with no discernible lobe at all." The Robert Genna report affirmed: "Finally, and most significantly, there is a skin blemish on the right cheek noted in all three photographs." There was a problem with this blemish. To show the tramp and CHRIST from the same angle, the photo analyst flipped the negative of the tramp so that both figures would be facing the same direction. By doing so, he moved the mole visible in P1 and P2 from the left side of the tramp's face to the right side. The photo analyst measured this mole, and it happened to be in the same place as a mole on the right side of CHRIST'S face. He based part of his conclusion on this finding. In the CIA HSCA shot of CHRIST, a blemish was present in the same position on CHRIST as on the left cheek of the tramp. This blemish was very difficult to miss. Why the right-cheek mole was there is a mystery, although it is possible for someone to have a mole on both cheeks. Dennis Fahey also did a photo analysis. Dennis Fahey was Executive Vice President of Physical Evidence Consultants, Inc. of Manasquan, New Jersey. He has expertise in the field of physical evidence examination. From 1984 to 1990 he worked for a firm that dealt in anti-terrorism and hostage negotiations. From 1975 to 1982 Dennis Fahey was a police officer in charge of Photography and Identification. In 1970 and 1971 Dennis Fahey was a Narcotics Squad Officer. He was a member of the Evidence Photographers Council and was awarded the Purple Heart with Oak Leaf Cluster during his tour of duty in Vietnam. Dennis Fahey: As per your request, an examination of three (3) 8" X 10" black and white negatives were made. Three contact prints were made from the original negatives obtained from your office. These prints have been marked A, B, and C. Photograph A depicts a white male wearing sunglasses with a pipe in his mouth. The Subject has short, cropped hair and appears to be in an airport setting. Photograph B is an enlargement of photograph A depicting the previously mentioned white male. Photograph C depicts a white male in a street setting. It is initially apparent in photograph C that there is a weight difference between the two Subjects. Further, there is a time

sequence delay in the photographs. This is obvious from the hair style and the hair length. Given those conditions, there are striking similarities in the facial features of both Subject A and C. Upon examining the hairline, you will note that there is a high recessing forehead on the right-hand side. This is seen in both photographs. The shape of the ears are similar in both of these photographs. We are unable to make a determination of the eyes due to the presence of sunglasses in photograph A. The forehead shape and size are again similar between the two photographs. The nose and nostrils have similar characteristics. The Subject in both photographs has a long, thin jawline. Although the lips are turned up in photograph A, one can see that the lips in photograph A and C are similar that being long lips. Examination under magnification indicates a mole of some type located on the right upper cheek of both photographs A and C. As previously mentioned, there is a time delay between the taking of photograph A and C. Even given this time delay, both Subjects have strikingly similar characteristics. Given those physical attributes as described and including the apparent mole as seen in all three (3) photographs, I would conclude that Subject A and C appear to be one in the same. Dennis Fahey relied less on the blemish in reaching his conclusions. Dennis Fahey was told the tramp shot negative had been inadvertently flipped and he was given the CIA CHRIST photograph. He stated it was of little value since it was a frontal shot. Dennis Fahey believed there was a "time sequence delay" between the two photographs because of a weight difference in the two men. There was a lapse of seven months between the photographs. CHRIST was released in April 1963, and was photographed in Dealey Plaza in November 1963. In 1956 Christ described himself as 185 pounds and 6' 0" tall. It should be noted that when CHRIST was arrested in Havana he weighed 200 pounds. The U.S. Embassy provided him with food until it closed in January 1961. He would have had to have lost weight in prison and regained it by November 22. Dennis Fahey: "The nose and nostrils have similar characteristics." Clyde Snow: "CHRIST'S nose is also much longer, relative to its breadth." THIS RESEARCHER'S PHOTO ANALYSIS OF THE STURGIS TRAMP DISGUISE Looked Nordic because he: (1) Dyed or bleached his dark hair and eyebrows. (2) Straightened his wavy hair. (3) Washed his greasy hair and not used 'the greasy kids stuff' that FRANK usually rubbed in his hair. The rest of STURGIS' features were not commonly perceived as Italian: Square jaw, triangular nose.

(4) Held his jaw in to change his chin shape, flexed his nostrils and squinted. (5) Wore old clothes. ANALYSIS: STURGIS COMPARISON SHOTS

Photograph of STURGIS taken in January 1959 in Cuba. The photograph of the STURGIS tramp was taken three years later. The configurations of the cartilage of the inner-ear were identical. The contours of the edge of the ear were the same, although the overhead sunlight in Dealey Plaza made it appear that the earlobe of the STURGIS tramp was attached to the side of his cheek. This was not so. Examine the STURGIS tramp's ear in P5. Again, the tramp flexed his nostril held his chin in and squinted to further disguise his appearance.

A 1974 shot of STURGIS discovered by Gaeton Fonzi in the files of United Press International, and was taken under similar lighting conditions to Dealey Plaza. See this photo along with another photo of STURGIS. Gaeton Fonzi discovered a photograph where STURGIS had to squint like the tramp. When compared to the STURGIS tramp in P5, the lips, the eyes, the nose, the mouth and the skull shapes were identical.

A profile study of STURGIS and the tramp. Note how STURGIS' hair changes your conception of the image.

Overlay of STURGIS and the tramp. The metric measurements of STURGIS' features (the distances between the various facial features) and those of the tramp's were the same. If there were differences, no matter how slight, the features would not have lined up. Click HERE to see digital morph of STURGIS and the STURGIS tramp. LYNDAL SHANEYFELDT AND CLYDE SNOW S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt never presented a photographic overlay to the Rockefeller Commission. Instead, he based his report on the following evidence: (1) The tallest of the three men in the Dallas photographs has the general appearance of a Nordic type and FRANK STURGIS has a very definite Latin appearance. (2) FRANK STURGIS has very black wavy hair, and the Nordic individual has light or blonde straighter hair. (3) FRANK STURGIS has a rather round face with square chin lines and the Nordic individual has an oval shaped face with a less square or more rounded chin. Dr. Snow said same thing: Some of the features that we noticed were that in overall facial configuration terms, fairly typical of what anthropologists would classify as a Mediterranean type, whereas this individual is more typical of individuals of Northern European extraction. Among other features noted, tramp B has slightly wavy hair, and in all the photographs we have seen Mr. STURGIS hair has a very crisp curl. The hair color of tramp B shows up as rather light, and the STURGIS photographs show

him as deeply brunette. STURGIS is a very dark brunette with strongly waved hair; Tramp B has medium dark hair with a slight wave. THE QUESTION OF DISGUISE Clyde Snow's and S.A. Shaneyfeldt's descriptions of the tramp's hair differed. Clyde Snow said the STURGIS tramp had medium dark hair with a slight wave. S.A. Shaneyfeldt noted he had light or blonde straighter hair. Both agreed STURGIS had darker hair and this was an important difference. Had it not occurred to these men that STURGIS might have been in disguise? Were they aware processes existed which could change the color and wave of human hair? Gaeton Fonzi of the HSCA wrote: About the time Schweiker began his investigation, a new book raised again raised the HUNT-STURGIS story. Titled Coup D'Etat in America, it was written by Michael Canfield and Alan J. Weberman, with a forward by Congressman Henry Gonzalez. The book incorporated a novel device. It came with film positive photos of STURGIS and HUNT designed to be overlayed on photographs of the tramps. Superimposed, the images did bear striking similarities. I would later discover that photo comparison and analysis is an exceptionally non-conclusive technique. The HSCA spent $84,154 on it. Among the photographs we submitted to a panel of experts for analysis and comparison were not only those of STURGIS and HUNT, but also those other individuals who resembled the tramps. The panel concluded that STURGIS and HUNT were not the tramps in the photographs. It did conclude that one of the tramps, the one who resembled HUNT - was most likely a man named Fred Lee Chrisman, a right-wing activist. When those results came in , Committee investigators were sent out to find where Chrisman was on November 22, 1963. They came back with official records and eyewitnesses affidavits that Chrisman was teaching school in the state of Washington that day. So much for the conclusiveness of photo analysis. What was interesting, however, was the panel's conclusions in its comparison of photos of FRANK STURGIS with those of the tramps. It used two comparative techniques. One it termed 'metric traits' and the other 'morphological differences.' One was a comparison of the measurement of six facial features and their metric relationships; the other was simply whether or not various facial features were shaped the same. The panel concluded the average deviation between the tramp's features and STURGIS' features was "low enough to make it impossible to rule out STURGIS on the basis of metric traits alone." However, the panel said, it was morphological differences that indicated that STURGIS was not the tramp. In other words, STURGIS just didn't look like the tramp. The HSCA staff in charge of the photo panel's work was an attorney named Jane Downey. One day she came to me and asked me to help gather some of

the photographs that would be sent to the panel members for analysis. I recall asking her at the time to find out whether or not the experts would take into consideration the possibility that the tramps might be wearing sophisticated disguises. That had to be the case if they were not just real drifters in the wrong place at the wrong time. (As a member of Nixon's White House plumber, HUNT had obtained disguises from the CIA's Technical Services Division and used them on more than one job). Downey promised she would ask the photoanalyists about the use of disguises. Several days later Downey told me she had checked with the photo analysts. 'I'm told there's no way they can tell if disguises were used.' In other words I said, 'If the tramps were in disguise there would be no way that analysts could tell who they really are? 'That's what I'm told.' 'Then why do a photo comparison at all?' I asked. Jane Downey just shrugged her shoulders. 'Well, I said, I hope that point is mentioned in the final report.' 'I'm sure it will be.' It was not. [Fonzi, Last Investigation p75] HUNT AS A MASTER OF DISGUISE JUNE 30, 1972 NIXON: This guy is a wiretapper. He's been taping for years, hasn't he? Haldeman: I don't know. I don't know what he - he's a disguise type guy. NIXON: And deep cover. Haldeman: He writes dirty books. MacGregor: The phrase, the CIA phrase is deep cover operative. NIXON: Deep cover...Of course he was also with Kennedy and he worked for Johnson. NIXON: About this fellow HUNT, I mean afterall the gun and the wiretapping doesn't bother me a bit with this fellow. He's in the Cuban thing, the whole Cuban business. He's out of the country. Haldeman: No. NIXON: Is he back in the country? Haldeman: He never went out but it doesn't matter. He's a - at least they say, his main stock and trade is he's a master of disguise. (Chuckles) He's someplace under some disguise, although he's supposed to go abroad... Attorney Marvin Miller asked S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt about the disguise question. He answered:

A. I would not say that I did not consider it, because I did consider it, but from the photograph it would not be possible to tell whether or not some makeup had been applied. You could derive certain conclusions, I believe, but gross things. But I accepted the fact that makeup could be used. I've accepted that all along. Q. Right, and that could have altered - a dye job would have changed hair color and a straightening job would have changed hair, whether it is curly or flat or how much. A. Yes, makeup could have altered those, some of those things. As I recall one of the features of the Nordic individual was the nose-to-forehead ratio. With what Hollywood does today, I suppose it's even possible to have changed that, but I saw no evidence. I felt that the photographs did not suggest any evidence of that. But without examination of the individual, himself, strictly from a photograph, I could not rule that out as a possibility, even though I felt that there was no evidence of that present, and the possibility was remote. Q. All right. Now, you indicated, for example, regarding Mr. HUNT, that when you compared that shorter man's photograph with HUNT'S, you determined there was a marked and significant age difference and that Mr. HUNT had a much younger appearance. Had he done something as light as add a few lines with makeup and a few other things like that, as you say, in the Hollywood bag of tricks these days, that could have affected that. You agree with that, don't you? A. I don't believe that it could have been done with makeup as simple as you implied. Q. No, I'm not saying simple; sophisticated makeup, as you described. A. Could have been, yes. S.A. Shaneyfeldt acknowledged he could not rule out the possibility of a disguise, and admitted that sophisticated make-up could have made the HUNT tramp look older. Clyde Snow dismissed tramp disguises since he did not believe that the CIA had access to old shoes in 1963: All three men are shabbily dressed, befitting their apparent status as vagrants. Tramp A, however, is the better attired, wearing well fitting jeans and a tweed-like sports jacket, although this, judged by 1963 styles, was several years out of date. Tramp B is wearing ill fitting slacks and a double breasted suit coat. Tramp C, from his battered fedora to his worn out

shoes, has managed to achieve a sartorial effect similar to what one would expect had he been fired from a cannon through a Salvation Army thrift shop. While such clothing might be a disguise, their footwear seems consistent with their classification as vagrants. All three men are shod in worn, low cut Oxfords that appear to be leather soled. Tramp C's shoes seem to be several sizes too large for him. Clyde Snow was asked by this researcher, "What's the point, the CIA could obtain old, large shoes?" He said, "Oh yeah, I was talking about the general context." Gordon Liddy was asked: Q. Do you know whether or not HUNT had any skill and expertise in the use of disguise, or training in disguise? A. Well, I know that he did in fact, employ disguises on several occasions when he was with me and when he both employed disguises. The disguise was furnished to both of us by a technician from the CIA. Q. Was HUNT the individual who suggested the employment of that technique, or skill, in the situation in which it was employed? A. Yes. Q. Was it he who suggest, for example, or ever suggested to you in operations, that he favored the use of rubber gloves, walkie-talkies and other types of radio equipment in operations of the type in which disguises were employed? A. Well, I would say that that was sort of a consensus between Mr. HUNT and myself with respect to that. Neither of us wanted those who were working for us in that kind of activity to leave fingerprints. LYNDAL SHANEYFELDT AND CLYDE SNOW Lyndal Shaneyfeldt cited a not easily altered trait, chin shape: "STURGIS has a round face, with square chin lines, and the STURGIS tramp has an oval shaped face, with a less square, or more rounded chin." Clyde Snow believed there was a very "strong resemblance" between STURGIS'S chin and the chin of the tramp's: "Chin eminence height: Lower face height deviation = 4." An average deviation of 5 or less may be considered evidence of a strong resemblance. Shaneyfeldt continued: The ratio of the length of the nose to the height of the forehead from the bridge of the nose to the hairline, shows these measurements approximately equal on STURGIS, as compared to a greater forehead height than nose length on the Nordic individual. This is most obvious in

the right profile where the nose and forehead of STURGIS measure approximately 7/8 inch. The nose of the Nordic individual measures 7/8 inch, and the forehead approximately 1 3/8 inches. The 1/4 inch difference cited by Lyndal Shaneyfeldt could have been attributed to easily accomplished hairline alteration. When Clyde Snow examined the "Forehead height: Total face height," he also found a high deviation (8) due to hairline alteration. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt's tramp report continued: Some differences in ear contours were noted, with STURGIS' right ear being slightly triangular in shape. STURGIS' left ear has a slight projection along the outer edge about one third down from the top. This projection does not appear in a similar view of the left ear of the Nordic individual. The general left ear contour is more triangular on STURGIS and has a more distinct lobe, while the ear of the Nordic individual is wider at the lower half and has very little lobe. Clyde Snow found the ears were identical: "Lobe length: Ear Length deviation (0) Ear length: Total face length deviation (3)." Lyndal Shaneyfeldt continued: Differences were noted in the nose contours and general facial contours between comparable photographs of STURGIS and the tallest individual in the Dallas photographs. Clyde Snow could not make a nose determination. He tried to measure "Nose breadth: Nose length" but was unable. The overlay supplied an indication of how the noses and facial contours line up. Clyde Snow compared: "Mouth height: Lower face height" and came up with a deviation of (2), indicating the mouths were probably the same; but when he measured "Nose length: Lower face height," the deviation was (7), which indicated the noses were different. THE FACIAL MEASUREMENTS OF STURGIS & TRAMP IDENTICAL Clyde Snow concluded the mean metric deviation between STURGIS and the STURGIS tramp was (4), which meant that there was a strong possibility that the two men were identical. Too bad there was no facial recognition software available at this point in time, because FRS relies on metric measurements. MORPHOLOGY Clyde Snow found that the following "morphological differences" between STURGIS and the tramp indicated they were different: (1) Hair: STURGIS is a very dark brunette with strongly waved hair; Tramp B has medium dark hair with a slight wave.

(2) Hairline: Tramp B's hairline shows more bilateral recession than is observed in STURGIS. (3) Nose: Tramp B has a concave nasal profile with a rounded, slightly bulbous nasal tip. STURGIS' nasal profile is slightly convex and the nasal tip is less bulbous than the tramp's. (4) Chin: The most striking difference between the two men is the chin form. STURGIS' is massive and square; Tramp B has a small rounded chin. (5) Ears: Tramp B's ears are considerably more projecting than STURGIS' which are rather close set. (6) Physique: Tramp B appears to be considerably more linear in body build than STURGIS, who is broad and stocky in physique. STURGIS was ruled out as being a tramp because of easily alterable morphological traits. What are morphological similarities in relation to human identification? Webster's Dictionary defines morphological, when used in this context, as: "Of, or relating to, points for taking measurements that are present on the skeleton as well as on the living person or the cadaver." Clyde Snow used the word much more loosely. The first morphological trait turned out to be hair color, and the second was hairline, both easily alterable. Clyde Snow was asked by this researcher if disguise could alter morphological features. He responded: "To some extent. For example a person who had straight hair could have his hair curled. And visa versa." Clyde Snow compared STURGIS' nose with the tramp's. According to Snow, the tramp's nose was more arched, or curved in, than STURGIS,' whose nose was more spherical or semicircular. STURGIS' nose was also described as being less bulbous than the tramp's. There was little evidence of this, but this difference might be perceived if one failed to consider that the STURGIS tramp distorted the shape of his nose by flexing his nostrils and squinting. In P1 STURGIS flexed his nostrils, in P2 his nostrils were also flexed. This was more apparent in P3, P4, P5. It was less apparent in the last two photographs, since the sun had overexposed STURGIS' nose. Nowhere in the HSCA Report was mention of deliberate facial distortion, nor did the HSCA show its readers the photographs in which it had detected these alleged nose, chin and eye differences. Like S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt, Clyde Snow claimed that STURGIS had a squarer chin than the tramp. Could this difference be related to the fact that in P1 STURGIS was distorting chin shape by bowing his head? In P2, he was squinting and looking down; in P3, P4 it was most apparent and the folds of flesh in STURGIS' chin are seen as he holds his head at an angle. In P5 and P6, we get a good look at his chin, but in P7, he was again pulling it in. Clyde Snow commented to this researcher "Pretty sharp" in regard to this way of further disguising oneself. Regarding ear projection: This was dependent upon hair fluffiness, which is easily alterable. Regarding physique: Clyde

Snow contended that STURGIS was stockier, while the tramp was more linear. This might have been a result of the tramp's hairstyle adding about an inch to his height. While there was no major difference in physique between STURGIS and the tramp, it was evident that STURGIS weighed less in late 1963. When Snow made this determination, he compared the tramp shot to a photograph of STURGIS. Was this photograph taken in late 1963? STURGIS could have changed his weight in a matter of weeks by dieting and exercise. Snow's "morphology" relied on his subjective perception of a photograph, rather than by objective scientific measurements. This was because when SNOW did the metric analysis of STURGIS he came out with positive results and he could not live with that. THIS RESEARCHER'S PHOTO ANALYSIS OF THE HUNT TRAMP DISGUISE (1) Remained hidden behind the other tramps: In P1 and P2, HUNT stood behind CHRIST; in P1 he could not be seen, and in P2 a halfprofile was visible. In P4 he was visible, and in P3 he was visible. In P6 his face was in the shadows, and in P5 and P7 he was again hiding behind STURGIS. (2) Squinted and grimaced as in P3. (3) Had hat, old clothes and carried a greasy bag. (4) Sophisticated make-up that made him look older. (5) Had his hair dyed grey. ANALYSIS: HUNT COMPARISON SHOTS Note P6.

HUNT TRAMP placed between two HUNT shots taken after Watergate. It has also been enlarged. Note the open-mouthed expression in the tramp shot and in HUNT photograph "B." This "fly catching" expression was characteristic of HUNT.

Another composite of HUNT and the HUNT tramp.

HUNT'S head embedded in tramp shot P1 where the tramps head should be.

Overlay of HUNT and the tramp. A CIA document about HUNT indicated the Agency had no photographs of him in 1961. [Allen v. DOD document number deleted "1961?"] Click HERE to see digital morph of HUNT and the HUNT tramp. S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt reported: (1) The shortest and the oldest man of the three men arrested in Dallas compared with HUNT photographs shows a marked and significant age difference, with HUNT having a much younger appearance. (2) The jowl area of the chin of the old man has protruding pouches, while this area of HUNT'S chin is smooth and tightly contoured. (3) The old man's nose appears more bulbous, while HUNT'S nose is more angular or pointed. HUNT was disguised to look older, and he did. S.A. Shaneyfeldt's statement about HUNT'S jowl made no sense. The only time we saw jowls was in P2, but in P3, HUNT seemed to be grimacing to distort their shape. In P4 he was out of focus, and in P6 he was too far back to make out much detail. As for Shaneyfeldt's contention that the tramp's nose is more bulbous than HUNT'S, again P3 contains the only reasonable view of his nose, albeit twisted. Clyde Snow, like S.A. Shaneyfeldt, emphasized: "The tramp has a relatively broad nose with a bulbous fleshy nasal tip. The nasal tip is not depressed. HUNT has a narrow nose with a salient nasal bridge and an angular, moderately depressed nasal tip." Coincidentally, Clyde Snow had also concluded that the nose of the STURGIS tramp was more bulbous than STURGIS' nose. Could this have been a result of both men having distorted their faces? Clyde Snow agreed with Lyndal Shaneyfeldt and stated:

In comparing HUNT with tramp C, the average difference of the six indices of the two men is 9.0, a value significantly high to suggest no particularly strong resemblance in facial proportions. In addition, in comparing the photographs of the tramp to those of HUNT taken in the late 1950's and early 1960's, the following morphological differences were noted: Forehead: Tramp C has several well-developed transverse frontal sulci and a strong vertical interciliary sulcus. These are not observed in HUNT who, even in the photographs taken years later, had only slightly developed transverse frontal and interciliary furrows. Clyde Snow contended that HUNT and the tramp had the same forehead furrows except the tramp's were more pronounced. In which tramp shots was the HUNT tramp's forehead even visible? The best shot occurred in P3, and even here, the depth of field of the camera blurred the grimacing face of the HUNT tramp. In P4, he was farther back, and in P5 and P7 his face was doctored out. In P6 his face was also a blur. Perhaps Clyde Snow had photographs that were closer to the originals? Assuming what Snow said was true, makeup might have been used to accentuate HUNT'S already existing features. HUNT was made up to look older by the cosmetic alteration of preexisting features. This theory was consistent with Clyde Snow's analysis of HUNT'S cheeks and the tramp's: "Cheek: Tramp C has well-developed nose-labial folds, whereas in HUNT these are only incipiently developed in his photographs taken about the time of the assassination." Clyde Snow ignored this possibility and cited age as a difference between the two men: "Age: In general facial tone, age lines and other features, Tramp C appears to be at least a decade older than HUNT." Regarding HUNT'S mouth and lips, Clyde Snow stated: "Mouth: Tramp C has thick, full membranous lips; HUNT is thin lipped." In P3, HUNT'S lips are contorted from his frowning. Look at the lip comparison. Not only were the lips identical, but the way HUNT and the tramp shaped them was also identical. Clyde Snow pointed out a scar on the tramp that was not visible in the HUNT photographs: "Scars. In the tramp there is a pitlike ovid scar about 1 centimeter in diameter located immediately above the lateral end of his right eyebrow. This feature is not observed in the HUNT photographs provided for examination." This scar appeared prominently in P2, but not in P3 and P4, although it might be argued not enough of the right side of HUNT'S face was visible in P3 to see the scar, and that P4 was too blurred to make it out. The scar was not visible in P6. David Wise reported: "In 1972 James A. Everett, a veteran CIA agent in Europe, was reassigned to the Chicago Domestic Operations Division. He was given a hairpiece, different glasses and a wart. The wart was a stick-on type..." [Wise The American Police State p188] DOCTORING OF HUNT'S PHOTOGRAPHS HUNT was a high ranking official in the CIA. The Agency could not have plausibly denied this. Photographs of HUNT disguised as a tramp, at the scene of the JFK assassination, would have caused the CIA to be disbanded. Why didn't the CIA destroy

the tramp shot negatives? It had the undoctored negatives in its possession before they were doctored. If, however, the photographs had disappeared, the photographers might have gone to the FBI. This would have called unnecessary attention to the tramps. Then the tramps' arrest, release, identity etc. would have had to have been investigated by the Warren Commission. The tramp shots had never been published in any of the local papers and instead, had been filed as out takes. As it was, the only references to the tramps were made by Bowers and law enforcement personnel. No FBI reports were generated on them. Additionally, the Agency did not know for certain that these were the only tramp shots. Private individuals, as well as a local television news crew equipped with a 16-mm movie camera, were also present. After destroying these, others could surface. The cover-up of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy involved many more CIA personnel the conspiracy or act itself. The CIA, acting as an institution, doctored the photographs so they would have negative forensic value, co-opted their dissemination, and waited to see if anyone credible made a valid identification. There were very few photographs of STURGIS and CHRIST available in 1963 (and none of HUNT) so the CIA had little to fear - until Watergate. HUNT: "The Watergate episode brought my photographs to the national fore and was the core of the speculation about me and the JFK assassination. The Watergate episode evolved this into the JFK mess." [HUNT v. SPOTLIGHT 1.29.85 Miami #80-1121-Civil-Kehoe p61] It was pointed out repeatedly to the HSCA that to obtain an accurate photographic evaluation, the first issue that had to be addressed was doctoring. It was suggested the HSCA apply sophisticated photo analytic techniques to the tramp shots to determine whether they had been tampered with, but the HSCA refused. The word doctoring appeared nowhere in its report, though it was obvious that the tramp shots had indeed been doctored. Doctor Clyde Snow: No, I never determined whether the tramp shots had been doctored. The way I thought it was set-up was that the photographs would first be examined by people who were experts in determining whether or not photographs had been doctored. After they were certified as undoctored, we would get the copies. Were they examined? It was pointed-out to Clyde Snow by this researcher that there was no report on doctoring of the tramp shots in the HSCA files, nor was it listed as withheld. There was no reference to it in the HSCA Report, or supporting volumes. Clyde Snow: It was my understanding that everything had been looked over by other analysts on our committee. I've forgotten their names. That's an interesting point. I just took what was given to me.

Clyde Snow was told that unless one accounted for the doctoring, one would arrive at a negative conclusion. He commented, "That could be true." Clyde Snow was sent a set of tramp shots and asked to comment on the doctoring: I looked at it very briefly. I haven't had a chance to analyze it. I can't take the time off. I don't know how big a hurry you're in. I just got back from Chiapas, then I have go to Austin, and to Chicago for a murder trial. Then Ethiopia. Perhaps several months from now. Give it a try." [Snow 3.2.94; 2230 Bluecreek Norman, OK 73071 405-364-7471] Clyde Snow was re-contacted in June 1994. He stated: No way can I do an analysis on the doctoring. I'm just too tied up on many, many, other things to get involved in the Kennedy assassination. It's history now. There's probably better people out there then me to do it. Technically, things have moved so far beyond what they were whenever we were doing that in 1975, 1976. I'm no longer the state of the art in photo comparison. I would have no way of doing it, I don't have the equipment, I don't have the time, and I don't have the money." Clyde Snow was told that he would be paid for his time. "Well ah, that would have to be a given. But I don't think I want to get involved. I don't look at photographs primarily. I'm an anthropologist, and anthropologists have been used to compare photographs from time to time. But there are other people who just do that full time. I think what we did was pretty good. Find another expert to shoot me down. As far as I'm concerned the case is closed. Clyde Snow clearly did not want to get involved in examining the photographs for doctoring. If he reported the photographs were doctored, it would have reopened the case. Again, would Clyde Snow have been willing to issue a positive photo report to the HSCA despite its implications? HSCA Chief Counsel Robert Blakey commented: The implications of these questions is enormous, about a Watergate burglar, and a former longtime CIA officer, who directed the 1972 break-in, might have been involved in the assassination...for years the tramp photographs were little more than conversation pieces, but in 1975, in a book called Coup D'Etat in America, Michael Cranfield [sic] and Alan J. Weberman [sic] proposed that two of these three tramps were none other than HOWARD HUNT and FRANK STURGIS who had been involved in the Watergate prosecutions. [HSCA V4 p366] When I first called Clyde Snow he told me: I'll second guess anybody. I got to look at the evidence. I get involved in criminal trials all the time on one side or the other. Like most forensic

scientists I go in with an open mind. Very often I have to tell my own side, 'Counselor if you use me as a witness I'll blow you out of the water because I look at the evidence, and I'm not going to be able to tell them what you want to hear.' Clearly, this was untrue. THE BRUSH STROKE P7: There was a brush stroke covering the small part of the cheeks and ear of the HUNT tramp that would normally have been visible in the picture. The brush stroke extended to the face of the tallest tramp.

The brush stroke. Marvin Miller showed Lyndal Shaneyfeldt the brush stroke and asked him about it: Q. Does it appear to have a brush stroke over that area? A. I would not interpret that, myself, as a brush stroke across there. That area of the photograph over the right shoulder of the Nordic individual is really not identifiable from this photograph. It is only with the knowledge of the other photographs, and knowing that there was a shorter man with a hat, that it could be interpreted as being the edge of the hat and part of the forehead of the older individual, but I will not interpret that as brush stroke, and I see no evidence of retouching in that. (Marvin Miller pointed out the brush stroke once again.)

A. I see a, the white, lower line. Q. Yes, sir. A. - just along the shoulder, I think corresponds with a, with white fleck along the cheek Q. Yes. A. - which tends to suggest a, a stroke across there. Q. All right. A. It is not quite in alignment, but it's rather close. Q. All right. Thank you sir. A. Uh-huh. Q. Do you know how to account for that mark on the photograph that we have just discussed? A. No, other than happenstance. I would have to see the original negative. Q. All right. A. That, that does not Q. All right. It appears at least that this photograph, at least, has had some kind of alteration to it, whether the negative did or not? A. No, it does not. That does not imply that to me. I said that there are a couple of white specks along the cheek line along the Nordic individual that almost correspond with the highlight line along the shoulder. That I would interpret as being accidental happenstance. If it appeared, dirt on the negative. Could be anything. Q. All right, but you could not discern that actually until you had the real negative? A. That's right, in absence of other retouching on there it is not suggestive of a retouched photograph to me. Q. All right, the [original] negative has the answer?

A. May have the answer. The negative may not have the answer either. Q. All right, but it would be the best evidence, so to speak? A. All right. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt attributed this instance of doctoring to accidental happenstance.

THE TWO BLOCKS OF LIGHT P5: Before I had a good copy of P5 I perceived what I believed to be two blocks of light in front of the HUNT tramp. Due to these apparent white blocks, the photograph was totally worthless in reference to HUNT, since the only HUNT parts visible were his shoes, pants and hat. Attorney Marvin Miller pointed out this phenomenon to Lyndal Shaneyfeldt: A. Because of the screen pattern in this reproduction the detail is really not adequate for, for making any determination. Is this the dark line you're speaking of? Q. Yes, and it seems to be interrupted by a little white blotch or two right up in there. A. Yes, it's just from, from examining this photograph I believe that to be a branch of a tree or something and not the outline of the face, because it's too far out from the edge of the hat and the edge of the face is over in this

area. I would interpret that as being another one of these branches of the bushes back there. I do not interpret that as the edge of the face but again, the reproduction in the book is not clear enough. Again, we would need to have a good photograph or the original negative. How could the blocks of light be explained as branches from a bush, when one of them appeared in front of the HUNT tramp's face in a location that clearly had no bushes? Nonetheless, he allowed that his conclusion was not scientifically valid unless he examined the original negative. This testimony intimated that either the FBI never possessed the original negative, or it had the original negative and never examined it for evidence of doctoring. Recently, I examined the clearest version of P5 available to date and the block of light does not appear. It seemed to have been a result of having had a third or fourth generation copy. None-the-less even though there is a large area under the HUNT tramp's hat where part of his face should be it is just not there. HUNT'S NEW EAR

P3: A new ear has been spliced on to HUNT'S head. Note the minute art knife notch at the tip of the arrow. This ear appeared to be identical with the ear of the tallest tramp shown in P5. The latter would have been used, because the P5 photograph of STURGIS' ear was taken under identical lighting conditions. This was not HUNT'S ear, and did not correspond to the tip of the projecting left ear that stuck out behind the CHRIST tramp, under a hat and some thin hair in P1.

PLASTIC SURGERY HUNT underwent plastic surgery on his left ear after the assassination in order to alter the contours of that wing-like projection. S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt reported: "There are some inconsistencies in the ear contours; however, the known photographs of HUNT show differences in the ear contours between the late 1950 photographs and the mid to late 1960 photographs. The ear contours of the oldest individual in the Dallas photographs are different from the ear contours of HUNT in the mid to late 1960 photographs." Lyndal Shaneyfeldt was questioned by Marvin Miller about this statement: A. I did find inconsistencies in the ear contours of Mr. HUNT in the 1950 photograph as opposed to the 1960's photographs, but my final analysis was there were some differences between ear contours, particularly of the ear in the 1960's. Now, that's the closest I can come to answering your question. Q. All right. Do you have any way by which you can account for the difference in Mr. HUNT'S ears relative to themselves between the 1950's and the 1960's? A. No, other than, other than camera angles. Primarily camera angles. You don't always have exactly the same angle and the ear contour can be very greatly affected by changes of angle of view. What I am saying is the angle at which you view the ear in the photograph is affected very much by the angle of the head relative to camera angle. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt did not attribute the difference in the contours of HUNT'S ears to plastic surgery. Instead, he claimed that a technical factor was involved - camera angle. Why couldn't this factor be accounted for? HUNT had his ear contours modified by plastic surgery. Ear contours are the outer most configuration of the ear or rim. There was no way to calculate what effect such surgery might have had on the rest of the configurations of HUNT'S ear, since the entire ear itself was essentially squeezed and restructured into a new shape.

Note that HUNT did not just have his ears pinned back, he changed the configurations of his inner ear. HUNT had protruding ears before his surgery. Why did he wait until after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy to have them fixed? Clyde Snow detected the plastic surgery: "From his photographs, apparently HUNT underwent surgery to correct his rather projecting ears. The date of this operation was not determined, but from the photographs, it would appear to have been within a few years before or after the assassination. In degree of projection, the tramp's ears appear to more closely match HUNT'S presurgical condition." Although the tramp shots had been doctored, HUNT'S protruding ear could still be detected in P1. Characteristically, HUNT had prepared for every eventuality he could anticipate, such as the surfacing of more photographic evidence. Better to have altered evidence, such as one's own ear, than to have it used against you. Clyde Snow examined two features of HUNT'S ear which he believed was unaffected by surgery, and found that they were strongly different in the photographs: One of these is the helix, the fold of flesh that forms the outer rim of the ear. In the tramp, this fold is wide and prominent, whereas it is more narrow and weakly developed in HUNT. The second difference is the antihelix, the secondary fold that roughly parallels the helix inside the ear. This structure is strongly developed in the tramp, and, in fact, its lower portion appears to extend beyond the helix. In HUNT, the antihelix is weakly developed. Clyde Snow believed he was examining ear features which had been uninfluenced by surgery. In P2, the HUNT tramp's right ear was visible. The inner configurations were barely discernible, but the outer contour looked normal. Compare the contours of the tramp's ear with HUNT'S ear in the HUNT EAR STUDY. The outer contours match. One problem with these shots was the overexposure of one and underexposure of the other.

Now compare the right ear of the tramp with HUNT'S presurgical right ear. There was no similarity whatsoever as a result of the doctoring. In HUNT DIGITAL EAR IMAGING STUDY 1 his presurgical right ear has been electronically grafted to the HUNT tramp's face in P3 to illustrate the purpose of the doctoring. Note that the brush stroke in P7 covered the HUNT tramp's right ear. Clyde Snow stated that the tramp's right ear and HUNT'S right ear, were totally different. The dissimilarity was cause by falsification of the original tramp negatives in order to conceal the HUNT appendage, which became the key to identifying him as the tramp. One man who could have told us if P3 was doctored was the photographer, Jack Beers. Finally, Doctor Clyde Snow was told by this researcher, "You asked, 'Is it HUNT? Is it STURGIS? Is it CHRIST?' Shouldn't you have asked, 'Is it HUNT and STURGIS and CHRIST?'" Clyde Snow stated: I would have to go back to the original report. As I recall, we took them on a case by case basis. The point is in photo identification the questioned photograph always looks somewhat like the person who is identified as the suspected person. Otherwise, if he looked like Arnold Schwartznegger? There's generally a general resemblance to the person who was identified. Someone came up with the names of three people who kind of look like the tramps. It's an interesting point. I would want to go back and look at the report to see whether that was taken into account. THE HEIGHT STUDY STURGIS The Rockefeller Commission had the FBI conduct an on-site tramp height study to determine the height of the tramps and compare it against that of HUNT and STURGIS. The FBI did a study of the height of the STURGIS tramp so that it could be compared to STURGIS' height, which it determined was 5' 11", the height listed on his drivers license. On May 7, 1975, and on May 8, 1975, the FBI "conducted studies in the vicinity of the Texas School Book Depository to determine the height of the derelict thought to be FRANK STURGIS." The FBI used an overlay method: Some of the photographs were duplicated using height standards, and these duplicated photographs were superimposed over the photographs of [the tramps] to establish the approximate heights of these individuals. Based on the comparison made, it was found that the tallest derelict, purported to be STURGIS, is in the height range from 6' 1" to 6' 3" tall...since STURGIS is 5' 11" tall, this determination of height supports the conclusion previously given that FRANK STURGIS is not the derelict. Five days after the FBI filed this report, however, it filed a revised report that stated the FBI Laboratory had determined that part of the street visible in the tramp shots had been repaved in 1973: "The addition of this resurfacing material would normally subtract

approximately one to one and a half inches from the height as shown in previous report." This would make the tramp 5'11 ½" to 6' 1- ½" tall. As stated, STURGIS was 5' 11" tall. The half-inch difference could have been accounted for by the tramp's fluffier hair style. A few weeks before the FBI did its study, Michael Canfield did his. He determined the tramp was 6' + or - 1". During his deposition in the course of HUNT v. WEBERMAN Shaneyfeldt stated: I went to Dallas and made on-site studies to try to establish the derelict's height, particularly the Nordic individual, and the elderly, shorter man. I was furnished with the camera that was used by the news photographer to make the original tramp photographs. I was also furnished with copies of the photographs. I reenacted those photographs placing in position of the individuals in the photograph height standards that would record the height of anyone who was standing in that particular position. Using that technique, and setting up the camera based on fixed objects as they were recorded in the original negatives, buildings, trees, things that were still in position at that time, I did make a height study and then using the photographs that were made with that same camera, I made transparencies which were enlarged to the same size as the photographs, and overlaid, and determined the height of the individuals. It was found that the tallest of the derelicts purported to be FRANK STURGIS, is in the height range from 6' 1" to 6' 3" tall." Lyndal Shaneyfeldt claimed that his study results were accurate, since they were generally unaffected by the street's resurfacing: "However, considering the fact that the camera position in the street is also elevated by one inch, this would tend to limit the effect [of the resurfacing]." The FBI had disagreed. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt, however, did not deny that the repaving had some effect, he merely claimed that his methodology tended to limit that effect. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt said his report was only "relatively accurate." S.A. Lyndal Shaneyfeldt worked with William Gaston Allen's photograph P6. When the FBI questioned William Gaston Allen in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1975, William Gaston Allen did not recall taking P6 or any of the other tramp photographs: "He believes he could have taken them. He recalled taking photographs from the corner opposite the front entrance of the Texas School Book Depository." William Gaston Allen believed he was standing on the sidewalk when he took photographs that day. HUNT The initial report of the FBI listed the height of the shortest tramp as 5' 6" to 5' 8". [FBI 62-109060-NR 6.16.75] The revised FBI report that followed estimated the short tramp's height to be normally 5' 4 ½" to 5' 6 ½". [FBI 62-109060-NR 6.2.75] The Rockefeller Commission chose to use the FBI's initial calculation, and listed the height of the short tramp as from 5' 6" to 5' 8". When Michael Canfield did a height study in 1975, he

determined that the HUNT tramp was 5' 8". This height study was published in Coup D'Etat In America. Michael Canfield and the FBI's findings agreed. To prove its thesis that HUNT and STURGIS were not the tramps, the Rockefeller Commission misstated HUNT'S height as 5' 9". During a deposition in the course of HUNT v. WEBERMAN, HUNT was asked to display his drivers license. His height was listed as 5' 8" tall. HUNT'S resume was obtained and he listed his height as 5' 8". In 1948 HUNT listed his height as 5' 10 ½". THE HEIGHT STUDY Many people in the media have argued that the tall tramp could not be Sturgis, who is six foot tall, because the tall tramp appears to be at least six foot five inches tall. This has proven to be misinformation. It was first propagated by Richard Sprague in his article in the Los Angeles Star. Sprague said he measured the wall which is in the background when the tramps are pictured walking along (see page 208), and he found a height discrepancy of six inches between the tallest tramp and Frank Sturgis. We decided to conduct our own investigation, and Michael Canfield went down to Dallas, Texas. What we did was run a scale and two graduated yardsticks up the wall at the exact point on the Texas School Book Depository that the tramps were at when the photo on page 208 was taken. The way we determined the exact position on the wall was to find the same imperfections in the brick work that are evident in the photographs. These coordination points are labeled A, B, C, D and E in the tramp photo matched up in the height study on the following page. In trying to determine the height of the tramps, one must take into consideration the angle of the photograph and the position of the tramps in relation to the wall. There are two factors that make the tallest tramp seem taller than he really is. The position of the camera when the shot was taken is about chest high of the tallest tramp on the right. This was determined by the fact that the bottom of the ornamental brick work on the first row is visible at the right of the tall tramp's head (see Figure 1, page 201). This indicates that the camera was held a few inches below that point. The tallest tramp is two feet closer to the camera than the wall in which the scale is attached. So with the laws of perspective in operation the tramp appears higher on the scale than he really is. Taking into account the diminishing point and camera angle, we find that the tramp is approximately six foot tall give or take a half inch, not six foot five inches tall. Sturgis has been listed as six foot or six foot one inch. Now, comparing the smallest tramp, on the far left of the photo on page 208, to the scale on page 209, we see that his hat barely comes to the inner square of the second brick, which is approximately five foot eleven inches on the scale. Subtracting about two inches that the hat adds to the height and an inch because of the camera angle and the diminishing perspective optics law, the height of the small tramp is five foot eight inches. Hunt has listed his height as five foot eight inches on his personal employment resume. Thus, the tallest tramp and the small tramp are approximately six foot and five foot eight inches, respectively. Figure 1

The underside of the brick just behind the Tall Tramp is visible indicating that the camera was held below this point. Blow-up P2, next page.

Shadow indicating Shadow from the Curves top of the ear curved ear


Figure 2 The angle of the camera and the position of the tramps to the wall gave the illusion that the tramps were taller. Therefore a head on shot of the tall tramp would show that at most he is only 6’ 1”. Imperfections of the wall (marked A-E) were used to determine the exact positions for the height comparison.


For the most up-to-date version of this Nodule go to

STURGIS' ALIBIS In 1974 Michael Canfield questioned FRANK STURGIS about his alibi for November 22, 1963. STURGIS: "I was home watching Miami." The television listings for November 22, 1963, in the Miami Herald, indicated that at 1:30 p.m. (12:30 Dallas time) Search For Tomorrow, Truth or Consequences and Father Knows Best were on television at the time. Why would an active, macho guy like STURGIS be at home watching television? STURGIS worked as a used car salesman at the time. Why wasn't he at work? The reason was he had to be placed in a non-public environment THE NOVEMBER 22, 1963, MEETING IN WASHINGTON, D.C. Later in 1974 STURGIS told Michael Canfield that he was watching television on the day of the assassination, possibly in Washington, rather than Miami: Well, yeah, I love to watch television. Well, and regardless of where its at, I don't care if I'm in Washington, or anyplace, I'll watch television. But they've asked me that, like I said, they asked me where I was on that day and I told them 'Well, I've got no comment on that.' So I suspect that maybe I'll be dragged up there to Washington before one of those Congressional Committees, or the Rockefeller Commission. As stated, STURGIS and Wilfrado Navarro testified before the Rockefeller Commission on April 3, 1975. Present were Staff Members William Schwarzer, Robert Olsen, James Roethe. During his deposition in HUNT V. WEBERMAN STURGIS was asked: Q. Do you remember giving a story to anybody, especially Mr. Canfield, that you may have been in Washington, D.C. on November 22, 1963. A. I don't recall. WEBERMAN: I've got it on tape. A. I'm sorry. Then one of us is wrong. WEBERMAN: You said you didn't know where you were, but you were watching television. A. Because I was home.

WEBERMAN: So you weren't working that day? A. I was at home and I did leave the house. Supposedly Jim Buchanan came and told me that, I went with him and left the house with him. Around this time Bernard Fensterwald and Richard Sprague circulated a story that on November 22, 1963, STURGIS was at a meeting in Washington, D.C., with Richard Helms, HUNT, and Cuban exile Enrique Williams. Sprague told a researcher: HUNT was at a meeting of Operation 40 with Helms, Enrique Williams, Lyman Kirkpatrick. This was confirmed by Williams. Williams was a leader of the Bay of Pigs Brigade. Hanes Johnson told me Enrique Williams was at this meeting, and I confirmed it with Williams. Williams was a very honest individual, as any guy would be, who came under fire on that beach. If HUNT said he was at this meeting I would not believe him. Williams told this story long before Watergate. The meeting concerned the CIA putting more money up for another invasion of Cuba. The notes of a Rockefeller Commission investigator indicated confusion about this meeting: Check Bureau files on HUNT interviews in 1974. Did HUNT claim to be in the company of Agency officials on November 22, 1963? and give their names to FBI & claim they could corroborate his presence there? Check with HUNT'S lawyer regarding content of HUNT'S TV denials of Dallas matter in November 1974. Did HUNT say he was at work at Agency at 1:30 p.m.? (Taped by Kaiser.) HUNT refused to say who he was with. Contact Robert Blair Kaiser at Rolling Stone regarding whether he had recording or notes of his November 1974 interview with HUNT in New York. STURGIS said that he might have been in Washington on November 22, 1963. The CIA planned to provide STURGIS with an alibi, and leaked it through their asset, Bernard Fensterwald. In 1978 STURGIS said he did not recall telling Michael Canfield anything about a meeting in Washington, D.C. This was because the CIA abandoned "the meeting in D.C." alibi, since it would have put HUNT and STURGIS together prior to 1971. JAMES A. HUNT STURGIS told Rockefeller Commission "he was in Miami Florida throughout the day of the assassination, and his testimony was supported by the testimony of his wife, and by the testimony of his wife's nephew [James A. Hunt]. The nephew, who was then living with the STURGIS family, is now a practicing attorney in the Midwest." Rockefeller Commission investigator Pete Clapper: "I phoned James A. Hunt, attorney, Cincinnati, Ohio, 513-381-0656, before noon on April 1, 1975. I explained that the Commission

seeks to ascertain the whereabouts of FRANK STURGIS on November 22, 1963. Mr. James Hunt said he wished to check with STURGIS, and then would call back. He called before noon this date and provided the following information: James Hunt was living with his aunt, Janet Sturgis, and her husband, FRANK, at their home at Northwest 122nd Street in Miami on November 22, 1963. James Hunt was attending Miami Day Junior College. He had enrolled there in August 1963. To the best of his knowledge, he recalls having an early class that day. Before leaving the house, he saw FRANK STURGIS at home about breakfast time. Hunt returned to the house in mid-morning. His grandmother was home. He took a nap. His grandmother awakened him to report there were news reports that the President had been shot in Dallas. James Hunt remembers they watched CBS correspondent Walter Cronkite. James Hunt reports that STURGIS returned home that afternoon and they watched TV He believes STURGIS was a used car salesman at the time. He is certain that it was a working day for STURGIS. Prior to STURGIS returning to the house in the afternoon, James Hunt recalls taking a drive around Miami during the afternoon alone. He recalls his aunt was upset by the TV reports. He recalls his cousin, Gale, a grade school student, was present in the household, and watched TV with them during the evening. STURGIS was at home that evening, he believes to the best of his recollection. James Hunt says the day stands out particularly in his mind because only five days earlier he had seen Kennedy in person. James Hunt and a friend were at the Miami airport the previous Monday. Kennedy happened to be arriving. They joined the crowd and watched him. Hunt agreed to draft an affidavit. I have given him my name and the Commission address to send the affidavit to. [RCD Memo Robert B. Olsen to Clapper 4.3.75] James Hunt's affidavit for the Rockefeller Commission stated: AFFIDAVIT OF JAMES A. HUNT STATE OF OHIO COUNTY OF HAMILTON James A. Hunt, being duly sworn and cautioned, deposes and says that:

1. I am submitting this Affidavit to the Commission on CIA activities within the United States at the request of Peter R. Clapper, who contacted me by telephone and told me he is a staff member of the foregoing Commission. 2. The purpose of this Affidavit is to record, to the best of my knowledge, my recollection of certain events that occurred on November 22, 1963. 3. During the period August 1963 until May 1962, I was enrolled as a freshman student at Miami-Dade Junior College located near the corner of northwest 119th Street and 27th Avenue in Miami, Florida. 4. During the aforementioned period, I lived in the household of my aunt, Mrs. Janet Sturgis, and her husband, my uncle, FRANK STURGIS at 2515 Northwest 122nd Street, Miami. My grand-mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Hunt, now deceased, also lived there. 5. Taking into consideration the fact that November 22, 1963, is a single day which occurred almost 11 ½ years ago, the following is offered as my best recollection of the day. A. As I recall, I had an early class at Miami Dade Junior College on November 22, 1963, and arose early enough to arrive at school at least before 9:00 a.m. It is my recollection that I saw FRANK STURGIS at home prior to my leaving for school that morning. B. I returned to the STURGIS household sometime during mid-morning, probably sometime between 11:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m. Since I had not eaten breakfast previously, it is my recollection that, upon returning to the STURGIS' household, I ate breakfast and retired to my room to take a short nap and do some reading prior to the late afternoon class which I had to attend on that day. C. At some time between 12:00 noon and 1:30 p.m. I was awakened by my grandmother who told me that reports of an attempted assassination on the life of President John Kennedy were being broadcast on television. D. I then arose and watched the news. It is my recollection that besides my grandmother, my aunt, Mrs. Janet Sturgis was also at home watching the television. E. Later in the afternoon on that day, probably at approximately 3:00 p.m., I drove back to Miami-Dade Junior College to see if my afternoon class had been canceled. F. Upon arriving at Miami-Dade Junior College that afternoon I discovered that the class had, in fact, been canceled; thereafter I took a drive through

the city of Miami, contemplating the significance of the events of that day and trying to get some idea of their impact on other people. G. I arrived back at the STURGIS household in the late afternoon, probably between 3:30 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. H. Upon my arrival back at the STURGIS household, or shortly thereafter, I recall seeing my grandmother, my aunt, Mrs. Janet Sturgis and my uncle, FRANK STURGIS. It is further my recollection that the aforementioned persons ate dinner at the STURGIS household and remained there for the rest of the evening. 6. The foregoing represents, to the best of my recollection, a summary of certain events which occurred on November 22, 1963, the day on which President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. Further Affiant Saith Naught. James A. Hunt. STURGIS said that he was at home, watching television, when news of the assassination was flashed across the screen. He said he was with James Hunt. James Hunt had a different version of events. He said that his aunt woke him up when the news was flashed, however, FRANK STURGIS was not there at the time. James Hunt told Olsen during their phone conversation that STURGIS returned home that afternoon and they watched TV before he went for his drive. In his affidavit he stated he saw STURGIS after his drive. He believed STURGIS was a used car salesman at the time. He was certain that it was a working day for STURGIS. STURGIS never mentioned anything about working that day. He claimed he was home, watching TV. James Hunt could also be mistaken about seeing STURGIS at breakfast because this event occurred before the assassination and was less likely to be as clear in his mind as events that followed it. James Hunt said he had a very early class to attend. Why would STURGIS be eating breakfast at so early an hour if all he had planned for that day was to stay indoors and watch T.V? TELEPHONE INTERVIEW WITH JAMES HUNT James Hunt was contacted in January 1994 and asked: Q. Was FRANK there when you were woken up and told about the assassination? A. No, he wasn't there when I woke up. Q. But FRANK said he was there. A. Not in the afternoon. I never saw FRANK'S testimony. Where did he say that? FRANK may have his times mixed-up there. I must admit that part I don't remember. I got to say as I sit here, 'It's been a long time.' -

What, 30 years? - But I don't remember FRANK being there when she woke me up. I'm not quite sure whether he was there when they made the announcement of his death. I certainly stand behind the affidavit I gave to the Rockefeller Commission. My recollection is that I saw FRANK early in the morning. I came home, laid down, my grandmother woke me up and said 'He's been shot.' I went out and watched the news for awhile. I had an afternoon class that day, and somewhere around mid-afternoon I went over to see if they were going to hold class. It turned out they weren't, and I drove around for half an hour or so and I got back. That was probably when I saw FRANK again, you know what I mean. Hell, that would be 3:00 p.m., something like that, yeah. 3:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. sounds about right. Q. FRANK'S alibi was 'I was watching TV when the news came on about the assassination. My nephew was there, with me, when it first happened.' A. I am not trying to be unfriendly, but I don't know what the purpose of this call is? Q. I am trying to resolve this contradiction in the testimony. A. He could have been there, but I just don't remember he was there. I swear the following is true and correct: In 2008 I met with Bob Risch, the co-author of a book that Jim Hunt was planning to do about his uncle FRANK STURGIS entitled Cuba On My Mind. He told me that Jim had retracted his statement to the Rockefeller Commission and that FRANK had asked him to alibi him for the day in question. When the book was published Hunt stuck to the statement that he gave to the Rockefeller Commission. He did say that he believed STURGIS was part of the conspiracy to kill Kennedy but was not a shooter. I asked him what part could STURGIS have played? Did he write a White Paper on the Bay of Pigs? Did he arrange the flowers at JFK’s funeral? I pointed out to him that FRANK was a killer and that if he was part of the plot his role involved murder. Hunt did not believe that FRANK had killed his best friend, Alex Rorke or that he machine-gunned dozens of Masferrer supporters at San Juan Hill in Cuba. I told him that in HEMMING’s words, “FRANK was a stubble bum.”


FROM CLASSES, ALTHOUGH IT WAS PROBABLY EARLY IN THE AFTERNOON. I DO REMEMBER THAT MY NEPHEW AND GONE EARLIER IN THE WEEK TO MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TO BE AMONG THE THOUSANDS WHO WELCOMED PRESIDENT KENNEDY ON HIS STOP-OVER IN MIAMI PRIOR TO A FLIGHT TO DALLAS, TEXAS. I ALSO REMEMBER, QUITE VIVIDLY, FANK (sic) AND MY (sic) WATCHING TELEVISION THAT SUNDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 24, 1975 (sic) WHEN LEE HARVEY OSWALD WAS BEING ESCORTED THROUGH A DALLAS POLICE STATION AND WAS SHOT AND KILLED IN VIEW OF MILLIONS OF TELEVIEWERS. THIS MUCH I CAN ATTEST TO: AT THE MOMENT OF THE ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY MY HUSBAND FRANK A. STURGIS - WAS WITH ME IN OUR HOME AT 2515 N.W. 122 STREET, MIAMI, FLORIDA. JANET STURGIS. Janet Sturgis lied in order to provide an alibi for her husband. Her affidavit conflicted with that of James Hunt. The Rockefeller Commission did not mention this conflict, however the Rockefeller Commission concluded: "It cannot be determined with certainty where STURGIS actually was on the day of the assassination." This conclusion was derived from the fact that: "All witnesses directly supporting the presence of STURGIS in Miami, Florida, on the day of the assassination are family members or relatives. Less weight can be assigned to the testimony of such interested witnesses..." STURGIS' SECOND ALIBI During his deposition in 1978 in the course of HUNT v. WEBERMAN, STURGIS was asked if he was watching television at 1:30 p.m. (12:30 p.m. in Dallas)? STURGIS: "I don't remember, so many years ago, I don't recall, I think it was on all stations..." Q. What were you doing about 12:30 p.m. on November 22, 1963? A. On November 22, 1963, at about 12:30 p.m., I was at a party at my home in Miami, Florida, with my wife Janet Sturgis, my mother-in-law, Elizabeth Hunt, and my nephew, who was at my home at that time, James Hunt. Q. Where was this home located? A. 2515 N.W. 122nd Street, Miami, Florida, 33167. Q. Is this the same home you maintain today? A. Yes sir.

Q. Can you describe your movements on that day, to the best of your recollection? A. Not really; it was so many years ago. I was at home, I did not go out. I have other people with the Federal Government that do have on record, that could testify or have already testified that I was in Miami on November 22, 1963...I have nothing to hide. The Federal Government knows of my activities, knows where I was at on that particular day of the assassination, and I am quite sure that the government - as far as I'm concerned - is well aware of who is behind -- if there was a conspiracy, I believe there was a conspiracy -- and they are well aware of who was behind the conspiracy. Q. November 22, 1963, was a working day. Were you working at that time? A. Most likely. Q. Did you have any reason for not being at work that day? A. Friday? No reason. Q. What were you doing that day? You say you don't remember. Do you remember -A. I don't recall. Q. Do you remember talking to a Mr. Michael Canfield, the co-author of this book? A. On that day? Q. About the events of that day? A. Yes. Q. Do you remember what you told him? A. Not really, it's been so -Q. Could you have told him you were watching television? A. Possibly yes, yes. As a matter of fact, I think my mother-in-law told me the President was assassinated. Q. Were you watching television around 12:30 in the afternoon that day?

A. I don't remember; so many years ago. I don't recall. Q. So you wouldn't remember what program was on? A. I think it was on all stations. It was a continuation that day of the assassination. STURGIS said that he was at home on November 22, 1963, watching T.V. and, at the same time, at work that day. He was asked: "Do you remember what you were doing for a living at the time of the assassination, what your job was or how you earned your living?" He responded: "That's quite a long spell. I would have to really wrack my mind to find out at that particular time what I was doing. Right at the present time, I don't know; but I could, you know, through records and so forth...I could look through them and tell you what I was doing that particular time...[I was] at home that day and did leave the house." STURGIS was asked: Q. Are there any other witnesses besides your immediate relatives and Geraldine Shamma, to verify your whereabouts on November 22, 1963? A. Yes. Q. Who are they? A. William Johnson, we call him Bill Johnson. Q. Where is he? A. He lives here in San Souci Estates in Miami, Dade County. Q. Do you know anybody else? A. His telephone number is 305-893-6013. Jim Buchanan, as a matter of fact, I believe Jim Buchanan came to my house on that date of November 22, 1963, him and I went off the day of the Kennedy assassination. Q. Anybody else you remember? A. Geraldine Shamma, Jim Buchanan, William Johnson, my nephew, Jim Hunt. Q. What did you tell the Rockefeller Commission? A. The same thing. Q. But the Rockefeller Commission said your witnesses were only close relatives.

A. I'm sorry, you're right. I glad you brought that up because just recently, because of all the publicity, people did contact me and tell me, "Hey, you remember this, this, this? If you need any help, fine." Well, I told Fonzi and Fonzi supposedly , I'm not sure whether he had already been in touch with these people or not, but he is aware of these people I came across. So I turned it over - STURGIS said he had seen William Johnson and Geraldine Shamma that day but he was unable to recall the identity of any impartial witnesses. In June 1993 William Johnson was asked whether or not he was with STURGIS that day: "I was not there, no sir. I was not there." Attorney Mark Friedman asked STURGIS: Q. Were you with HOWARD HUNT on November 22, 1963? A. I don't recall. Q. "Yes"or "No"? A. No. If I don't recall why should I say "Yes" or "No"? I don't recall it. Q. Were you involved in a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy? A. Never in my life. That is part of the polygraph. The United States Government knows where I was on November 22, 1963. They know where LEE HARVEY OSWALD was three weeks to the day of the assassination, working at the book depository. There is a witness that knew his whereabouts every day three weeks before. As far as I'm concerned I don't see how in the hell LEE HARVEY OSWALD could be in Miami riding with Marita Lorenz to Dallas, Texas, who she calls OZZIE, is the biggest fabrication of a lie she ever said in her life. I don't know how she could do it. Let her take a polygraph test. A SUSPECT: NOVEMBER 23, 1963 On the morning of November 23, 1963, a FBI agent interrogated STURGIS. The Michael Canfield interview revealed: A. Hey I can show you a clipping where they say I was involved in the assassination of President Kennedy. Q. Who said this? A. Newspapers, I even got investigated by that Watergate thing. They asked me where I was. I told them I knew nothing about it. I was home

watching television. They felt the CIA might be behind it. So they wanted an investigation of E. HOWARD HUNT and myself on the assassination of President Kennedy. What the hell do I got to do with the assassination of President Kennedy? I may have disagreed with his policies and so forth, but that doesn't warrant killing the President of the United States. And they asked me about other attempted assassinations. I said yeah, Cuba. Some people say that if you attempt to assassinate people outside of the United States, wouldn't you be capable of the assassination of the President of the United States? I said, "Well, the thought never entered my mind." But I'm capable of doing many things. I'm that type of a man. But I see no grounds for me doing something like that. You know, he was my Commander-in-Chief. Q. What about other people in the CIA? A. The CIA had a lot of different factions, some of which I didn't trust. Q. Are you convinced the Warren Commission Report was correct? A. On what? Q. On the Kennedy assassination. A. Let me tell you something about the Report. Nobody knows what's in that Report. Only what they wanted to give out. And I don't believe the report is complete. I think there is a conspiracy involved in the assassination of President Kennedy and they covered it up. Q. Who do you think did it? A. I don't have the slightest idea. But I think it’s one big cover-up. Q. That's strange they would investigate you for that. A. Well, they sure did. I had FBI agents over at my house. Q. For the assassination? A. Yeah. Q. When, right after it happened? A. Right after it happened. Q. Why did they come to you?

A. I asked them that. They told me I was one person they felt had the capabilities to do it. Heh, heh, heh. They said: "FRANK, if there is anybody capable of killing the President of the United States, you're the guy that can do it." Heh, heh, heh that's funny I told them, "I'm not mad at you or nothing, I had nothing to do with it, but that amuses me..." STURGIS also told Canfield: "You have to look at my past. I've done a lot of things. I've been on assassination attempts. I was involved in so many things. Skullduggery, intrigue, espionage. Q. When you say assassination attempts? A. Well, in foreign countries. In 1978 STURGIS stated: "Now the FBI did make contact with me after President Kennedy's assassination, yes...I was questioned by the FBI shortly after the assassination. They did come and visit me and question me about my activities during President Kennedy's assassination." STURGIS was asked: Q. Do you remember one of those agents indicating to you the following words: "FRANK, you are one of the few people in this country capable of pulling off something like this?" A. No. The agent told me that I was one person in this country that could possibly do this, if I wanted to. The notes of Rockefeller Commission investigator Robert Olsen revealed: "Whereabouts November 22, 1963: In Miami, at home, two FBI Agents came to visit him. Bob Dwyer was one. To find out his whereabouts & to get help. Witnesses: His wife Janet Sturgis (Married since 1961) wife's nephew, Jim Hunt (Cincinnati, Ohio, Attorney)." Robert James Dwyer was one of the FBI agents who questioned STURGIS on November 23, 1963. Dwyer knew HEMMING. STURGIS was an informant for Dwyer. STURGIS explained: "You must understand that I set up an intelligence apparatus here in the United States...and naturally, this information was turned over to the United States Government." Robert Dwyer never filed a formal report of the interview. HEMMING said Robert Dwyer told him he had worked with Herbert Philbrick. DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGN TO LINK OSWALD WITH CASTRO STURGIS AND JAMES BUCHANAN NOVEMBER 26, 1963 Immediately following the Kennedy assassination James Buchanan, FRANK STURGIS, JOHN MARTINO and others launched a campaign to blame the Kennedy assassination on Fidel Castro. The propaganda operation started with an article dated November 26, 1963, which appeared the in Pompano Beach Sun-Sentinel that quoted STURGIS: "OSWALD was in Miami in November 1962 [OSWALD had been in Miami in December 1962] and had contact with Miami-based supporters of Fidel Castro who were agents of

the G-2. OSWALD gave out his Fair Play for Cuba Committee literature, and Jerry Buchanan, who was with my group, did tell me there was a possibility that OSWALD was in the area, and that he had a fight with OSWALD." Buchanan claimed he knew the name of the printer where OSWALD had his literature printed. STURGIS was questioned about this during his deposition in HUNT V. WEBERMAN: Q. Do you remember Mr. Buchanan giving out a news story that alleged that LEE HARVEY OSWALD was in Miami in 1963? A. Oh yes! As a matter of fact, his brother, Jerry Buchanan, was one of the people that was with my group and Jerry did give me some information to the fact that he thought there was a possibility that one of the persons, now, you must remember that during that particular time there were hundreds of Americans in the area, plus Canadians, in this area here, trying to make contact with various Cuban groups in order to be involved against Cuba, and Jerry did tell me that there was a possibility that OSWALD was in this area and that he had a fight with OSWALD. He wasn't sure but this was what he told me. On November 27, 1963, STURGIS told S.A. James O'Conner that his comments in the article were guesses and speculation, and that he had no hard information. S.A. James O'Conner sent a report to Washington concluding that STURGIS was unreliable, and that his story had no basis in fact. The reports of S.A. James O'Conner in which STURGIS linked OSWALD to Fidel Castro were withheld. [FBI 62-109090-63rd NR 172 Hoover] On April 22, 1964, the Director of the FBI sent this message to the Miami Field Office: Bureau also desires Jim Buchanan to be interviewed in order to pin down, once and for all, wild statements concerning alleged activities of OSWALD in Florida which for the most part appear to emanate from MARTINO and Buchanan. If Buchanan uncooperative, set forth results in LHM form suitable for dissemination to President's Commission at which time consideration will then be given to suggesting Buchanan as well as MARTINO be subpoenaed before President Commission. Handle promptly and surep results. [NARA FBI 124-10035-10367] The FBI reported: James Buchanan, former reporter for the Pompano Beach Sun-Sentinel, stated he has no personal or firsthand knowledge of OSWALD or OSWALD'S activities. He stated his newspaper stories on OSWALD were obtained from sources he regarded as reliable, whose accuracy he did not question. He declined to reveal the identity of a printer at Miami whom he alleges printed pro-Castro literature for OSWALD. Concerning the alleged fight between his brother, Jerry Buchanan, and OSWALD, he maintains

this information was received from a Cuban named Sanchez, a member of the organization 'Los Pinos Nuevos,' and has never talked to his brother about this alleged fight. He says he knows no person who was a witness to the presence of OSWALD in Miami, but thought his brother, Jerry Buchanan, should be contacted in that respect. When informed that his brother had been contacted and had furnished a varying account, Buchanan said he knew only what Sanchez had told him. Efforts to identify Sanchez through anti-Castro organization Los Pinos Nuevos, or through interview of one Jesus Sanchez, resulted negatively. BUCHANAN'S SECOND STORY A second article in the Pompano Beach Sun-Sentinel stated: OSWALD tried to infiltrate several other major organizations in Miami, including the Anti-Communist Brigade, which is headed by Major FRANK STURGIS, a former Commander in Castro's Air Force. STURGIS said his outfit turned down OSWALD'S application, because they could not find out anything about his background. STURGIS told me, 'We have already established that he was in contact with G-2 agents while here in Miami. We are trying to get the billing record from the telephone company. He called Havana. OSWALD was known to have a bad temper while here in Miami...His other G-2 connections were in Mexico this past summer, and in New Orleans, just five weeks ago. We are in the process of checking out the leads. We already have a few names and places. Men are on the scene interviewing people who may have witnessed the meeting in Mexico City and in New Orleans...'" The Miami FBI Office responded: "The Miami Office does not contemplate interview of Jim Buchanan inasmuch as the previous concerning an article by Buchanan, reported in Miami report dated January 25, 1964, in instant caption, reflected that Buchanan deals in rumors an unverified information which he attributed to anonymous sources. [FBI Rep. of James O'Conner 4.4.64]

MARTINEZ AND GONZALEZ WERE WATERGATE BURGLARS Allen Courtney suggested that S.A. James O'Conner interview JOHN MARTINO, but MARTINO was traveling from city to city on a lecture tour for the John Birch Society. Instead, S.A. James O'Conner interviewed JOHN MARTINO'S associate, Nathan Weyl, who told him OSWALD was a G-2 agent. On December 2, 1963, S.A. James O'Conner interviewed MARTINO, who told him that a confidential source had told him OSWALD was in Miami in October 1962, and made several telephone calls to Cuba from the home of a suspected Castro double-agent. MARTINO said that when OSWALD distributed his Fair Play for Cuba Committee literature in Bayfront Park, Jerry Buchanan attacked him. In January 1964, MARTINO told one of his audiences that he had special knowledge of OSWALD. According to MARTINO, when OSWALD was in Mexico in October 1963, he caught a clandestine flight from the Yucatan Peninsula to Havana, Cuba. S.A. James O'Conner contacted MARTINO a few days after he made this speech. He told S.A. James O'Conner his source for OSWALD'S clandestine trip to Cuba was a high official in the Castro Government. On December 3, 1963, STURGIS supplied the CIA with information on a possible air strike over Cuba. [Index Card (Deleted)-04183] On February 7, 1964, Helene Finan, Chief of the Office of Security, Security Research Staff, CIA, debriefed Hede Massing regarding her knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the Kennedy assassination. [CIA 3.26.64 03681; CIA 12881022] Hede Massing, a former Soviet spy who was once the toast of Vienna, had once been married to Gerhart Eisler, an agent of Moscow. Senator Joseph McCarthy used Massing to observe the behavior of American Government employees in Europe. Massing worked with Roy M. Cohen in this regard. [Senator Joe McCarthy - Richard Rovere, Torch Books, 1959] The FBI stated: "Massing worked, and might still work, for the Central Intelligence Agency." [FBI Dallas 100-10461-4075] ANGLETON'S Deputy, James Hunt, was in contact with Hede Massing. [FBI 3.31.64 Branigan to Sullivan; FBI 105-82555-2993, 2464, 2906]

Subject reported on various personalities she heard discussed while she was visiting Sylvia and Nathaniel Weyl in Florida from December 30, 1963, to January 8, 1964. JOHN MARTINO Mr. and Mrs. MARTINO visited the Weyls one evening when Massing was present. John Martino and Nathan Weyl are co-authors of the book, I Was Castro's Prisoner, which was published in November 1963. Massing, at this point, cautioned the writer to remember that all she was relating regarding the Weyls remarks were rumors, and or, gossip, and that source has no means of checking the truth of their statements. JOHN MARTINO is the individual who carries the stories to Nathaniel Weyl and both JOHN and Nathaniel are deeply entrenched with the Cuban anti-Castro forces. MARTINO claims to have a friend in Miami who keeps him well-informed on Cuban matters. MARTINO and Nathaniel spoke of a trip that MARTINO had made to Cuba with an American newspaper woman, one Lapin and two CIA agents. Nathaniel Weyl did not accompany them. It is Massing's opinion that Nathaniel, who is a coward, just welshed on the trip, but that he did finance it. The purpose of the trip was to contact a Cuban who was serving as liaison for the four Russian Generals in charge of training and organizing the Cuban military. The Cuban, who met the group in the water, at the edge of a beach in Cuba, told them that the four Generals wanted to escape and seek asylum in the United States. MARTINO is going ahead with a follow-up plan whereby on a given signal, he and a group would sail to Cuba to pick up the Generals. Weyl is going on a long lecture tour and will not be able to accompany the pick-up team to Cuba. LEE HARVEY OSWALD The Cuban friends of the unnamed individual in Miami know that OSWALD contacted the Cuban MI-6 by telephone from a private home in Miami. They also know the man who furnished the information on OSWALD to the FBI. From the reports given by the Cubans to this unknown individual, it seems very definite that RUBY went to Havana to make a shady deal with a creature by the name of Praskin, who works with the Cuban Communists and who is also tied up with call girls in Cuba. A friend of Weyl, who ran for the Presidency of Cuba in 1958, shortly will testify before the Senate Internal Security Committee. Massing says this information may be confidential. Sourwine of the Committee, contacted Weyl to get in touch with this individual.

[Massing Debriefing 2.7.64 Helene Finan NARA 1993.08.04.18:45:23:780037] On February 27, 1964, a memorandum from William Branigan to William C. Sullivan was generated: CIA has furnished a memorandum through Liaison channels indicating that according to a confidential and reliable source, whose sources are unknown, LEE HARVEY OSWALD allegedly was telephonically in contact with MI-6 (Cuban Intelligence) from a private home in Miami, Florida. Further allegations indicate JACK RUBY, alleged assassin of OSWALD, went to Havana, Cuba, to make a shady deal with 'Praskin' who works with the Cuban Communists and was a dope pusher used by the Communists; that a friend of the source claims there is more to Marina Oswald than meets the eye; that Marguerite Oswald, mother of the Subject, is an old line communist and that OSWALD'S return to the United States was part of a Russian 'gimmick.' CIA has confidentially advised that source of the above data is Hede Massing, a resident of New York City known to the Bureau and CIA, and CIA has no objection to this Bureau contacting her and advising that the information furnished by her to the CIA had been furnished to the FBI. Bureau files reveal Massing is a former Soviet agent who defected in 1938. She has been utilized by the CIA and has been a source of information of the New York Office since 1947 concerning Soviet espionage. By letter February 4, 1964, captioned 'Foreign Political Matters -Cuba - IS - Cuba. New York' submitted information furnished by Massing concerning JOHN MARTINO and Nathaniel and Sylvia Weyl, which information was similar to that furnished by the CIA in the abovementioned memo; however, the data concerning OSWALD and RUBY above apparently was not furnished to the New York Office by Massing. MARTINO has previously been interviewed by Miami, at which time he pretended greater knowledge of Cuban affairs than he actually possessed. He also indicated various statements made concerning LEE HARVEY OSWALD were based on information received from unidentified Cuban aliens, and he no firsthand knowledge or information concerning OSWALD. The unnamed individual in Miami referred to by Massing on page 2 of CIA memo could possibly be MARTINO. By airtel February 26, 1964, New York was instructed to immediately reinterview Massing for all the information in her possession concerning the OSWALD matter, specifically ascertain basis for all statements made by her to the CIA and immediately set forth additional leads necessary to definitely pin down these allegations. [FBI 105-82555-2464; Branigan to Sullivan 2.27.64]

J. Edgar Hoover initialed and expedited this memorandum. S.A. James O'Conner had received orders from J. Edgar Hoover: With regard to the information furnished by MARTINO, Bureau desires that MARTINO be pressed to force production of his source in order to pin down this allegation. If he continues to be evasive and uncooperative on this point, set forth results of recontact with him in LHM form suitable for dissemination for President's Commission. Consideration with then be given to suggesting MARTINO be subpoenaed before President's Commission. [FBI 105-82555-33199 - page 2 w/h] On March 13, 1964, S.A. O'Conner interviewed Nathaniel Weyl, who said he …was not sure of the identity of his source, with respect to the information that LEE HARVEY OSWALD had contacted the Cuban intelligence by telephone from a private home in Miami. He said that his source for this information may have been a newspaper article written by James Buchanan. He recalled that Buchanan had quoted FRANK STURGIS, described as an individual active in the Cuban situation at Miami, as stating that STURGIS knew that OSWALD had made such a call from Coral Gables, Florida, to the Cuban intelligence office in Miramar, Havana, Cuba. Mr. Weyl said his source for this information may have been JOHN MARTINO, who, in turn, may have obtained the information from either BUCHANAN or STURGIS...With respect to the information that JACK RUBY had made a trip to Havana, Cuba, to deal with an individual named PRASKIN, Mr. Weyl stated he had been informed of this by an old friend, Carlos Marquez Sterling, resident at Washington, D.C...Mr. Weyl said he did believe that OSWALD had been in Miami, Florida, in the past, and it was his recollection that Jim Buchanan, or possibly the latter's brother, Jerry Buchanan, had told him that OSWALD had attempted to infiltrate anti-Castro groups in Miami, but had been rejected by these groups because he was uncommunicative as to his background. Mr. Weyl said that it was probably Jim Buchanan who told him that his brother Jerry had been involved in a scuffle with OSWALD in downtown Miami, and that Jerry Buchanan had punched OSWALD. Mr. Weyl said this incident was supposed to have occurred when OSWALD was observed distributing some pro-Castro literature in Miami...He said he recalled that OSWALD reportedly attempted to join the anti-Castro organizations known as the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (DRE) (Cuban Student Revolutionary Directorate), and Unidad Revolucionario (UR) (Revolutionary Unity). Mr. Weyl said he had no corroborative information concerning the alleged stay of OSWALD in Miami, other than the news articles by Jim Buchanan and contact with Fernando Cabada, described as a leader of UR.

S.A. O'Conner interviewed Fernando Fernandez Cabada, who said he never furnished information to the Weyls regarding OSWALD. On March 24, 1964, S.A. James O'Conner re-interviewed MARTINO. With respect to information that Cuban friends of MARTINO knew that OSWALD had contacted the Cuban Intelligence Service in Cuba by telephone from a private residence in Miami, Florida, MARTINO claimed this was correct information. He refused to identify the source of such information, claiming that to pinpoint the source could conceivably result in harassment, if not more serious consequences, to the source or his family in Cuba. MARTINO stated the information concerning such an alleged telephone call by OSWALD to Cuban intelligence did not originate with his friend, Felipe Vidal Santiago, a Cuban exile active in anti-Castro activities. He also stated the information had not originated with STURGIS, an American citizen residing in Miami, who has been engaged in anti-Fidel Castro activities, and who headed an organization called the Anti-Communist International Brigade. Mr. MARTINO stated that the information in this respect had not been received from James Buchanan, although he had discussed the information with Buchanan. MARTINO stated he would contact his confidential source as soon as the latter had returned from Tampa, Florida, to Miami, expected to be March 22, 1964, and would seek to obtain his consent to interview by the FBI. With respect to the other alleged information that Cubans with whom MARTINO might have contact had stated that JACK RUBY had gone to Havana, Cuba, to engage in a shady deal with one (FNU) Praskin, who was also alleged to work with Cuban communists and be tied up with call girls in Cuba, MARTINO stated as follows: This information came in the form of a letter from Cuba, which was shown to MARTINO by a Cuban whom MARTINO said was named Jose Madero. He said Madero, a man in his late 30's, had infiltrated back into Cuba as of December 1963, and was thus no longer available. MARTINO said he had known Madero when he was incarcerated in Cuba during the period July 1959 to October 1962. MARTINO said the letter was not directed to Madero, but to another individual not known to MARTINO. He said he had no idea where the letter might now be located. He said the letter related that Praskin had a business on Sanja Street in Havana, and that he supplied American girls to 'Girlie Shows' operated by Chinese in Havana. He said the letter made no mention of the nature of the shady deal alleged to occur between RUBY and Praskin, and did not indicate when RUBY had gone to Havana or how he had traveled...

MARTINO stated this same source had informed him that OSWALD had stayed in the home of a pro-Castro Cuban in Miami, Florida, and had paid this pro-Castro Cuban the cost of a long distance telephone call made from the home of the pro-Castro Cuban to Cuba. MARTINO further stated that according to his source, the pro-Castro Cuban, after the assassination had occurred, made the statement, 'I didn't think it would go this far.' in referring to OSWALD. MARTINO said that additional information to establish that OSWALD had been in Miami was received was received by him from Jim Buchanan. He said he used to give a lot of stories on the Cuban situation to Buchanan, and during the days immediately following the assassination, Buchanan, during a telephone call, told him that Buchanan's brother, Jerry Buchanan, had a fistfight with LEE HARVEY OSWALD at Miami, Florida, about a year prior to the assassination. According to MARTINO, OSWALD at that time was attempting to get aboard a boat [Alexander Rorke's Violyn III] that was being used by Jerry Buchanan and anti-Castro exiles in connection with their anti-Castro plans. Mr. MARTINO told Jim Buchanan that he intended to use this information in his speeches if it were true, and Buchanan told him to go ahead and do so. Mr. MARTINO stated he never used the information, however, because he considered it 'confidential to the government' and he was 'Not fighting that battle.' MARTINO also told S.A. O'Conner that OSWALD had secretly flown from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, to Cuba, and that his source had the name of the printer in Miami OSWALD used to run-off his Fair Play for Cuba Committee leaflets, and even had a copy of the check OSWALD used to pay the printer. The funds had been withdrawn from the account of the Miami Chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. The FBI: The only hearsay readily traceable to origin is alleged fight between OSWALD and Jerry Buchanan at Miami about beginning of 1963. MARTINO has in the past pretended greater knowledge of Cuban affairs than he actually possessed, and has declined to divulge his sources. Instructions previously furnished Miami to pin MARTINO down and attempt to press to force production of his source. During interview on March 26, 1964, Jerry Buchanan stated he was one of a group which fought with members of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee distributing proCastro literature, Bay Front Park, Miami, in October 1962. Following assassination, he recognized OSWALD as having been one of the members of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee which his group had fought. Also stated OSWALD had been in Miami in March 1963, distributing proCastro literature, and stated his brother, James Buchanan, a newspaper reporter, has specific information concerning OSWALD'S being in Miami

during these periods. This should be pinned down and run out as above. [NARA FBI 124-10035-10367] When the FBI checked Jerry Buchanan's parole records, it found that he was released from the Florida State Penitentiary on October 16, 1962, and was in Tampa, Florida, during the period October 21, 1962, to October 30, 1962. HEMMING told this researcher: Jerry Buchanan wasn't in the can. He's on the streets. How the fuck do they know where he is? He might have been down rolling fags in the Men's Room at Bay Front Park. On April 7, 1964, S.A. James O'Conner questioned STURGIS again. STURGIS said he had "quit the IACB because James Buchanan had called John Kennedy a Communist." STURGIS denied hearing about a fight in Bayfront Park between OSWALD and Buchanan. On April 27, 1963, after many visits from S.A. James O'Conner, MARTINO told him that his source was coming to Miami for a meeting of Manuel Artime's group, MRR. MARTINO agreed to approach him on behalf of the FBI. MARTINO was warned that unless this matter was resolved, he would be called before the Warren Commission. MARTINO'S response was: "What can they do, put me in jail?" The SAC of the Miami Field Office stated: As pointed out in referenced Miami teletype, Miami considers MARTINO to be unreliable. It is further believed that MARTINO would probably welcome a subpoena before the President's Commission, as it would add to his stature, and furnish him additional notoriety on which to capitalize in his lecture engagements which he gives on Communism and Cuba. It is felt, however, he would be as equally evasive with the President's Commission as he was with the Miami Office, and there is no evidence to indicate he could furnish the Commission with anything but untraceable hearsay and speculation. [FBI 105-82555-3995] The FBI briefly considered having James Buchanan testify before the Warren Commission. [FBI 105-82555-2993] S.A. James O'Conner conducted his final interview with MARTINO on May 11, 1964. MARTINO told him Cuban exile "Oscar Ortiz" was his source for his information on OSWALD. S.A. James O'Conner had the Immigration and Naturalization Service check its files for Oscar Ortiz; it found no such person. The Immigration and Naturalization Service informed S.A. James O'Conner that MARTINO had previously furnished it with erroneous information based on a nonexistent source. STURGIS told S.A. James O'Conner that he personally "could not remember OSWALD." In 1975 STURGIS told this to Robert Olsen of the Rockefeller Commission: Doesn't ever recall meeting OSWALD. Doesn't know of his (OSWALD) ever coming to Miami. Had no part, direct or indirect, with assassination of the President. Has made past investigation of Kennedy assassination. Thinks there could have been conspiracy...Has been in Dallas several

times. Not at time of assassination. Never met Ruby. Feels it’s more than just speculation. Lots of hatred vs. Kennedy among Cubans. Very good probability that there was a conspiracy. Some kooks on Tel. have something to say about Kennedy assassination. Radical left can't stand idea that it was one of their own that shot Kennedy. CIA can't control everybody connected with Agency. Could be a question about contract agents. Warren Commission was put there to write the history as government wanted it - not to tell the whole truth. Thinks there's lots of evidence, yet, of conspiracy to be found in Miami. Never met any of the Dallas Derelicts. Miami was hotter anti-Kennedy place than Dallas. Cubans there were upper class and middle class. Stole their way to wealth in Cuba and are now engaged in Cuban crime wave on East Coast. Now have Cuban crime syndicate in U.S. This was the group recruited by Company to overthrow Castro. When S.A. James O'Conner asked STURGIS if he had another source linking OSWALD to the G-2, STURGIS referred him to MARTINO. MARTINO'S source did not exist. On another occasion, when STURGIS was asked for the name of his source, STURGIS pointed to James Buchanan. When James Buchanan was asked for his source, he pointed to STURGIS. These guys were the Tweed Gang of disinformation. DRE DISINFORMATION The second James Buchanan article in the Sun-Sentinel that linked OSWALD to Fidel Castro also accused the FBI of preventing the DRE from distributing information that would have supported James Buchanan's initial article. James Buchanan claimed that certain members of the DRE knew of OSWALD'S visits to Miami, and knew of the Bayfront Park incident. S.A. James O'Conner went to the Miami office of the DRE. Everyone there had no knowledge of the FBI preventing the distribution of any of the DRE's information on OSWALD, with the exception of DRE member Eduardo Diaz Lanz, the brother of Pedro Diaz Lanz and Marcos Diaz Lanz, who said he vaguely remembered the story. Eduardo Diaz Lanz had brought STURGIS to the DRE office several times following November 22, 1963, and said he may have given him the information during one of these visits. S.A. James O'Conner again questioned STURGIS, who told him that Eduardo Diaz Lanz told him that the FBI prevented the DRE from releasing proof of OSWALD'S G-2 connections. STURGIS told S.A. James O'Conner that Jerry Buchanan had told him about OSWALD'S visit to Miami, about his fight with OSWALD in Bayfront Park, and that OSWALD had tried to infiltrate the International Anti-Communist Brigade. SOLOMON PRATKINS On December 21, 1963, the Miami FBI Field Office received information that one Hose Antonio Juan had received a letter from his son living in Cuba wherein it was alleged that RUBY had visited a Mr. Pranski in Havana in late 1962 or early 1963. On December 24, 1963, the DRE released a letter from a woman in Havana which stated

RUBY had a meeting in 1963 with Solomon Pratkins, a G-2 agent who used a gift shop for a front. The FBI reported: "The statement that RUBY visited Communist Cuba last year, as attributed to a New Orleans Cuban exile, refers to one CARLOS BRINGUIER, a New Orleans delegate to the DRE." [FBI Memo Rosen to Belmont 2.11.64 44-240161110, NR 3.9.64, NR 3.12.64] On December 24, 1963, the DRE affiliate in Cuba published the Solomon Pratkins story in its underground mimeographed paper, Accion Cubana, founded in May 1960. [FBI-109-609-6] This periodical was allegedly funded by Fulgencio Batista. [CIA March 1, 1962 To: C/WHD from Chief of Station WAVE] The FBI requested by memo dated January 7, 1964, that the CIA attempt to verify this rumor through sources in Cuba. On January 9, 1964, ANGLETON received this memo: 9 January 1964 SAS 64-18 MEMORANDUM FOR: Chief Cl/Staff James Angleton SUBJECT Memo received from AMTOUT-1 Attached is a translation of a memo sent to Carlos Marquez Sterling. Sterling gave a copy of the memo to AMTROUT-1, an SAS/EDE asset, who passed it on to us. "The Brigadier of Giron, Sr. Evidio Pereira. who is in constant communication with Cuba, informs the General Delegate of the Movimiento Patriotic() Cuba Libre, ... news of great importance. 1. Notify the Pentagon of this fact: Ruby, the assassin of Oswald was in Havana a year ago. He is a friend and customer of a citizen named Praskin, owner or manager of a novelty shop for tourists located between Animas y Trocadero, Paseo dui Prado, in front of the Hotel Sevilla. This information, received in Miami, as noted at the beginning of this memorandum, were received by Brigadier of Brigade 2506, Evidio Pereira, who is ready to verify them. New York, 29 December 1963. Pereira is probably Evidio B. Pereira Acosta, DPOB 12 March 1927, Graf, Carrilo, Las Villas, 201-298242, member of Brigade 2506. There are no SAS traces on Praskin. ANGLETON reported to the FBI on January 30, 1964, that an unevaluated and unconfirmed report of a visit by RUBY to Cuba in late 1962, or early 1963, had been received from Havana in the form of an article in Accion Cubana. [CSCI 3/779,814] ANGLETON advised that the allegation could possibly be verified through one Pereira Acosta who resided in Miami, Florida. [FBI 44-24016-1047] In March 1964, the CIA reported that it's source who furnished lists of passengers flying from Mexico to Cuba could not locate RUBY, Rubenstein, etc. [FBI 44-24016-1222] MARTINO also told the FBI the Solomon Pratkins tale. On August 2, 1976, after STURGIS revived the Pratkins tale in the media, the CIA commented:

The Agency reported to the FBI in CSCI 3/779, 814 on January 30, 1964, that an unevaluated and unconfirmed report of a visit by Ruby to Cuba in late 1962 or early 1963 had been received from Havana. This report was actually based on a two page mimeographed newsletter entitled 'Accion' which was mailed from Cuba in an envelope postmarked December 28, 1963, purportedly by an underground anti-Castro group. This newsletter, received in Miami on January 13, 1964, by the anti-Castro group known as the DRE, was widely circulated in the Cuban exile community and was the subject of a newspaper article in the January 29, 1964, edition of the Miami News under the headline 'Ruby Visited Cuba -- Exiles Say.' R. Wall DC/CI/OG. THE DRE IN MADRID On December 3, 1963, the CIA reported that on: 1. November 27, 1963, the CIA Station, Madrid, received the following information from Source Two: On the morning of November 22, 1963, Amparo Godinez, the owner of the Marquesa De Cuba bar located in Madrid, overheard former Cuban journalist Baston Baquero tell Rosendo Canto Hernandez, editor of Accion Cubana, that he had received a letter stating Kennedy would be killed that day. 2. Source Two received information on November 26, 1963, from Maria Manuela de Canal whose address is Plaza Del Nino Jesus No. 6, 2nd floor, Apt. D, Madrid. Maria Manuela de Canal is a close friend of Amparo Godinez. Source Two en route JMWAVE area from Madrid and unable learn further details of alleged conversation. 3. Since AMWORLD program requires that any contact between (illegible) and ODYOKE not be revealed in any follow up on this information, Madrid Station may wish to center inquiries on Baston Baquero via liaison with local service. 4. Have not passed above to 30FGA Miami. On December 5, 1963, C/WH 3 cabled the CIA Station in Madrid: 1. Please follow up this case. Suggest you have Source 3 question persons mentioned to see if any foundation at all to this story. Imperative that Source 1 [Baston Baquero] not be revealed as source (deleted). 2. Please slug all traffic on assassination. [CIA 321-123] SECRET 051645Z WAVE INFO DIR CITE MADR 9854

RYBAT TYPIC (Deleted) 8ITE AMWORLD] REF WAVE 8447 (IN 72832) ** 1. Cuban journalist line 3 para 1 ref is Baston Baquero (deleted). Staff Officer GROWERY saw him on November 26, 1963, when President's death was naturally discussed. At no time did Baston Baquero give any indication he had any advance word or rumor that GPIDEAL would be killed. If he had received letter reported para 1 or any other information concerning killing, however, will query him directly. 2. No index. C/S COMMENT: DISSEMINATION APPLICABLE TO RYBAT GRFLOOR CABLES. **On morning of November 22., owner of bar “Marquesa de Cuba” in Madrid overheard former Cuban journalist tell one Canto that he had received a letter stating GPIDEAL (3) would be killed that day. On December 7, 1963, the CIA Station in Madrid sent this cable to C/WH 4: 1. Source 1, [Baston Baquero] questioned by Source Two on the night of December 6, 1963. Baston Baquero said "he and Rosendo Canto Hernandez, Alberto Salas Amaro, and Jose Chelala Lopez after attending lecture together at Syndical Palace, Madrid, entered bar 'Marquesa De Cuba' at about 8:00 p.m. on the night of November 22, 1963. They were told by bartender, who was alone at the time, that President Kennedy had been assassinated. Salas Amaro called his wife who confirmed this, and group went to UPI office nearby to read the ticker. They later returned to bar to have drinks and then the group broke up. 2. Baston Baquero said Amparo Godinez was in the bar when group returned, but refused his invitation to drink and left almost immediately. This was the only time Baston Baquero saw Amparo Godinez during that day. He did not see him on the morning of November 22, 1963. 3. Baston Baquero said he received no word, verbal or written or even rumor that President Kennedy would be killed and any allegation that he made any statement to this effect at any time to anyone is completely absurd and absolutely untrue. 4. Baston Baquero added that Rosendo Canto Hernandez, editor of Accion Cubana who is a well-known American hater, was the only person in the bar to express satisfaction at Kennedy's death. [CIA 345-139, 315119, 277-105; Allen v. DOD CIA 12129]

CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT'S DISINFORMATION In mid-January 1964 STURGIS and James Buchanan flew to Panama and Costa Rica and investigated setting up a training base. The FBI had pressured The Sun-Sentinel into firing James Buchanan, to insure that no more of his "OSWALD in Miami" stories appeared. A FBI document dated February 5, 1964, concerning Orlando Bosch read: Synopsis: FRANK FIORINI, admitted associate of William Johnson, denied implication in or any specific knowledge of attempted MIRR air raid December 28, 1963. Dr. Orlando Bosch gave statement to press claiming that bombs would have been dropped on crowds in Havana celebrating 5th anniversary of the revolution on January 2, 1964, had not boat been seized carrying bombs to secret base in the Caribbean. MM T-1 has advised that Bosch gave this distorted statement to the press for propaganda purposes as MIRR intended only to bomb (deleted) Cuba. MM-T1 also advised that Bosch is presently attempting to raise more money to carry out further bombing raid against Cuba." The FBI interviewed FRANK: FIORINI is a personal friend of WILLIAM JOHNSON. About two weeks ago Fiorini was with JOHNSON at Broward International Airport. JOHNSON introduced FIORINI to Charles Bush, who operates an airline charter business at that airport. This was the first and last contact FIORINI had with Bush. After this introduction, JOHNSON went with Bush to the latter’s office at the airport, and FIORINI went to a nearby restaurant where he chanced upon Antonio Sansone, a Cuban exile pilot. FIORINI said that he did not know the nature of JOHNSON’S business with Bush. He denied specific knowledge of JOHNSON being involved in an air raid attempt in cooperation with ORLANDO BOSCH. He states however, that he knew JOHNSON was “up to something” but he did not know what. On April 28, 1964, S.A. James O'Conner interviewed James Buchanan, who was employed by Caribbean Press Service, a subsidiary of the Agencia De Informaciones Periodisticas (AIP), a CIA front exposed by The Miami Herald. James Buchanan said that he knew the name of OSWALD'S printer in Miami, but he was sworn to secrecy. STURGIS associate Victor Paneque supplied S.A. James O'Conner with a story that linked OSWALD to a G-2 agent named Fernandez. The FBI documents about this interview listed S.A. James O'Conner as Miami SAC. Richard Davis played a part in the imaginary scenario of Victor Paneque. The CIA reported: DDP relationship: A POA for PANEQUE's use was granted the Miami Station on November 13 1964. The Miami request had stated that he was to be used "as an infiltree and radio operator. A report of August 10, 1964 stated that he had been infiltrated into Cuba in June 1964 on behalf of the Christian Democratic Movement. Whether he was used operationally is

not stated in PANEQUE's 201. He was terminated effective October 31, 1965 for lack of an immediate operational use. On February 25, 1964, Cyril B. Hamblett, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy retired told the FBI that Interview for all pertinent information concerning MDC plans to drop magnetic mines on Cuban ports and attack … While in Miami during the week of January 13, 1964 Hamblett was contacted on three occasions by Jose Ignacio Rasco who reportedly seeking assistance, guidance and financial help in connected with the proposed dropping of magnetic mines in five Cuban ports. Rasco and his group, the Christian Democratic Movement (MDC) are also reportedly interesting in effecting an operation wherein one plane would bomb Guantanamo Naval Base; the plane would be imputed to Castro forces, thereby creating an immediate anti-Castro movement in the United States…Hamblett also stated that Jose Ignacio Rasco had told him that the CIA had approached the Christian Democratic Movement to offer assistance to Christian Democratic Movement group which is in some Central American country. Hamblett had already furnished this information to Naval Intelligence Unit DIO-3ND. FBI Bufiles indicated Hamblett was Subject of an Interstate Transportation of Stolen Property investigation in 1957 in which prosecution was declined. [FBI 97-4110-102] A highly deleted document dated April 8, 1964 stated Rosco "told Hamblett that the CIA agent's name was (Deleted as of 2010) who made this offer, but nothing has ever materialized. For info of Bureau Captain John F. Brownlee is Chief of DIO 3ND 90 Church Street, NYC." [FBI FOIA/PA #211,326] On March 4, 1964, the FBI disseminated a lengthy Letter Head Memorandum about the Christian Democratic Movement: Batista said naturally he has some opposition in the organization. Some people consider him as being at odds with U. S. Government policy. Batista said it was his opinion that the United States political aims and foreign policy does not coincide with that of the Cuban exiles. To work with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), is to work for the U. S. aims and goals, which are not necessarily the aims and goals of Cuba for Cuban exiles. According to Batista, there is no mutual field of interest between the United States Government and Cuban exiles. For the U. S. Government to overthrow the present government of Cuba, is to resolve a United States problem, not a Cuban problem. If Cuban exiles would overthrow the present government of Cuba, there would still be many U. S. Government problems not resolved. Batista said he had in the past visited Washington, D. C., and conferred with U. S. Government officials in an effort to

establish a mutual field of interest where Cuban exiles and the U. S. Government could work for mutual benefit, without success. Batista charged that while the U. S. Government complains there is no unity among Cuban exiles, he believes the United States actually does not want unity. He alleged that during 1960, when the Frente Revolucionario Democrato existed, and later became the Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC), a unity organization, the CIA still worked against unity of Cuban exile groups. He said CIA did not work for unity within the CRC, but dealt with each individual organization on different terms. CIA refused to work with the leaders of the CRC as representatives of the several organizations. He alleged the policy has persisted to the present time. Batista stated that military operations from the United States against Cuba would probably be continued by himself and other members of the Christian Democratic Movement. They prefer to work in Miami, Florida, area, because of its closeness to Cuba, good facilities for operating boats, availability of the large number of Cubans to serves as mechanics, and to do other necessary labor. [FBI 97-4110-86] On April 7, 1964, STURGIS was interviewed by the FBI "in connection with another matter." [FBI 2-1499-129 pages withheld] On April 21, 1964, U.S. Customs Agents raided the Headquarters of the Christian Democratic Movement and arrested the leader of the Christian Democratic Movement, Laureano Batista Falla. On April 27, 1964, the FBI generated a document about the Christian Democratic Movement and the DRE that was deleted except for the words "U.S. Customs.” [FBI 4110-104 (?) 4.27.64] INTERNATIONAL ANTI-COMMUNIST BRIGADE OPERATIONS STURGIS SUSPECTED CIS AGENT: MAY 1964 In 1964 an Index Card was generated by the CIA concerning STURGIS which read in part "Ref DBA-82236 September 2, 1964, FIORINI, FRANK; FIORINI, FRED; FRANK, ATTILE; CAMBELL, FRANK; ATTILA, FRANK; BONELLI, FRANK. Suspected Cuban Intelligence Service Agent. Manager of Courteous Motors, Miami, May 1964." [Corr Card. #UFG 2194120] In a deposition related to STURGIS' lawsuit against the New York Police Department he said that in the 1960's he used the name Bonelli "in an operation in Central America. It was an operation to do, the operation specifically was to make commando raids against Cuban companies." [USDC SDNY 78 Civ.5113] The results of the FBI investigation of STURGIS during the period of December 10, 1963, to May 13, 1964, were deleted except for these paragraphs: Information set forth in this report reflecting interview of Subject (FRANK STURGIS) by S.A. James J. O'Conner is contained in an FD-320 located in Miami 105-8342, Bufile 105-82555, captioned 'LEE HARVEY OSWALD, AKA; IS-R-CUBA.' (Deleted as of 2010) Miami is not recommending the opening of any cases based on (deleted as of 2010) communication. For the information of the Bureau, on May 11, 1964, Wallace Shanley Assistant Supervising Customs Agent, Miami, Florida, advised S.A.

Leman L. Stafford Jr that he had conversed with the Subject on frequent occasions over the past few months. He stated subject has furnished him very little valuable information in the recent past and felt at this time any active investigation conducted by the Miami Office would not jeopardize the relationship between the subject and Customs. Shanley added that he is not utilizing Subject as source anymore, though Subject does contact him infrequently. The extensive period of this investigation was necessitated by various expeditious technical matters assigned to reporting agent. (Deleted – names of informants)." [FBI 2-1499-129] STURGIS AND AMERICA'S AIR DEFENSE: MAY 1964 The May 26, 1964, issue of the Pompano Beach Sun-Sentinel contained an article captioned "I Flew Mercy Mission to Cuban Guerillas." The source for this article was "Manuel Fernandez" who claimed to be a member of the 30th of November Movement and the International Anti-Communist Brigade. The article stated that a twin-engine aircraft took off from a South Florida airstrip shortly after midnight, Monday morning, May 25, 1964, carrying cargo of food, equipment, one hundred and fifty thousand propaganda leaflets and a complete field hospital. Three persons were allegedly on the plane which flew a supply mission to 30th of November forces fighting guerrilla war in Eastern Cuba. On May 25, 1964, the International Anti-Communist Brigade announced it had conducted a bombing raid over Cuba. The next day several Congressmen inquired how the International Anti-Communist Brigade team eluded the air defenses of the United States on its return. The FBI reported: On May 27, 1964, Elmo Rainbolt, Chief Patrol Inspector, U.S. Border Patrol, advised he received a telephone call from Paul Rogers, member U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., on morning May 27, 1964, in which Rogers stated following: Rogers had received information that an aircraft had asked for, and been given, a checkout inspection by United States Border Patrol on May 25, 1964, at Fort Lauderdale International Airport. A twin engine Beechcraft then allegedly departed at 12:30 a.m. that date from Tamiami airport, Miami, as a substitute for the inspected plane. It allegedly returned, undetected by radar, to the Tamiami Airport at 4:15 a.m. May 25, 1964. Rainbolt said his investigation had revealed no inspection or flight plans were filed during that period, and there was no report on radar of any unknown penetration of the air defense identification zone...On May 27, 1964, Arthur Eno, head of the FAA Miami advised he has been unable to develop any information concerning the flight as alleged by Representative Rogers. [FBI Miami 21499 NR 180 6.15.64] On May 26, 1964, the Pentagon told a House Committee that investigations by four government agencies showed that a reported flight on May 25, 1964, by members of the International Anti-Communist Brigade to Cuba, did not take place, and was a concocted publicity story. The Defense Department issued a press release which stated

that the raid never occurred. [FBI 2-1499-131, 132] The Associated Press reported that the U.S. Defense Department had the statement of STURGIS in which he said: "To the best of my knowledge a raid on Cuba on May 25, 1964, did not take place. I declare that U.S. radar defenses were not violated while leaving or entering the U.S." On June 3, 1964, United States Customs, Miami, advised the FBI that FIORINI denied any connection with alleged flight. A CIA representative told the FBI (Deleted). [FBI 2-1499 NR 6.4.64 p.2] Gaeton Fonzi reported that on May 27, 1964: Priority telegram regarding alleged air drop into Cuba: FYI Colonel Sam Kail received a call from General Maxwell Taylor's office on May 26, 1964, referring to an article in the Pompano Beach Sun Sentinel regarding reported air drop over Cuba...The story reported that the International Anti-Communist Brigade, and the 30th of November Movement, collaborated on the flight. Allegedly FRANK STURGIS, Craig Sheldon and James Buchanan were involved. On May 28, 1964, the FBI in Miami generated a document about STURGIS and the 30th of November Movement: "For information of the Bureau, U.S. Customs Agency, Miami, is presently endeavoring to locate and interview (Deleted) concerning the 30th of November Organization's participation in the alleged flight on May 25, 1964, over Cuba." This highly deleted report indicated that a copy of this document was filed in STURGIS' file. [FBI 12-1499 NR 6.15.64] Circa May 30, 1964, the CIA received a cable about James Buchanan: 1. Miami Herald May 27, 1962 carries front page item by James Buchanan entitled, “Miro Fades As Exile Chief: Three Latin Leaders Behind Ray.” Article flatly states Miro and council have been replaced by Manuel Ray with backing Gov Nunoz Marin, Pres. Romulo Betancourt and former President Jose Figueras, that Ray has taken over post with “blessing of the United States.” Further article states, “From variety sources Herald learned that Miro was notified of change only this week” and that Ray’s reappointment as “Chief in Exile” came from “underground in Cuba” according to Joaquin Godoy, provisional MRP head in Miami. After furnishing resume Cuban activities since origin of AMBUD, article credits Cubans in Miami as saying “the new man in the field” is Adolf. A. Berle, Jr. who has been special assistant to State Department and is also “member of President Kennedy’s special task force on Latin America.” Implication being that Berle is running new United States sponsored Cuban effort. 2. This release causing some furor in local Cuban colony to extent at least one OPS Agent destined for isolation training has asked to be relieved if the (illegible) story. Meanwhile WAVE checks with knowledgeable contacts has produced little other than William S. Wibalda’s statement that Buchanan journalistic reputation indicates he is inaccurate and sensationalist. AMCLATTER-1 and PASSOVOY attempting to discretly trace Buchanan source for “U.S. blessing.”

3. Buchanan has previously attacked Miro during the return of Playa Giron prisoners Miami. Have no real insight info significance these attacks but believe they could reflect Buchanan or Miami Herald attempts to force changes in United States posture re: Cuba. 4. Expect article will have further repercussions as it spreads. Wish alert HQS that it may be necessary initiate action discredit Buchanan story as well as reassure Miro. Will forward suggestions this regard after we have opportunity to further asses story’s impact. Andrew K. Reuteman In June 1964, the FBI received information from its New Orleans office that the Christian Democratic Movement planned to bomb Havana's oil refineries. [Airtel To SAC NO From Hoover (97-4110-114) mailed 6.17.64] On July 14, 1964, STURGIS furnished the CIA with information on a raid planned by Orlando Bosch. On July 16, 1964, another Letter Head Memorandum about the FBI Christian Democratic Movement was generated. Re: MOVIMIENTO DEMOCRATA CRISTIANO (CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT, INTERNAL SECURITY, NEUTRALITY MATTERS) MM T-1 who has been involved in Cuban revolutionary activities for the past six years on July 7, 1964 furnished the following information. Laureano Batista Falla continues to be the Military Chief of the Christian Democratic Movement maintaining headquarters at 1732 NW 7 th Street, Miami, Florida. On April 21, 1964, representatives of the Dade County Sheriff’s Office and the United States Customs Service raided Christian Democratic Movement headquarters, confiscated a large amount of arms and ammunition, and arrested Batista. Later Batista established the military headquarters at 837 Southwest 29th Ave. The MDC continued to maintain its organization office at 1732 Northwest Seventh Street, Miami. Batista established the military headquarters on 29th Avenue to have a point where arms and ammunition could be stored and which members of the military section could use to plan infiltration and attack missions against Cuba. Batista left Miami Florida with several people and two boats on about July 3, 1964. He has been in periodic contact with the second in command of his military action group, Angel Vega. On July 5, 1964 Batista returned to Miami, Florida, and visited with Vega at military headquarters. He said he had just returned from three infiltration operations into Cuba and was accompanied by Victor Paneque, also known as Commandant Diego. Batista indicated he had returned to Miami for the purpose of trying to obtain additional arms and ammunition and military equipment for some of his men who are presently outside the United States, not in Cuba, but who are believed to be somewhere in the Bahamas. Batista stated the

purpose of his trips to Cuba was to infiltrate equipment and some men. The two groups which he now has in Cuba will eventually form guerilla bands. At the present time these two groups are living quietly with their relative in Cuba. They are waiting the time when Batista can supply them with adequate arms and ammunition, at which time they will form guerilla bands and go into the mountains. [FBI 97-4110-123 page 3 w/h] The Christian Democratic Movement was still active from 1965 to 1968. On October 30, 1964, the FBI generated this LHM: On August 9, 1964 Batista stated he wanted to leave the following day to visit his military training camp outside the United States. Batista stated he planned to meet an unidentified person in the parking lot of an unidentified supermarket in Miami during the night hours, to receive some home-made bombs, which previously belonged to Frank Sturgis an American mercenary and adventurer living in Miami Florida…During the middle of August 1964 Batista was studying a number of detail maps of Cuba. Some of these maps bear the stamp “For Official Use Only.” These maps were obtained by Batista from Robert K. Brown, an American adventurer, part time writer, former University of Colorado student and U.S. Army Reserve Captain. These maps appear to be classified and are the regular military maps used by the United States Army…Patria is a Spanish language paper published weekly in Miami, Florida. On September 11, 1964, Patria contained an article stating that the MDC issued a lengthy document accusing American agencies of being led by Cuban exile movements that are split up and divided. The MDC claimed the United States Government artificially creates leaders for the Cuban exile movements, persecutes independent Cuban exile organizations, and interferes in Cuban exile affairs. The MDC uses the term “check eaters” to refer to those person or organizations which have received financial aid or backing from the U.S. Government. [FBI 97-4110-132] In 1968 the FBI conducted a Secret study of Laureano Batista Falla, the Christian Democratic Movement and the Dominican Republic. [FBI 97-4623-180 2.27.68] Laureano Batista Falla died of cancer in 1992 at age 56. STURGIS: 1965 TO 1967 On February 3, 1965, Bill Johnson arranged an air strike against Cuba for Orlando Bosch's MIRR. Jack Brooks Wright crashed in Freeport after similar raid on January 17, 1965. In January 2004 I received this email: In Nodule 19, you mention a pilot killed in the Freeport by the name of Jack Brooks Wright who worked for the anti-communist organization. I am his son. For the record, the twin-engine Beechcraft flying under the radar mentioned in the paragraphs prior (the May 25th raid) was more than

likely my father's plane (A twin Beech Bonanza). I have heard about my father's trips into Cuba under the radar for years from my Mother and all about the man from the anti-communist organization who was stealing from the Cubans. I have always suspected that my father's crash was not an accident, but after reading the accounts and knowing what else I know from my mother and the event around the time of his death, my suspicions now seem real. He refused to fly for the organization again and coincidently crashed several days later February 2, 1965. The day before someone else flew the raid (February 3rd, 1965). My father also flew into Mexico several times around the time of the Ruby flight and knew the Cuban route well. I was really shaken up by the article. I found it by typing in "Jack Brooks Wright" pilot and when shocked when your site appeared. I am going to do some more research into my father's crash. If you know anything else, I would appreciate it. With Respect, Wesley Brooks Wright In 1966 STURGIS was employed at the Gulfstream Park Race Track as a bartender, and had been fingerprinted in conjunction with this employment on March 12, 1966. [FBI 139-4089-1435] In April 1967, STURGIS was involved in a plan to blow up a Cuban ship in a Mexican seaport. Ronnie Sturgis told the FBI: "I was present when explosives and detonators were hidden in the body of my father's car at a Miami garage. Orlando Bosch was there. The car would be placed on a ship at Vera Cruz. It was an anti-Castro action." On June 28, 1967, STURGIS was mentioned in "FBI File #45-1102, Subject: Unknown; Attempt to Bomb Freight Boat Oro Verde of Nassau Bahamas Registry, Pier Three, Miami, Florida, October 18, 1966." On September 25, 1967, the Miami News contained an article captioned "Exile Ransom Try Seeks Swiss Aid." This article indicated that STURGIS' organization, International Anti-Communist Brigade, was endeavoring to arrange ransom of 500 Cuban political prisoners in exchange for five million dollars worth of medicines and foodstuffs. Geraldine Shamma joined STURGIS in attempting to carry out the ransom plan. Mrs. Shamma stated the committee is comprised of six Cuban woman and herself, each of whom were former Cuban prisoners in Cuba and an "American anti-Castro adventurer" FRANK FIORINI. The article related Shamma announced the ransom had allegedly been pledged by several anti-communist Latin American "businessmen, politicians and military men", whose names were being withheld by the committee. Alter stated if a favorable reply from Fidel Castro should be relayed by the Czechoslovakian embassy, ne then "would consider" travelling to Cuba to start negotiations. On December 7, 1967, Mr. Henry Taylor, Office of the Coordinator of Cuban Affairs, United States Department of State, advised that the International Anti-Communist Brigade had alleged 15 million dollars was

available for use in obtaining the release of Cuban political prisoners. Reportedly, Shamma has been in contact with the Czechoslovakian Embassy in Washington, and allegedly obtained permission from the Cuban Government to enter and leave Cuba. Mr. Taylor stated Shamma had not been in contact with his office since their first meeting several months previously. On December 8, 1967, Shamma declared to Replica that she would go to Cuba to negotiate the freedom of political prisoners. According to an article which appeared in this publication on December 4, 1967, Shamma was quoted as saying she was 'prepared for any eventuality.'...This article also reflected she had exhibited to a reporter of Replica a photostatic copy of an answer from the Czechoslovakian Embassy, Washington, D.C. stating the Cuban Government was studying her request. Shamma added she was ready to go to Cuba and personally talk with Fidel Castro, if that were possible, in order to help rescue the Cuban political prisoners. Benjamin Alter [IACB legal advisor] indicated the two principal members of the IACB connected with this activity were Geraldine Shamma and FRANK FIORINI. They reportedly had financial supporters from 12 different Latin American countries however, their identities were not disclosed. [FBI 105-172694-2p] In 1968 STURGIS met with SANTO TRAFFICANTE. He told the HSCA: "I met him once in a Miami restaurant in 1968." In July 1968 FIORINI formulated OPERATION SWORD. The FBI reported: During June 1968, information was received from various persons in the Miami area that STURGIS was attempting to organize a mercenary force to fight in Cuba. STURGIS solicited volunteers for this force through advertisements placed in South Florida newspapers. Several persons answered the ads were interviewed and verified that they had been offered varying amounts of money to become part of STURGIS' mercenary force organized to fight Castro forces in Cuba. (Deleted) STURGIS associate Ray Sandstrom placed a newspaper ad for adventurers. STURGIS stated: "I believe Ray flew for the CIA in Broward, Fort Lauderdale. Yeah, I received information that Ray was working for the CIA." Max Gonzalez, a close associate of STURGIS, screened the applicants. Out of 60 applicants 11 were chosen. The men were to meet in Guadalajara, Mexico, however, when they arrived, they found that the hotel they were supposed to stay at had been torn down. After two weeks of training in the mud, they went to Progresso, Mexico. In October 1968, a boat load of mercenaries commanded by STURGIS left Progresso and headed toward Cuba, but ran aground off the coast of Belize, British Honduras. The FBI reported: On October 23, 1968, and October 24, 1968, STURGIS and 12 other individuals were arrested by British Honduras authorities on charges of illegal entry. Various weapons, ammunitions and supplies were confiscated from the group at the time of arrest. FIORINI and his group

reportedly had hijacked a 24-foot yacht, Amigo, in order to transport themselves and their supplies to a remote island off British Honduras. All participants interviewed at Miami, and most admitted knowledge of participating in a military operation against Cuba. At the time of interview FIORINI indicated Col. Francisco Quesada, and at least 25 other Cuban exiles participating in the plan were to rendezvous with the Amigo, but that the rendezvous had failed when the Amigo ran aground through the incompetency of its captain. It was through this accident that the boat was forced into the port of Belize, British Honduras, for repairs and re-fueling. No charges were lodged against FIORINI and his group by the U.S. as a result of this incident. [FBI 139-4089-394] On October 26, 1968, the Domestic Intelligence Division of the FBI prepared a "TREAT AS YELLOW" URGENT cable about STURGIS, much of which was withheld: Previous data indicated FRANK FIORINI, long-time anti-Castroite and head of anti-Castro International Anti-Communist Brigade claimed his group would assist Guatemalan Government in cleaning out communist guerillas in exchange for Guatemalan assistance in invasion of Cuba. FIORINI and some 12 men reportedly recently departed Florida for Mexico. Department October 17, 1968, advised activities of group constitute possible violation of neutrality statutes and we are investigating. On October 24, 1968 US Consul, Merida, Mexico, advised group observed boarding vessel in Mexico and alerted authorities in Guatemala and British Honduras. Attached data indicates our Consul in Belize, British Honduras, has advised the arrest Fiorini and group. Fiorini claimed group planned landing in Cuba. Attached data was furnished to by teletype to State, CIA and military intelligence agencies [Department of the Army, Air Force and to the Defense Intelligence Agency]. State was requested to furnish background data to Consul in Belize. Data is also being furnished to Internal Security Division, Customs, and Miami Office. [FBI 105-17296419] STURGIS told the US Counsel that the plan of the group was to land south side of Cuba and enter mountains. “Charles Connelle was identified as Jerry Buchanan. Governor, British Honduras appears inclined turn all over to Mexican Government. Fiorini admitted coercion of Mexican Captain who was handcuffed at one point during trip. Fiorini desires return to US and requested lawyer Ray Sandstrom and Senator Smathers be advised.” The FBI had checked on STURGIS with its representative in Mexico City. The representative cabled "brief, descriptive data on the International Anti-Communist Brigade" to the U.S. Consul in Belize. [FBI 105-172694-37] The FBI noted the departure of STURGIS from Belize aboard TACA Airlines on October 31, 1968. [FBI 105-17269430, 31 FBI 105-172694-29 – 35 NARA Record Number: 124-10302-10152]

THE NATURE OF THE MISSION Was STURGIS involved in an attempt to hijack a Soviet freighter and ransom it for the U.S. spy ship Pueblo and its crew? STURGIS told Paul Meskil: The men were told it was to be a commando raid into Cuba to free political prisoners from Castro's concentration camps.' To lend credence to his story, STURGIS displayed a map showing the locations of Cuban prisons and prison camps. He also had a list of prisoners who supposedly were to be freed. None of the men, not even Gonzalez, were told of the real objective. 'This operation was planned months in advance. The CIA in Miami was aware of it. So were several other federal agencies, including the FBI and Customs. The objective was not to raid Cuba, but to rendezvous with another ship off the coast of Mexico and, with the assistance of this ship, seize a Russian vessel. We were to meet a Cuban vessel. I assume it was a naval vessel, commanded by Cuban navy officers who were disenchanted with Castro. The orders for completing the operation were aboard the Cuban ship. The captain also had a sailing schedule listing arrivals and departures of all Soviet and Communist bloc vessels in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. We hoped to grab a Soviet fishing trawler that was actually a spy ship. This ship was to be intercepted by the Cuban vessel. The captain of the Soviet ship probably would not be suspicious of a boarding party wearing Cuban Navy uniforms. We would then capture the ship. We were to take it off the coast of Venezuela. The orders were not to go into any port, but to stay off the coast. Certain officials in the Venezuelan Government were aware of the plan. They would participate in negotiations for the release of the captive ship and crew. A statement would be issued to the effect that we wanted to exchange the ship and crew for certain political prisoners in Cuba. But this was a ruse. Then we would go into the second phase of the operation - to dicker with the Russians and the North Koreans for the release of the U.S.S. Pueblo, its captain and crew, who were still in confinement at this time.' The FBI reported: STURGIS had plans to lead his army to a rendezvous in the mountains of Mexico and from there proceed to Guatemala. STURGIS claimed the Guatemalan Government would be assisted by his organization in cleaning out Communist guerillas from the hills of Guatemala. When this accomplished, Guatemalan Government supposedly had promised to assist STURGIS in a planned invasion of Cuba. Max Gonzalez claimed OPERATION SWORD was a mission to assassinate Fidel Castro. On July 25, 1975, an unidentified component of the CIA prepared this Memorandum for the Record on Max Gonzalez (No Security File):

One Max Gorman Gonzalez, who may be identical with the name of interest, circa early June 1975 stated publicly that he planned to sue the CIA for involving him in what he charged was a plot headed by Watergate burglar FRANK STURGIS to assassinate Fidel in 1968. Apparently Max Gorman Gonzalez is basing his suit on recent claims of FRANK STURGIS that he, STURGIS, has been a long time CIA employee. STURGIS' claim of CIA employment is not supported by security records. Gonzalez claims that he was used unwittingly, without his consent or knowledge, by the CIA. Gonzalez claimed use by this Agency vis STURGIS apparently involves the arrest in October 1968 of STURGIS, GONZALEZ and several other individuals connected with STURGIS' International Anti-Communist Brigade while they were attempting to invade Cuba in contravention of the Neutrality Act. In November 1968 the FBI questioned Max Gonzalez (born December 29, 1929; aka Max Gorman) about this aborted operation. He told them: "It was a CIA operation. STURGIS was a CIA agent at the time, although his employment was not supported by Security records, and may still not be. He was in contact with other CIA agents in Guadalajara and Mexico City. STURGIS never told me what our real mission was, but I knew it was important to the Agency." The FBI generated a message about the International Anti-Communist Brigade dated October 26, 1968. [CIA FOIA F81-0351 D0532] Due to Senator George Smathers pulling some strings, no federal indictments were sought against STURGIS or his group, however Max Gonzalez was arrested on a outstanding warrant for bad checks. [FBI 105-172694-34] The FBI questioned Max Gonzalez at Miami International Airport: He has been involved actively in the IACB for about four years. He that, to his knowledge, FIORINI is the only IACB leader, although he feels for the operation which ended abortively at Belize, British Honduras, FIORINI must have been working with some other group of persons outside the IACB as FIORINI does not have the finances or organizational ability to mount such an operation. Upon reflection, however, he conceded that the cash outlay for this venture had been minimal in that the men were not paid for their services, furnished their own transportation, and, for the most part, their own food, lodging and equipment. He also indicated on reflection that the organizational work for the operation had actually been very slipshod and amateurish. He said that any indication by FIORINI that the true leader of the expedition was a Colonel Francisco Quesada would be, in his opinion, a falsehood. He said he believes Colonel Quesada does not exist, but is a fictitious scapegoat upon whom FIORINI would place responsibility for this operation in the event it misfired. In support of this, he read from a leaflet concerning Quesada which had been furnished several months ago by FIORINI to those persons who had answered a newspaper ad calling for volunteers to fight Communism in Latin America. This leaflet described

Quesada as a Latin, born in Argentina, who had seen action in four wars, had served in all branches of the services, was a pilot, and an expert in conventional, guerilla, and counter-guerilla warfare. Quesada was further described in the leaflet as the "prime organizer of the underground in Latin America. A price of $100,000 has been placed on his head by a communist government which sent agents to kill him and his associates. He has been captured and tortured by two foreign armies...At the present time he is traveling throughout Central and South America and is raising funds to form a mercenary army to fight the communists throughout the Americas..." He said that based on these similarities in the backgrounds of FIORINI and Quesada whom, to his knowledge, no one but FIORINI has ever seen, he feels that Colonel Francisco Quesada is a fictitious and idealized FRANK FIORINI. He said that the IACB plan before leaving Miami was to train in Guatemala for approximately six weeks, then to proceed by boat to Cuba on November 1, 1968, and to conceal themselves in a pre-arranged Sierra Maestre Mountains, Oriente Province, hideout until next January 1, 1968, when a raid to capture political or military prisoners would be carried out, these prisoners would later be exchanged for Cuba-held political prisoners. He said the he, and all the others involved were aware of this general outline of the planned operation before departing from Florida or in small groups. He added, however, that he was not to participate in the Cuba phase of the operation. His part, he said, was to furnish his Spanish language ability during the training period in Guatemala and give Spanish lessons to those in the force who did not speak Spanish. He was to remain with the volunteer group until their departure for a sea rendezvous with a craft which would take them into Cuba. He was to return to his Florida home. He said that the plan to train in Guatemala had to be changed because it was learned, after the IACB arrived in Mexico, that communist guerilla activity in Guatemala was too intense at the time to permit training activity to be undertaken there, although he spent several weeks in Guatemala reconnoitering, escorted by an unknown Indian guide, who was paid for his services, and had no connection with the IACB. He added that to his knowledge, none of the other members of the IACB group entered Guatemala. He recalled that he departed Miami in behalf of the IACB operation alone on August 16, 1968, by Greyhound bus, to Harlingen, Texas, where an undisclosed man picked him up, by pre-arrangement in Chevrolet with Florida license plates. He and his companion, who he declined to name, entered Mexico at Matamoros, near Brownsville, Texas, on approximately August 22, 1968. He said that he entered Mexico as Max Gorman and showed the Mexican border guards a Florida drivers license in that name.

He said that he had purchased the drivers license, already filled out, in Florida several weeks previously especially for this operation. He declined to furnish the name of the person who sold him the driver's license. He said that he and his companion proceeded inside Mexico to Ciudad Mante for about two days, then the driver of the car went his separate way. At Oaxaca, he picked up an M-1 carbine and some ammunition from an undisclosed person, then proceeded by bus to San Christobal Las Casas. He looked over this area for a possible base camp, but did not find a suitable site. He then proceeded to Comitan, again by bus, where he met three others of the IACB group. From Comitan, he proceeded into Guatemala, accompanied by an Indian guide, as previously mentioned...Upon his return, he found an IACB base camp already set up outside Comitan, about one mile from the Guatemalan border. He said that the base camp near the Guatemalan-Mexico border was broken up about October 23, 1968, no real training actually having been conducted, and those, number no disclosed, encamped there had proceed to Merida. This encampment was called Camp Sand, in contrast to the mountain encampment which had been called Camp Mud. Around October 28, 1968, they boarded the Amigo, a Mexican charter fishing boat, at Progresso, and head to sea for a rendezvous with another craft. The others were to transfer to the second boat and proceed to Cuba, while he was to return to Progresso in the Amigo then return to Florida. He said he had no information concerning the second boat or its passengers. He said the captain of the Amigo was not intimidated in any way, was paid in Mexican pesos the equivalent of about $250 American money, and cooperated fully with the he IACB group in attempting to affect the sea rendezvous with the second craft. He said the problem was that FRANK FIORINI was too secretive with the Amigo Captain about their sea destination as regards the course which had to be set to reach it. He had a feeling that they were a little early and that FIORINI was directing a zigzag course as a means of delaying their arrival at the rendezvous point. At any rate, the Amigo ran aground on the Turneffe Islands near Belize, British Honduras. He recalled that the Amigo captain had warned FIORINI that he, the captain, was unfamiliar with these waters. It was obvious to Gonzalez, from previous course settings by FIORINI, that the vessel was off course prior to the grounding, but FIORINI insisted on directing the movements of the Amigo. He said that the Amigo had to limp into Belize as a result of the grounding for refueling and repairs. At Belize, those aboard the Amigo were detained, after several inspections by British Honduras Customs and Immigration authorities. These and the expedition members who had been

left near the site of the grounding, awaiting the return of the Amigo, were eventually charged with illegal entry into British Honduras and were jailed at Belize. Their arms and ammunition were seized and, after a hearing at Belize on November 1, 1968, all were ordered deported from British Honduras. He said that contrary to public reports, no automatic weapons were seized by British Honduras authorities, nor were any in the possession of the IACB group at any time, to his knowledge. He added that he carried no arms or ammunition of any description into Mexico with him and knows of no other IACB member who transported arms or ammunition from the United States into Mexico. He says he knows of no stolen or rented cars possibly involved in the IACB Operation and added that he had only seen one car in use in Mexico by the group. He declined to describe this car, but said that it was not new, and apparently belonged to one of the International Anti-Communist Brigade members. He said that he had not been issued, in connection with this IACB operation, a blank birth certificate, United States Army honorable discharge papers, or a blank Florida Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title, and knows nothing of any of the others being issued any of these documents... He said that he had considered the possibility that the whole operation was a hoax perpetrated by FIORINI as a means of obtaining publicity. However, he has been unable, since the British Honduras authorities arrested the group, to extract any information from FIORINI which might substantiate this theory. He continued that if the operation was a hoax, he had been completely taken in as, until the past few days, he was convinced that the expedition had a landing in Cuba as its objective and that a rendezvous with a second boat would have taken place had it not been for the Amigo running aground. He said that due to his participation in the IACB operation he had missed a Miami court date regarding non-payment of a long overdue bill for newspaper advertising in connection with a former business venture. He said he expected to be arrested by the Dade County Department of Public Safety in connection with this court missed date, but he felt that satisfactory arrangements could be made for a new court date without his being jailed in the interim. The following description of Gonzalez was obtained from interview and observation: Height 5'6"; Weight 130 pounds; Hair brown, receding at temples; Eyes blue; Characteristics: Broken, discolored teeth.

DAVID ATLEE PHILLIPS stated that Cuban exiles in Florida, with no connection to the CIA, planned to "slip ashore into the United States naval base at Guantanamo, Cuba, and launch their attack against Castro from there." PHILLIPS informed the CIA of the plot and when a wire service carried an account of this story, I had a reaction from Florida. A man named Maxim Emilio Gonzalez told Associated Press in Miami that he planned a multi-million dollar lawsuit against the CIA because he had been 'thrown to the wolves' by the CIA when an assassination plot he was involved in had to be aborted...STURGIS said the scheme was very possibly OPERATION SWORD, in which he had conspired with Gonzalez. [PHILLIPS Nightwatch pp. 284, 208] HEMMING told this researcher: "OPERATION SWORD was a lot of STURGIS horseshit. Heh, heh. Bethel told PHILLIPS about it." STURGIS wrote: "1963 travel and business (operation sword) Mexico and Honduras." STURGIS told Paul Meskill the recruits used in OPERATION SWORD "were to provide their own transportation." The men rented cars using the false identification provided by STURGIS. STURGIS' men sold these cars in Mexico. Six months after STURGIS and company ran aground, Robert Curtis, a member of STURGIS' group, was arrested for automobile theft. It took a Broward County jury 20 minutes to convict Curtis of the unauthorized use of a car, a crime for which he went to jail. According to the indictment of STURGIS and his codefendants as prepared the U.S. A. Robert Rust in 1973, Curtis's rented car was one of at least three Florida cars the entered Mexico with STURGIS' self-styled army. Max Gonzalez drove another one. By October 7, 1968, the indictment stated, the Floridians traveling in various cars had regrouped in Guadalajara, Mexico. According to Curtis, the cars disappeared and STURGIS' Brigade hung around a Mexican motel. Then Curtis said, he and Richard Brown were told that "we had to go back to Texas and rent another car. FRANK had a typewriter with a leather case. Sewn into the case were Florida license tags, blank titles, birth certificate forms and blank registration forms. With the typewriter kit and a Gulf Oil Credit card in the name of Charles Connell, Curtis and Brown went to Brownsville, Texas, and rented another car. We put on the Florida tag and threw away the Texas tag. Then we drove the car into Mexico." Curtis also contended that the Captain and the First Mate of the Amigo were forced to sail when STURGIS wanted them to sail because they were held at gunpoint. [Miami Herald 9.7.73] Less than a week later, according to the indictment, Curtis was at it again on orders from STURGIS and Buchanan. STURGIS had issued false ID to his recruits so that they could rent cars that were to be abandoned in Mexico, not sold, however, some of STURGIS' men sold the cars in Mexico or retained them. Curtis testified: "I had a number of blank duplicate Florida titles, Registration Cards, Birth Certificates, Drivers Licenses, that I obtained from FRANK STURGIS." HEMMING told this researcher: "STURGIS was a fucking car thief." On November 14, 1968, the Norfolk Virginia Ledger Star carried an article entitled EXCASTRO FRIEND JAILED FISH HEADS, RICH SLIM DIET:

The latest chapter in the running saga of Norfolkian FRANK FIORINO'S fight with Fidel Castro includes an 11 day stay in a British Honduras jail where he lost 20 pounds while living on fish heads and rice. It happened three weeks ago while FIORINI and 12 other Americans were on their way to make a commando raid against sabotage targets on the coast of western Cuba. FIORINI stated: 'We left one of our camps on the Yucatan Peninsula in a 30-foot cabin cruiser called The Amigo. We were supposed to rendezvous at sea with another boat and transfer the stock of weapons and medical supplies for a run into the coast of Cuba. Because of bad weather, The Amigo ended up on a reef just south of Mexican territorial waters off the coast of British Honduras. We had to spend the night there. The next morning we finally got her off with the help of a couple of native boats. Unfortunately the night on the reef had opened up the seams so The Amigo had to limp into the nearest port - Belize. There, they began unloading the rifles and over $1,000 in medical supplies. Then the ship was taken over by British Army Units. We were kept in jail for four days before we had a hearing before a British Magistrate. The Chief of the Honduran intelligence section asked for a week continuance in order to investigate further. They continued to keep us in jail during that week. The jail, incidentally, was 156 years old. I was by myself in a cell four and a half feet wide, and eleven feet long. We had one meal a day of fishheads and rice. Occasionally we got chicken necks and rice. The authorities apologized they couldn't give us more, but said it was a poor country. At the end of the week I was brought to the magistrate again. I served as a spokesman and asked that we not be deported to Mexico as had been suggested. I knew it was filled with Castro sympathizers there and my life would be in great danger. CIA Agent David McLean saw this article and sent it to CIA Agent Harry T. Mahoney: November 15, 1968. "Dear Harry: Presumably anyone who has been 'making frequent raids inside Cuba' will be of interest to Dave Phillips & Co. Hence I enclosed another clipping from my favorite newspaper, The Norfolk Ledger-Star...Dave." [CIA D002224] The activities of FRANK STURGIS from 1969 to 1971 remained a mystery. In February 1969 the CIA had the FBI run a check on him. THE WHITE HOUSE SPECIAL OPERATIONS GROUP 1971 In early 1971 STURGIS set up a tax-exempt church in Miami. During HUNT v. WEBERMAN STURGIS was asked: Q. Did you start your own church? A. Why? I had none. Well, I wanted to set up some missions in Central and South America for poor people in the Andes, and so forth; but, unfortunately, Watergate destroyed that.

That year, James Buchanan was arrested entering Mexico with a truckload of automatic weapons. In late 1971 BARKER recruited STURGIS for the White House Special Operations Group. STURGIS: Well, BARKER again, having contact with him, socially and business-wise, and what have you, one day, I don't know when he told me, or it might have been weeks or months prior to my involvement with the Special Intelligence Unit, or my recruitment, he sat down and spoke to me and he says, 'FRANK, do you remember 'EDUARDO'? Well I spoke with 'EDUARDO,' and we are putting something together, your background and so forth. And we would like you to get involved with us again. The same people as before, the same Americans upstairs who were involved in the Bay of Pigs. And my name was given for a clearance. And naturally I was cleared." Evidence suggested that NIXON wanted the same crew who were involved in the Kennedy assassination as part of the White House Special Operations Group. In a Motion for Discovery of Exculpatory Information, STURGIS asked for telephone conversations between White House personnel and the CIA, FBI in 1971, 1972 and 1973, relevant to his activities. STURGIS also believed that NIXON had discussed his activities, and that this discussion had been picked-up by the White House recording system during the years 1971, 1972, and 1973. ALLEN MICHAEL FITZGERALD FBI COMMUNICATIONS SECTION JANUARY 25, 1973 KNR 022 LA PLAIN 852 PM NITEL 1-24-73 MAN TO ACTING DIRECTOR (139-4089) WFO (139-166) FROM LOS ANGELES (139-306) (P) 3P Reference: Regarding Boston teletype to Director, January 23, 1973, and Bureau telephone call to Los Angeles January 24, 1973. On January 24, 1973, Cheryl Kathleen Fitzgerald, 5312 Kester Avenue, Apt 2, Van Nuys, California, was interviewed by Bureau agents and advised she spoke with her husband, Allen Michael Fitzgerald on November 27, 1972, while he was in custody at Adult Correctional Institute, Howard, Rhode Island. Fitzgerald asked her if she recalled him telling her approximately three years ago of his meeting of his meeting with then CIA agent JAMES McCORD at the Century Plaza Hotel, Los Angeles, California, through an introduction by Los Angeles Police Department Detective Gene Scherrer. She advised Fitzgerald did recall

his mentioning this meeting. Fitzgerald then indicated that this was the same individual indicted in the Watergate matter. Fitzgerald advised that she and her husband resided in Mexico from September 1970, through December 1971. While in a hotel restaurant at Hermosio, Sonora, Mexico, in either October or November 1971, she recalls her husband walking to another table and engaging in a conversation with an individual she now believes to have been FRANK STURGIS. She viewed six black and white photos, one of which was a photo of STURGIS. She was unable to identify STURGIS, photo 3. Fitzgerald based her belief that this individual her husband met in Mexico was STURGIS from a photo she saw in Time Magazine. Fitzgerald stated she did not write a letter to The New York Times, however, she believed her husband, Allen Fitzgerald, wrote the letter and she recalls having him tell her on November 27, 1972, that he had in fact written a letter to The New York Times. Fitzgerald advised her husband, Allen, told her three years ago that he had written a letter to 'Kenneth W. Clawson,' at that time a New York Times reporter, which letter Fitzgerald alleged was used by Clawson to 'gain a position on the White House Staff.' The letter was believed to contain information regarding narcotics and political affairs. Fitzgerald stated she never saw the letter. On January 22, 1973, she received a telephone call from Seymour Hirsch, New York Times, requesting additional information regarding her husband's connection to [Watergate]. She advised she furnished no further information on the subject matter. (Deleted) She further advised she is considering pleading under Interstate Transportation of Stolen Property to charge pending against her in Rhode Island. Her former husband, Captain Peter Lucarelli, Los Angeles Fire Department, advised he knows Allen Fitzgerald and considers him to be a con man. Consequently he doubts Fitzgerald's reliability. Report follows: (Deleted). THE 1972 CONVENTION PROVOCATION The 1972 Republican and Democratic Conventions were scheduled for July and August in Miami Beach, Florida. In a "Secret, Eyes Only" memorandum prepared for USDC Judge William M. Hoeveler, HEMMING claimed that: During January 1972 I was contacted by FBI Agent Robert Dwyer in reference to assisting Miami FBI project involving Ed Kaiser and FRANK STURGIS that motivated a 1972 meeting with Alcohol, Tobacco and

Firearms Miami Supervisor Hale for backstop briefing. STURGIS was at the time a White House/Special Operations Group operative, and was later arrested at Watergate during June 1972. In April 1976 HEMMING told Dick Russell: There were some plans for the convention. I talked to some of the people participating in it, who later participated in the Watergate thing. Create a shoot-out using the Yippies and the Zippies and the other 'hard core commies' they were so worried about. The people I spoke to were going to put some of this equipment in their hands, and some in law enforcement hands, and use some of the local vigilantes to start a shoot out. This would finally straighten out Washington as to where the priorities were on overcoming the 'domestic communist menace.' HEMMING stated to this researcher in 1993: I get a phone call from Bob Dwyer. I hadn't talked to him in months, since the NIXON compound thing. Some of Veciana's boys had a scheme to have a Cuban Comar fire a STIX missile at the compound. There was a similar plan to attack Guantanamo during the Bay of Pigs. They were gonna take out NIXON and put Agnew in power. I told Dwyer that to me it was all a provocation, and would end up in arrests, and I'm the fucking guy standing in the middle. Czukas shows up at my home to discuss this. Shanley should have been there. Czukas asks me to withdraw my license to export weapons to the Guatemalan Congress. A quarter of a million dollar deal. When I told my partner, he said, 'That lying cocksucker wanted me to give weapons to STURGIS who was over here earlier and spilled the fucking beans.' Czukas was always the domineering bad type of cop asshole who was going to put us all away. He was a company motherfucker. I told my partner, 'You know Bob Dwyer. He called me the other day with the same shit. They're trying to set us up.' Whatley shows up, I was using BERNARDO De TORRES office at the time. He shows up with his cousin - here's an ex-felon carrying a badge and a gun. His cousin was a Lieutenant in the Sheriff's Department in Jefferson City, Colorado. We meet at the Holiday Inn Motel at the airport. I said 'I'll demonstrate the weapons to you.' I call BERNIE and tell him to leave the weapon in the office I'll come over there. We fired it into a phone book behind the office. We demonstrated the silencer and the whole thing. Whatley wanted me to sell them to him under the table. I told him to get a letter from the Jefferson City Chief of Police saying he needed machine guns. We considered this a provocation. The first question that comes up in my mind is 'Why aren't they going to Powder Springs Georgia and talking to Werbell?' They wanted more than one machine gun. My guess was that they were going to give them to FRANK. They need silenced weapons so that somebody in the crowd of demonstrators, maybe Kaiser, could crank

off a few rounds. The guys would be told 'Shoot some demonstrators in the back, drop your weapons, and get the fuck out of there!' Now other people with silenced weapons would be taking out direct targets. No one would hear this. The weapons dropped would be the same caliber. They didn't want 45 caliber Mac 10's, they wanted nine millimeter. The nine millimeter round was a sonic round. We had to half load the powder to keep it below supersonic so that the silencer would work effectively. A 45 round is subsonic. They wanted a nine millimeter because they were going to have thrown down pieces that were the same caliber. The 45 rounds look like it was government issued to Cubans. If the demonstrators were found with German World War II souvenirs, Lugars and P-38s, this is all pawn shop weapons, readily available. STURGIS was trying to use Kaiser as his cut out. STURGIS was famous for waving 'bye-bye' at the airport. I don't think STURGIS would be anywhere near the scene. That he got caught (laughs) in the Texas School Book Depository is...everybody said finally the motherfucker did something instead of sending others to do it and what do you know? He got caught. HEMMING said the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms wanted him to help stop STURGIS from instigating a shoot-out at the Republican Convention, however, it sounded more like HEMMING originated the idea, or was a part of the scheme. HEMMING told this researcher: You can't be around this shit unless all hands think you're a player. How's that? Is that the best way to put it? Will they dump a player? Will they OSWALD a player? Absolutely. STURGIS was asked about this: "He's a liar! I'm not aware of these allegations; plus I'm saying he's a liar. If he made those statements, he's a liar." CORROBORATION - VINCENT J. HANNARD HEMMING'S story was verifiable. During the trial of the Gainesville Eight, eight anti-war veterans charged with having planned violence at the Republican Convention, Vincent J. Hannard testified that STURGIS and BARKER tried to recruit him for an operation against the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. A Miami Herald article on June 8, 1973, by Dennis Holder was titled "Witness Says BARKER and STURGIS Asked Him to Discredit VVAW." It stated that Vincent J. Hannard, gave sworn statement, June 7, 1973, that in weeks prior to May 29, 1972, he: …received four telephone calls proposing undercover convention work of the first attempt to break into Democratic National Committee Office at Watergate. Each call reportedly came from a different person and each caller tried to persuade him that it was his patriotic duty to help undermine VVAW. Hannard said one call was from STURGIS. Hannard said he was sure this caller was STURGIS, who he had known for more than 13 years.

Another caller identified himself as BERNARD BARKER, but Hannard said he does not know BARKER, and could not be certain BARKER was actually calling. Another of the calls purported to be from Guy Hawkes. Hannard said Hawkes was a CIA agent in Miami several years ago. He is acquainted with Hawkes and is certain this caller actually was not Hawkes. Hannard said each caller mentioned the VVAW, and described the proposed task as covert intelligence and investigation. Hannard said he turned offers down because he was suspicious of the motives of the callers. The article pointed out that Hannard was disqualified as a witness in a 1971 Miami narcotics case because psychiatrists testified that Hannard could neither understand the witness oath, nor tell the difference between truth and lies. Article also pointed out that Hannard was convicted in 1962 of impersonating an FBI agent, but was also an informant for federal and local police agencies, and was a key witness in several cases. Hannard occasionally volunteers information to Miami FBI. (Deleted). HEMMING claimed Vincent J. Hannard was a well-connected Bureau of Narcotics snitch and a Private Investigator, who reported to Gene Marshall, the roommate of Charles Ashmann. HEMMING said he had attempted to break into the offices of Vincent J. Hannard, and that Vincent J. Hannard worked closely with STURGIS and Bobby Willis. CORROBORATION -COLSON When Charles Colson was questioned by Senator Lowell Weicker of Connecticut, he said he had seen a CIA file that "mentioned radical activities prior to the convention." [USDC SD FLA. 75-640-cr-PF Def. Ex. 4] In 1973 Senator Lowell Weicker was the target of a break-in. [Summers Secret Life JEH p414] CORROBORATION - ANGIE BASULTO Angela Basulto was a former anti-Castro fighter who claimed expert knowledge of firearms and explosives. Her first husband was Bay of Pigs veteran Jose Basulto Leon. Jose Basulto, a devout Catholic, had left Boston College, where he majored in physics, in January 1960, to return to Havana so that he could join a Catholic underground organization. Basulto was trained in Panama as a radio operator then infiltrated into Cuba prior to the Bay of Pigs. Five of Basulto's fellow infiltrators were executed and seven received long prison sentences. Basulto, unhappy with the Kennedy Administration's lack of action against Castro, struck out on his own. On August 24, 1962, Basulto sailed into Havana with a dozen of his friends and shelled the hotel Rosita de Hornedo, which was full of Russian advisors. Basulto drove to Guantanamo and climbed a ten foot fence to safety. Jose Basulto was alleged to have been involved in McLaney’s Lake LaCombe Louisiana bomb factory and training camp:

On July 23, 1963, WALLACE SHANLEY, U.S. Customs, Miami, advised that on July 19, 1963, Mr. EDGAR OWENS, U.S. Customs, Miami, had observed CARLOS EDUARDO HERNANDEZ SANCHEZ, Also known As “BATRA" at Miami in & green 1963 Chevrolet station wagon with 1963 Florida license 7E-40. Mr. OWENS observed that HERNANDEZ was accompanied by VICTOR ESPINOSA HERNANDEZ and (First Name Unknown) BASULTO. SHANLEY advised that HERNANDEZ SANCHEZ and ESPINOSA HERNANDEZ were two of the five subjects involved in preparations for a bombing raid in June, 1963 against a Cuban oil refinery when they were detained and seizure of their plans and bombs was made by U.S. Customs in a rural area of southwest Miami. Either the reporting agent or Shanley got confused about the location of the bust. The FBI reported: ESPINOSA admitted telephonic contact with about 12 Cuban pilots, some of whom were willing to engage in this raid. He stated in his opinion, the only ones who were willing to take the risk of such a raid were his companions of the infiltration team in the Cuban invasion which included CARLOS HERNANDEZ SANCHEZ and MIGUEL ALVAREZ JIMENEZ. VICTOR ESPINOSA denied that his brother, RENE JOSE ESPINOSA or JOSE BASULTO LEON were participants in these plans for a raid. Basulto worked with CIA Agent Felix Rodriguez, who was linked to Bush and Oliver North's Contra arms network. The June 8, 1973, edition of The Miami Herald carried an article by Rob Elder titled "Florida Agency Admits Receiving VVAW But From Lady Spy." The FBI: The article relates that Angelica 'Angie' Rohan, formerly known as Angie Basulto, furnished a sworn statement to United States District Judge W. O. Mehrtens, on May 23, 1973, after reading The Miami Herald story "which for the first time identified Pablo Fernandez as a police informer who spied on VVAW and offered to sell them guns." According to the article, Mrs. Rohan made another sworn statement on June 6, 1973, to Dade Country State Attorney Richard Gerstein. Article says that Florida Department of Law Enforcement confirmed on June 7, 1973, that summer Mrs. Basulto furnished Florida Department of Law Enforcement a copy of a recorded call between Scott Camil of VVAW and Pablo Fernandez. Basulto also told Florida Department of Law Enforcement that certain Miamians were involved in a 'demonstration at the Chilean Embassy in Washington.' Jack Key, Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Miami, advised Miami Herald he never told the FBI or any other federal agency about the 'wiretap' or Basulto's Embassy information because the information did seem at the time to be specific evidence, 'was not worthy of dissemination' and because Basulto 'was my source and I'm going to protect my source.' Florida Department of Law Enforcement director,

William Reed, according to article, said Basulto volunteered to work with the Florida Department of Law Enforcement last summer. Her expense were paid, and she worked at the Florida Department of Law Enforcement convention command post, Miami, translating Spanish language material and writing out long hand intelligence reports. Basulto has sworn that she was offered 'A copy of the ITT papers' which Fernandez told her were stolen in the Chilean Embassy burglary. Article reports Basulto once tried to convince a T.V. crew she was the 'woman in Watergate,' but now she says she was not. In sworn statement to Dade County State Attorney's Office, Basulto reportedly claimed second hand knowledge of a possible plot to assassinate the Democratic Vice Presidential candidate, who later turned out to be Thomas Eagleton. She claimed 'What they were supposed to be looking for was George McGovern's running mate.' She reportedly said at this point in her notes, she wrote the word, 'assassination' and drew a question mark beside it. State Attorney's office sources told Miami Herald Basulto said she was present when Fernandez offered to supply VVAW with Cuban weapons which 'could be turned into machine guns with a little piece of metal.' She was present when Fernandez offered weapons to VVAW member identified only as Dan. This veteran reportedly replied, 'We only want peace, man.' Jack Key, Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Miami, telephonically contacted on June 8, 1973. He confirmed Basulto worked for the Florida Department of Law Enforcement during both national political conventions. She originally contacted Florida Department of Law Enforcement Director Reed at times furnished information to Reed but Key was her authorized contact. Key described Basulto as emotional, and as having furnished both reliable and unreliable information. She was only paid expenses. She never told the Florida Department of Law Enforcement about being the 'woman in Watergate.' She did furnish last summer what purported to be a tape of Fernandez-Camil telephone conversation about Chilean Embassy, Washington, break-in. She did once report that Watergate Hoover rites people had something to do with the 'demonstration' at the Chilean Embassy. This information seemed of no significance and she did not mention the break-in or burglary. Key said he had been interviewed by Elder for above mentioned article. Elder asked him several times why he was covering for FBI. He told Elder he was not covering for FBI. He recalled being contacted by (Deleted) Dade County Public Safety Department, just prior to Republican National Convention, as to possible Florida Department of Law Enforcement status of Basulto. Key said that on June 11, 1973, he will bring to Miami FBI Office complete Basulto Florida Department of Law Enforcement file for review. On June 8, 1973, Pablo Fernandez telephonically contacted. He said he met Basulto approximately July 5, 1972, and was in contact with her until the end of the Republican National Convention when she stopped calling him. She told Fernandez she was working for Florida Department of Law Enforcement and wanted to know what Cuban exiles were planning for

political conventions. Fernandez said he 'took her around' during conventions, and brought her to Cuban exile meetings. He did furnish her a copy of his tape recorded conversation with Scott Camil earlier same date he furnished original of tape conversation to S.A. Deleted, Miami. He furnished her copies of no other tapes. He said he never offered her a copy of the ITT papers reportedly stolen in Chilean Embassy burglary. He said he had no knowledge of existence of such papers and has no knowledge of who perpetrated this burglary. He said his only VVAW contacts were Hialeah drugstore meetings, a Miami Police Department meeting with VVAW, other non-delegate organizations, including Cuban exile groups, and police...Basulto was not with him on any of these occasions. Basulto was with him on the second or third day of Democratic National Convention when he strolled through Flamingo Park, Miami Beach, non-delegate campsite. He did not speak to any VVAW members at that time and emphatically did not offer to supply VVAW with Cuban weapons, as alleged above. Fernandez denied furnishing Basulto any information regarding a possible plot to assassinate the Democratic Vice Presidential Candidate...Fernandez said he did tell Basulto about Hialeah drugstore meetings with VVAW, but told her about no other contact with VVAW. [Miami Herald 6.8.73; FBI 139-4089-1230] Pablo Fernandez was an FBI informant in the case of the Gainesville Eight. HEMMING wondered if STURGIS had ever dealt with any counterculture people when "they were getting that slaughter ready for Miami Beach in 1972." CORROBORATION - EDWIN KAISER In 1952 Ed Kaiser joined the Marines, but received a bad conduct dishonorable discharge before his basic training ended. Ed Kaiser became a heroin addict (Sonia Kaiser insisted that her husband was never an addict) and amassed a long criminal record, including aggravated assault, assault with a deadly weapon, burglary and larceny. In 1957 Ed Kaiser joined the French Foreign Legion and lost his American citizenship. On January 29, 1959, his citizenship was revoked. He left the Foreign Legion on a medical discharge, and returned to the United States in 1959 as a landed immigrant. In 1961 Ed Kaiser moved to Alaska, where he was convicted of theft of Government property and assault. On May 30, 1964, and on May 31, 1964, the CIA showed an interest in Ed Kaiser, and two outgoing cables about him were generated which were denied in their entirely. [Ltr. Harry E. Fitzwater, Chairman, CIA Information Review Committee 1.4.82]

CUBAN AND HAITIAN EXILE AFFAIRS In 1969 Ed Kaiser moved to Miami where the FBI took note of him due to his affiliation with Cubanos Unidos, an anti-Castro group made up of former members of Alpha-66. The FBI reported: Cubanos Unidos (CU) is a Cuban exile anti- Fidel Castro organization in Miami, Florida. It purpose is to unite all exile groups into a unity organization and begin military operations against the present Government of Cuba. Wilfredo Navarro Beato is the head of CU…On June 26, 1970, MM T-2, a Cuban exile who had been involved in Cuban Revolutionary matters for the past five years advised that on the night previously, (deleted) with Wilfredo Navarro, at which time Navarro claimed CU was going ahead with its plans to sink a Soviet vessel off the east coast of Florida as the vessel was on its way to Cuba. On June 19, 1970 MM T-3, another Government agency which conducts intelligence investigations, advised information had been received that CU recently held a meeting to introduce Americans who are backing their organization. The Americans were Frank Fiorini and Ed Kaiser. Fiorini calls himself the “Chief of Intelligence Section of Cubanos Unidos.” On July 1, 1970 NAVARRO appeared at the Miami Office of the FBI with his brother Roerme, and advised as follows: Frank Fiorini, an American citizen who has been involved in Cuban exile revolutionary matters for the past ten years, recently signed a unity agreement with CU. In this agreement, Fiorini, who represents some independent anti-Castro organization, agreed that political unity of all exile groups must be established. Fiorini is not a member of CU as such, holds no official position, and in not in charge of intelligence. KAISER said that CU presently has a .50 caliber machine gun, a .30 caliber machine gun, some C-4 explosive, and a quantity of small arms. CU is considering a three-day infiltration and sabotage mission to Cuba in which about five men will participate. One of the tactics they plan to use is to kill a few Cuban Government soldiers and cut them up into small pieces to terrify other Cuban Government soldiers. On July 30, 1970, KAISER advised he was then leaving for the Island of Martinique in the Caribbean where he would try to make arrangements to meet up a military base for operations against Cuba. On August 3, 1970, KAISER advised he had just returned from the Island of Martinique where he was arrested and questioned for 28 hours by French intelligence officials before he was released. The purpose of the visit was to obtain permission to set up a base for operations against Cuba. French

authorities told him they would cooperate with him if and when he obtained such permission from the United States Government. KAISER said his present military plans involve an operation which would leave the Florida Keys by boat and attack the Cuban Naval Academy near Havana. About twelve persons would participate in the raid and after the mission, would return to the Florida keys. After about two days in the Florida Keys, they would return to sea to meet a mother ship and then go to Haiti. KAISER said the military mission would leave the Florida area with arms and explosives aboard. On July 29, 1970 the CIA reported Ed Kaiser was part of a CU sponsored operation against Cuba. Ed Kaiser claimed Cubanos Unidos was involved in the distribution of anti-Castro cartoons; in fact the goal of Cubanos Unidos was to form a Cuban government-in-exile in Haiti. Ed Kaiser was in contact with numerous Haitian exiles, and while Ed Kaiser was head of the military section of Cubana Unida, he was suspected of plotting the assassination of "Papa Doc" Duvalier. Sonia Kaiser reported that at one Cubanos Unidos meeting her husband was introduced to STURGIS by a Cuban exile named "William Navarro." HEMMING told this researcher: "She meant Wilfrado Navarro. Wilfrado and Antonio Navarro were Cuban right wing assholes that were with STURGIS in 1960." When the FBI questioned the CIA about Ed Kaiser on JULY 22, 1969, ANGLETON prepared a memorandum titled "Ed Kaiser and (deleted as of 2010)." When the CIA released this document, it contained three pages of deletions. The only information in it was the words "On the basis of the limited data available, this Agency's files contain no identifiable information on Ed Kaiser. For The Deputy Director Of Plans: JAMES ANGLETON, CSCI 316/02475-69, cc: Customs Commissioner." The FBI reported: Ed Kaiser has been the Subject of a criminal type investigation by the FBI Miami since late 1971. Earlier in 1971 Kaiser allegedly wore the uniform of the U.S. Army and used fraudulent military identification to enter the premises of the U.S. Coast Guard Station, Opa Locka, Florida, where he fraudulently obtained office and medical supplies. Kaiser is reported to have entered the premises of other military bases at Homestead, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, where he allegedly represented himself as a military officer and used military facilities. Investigation of this matter is continuing and, as yet, no Federal criminal charges against Kaiser have been initiated. [FBI 139-4089-2469 7.9.73] Kaiser was convicted of stealing Coast Guard office and medical supplies while wearing a false uniform. HEMMING told this researcher: "You make him sound like a junkie. He was stealing classified documents." An FBI document stated: "(Deleted) One such person contacted is an unidentified Negro male who sells Kaiser stolen watches, rings and other jewelry which Kaiser resells to employees at Maule Industry and other factories in the area and the Opa Locka area." [FBI 47-55225-2 p 18] In late 1971

Kaiser was suspected of plotting to hijack a Cuban or Russian freighter. Sonia Kaiser reported that around this time her husband had a closet full of ammunition and grenades, which were removed shortly before the FBI searched the apartment. A few days after STURGIS was arrested at Watergate, Ed Kaiser went to Haiti - where, according to HEMMING, he visited Mike McLaney. HEMMING told this researcher: "He was delivering an ultimatum to McLaney. A hit was going to go down. Out of professional courtesy, Kaiser asked him to take sides." THE PLANNED CONVENTION RIOT

WILFREDO NAVARRO (RED PANTS) AND ED KAISER In May 1973 Ed Kaiser contacted a Miami FBI agent and advised that: …he was a long time friend of FRANK STURGIS, also known as FRANK FIORINI, one of the convicted Watergate defendants and prior to the 1972 Republican Convention in August 1972 STURGIS invited Kaiser to participate in a planned convention riot at the convention. STURGIS later told him the riot was off, and something bigger was being planned. At this time STURGIS mentioned to Kaiser the name of a nationally known figure, a businessman and not a politician, who was in charge of planning the financing and direction of this new operation. According to Kaiser, this individual was at the time unknown in the Watergate investigation. Kaiser at the time of the above contact stated he would furnish this information in exchange by the Government of: 1. The safety of his family.

2. For employment security at his present employment, a service attendant at the (deleted) service station, Florida. 3. For an opportunity to apply for State and Federal pardons. Numerous attempts were made to interview Kaiser to further develop this information both at his residence and his place of employment. During the period Kaiser was also hospitalized for leg surgery. In response to these efforts, Kaiser contacted the Miami office and agreed to an interview on June 26, 1973. At that date Kaiser appeared at the Miami Office accompanied by Attorney Edward N. Claughton, and advised that he had changed his mind about furnishing information to the FBI. He stated that he had already furnished the above information to a member of the Watergate Committee, and was awaiting action from that source. The individual mentioned by Kaiser above was subsequently identified by Kaiser as Jack Anderson, newspaper columnist. In view of Kaiser's reputation, and pending criminal investigation, no commitments were made in any way to Kaiser during the above contacts, and the information furnished by him was accepted without comment. Sonia Kaiser remembered waiting outside while he discussed this with STURGIS. Ed Kaiser asked the FBI for protection for himself and his family in return for this information. [FBI 139-3089-2469,2413] In August 1973 Ed Kaiser gave the CIA similar information. This CIA report was withheld as of 2010. [CIA Memo 8.20.73] An index card was generated by the CIA's Office of the Inspector General: Gray, Patrick August 20, 1973. Flannery, J.E. Scott, Ed Casey (Scott alias) Casio (Scott alias) Kaiser (Scott alias) IG FILE (Illegible) Irving R. Doyle Tab #1 Eduardo T. Scott Info to FBI STURGIS, FRANK (Illegible) Gorgon (Illegible) Howard Letter to C/FBI from (illegible) Ed Scott alias Casey, Casio and Kaiser. James E. Flannery was a CIA agent stationed in Bolivia from 1961 to 1964, Mexico from 1964 to 1965, and the Dominican Republic from 1965 to 1969. Kaiser also gave the Senate Select Committee on Campaign Activities this information. STURGIS refuted Ed Kaiser in Executive Session testimony: "STURGIS stated he was never approached by

anyone concerning demonstrations against the VVAW at the Republican Convention. He recalls no such conversation with Ed Kaiser. He admitted knowing Kaiser for a number of years, and said he considered Kaiser to be a good source of information for Cuban-related activities but had reason, nonetheless, to suspect Kaiser's credibility." [STURGIS Exec. Sess. Test. 7.27-28.73 as cited in SSCIA Minority Staff Report] On August 20, 1973, the Miami Field Office of the FBI sent the Director a highly deleted teletype. The only words released were "CHANGED" and "CONSPIRACY - RING CASE, OO: Miami." [FBI 26-425217-36 2 pages] In August 1975 Ed Kaiser arranged for an illegal arms shipment to a Nicaraguan anti-Castro training base, and frequently talked of uniting the White Russian refugees for military operations against Cuba. ED KAISER IN ISRAEL On January 9, 1976, Ed Kaiser successfully entered Israel bearing a passport issued in the name of Jerome Schneider. On March 2, 1976, Ed Kaiser was arrested for use of a false passport while trying to re-enter Israel. A CIA report on Kaiser was generated on June 25, 1976. This was withheld in its entirety as of 2010. Kaiser was released in July 1976, and when he returned to the United States, he was indicted on identical charges. Ed Kaiser told the FBI that he entered Israel by pretending to be a Jew who wished to volunteer his services to the Israeli military. Ed Kaiser claimed he was acting on behalf of the United States Government. The passport he used to enter Israel was a crude forgery. Ed Kaiser had obtained the passport of Jerome Schneider, removed his photograph, and put his picture in its place. This did not indicate sophisticated trade craft. The CIA was interested in Ed Kaiser around this time and a Memorandum dated June 25, 1976, about him, was withheld in its entirety as of 2010. Sonia Kaiser: He was in Israel and he was arrested for tapping wires. Don't ask me whose wires, because I don't know. It's in some arrest report that I have. He was not arrested entering Israel with a false passport. He had a false passport, that's true. He was in Israel for quite a while. I got letters from him. He sent letters to me and he sent letters to my children, his children. He was there on a kibbutz for a while. He was already living there. I had a lot of papers, I had them. They were stolen. All the papers are gone. HEMMING claimed Ed Kaiser was doing a hit for a colonel in the Israeli Defense Force in Nablus: "I flew the guy he went with around the Bahamas in 1981, until he turned himself into the U.S. Marshals. We use their people, they use ours. Ed Kaiser was arrested as he was leaving." HEMMING was asked why he was arrested if the Israelis had used him? In 1976 STURGIS convinced Ed Kaiser that Gaeton Fonzi could find a way to get him out of his legal troubles. Ed Kaiser spoke with Gaeton Fonzi several times. Ed Kaiser did not know it, but his legal problems had ended: the U.S. Attorney in Miami could not prosecute him since it was unknown whether Ed Kaiser had departed the United States from the Southern District of Florida or from elsewhere. Sonia Kaiser disagreed: "He took a plane from Miami to Israel on El Al. They certainly could prove it. They are hiding

something there. They know something that they're not saying." [FBI 21-2005-21 4.19.76] On February 8, 1977, Ed Kaiser “fell off” some wooden planking while working aboard a ship, and died due to multiple injuries and blunt trauma; he was 44 years old. Sonia Kaiser stated: He carried a lot of papers in an attaché case. It was missing right after he died. I saw him with it before he was killed. I know he had it. But the day he died I never saw it again after that, never. In 1978 HEMMING was asked about the death of Ed Kaiser: He fell on the job. The FBI don't know. STURGIS don't know. I saw STURGIS at the funeral that night. Nobody else was there. Hey, he could have just 'up and died?' He had to get out from under this shit. All he needed was a phony death certificate. He was under investigation for a phony passport thing in Israel, he may have contracted to do a Middle East hit and gotten into trouble. He may be in Shangrila! Sonia Kaiser had no doubt that her husband was murdered: Somebody pushed him into the manhole. I wasn't there, of course. He told all his men that were working for him on that shift, not to walk across the manhole, because the boards were not safe for weight. The next thing they do is they call me at work and tell me he's dead. Then they tell me that he walked across there and the boards broke and he fell in. And I said 'Why would he be so stupid if he's telling everybody not to walk across there, why would he be so stupid to do that?' They didn't know of course. Then I got a lot of strange visits from a lot of strange people and a lot of strange phone calls, like yours for instance, asking me questions. HEMMING told this researcher: It ain't a matter of pushing him into the manhole. I went to check on all that kind of bullshit. I went to the medical examiner's office. Dwyer was there. He ain't supposed to be dicking around in that territory, it ain't his case. Dwyer wants to know from me, 'Did he fucking die? Was that him?' What he stepped on collapsed. He wasn't supposed to step on it. It happened to one of my other guys about the same time, only he flew through the roof of the shithouse. Later on he O.D.ed on dope. People don't listen. STURGIS wasn't worried about being snitched out. Somebody else would know Kaiser was talking out of school. A criminal investigation was going on. They didn't want him testifying before a Federal Grand jury. They took care of the situation. The guy had 'OSWALD' stamped on his forehead. Sonia Kaiser was asked about her husband's relationship with STURGIS:

Before Watergate FRANK STURGIS was at our house constantly. But I never knew what they talked about, because they never talked in front of me. We used to go to FRANK'S house too. THE BURGLARY OF THE CHILEAN EMBASSY In the Spring of 1972 STURGIS took part in several burglaries in Washington, D.C. STURGIS told Andrew St. George that the White House/Special Operations Group had entered the offices of Senator Jacob Javits (Rep.-NY.), Sol Linowitz and Dan Rather. St. George quoted STURGIS as saying "The liberals have twisted everything. There is no use in trying to explain. If I had my way, just one chance, I'd kill every one of them." [True 8.74] One of these burglaries involved the Chilean Embassy in Washington, D.C. During a telephone conversation between John Dean and CIA Director James Schlesinger on February 9, 1975, Schlesinger noted: "In this connection he mentioned that there is a news story being passed about in the press, primarily instigated by Seymour Hirsch of the New York Times. The story suggests that STURGIS was the individual responsible for the burglarizing of the Chilean Embassy in Washington. He also indicated he expects Senator Fulbright to request the Justice Department to produce STURGIS for the Senate hearings." The CIA's Inspector General's Office generated an index card titled March 19, 1973, March 6, 1973, Contacts w/ITT Tab #1 which contained the names Hal Hendrix, ITT, R. Berrellez, Jack Anderson, E. HOWARD HUNT, FRANK STURGIS, Chilean Embassy, P. Gilbert, (Deleted), J. Levinson, Lawrence Houston, Aible, J. Shafer, E. Gerrity, Harold Gennen, William Broe, Matte and H. Heckscher. This was a contact report from (Deleted) C/WH/CA. "Subject: Conversations with Hal Hendrix on March 6, 1973, (Broe - Gennen mtg July 1970) relations with Heckscher and Matte -- Anderson's column regarding Chilean Embassy break-in." According to an article in the Washington Post dated October 23, 1978, Ted Shackley, Jacob Esterline and Tom Polgar were also involved in the CIA's effort to overthrow Allende. On April 15, 1961, Hal Hendrix, the Latin American correspondent for the Miami Daily News wrote: There will be no mass invasion against Cuba by the anti-Castro forces gathered at bases in Central American and this country. The News has stated this for several months." Gaeton Fonzi reported: In 1961, when PHILLIPS was handling the propaganda desk for the Bay of Pigs operation and, as such, was in constant contact with friendly media types, there was a reporter on the Miami News named Hal Hendrix, whose coverage of the invasion seemed to be deeper and more detailed than any other journalist, local or national. In 1962 Hendrix's coverage of the Cuban Missile Crisis was so penetrating and insightful it garnered his paper a Pulitzer Prize. The next year Hendrix got himself promoted to a more prestigious job, covering Latin America for the Scripps-Howard News Service. Still based in Miami, Hendrix's sources remained quite extraordinary. In a piece for Scripps-Howard dated September 23, 1963, Hendrix wrote a colorful and detailed description of the coup that toppled Juan Bosch, the leftist President of the Dominican Republic. If Hendrix

report didn't come from inside sources, it was an amazing display of clairvoyance - the coup didn't take place until the following day. Author Tony Summers reported: Seth Kantor's [a Dallas-based journalist who was acquainted with JACK RUBY] notes revealed that one of the calls that Kantor made from City Hall was to the Florida number, Coral Gables MO 5-6473 [at about 6:00 p.m.] This was the [home] number of Hal Hendrix, a Miami journalist also working for Kantor's newspaper group, (Scripps-Howard) who was offering information on OSWALD. Hendrix, on the afternoon of the assassination, was able to give Kantor details of OSWALD'S past, his defection to Russia, and his pro-Castro activities on his return. Kantor reported: The information he gave me, according to my notes, contained details of OSWALD'S past, particularly OSWALD'S time span in Russia and his latter connection with the Fair Play for Cuba Committee in New Orleans. Hendrix gave me a bunch of knowledgeable background on OSWALD'S appearance on New Orleans radio station WDSU, the previous August. In a show moderated by William Kirk Stuckey, OSWALD had debated CARLOS BRINGUIER, an anti-Castro activist and Cuban refugee. [The Ruby Coverup, Seth Kantor page 376] Hendrix left Scripps-Howard in 1967 to work for ITT. In July 1970, following a meeting between Harold Hendrix and a CIA officer in Santiago, Chile, John McCone contacted Richard Helms, who arranged a meeting in Washington between William Broe, chief of the Western Hemisphere Division in the DDP, and Harold Geneen, the head of ITT. Geneen offered Broe and the CIA $1 million in ITT funds for an anti-Allende campaign. [The Man Who Kept the Secrets, Powers, p290] On October 16, 1970, Hal Hendrix cabled his intelligence estimate to his home office: "Unless there is a move by dissident Chilean military elements by this time next mid-week, the consensus in Santiago is that Salvador Allende will win the October 24, 1970, Congressional run-off easily and be inaugurated as President November 4, 1970. The chance of a military coup is slim but it continues to exist - at least to this date. A key figure in this possibility is former Brigadier General Roberto Viaux..."

On November 5, 1976, Hendrix was charged in federal court with a misdemeanor for refusing to testify accurately before the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee about ITT's connection with the CIA in Chile. Hendrix was acquainted with JERRY HEMMING

through OPERATION CRYPT. He worked with DAVID PHILLIPS, who was stationed in Brazil, on the overthrow of the Allende regime in Chile. John Crewdson of The New York Times reported: "One journalist who is said by a senior CIA official to have accepted travel money [from the CIA], was Hal Hendrix, who as a reporter for the Miami News, won a Pulitzer Prize for his stories on the 1962 Cuban missile crisis...Mr. Hendrix, the official said, was considered an asset by the Agency...' [NYT 12.27.77] HOWARD HUNT was involved in generating propaganda relevant to the Bay of Pigs invasion. HUNT may have also known Hal Hendrix. Hendrix's premature knowledge of OSWALD'S activities may have come from HUNT or PHILLIPS. It also might have come from HEMMING, who claimed he was in touch with Hendrix on November 22, 1963. Benjamin Matte was in Chile from 1971 to 1974. He was President of the National Society of Agriculture and the head of the right-wing party Fatherland and Liberty which advocated the mass murder of all communists. Matte was an associate of Roberto Viaux. German-born Henry D. Heckscher was in Germany in 1953, where he was East Berlin Chief of Station. When laborers in East Berlin rioted in June 1953, Heckscher cabled Washington for permission to arm the rioters. Heckscher was in Guatemala in 1954. In Guatemala he worked with DAVID PHILLIPS and Birch O'Neal. [Hersh, Old Boys, page 344] He was in Laos from 1957 to 1960, Venezuela from 1964 to 1967, and Chile from 1967 to 1970. In Chile, Heckscher funneled money to Jorge Alessandri, the opponent of Salvadore Allende for the presidency of Chile. Heckscher was in touch with Hal Hendricks. When Allende was elected, Heckscher lost his post in Chile. The team that replaced him included Gordon Jorgenson. Heckscher died on March 29, 1990. Jerome I. Levinson worked for Senator Church's Senate Sub-Committee on Multinationals of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. When Jerome Levinson began an investigation of Adan Khashoggi, a prostitute was sent to his hotel room by, Eugene R. Warner, a Khashoggi aide. The 45 year old Levinson was forced to leave the committee due to an almost near fatal heart attack. Edward J. Gerrity Jr. was a Vice President of ITT who received a memorandum from Hal Hendricks and Mexican journalist R. Berrellez on September 17, 1970, speculating on which segment of the military had the capability to overthrow Allende. This eight page document said that the American Ambassador in Chile had received "the green light to move in the name of President NIXON...[with] maximum authority to do all possible - short of a Dominican Republic type action - to keep Allende from taking power." [Marchetti, CIA and the Cult of Intelligence page 330] William Broe worked with Gerrity on a plan to destabilize the Cuban economy. All over these men were involved with General Viaux. Robert Berrellez was an AP correspondent in Cuba from 1959 to 1961. He was expelled after the Bay of Pigs. Berrellez became a P.R. man for ITT in Chile. Robert Berrellez was accused of perjuring himself during his 1973 testimony on Chile before the U.S. Senate. Berrellez helped Gerrity prepare his (Garrity's) testimony. Berrellez indictment noted that he had met a CIA official in 1972 and pledged that he and Hendricks would deny ever having contact with the Agency in Latin America. Researcher Don Freed reported that Berrellez was acquainted with DAVID PHILLIPS. The NACLA reported that Berrellez suggested that a relocation center be set up in Buenos Aires for the families of those involved in

the coup. [NACLA 10.73] The NACLA also reported that after the assassination of General Schneider, Juan Luis Bulnes, who later proved to be responsible for Schneider's death, immediately went to the airport and picked up a ticket for Buenos Aires which earlier had been reserved for him in the name of Robert Berrellez. [NACLA 8.74] RICHARD WHATLEY AND WATERGATE The FBI reported: Re Miami teletype July 14, 1972, concerning unsub, aka photographer, described by witness (Deleted) as third man with BERNARD BARKER and FRANK STURGIS when they picked-up processed film at Rich Photo Shop, Miami, Florida, on June 10, 1972. On April 6, 1973, (Deleted) advised his contact agent that he has had regular contact for a period of several years with one Richard Whatley, a used car salesman, and that Whatley has made several casual remarks about the Watergate incident and about knowing the Watergate defendants. Source indicated on April 5, 1973, Whatley commented that if someone talked, his attorney indicated he was facing a federal indictment. A review of Miami files reflects that Richard Whatley, (Deleted) Florida, date of birth (Deleted) New York City, 5'6" 135 pounds, brown hair, blue eyes was one of 13 International Anti-Communist Brigade members arrested by United States Customs authorities on December 4, 1962, at No Name Key, Florida. Watergate Subject FRANK STURGIS was one of the leaders of this group which was alleged to be a military operation against Cuba. Details are set out in Miami report of S.A. (Deleted) dated November 9, 1968, Bufile (Deleted). Subsequently, on April 6, 1973, source observed artist conception of unsub, aka photographer, and stated that this drawing was an excellent likeness of Richard Whatley. He stated that all the facial features of the drawing were extremely similar with the exception of Whatley's hair which is fuller than in the drawing. The physical description of (Deleted) compares favorably with the of unsub, aka photographer, with the exception of age. Efforts continue to secure recent photograph of (Deleted) FBI number 4145899 for appropriate display to witness (Deleted). Investigation continuing. [FBI 139-4089-1978 4.11.73]

WATERGATE JUNE 1972 On June 17, 1972, STURGIS was arrested at the Watergate Hotel along with McCORD, BARKER, Rolando Martinez and CIA contract agent Virgilio Gonzalez. Virgilio Gonzalez entered the United States as a permanent resident on July 21, 1954. The FBI: "Subject

known to have left the United States in January 1959 to work for Felipe Vidal Santiago, Chief of Maritime Police, Cuba. Subject returned to the United States in August 1959. He worked for Felipe Vidal Santiago as an assistant and a driver." [FBI 139-4081-188 6.24.72] On the same day as STURGIS' arrest, the CIA advised the FBI that "BERNARD L. BARKER and JAMES WALTER McCORD had been CIA employees and that security checks were negative concerning FRANK FRED FIORINI..." [FBI Bufile 4679-10 W/G - FBI Reading Room] Robert Olsen of the Rockefeller Commission asked STURGIS: Ever act for CIA, get paid by CIA, participate in CIA project, etc. ? Yes, extensively. Not a Cuban-American. Ancestry is Italian. FIORINI. Working for American Embassy, infiltrated Castro's 26th of July Movement. Several assassination attempts on Castro, including in New York in 1959 & 1960. Knew gambling interests in Cuba. Connected with 'Company' but never 'employed' by CIA. Was paid in cash by CIA as contract agent. Was a spy for United States Government. Highest official - Case Officer - equivalent to Station Chief. Prefers not to give names by phone. New Orleans - May have met some of the Cubans who traveled to New Orleans and elsewhere. Manuel Artime - in Miami. Civil leader of the brigade. In July 1972 the CIA disclaimed any connection with STURGIS. In February 1975 thenacting CIA Director James Schlesinger [February 1973 to May 1973] told John Dean that "shortly thereafter I discussed these matters with Bill Colby, who indicated that STURGIS has not been on the payroll for a number of years and that whatever the allegations about the Chilean Embassy, the Agency has no connections at all." [JRS MFR re tel. con. with John Dean 2.9.75] Jerry G. Brown, Deputy Chief, Security Analysis Group generated this MFR dated July 20, 1976: On July 20, 1976, SAG delivered certain materials to the Office of the General Counsel relative to a request from the Department of Justice for original materials relating to ITT/Chile. Among the materials given to the OGC was the number attached which was received from a Watergate file captioned, '7th Floor Material.' At the time of delivery to OGC, and with the concurrence of the Director of Security, it was pointed out that the document is unclassified and contains a statement by the originator, James R. Schlesinger, former DCI, that in his discussion with William Colby, Colby stated that 'STURGIS has not been on the payroll for a number of years.' It was pointed out to OGC that this statement is in direct conflict with prior Agency public releases concerning STURGIS to the effect that he has never been connected to the Agency in any way. STURGIS told Robert Olsen of the Rockefeller Commission: John Dean called Schlesinger regarding STURGIS and Chilean break-in. STURGIS says he talked to Colby and Colby said that STURGIS hadn't worked for CIA in last several years and a had nothing to do with CIA. CIA

lost or destroyed his file. Has lied about his having no connection with the CIA. Helms also told Senate Watergate Committee STURGIS had worked for the CIA. Gonzalez had not worked for CIA. Willing to testify under oath. Willing to name names of CIA officials in contact with him. (Uses 'Hey' frequently in conversation. Talks with no Cuban accent.) During STURGIS' Watergate trial, STURGIS asked for all FBI records concerning: 1. Activities in Cuba during the 1950's, his association with Fidel Castro, his contacts with personnel of the United States Embassy in Cuba, his contacts with FBI agents, personnel or information on other U.S. officers, or agents, either in Cuba, or in this country, and information received by the FBI directly or indirectly, from him relating to Cuba, Fidel Castro or Castro's Government. 2. His activities from 1959 to 1970 pertaining or relating to the country of Cuba while he resided in Florida including boat and plane operations, or incursion directed at the country of Cuba, the source of funding for said operations, the awareness and/or approval of said operations by other U.S. Government agencies and contacts he had with FBI agents, employees or informants during said period of time. [Oliver v. CREEP Civil Action 1207 - Daniel E. Schultz] On January 29, 1974, the CIA generated a document that contained the names Matt MacVane, Luis Desa-Soto and J. Horton (Domestic Contacts Division/Miami). It concerned STURGIS' connection to the CIA. On January 31, 1974, the CIA's Office of the Inspector General generated this index card: "Internal Review, IG File #16, Tab #55, Internal Review, M/R by Harold G. Tittsler. Subject: (re STURGIS wanting to meet with Agency representative. STURGIS, FRANK, Harold Tittsler, Art Brew, Joe Joyner." In 1975 STURGIS told the Rockefeller Commission that his CIA contact in 1959 in Miami was Jose Joachim Sajennes Pardomo. STURGIS: Naturally I had contact with BARKER. BARKER didn't realize what I was doing, but I knew he was working as an administrative assistant to 'EDUARDO,' which I did not know as E. HOWARD HUNT...E. HOWARD HUNT gave X amount of thousands of dollars to, or at least okayed this money for the B-25 bomber to be repaired. Pedro Diaz Lanz was one source of money...I was in constant touch with Joachim Sajennes. At the same time BARKER did not know I was in touch with Joachim Sajennes, and BARKER asked me to assist him in some of the work --- some of the investigations he was doing. And I agreed only after I got in touch with Joachim Sajennes and Joachim Sajennes says, go ahead, no problem. Everybody was working for the same people. In a Motion for Favorable Evidence, Ellis Rubin asked for "CIA Station records for 1967 and 1968 from Mexico City, Merida, Belize, Caracas and Miami," to show STURGIS'

"past connections and working agreements with and employment by the CIA." STURGIS told the Rockefeller Commission that he was paid in cash. After Watergate, the FBI was unable to locate a bank account for STURGIS. When they reviewed the canceled checks issued to STURGIS by his employer, the Pan American Aluminum Corporation, Miami, it found that all the checks had been cashed in local supermarkets. [FBI 139-4089-394] In a CIA Task Force Report cited by the HSCA, it was asserted that "STURGIS was in contact with some CIA Cuban employees in the Miami area, but had no direct Agency relationship." When Richard Helms appeared before the Foreign Relations Committee on February 7, 1973, in connection with his appointment as Ambassador to Iran, the following exchange took place: "The Chairman: 'Was FRANK STURGIS an employee?'" Richard Helms: "Never, I am sure of that." In 1984, during the second HUNT v. SPOTLIGHT libel trial, Richard Helms said in a deposition that "to the best of my recollection" STURGIS once was "an agent, an outside agent, a contract agent, of the Agency. He was not a staff member of the Agency." [HSCA Staff Rep: The Evolution and Implications of the CIA-Sponsored Ass. Conspiracies Against Fidel Castro 3.79 Miami Herald 1.31.85] A few days after the Rockefeller Commission Report was released, Jerrold G. Brown, Deputy Chief of Security Analysis Group, prepared a Eyes Only Memorandum regarding STURGIS' CIA connection. EYES ONLY June 10, 1975 MEMORANDUM FOR: Director of Security VIA: Chief, Security Analysis Group SUBJECTS: STURGIS, FRANK ANTHONY #353 459, HUNT, EVERETTE HOWARD #25 500 1. The attached memorandum, dated and captioned as above, resulted from a review of Office of Security material concerning FRANK ANTHONY STURGIS, aka; FRANK FIORINI, to further substantiate the Agency's recent public statement to the effect that STURGIS was never connected with the Agency. The writer found no information in the material reviewed which would contradict the Agency's public statement; however, it is apparent that an unknown group has backed some of STURGIS' activities. 2. The attachment is designed as a lead paper only - it should not be considered definitive - to show a line of investigation that can be pursued. The writer will attempt no further research into this matter without approval from higher authority. Jerry G. Brown, Deputy Chief, Security Analysis Group. [CIA 1351-1059-B CIA FOIA #40340] HEMMING told this researcher: "That covers him for stirring up some shit." MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECTS: FRANK STURGIS AND HOWARD HUNT 1. In his book, Give Us This Day ("The Inside Story of the CIA and the Bay of Pigs Invasion...) on pages 98 to 103, HUNT gives an account of some of the activities of Pedro Diaz Lanz, who defected from Castro Cuba in mid-1959 as the first chief of Castro's air force. HUNT points out that in October 1959 Diaz Lanz piloted a small plane dumping hundreds of anti- Castro leaflets over Havana. Diaz Lanz's copilot on the flight is identified as FRANK FIORINI. HUNT goes on to describe what would be personal contacts with Pedro Diaz Lanz in the Miami area, utilizing the services of BERNARD BARKER in his contacts with Diaz Lanz and other Cubans. HUNT further describes his attempts to involve Diaz Lanz with the Agency in the invasion, but HUNT'S overtures were not accepted by Headquarters. The concluding paragraph of this account states: After the invasion the Kennedy Administration could not do enough for Manuel Ray. A cozy post was secured for him in Puerto Rico as Chief of Munoz Marin's housing projects. I am sure that no equal effort was made in behalf of Pedro Diaz Lanz, for our national tradition has become one of shabby discrimination against known anti-Communists." NOTE: HUNT'S contacts with Diaz Lanz occurred during the period circa October 1960 to circa November 1961 while HUNT was assigned to JMWAVE, Miami. 2. Office or Security files #202 792 and 351 502 concern Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, but reveal no use of Diaz Lanz in the Cuban invasion or other Agency operational matters. File # 202 923 concerns Marcos Diaz Lanz, the brother of Pedro Diaz Lanz. The file reflects that Marcos Diaz Lanz was Deputy Chief of Castro's air force until his defection in July 1959, effected by this Agency by his exfiltration from Cuba clandestinely. For the purposes of instant memorandum, it is of note that his file contains an Agency Information Report stating, "According to Colonel Oscar Morales Lopez, Chief of Aviateca -- the Guatemalan Government-owned airline -Commandante Pedro Diaz Lanz, former inspector of the Cuban rebel air force, Captain Sergio Diaz, and Captain FRANK FIORINI, also formerly with the rebel air force, arrived in Guatemala on December 30, 1959, and immediately contacted him. They had a card from the Guatemalan Ambassador in Washington, and said that they had been in the United States in the first part of December and had talked with important officials of the government. The three wanted to talk with President Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes to obtain moral support for their anti-Castro activities." There is no information showing the mutual involvement of STURGIS with the Diaz Lanz brothers in anti-Castro activities until at least the Summer of 1963. 3. Information in the file of FRANK ANTHONY STURGIS reflects that from circa May 1960 to at least January 1961, STURGIS was living in the

Miami area training a group of Cuban and American volunteers for a military invasion of Cuba. By October 1960, the FBI had determined that STURGIS' only activities in anti-Castro matters were in conjunction with the activities of Pedro Diaz Lanz, who was one of the leaders of the antiCastro group, "Liberation Alliance." reportedly, STURGIS' invasion group, in January 1961 was calling itself, "Brigada Internacionale," with variations of "International Anti-Communist Brigade." One of the sub-units of the Brigade was identified in the press in July 1961 as being a paratroop unit called "Intercontinental Penetration Force" or INTERPEN. The commander of INTERPEN was identified as GERALD PATRICK HEMMING, Jr. (#429 229) The Office of Security file of STURGIS contains nothing further until October 1968, when his arrest was announced in October 1968- while still heading the "International Anti-Communist Brigade" -- for his involvement in a group attempting to enter Guatemala to "clean out anti-Guatemalan guerrillas." At that time FIORINI claimed that two men who were sponsoring his operation were Bob Howell, allegedly a friend of the Kennedy family, and a General Biddle, member of the John Birch Society. 4. To return to the events of the early 1960's, in July 1962 an article appeared in The New Orleans States Item by Bill Stuckey, concerning an anti-Castro training base established on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain. This unit was identified as INTERPEN, headed by GERALD PATRICK HEMMING Jr. The article inferred that INTERPEN was still part of STURGIS' International Anti-Communist Brigade. This particular unit received nationwide publicity when District Attorney Jim Garrison alleged that INTERPEN was involved in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and that INTERPEN members were connected with the CIA. 5. The above noted Bill Stuckey who wrote the July 1962 press article about INTERPEN and HEMMING is identical with the William Stuckey who interviewed LEE HARVEY OSWALD during a public broadcast in New Orleans in August 1963. According to testimony in the Warren Commission Hearings by William Stuckey and CARLOS BRINGUIER, (Cuban Student Directorate Delegate in New Orleans) in early August 1963, LEE HARVEY OSWALD came to BRINGUIER'S New Orleans clothing store announcing that he, OSWALD, was a former Marine trained in guerrilla warfare who wanted to join an anti-Castro guerrilla group in New Orleans. (NOTE: Many of the INTERPEN group were ex-Marines, as was FRANK STURGIS.) BRINGUIER claims he stalled OSWALD and several days later encountered OSWALD on the streets of New Orleans passing out "Fair Play For Cuba" leaflets. The encounter led to a disturbance, and OSWALD and BRINGUIER were arrested. BRINGUIER subsequently alerted STUCKEY to OSWALD, which resulted in the broadcast interview. It is of note that BRINGUIER inferred he was knowledgeable of the anti-Castro guerrilla group training on the North

shore of Lake Pontchartrain, and even collected funds for the travel of two of the members to Miami when the group was disbanded. 6. The individual in INTERPEN of most interest to Garrison was Loran Eugene Hall (OS #348 627), who ostensibly arrived in Dallas, Texas, in October 1963, remaining until after President Kennedy was shot. Garrison also alleged that Hall was involved with the Minutemen. The Hall file reflects that in August 1963 Hall was in Southern California, where he spoke before numerous meetings of the John Birch Society attempting to raise funds for anti-Castro planned invasion of Cuba scheduled for midSeptember 1963. 7. In June 1972 FRANK STURGIS, E. HOWARD HUNT, BERNARD BARKER and others were arrested while burglarizing the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate, Washington, D.C. Jerry Brown had his suspicions that HUNT, BARKER and HEMMING were mixed up with OSWALD, or at least moved in the same circles. Why was this document classified Eyes Only, and why was Jerrold G. Brown wary about pursuing his investigation in this direction? The Rockefeller investigation could have gone in this direction. The final verdict of the Rockefeller Commission: "Numerous allegations have been made that the CIA participated in the assassination of President Kennedy...On the basis of the staff's investigation, the Commission concluded there was no credible evidence of any CIA involvement." The Office of the Inspector General of the CIA generated this index card: STURGIS, FRANK January 29, 1974, January 31, 1974 J. Horton, Matt MacVane DDO/DCD FILE REVIEW 741 Luis Desa-Soto IG File 34, Tab 1 DCD/Miami to DCD/ Washington, Cable 12480 Subj: FRANK STURGIS, Convicted Watergate Burglar (Agency relations with STURGIS) Matthew Chatten MacVane is a Marine in Viet Nam. Matt MacVane was awarded the Nations 2nd highest honor for Valor; The Navy Cross. While an agent for the CIA Matt has gathered intelligence information from the Caribbean, Central and South America and scores of other locales. Matt has traveled around the world to satisfy the needs of clients and worked in various cities in China, India, Turkey and Australia. Matt MacVane has negotiated with, and secured from South American rebel forces, kidnapped U.S.

businessmen, bringing life or death incidences to a successful conclusion and protecting the client’s personal, financial and professional welfare. [] John Ryder Horton, 86, a CIA senior executive in the directorate of operations who became chief of the Soviet bloc division, died June 3, 2007. He had bladder cancer. Horton joined the CIA in 1948 and was chief of station in Hong Kong, Uruguay and Mexico. He was in Mexico during the 1968 student riots. He was chief of the Western Hemisphere division before retiring in 1975 as chief of the Soviet bloc division, covering the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact nations. He received the CIA's Distinguished Intelligence Medal. [] CAR THIEF In 1973 the Justice Department decided to prosecute STURGIS for Interstate Transportation of Stolen Motor Vehicles stemming from his abortive attempt to hijack a Soviet freighter. STURGIS' codefendants were Max Gonzalez, Jerry Buchanan and two unindicted coconspirators, Richard G. Brown and Robert Curtis. In Texas, Buchanan claimed the whole car theft case was merely a government ploy to force STURGIS to talk about Watergate. MEMORANDUM FOR RECORD November 21, 1973 SUBJECTS: FRANK STURGIS and William Johnson. 1. On November 16, 1973, Sidney Stembridge AC/OPS/PSI referred a request to the undersigned from Mr. Gary Breneman, Office of General Counsel. Mr. Breneman requested the source of information previously given in a June 20, 1972, memorandum concerning the activities of Mr. FRANK STURGIS with anti-Castro emigre groups during 1960. With the concurrence of Stembridge, the undersigned provided Mr. Breneman with Xeroxed copies of FBI reports contained in Mr. STURGIS' file which provided the basis for the information in the June 1972 memorandum. 2. On November 19, 1973, Mr. Gary Breneman, Office of General Counsel, contacted Mr. Leo J. Dunn's office requesting traces and information on a William J. Johnson, Jr. This request was forwarded to the undersigned. It was further developed from Mr. Breneman that his request had been prompted by a query from the United States Attorney, Miami, Florida, who is prosecuting the case against Mr. STURGIS on charges stemming from indictment on transporting stolen automobiles across the Mexican border in 1968. According to information relayed by Mr.Breneman, an individual by the name of William J. Johnson (DPOD: February 11, 1931, New York City) was prepared to come forward at STURGIS trial and claim that he was a CIA employee and that he

recruited STURGIS to take part in an alleged CIA operations against Cuba in 1968. 3. With concurrence from Sidney Stembridge, AC/OPS/PS, a Xerox copy of a Western Hemisphere Division, Task Force W memorandum of 1962 was provided Mr. Breneman on November 19, 1973. This memo was located in file # 348 309 and concerned a commentary on an article written by Edith Roosevelt. This reference connected a William J. Johnson with FRANK STURGIS in a 1961 indictment for smuggling. This incident involved STURGIS and one William J. Johnson in an overflight and antiCastro leaflet drop mission in Cuba unrelated to any Agency program. This was the only trace developed on a William J. Johnson. No employment relationship could be established and Mr. Breneman was so informed. 4. Further research into the Sturgis security file turned up a reference to a Tony W. Johnson in a Bureau report with information of January 1961. A Bureau source stated that he received a letter offering him the opportunity to join FIORINI’s International Brigade. The letter further stated that a mutual friend from the FORCE RECON, First Marine Division, on “Tony” Johnson was also being contacted. On the strength that Tony could possibly be a nickname used by William Johnson, this information was relayed to Mr. Breneman on November 20, 1973. Mr. Breneman's office was also reminded of the 'Third Agency Rule' which precluded the passage of Bureau reports to other parties. His office was also advised in response to his request, that the Miami Field Office was believed to have already forwarded all information on hand concerning STURGIS to Headquarters. It was further deemed inadvisable to involve the Miami Field Office in local investigation of individuals connected with the STURGIS court case out of concern for prejudicing the proceedings. Lawrence Howe. In STURGIS' Motion for Discovery he wrote: "The Defendant has been indicted at Bar for alleged activities in the United States and Mexico in the year 1968; it is essential to the Defendant's defense to show his past connections and working agreements with and employment by the CIA." [FBI 26-425217-36] In early 1974 STURGIS was incarcerated for his Watergate activities. On January 31, 1974, STURGIS asked to meet with an Agency representative. [CIA MFR Harold G. Tittsler] On September 12, 1974, the U.S. Court of Appeals in New Orleans upheld STURGIS' ITSMV conviction. [St. Pierre Memo 10.25.74] STURGIS was released on appeal bond. On October 18, 1974, this FBI memo was generated:

TO: SAC, Miami (89-35)

FROM: ASAC Frederick F. Fox SUBJECT: Assassination of John Kennedy, Dallas, Texas, AFO At approximately 5:15 p.m., October 17, 1974, I discussed with S.A. W. Douglas Gow, Supervisor, Division G, Bureau, above captioned matter. I told Supervisor Gow that FRANK STURGIS was in Miami and presently out on bond. He was convicted in an ITSMV case and appealed this conviction. The conviction was upheld, but STURGIS, being represented by an attorney, has asked the court for a reduction in sentence. The judge has taken this under advisement for 90 days. It was pointed out to Supervisor Gow that FRANK STURGIS has been for many years a source of information for columnist Jack Anderson in Washington, D.C. It was explained to Supervisor Gow that contact with STURGIS could not be discreet and undoubtedly Jack Anderson would learn of the contact, as well as STURGIS' attorney. In addition, STURGIS might use the contact by FBI Agents as a bargaining point with the court that he was cooperating with the FBI. Supervisor Gow called back and advised this lead should be held in abeyance until after the interview with E. HOWARD HUNT. [FBI Miami 89-35-410 10.18.74] On December 3, 1974, this FBI document was generated: United States Government Memorandum TO: SAC Miami FROM: SA J. St. Pierre SUBJECT: Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas. Re ASAG Memo October 18, 1974, and Miami Memo SA St. Pierre, October 25, 1974. In as much as Bureau has requested no further inquiry in this matter is suggested this case be closed. Destroy on December 3, 1979. [FBI 89-35-413; NARA 124-10265-10136; NARA 124-10265-10135] STURGIS was willing to supply the FBI with information on the Kennedy assassination if the FBI got him a lighter sentence in his ITSMV case. The FBI, however, was not dealing. STURGIS received a nine month sentence, probably lighter than he expected. When STURGIS was released later that year, he worked for Carlos Prio Soccarras and organized a "Cuban Exile Unity Party" that sent a delegation to an Organization of American States meeting at which peaceful coexistence with Cuba was debated. Carlos Prio Soccarras attended this meeting. THE KISSINGER ASSASSINATION PLOT: STURGIS 1975 In 1975 Orlando Bosch convinced the Chilean Junta to sponsor the assassination of a relative of Salvador Allende who was living in Costa Rica. This plot was the cover for a plan to assassinate Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. STURGIS learned of the plot

and informed Miami Police Department Detective Danny Benitez, who passed the information to Lt. Lyons of the Dade County Public Safety Office, who gave it to the United States Secret Service. STURGIS was question in the course of HUNT v. WEBERMAN in 1978: Q. Did you inform the United States Government about a plot against Henry Kissinger in Latin America; specifically, in Costa Rica, that involved Orlando Bosch? A. Let me say this. I notified the American Government of an international plot to kill Mr. Kissinger. Let me say this, change that a little bit around -not around, I'm sorry. I notified the American Government that there was a plot to disrupt, and possibly to do harm to Mr. Kissinger and, also, the president of a foreign country when he would arrive to this country. Yes, I advised the Government of this plot. At the end of a CIA list of FBI documents on STURGIS, the following entry appeared: "Subject: Threat to Assassinate Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the President of Venezuela 24 April 1975 (Teletype to State CIA et al) No File Number." To: DC, Miami From: Director, FBI UNSUBSS: ALLEGED PLOT TO ASSASSINATE SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER AND PRESIDENT OF VENEZUELA IS - CUBA This will confirm information orally furnished to SA Joseph Ball, Miami Office by SA V. B. Miner on 4/22/75. On 4/22/75, Robert Olson, Commission on CIA activities in the U.S. (Rockefeller Commission) contacted the Bureau. He indicated he had been called earlier by Frank Sturgis in connection with Sturgis' testimony before the Commission. At that time, Sturgis indicated to Olson that there was a group known as the Latin American Anti-Communist League in Miami which is making plans to assassinate Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the President of Venezuela. Olson indicated that Sturgis was at his home in Miami, telephone Number 305-6S1-6263, and address 2515 N.W. 122 Street, Miami, Florida, 22167. Olson advised that he had on objection to our contacting Sturgis however, since he had committed himself to recontact Sturgis he would call him and advise him that he would be contacted by representatives of our Miami Office. The Miami Office was telephonically advised to contact Sturgis bearing in mind his propensity for publicity; to obtain all pertinent information and to eutel the results. Keep Bureau advised of all pertinent developments.

The notes of an unnamed Rockefeller Commission investigator read: April 22, 1975. Has information regarding Miami people, possibly including some Cuban Americans & possibly including some people of past CIA contact, are planning to go to Venezuela to assassinate Henry Kissinger and the President of Venezuela on Henry Kissinger's forthcoming trip there. Dr. de Cardenas, Latin American Anti-Communist League may be involved. Called John Mintz at FBI and gave him above information...called STURGIS back, told him the FBI will be contacting him. When the State Department received this information, it arranged for Orlando Bosch's arrest on February 19, 1976, for entering Venezuela on a fraudulent passport. Orlando Bosch: "The reports that I was going to kill Henry Kissinger are stupid and grotesque. They said I was held because I intended to assassinate the American Secretary of State, but I was in Costa Rica long before Kissinger arrived, and in fact, I did not even know he was coming." The Interior Minister of Costa Rica told the press that Orlando Bosch intended to kill Henry Kissinger for being a Castro collaborationist, since Henry Kissinger advocated restoring diplomatic relations with Cuba. In March 1976 Manuel Artime arranged for Orlando Bosch's release, explaining: "I don't agree with his politics, but he is a friend."


CONTACT REPORT DATE: June 30, 1972 AGENT: OZ-STEER/1 CASE OFFICER: (Deleted) 1. Contact was initiated with OZ-STEER/1 to discuss Roberto de Cardenas. Cardenas was previously described by (Deleted) as an individual who one worked for the Agency both in Miami and the Congo. He is a friend of BARKER of the Washington break-in scandal. Cardenas was unemployed until 1972 but now, suddenly, he is traveling to South America and has become affluent. OZ-STEER/1 speculated that Cardenas may be dealing in narcotics.

2. Also note a New York Times article of June 28, 1972 concerning the Washington break-in affair. This article states that an individual appeared on the Miami scene about two months ago and recruited the team for the break-in. The recruiter was described as a pipe smoker who used a code name… 3. OZSTEER/1 is skeptical of the NYT article as written, because in his opinion no Cuban could be recruited by an unknown individual using a code name. Considering the clandestine operational mentality of many Cubans in Miami are recruitments could only be made by a known recruiter with adequate bona fides [HOWARD HUNT]. a. Cardenas was born about 1919. In 1954 he was a captain with Cubana airlines. In 1954 - 1955 he was arrested in Havana by Major Ochos for smuggling cocaine. Due to political pull, Cardenas was not prosecuted, but was fired from his position. He retired to his farm in Cuba from 1954 to 1959. b. From 1959 to 1960 he was in the Castro air force. There he met FIORINI, also involved in the Washington break-in scandal. In 1960, in Miami, OZ-STEER/1 was in the FIORINI home when Cardenas dropped in. Also present was Diaz Lanz, former Chief of the Castro air force. Cardenas was then working closely with BARKER in Cuba exile (unity) activity on behalf of Artime. At the time OZ-STEER/1 met Cardenas at the FIORINI home he told OZ-STEER/1 to go to a house on Brickell Avenue. OZ-STEER/1 did and there he met Artime for the first time. c. (At this time a Case Officer named "Jimmy" was handling both BARKER and Cardenas. "Jimmy" spoke excellent Cuban Spanish.) d. From 1962 to 1965 Cardenas worked with the Agency under the cover firm (Deleted) (Cardenas case officer during this period was (Deleted). e. In 1965 the Agency sent Cardenas to OZ-STEER/1 the Congo. In the Congo Cardenas claimed to have a heart attack and was hospitalized. He was later proven medically sound and released from his Congo assignment. f. During 1967 to 1968 Cardenas drove a truck in the Miami area. Between 1969 and 1970 to 1971 Cardenas sold mutual funds in South America. (GRAMCO and others) This ended when the funds went bankrupt. g. In 1971 Cardenas was economically down. In early 1972 he started traveling again and became affluent. OZ-STEER/1 believes Cardenas is involved in drugs.

In March 1975 STURGIS and Jerry Buchanan received letters of commendation from the Miami Office of the Drug Enforcement Administration. The letter read: Dear Judge Clyde Atkins: I would like to call to your attention the fact that Mr. FRANK STURGIS has assisted the DEA by lending support and guidance to Mr. Jerry Buchanan during the investigation (case development) into the activities of Ken Burnstine. Mr. STURGIS directed Mr. Buchanan to the DEA at the outset of this investigation and provided aid to Mr. Buchanan during the six month investigation prior to Grand Jury indictment. This information is furnished for your consideration. David Costa, Acting Regional Director, DEA. The CIA's Office of the Inspector General generated this index card: "Assassination, Homicides, Cuban Operations Tab 3, MFR from Joseph Seltzer, Reference: MFR dated March 21, 1975, from Mr. Cates, NPIC. Subject: Assassination Plans Against Castro (Review of C. Jenkins folder, request for info on PATHFINDER." The plans involving Fidel, to the knowledge the CIA Imagery Analysis Service, were:

(a) A folder, stored in the Photo interpretation area at JMWAVE contained materials relating to a plan to assassinate Castro in the Bay of Pigs resort area where he maintained a yacht and was known to vacation. The plan, possibly with the codeword PATHFINDER, apparently had been disapproved and was not under active consideration at the time. Our people did not participate actively in the plan in any regard. (b) While assigned to the Imagery Analysis Service, a number of our photo interpreters supported Carl Jenkins of the DD/P concerning a plan to assassinate Castro at the DuPont Varadero Beach Estate, east of Havana. Castro was known to frequent the estate and the plan was to use a high-powered rifle in the attempt. The photo interpretation support was restricted to providing annotated photographs and line drawings of the estate. To our knowledge, this plan also was never implemented Another IG Index card read: "Anti-Castro Counter-Revolutionary Force, Cuban Operations, Homicides, Cuban Operations Tab 1, FBI Report, Seattle, Washington, (241). Subject: FRANK ANTHONY STURGIS Neutrality Matters (re: Letter from Bob Rostallon to W. C. Bean concerning Anti-Castro Counterrevolutionary Force - plans to go into mountains in Cuba as a guerrilla force.)" In June 1963 Joseph Seltzer was the head of the CIA’s Office of National Estimates where he forwarded a memo on “A Survey of Possible Soviet Actions.” [] Bob Rostallon was connected to INTERPEN and may have been killed in Central America. Rockefeller Commission investigator Robert B. Olsen evaluated STURGIS' reliability: COMMISSION ON CIA ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20500 April 23, 1975 MEMORANDUM FOR: FILE FROM: ROBERT B. OLSEN SUBJECT: Interview with FRANK STURGIS, April 3, 1975, and April 4, 1975. I have just reviewed the transcript of the taped portion of the interview with FRANK STURGIS and I am reminded to dictate this memorandum to the file. It is my impression that very little reliance can be placed on the claims of FRANK STURGIS that he has engaged in a variety of activities for the CIA. He appears to be so caught up in the romantic aspects of his own activities that he finds it difficult to separate fact from fiction. Prior to his coming to Washington for the interview, he had told me by telephone that he had concrete evidence to show that President Kennedy had been assassinated as a result of a conspiracy involving members of the Cuban crime syndicate and the CIA. He also told me he had participated in several actual attempts to assassinate Fidel Castro, including one in New York City, and that these attempts had been undertaken on behalf of the CIA. The detailed interview in Washington bore out neither of these claims. The alleged connection between the CIA, the Cuban crime syndicate, and the assassination of President Kennedy turned out to be nothing but sheer speculation on the part of STURGIS. As respects the assassination attempts on Fidel Castro, it turns out that he had been engaged in plotting to assassinate Fidel Castro and other Cuban leaders while he was an official of the Castro Government during early 1959, and that the CIA had nothing whatever to do with this plotting. Indeed, he states during the course of the interview that he discussed that plotting with a Colonel Nichols at the American Embassy in Havana, and was repeatedly asked not to attempt such assassination. While STURGIS claims that he was asked by BERNARD BARKER if he would be willing to undertake an assassination attempt, he acknowledged that he did not even know who was involved, or whether it was inside or outside the United States. He admits that the talk among Cubans in Florida of assassinating Castro in New York hd nothing to do with the CIA These gross discrepancies between initial flamboyant claims and any hard evidence give rise to serious questions of credibility. The same is true with respect to the claims STURGIS makes regarding requests made to him to undertake ventures on behalf of the CIA. One gets the impression that STURGIS feels that every contact he has with a government official or anybody whom he has known to have been an agent or asset of the CIA has involved a CIA operation.

On the basis of interviews conducted at the CIA, and a review of the records of the CIA, as well as the interview with FRANK STURGIS, it is my impression that STURGIS was never employed by the CIA, was never a contract or other agent of the CIA, was never an informant for the CIA, and was never asked to undertake any contract operation for the CIA. However, it appears likely that STURGIS was active in one or more of the Cuban Revolutionary Front organizations sponsored and financed by the CIA in the early 1960's, and that in this connection he came into contact with various people who, in turn, had direct contacts with the Agency. BERNARD BARKER would be one example. I intend to check out the claim that STURGIS makes that he was asked in 1968 by a CIA agent (allegedly Joaquin Pedromo Sanjenis) to organize an operation for the hijacking of a Russian ship, which hijacking was to involve a demand for release of political prisoners in Cuba, and a demand for the release of the USS Pueblo by the North Koreans. I also intend to check out his claims that BERNARD BARKER asked him in 1961 if he would be willing to take on an assassination of some unknown person. Incidentally, there is a possible connection on this matter. In 1960 and 1961 E. HOWARD HUNT was active in the organization of a Cuban Government in exile in the United States. In this role he had contacts with BERNARD BARKER, who was under contract with the Agency. HUNT states in his book that he recommended to the Agency that an assassination of Castro be carried out before or contemporaneously with the Bay of Pigs invasion. It is not inconceivable that HUNT would have asked BARKER to check out the possibilities of finding an assassin to carry out such a job if approval were ever given to his recommendation. [SSCIA 157-10005-101-46] Given a receptive environment STURGIS might have talked: "Prior to his coming to Washington for the interview he had told me by telephone that he had concrete evidence to show that President Kennedy had been assassinated as a result of a conspiracy involving members of the Cuban crime syndicate and the CIA." When STURGIS said he was asked by BARKER (who worked for HUNT), to assassinate an unknown individual, Olsen assumed it was Castro. STURGIS had detailed numerous plots against Castro in which he was involved. STURGIS told Canfield this was a domestic assassination. What STURGIS referred to was the Kennedy assassination. Olsen also should have realized that HUNT and STURGIS were lying when they said they did not meet until 1971. BARKER was too close to both men for this to be true. Portions of transcript of Rockefeller Commission interview with FRANK STURGIS on April 3, 1975, and April 4, 1975, were withheld for National Security reasons by withdrawing archivist KBH as of 2010. [Withdrawal Sheet ID 04444 - 018000065 and 04443 - 018000065 Box # 4 and #5] DISINFORMATION 1976

In 1976 STURGIS told United Press International that he was requested to conduct an investigation of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy by an un-named government agency. The CIA obtained this article and commented: MEMORANDUM FOR: Director of Central Intelligence FROM: Raymond A. Warren Acting Chief, Latin American Division Via: Deputy Director of Operations Subject: Washington Star Article on Jack Ruby / Fidel Castro July 9, 1976: The Washington Star on July 9, 1976, carries an article entitled "RUBY Met with Castro, STURGIS Says." In the article, STURGIS claims he knew that JACK RUBY met in Havana with Fidel Castro ten weeks before the assassination of President Kennedy and discussed 'the removal of the President.' STURGIS claims, according to the article, that he had been assigned to investigate possible involvement of Cuban exiles in the Miami area in the Kennedy assassination. The article also states that STURGIS refused to say for what Agency he was working, or gave him the assignment, but the article indicated that STURGIS was working for the CIA at the time. For the record, STURGIS continues to allege a CIA relationship, but no such relationship has ever existed. DDO/SA/LA [deleted]ds July 9, 1976 Distribution: Orig & 1 – Addressee w/att. 1 - DDCI w/att. 1 - DDO w/att. 1 – A/DCI (Mr. Falkiewicz) w/att. 2 – DDO w/att. 2 – C/LAD w/att. 1 – SA/ LA w/att. The DD/P signed under "Concur." [Allen v. DOD 7.9.76 CIA 19251-0807] The Agency reported to the FBI in CSCI3/779814 on January 30, 1964 that an unevaluated and unconfirmed report of a visit by Ruby to Cuba. In late 1962 or early 1963 had been received from Havana. This report was actually based on a two page mimeograph newsletter entitled, “Accion” which was mailed from Cuba in an envelope postmarked December 28, 1963, purportedly by an underground anti-Castro group. This newsletter received in Miami on January 13, 1964 by the anti-Castro group known as the DRE, was widely circulated in the Cuban exile community and was the subject of a newspaper article in the January 29 edition of the Miami News under the headline, “Ruby Visited Cuba --- Exiles Say” (WAVE 1283 January 1964)

The CIA's Office of the Inspector General generated an index card on July 9, 1976, that contained the words assassinations, J. F. Kennedy, S.D. Breckinridge, STURGIS, Mr. Buchen, Tom White, Jack Ruby, BERNARD BARKER, Joe Loftus, Washington Star, Bob Wall, Chris Hopkins, AMLUNCH-1 and was titled "Assassinations - JFK TAB 25 MFR by Breckinridge. Subj: White House Inquiry re FRANK STURGIS." 9 July 1976 MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD SUBJECT: White House Inquiry Re Frank Sturgis, aka Florini. 1. Tom White of OLC called to say that Mr. Buchen of the White House had reacted to a story in today's Star in which Sturgis claims that he reported to unnamed government agencies that Jack Ruby had visited Havana ten weeks prior to the assassination of President Kennedy, that he met with Castro at which time he discussed "removal of the president", the purchase of arms and smuggling of drugs into the U. S. Buchen wanted to know what is behind it. Tom asked that we find out if the Agency had contacts with Sturgis (knowing that he was not an Agency employee or agent), if Sturgis made such a report to the Agency and what did we tell the Warren Commission. I phoned Joe Loftus in LA Division and Bob Wall in CI Staff. 2. Joe Loftus got in touch with me, with Chris Hopkins on the phone, and she said that Bernard Barker (of Watergate fame) did have contact with Sturgis from time to time. Barker had been known as a CIA man and Sturgis did pass information to him, some of which Barker reported. However, we advanced no money for Barker to give Sturgis; if Barker did pay him anything we don't know it. Bob Wall turned up a report of Ruby travel to Havana, which seemed to come from an anonymous letter that was confirmed by an agent in Miami (AMLUNCH-I), not Sturgis. I passed this information, in some additional detail, to Tom White. S. D. Breckinridge The CIA's Office of the Inspector General generated an index card on August 17, 1976, that contained the names "George K. McConnell, STURGIS, Dennis Berend, MAG Members, UPI that was a memo for MAG Members, Subject, STURGIS' Claims, reference, Memo, undated, (ER 76-8949) from George K. McConnell, from Dennis Berend, Deputy Assistant to DCI." [CIA IG FILE #57, Tab 2] Berend was an Assistant Public Affairs Officer. George K. McConnell worked in the Dominican Republic under diplomatic cover from 1970 – 1971. MEMORANDUM FOR MAG MEMBERS April 17, 1976 REFERENCE: MEMO (UNDATED) for George K. McConnell (ER 768949) SUBJECT STURGIS CLAIMS

1. In his most recent appearances, Sturgis has become quite cautious about passing himself off as a veteran of CIA exploits. Please note that the UPI item attached to the referenced memorandum cites him as refusing to say for which agency he was working in his latest escapade. The notation that "records have indicated that he was working for the CIA at about that time" was added gratuitously by UPI. 2. Our Office in this particular case called the Miami television station which originally did the Sturgis interview, the Miami and Washington UPI bureaus, the Washington AP bureau, both Washington newspapers, and a Washington TV station which aired the Miami interview. In these calls we tried to set the record straight by citing the Rockefeller Commission findings. The Miami TV station included our remarks in a subsequent continuation of its Sturgis interview. UPI in Miami also issued a new story to include our disclaimer. None of the Washington media picked up the disclaimer, but all of them promised not to be taken in again by anyone's claims that Sturgis had CIA links. 3. Whether there is basis for legal action against Sturgis, as suggested in the referenced memorandum, would have to be determined by OGC. We suggest that little, if anything, would be gained by providing him a new opportunity to garner headlines. Dennis Berend Deputy Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence

On August 10, 1976, STURGIS gave the FBI in Washington, D.C., a memorandum by former Miami Metro Police Intelligence Chief and anti-Castro Cuban, Alphonso Tarabouchia. Al Tarabouchia, an associate of STURGIS, worked for James Sourwine, Chief Counsel to Senator James O. Eastland's Senate Internal Security Subcommittee. James Sourwine was involved in financing the Bayo-Pawley raid known as Operation Crypt. [HSCA V12 p65] In 1964 Al Tarabouchia had told the Warren Commission that he had a source in the Cuban Embassy, Mexico City, who would tell the Commission what really happened during OSWALD'S visit to Mexico City. When the Commission asked him to reveal the name of his source, he refused. [HSCA V12 p176] Tarabouchia would later work for the Anacapa Consulting Corporation whose other employees included James B. Howlett and Ben Wood, formerly of the Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit. [Inquiry 7.79] The Al Tarabouchia memo stated that the Jose Antonio Lanusa of the DRE had information that OSWALD met with G-2 agent Solomon Pratkins before the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. STURGIS told the FBI that S.A. James O'Conner had seen the document in 1964, and "advised people not to talk about it because it might jeopardize their lives." STURGIS advised the FBI that he would be willing to submit to an interview about his allegations while being polygraphed. The FBI gave him an FD-328, "Consent to Interview with Polygraph Release Form."

STURGIS looked it over, but never signed it or took the test. In September 1976 The National Star featured an article by Steve Dunleavy about the Al Tarabouchia Memorandum. In 1977 Malcolm Abrams did an article for the Midnight/Globe: "Castro Lied to Barbara Walters. Hard Evidence Links OSWALD" based on STURGIS' charges. STURGIS did not believe Castro was behind the Kennedy assassination. This was merely anti-Castro propaganda. STURGIS told Robert Olsen of the Rockefeller Commission: "Knew a Cuban woman who was with Castro brothers when Kennedy assassinated. They were alarmed. Feared reprisal. Indicates Castro didn't plan the assassination. She wanted to talk to someone at the top, has forgotten her name." CARLOS PRIO SOCCARRAS AND WATERGATE In 1972 the name of Carlos Prio Soccarras surfaced in the Watergate affair. Besides his association with STURGIS, Carlos Prio Soccarras was associated with Humberto Lopez, another member of the White House/Special Operations Group. Humberto Lopez was the Secretary of the Authentico Party of Carlos Prio Soccarras. The Authentico Party had offices located next to those of BERNARD BARKER. Humberto Lopez told the FBI that he went to Washington, D.C., in early May 1972 as BARKER'S guest. While in Washington, he stayed with STURGIS. Rolando Martinez and Virgilio Gonzalez, who were members of the White House/Special Operations Group, were also members of the Authentico Party. [FBI 139-4089-346] Manuel Artime told the FBI that Carlos Prio Soccarras had "lent some money out" to Watergate figures. The FBI questioned the son-in-law of Carlos Prio Soccarras, Alfredo Duran, about his relationship with HUNT. He said that he had "heard of HOWARD HUNT since the illfated Bay of Pigs invasion, but has known him personally for approximately two years. He stated that he (illegible) HUNT as a representative of a public relations firm in Washington, D.C., in connection with the Haitian real estate holdings in which he is involved." [FBI Document poor copy from carbon 2.23.73 Miami Florida 139-323 S.A. deleted p16] Alfredo Duran's stepfather was Anselmo Alliegro. At approximately 8:00 a.m. on April 5, 1977, Carlos Prio Soccarras, 74, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the chest with a Colt 2" .38 caliber weapon. Two gardeners, Griner and Clarke, heard …what they thought was a gunshot and immediately stood up and looked into the garage of 5070 Alton Road where they seen a man sitting upright in a chaise lounge chair that was in a semi upright position. They observed this man who they described in what they thought was a pink bathrobe slumped backwards in the chaise lounge chair. Both Griner and Clarke observed what appeared to be blood coming from the front chest area of the man. Both Griner and Clarke then ran out onto Alton Road where they observed, and flagged down, a uniformed police car who was occupied by Officer Chandler. Prio was found lying on a lounge chair with a wound in the left side of his chest. Dade County Medical Examiner Ron Wright discovered "soot depositation with the wound" which indicated that the fatal shot was fired at point blank range. Cause of death: Contact gunshot wound of chest. [Ron Wright Office of Miami Med. Exam. Case No. 77-892]

Miami Beach Policeman Ed Avila, who arrived on the scene at approximately 8:17 a.m. Fire Rescue and their attending physician, Dr. Jorge Vasquez, was already on the scene. Avila: I talked to him and he nodded yes and no. I asked him if he was hurting, if he was in pain, and he nodded no. I asked him if anybody shot him and he nodded no. I asked him if he shot himself and he nodded yes. Ed Avila, had met Carlos Prio Soccarras in Cuba in the early 1950's. [HSCA Memo Fonzi to Tannenbaum 4.24.77] When Carlos Prio Soccarras died, he was bankrupt and had recently testified that he owed Puerto Rican banks more than $2 million. Prio had redrawn his will eight days before he died. [Miami Herald 5.24.77] His death was clearly a suicide. [NARA HSCA 180-10092-10075] Gaeton Fonzi agreed. [Memo 4.24.77 Fonzi to Tannenbaum 014581] Upon his death, the former head of the Cuban Revolutionary Council, Tony Varona, took over the leadership of the Authentico Party. On June 14, 1964, the FBI SAC in Miami sent this message to the FBI Director: "Subject Varone FAG (00:Miami) ReBulet to Miami May 13, 1964. Antonio Varona aka Tony Varone is probably identical with Manuel Antonio Varona (deleted). By memo to the Director, FBI June 10, 1960 (deleted)." [FBI 46-50437-2] On November 26, 1968, Diario De Las Americas published Tony Varona's statement that Castro agents were responsible for a November 22, 1968, assassination attempt against Julio Aton Constanzo Falau. On December 6, 1968, the CIA received a report from Julio Aton Constanzo Falau, and his brother Avelino, that Francisco Varona Alonzo had visited Julio Aton Constanzo Falau at Jackson Memorial Hospital: Varona and Constanzo talked about the possible authors of this assassination attempt, and Varona assured Constanzo that the persons who had masterminded the assassination attempt were Joaquin Pedromo Sanjenis, Vincent Zorrilla and Manuel Villafana. Varona told Constanzo that the persons who had actually executed the assassination attempt were Richardo Morales Navarrette, Francisco Rodriguez Tamayo, aka 'El Mejicano' and a man known as 'El Gaalego...According to Varona, Joaquin Pedromo Sanjenis, Zorrilla and Villafana planned the assassination attempt following instructions from 'the American named Enrique, the Argentine.' Constanzo then told Varona that this was very strange, as he could not understand why those men would want to assassinate him. Varona replied that they wanted to eliminate him (Constanzo) for the simple reason that the latest infiltration operations which had been carried out against Cuba, using Teofilo Babun's ships, were exposing and ridiculing Joaquin Pedromo Sanjenis 201-266348), who was the action Chief of the CIA. Varona said that all the operations which had been carried out under the direction of Joaquin Pedromo Sanjenis and his contact had cost a great deal of money, with the cheapest one costing at least $80,000, and all of them had been a failure, while the operation which Constanzo had carried out had been successful and their cost insignificant. When Constanzo asked Varona whether he

(Varona) did not also belong to the CIA group in Miami, Varona said it was true that he worked for the CIA, but that he acted as a Political Chief with a regard to Cuban affairs, and that he had directed dealings with Washington. Varona said that as Political Chief, he was obliged to report this matter, and that he had already reported it also to the police and the FBI. With regard to the FBI, Varona said he had reported the matter to a man named O'Brien. Varona also told Constanzo that the attempts to burn down his house and to shoot up his automobile had also been ordered by Zorrilla... Higinio Diaz aka Nino Diaz had also been spreading a story among Cuban exiles, saying that (Deleted) knows that identity of the authors of the attempt to assassinate Constanzo, trying to involved (Deleted) in this happening. On December 2, 1968, and December 3, 1968, I-41 reported to I-32 that Varona was saying that now he was going to destroy I-1 completely because he had trapped I-1 in something and I-1 would not be able to get out of this trap. Varona said this to I-41 with so much emphasis, and so sure of himself, that when I-41 and E-65 reported this to I-32 they took it as fact Pancho Varona is not a friend of Julio Anton Constanzo Palau, or his brother Avelino, just an acquaintance and this reason the Constanzo brothers find it very strange that Varona has taken such an interest in allegedly defending Julio Aton Constanzo. Avelino Constanzo believes that Varona is using his brother for propaganda purposes. During the last two weeks of November 1968 Varona has talked to E-65 and other persons who were at E-65’s establishment. While they were talking about politics, Varona said, “If Humphrey had won the election I would have had it, and Sanjenis would have won. But Nixon won so Sanjenis is the one who has had it, and I have placed myself at the highest levels.” When Varona made this statement he sounded so sure of what he was saying that E-65 was impressed with regard to Varona’s access to high circles surrounding NIXON. [CIA From I-1 To ARGO IRIS 12.6.68 533022] Tony Varona died on October 31, 1992 of cancer, at age 83. ANGOLA: 1977 On January 19, 1977, the CIA Plans Division sent a three-page attachment to the Office of Security: "Official Routing Slip to (Deleted) For your retention or passage to anyone in the Office of Security who might have interest in attachment. From CIA." The attachments, three Office of Security documents, were withheld as of 2010 "as they are

not germane. STURGIS' name did not appear in this material." In May 1977 STURGIS told an FBI source he is now associated with "Afro-Cuban Committee" to train men in Angola and Zaire. In June 1977 STURGIS flew to England and conferred with individuals interested in overthrowing the pro-Castro Government of Angola. In August 1977 source of Miami Field Office of Domestic Collection Division met with STURGIS on June 5, 1977, regarding plans to establish Cuban Government in exile on Angolan soil "with the help of Holden Roberto (FNLA)." [STURGIS Chronology assembled by Fonzi] When STURGIS returned to the United States in 1978, he resurrected the story of "OSWALD'S secret flight to Cuba from the Yucatan peninsula," and he claimed to have obtained a Secret FBI document that quoted nine CIA and FBI sources as having had knowledge of the visit. STURGIS refused to name these sources, "for their own protection." The FBI determined that the secret document was a March 24, 1964, interview of JOHN MARTINO, by James O'Conner, at Miami. [FBI 105-8342 3.24.64] The FBI: The document referred to in the article appears to be the MARTINO FD302 since points of information appearing in the article do appear in the FD-302. The article alleges nine names appear in the FD-302, but any nine of these do not readily lend themselves to the definition of a 'contact' as suggested in the article. The article quotes purported excerpts from the document which agree, in part, with information contained in the FD-302, but which are not comparable on a word for word basis. In the article, STURGIS is alleged to have told the FBI, in a past interview that LEE HARVEY OSWALD was in Miami, Florida, prior to the assassination of President Kennedy and did attempt to infiltrate anti-Castro organizations. While the alleged infiltration is not mentioned in the MARTINO FD-302, STURGIS was interviewed by a Bureau Agent on January 14, 1964, concerning that specific point and he labeled the information as false. The article and FD-302 mentioned a fight OSWALD is alleged to have had in Miami, Florida, and Bureau Agents interviewed the allegedly combatant on March 26, 1964. While this person denied being personally involved with OSWALD, he claimed OSWALD had been in a fight, but could provide no details. His recognition of OSWALD was based on publicity following the John F. Kennedy assassination. The article and FD-302 refer to a trip OSWALD is alleged to have made from Mexico to Cuba during September 1963. The FD-302 points out that this information supposedly originated with a 'girlfriend' of OSWALD'S who resided in Mexico. [FBI ltr. To USAG from Director, FBI 7.19.77] THOMAS HOLT On October 4, 1978, a document was generated by David R. Wiser of the Drug Enforcement Administration a copy of which was sent to Peter F. Gruden of the DEA. Peter Gruden, head of the Miami DEA office, offered a group of Mexicans $50,000 to

kidnap a doctor who had been involved in the death of a DEA agent in Mexico. [Wash. Post 5.26.90] The Subject of the memo was "JFK, Conspiracy Theory, Assassination, STURGIS, FRANK." [FBI 62-109060-7991, NARA FBI 124-10145-10233] On December 11, 1978 Thomas Holt appeared at the office of the FBI, Miami, Florida where he was interviewed by Special Agents Peter Schoppeale and Don J. Demford. Prior to the interview Special Agent Schoppeale had explained to Holt that the FBI was desirous of knowing any information concerning remarks made by one Frank Sturgis in his presence concerning the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in, Dallas, Texas. Holt advised that he is not well acquainted with Frank Sturgis but he met him approximately one year ago at a party given at Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He stated that he was introduced to Sturgis by a friend of his, Billy Johnson. Holt advised that at this party Sturgis had told him that he had been a hit man for Fidel Castro and that both Castro and he (Sturgis) had both worked for the CIA. At this point in the interview Holt stated that Rockefeller, meaning Nelson Rockefeller, had been in charge of the Warren Commission and that it had been a cover up as far as the assassination of Kennedy was concerned. Holt next stated that the “hit” was done in Texas to make it look like Johnson was at fault. Holt stated that he believed Billy Johnson may have told Sturgis to say the above things to impress Holt. Holt next stated that while at this party, Sturgis had named many people he stated were “big” and that he knew these people. Holt stated he thinks Sturgis may have killed Kennedy because Sturgis had said he could shoot a person’s brains out at 1,000 yards with a simple rifle and imagine what I could do with a scope.” Holt next stated Sturgis had made these comments to him concerning the assassination of Kennedy he was sure he had probably made them to other people. Holt stated Sturgis was a man approximately 50 years old. Holt next stated that he advised Bill Johnson had worked as an informant for the FBI, CIA and (illegible paragraph ending “from wealthy women”) Holt advised that in regard to the remark made by Sturgis, it was during the latter part of the summer that he was on Biscayne Boulevard, at approximately 125th Street near Denny’s Restaurant and Steve’s Pizza when Billy Johnson drove up in his car accompanied by Frank Sturgis. Holt advised that at this time Billy Johnson told Sturgis that he, Holt, was a Boston boy. At this time Holt advised Sturgis said, “I killed a boy from Boston named Kennedy.” Holt advised that he said, “Do you mean the President?” And Sturgis said “Yes.” Holt advised Johnson next laughed and said “Ain’t that heavy.” Holt advised that Sturgis then said, “I’ll tell you, nobody else.” Holt advised that that was the end of the conversation and Sturgis left. Holt next advised he was facing murder charges in Broward County, but that no trial date has been set. Holt next stated that he wanted

to become an informant for the FBI but that he would have to have it in writing. Holt further related that he had been screwed by the DEA and his conversation became rambling making no further sense. Interview was terminated at this point. Later that November the FBI reported: For the information of the Bureau and Dallas, by letter dated October 20, 1978, the United States Secret Service Miami furnished to this office a copy of a letter sent to the Agency by the Drug Enforcement Administration, Miami, dated October 13, 1978. The Drug Enforcement Administration letter advised that an informant for the DEA had indicated he was acquainted with Frank Sturgis of Watergate notoriety, and during a conversation Sturgis told the informant that he killed President John F. Kennedy. This remark was supposed to have been made in the presence of an individual by the name of Bill Johnson. DEA advised that this informant could be made available for interview. On November 3, 1978, attempts to contact Peter F. Gruden, Inspector-inCharge, Drug Enforcement Administration, Miami, who had furnished above information to United States Secret Service, determined that he was not available. On November 7, 1978, Peter F. Gruden was contacted, and he advised that the informant in this matter was Thomas Holt. Gruden stated that Holt was of questionable reliability, irrational, unpredictable, and described him further as a murderer and perjurer. He advised the only reason Holt was a DEA informant at this time was the Holt had furnished information of internal nature. Gruden advised that David N. Wiser, Inspector, DEA could funish more details concerning Holt. On November 8, 1978 David R. Wiser advised that Holt had come to DEA and had made allegations of wrongdoings against a DEA agent. Wiser advised that to date the internal investigation in this DEA matter has not uncovered any evidence to indicate any truth to the allegations of Holt. He advised that the evidence indicates to the contrary. Wiser advised that Holt had stated that during the late summer 1975 he Holt was on Biscayne Boulevard in the downtown Miami area, when he came upon Frank Sturgis who was accompanied by one Bill Johnson. Wiser advised that Holt stated that during this encounter, Sturgis state he had killed John Kennedy. Wisner stated he asked Holt “Why would Sturgis impart this interesting bit of news to Holt who was known government witness and publicized DEA informant from the past?” And Holt replied that it was “one hit man to another.” Wiser advised that Holt had indicated an intention to go to the news media regarding this allegation against the DEA. Wiser further stated that he thought it likely that Holt would also make mention of

the Sturgis comment in that he had reported this to the DEA and that they had done nothing about it. Wiser advised for this very reason he wrote a memo concerning what Holt had reported, and for this reason it was furnished to the Secret Service. Wiser made available a copy of this memo dated October 4, 1978 which is attached. Wiser further stated that in a case in which Holt was a witness for the prosecution Holt had allegedly called a Defendant during a trial and told him he was going to “get him.” The Defendant in this matter, at the time of the call, had a recording of his telephone call made which was played for the presiding judge. Holt denied making the call to the defendant and the judge ruled that Holt’s testimony could not be permitted. On Novemeber 9, 1978 Wiser had advised that Bill Johnson was William J. Johnson, date of birth March 11, 1932 FBI number 133677? On November 31, 1978 Wiser advised that Holt had be