This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Giles to bury John Knox, Scottish Reformer. The Earl proclaimed: “Here lyeth a man who in his life never feared the face of man, who hath often been threatened with dagge and dagger, but yet hath ended his dayes in peace and honour (Lee, 1894).” One may add he also never feared the face of woman, not common nor royal. In fact, he attacked the most powerful women of his day because they were obstacles to his goal. His earnest desire was to preach the Reformed gospel to his kinsman in Scotland and England. Two women that stood in his way: Mary Tudor, queen of England and Mary of Guise, regent of Scotland. Mary of England sought to return her nation back to the Roman Church. Mary of Guise wished to see the traditional alliance of Scotland with her native France (decidedly Roman Catholic) restored. In response to these women Knox wrote his work, The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. By all accounts Knox was hostile in his attack on a woman’s right to rule, not because he was a misogynist, but because they stood in the way of the Reformation taking hold in Scotland and England. He writes that: … to promote a Woman to beare rule, superioritie, dominion, or empire above any Realm, Nation, or Citie, is repugnant, contumelie [insolent] to God, a thing most contrarious to his reveled will and approved ordinance (Ward). Knox might have avoided confrontations and lived a life of ease if he had not
and he was considered as equaling. Andrew’s until the French forces compelled their surrender. Andrew’s to their fathers. Even though his plan was to continue to Germany. Knox desired to share his captivity. in the subtleties of the dialectic art. wanting to protect him from the cardinal and carried a sword to do so. 2 . upon Wishart’s imprisonment the night before his execution. perhaps even to share his death. Knox held Wishart in high regard.” Knox had only meant to bring two young boys (he was their tutor) to St. Andrew’s. Knox could hardly resist joining them.stayed to be the preacher of the Protestants at the castle of St. Knox had to be convinced to stay with the group at St. Knox remained at St. Reverend Thomas M’crie has a more excessively glowing report of Knox’s education reporting that he received a Master of Arts and taught at the university as an assistant. If this were not enough to tie the two men together. William Lee reports that Knox was ordained before 1530. “His class became celebrated. in revenge to the martyrdom of George Wishart. if not excelling. presumably to study with the Reformers. murdered Cardinal Beaton who condemned him. Still. his master. having studied at either the University of Glasgow or St. Lee writes that “he was a fair Latinist. and accustomed to study…” and that he was quite familiar with Augustine and Jerome. He seemed on the path to a comfortable life as a priest. Andrew’s. Andrew’s which became a bastion of the Protestant movement. Wishart was a famous Protestant preacher who was instrumental in Knox’s conversion. Although there is little evidence that he graduated. This group. his name being absent from university registers after 1522.
Knox and several others were carried to France as a galley slave. Later in the piece he writes that “experience hath declared them to be unconstant. While in Switzerland. but they were always in response to a direct need. Knox remained in England until Mary Tudor ascended to the throne. cruel. “Bloody” Mary Tudor John Knox undoubtedly was thinking of Mary Tudor.” The reference to illegitimacy is an unmistakable reference to the annulment of marriage between Mary’s mother. He wrote his first work there “while in leg irons. and lacking the spirit of counsel. Andrew’s congregation (Ward). Catherine. who had just succeeded his father. It was approximately a year and a half later that he was released to English government of Edward VI.” a letter to the St. and the Protestants were already on shaky 3 . the basis of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. It was during the reign of young Edward VI that Roman Catholicism declined in influence in England. Then he fled to the Switzerland where he was able to converse with John Calvin about doctrine and civil authority. queen of England. he wrote many of his pamphlets. It was during this time that he also wrote The First Blast of the Trumpet against the monstrous Regiment of Women. Henry VIII. and Henry VIII. variable. of a traitress and bastard). sometimes they were letters. when he wrote: “[H}ow abominable before God is the empire or rule of a wicked woman (yea. During this time Knox helped prepare the second Book of Common Prayer and The Articles concerning an Uniformity in Religion.” This did not endear Mary to the Reformation cause. where Knox was appointed a royal chaplain.
but rather would “trust to the persuasion of learned preachers to bring men to her own way of thinking. She married James V of 4 . However. In part. as David L. was spared her life. Mary was noticeably tolerant. Also. she accomplished this by overturning many of the religious proclamations of Edward VI’s reign and re-enacted laws against heresy.ground with her. Mary of Guise Mary of Guise was a staunch pro-Catholic ruler. who tried to take the throne after Edward VI. Mary allowed some Protestant teachers and their family time to flee the country. She also saw that it was the Roman Catholic Emperor Charles V and the Pope who supported her mother. Catherine of Aragon. Despite this reputation. that during this time Mass was Mary’s “chief comfort. Lady Jane Grey. by denying Henry the annulment. Edwards notes in Christian England. It was the Protestants that declared her illegitimate. she was never really able to achieve universal support. James Gairdner writes that she never wanted to force people to be Roman Catholic. thereby keeping her from the throne.” Her reign began with hope to unite the religiously divided people. so that he could remarry. Catholics and Protestant alike supported her right to the throne. In her mind.” Once Mary was settled on the throne she set about returning England to Roman Catholicism. it was the Protestants that annulled Henry’s marriage to her mother. It is no wonder then. she had more than 300 persons burned at the stake as heretics. During her five year reign. earning her the nickname “Bloody” Mary.
and when Mary of Guise died. Earlier Henry VIII sought the hand of Mary of Guise herself after she was widowed to break up the Franco-Scottish alliance. Protestantism and national independence seemed to be bound together (Walker). Knox returned to Scotland. she sent her daughter Mary Stuart to study abroad in France. the Protestant nobles and people rallied together to depose the regent. Mary of Guise did not tolerate heresy. Mary wanted to continue the relationship between Scotland and her native country of France against England.” They made a religious covenant to set up the “Word of God and His congregation.Scotland after her first husband died. also named Mary. With the encouragement of John Knox. and when James V also died she ruled as regent for her daughter. Mary of Guise succeeded in marrying her daughter off to the heir of the French throne thereby preventing Henry VIII from marrying the infant queen. It was under his reign that Knox’s friend Wishart was burned as a heretic. Knox’s attack on female sovereigns came during this time as well. The creed adopted was largely written by Knox. Like her husband. he and the Scottish Protestants were poised to push their program forward. It also sketched out a system for national education and relief of the 5 .” but this inevitably had political ramifications as well. The close ties with France “was as hateful as any submission to England could have been. To that end. It is not an exaggeration to say that Knox was the author of establishment of the Reformed movement in Scotland. The First Book of Discipline which “bears [Knox’s] imprint on every page” outlined a system for church hierarchy (Ward).
While disputes like this were still being settled. Mary Stuart (she is also known as Mary. she celebrated Mass privately. she returned to Scotland at the invitation of the nobles there to claim the throne. and William Maitland. where she ruled as regent. French King Francis II. her brother. For his part. the nobles and Knox argued over church property. was prepared by Knox. Book of Common Order. left her a widow. When Mary Stuart’s husband. Her mother returned to Scotland. still. This did not stop “Knox and his followers from organizing the Reformed Church of 6 . and they never saw each other again. All of these things were heavily influenced by John Calvin (Walker).poor. the nobles preferred to keep hold of it for themselves. which kept her from alienating the Protestants. Knox was harsh and his language uncourtier-like. Mary continued to celebrate Mass and to charm Catholics and Protestants alike. Knox was less than thrilled that a French Catholic woman would be queen. This process was not entirely without difficulty. Whereas Knox wanted to fund the education and relief for the poor with church property. She made no effort to change religious policy. Queen of Scots) took counsel from James Stewart. Mary Stuart Mary Stuart’s mother visited France when she was seven. Knox found her to be an able verbal sparring partner. Mary invited Knox to appear before her five times which he accepted. if not a scathing criticism to the face of his queen. Mary Stuart returned to Scotland to claim the throne. The flexible system for public worship.
The English monarch was no longer called the “Supreme Head” but rather “Supreme Governor. the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI was revised. These events galvanized Protestants and Catholics against Mary. Henry Stewart. to get rid of her husband for her. Knox’s great concern was who would inherit the Scotland throne. Elizabeth I Elizabeth inherited the throne from Mary Tudor and with it. She was imprisoned. who also had a claim to the English throne. Knox preached the sermon at the boy’s coronation (Walker). fled to England under Elizabeth’s care. a host of problems. Mary did escape and after one desperate attempt to regain her crown. James VI. the Earl of Bothwell. When Mary Tudor died. Elizabeth inherited the throne and Mary retreated from that position. to strengthen her own claim. Elizabeth had already made several changes in the religious and social life. Mary might have had that in mind. including debt and religious strife.” Also. Later Bothwell and Mary were married (Walker).” At this point. She later regarded the marriage a mistake and. but she definitely had her eye on England’s crown. Introducing a renegade cousin who just lost her throne could not shake Elizabeth. Elizabeth was quite settled on 7 . persuaded her new interest. Later Mary married her cousin. She made some of the reformed changes Edward the VI made more palatable to the Catholics. and she abdicated her throne to her infant son.Scotland (Gonzalez). it’s believed. Mary Stuart insisted on her right to the throne over the illegitimate (by Catholic canon law) Elizabeth.
she left Knox with two sons and a broken heart (Alexander). an admirer of Knox’s teaching. Knox married again. who did not approve of the match (though he seemed to have no problem with extended correspondence between Knox and his own wife). Four years after Marjorie died. He was 35 when he married Marjorie Bowes who was 17.” Most would venture to say that Knox would have supported Elizabeth’s rise to the throne since she was sympathetic to Protestantism. “[t]his hindered the natural alliance that should have developed between Elizabeth and John Knox. Marjory was the daughter of Elizabeth Bowes. Knox fled to Geneva. two years before Mary Stuart came to Scotland to claim her throne. Richard. for its arguments based on anti-feminine prejudice could just as well be applied to her. And yet. How could Elizabeth not support the Protestants when it was the Catholics who declared her illegitimate and thus removed her from succession? The Knox Wives John Knox was married twice. When Marjorie died. both times to very young women. The only obstacle was her father. He would receive the girl’s dowry and have a young woman for a wife. When Elizabeth offered Marjory to Knox. but it’s not clear if he took his new wife and mother-in-law with him. They were eventually married just before the time Mary Tudor took the throne. everything seemed to be in his favor. and again the bride was quite 8 . Knox was not thinking of Elizabeth when he wrote First Blast. Gonzalez writes that “Elizabeth resented much of what was said in it.her throne by the time the Queen of Scots came knocking.” And even though Knox took back what he wrote.
He loved his nation which can be seen not only in the ferocity with which he defended her from what he perceived as enemies. but also the social and educational reforms he sought to establish.” The second half. Both her age and social standing made the wedding scandalous. and experience hath declared them to be unconstant.” 9 . and then raised his voice or his pen to address it. He described women this way: “Nature doth paint them further to be weak. feeble and foolish. John Knox John Knox was instrumental in shaping the Church of Scotland and the Presbyterian system. Margaret Stewart was only 16 and was a relative of Mary Stuart (who used the French rendering of her surname). Knox looked forward to the day “when God shall declare himself to be [the enemy of female sovereigns]. He was so worried about preaching the truth of Scripture that he failed to see one of those truths is mercy.young. frail. cruel. especially cruel and lacking the spirit of counsel. when he shall pour forth contempt upon [them] according to [their] cruelty. She gave him two daughters and remained devoted to him until his death in 1572 when he died of pneumonia (John Knox). Sometimes Knox saw wrong in women. impatient. and lacking the spirit of counsel. variable. can also accurately describe Knox. Without a doubt. His interview with Mary Stuart could have been an opportunity to show the love of Christ. but instead he railed against her. He saw clearly what was right and what was wrong.