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**FATIGUE DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STEEL STRUCTURES
**

AUGUST 2005

Since issued in print (August 2005), this booklet has been amended, latest in October 2006. See the reference to “Amendments and Corrections” on the next page.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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**DET NORSKE VERITAS
**

Licensee=AU location/5940240001 Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT

FOREWORD

DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions. DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents: — Offshore Service Specifications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and consultancy services. — Offshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as the technical basis for DNV offshore services. — Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards. DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas: A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology B) Materials Technology C) Structures D) Systems E) Special Facilities F) Pipelines and Risers G) Asset Operation H) Marine Operations J) Wind Turbines

**Amendments and Corrections
**

This document is valid until superseded by a new revision. Minor amendments and corrections will be published in a separate document normally updated twice per year (April and October). For a complete listing of the changes, see the “Amendments and Corrections” document located at: http://www.dnv.com/technologyservices/, “Offshore Rules & Standards”, “Viewing Area”. The electronic web-versions of the DNV Offshore Codes will be regularly updated to include these amendments and corrections.

Comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnv.com For subscription orders or information about subscription terms, please use distribution@dnv.com Comprehensive information about DNV services, research and publications can be found at http://www.dnv.com, or can be obtained from DNV,

Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Høvik, Norway; Tel +47 67 57 99 00, Fax +47 67 57 99 11.

© Det Norske Veritas. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written consent of Det Norske Veritas. Computer Typesetting (FM+SGML) by Det Norske Veritas. Printed in Norway.

If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of Det Norske Veritas, then Det Norske Veritas shall pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compen--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--sation shall never exceed USD 2 million. In this provision "Det Norske Veritas" shall mean the Foundation Det Norske Veritas as well as all its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of Det Copyright Det Norske Veritas Norske Veritas.

Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Changes – Page 3

Main changes August 2005 1) Restructure of list of content to make presentation of material more logic. 2) Validity of S-N curves in air increased to 960 MPa. 3) Section on reduction of fatigue capacity due to high temperature is included. 4) Some considerations on low cycle fatigue are included in main text and in commentary. 5) A new section on definitions is included. 6) A section on different fatigue failure modes is included in first part under S-N data. 7) The principal stress direction relative to the normal to the weld for joint classification is increased from 45o to 60o. 8) Failure criterion inherent the S-N curves is explained in a new section. 9) The thickness exponent for bolts is reduced from 0.40 to 0.25 based on new information from the source. 10) Slope of S-N curves B1 and B2 changed to m = 4.0 to be more in line with fatigue test data for the base material. 11) S-N curve for high strength steel for machined components is included. 12) S-N curve for umbilicals made of stainless steel is included. 13) Capacity for austenitic steel is increased by one S-N class based on new information. 14) Section on pipeline is revised to include a new section on seamless pipes. 15) Guidance on when fatigue analysis is required is improved with figures. 16) Misalignment inherent S-N data for cruciform joints is increased to that of a typical fabrication tolerance based on engineering considerations. 17) The section on fatigue design of penetrations through deck plates is improved. An example with design of fillet welds is included.

18) The section with stress concentration factors for scallops is improved. 19) The conservatism on stress concentration at stiffener with eccentricity at conical transition is reduced. 20) A section on stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plates is included. 21) A new Chapter on hot spot stress analysis using FE analysis is included. 22) The section on simplified analysis is extended. An example of use is included. 23) The section on improvement by grinding, TIG dressing and hammer peening is improved with less conservatism for grinding and TIG dressing. 24) The section on uncertainties is improved. 25) The list of references is extended. 26) Some details in tables for classification are added in Appendix A. 27) Example of welded penetration in plate is included in Appendix C. 28) SCFs for manholes are included in Appendix C. 29) A section on combination of fatigue damage from 2 processes is included in commentary section (Appendix D).

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30) The section on size effect in the commentary section is revised and improved. 31) A section on efficiency of corrosion protection is included in the commentary section. 32) A section on effective stress method is included in commentary (This is being used in special cases where other methods for fatigue assessment may be difficult to use). 33) A section on different geometries and target hot spot stress values is included for purpose of verification of analysis programs/procedures. 34) An example with fatigue analysis of a drum is included in the commentary section.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS

Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT

.``.`...``-`-`. see note on front cover Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.`--- DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.``....`.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .`.....``.````. August 2005 Page 4 – Changes Amended October 2006.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`.

.......`...........2 7....4...................................... 13 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection ...................1 A....1 5.....................4... welded from both sides ...................................4..2 A...........3............... 34 Example of use of design charts...............1 4.................... 16 S-N curves for small diameter umbilicals ......3 6.... 39 Weld profiling by machining and grinding ................... 12 Failure criterion inherent the S-N curves............ 20 Stress concentration factors for holes with edge reinforcement...............2............................... 1..... 27 Stress concentration factors for tubulars subjected to axial force ..................... 39 Weld toe grinding........10 3...........................9 3..........6 2......3.....................23 Tubular joints and members ...2 2......... 15 S-N curves for cast nodes .......................................................1 3........................................4 2. 15 S-N curves for forged nodes .... 7 General ...9...................................3............................3............ 15 S-N curves for base material of high strength steel...............................1 2....7 Definitions ......................................................................3.... 9 Introduction .................... 39 General. 3.23 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.....17 Bolts ............................ 25 Stress concentration factors for stiffened shells .5 2...... 30 General..................................................................................18 2............................ 23 Tubular joints welded from one side ......4...........................8............................. 32 Limitations for simple connections ............ 41 UNCERTAINTIES IN FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION ....................`.....................4 4..... 15 S-N curves for stainless steel.............. 41 Requirements to in-service inspection for fatigue cracks..........................................4.....3 4.................................4 3................................................1..................... 19 Stress concentration factors for cruciform joints.............. 11 Fillet welds............. 32 Derivation of effective hot spot stress from FE analysis..... 40 TIG dressing .........1..12 2.......... A CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS....4. welded from one side ...................................................................3................................................18 7.........3.8 Stress field at a welded detail ...................`--- General......................................... 5..................... 32 CALCULATION OF HOT SPOT STRESS BY FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS..5 4..........................3 7........................................5 2...................8................. 22 APP................. 27 Stress concentration factors for conical transitions ..........................................````..........................................2 2.............................. 23 Superposition of stresses in tubular joints .................4......9...11 2.................................4.......... 15 S-N curves for free corrosion ................... 32 Verification of analysis methodology.................. 29 Stress concentration factors for joints with square sections .. 7 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue ..... Transverse butt welds...... 18 Bolts subjected to shear loading ................................................................................................3............19 STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS ................................17 Design chart for fillet and partial penetration welds .............................4 3............5 8...6 2..8.12 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints .................... 4...................................5 3.6 Non-welded details........................6 Methods for fatigue analysis......5 3....... 30 1...2 General...3 Stress concentration factors for ship details .... 19 Stress concentration factors for butt welds............................................... 34 Fatigue design charts ............ 10 Plated structures using hot spot stress S-N curves.1... 19 Stress concentration factors for plated structures.......Amended October 2006........ 20 Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes .........1...........6 3..............9 2.....1 2.......................... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``.....3............3...................2 5...3 3...................................................................................2 2..................8 2..... 32 Hot spot S-N curve .............................. 38 FATIGUE ANALYSIS BASED ON FRACTURE MECHANICS..............................1....... 18 Combined eccentricity for fatigue analysis of seamless pipes. 12 4...............3............. 31 FE modelling .........2..................4 A................................................ 7........................................................2...........12 4..............4......... see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.......................................``... 44 REFERENCES..............3.....2 2................... 12 S-N curves and joint classification ............................... 7 Temperature.3........... 31 Derivation of stress at read out points 0..1 7.........1 3.......................3... 9..............5 t and 1. 25 Cast nodes.... 11 Fillet welded bearing supports...........................2 3....................... SIMPLIFIED FATIGUE ANALYSIS ......... 39 .......................................................................6 Guidance to when a detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted ...................3....................... 41 General.............................9 Fatigue damage accumulation... 34 General..9 2..................... 24 Grouted tubular joints .....3........................ Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress...................................................2 4...............3......10 Fatigue analysis methodology and calculation of Stresses .. 47 A.....7 4................4 7.. 18 Pipelines and risers............. 18 IMPROVEMENT OF FATIGUE LIFE BY FABRICATION ...........................4.....3 A.....5 t ........................... 31 Welded connections other than tubular joints .........3 2............3 2......................................................1 1....................... Bolted connections ....3..........................1 4.........................................4.2 4......................................... 40 Hammer peening .............3............10 3..``................. 29 Stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plates .........11 3.....13 2............... 9..4 2.. 10 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves .1 3............... 31 5..............................7 2...........................................2 10.......................................... 25 Stress concentration factors for tubular butt weld connections .............. 18 Bolts subjected to tension loading ....................5 2....``-`-`......................3.........................17 Effect of fabrication tolerances .. 12 S-N curves in air . 31 Derivation of hot spot stress ............. 14 S-N curves for tubular joints.....................................................5 A............4...............3 3....4 2. 16 Qualification of new S-N curves based on fatigue test data .................2 3..................................................................1 2......... 7 1..........3 2...................................6 4..7 2........................3.........8 FATIGUE ANALYSIS BASED ON S-N DATA ...................8 3..............19 General................... Transverse butt welds.....................``................................................................`................4 1.............3. 2..... 24 Stiffened tubular joints ............................3....7 3..`............8 2....10 General....3..........1.7 3......2 1..................... August 2005 Contents – Page 5 CONTENTS 1............2 INTRODUCTION ............. 40 EXTENDED FATIGUE LIFE........1 1.......................7 Validity of standard...................................................10 2................................................3 1...2 3.....................1 2.............. General.........................................3 Mean stress influence for non welded structures................... 21 Stress concentration factors for scallops.........4.......................5 2.......1 9...................... Intermittent welds and welds at cope holes.....................1 2............3............................. 47 48 49 51 52 55 3................ 16 S-N curves .......... 30 Tubular joints............... 11 Tubular joints ................3 Material.......3............................. 44 2..........................3 2..7 Symbols.......

.....``....... 5 Simplified fatigue analysis.... 3........ 4...... D COMMENTARY . 115 Comm.....................2...4...... 78 C.7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member...............5 Comm..................................3 Tubular joints welded from one side 118 D...... 78 SCF’s at man-hole penetrations ................. 115 D......``............. 100 Results . 116 D............ 115 D...........6 Comm..``......... 118 D........``-`-`..........````.... 2.. 101 --``....1 The application of the effective notch stress method for fatigue assessment of structural details .....`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale................8 Verification of analysis methodology for FE hot spot stress analysis...........................1 D................ 68 APP............... see note on front cover A..3 SCF’s for small circular penetrations with reinforcement.......Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203............ 118 D...... 3.....................9 Comm....................................3 S-N curves........ 119 D.............3 Stress concentration factors .....`...... 2.....................4.2 C...............8 Comm.......................................7 Comm... A..........9 Hollow sections ...........3 Comm.....9 S-N curves and efficiency of corrosion protection ...3.`................... C SCF’S FOR PENETRATIONS WITH REINFORCEMENTS .........3.. B SCF’S FOR TUBULAR JOINTS .... 56 60 63 66 APP.. 2..................2 Combination of fatigue damages from two dynamic processes...................2 D. 115 Comm.. 4........ 1... 68 B.....1 C............................... August 2005 Page 6 – Contents Amended October 2006........`.....................3 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue.......................... 120 D........... A............. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .8 Welded joints with load carrying welds ................. 125 APP.1 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints and overlap joints ........ 1.......... A...............4 Comm..3 Methods for fatigue analysis ...10 Comm....`......10 Details relating to tubular members .....

see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``... Dynamic effects shall be duly accounted for when Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale. should be carried out for each individual member.372 ⋅ 10 −6 T 2 (1. which is subjected to fatigue loading.``. It should be noted that the shape parameter h in the Weibull distribution has a significant impact on calculated fatigue damage. supported where appropriate by a detailed fatigue analysis.``.`.. a fatigue assessment. If the fatigue life estimate based on S-N data is short for a component where a failure may lead to severe consequences. a more accurate investigation considering a larger portion of the structure. For calculations based on fracture mechanics. Constant amplitude loading: A type of loading causing a regular stress fluctuation with constant magnitudes of stress maxima and minima.. disregarding the stress raising effects of the welded joint itself. Fatigue life: Number of stress cycles at a particular magnitude required to cause fatigue failure of the component. For effect of the shape parameter on fatigue damage see also design charts in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Fracture mechanics: A branch of mechanics dealing with the behaviour and strength of components containing cracks. Calculated fatigue lives also form the basis for efficient inspection programmes during fabrication and the operational life of the structure. See also section 2.9.``-`-`. Geometric stress: See “hot spot stress”.. August 2005 Page 7 1. should be considered. or a fracture mechanics analysis. every welded joint and attachment or other form of stress concentration.`--- 1.````. concentrated load effects and misalignments. For steel materials in seawater with cathodic protection or steel with free corrosion the Recommended Practice is valid up to 550 MPa. . Design Fatigue Factor: Factor on fatigue life to be used for design.2) 1.`.3 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue This Recommended Practice has been produced with the purpose of assessing fatigue damage in the high cycle region. Thus.`. Fatigue deterioration of a component caused by crack initiation and/or by the growth of cracks. A fatigue analysis may be based on an expected stress history. 1. /1/. a shape parameter to the safe side should be used. for guidance.0376 − 0.4 Definitions Classified structural detail: A structural detail containing a structural discontinuity including a weld or welds.239 ⋅ 10 −3 T − 1. All significant stress ranges.Amended October 2006. It should be noted that any element or member of the structure. Effective notch stress: Notch stress calculated for a notch with a certain effective notch radius.1 General This Recommended Practice presents recommendations in relation to fatigue analyses based on fatigue tests and fracture mechanics. Commentary. the fatigue analysis may alternatively be based on fracture mechanics.. When appropriate.2. should be performed. The part of the stress range history contributing most significantly to the fatigue damage should be most carefully evaluated.1 Material This Recommended Practice is valid for steel materials in air with yield strength less than 960 MPa.2 Validity of standard 1. Crack propagation rate: Amount of crack propagation during one stress cycle.2...``. ASTM A490 or equivalent. is potentially a source of fatigue cracking and should be individually considered. Local nominal stress: Nominal stress including macro-geometric effects. Eccentricity: Misalignment of plates at welded connections measured transverse to the plates. Fatigue resistance: Structural detail’s resistance against fatigue actions in terms of S-N curve or crack propagation properties. Commentary.10. The reduced resistance in the S-N curves can be derived by a modification of the log as: Log a RT = Log a + m Log RT (1. and the linear damage hypothesis.2. which contribute to fatigue damage. and which appear in the tables of this Recommended Practice. 1. see also ref. Hot spot: A point in structure where a fatigue crack may initiate due to the combined effect of structural stress fluctuation and the weld geometry or a similar notch. determined by fatigue testing of the considered welded detail.`. The long term distribution of stress ranges may be found by deterministic or spectral analysis. For higher temperatures the fatigue resistance data may be modified with a reduction factor given as: R T = 1.1) where T is given in °C (Derived from figure in IIW document XII-1965-03/XV-1127-03). when the fatigue damage is calculated based on closed form solutions with an assumption of a Weibull long term stress range distribution. it should be documented that there is a sufficient time interval between time of crack detection during in-service inspection and the time of unstable fracture. This Recommended Practice is also valid for bolts in air environment or with protection corresponding to that condition of grades up to 10.2. Fatigue damage ratio: Ratio of fatigue damage at considered number of cycles and the corresponding fatigue life at constant amplitude loading. Conditions for the validity of the Recommended Practice are given in section 1. for which the nominal stress approach is applicable. See also Appendix D.3 Methods for fatigue analysis The fatigue analysis should be based on S-N data.. Fatigue strength: Magnitude of stress range leading to particular fatigue life.. Hot spot stress: The value of structural stress on the surface at the hot spot (also known as geometric stress or structural stress).2.2 Temperature This Recommended Practice is valid for material temperatures of up to 100°C.2. Fatigue action: Load effect causing fatigue. This Recommended Practice may be used for stainless steel. A practical application of this is to establish a long term stress range history that is on the safe side. Also referred to as standard structural detail. Fatigue limit: Fatigue strength under constant amplitude loading corresponding to a high number of cycles large enough to be considered as infinite by a design code. establishing the stress history. which can be defined as expected number of cycles at each stress range level during the predicted life span. Crack propagation threshold: Limiting value of stress intensity factor range below which the stress cycles are considered to be non-damaging. To ensure that the structure will fulfil its intended function. See also Appendix D. Introduction 1. The aim of fatigue design is to ensure that the structure has an adequate fatigue life. Fatigue resistance is understood to mean strength capacity. 1..

Structural stress concentration factor: The ratio of hot spot (structural) stress to local nominal stress..````.. using general theories such as beam theory.Kmin length of chord.. h Weibull shape parameter.`--- account the effects of a structural discontinuity. resolved. including the toe radius and the angle between the base plate surface and weld reinforcement.``. The effects of a structural discontinuity are (i) concentration of the membrane stress and (ii) formation of secondary bending stress. but not due to the welded joint itself. such as large opening..`.`. weld size k number of stress blocks. Notch stress: Total stress at the root of a notch taking into account the stress concentration caused by the local notch. Structural discontinuity: A geometric discontinuity due to the type of welded joint. Also referred to as geometric stress or hot spot stress. reduction factor on fatigue life SCF stress concentration factor SCFAS stress concentration factor at the saddle for axial load SCFAC stress concentration factor at the crown for axial load SCFMIP stress concentration factor for in plane moment SCFMOP stress concentration factor for out of plane moment Ra surface roughness RT reduction factor on fatigue resistance T thickness of chord Te equivalent thickness of chord Td design life in seconds Q probability for exceedance of the stress range ∆σ A crack depth ai half crack depth for internal cracks intercept of the design S-N curve with the log N a axis -α e exp(-α) g gap = a/D. diameter of chord Design Fatigue Factor cylinder diameter at junction Young’s modulus fatigue life moment of inertia of tubulars maximum and minimum stress intensity factors respectively stress concentration factor due to weld geometry Kmax . see note on front cover Local notch: A notch such as the local geometry of the weld toe. Thus the notch stress consists of the sum of structural stress and nonlinear stress peak. the effect of which is usually not taken into account in the collection of standard structural details.``. In this RP the shorter notation: “Stress concentration factor” (SCF) is used. Here frequency is the number of occurrences. Notch stress concentration factor: The ratio of notch stress to structural stress. Stress range block: A part of a total spectrum of stress ranges which is discretized in a certain number of blocks. discontinuities in pressure containing shells. Stress range exceedances: A tabular or graphical presentation of the cumulative frequency of stress range exceedances. 1... Macro-geometric effect: A stress raising effect due to macrogeometry in the vicinity of the welded joint. eccentricity in lap joints.``-`-`.. The local notch does not alter the structural stress but generates non-linear stress peaks. Stress intensity factor: Factor used in fracture mechanics to characterise the stress at the vicinity of a crack tip. e... Miner sum: Summation of individual fatigue damage ratios caused by each stress cycle or stress range block according to Palmgren-Miner rule. Nominal stress: A stress in a component. Stress range: The difference between stress maximum and stress minimum in a stress cycle. a curved part in a beam. factor depending on the geometry of the member and the crack. Paris’ law: An experimentally determined relation between crack growth rate and stress intensity factor range. Palmgren-Miner rule: Fatigue failure is expected when the Miner sum reaches unity. length of thickness transition number of cycles to failure number of cycles to failure at constant stress range ∆σi N axial force in tubular R outer radius of considered chord. linearly distributed across the thickness as assumed in the theory of shells.5 Symbols C D DFF Dj E F I Kmax Kmin Kw ∆K L N Ni material parameter accumulated fatigue damage. a bend in flange not supported by diaphragms or stiffeners. Nonlinear stress peak: The stress component of a notch stress which exceeds the linearly distributed structural stress at a local notch. Macro-geometric discontinuity: A global discontinuity. usually found in tables of classified structural details. Membrane stress: Average normal stress across the thickness of a plate or shell.. August 2005 Page 8 Amended October 2006. Structural stress: A stress in a component. i.. Misalignment: Axial and angular misalignments caused either by detail design or by fabrication. S-N curve: Graphical presentation of the dependence of fatigue life (N) on fatigue strength (S).``.`. resolved taking into Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.`. Reference is also made to Chapter 9 on uncertainties). crack growth parameter ni number of stress cycles in stress block i no is the number of cycles over the time period for which the stress range level ∆σo is defined tref reference thickness DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale. and consisting of membrane and shell bending stress components. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . Shell bending stress: Bending stress in a shell or plate like part of a component. Rainflow counting: A standardised procedure for stress range counting. Variable amplitude loading: A type of loading causing irregular stress fluctuation with stress ranges (and amplitudes) of variable magnitude. Stress cycle: A part of a stress history containing a stress maximum and a stress minimum. the number of ranges exceeding a particular magnitude of stress range in stress history. Stress ratio: Ratio of minimum to maximum value of the stress in a cycle. exponent on thickness l segment lengths of the tubular m negative inverse slope of the S-N curve.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.

`.. Also here additional stresses resulting from fabrication tolerances for butt welds and cruciform joints should be considered.``-`-`. The following fatigue cracking failure modes are considered in this document (see also Figure 2-1): — Fatigue crack growth from the weld toe into the base material. Results from performed fatigue analyses are presented in section 5 in terms of design charts that present allowable stresses as function of the Weibull shape parameter. Fatigue cracking in the base material is a failure mode that is of concern in components with high stress cycles. Fatigue cracking from root of fillet welds with a crack growth through the weld is a failure mode that can lead to significant consequences. shear stress 2. Fatigue Analysis Based on S-N Data 2... thickness of brace member cone thickness plate thickness Weibull scale parameter gamma function usage factor the slope angle of the cone. a) Fatigue crack growth from the weld toe into the base material b) Fatigue crack growth from the weld root through the fillet weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.``. The fatigue analysis may be based on nominal S-N curves for plated structures when appropriate. Guidance on finite element modelling and hot spot stress derivation is presented in section 4. The calculated hot spot stress is then entered a hot spot S-N curve for derivation of cycles to failure..``. The number of cycles to failure for this failure mode is of a similar magnitude as fatigue cracking from the weld toe in as welded condition.. different Design Fatigue Factors and different plate thickness.``. August 2005 Page 9 T tc tp Q Γ η α β δ δ0 γ νo ν σlocal σnominal σhot spot σx σmy σmz ∆σ ∆σ0 τ plate thickness.. When performing finite element analysis for design of plated structures it is often found more convenient to extract hot spot stress from the analysis than that of a nominal stress. in some welded connections use of fillet welds can hardly be avoided and it is also efficient for fabrication. The procedure can be used for different design lives. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . In welded structures fatigue cracking from weld toes into the base material is a frequent failure mode. This can be performed using a full penetration weld along some distance of the stiffener nose. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. — Fatigue crack growth from a surface irregularity or notch into the base material. — Fatigue crack growth from the weld root into the section under the weld. Reference is made to sections 3. However.Amended October 2006.`. Additional stresses resulting from fabrication tolerances for butt welds and cruciform joints should be considered when the fabrication tolerances exceed that inherent the S-N data. The basis for the design charts is that long term stress ranges can be described by a two parameter Weibull distribution.````... Use of fillet welds should be sought avoided in connections where the failure consequences are large due to less reliable NDE of this type of connection compared with a full penetration weld. There is no methodology that can be recommended used to avoid this failure mode except from using alternative types of welds locally. The fatigue crack is initiated at small defects or undercuts at the weld toe where the stress is highest due to the weld notch geometry. The specified design procedure in this document is considered to provide reliable connections also for fillet welds. α = L/D d/D eccentricity eccentricity inherent in the S-N curve R/T average zero-up-crossing frequency Poisson’s ratio local stress nominal stress hot spot stress or geometric stress maximum nominal stresses due to axial force maximum nominal stresses due to bending about the y-axis and the z-axis stress range stress range exceeded once out of n0 cycles t/T.. This means that if fatigue life improvement of the weld toe is required the connection will become more highly utilised and it is also required to make improvement for the root. Fatigue crack growth from the weld root into the section under the weld is observed during service life of structures in laboratory fatigue testing.`. Then this hot spot stress is entered a relevant hot spot stress S-N curve for tubular joints.3.1 Introduction The main principles for fatigue analysis based on fatigue tests are described in this section. A large amount of the content in this RP is made with --``..3. Then the fatigue cracks often initiate from notches or grooves in the components or from small surface defects/irregularities. The specified design procedure in this document is considered to provide reliable connections also with respect to this failure mode.`--- the purpose of achieving a reliable design with respect to this failure mode. — Fatigue crack growth from the weld root through the fillet weld..1 and 3.`. For design of simple tubular joints it is standard practice to use parametric equations for derivation of stress concentration factors to obtain hot spot stress for the actual geometry.

Nominal stress is understood to be a stress in a component that can be derived by classical theory such as beam theory.3...``. The joint classification and corresponding S-N curves takes into account the local stress concentrations created by the joints themselves and by the weld profile.2.. As an example. This approach is foreseen used only in special cases where it is found difficult to reliably assess the fatigue life using other methods).`. this must be taken into account.3.3 for plated structures and in section 2. consisting of a convenient number of constant stress range blocks ∆σi each with a number of stress repetitions ni the fatigue criterion reads: D=∑ m ni 1 k = ∑ ni ⋅ (∆σ i ) ≤ η i =1 N i a i =1 k (2.``-`-`.`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. and should not be less than 20.````..3.. the stress concentration factor for the global geometry must in addition be accounted for.``.. It is thus important that the stresses are calculated in agreement with the definition of the stresses to be used together with a particular S-N curve. The procedure for the fatigue analysis is based on the assumption that it is only necessary to consider the ranges of cyclic principal stresses in determining the fatigue endurance (i. k. the relevant hot spot stress is the range of maximum principal stress adjacent to the potential crack location with stress concentrations being taken into account. An example of fatigue design using this procedure is shown in the commentary section (Example with fatigue analysis of a drum). giving the relevant local stress equal to SCF σnominal.`--- .3. — Notch stress S-N curve that is not used in the main part of this RP. for the weld shown in Figure 2-2 a). The design stress can therefore be regarded as the nominal stress.. Applying a histogram to express the stress distribution.2 Fatigue damage accumulation The fatigue life may be calculated based on the S-N fatigue approach under the assumption of linear cumulative damage (Palmgren-Miner rule).2. adjacent to the weld under consideration. — Hot spot stress S-N curve that is described in section 2. the relevant local stress for fatigue design would be the tensile stress. if the joint is situated in a region of stress concentration resulting from the gross shape of the structure.`. For the weld shown in Figure 2-2 b). σnominal. Different concepts of S-N curves are developed and referred to in the literature and in this RP.4 for tubular joints. Reference is made to commentary section for derivation of fatigue damage calculated from different processes. Hot spot stress is understood to be the geometric stress created by the considered detail. Derivation of stresses to be used together with the different SN curves are described in more detail in the following section. see note on front cover nificant influence on the calculated fatigue life dependent on integration method. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``. The notch stress is defined as the total stress resulting from the geometry of the detail and the non-linear stress field due to the notch at the weld toe). where SCF is c) Fatigue crack growth from the weld root into the section under the weld d) Fatigue crack growth from a surface irregularity or notch into the base material Figure 2-1 Explanation of different fatigue failure modes 2.. However.1) where D = accumulated fatigue damage a = intercept of the design S-N curve with the log N axis m = negative inverse slope of the S-N curve k = number of stress blocks ni = number of stress cycles in stress block i Ni = number of cycles to failure at constant stress range ∆σi η = usage factor = 1 / Design Fatigue Factor from OS-C101 Section 6 Fatigue Limit States.`. August 2005 Page 10 Amended October 2006. e. When the long-term stress range distribution is expressed by a stress histogram.1 General Fatigue analysis may be based on different methodologies depending on what is found most efficient for the considered structural detail. should be large enough to ensure reasonable numerical accuracy.3... 2. (The notch stress due to the local weld geometry is excluded from the stress calculation as it is assumed to be accounted for in the corresponding hot spot S-N curve. 2.``.3 Fatigue analysis methodology and calculation of Stresses 2. the number of stress blocks. (A notch stress S-N curve is listed in the commentary that can be used together with finite element analysis where the local notch is modelled by an equivalent radius. mean stresses are neglected for fatigue assessment of welded connections). Due consideration should be given to selection of integration method as the position of the integration points may have a sigCopyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale. Three different concepts of S-N curves are defined: — Nominal stress S-N curve that is described in section 2.. See also section 5 for calculation of fatigue damage using design charts. In a simple plate specimen with an attachment as shown in Figure 4-1 the nominal stress is simply the membrane stress that is used for plotting of the S-N data from the fatigue testing.2 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves When the potential fatigue crack is located in the parent material at the weld toe.

e..3 for further guidance..3. August 2005 Page 11 the stress concentration factor due to the hole.3. The total stress fluctuation (i.``.Amended October 2006.4 Tubular joints For a tubular joint... see section 4.`.3. Figure 2-3 Explanation of stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.3.``. 2. 2.3 Plated structures using hot spot stress S-N curves For detailed finite element analysis of welded plate connections other than tubular joints it may also be convenient to use the alternative hot spot stress for fatigue life assessment...``-`-`...3) SCF = stress concentration factor as given in section 3.3.`. The maximum principal stress range within 60o of the normal to the weld toe should be used for the analysis.3.`--- 2. σ hot spot = SCF σ nominal (2. Thus the local stress is derived as where SCF is structural stress concentration factor normally denoted as stress concentration factor. dependent on joint classification. the stress to be used for design purpose is the range of idealised hot spot stress defined by: the greatest value of the extrapolation of the maximum principal stress distribution immediately outside the region effected by the geometry of the weld. i..2) σnominal A 60 deg 60 deg A σnominal σnominal σnominal SCF σnominal A A σ nominal A SECTION a) Figure 2-2 Explanation of local stresses b) --``.. brace to chord connection. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .. A relation between nominal stress and hot spot stress may be defined as σ hot where spot = SCF σ nominal (2.````.1) σlocal shall be used together with the relevant S-N curves D through G.e.3.2 ∆τ 2 ⊥ 2 ⊥ 2 // σ Throat section τ τ (2.4) where the stress components are explained in Figure 2-3.3.`.``. maximum compression and maximum tension) should be considered to be transmitted through the welds for fatigue assessments.5 Fillet welds The relevant stress range for potential cracks in the weld throat of load-carrying fillet-welded joints and partial penetration welded joints may be calculated as: ∆σ w = ∆σ + ∆τ + 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`. The hot spot stress to be used in combination with the T-curve is calculated as σ local = SCF σ nominal (2.

To some extent it also accounts for size of weld and attachment. 2. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``.``..``. For simple test specimens the testing is performed until the specimens have failed. where possible. For bolts tref = 25 mm t = thickness through which a crack will most likely grow.10 for tubular butt welds made from one side k = 0.N curve log a = intercept of log N axis tref = reference thickness equal 25 mm for welded connections other than tubular joints. The tests with tubular joints are normally of a larger size. this failure criterion for S-N curves for tubular corresponds approximately to the thickness at the hot spot (chord or brace as relevant). The number of cycles at a crack size through the thickness is used when the S-N curves are derived.6 Fillet welded bearing supports Where support plating below bearings are designed with fillet welded connection.2 Failure criterion inherent the S-N curves Most of the S-N data are derived by fatigue testing of small specimens in test laboratories. Thus a crack can grow through the thickness and also along a part of the joint before a fracture occur during the testing.4.1) N ∆σ m = 2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. welded joints are divided into several classes..4 S-N curves 2. each with a corresponding design S-N curve. may fall in one of the 14 classes specified in Table 2-1. This also means that with a higher fatigue resistance of the base material as compared with welded details. at the weld ends. it does not account for weld length or length of component different from that tested such as e. The initiation of a fatigue crack takes longer time for a notch in base material than at a weld toe or weld root. Each location should be classified separately. It should be noted that.`. The thickness effect is accounted for by a modification on stress such that the design S-N curve for thickness larger than the reference thickness reads: ⎛ ⎛ t log N = log a − m log⎜ ∆σ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ t ref ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ k where m = negative inverse slope of the S . The actual installation condition including maximum construction tolerances should be accounted for.````. It is also dependent on the stress gradient over the thickness. These joints also show larger possibility for redistribution of stresses as a crack is growing.3 S-N curves and joint classification For practical fatigue design. Each construction detail at which fatigue cracks may potentially develop should.. All tubular joints are assumed to be class T. be placed in its relevant joint class in accordance with criteria given in Appendix A. design of mooring systems with a significant larger number of chain links in the actual mooring line than what the test data are based on. This means that most of the fatigue life is associated with growth of a small crack that grows faster as the crack size increases until fracture. August 2005 Page 12 Amended October 2006. the total stress fluctuation should be considered to be transmitted through the welds for fatigue assessment. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3. and in the weld itself.3. g. The design S-N curves which follows are based on the mean-minus-two-standard-deviation curves for relevant experimental data.3) .`--- ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (2. k = 0. Even though the joint may be required to carry wholly compressive stresses and the plate surfaces may be machined to fit.6% probability of survival. including tube to plate. The S-N curves are thus associated with a 97.`. Then the size effect should be carefully considered using probabilistic theory to achieve a reliable design. at the weld toe in each of the parts joined.25 for threaded bolts subjected to stress variation in the axial direction.4. the crack growth will be faster in base material when fatigue cracks are growing. there are several lo- = = loga = predicted number of cycles to failure for stress range ∆σ stress range negative inverse slope of S-N curve intercept of log N-axis by S-N curve (2. t = tref is used for thickness less than tref k = thickness exponent on fatigue strength as given in Table 2-1.. Reference is made to Appendix D. In general the thickness exponent is included in the design equation to account for a situation that the actual size of the structural component considered is different in geometry from that the S-N data are based on. If it is assumed that compressive loading is transferred through contact. The thickness exponent is considered to account for different size of plate through which a crack will most likely grow. depending upon: — the geometrical arrangement of the detail — the direction of the fluctuating stress relative to the detail — the method of fabrication and inspection of the detail.. this means that this failure criterion corresponds to a crack size that is somewhat less than the plate thickness.2) loga = log a − 2 s where a s = = constant relating to mean S-N curve standard deviation of log N. cations at which fatigue cracks may develop. For practical purpose one defines these failures as being crack growth through the thickness.4. it should be verified that fatigue cracking of the weld will not occur. Commentary. In these specimens there is no possibility for redistribution of stresses during crack growth. The basic design S-N curve is given as log N = log a − m log ∆σ (2.. See also effect of profiling on thickness effect in section 7. in any welded joint. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3... When this failure criterion is transferred into a crack size in a real structure where some redistribution of stress is more likely.`. see Appendix D. As these tests are not very different from that of the actual behaviour in a structure. 2.``. The fatigue strength of welded joints is to some extent dependent on plate thickness.. which are obtained from fatigue tests..`.2. For tubular joints the reference thickness is 32 mm.1 General The fatigue design is based on use of S-N curves. Commentary.4. e. g. see note on front cover 2.``-`-`. it should be verified that the contact will not be lost during the welding. However. This effect is due to the local geometry of the weld toe in relation to thickness of the adjoining plates.4..4. Other types of joint. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.

.320 16.970 12.010 11.606 15.`--- N > 10 7 cycles log a 2 Fatigue limit at 10 7 cycles *) Thickness exponent k Stress concentration in the SN detail as derived by the hot spot method .0 3.13 1.43 1.05 52.20 0.449 12.25 0...0 0.25 0..0 17.0 3.27 1.97 93. for offshore structures subjected to typical wave and wind loading the main contribution to fatigue damage is in the region N > 106 cycles and the bilinear S-N curves defined in Table 2-1 can be used.25 0.091 14. The T curve is shown in Figure 2-6.20 0. Table 2-1 S-N curves in air S-N curve N ≤ 10 7 cycles m1 B1 B2 C C1 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 T 4.30 for SCF >10.261 11.61 1.101 13.`.0 log a1 m2 = 5.0 3.``.0 15.0 3.164 12.15 0.617 15.15 0..0 3.0 3.301 12.78 41..855 11.835 15.0 3.117 14..25 0.25 0.606 106.00E+07 1.00E+04 1.25 2.4..164 1.350 15.``.50 58.0 3.576 14. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``.0 3.50 1.25 for SCF ≤ 10.75 29. However. August 2005 Page 13 2.330 14.````.885 12.00E+05 1..00 *) see also section 2.00E+06 Number of cycles 1.`.0 3.107 10.546 11.`.80 2.Amended October 2006..081 15.0 4.00 2.00 1.00E+08 Figure 2-4 S-N curves in air Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.592 12.24 26.63 46.84 32.52 36.0 3. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.25 0.32 23.59 73. In the low cycle region the maximum stress range is that of the B1 curve as shown in Figure 2-1.146 16.856 16.10 1000 B1 Stress range (MPa) B2 C C1 100 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 10 1.832 14.48 52.10 65.699 11.`.39 21.398 11.15 0.845 13.63 0 0 0..``.0 3.25 0.0 3.``-`-`.4 S-N curves in air S-N curves for air environment are given in Table 2-1 and Figure 2-4.

4.25 0.`.25 for SCF ≤ 10..081 15.``.856 16.764 11.30 for SCF >10.50 1.00E+06 Number of cycles 1.0 3.78 41.````.25 2.75 29.15 0.``.4.0 3.0 3.00E+04 1. see note on front cover 2..52 36.80 2.13 1.0 3.0 3.39 21.0 3.``.25 0.. For shape of S-N curves see also comment in 2.832 14.0 1.00E+08 Figure 2-5 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale. The T curve is shown in Figure 2-6.25 0.25 0.998 10.32 23.845 13.27 1.861 10...606 106.0 3.``-`-`.63 46.61 1. August 2005 Page 14 Amended October 2006.101 13.48 52.15 0.0 B1 B2 C C1 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 T *) see also 2.606 15. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .10 65..146 10.570 11.0 14.835 15.10 --``.00E+07 1.20 0.685 12.59 73.63 0 0 0...00 2.0 4.350 15.0 0.330 14.20 0.`--- Thickness exponent k Stress concentration in the SN detail as derived by the hot spot method 4.576 14.610 11.25 0.146 16.4.0 3.0 3..15 0.455 11..0 3.`.`.299 11. Table 2-2 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection S-N curve N ≤ 10 6 cycles N > 10 6 cycles Fatigue limit at 10 7 cycles*) loga2 m1 loga1 m2= 5.917 14.`.764 17.091 14.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.25 0.320 16.84 32.00 1.00 1000 Stress range (MPa) B1 B2 100 C C1 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 10 1.50 58.0 3.617 15.901 11.0 3.43 1.05 52.707 10.192 12.97 93..00E+05 1.24 26.049 11.25 0.5 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection S-N curves for seawater environment with cathodic protection are given in Table 2-2 and Figure 2-5.0 3.

08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``. However. Table 2-3 S-N curves in seawater for free corrosion log a S-N curve Thickness exponent k For all cycles m = 3. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3.``-`-`.20 E 11.`.25 F1 11. without corrosion protection.9 S-N curves for free corrosion S-N curves for free corrosion. For cast nodes a reference thickness tref = 38 mm may be used provided that any possible repair welds have been ground to a smooth surface.436 0 B2 12.25 for SCF ≤ 10.30 for SCF >10.``..0 0.25 W3 10..378 0. 1000 In air 100 Stress range (MPa) Seawater with cathodic protection 10 1 1. For high strength steel with yield strength above 500 MPa and a surface roughness equal Ra = 3.25 T 11.262 0 C 12.20 F 11.10 S-N curves for base material of high strength steel The fatigue capacity of the base material is depending on the surface finish of the material and the yield strength.2 or better the following design S-N curve can be used for fatigue assessment of the base Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.687 0.7 S-N curves for cast nodes It is recommended to use the C curve for cast nodes. the C curve is recommended in order to allow for weld repairs after possible casting defects and possible fatigue cracks after some service life. 2. i.00E+07 1..15 D 11. For designs with DFF less than 10 it is recommended to use the C-curve to allow for weld repair if fatigue cracks should occur during service life.824 0.e.533 0.630 0.4..921 0. 2.00E+08 1.687 0.15 C1 11.25 F3 11.4.````. Tests may give a more optimistic curve. August 2005 Page 15 2.Amended October 2006.25 G 10..0 B1 12.4.068 0.`.25 W1 10.222 0.... are given in Table 2-3.00E+06 1..15 C2 11.`--- . See also Commentary section for consideration of corrosion protection of connections in the splash zone and inside tanks in FPSOs.``..115 0.0 2.`.4.6 S-N curves for tubular joints S-N curves for tubular joints in air environment and in seawater with cathodic protection are given in Table 2-1.``.25 W2 10.784 0..8 S-N curves for forged nodes For forged nodes the B1 curve may be used for nodes designed with a Design Fatigue Factor equal to 10. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00E+04 1.`.00E+05 1.00E+09 Number of cycles Figure 2-6 S-N curves for tubular joints in air and in seawater with cathodic protection 2.493 0.972 0.4.

are found by X-ray. For multipass welds the acceptance criteria shall be according to ASME B31. Reference is also made to section 2.`. (The mean S-N curve is given by Log N = 17. This includes possibility for relevant production defects as well as fabrication tolerances..100 − 3. see Figure 2-7).0 to 10 mm the following S-N curve can be used for fatigue assessment For N ≤ 10 7 : ⎧ ⎪ Log N = 14.3... For variable amplitude loading with one stress range larger than this fatigue limit a constant slope S-N curve should be used.`..4.10. 2.4. If requirements to yield strength.. 1000 100 Seawater with cathodic protection Stres s range (M P 100 10 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 100000000 Number of cycles Figure 2-7 S-N curve for high strength steel (HS – curve) 10 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 100000000 1000000000 Num b e r o f cycle s 2. (The same as for air to the left of 2·106 cycles..4. no indications are acceptable. 2. Also for austenitic steel one may use the same classification as for C-Mn steels.4.70 LogS).``-`-`. However. see note on front cover material Log N = 17. In addition to statistical analysis one should use engineering judgement based on experience for derivation of the S-N data in this region.4. DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale. Reference is also made to S-N curves with different slopes shown in this chapter. app. The S-N curve is based on fatigue testing of specimens subjected to a mean stress up to 450 MPa. Reference is made to IIW document no IIW-XIII-WG1-11403 for statistical analysis of the fatigue test data.143 − 5.````. It is well known that good details where fatigue initiation contribute significantly to the fatigue life show a more horizontal S-N curve than for less good details where the fatigue life consists mainly of crack growth.`.11 S-N curves for stainless steel For Duplex and for Super Duplex steel one may use the same classification as for C-Mn steels. It is recommended to perform fatigue testing of at least 15 specimens in order to establish a new S-N curve.`.70 LogS --``...4. The given S-N curve is established from test specimens that are not prestrained from reeling.25 where t = actual thickness of the umbilical tref = 1.0 mm A normal good fabrication of the umbilicals is assumed as basis for this design S-N curve.4) In air a fatigue limit at 2·106 cycles at a stress range equal 235 MPa can be used.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``..446 − 4.770 – 4.4.. For single pass welds. Thus this S-N curve applies also when number of cycles under reeling is less than 10 and strain range during reeling is less than 2%.``. surface finish and corrosion protection are not met the S-N curves presented in sections 2.4. based on a few test data with prestrained specimens it is considered acceptable to use the S-N curve also for umbilicals that have been reeled. It should be noted that for offshore structures significant fatigue damage occurs for N ≥ 107 cycles.5 and 2. The NDE methods are visual inspection and X-ray. 1.12 S-N curves for small diameter umbilicals For fatigue design of small diameter pipe umbilicals (outer diameter in the range 10 -100 mm) made of super duplex steel with a yield strength larger than 500 MPa with thicknesses in the range 1. For seawater with cathodic protection a constant slope S-N curve should be used. A detailed NDE inspection for each connection is assumed.`--- (2.9 should be used.``. chapter IX high pressure service girth groove.5) 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .13 Qualification of new S-N curves based on fatigue test data For qualification of new S-N data to be used in a project it is important that the test specimens are representative for the actual fabrication and construction.0 * Log ⎨S ⎪ ⎩ ⎛ t ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎛ t ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. Dye penetrant shall be used as a surface test in addition to visual inspection when relevant indications.25 Figure 2-8 S-N curves for small diameter pipe for umbilicals ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (2. The sensitivity to defects may also be assessed by fracture mechanics.4. The welds on the inside and outCopyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2. At least three different stress ranges should be selected in the relevant S-N region such that a representative slope of the S-N curve can be determined. Thus how to extrapolate the fatigue test data into this high cycle region is important in order to achieve a reliable assessment procedure.5 * Log ⎨S ⎪ ⎩ 7 and for N > 10 ⎧ ⎪ Log N = 17.. August 2005 Page 16 Amended October 2006. 1000 Air Stress range (MPa) side of the pipes should show a smooth transition from the weld to the base material without notches and/or undercuts.4. as defined by ASME VIII div. Normally fatigue test data are derived for number of cycles less than 107.

. DNV OS-C401. The reduction factor can be derived from the following equation fm = σ t + 0.````.1) 2. This reduction may e.``-`-`. Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures.. ref.. Therefore.5 Mean stress influence for non welded structures For fatigue analysis of regions in the base material not significantly affected by residual stresses due to welding. Thus the design of the weld geometry should be performed such that the fatigue life for cracks starting at the root is longer than the fatigue life of the toe.`.``. Special attention should be given to the fabrication tolerances for simple butt welds in plates and tubulars as these give the most significant increase in additional stress. The notation used is explained by Figure 2-10. The calculated stress range obtained may be multiplied by the reduction factor fm as obtained from Figure 2-9 before entering the S-N curve.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . The reason for this is that a fatigue crack at the toe can be found by in-service inspection while a fatigue crack starting at the root can not be discovered before the crack has grown through the weld. --``.`..``.. additional stresses resulting from normal fabrication tolerances should be included in the fatigue design. where σt = maximum tension stress σc = maximum compression stress Figure 2-9 Stress range reduction factor to be used with the S-N curve for base material 2. the stress range may be reduced if part of the stress cycle is in compression.. Figure 2-11 can be used for evaluation of required penetration.g.``.7. It should be added that it is difficult to detect internal defects by NDE in fillet/partial penetration welds.5. 2.`--- Figure 2-10 Welded connection with partial penetration weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.. Such connections should therefore not be used in structural connections of significant importance for the integrity. Stress concentration factors for butt welds are given in section 3.2 and at tubular circumferential welds in section 3. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.Amended October 2006.1.3.. be carried out for cut-outs in the base material.6σ c σt + σc (2. August 2005 Page 17 It should also be remembered that for N ≥ 107 cycles there is additional uncertainty due to variable amplitude loading..6 Effect of fabrication tolerances Normally larger fabrication tolerances are allowed in real structures than that accounted for in the test specimens used to derive S-N data. The defects that normally can be detected by an acceptable probability are normally larger than that inherent in the test specimens that are produced to establish test data for a new S-N curve. Also the probability of detecting defects during a production should be kept in mind in this respect. This is an issue that should be kept in mind if less conservative S-N curves than given in this RP are aimed for by qualifying a new S-N curve.`.`..7 Design chart for fillet and partial penetration welds Design should be performed such that fatigue cracking from the root is less likely than from the toe region.

3 0..`. Weld root failure h/tp 0. This stress concentration factor can be assessed based on the following analytical expression SCF = 1 + 3( δ .. Thus the effect of tolerances can simply be added linearly.7 0.``-`-`. Then number of cycles to failure can be derived from logN = 16. This stress concentration factor can also be used for fatigue assessments of the weld toes.``. Provided that these requirements are fulfilled. For seamless pipes it is realised that the thickness tolerance contributes by a similar magnitude to the resulting eccentricity. ref. Provided that the same acceptance criteria are used for pipelines with larger wall thickness as for that used as reference thickness (25 mm).``. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale. /26/.`--- 0.8 0. 2. The threads of the bolts should not be in the shear plane.0.`.. A resulting tolerance to be used for fatigue analysis can be obtained as 2 2 δ = δ Thickness + δ Ovality 2.Dmin)/2 if the pipes are centralised during construction (Dmax . /23/. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .. or “Systematic Calculation of High Duty Bolted Joints”. The shear stress to be calculated based on the shank area of the bolt.8.8 critical. The tolerances are rather strict compared with other structural elements with eccentricity less than 0. ref.6 0.2 For weld grooves that are not symmetrical in shape a stress concentration due to maximum allowable eccentricity should be included.1 0. The methodology may be used for fitted bolts or for normal bolts without load reversal. Reference is made to Table 2-4 for other tolerances and welding from both sides.0 may be used for welding on temporary backing.9.δ 0 ) − e t t/D 0 0 0.8 Bolts 2.301-5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Table 2-4. a thickness exponent k = 0 may be used for hot spot at the root and k = 0..9 Pipelines and risers 2. D = outer diameter as shown in Figure 3-9.Dmin if the pipes are supported such that flush outside at one point is achieved (no pipe centralising) (Dmax . For S-N classification see Table A-2 of Appendix A.. (2. The stress range in the bolts may be assessed based on e.9.2 Bolts subjected to tension loading Connections where the pretensioned bolts are subjected to dynamic axial forces should be designed with respect to fatigue taking into account the stress range in the bolts resulting from tension and compression range..8.2 1 Weld toe failure 0.9.2) where δThickness = δOvality = δOvality δOvality = = (tmax . ref. August 2005 Page 18 Amended October 2006.1) Figure 2-11 Weld geometry with probability of root failure equal toe failure where: δ0 = 0.3 Bolts subjected to shear loading For bolts subject to shear loading the following methodology may be used for fatigue assessment.1 t or maximum 3 mm (t = wall thickness). also Table 2-4.4 0.1) (2.Dmin)/4 if the pipes are centralised during construction and rotated until a good fit around the circumference is achieved 2...1t is misalignment inherent in the S N data. The F-curve and SCF = 1.8. 2.`..``. “Maskindeler 2”.g.````.tmin)/2 Dmax . The fabrication of pipelines also implies a systematic and standardised NDE of the root area where defects are most Reference is made to DNV-OS-F101 Section 6 Clause E1200 for measurements of tolerances. the detail at the root side may be classified as F1 with SCF = 1. ref. ref.`.2 Combined eccentricity for fatigue analysis of seamless pipes For welded pipes it is ovality that normally will govern the resulting eccentricity.9 1 (2.1 General A bolted joint connection subjected to dynamic loading should be designed with pretensioned bolts.2 0.9. Table 2-4.8.1 General Welds in pipelines are normally made with a symmetric weld groove with welding from the outside only.6 --``.0log ∆σ where ∆σ = shear stress based on shaft area of bolt. see note on front cover 1. The nominal stress on the outside of the pipe should be used for fatigue assessment of the outside and the nominal stress on the inside of the pipe should be used for fatigue assessment of the inside. The pretension should be high enough to avoid slipping after relevant loss of pretension during service life.5 2ai/tp 0.. 2.15 for the weld toe.4 tp = 50 mm tp = 25 mm tp = 12 mm tp = 6mm 0.

. The following formula applies for a butt weld in an unstiffened plate or for a Figure 2-12 Stress cycling where further fatigue assessment can be omitted Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.00 1. ∆σ1 Fatigue limit Stress cycling N 3. The use of the fatigue limit is illustrated in Figure 2-12.00 1. For Design Fatigue Factors larger than 1 the allowable fatigue limit should also here be reduced by a factor (DFF) -0..1t.15t. However. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. (2.1.`--- Hot spot 2. 3 mm) S-N curve F1 Thickness exponent k 0.10 Guidance to when a detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted A detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted if the largest local stress range for actual details defined in eq.3. August 2005 Page 19 Table 2-4 Classification of welds in pipelines Description Welding Geometry and hot spot Tolerance requirement δ ≤ min (0.0 Single side δ > min (0. This means that a further fatigue assessment is required. 2 mm) F1 0..1 General A stress concentration factor may be defined as the ratio of hot spot stress range over nominal stress range.1) Double side D 0.1 Stress concentration factors for plated structures 3.``.`. (2. For definition of DFF see OS-C101 ref.`.````. (2. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .1) --``. A detailed fatigue assessment can be omitted if the largest stress cycle is below the fatigue limit.15 Eq...00 1. S S ∆σ1 ∆σ2 Fatigue limit Stress cycling N Figure 2-13 Stress cycling where a detailed fatigue assessment is required 3.`.33.. in the example in Figure 2-13 there is one stress cycle ∆σ1 above the fatigue limit.1) is less than the fatigue limit at 107 cycles in Table 2-1 for air and Table 22 for seawater with cathodic protection.0 Hot spot δ ≤ min (0. 3 mm) F3 0.``-`-`.. Stress Concentration Factors 3.``. 2 mm) Single side on backing F 0.9. This also means that the fatigue damage from the stress cycles ∆σ2 has to be included in the fatigue assessment.``.9. Requirements to detailed fatigue analysis may also be assessed based on the fatigue assessment charts in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2.0 δ > min (0.00 SCF 1. /28/..`...1.Amended October 2006.15t.15 Eq.1t.0 Hot spot Hot spot Single side D 0.2 Stress concentration factors for butt welds The eccentricity between welded plates may be accounted for in the calculation of stress concentration factor.

. 2) li = length of considered plate (i = 1.1) δ = (δm + δt) is the total eccentricity δ0 = 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .1..2) where δm = maximum misalignment δt = ½ (T− t) eccentricity due to change in thickness δ0 = 0. An example of this is a welded connection in a vicinity of a hole. Some guidelines on effect of interaction of different holes can be found in Peterson's “Stress Concentration Factors”.``. 2) The other symbols are defined in Figure 3-1.3 Stress concentration factors for cruciform joints The stress concentration factor for cruciform joint at plate thickness ti may be derived from following formula: l4 l2 Figure 3-1 Cruciform joint t4 l1 SCF = 1 + 6 t i (δ − δ 0 ) 2 ⎛ t3 t3 t3 t3 ⎞ li ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎜l ⎟ ⎝ 1 l 2 l3 l4 ⎠ (3.1 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data for butt welds.`.. see note on front cover pipe butt weld with a large radius: where (3...3) 3.1 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data for butt welds T = thickness of thicker plate t = thickness of thinner plate See also Figure 3-8.``-`-`. see Figure 3-9.. The stress concentration for the weld between plates with different thickness in a stiffened plate field may be derived from the following formula: --``.`.1.``.``. the interaction of stress between these should be considered.1.. /15/).`--- l3 t2 t3 t1 δ SCF = 1 + 6 (δ m + δ t − δ 0 ) ⎡ T 1.. δ0 = 0. Then the increase in stress at the considered detail due to the hole can be evaluated from Figure 3-3.1. August 2005 Page 20 Amended October 2006.3 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data for cruciform joints ti = thickness of the considered plate (i = 1. 3.````. SCF = 1 + where 3 (δ m − δ 0 ) t δm is eccentricity (misalignment) and t is plate thickness..1.4 Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes are given in Figure 3-2.5 ⎥ t ⎦ ⎣ (3...5 ⎤ t ⎢1 + 1.`. Where there is one stress raiser close to another detail being evaluated with respect to fatigue. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`.

See Figure 3-4a.4 0.2 0.00 1.``...80 2.80 2.60 2...00 1.40 3.6 Figure 3-2 Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes 3. August 2005 Page 21 6 5 4 b/a=2.00 2.80 3.25 r b a 1 0 0 0.0 b/a=0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .5 Stress concentration factors for holes with edge reinforcement Stress concentration factors for holes with reinforcement are given in Appendix C.`.`.20 2.60 2.60 1..20 2.40 0.5 SCF 3 b/a=1.5 0.3 r/b 0.60 3.1. Fatigue cracking around a circumferential weld may occur at several locations at reinforced rings in plates depending on geCopyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ometry of ring and weld size.``.````.Amended October 2006.40 2.`.40 1.80 4..0 b/a=1.`.00 3..5 2 b/a=0.20 1.60 1.80 1.`--- Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..00 Relative distance from centre of hole x/r Figure 3-3 Stress distribution at a hole 3...00 r r Stress direction Line for calculation Line of stress for calculation of stress x x/r Relative stress 1.1 0.20 0. 1) Fatigue cracking transverse to the weld toe in a region with a large stress concentration giving large stress parallel to the weld (Flexible reinforcement). Then σhot spot = σp 2) Fatigue cracking parallel to the weld toe (Stiff reinforce- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale. see note on front cover --``.60 0.``-`-`.20 3.20 1.00 2.40 1.00 0.80 0.``.40 2..

Fatigue crack initiating from the weld toe..4) and the resulting stress range is to be used together with the W3 curve.`.4) σn σ1 t = plate thickness a = throat thickness for a double sided fillet weld α 45° Insert Tubular The total stress range (i.``..``-`-`.3.`.`. Then σhot spot = σn 3) Fatigue cracking from the weld root (Stiff reinforcement with small fillet weld size). Potential fatigue cracking parallel with the weld toe For stresses normal to the weld the resulting hot spot stress to be used together with the D curve is obtained with SCF from Appendix C (σhot spot in Figure 3-4b).1..``. See Figure 3-4b. Then σhot spot = σ1 Also the region at crown position to be checked. For significant dynamic pressure loads on the plate these details are susceptible to fatigue cracking and other design solutions should be considered to achieve a proper fatigue life. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . maximum compression and maximum tension) should be considered to be transmitted through the welds for fatigue assessments.1. 3. a) Fillet weld σp All these potential regions for fatigue cracking should be assessed in a design with use of appropriate stress concentration factors for holes with reinforcement.1. Potential fatigue cracking transverse to the weld toe For stresses parallel with the weld the local stress to be used together with the C curve is obtained with SCF from Appendix C (σhot spot in Figure 3-4a). The principal stress σ1 is the crack driving stress.. Potential fatigue cracking from the weld root At some locations of the welds there are stresses in the plate transverse to the fillet weld.````. For fillet welds all these positions should be assessed with respect to fatigue. August 2005 Page 22 Amended October 2006.. The stress concentration factors are applicable to stiffeners subject to axial loads. σn. Equation (3.. For full penetration welds the first two points should be assessed..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. c) τ p σn 45° Figure 3-4 Potential fatigue crack locations at welded penetrations Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. See Figure 3-4c..`. see note on front cover ment with large weld size).6 Stress concentration factors for scallops Reference is made to Figure 3-5 for stress concentration factors for scallops.`--- DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.3. The basic stress in the plate as shown in Figure 3-4 is derived from Appendix C.e...4) can be outlined from equation (2. Reference is also made to Appendix C for an example.2∆τ // p 2a (3.``. For stresses to be used together with the different S-N curves see section 2. and shear stress in the plate parallel with the weld τ//p see Figure 3-4c. Then the fillet weld is designed for a combined stress obtained as ∆σ w = where b) t 2 2 ∆σ n + 0.

in-plane and out of plane action. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . ref. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.17 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. SCFMIP is the stress concentration factor for in plane moment and SCFMOP is the stress concentration factor for out of plane moment.`. see Figure 3-6. Figure 3-7.`. Thus the hot spot stress should be evaluated at 8 spots around the circumference of the intersection.27 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. from the analysis. Then the hot spot stress at these points is derived by summation of the single stress components from axial. the SCF at point B will be governing for the design. The hot spot stress at these points is derived by a linear interpolation of the stress due to the axial action at the crown and saddle and a sinusoidal variation of the bending stress re- 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x − 2 SCFMIP σ my − 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 σ 5 = SCFAC σ x − SCFMIP σ my σ6 = 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x − 2 SCFMIP σ my + 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 σ 7 = SCFAS σ x + SCFMOP σ mz 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x + 2 SCFMIP σ my + 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 (3.3.``-`-`. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. August 2005 Page 23 150 B 35 A B A SCF = 2.7).27 at point B For scallops without transverse welds. Figure 3-5 Stress concentration factors for scallops 3.7 is used to determine the hot spot and Kw stress.3 Tubular joints and members 3.27 at point B 120 120 35 B 35 B A 10 A SCF = 1.`...Amended October 2006...``..4 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. ref.7 is used to determine the local stress (Excluding the notch stress concentration factor due to the weld geometry...3.`--- σ4 = 3. as this factor is accounted for in the Dcurve). S-N curve D from this RP may be used if the procedure of CN 30. Kw. /1/..`.``. SN curve C from this Recommended Practice may be used if the procedure of CN 30.``.3. σmy and σmz are the maximum nominal stresses due to axial load and bending in-plane and out-of-plane respectively.. The hot spot stress may be higher for the intermediate points between the saddle and the crown.17 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1.2 Superposition of stresses in tubular joints The stresses are calculated at the crown and the saddle points.27 at point B SCF = 1.````.1) σ8 = Here σx. sulting from in-plane and out of plane bending. σ1 = SCFAC σ x + SCFMIP σ my σ2 = 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x + 2 SCFMIP σ my − 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 σ 3 = SCFAS σ x − SCFMOP σ mz --``.1 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints are given in Appendix B.2 Stress concentration factors for ship details Stress concentration factors for ship details may be found in “Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures” (CN 30. 3... SCFAS is the stress concentration factor at the saddle for axial load and the SCFAC is the stress concentration factor at the crown.27 at point B SCF = 1.

It is likely that fatigue cracking from the root might occur for rather low stress concentrations.`.. /24/ and “Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for use in Fatigue Analysis” ref.``-`-`.``. Due to limited accessibility for in service inspection a higher design fatigue factor should be used for the weld root than for the outside weld toe hot spot. both in laboratory tests and in service.. August 2005 Page 24 Amended October 2006.g. Failure from the root has been observed at the saddle position of tubular joints where the brace diameter is equal the chord diameter. — For joints with diameter ratio β ≥ 0..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. It should be remembered that surface improvement does not increase the fatigue life at the root. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . 3.`. such that welding from the Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. such as ring-stiffened joints and joints where weld profiling or grinding on the surface is required to achieve sufficient fatigue life.3. Based on experience it is not likely that fatigue cracking from the inside will occur earlier than from the outside for simple T and Y joints and K type tubular joints. see note on front cover Figure 3-6 Geometrical definitions for tubular joints z 8 1 2 7 3 6 5 4 x y N M IP M OP Axial load In-plane Out-of-plane bending moment bending moment Figure 3-7 Superposition of stresses backside can be performed. although the degree of scatter and proposed design factors are given.. Reference is also made to Appendix D. “Combined Hot-Spot Stress Procedures for Tubular Joints”.90 it is recommended that a fatigue assessment of the root area is performed. ref.8.``. it is recommended that stubs are provided for tubular joints where high fatigue strength is required. Some guidance on such an assessment can be found in Appendix D. /3/.````.. The following points should be noted regarding the equations: — The derived SCF ratios for the brace/chord intersection and the SCF's for the ring edge are mean values.. Commentary.``.. Commentary 3.. In such cases. For other joints and for simple tubular X-joints with β > 0.3.90.. See e.. — Short chord effects shall be taken into account where relevant..3 Tubular joints welded from one side The root area of single-sided welded tubular joints may be more critical with respect to fatigue cracks than the outside region connecting the brace to the chord.`. special attention should be given to joints other than simple joints. Thus. /2/. ref. the effect of stiffen- Influence functions may be used as an alternative to the procedure given here to calculate hot spot stress.`.`--- DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.4 Stiffened tubular joints Equations for joints for ring stiffened joints are given in “Stress Concentration Factors for Ring-Stiffened Tubular Joints”. The same consideration may be made for X-joints with diameter ratio β ≤ 0.

at which the majority of the fatigue life will have been expired. 3. — The maximum of the saddle and crown stress concentration factor values should be applied around the whole brace/chord intersection. The eccentricity due to out of roundness normally gives the largest contribution to the resulting eccentricity δ.``-`-`. the SCF for the transition applies to the outside. The brace to casting circumferential butt weld (which is designed to an appropriate S-N curve for such connections) may be the most critical location for fatigue.0. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.α (3. For this geometry. — Ring stiffeners outside the brace footprint have little effect on the SCF.3) where α= 1. It may even increase the SCF. The finite element model should use volume elements at the critical areas and This formula also takes into account the length over which the eccentricity is distributed: L.5 (3. The benefits of grouting should be neglected for joints with β > 0. except that the chord thickness in the ã term for saddle SCF calculation for brace and chord shall be substituted with an equivalent chord wall thickness given by Te = (5D + 134T)/144 --``. It is noted that for small L and large D the last formula provides stress concentration factors that are close to but lower than that of the simpler formula for plates. 3.``. The dimensions are to be given in mm.5 Grouted tubular joints Grouted joints have either the chord completely filled with grout (single skin grouted joints) or the annulus between the chord and an inner member filled with grout (double skin grouted joints). see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. ref.. On the inside it is then conservative to use SCF = 1. If welding is performed in a horizontal position it can be classified as D.`. but have little or no effect on the longitudinal stress.. (When incrementing the loading into a non-linear behaviour).``. The SCF of a grouted joint depends on load history.6 Cast nodes It is recommended that finite element analysis should be used to determine the magnitude and location of the maximum stress range in castings sensitive to fatigue.82L Dt ⋅ 1 ⎛T⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t⎠ 2. The SCF is less if the bond between the chord and the grout is unbroken.. The effect of the diameter in relation to thickness may be included by use of the following formula. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . August 2005 Page 25 ing is uncertain. Consideration should be given to the inside of the castings.1 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data where D and T are chord diameter and thickness respectively.3. provided that T/t ≤ 2: SCF = 1 + 6(δ t + δ m − δ 0 ) t 1 ⎛T⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t⎠ 2. Joints with high β or low γ ratios have little effect of grouting. It is conservative to use the formula for plate eccentricities for calculation of SCF at tubular butt welds.``. — Failures in the ring inner edge or brace ring interface occur internally.3.2) δ0 = 0. see Figure 3-10 and Figure 3-11.````.3.. Stress concentrations at tubular butt weld connections are due to eccentricities resulting from different sources.0 unless documented otherwise. 3. To achieve a fatigue design that is on the safe side it is recommended to use SCF’s derived from tests where the bounds are broken and where the joint is subjected to a tension loading. The grouted joints shall be treated as simple joints.`.3.. These areas should therefore be considered as non-inspectable unless more sophisticated inspection methods are used. differences in thickness of joined tubulars.`--- properly model the shape of the joint. The resulting eccentricity may be conservatively evaluated by a direct summation of the contribution from the different sources. and will probably only be detected after through thickness cracking. This load level may be determined during the testing by an evaluation of the force displacement relationship.Amended October 2006. For model testing of grouted joints the bond should be broken prior to SCF measurements.`.9 or γ ≤ 12. The bounds can be broken by a significant loading in tension. Due to the grout the tensile and compressive SCF may be different. An alternative is to use a three-dimensional solid element analysis model. out of roundness and centre eccentricity.. but may be of help for the static strength.3.. Thickness transitions are normally to be fabricated with slope 1:4.. The stress concentration is reduced as L is increased and or D is reduced.. it is strongly recommended that tubular butt weld connections are designed such that any thickness transitions are placed on the outside when welding is performed from the outside only (see Figure 3-8).`. These may be classified as concentricity (difference in tubular diameters). — The following points can be made about the use of ring stiffeners in general: — Thin shell FE analysis should be avoided for calculating the SCF if the maximum stress is expected to be near the brace-ring crossing point in the fatigue analysis.7 Stress concentration factors for tubular butt weld connections Due to less severe S-N curve for the outside than the inside. — Ring stiffeners have a marked effect on the circumferential stress in the chord.. Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-8.5 e. This means that the pipe would have to be rotated during welding. The transition of the weld to base material on the outside of the tubular can normally be classified to S-N curve E.

but it should be noted that a major part of the fatigue life is associated with the initial crack growth while the defects are small.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`. This may be evaluated by fracture mechanics such as described in BS 7910 “Guidance on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Fusion Welded Structures”.. and that work is checked by non-destructive examination. Therefore. For global moments over the tubular section it is the nominal stress derived at the outside that should be used together with an SCF from equation (3...3.``.. August 2005 Page 26 Amended October 2006. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . see note on front cover Outside 4 1 T δt Neutral axis L σ nominal t Inside Figure 3-8 Preferred transition in thickness is on outside of tubular butt weld L δm t D --``..``-`-`... The nominal stress on the inside should be used for assessment of fatigue cracks initiating from the inside.``... ref /7/. the root side of welds made from one side is normally classified as F3. the design S-N curves should be adjusted to account for this by use of fracture mechanics. This requires good workmanship during construction. if a fabrication method is used where lack of penetration is to be expected. The F3 curve can be considered to account for some lack of penetration. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.`. in order to ensure full penetration welds.`.````.`--- Figure 3-9 Section through weld In tubulars...``.3) for calculation of hot spot stress for fatigue assessment of the outside weld toe. It may be difficult to document a full penetration weld in most cases due to limitations in the non-destructive examination technique to detect defects in the root area.`.

``. DL) tubular member wall thickness (ts.4) where a) Concentricity Section A-A T Ar = area of ring stiffener without effective shell r = radius of shell measured from centre to mean shell thickness t = thickness of shell plating Due to less stress on the inside it is more efficient to place ring stiffeners on the inside of shell.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .6 t D j (t + t c ) t2 0.. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`.0 if continuous longitudinal stiffeners are used.``-`-`..56t rt α =1+ Ar SCF = 1 + (3..8 Stress concentration factors for stiffened shells The stress concentration at a ring stiffener can be calculated as t δm A A t 0.3..9 Stress concentration factors for conical transitions The stress concentration at each side of unstiffened tubularcone junction can be estimated by the following equations (the SCF shall be used together with the stress in the tubular at the junction for both the tubular and the cone side of the weld): SCF = 1 + 0..54 for the outside of the shell α 0.6 t D j (t + t c ) 2 tc tanα for the tubular side (3.6) where d) Center eccentricity Section A-A Figure 3-11 Geometric sources of local stress concentrations in tubular butt welds Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Dj t tc α = = = = cylinder diameter at junction (Ds.`--- δm A t Figure 3-12 Ring stiffened shell c) Out of roundness Section A-A t δm A A t δm 3.. In addition.3..3.``. The SCF = 1. The corresponding combination on the outside gives a considerably larger stress concentration.3. In the case of a bulkhead instead of a ring. it is recommended to end the longitudinal stiffeners against ring stiffeners for the inside..````. as compared with the outside.Amended October 2006. Ar is taken as rt b where tb is the thickness of the bulkhead. if the shell comprises longitudinal stiffeners that are ended.``. (1 − ν ) A A t δt = ½ (T-t) b) Thickness Section A-A Figure 3-10 Geometric sources of local stress concentrations in tubular butt welds δm t δm A --``.54 SCF = 1 − for the inside of the shell α 1..`.`.. tL) cone thickness the slope angle of the cone (see Figure 3-13) Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.3..5) SCF = 1 + tanα for the cone side (3. August 2005 Page 27 3.

91D j t ⎛ ⎞1 SCF = 1 + ⎜ 0.3.91D j t ⎞1 ⎛ SCF = 1 − ⎜ 0. Then the butt weld should be grinded and NDE examined before the ring stiffener is welded. DL) tubular member wall thickness (ts.3. and where y= where h 2 t r + (h + ) b (t c + t ) 2 2 h t r + (t c + t ) b t (3. August 2005 Page 28 Amended October 2006.3.54 − tanα ⎟ ⎟β ⎜ Ar ⎠ ⎝ at the inside larger diameter junction.`. If improvement methods are used for the weld toe the requirement of a full penetration weld will be enhanced.7). 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .11) If a ring stiffener with a flange is used the effect of the flange should be included when calculating the moment of inertia about the neutral axis x-x shown in Figure 3-14..91D j t ⎛ ⎞1 SCF = 1 − ⎜ 0. an additional stress concentration should be included to account for this eccentricity: SCF = 1 + 3 δ e tan α t 1 68 I D (t + t c ) 3 j 5 α tL 1+ (3.`.7) b = 0.10t D j t Ar where Ar = area of ring stiffener without effective shell Ds ts tC A ring stiffener may be placed centric at the cone junction.91D j t ⎞1 ⎛ SCF = 1 + ⎜ 0. If a ring stiffener is placed a distance δe away from the intersection lines.9) Figure 3-13 Cone geometry DL --``.`..3.8) DL where Dj t tc α I = = = = = cylinder diameter at junction (Ds. ..54 − tanα ⎟ ⎟β ⎜ Ar ⎠ ⎝ at the outside larger diameter junction 0. A full penetration weld connecting the ring stiffener to the tubular is often preferred as potential fatigue cracks from the root of fillet weld into the cylinder can hardly be detected during in service inspection...54 + tanα ⎟ ⎜ ⎟β Ar ⎝ ⎠ at the inside smaller diameter junction 0.3.. β =1+ 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``-`-`. tL) cone thickness the slope angle of the cone (see Figure 3-13) moment of inertia about the X-X axis in Figure 3-14 calculated as Ds ts tc δe α tL t3 t + 0..``.````..5 b (h + − y ) 2 (t c + t s ) + 12 2 2 h h tr h ( + ( − y) 2 ) 12 2 I =b (3.3.54 + tanα ⎟ ⎜ ⎟β Ar ⎝ ⎠ at the outside smaller diameter junction 0.. see note on front cover The stress concentration at a junction with ring stiffener can be calculated as 0. The stress concentration factor from equation (3.`.``.8) shall be multiplied together with the relevant stress concentration factor from equation (3...`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.``.10) h = height of ring stiffener tr = thickness of ringstiffener b = effective flange width calculated as (3.3.78 D j (t c + t ) + δ e (3.

Judgement should be used to evaluate the number of elements to be considered. Assuming that the moment M results from an eccentricity δN where pretension is accounted for in the analysis. I = Systematic deviation. t x y h 3.``.12) where the stress concentration factor is: SCF = 1 + 4δ N D−t (3. The following stress concentration factors may be used for d/ Dw = 1... the following derivation of a stress concentration factor is performed: σ= N SCF π(D − t ) t Figure 3-15 Colinearity or angle deviation in pipe segment fabrication.10 Stress concentration factors for tubulars subjected to axial force This section applies to tubular sections welded together to long strings and subjected to axial tension.3. /27/. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .00 — Out-of plane bending:1.3. Figure 3-15.13) where δN is eccentricity as function of the axial force N and D is outer diameter. N EI segment lengths of the tubulars axial force in tubulars moment of inertia of tubulars Young’s modulus The formula for reduction in eccentricity due to increased axial force can be deduced from differential equation for the deflected shape of the model shown in Figure 3-16. the er--``. The eccentricity for two elements is indicated in Figure 3-16. where d = depth and width of brace.`. ref.`.. see Figure 3-16.14) 3. Tethers and risers of a TLP are examples of such structures..and X. in lieu of a more detailed analysis for calculation of hot spot stress: — Axial: 1.````. and whether deviation from a straight line is systematic or random. Stress concentration factors for Y. ref.11 Stress concentration factors for joints with square sections Stress concentration factors for T.and K square to square joints may be found from “IIW Fatigue Rules for Tubular Joints”.``.square to square joints may be found in “Proposed Revisions for Fatigue Design of Planar Welded Connections made of Hollow Structural Sections”..3.``-`-`. in the second case it may be added quadratically. With an axial tension force N the eccentricity becomes: N Figure 3-16 Eccentricity due to co-linearity δN = δ where k l N I E = = = = = tanh kl kl (3..0.3.90 — In-plane bending: 4. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.35 These stress concentration factors should be used together with the F-curve. Thus the non-linearity in terms of geometry is included in the formula for the stress concentration factor. The co-linearity with small angle deviation between consecutive fabricated tubular segments results in increased stress due to a resulting global bending moment. These stress concentration factors may be used together with the D-curve. II = random deviation N δN (3. In the first case. Dw = depth and width of chord..3..``..`.. The eccentricity due to co-linearity is a function of axial tension in the tubular and is significantly reduced as the axial force is increased by tension.Amended October 2006.. With zero tension the eccentricity is δ.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale. August 2005 Page 29 b tc α x tr Figure 3-14 Notations for calculation of moment of inertia rors must be added linearly.`.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 2.`. see note on front cover 3. In a relevant example the resulting SCF using a model with three-dimensional elements was only 0.``. as some of the local stress due to a detail is accounted for in the S-N curve. In many cases it may therefore be more convenient to use an alternative approach for calculation of fatigue damage when local stresses are obtained from finite element analysis.. Figure 3-17a. The stress concentration factor for tubular member is simply derived by scaling the results from that of RHS by π/4 for the same thickness.``-`-`. Calculation of hot spot stress by finite element analysis 4. (It is here assumed that a fillet weld also can be used on the outside on a full or partial penetration weld). Thus the SCFs in Table 3-1 might be further reduced if necessary. The notch stress concept may be used in special cases where other methods are not found appropriate.. Reference is made to Figure 3-17.. Using shell elements for such analysis provides conservative stress concentration factors as compared with use of three-dimensional elements with modelling also of the fillet weld. In dynamic loaded structures it is recommended to shape the gusset plate in such a way that a smooth transfer of stress flow from the member into the gusset plate is achieved.70 of that from analysis using a shell model. for design analysis a simplified numerical procedure is used in order to reduce the demand for large fine mesh models for the calculation of SCF factors: --``.````.9 RHS 250x16 with simple shape of gusset plate Ø250x16 with favourable geometry of gusset plate Ø250x16 with simple shape of gusset plate 3. August 2005 Page 30 Amended October 2006. ref.. When such connections are subjected to dynamic loading a full penetration weld between the member and the gusset plate is preferred.12 Stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plates Insert gusset plates are sometimes used in joints in topside structures to connect RHS and tubular members. Otherwise it is considered difficult to document the fatigue capacity for fatigue cracking starting from the weld root. In this respect it should also be mentioned that the weld toe region has to be modelled with a radius in order to obtain reliable results for the notch stress. Hence. see Appendix D.0 1 TY 0 P..``.`.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale. b) Figure 3-17 Joints with gusset plates a) Favourable geometry b) Simple geometry 4. The modelling of a relevant radius requires a very fine element mesh.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .. Where a reliable fatigue life is to be documented it is recommended to perform finite element analysis if the geometry is significantly different from that shown in Figure 3-17b. If a corner detail with zero radius is modelled the calculated stress will approach infinity as the element size is decreased to zero.. The stress concentration factors in Table 3-1 are derived from finite element analysis using shell elements.``..`. This scatter is normally more efficiently accounted for by use of an appropriate S-N curve. Table 3-1 Stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plate Geometry SCF RHS 250x16 with favourable geometry of gusset plate 2. increasing the size of the computer model. a) 4 TY 0 P.3. It is realised that it is difficult to calculate the notch stress at a weld due to a significant scatter in local weld geometry and different types of imperfections. Then the hot spot stress can be combined with the D-Curve.. Commentary...1 General From detailed finite element analysis of structures it may be difficult to evaluate what is “nominal stress” to be used together with the S-N curves.3 3.

.``. at least four elements are recommended in thickness direction. This procedure is denoted the hot spot method.3. More reliable results are obtained by including the weld in the model.2 FE modelling The following guidance is made to the computation of hot spot stresses with potential fatigue cracking from the weld toe with local models using the finite element method.1 Stress field at a welded detail Due to the nature of the stress field at a hot spot region there are questions on how to establish the hot spot stress. The length of the elements should be limited to 2 t.`. If in addition the weld from stiffeners in the transverse frames is modelled the requirements with respect to element shape will likely govern the FE model at the hot spot region.5 t and 1. The simplest way of modelling is offered by thin plate and shell elements which have to be arranged in the mid-plane of the structural components.. The size of the model should be so large that the calculated results are not significantly affected by assumptions made for boundary conditions and application of loads. For modelling with three dimensional elements the dimensions of the first two or three elements in front of the weld toe should be chosen as follows. It should be noted that on the one hand the arrangement and type of elements have to allow for steep stress gradients as well as for the formation of plate bending. Analysis based on thick shell elements may be used. Larger mesh sizes at the hot spot region may provide non-conservative results. 8-noded elements are recommended particularly in case of steep stress gradients. resulting in a geometric SCF factor. A thickness equal 2 times the thickness of the plates may be used for modelling of the welds by transverse plates.`--- solid elements are normally used. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. (For efficient read out of element stresses and hot spot stress derivation a mesh txt is in general preferred at the hot spot region). A finer mesh sub-division is necessary particularly if 8-noded solid elements are selected. The geometry of the elements should be evaluated carefully in order to avoid errors due to deformed elements (for example corner angles between 60° and 120° and length/breadth ratio less than 5 are recommended).`.`. The following methods of modelling are recommended.. three types of hot spots at weld toes can be identified as exemplified in Figure 4-3: a) at the weld toe on the plate surface at an ending attachment b) at the weld toe around the plate edge of an ending attachment c) along the weld of an attached plate (weld toes on both the plate and attachment surface).. e. This is offered.``.5 t The stress components on the plate surface should be evaluated along the paths shown in Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5 and extrap- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale. the weld may be included by transverse plate elements having appropriate stiffness or by introducing constrained equations for coupled node displacements. e. see also Figure 4-4. An alternative particularly for complex cases is offered by solid elements which need to have a displacement function allowing steep stress gradients as well as plate bending with linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction. see Figure 4-1. In plate structures. Here the Gaussian points.3.. An easy evaluation of the membrane and bending stress components is then possible if a reduced integration order with only two integration points in the thickness direction is chosen.3.````. but close enough to pick up the hot spot stress.. Hot spot stresses are calculated assuming linear material behaviour and using an idealized structural model with no fabrication-related misalignment. Here. It is observed that the stress used as basis for such an extrapolation should be outside that affected by the weld notch.``-`-`. section 2. The notch effect due to the weld is included in the S-N curve and the hot spot stress is derived by extrapolation of the structural stress to the weld toe as indicated in Figure 4-1. The welds are usually not modelled except for special cases where the results are affected by high local bending. Models with thin plate or shell elements or alternatively with Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.Amended October 2006.3 Welded connections other than tubular joints 4. Modelling of the welds is generally recommended and easily possible as shown in Figure 4-5. The hot spot stress may be determined as for welded connections..1 r t from the weld toe (r = radius of considered tubular and t = thickness). In order to capture the properties of bulb sections with respect to St Venant torsion it is recommended to use several three-dimensional elements for modelling of a bulb section.. Care should be given to possible stress underestimation especially at weld toes of type b) in Figure 43. The element length may be selected to correspond to the plate thickness. — The stress concentration due to the geometry effect of the actual detail is calculated by means of a fine mesh model using shell elements (or solid elements). 4. ref. Here. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT . may be placed 0 . the D-curve. The stress at this point may be used directly in the fatigue assessment. the breadth should not exceed the “attachment width”. and on the other hand. where stresses are calculated. A fillet weld should be checked separately considering the stresses in the weld itself. For 4-node shell elements with additional internal degrees of freedom for improved in plane behaviour and for 8-node shell elements a mesh size from t x t up to 2 t x 2 t may be used. However. due to an offset between plates or due to a small free plate length between adjacent welds such as at lug (or collar) plates. It is important to have a continuous and not too steep. The extent of the local model has to be chosen such that effects due to the boundaries on the structural detail considered are sufficiently small and reasonable boundary conditions can be formulated. i. g. 4.. e. g. In the transverse direction. the plate thickness may be chosen again for the breadth of the plate elements. Use of 4-noded elements with improved in-plane bending modes is a good alternative. only the linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction needs to be evaluated with respect to the definition of hot spot stress. August 2005 Page 31 — The stress concentration or the notch factor due to the weld itself is included in the S-N curve to be used.2 Tubular joints The stress range at the hot spot of tubular joints should be combined with the T-curve. This implies use of three-dimensional elements. 4. the thickness of the attached plate plus 2 x the weld leg length (in case of type c: the thickness of the web plate behind plus 2 x weld leg length). the weld is not included in the model. by isoparametric 20-node elements (with mid-side nodes at the edges) which mean that only one element in plate thickness direction is required.. In this case..``. 4. In cases where three-dimensional elements are used for the FE modelling it is recommended that also the fillet weld is modelled to achieve proper local stiffness and geometry.3 Derivation of stress at read out points 0.3.. It should be noted that the hot spot concept cannot be used for fatigue checks of cracks starting from the weld root of fillet/ partial penetration welds.5.`. change in the density of the element mesh in the areas where the hot spot stresses are to be analysed.

5 t from the intersection line. 4..3.7 Limitations for simple connections It should be noted that the definition of the stress field through the plate thickness in section 4. Such details with target hot spot stress are shown in Appendix D. it attracts stresses for inplane (direction II) shown in Figure 4-7. For meshes with 4-node shell elements larger than t x t it is recommended to fit a second order polynomial to the element stresses in the three first elements and derive stresses for extrapolation from the 0.6 Derivation of effective hot spot stress from FE analysis At hot spots with significant plate bending one might derive an effective hot spot stress for fatigue assessment based on the following equation: ∆σe. Commentary..`. The described hot spot concept linked to the D-curve is giving acceptable results as soon as there is a bracket behind the transverse plate as shown in Figure 4-3 acting with its stiffness in the direction of I (Figure 4-7).5 t and 1. As the nominal stress S-N curve for direction I is lower than that of the D-curve.3. it would be non-conservative to use the hot spot concept for this connection for direction I while it would be acceptable for direction II at position “a”. — The hot spot stress is taken as the stress at the read out point 0.3. — In case of solid elements the stress may first be extrapolated from the Gaussian points to the surface. 4.5 t away from the weld toe and multiplied by 1. The reader should also be made aware of another case that is linked to the same problem.5 t and 1.1) DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.. For modelling with three-dimensional elements with the weld included the following procedures can be used: — A linear extrapolation of the stresses to the intersection line from the read out points at 0. where t is the plate thickness at the weld toe. August 2005 Page 32 Amended October 2006. 4.12.``. the stresses may be evaluated as follows: — In case of plate or shell elements the surface stress may be evaluated at the corresponding mid-side points.3. This is important at an outside ring stiffener in order to include the bending stress in the shell due to its deformed shape.5 t and 1. Therefore..5 t and 1. in a case where the stress variation along the weld is small.5 t can be derived.hot spot = membrane stress ∆σb. 4.5 t from the weld toe. see note on front cover olated to the hot spot. For stresses in the direction normal to the shell (direction I) there will be no stress flow into the transverse shell plating as it is represented only by one plane in the shell model. When analysing a brace with a simple ring stiffener the hot spot stress will include the effect of decreased stress on the inside and increased stress on the outside due to the circumferential stiffness of the ring. For 8-node elements a second order polynomial may be fitted to the stress results at the mid-side nodes of the three first elements and the stress at the read out points 0.`. Ref.3. — The hot spot stress is taken as the stress at the read out point 0. Figure 3. However. simple T-joints in plated structures or simple butt joints that are welded from one side only.1 implies that the described hot spot stress methodology is not recommended for simple cruciform joints. The principal stress at the hot spot is calculated from the extrapolated component values (Principal stress within an angle ±60° to the normal to the weld).5 Hot spot S-N curve It is recommended to link the derived hot spot stress to the Dcurve.8 Verification of analysis methodology The analysis methodology may be verified based on analysis of details with derived target hot spot stress..hot spot = bending stress The reason for a reduction factor on the bending stress is load shedding effect during crack growth.``... (4.5 t points.hot spot Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. the ring will not attract stress normal to its plane. If the element size at a hot spot region of size txt is used. Therefore it should be noted that it is not correct to generally reduce the bending part of the stress to 60 percent. This procedure may be used to establish stress values at the 0.5 t. Commentary. Analyzing such connections with for example shell elements would result in a hot spot stress equal the nominal stress. Then these stresses can be interpolated linearly to the surface centre or extrapolated to the edge of the elements if this is the line for hot spot stress derivation. An example of this is shown schematically in Figure 4-6. This is illustrated by the shell model shown in Figure 4-7.````.`. which occurs for example at a hopper corner.4 Derivation of hot spot stress Two alternative methods can be used for hot spot stress derivation.`--- where ∆σa. Thus..60∆σb. However. 4. Recommended stress evaluation points are located at distances 0. a lower S-N curve than D has to be used.hot spot + 0. The average stress components between adjacent elements are used for the extrapolation..5 t away from the hot spot. see Tables of S-N classification.5 t and 1.`. Thus the stresses at mid side nodes along line A-B in Figure 4-2 may be used directly as stress at read out points 0.3.``.. It should also be noted that it is for these joints (butt welds and cruciform joints) that fabrication tolerances are most important and need to be considered in a fatigue assessment.5 t away from the intersection line and multiplied by 1.5 t points.12.5 t and 1. The principal stress at the hot spot is calculated from the extrapolated component values (Principal stress within an angle ±60° to the normal to the weld). In a case that a longitudinal stiffener is ended at a circumferential ring stiffener the described procedure using S-N curve D will again be working. From a finite element analysis using shell elements the largest stress at the node at the ring stiffener should be used as nominal stress. This has to be restricted to cases with a pronounced stress concentration (where the stress distribution under fatigue crack development is more similar to a displacement controlled situation than that of a load controlled development). For modelling with shell elements without any weld the following procedures can be used: — A linear extrapolation of the stresses to the intersection line from the read out points at 0. The effect is limited to areas with a localised stress concentration.3. ref.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. also fatigue analysis of the drum in Appendix D.``-`-`.. the nominal stress approach is recommended used for direction I at position “c” as also the nominal stress can be easily derived for analysis of these connections. the difference in fatigue life between axial loading and pure bending is much smaller.3.5 t and 1. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT .hot spot = ∆σa. These locations are also denoted as stress read out points. However.

5 t Hot spot 1 4 3 4 1.`..`.````.`.``.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``.``...`--- ..`.. August 2005 Page 33 Stress Notch stress Hot spot stress Surface stress Attachment plate t/2 3t/2 Hot spot stress Notch stress c b a c Fillet weld t Membrane stress Stress evaluation plane Nominal stress Figure 4-3 Different hot spot positions Fillet weld Attachment plate A A Figure 4-1 Schematic stress distribution at a hot spot Extrapolated hot spot stress Figure 4-4 Stress extrapolation in a three-dimensional FE model to the weld toe Intersection line A 0..... see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.Amended October 2006.5 t 3 B 2 1 2 Gaussian integration point Figure 4-2 Example of derivation of hot spot stress Figure 4-5 Stress extrapolation in a three-dimensional FE model to the weld toe Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE VERITAS Not for Resale.``..``-`-`.

93 8.02 1.571 4.118 0.058 0..75 24.07 1.442 0.03 1.73 28.65 63.1.491 0.96 0. These design charts have been derived based on an assumption of an allowable fatigue damage η = 1.542 0.586 0.`--- .446 0. Commentary.029 4.435 4.70 37.483 6.107 cycles)..000 5.658 0.`.781 5.62 91.97 0.119 0.0 during 108 cycles (20 years service life which corresponds to an average period of Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 VERITAS Not for Resale.035 6.178 0.1. as: (5.671 7.1.000 0.90 9.000 0.00 1.0 7.``.263 0.`.853 0.83 13.403 0..01 1.04 1...99 1.69 41..98 0.``.88 10.61 104. August 2005 Page 34 Amended October 2006.`.60 120. and a one-slope S-N curve is used.80 16. For other expressions for fatigue damage see Appendix D.405 0. ∆σ 0.344 0. When the long-term stress range distribution is defined applying Weibull distributions for the different load conditions.63 80.548 0.`.750 6.715 4...942 0.0 0.3) where Td h q ν0 = = = = design life in seconds Weibull stress range shape distribution parameter Weibull stress range scale distribution parameter average zero-crossing frequency a c II I Γ(1 + m gamma function.94 0. These charts have been derived based on the two slopes S-N curves given in this RP.``-`-`.2 Fatigue design charts Design charts for steel components in air and in seawater with cathodic protection are shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2 respectively.331 0.816 0.05 1.72 30.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``.5 t 1.89 9..76 22..08 1. The corresponding numerical values are given in Table 5-2 and Table 5-3.342 7.1 General The long term stress range distribution may be presented as a 5.77 20.2) 0 t 2t 3t 4t 5t 6t q= Distance from hot spot Figure 4-6 Derivation of hot spot stress for element size larger than t x t ∆σ 0 (ln n 0 )1/h ∆σ 0 is the largest stress range out of n0 cycles.92 8.06 1.0 h m = 3. the fatigue damage is given by D= ν 0 Td m m q Γ(1 + ) ≤ η a h (5.10 m = 3. Simplified fatigue analysis 5.306 Figure 4-7 Illustration of difference to attract stresses normal to and in plane of a shell element model 5.048 0.09 1.. Table 5-1 Numerical values for Γ (1+ m/h) h m = 3.1) where Q h q = = = probability for exceedance of the stress range ∆σ Weibull shape parameter Weibull scale parameter is defined from the stress range level.350 0.829 0.87 10. Values of the gamma function ) = are listed in Table 5-1.024 h 0.741 0.382 5.868 4.85 12. h Use of one slope S-N curves leads to results on the safe side for calculated fatigue lives (with slope of curve at N < 106 .575 5.81 15.234 0.91 8.5 t Second order polynomial Results from FE analysis ⎡ ⎛ ∆σ ⎞ h ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ Q(∆σ ) = exp⎢− ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ q ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (5.95 0.84 12.358 0.67 50.78 19.772 0.234 6.087 0.044 0.64 71.68 45.79 17.66 56.261 0.886 0.74 26.82 14. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT --``.200 5.86 11. see note on front cover two-parameter Weibull distribution Hot spot stress 0.````.71 33.514 0.

7 445.1 390.4 209.1 198..6 164.2 861.6 353.1 379.0 92.2 217.6 475.8 301.60 0.`. August 2005 Page 35 6.7 347.4 and Table 2-1.90 B1 1449..1 208.2 664.1 588.3 1092.2 356.1 190..9 261.3 320.. For thickness larger than the reference thickness.`.5 128.7 146.2 --``.9 1 1.2 Weibull shape parameter h Figure 5-1 Allowable extreme stress range during 108 cycles for components in air Table 5-2 Allowable extreme stress range in MPa during 108 cycles for components in air S-N curves Weibull shape parameter h 0..20 403.1) = thickness exponent.2.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.5 241.0 422.1 184. The fatigue utilisation factor η as a function of design life and design fatigue factor (DFF) is given in Table 5-8.7 104. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 σ0.3 sec).9 749.0 169.7 594.8 331.5 83. η.3 495.5 399.2 214.6 129. an allowable extreme stress range during 108 cycles may be obtained as ⎛t ⎞ σ 0.3 463.1 616.6 542.6 0.6 108.8 753.0 258.1 264..4 394.````.``.3 275.2 308.tref = allowable stress as derived from Table 5-2 and Table 5-3 800 E D C2 C1 C B2 B1 700 Allowable stress range in MPa 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.8 120.``-`-`.2 185. the allowable stress from the design charts should be reduced by factors derived from Table 5-4 and Table 5-5 for conditions in air and Table 5-6 and Table 5-7 for conditions in seawater with cathodic protection.2 1.2 160.8 486.3 949.0 367.0 519.6 662..8 591.8 117.5 199.9 955.9 843.``.2 1.`...9 448.1 527.3 522.8 0.8 346.6 104.9 164.7 0.6 94.0 150.6 178.80 0.5 550.1 B2 C C1 C2 D and T E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 1268.``.0 1055.7 308.70 0.6 824.50 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.9 253.2 247.8 284.4 412. tref ⎜ ref ⎟ ⎝ t ⎠ where k k (5.1 289.2 616.0 735.9 326. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`.3 1182..6 271.10 451.2 434.00 512.2 390.4 115.1 1.5 130.8 135.2 337.4 173.4 142.7 919.7 377. The stresses derived here correspond to the reference thickness.Amended October 2006.6 156.9 292.6 688.2 273.1 1319.6 1.5 243.9 231.8 220.1 145.5 235.4 440. For design with other allowable fatigue damages. see section 2.1 195.0 224.5 F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 0.0 294.2 704.. t = σ 0.

7 747.7 476.0 1038.7 334..1 191.6 121.3 299.3 430.1 148.6 339. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .4 375.20 B1 1309.``.0 263.3 124.8 349.7 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.6 95.4 196.90 1.9 376.1 169.4 487.6 133.3 221.6 B2 C C1 C2 D and T E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 1146.9 134.9 140.`--- 0 0..8 106.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.3 415.2 557.10 1.9 190.0 325.5 269.2 424.9 458.7 693.. see note on front cover 800 C2 700 C1 C B2 B1 D E F 600 Allowable stress range in Mpa 500 F1 F3 400 G W1 W2 W3 300 200 100 Figure 5-2 Allowable extreme stress range during 108 cycles for components in seawater with cathodic protection Table 5-3 Allowable extreme stress range in MPa during 108 cycles for components in seawater with cathodic protection S-N curves Weibull shape parameter h 0.8 996.9 208.5 0.6 149.6 183.5 830.3 119.3 464..6 150.``.3 106. August 2005 Page 36 Amended October 2006.3 311.3 334.4 214..``.0 266.0 85.60 0.3 134.4 485.00 1.9 1 1.3 373.7 413..`.0 185.8 664.7 112.8 289.7 96.1 118.5 165.0 367.7 0.5 387.7 301.9 573.5 668.6 0.2 242.9 95.4 215.1 237.7 249.7 280.0 596.7 167.3 536.``-`-`.9 423.`.1 168.````.5 238.0 655.2 297.3 191.8 0.80 0.6 213.70 0.4 206.4 174..7 213.50 0.9 85.1 871.5 930.2 107..0 229.5 745.0 257.7 336.6 233.1 1.8 371..`.0 298.0 793.`.3 465..3 76..2 268.1 266.6 155.6 297.6 513.2 573.2 Weibull shape parameter h DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.5 133.3 238.3 589.7 389.3 415.5 151.9 332.8 523.9 170.

668 0.764 0..897 0.850 0.``.742 0.00 1.661 0.33 0..50 0.770 0.910 0.946 1.897 0.860 0.748 0.944 1.785 0.888 0.902 0.778 0.000 Table 5-5 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for C .754 0.950 1.871 0.682 0.856 0.000 0.000 0.756 0.737 0.70 0.949 1.767 0.762 0.750 0.000 1.913 0.886 0.592 0.760 0.60 0.773 0.50 0.706 0.894 0.885 0.90 1.670 0.753 0.725 0.765 0.852 0.779 0.``.20 0.745 0.733 0.80 1.678 0.10 0.725 0.000 0.902 0.839 0.942 1.910 0.894 0.000 --``.80 1.`.728 0.907 0.661 0.575 0.888 0.715 0.597 0.848 0.685 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.40 0.815 0.912 0.912 0.22 0.949 1.731 0.552 0.798 0.932 1.812 0.701 0.922 0.688 0..878 0.20 0.751 0.950 1.`.22 0.00 0.10 0.708 0.70 0.709 0.000 0.703 0.723 0.697 0.00 0.``-`-`.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.776 0.717 0.10 0.743 0.642 0.694 0.856 0.744 0.884 0.905 0.````.882 0.826 0.938 1.920 0.80 0.686 0.000 0.511 0.67 0.821 0.790 0.735 0.795 0.620 0.563 0.698 0.725 0.758 0.638 0.810 0.712 0.741 0.540 0.573 0.705 0.632 0.719 0.000 0.887 0.909 0.648 0.816 0.730 0.835 0.526 0.000 1.900 0.690 0..900 0.90 1.846 0.701 0.934 1.`.30 0.747 0.`.805 0.000 0.921 0.762 0.917 0.``.906 0.715 0..582 0.000 0..677 0.748 0.602 0.911 0.891 0.845 0.60 0.803 0.674 0.920 0.919 0.810 0.890 0.800 0.843 0.000 0.570 0.20 0.80 0.40 0.50 0.948 1.Amended October 2006.677 0.831 0.868 0.693 0.936 1.000 0.67 0.000 0.20 0.759 0. August 2005 Page 37 Table 5-4 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for B1 and B2 curves in air environment Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.939 1..947 1.000 0.908 0.882 0.30 0.60 0.692 0.70 0.10 0.695 0.50 0.765 0.883 0.808 0.916 0.W3 curves in air environment Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.652 0.947 1.941 1.711 0.497 0..781 0..676 0.627 0.587 0.27 0.852 0.70 0.891 0.772 0.686 0..60 0.33 0.875 0.908 0.864 0.609 0.581 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .27 0.738 0.603 0.690 0.697 0..854 0.805 0.659 0.00 1.917 0.

892 0.694 0.725 0.60 0.831 0.44 0.6 .18 MPa.22 0.757 0.920 0..822 0.745 0.821 0.885 0.577 0.732 0.703 0.814 0. Then from Table 5-8 an utilisation factor η equal 0.27 0.896 0.921 0.20 0.`.80 0.915 0.720 0..766 0.627 0.40 0.785 0.33 0.00 0.729 0.00 1.772 0.20 0.718 0.90 1.6 .04 5.617 0.792 0.885 0.751 0. 30.889 0.0 .659 0. Then by a linear interpolation Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS of stress ranges for h-values 0.67 0.717 0.40.769 0.583 0.691 0.40 is obtained for 25 years service life and a DFF equal 2.33 0.602 0.621 0.710 0.752 0.758 0.000 0.000 0.775 0.954 1.000 0.917 0.853 0.67 0.619 0.858 0.794 0.90 and 1.675 0.754 0..610 0.10 25 0.000 0.898 0.000 0.689 0.879 0.888 0.928 0.727 0.917 0. The following reduction factor is obtained: --``.40 0.70 0.809 0.70 0.949 1.13 0.40 0.40 0.729 0.867 0.0 2.000 0.0.20 0.699 0.827 0.752 0.08 30 0.917 0.67 0.747 0.593 0.80 0.699 0.0 mm.50 0. The detail is in air environment.33 0.796 0.22 0.768 0. It is assumed that details with a classification F3 is going to be welded to the deck structure.699 0.000 0.67 0..805 0.909 0.746 0.924 0.915 0.848 0.851 0.780 0.955 1. The maximum thickness of the steel plates is 35.00 2 2.70 0.000 0.``.758 0.922 0.67 0.818 0.00 1.10 1.926 0.773 0.825 0.640 0.27 0.763 0.657 0.08 0.721 0.33 0.715 0.30 0.954 1.938 1.924 0.908 0.50 0.818 0.774 0.20 0.733 0.927 0.864 0.40 0.896 0.90)) = 178.785 0.720 0.000 0.27 0.898 0.929 0.953 1.762 0.947 1.16 0.684 0.840 0.920 0.829 0.955 1.789 0.558 0.`. This corresponds to an allowable stress for 20 years design life and a DFF equal 1.713 0.769 0.705 0.33 5 0.691 0.779 0. see note on front cover Table 5-6 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for B1 and B2 curves in seawater with cathodic protection Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.760 0.855 0.605 0.90 and 1.858 0.000 Table 5-7 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for C .780 0..0 in Table 5-2 for S-N curve F3 is obtained: 199.000 Table 5-8 Utilisation factors η as function of design life and design fatigue factor DFF Design life in years 5 10 15 20 1 4.50 0.711 0.908 0.913 0.W3 curves in seawater with cathodic protection Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.13 0.899 0.897 0.7 a Weibull shape parameter equal 0.10 1.779 0.893 0.000 0.00 0.891 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .80 0.743 0.``-`-`.``.707 0.927 0.20 10 0.706 0..866 0.613 0..50 0.913 0.000 0.40 0.949 1.0 1.822 0.926 0.919 0.10 0.535 0.70 0.90 1.861 0..30 0.90)/(1.20 0.847 0.864 0.921 0.0 0.13 0.731 0.97 is determined..900 0.825 0. August 2005 Page 38 Amended October 2006.872 0.714 0.97 .919 0.60 0.50 3 1.07 50 0.0.000 0.`.945 1. Then from Table 5-5 a reduction factor is obtained by linear interpolation between the factors for h-values 0.740 0.000 0.169.735 0.953 1.903 0.790 0.20 0.0 1.911 0. From DNV Classification Note No.593 0.736 0.912 0.764 0.713 0.792 0.623 0.60 0. The design life of the FPSO is 25 years and the operator would like to use a Design Fatigue Factor equal 2..795 0.725 0.903 0.80 0.812 0.80 1.785 0.0 for η = 0.862 0.760 0.33 1.625 0.`--- DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.804 0.60 0.941 1.10 0.80 1.22 0.763 0.951 1.0) ((0.864 0.000 0.676 0.948 1.`.893 0.777 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.714 0.782 0.27 0.952 1.````.0.(199.770 0.950 1.918 0.3 Example of use of design charts The allowable stress range in the deck structure of a FPSO is to be determined.732 0.``..

````. a reduced hot spot stress can be calculated as σ Local reduced = σ Membrane α + σ Bending β (7. Improvement of Fatigue Life by Fabrication 7.. 7.. The calculations should be performed such that the structural reliability by use of fracture mechanics will not be less than that achieved by use of S-N data. The purpose of such analysis is to document. A reduced local stress due to weld profiling can be obtained as follows. that fatigue cracks.``..1) where α and β are derived from equations (7. Only stress components normal to the propagation plane need to be considered.2..1. a crack depth of 0.2. For surface cracks starting from transitions between weld/base material.5 β = 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . C.3) (6. In a case that the results from fracture mechanics analyses cannot directly be compared with S-N data it might be recommended to perform a comparison for a detail where S-N data are available. for welded connections containing residual stresses. assumed that compressive stresses do not contribute to crack propagation.2.g.4) Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. The Paris’ equation may be used to predict the crack propagation or the fatigue life: da m = C(∆K ) dN where ∆K N a = = = Kmax .47 + 0.25 (T / R)0. The thickness exponent for a F3 detail is k = 0. Fracture mechanics is recommended for use in assessment of acceptable defects. access and reliability of the inspection method. m = material parameters.1.2) where σ = nominal stress in the member normal to the crack g = factor depending on the geometry of the member and the crack See BS 7910.0.25 = 128.15 provided that the weld is profiled by either machining or grinding to a radius of approximately half the plate thickness.``. shorter fatigue life is normally derived from fracture mechanics than by S-N data.Kmin Number of cycles to failure crack depth.0 .29 MPa.18·0.``.. The membrane part and the bending part of the stress have to be separated from the local stress as σ Local = σ Membrane + σ Bending where σMembrane = membrane stress σBending = bending stress (7.90)) = 0.`--- 7. ref. in order to verify the assumptions made for the fracture mechanics analyses.``-`-`. It is normally.`.55. the fatigue life can be increased taking account of a reduced local stress concentration factor. (T/2 with stress direction as shown in Figure 7-2 B). on post weld improvement with respect to execution of the improvement. the whole stress range should be applied. will not exceed the crack size corresponding to unstable fracture.`.55·(25/35) 0.. The considerations made in the following are for conditions where the root is not considered to be a critical initiation point. evaluation of acceptance criteria for fabrication and for planning in-service inspection..5 (7. Except for weld profiling (section 7.1 General It should be noted that improvement of the toe will not improve the fatigue life if fatigue cracking from the root is the most likely failure mode..2 Weld profiling by machining and grinding By weld profiling in this section is understood profiling by machining or grinding as profiling by welding only is not considered to be an efficient mean to improve fatigue lives.97 . Thus the allowable stress range for a 25 mm thick plate is obtained as 178.2) and (7. August 2005 Page 39 0. Where weld profiling is used. The initial crack size to be used in the calculation should be considered in each case. When weld profiling is performed. Then the allowable stress range for the 35 mm thick plate is obtained as: 139.90)/(1.`.779 + (0.25 (T / R)0.`. However.Amended October 2006. see BS 7910.. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. /7/.5 mm (e. taking account of experienced imperfection or defect sizes for various weldments.2. due to undercuts and microcracks at bottom of the undercuts) may be assumed if other documented information about crack depth is not available. Fatigue analysis based on fracture mechanics Fracture mechanics may be used for fatigue analyses as supplement to S-N data. In design calculations. geometries.13(tanϕ )0..2) the effect from different improvement methods as given in the following can not be added. Reference is made to IIW Recommendations.2. It is here assumed that the crack depth/ length ratio is low (less than 1:5) Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.. for further guidelines related to fatigue assessment based on fracture mechanics. ref.783 .783 = 139.1) For description of geometric parameters see Figure 7-1.60 + 0. This can be achieved by performing the analysis according to the following procedure: — crack growth parameter C determined as mean plus 2 standard deviation — a careful evaluation of initial defects that might be present in the structure when taking into account the actual NDE inspection method used to detect cracks during fabrication — use of geometry functions that are on the safe side — use of utilisation factors similar to those used when the fatigue analysis is based on S-N data.785-0. α = 0. 6.2) (7.0. which might occur during service life. the thickness effect may be reduced to an exponent 0.779) ((0.17 (tanϕ )0. /7/ The stress intensity factor K may be expressed as: K = σg πa (6.2. As crack initiation is not included in the fracture mechanics approach.3) respectively.25 from Table 2-1. by means of calculations.

section 6.20.3 Weld toe grinding Where local grinding of the weld toes below any visible undercuts is performed the fatigue life may be increased by a factor given in Table 7-1. grinding should extend below the plate surface. In general grinding has been used as an efficient method for reliable fatigue life improvement after fabrication..1) is to be used together with the same S-N curves as the detail is classified for without weld profiling.5mm below bottom of any visible undercut. as at B.1 without weld profiling for a plate thickness T = 25 mm).``. or to reduce the stress range through design and keep the possibility of fatigue life improvement as a reserve to allow for possible increase in fatigue loading during the design and fabrication process.2.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 . Grinding also improves the reliability of inspection after fabrication and during service life.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`. August 2005 Page 40 Amended October 2006. In addition the fatigue life can be increased taking account of local toe grinding. Section 6. It should also be noted that if grinding is required to achieve a specified fatigue life. ref. However. Grinding is normally carried out by a rotary burr.. in order to remove toe defects. 7. — Hammer peening may only be used when minimum load of predominant load ranges is compressive or zero. In addition the thickness effect may be reduced to an exponent k = 0. OSC101 Design of Steel Structures.``. fy = characteristic yield strength for the actual material. it is recommended to perform fatigue testing of relevant detail (with and without hammer peening) before a factor on improvement is decided. as at A. Due to uncertainties regarding quality assurance of the welding process.5 Less than 350 MPa Hammer peening 3) Higher than 350 MPa 0. experience indicates that it may be a good design practice to exclude this factor at the design stage.5 Hammer peening The fatigue life may be improved by means of hammer peening by a factor given in Table 7-1. For grinding of weld toes it is recommended to use a rotary ball shaped burr with typical diameter of 12 mm.. and the crack grows faster after initiation. Therefore.````. Due to grinding a larger fraction of the fatigue life is spent during the initiation of fatigue cracks.``-`-`. dangerous for the integrity of the structure. The grinding depth should not exceed 2 mm or 7% of the plate thickness.. reference is made to Section 7. whichever is smaller.``.01fy TIG dressing Higher than 350 MPa 3. The improvement effect is dependent on tool used and workmanship. the maximum improvement factor from grinding only should then be limited to a factor 2 on fatigue life. This implies use of shorter inspection intervals during service life in order to detect the cracks before they become Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Table 7-1 Improvement on fatigue life by different methods Improvement meth. For simple tubular joints it may be assumed that the hot spot stress in the chord is due to bending only. see note on front cover If a finite element analysis of the considered connection has been performed.Minimum specified Increase in fatigue life od yield strength (factor on life) 1) Less than 350 MPa 0. To be efficient. the following limitations apply: — Hammer peening should only be used on members where failure will be without substantial consequences.0 1) 2) 3) The maximum S-N class that can be claimed by weld improvement is C1 or C depending on NDE and quality assurance for execution see Table A-5 in Appendix A.. T σ A B Depth of grinding should be 0.`. The designer is advised to improve the details locally by other means... For cruciform joints and heavy stiffened tubular joints it may be assumed that the hot spot stress is mainly due to membrane stress. However. if the fabricator is without experience with respect to hammer peening. The treatment should produce a smooth concave profile at the weld toe with the depth of the depression penetrating into the plate surface to at least 0.4 TIG dressing The fatigue life may be improved by TIG dressing by a factor given in Table 7-1. Figure 7-1 Weld profiling of cruciform joint --``. this method may not be recommended for general use at the design stage.01fy Grinding Higher than 350 MPa 3. Reference is made to Figure 72. The reduced local stress in equation (7.3. will produce only little improvement in fatigue strength.011fy 4. σ Figure 7-2 Grinding of welds R ϕ T Weld Profiling 7. the results from this can be used directly to derive membrane stress and bending stress.`. DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.. (It is assumed that R/T = 0.`--- 7. However. Grinding a weld toe tangentially to the plate surface..`. the hot spot stress is rather high.5 mm below the bottom of any visible undercut (see Figure 7-2). see also DNV-OS-C101 Design of Steel Structures..5 Less than 350 MPa 0.

type of loading.. Otherwise an extended life may be based on results from performed inspections throughout the prior service life. The uncertainty in Miner summation is described as log normal with median 1. August 2005 Page 41 — Overload in compression must be avoided.3 % due to the safety in the S-N curve if uncertainties in other parameters are neglected. Figure 9-4 and Figure 9-5 shows accumulated probability of fatigue failure for uncertainty in S-N data corresponding to a standard deviation of 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``-`-`. because the residual stress set up by hammer peening will be destroyed.0 and CoV = 0. It is recommended to use Eddy Current or Magnetic Particle Inspection for inspection of surface cracks starting at hot spots.``..`..2. Calculated fatigue life forms the basis for assessment of probability of fatigue cracking during service life. e. However.20 in log N scale... Standard deviation = 0. Crack growth characteristics. the fatigue damage at this hot spot may be considered to start again at zero.``. Reference is made to Figure 9-3 which shows accumulated probability of a fatigue failure as function of years in service for different assumptions of uncertainty in the input parameters. The peening tip must be small enough to reach weld toe. Uncertainties on the most important parameters in the fatigue design procedure are accounted for when probability of fatigue failure is calculated. 2) Reliability of inspection method used. it is recommended that the considered details are evaluated in terms of improvement of local geometry to reduce its stress concentration. --``. and possibility for redistribution of stress). also this fatigue damage may be reassessed taking into account: — the correlation with a ground neighbour hot spot region that has not cracked — an updated reliability taking the reliability of performed in-service inspections into account as discussed above.````. this method may not be recommendable for general use at the design stage. also section 9. Due to uncertainties regarding workmanship and quality assurance of the process. a further grinding should be performed to remove any indication of this crack. If more than 10% of the thickness is removed by grinding.1 General Large uncertainties are normally associated with fatigue life Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. From Figure 9-1 it might be concluded that a design modification to achieve a longer calculated fatigue life is an efficient mean to reduce probability of a fatigue failure. Reliability methods may be used to illustrate the effect of uncertainties on probability of a fatigue failure.0 is shown in Figure 9-3. The left part of this figure corresponding to the first 20 years service life is shown in Figure 9-4. Design Fatigue Factors for different areas should be defined in Company specifications to be used as a contract document for construction.Amended October 2006. This depends on type of joint.30.0 and CoV equal 0. (The loading including all analyses of stress is assumed normal distributed with CoV = 25%. An example of this is shown in Figure 9-1 based on mean expected uncertainties for a jacket design from ”Reliability of Calculated Fatigue Lives of Offshore Structures”. i.3).`--- 9. For details showing a short fatigue life at an early design stage. /17/. At an early design stage it is considered more cost efficient to prepare for minor geometric modifications than to rely on methods for fatigue improvement under fabrication and construction. Also. Extended fatigue life An extended fatigue life is considered to be acceptable and within normal design criteria if the calculated fatigue life is longer than the total design life times the Fatigue Design Factor. This figure shows the results for DFF = 1.0..20 in S-N data that is assumed normal distributed in logarithmic scale and the Palmgren-Miner is assumed log normal distributed with median 1. One may achieve results for other values of DFFs by multiplication of the time scale on the abscissa axis by the actual DFF that is considered used. ref.`. The effect of scatter in S-N data may be illustrated by Figure 9-2 where the difference between calculated life is shown for mean S-N data and design S-N data (which is determined as mean minus 2 standard deviations).. crack length/depth as function of time/number of cycles (this depends on type of joint. Other uncertainties are load and response assumed as normal distributed with CoV 15-20% and hot spot stress derivation also assumed as normal distributed with CoV equal 5-10%. It should also be remembered that if renewal of one hot spot area is performed by local grinding. there are likely other areas close to the considered hot spot region that are not ground and that also experience a significant dynamic loading. assessments. 8..`. the effect of this on increased stress should be included when a new fatigue life is assessed. An expected long term stress range is aimed for in the design response analysis.0 implies a probability of a fatigue crack during service life equal 2.`. the fatigue life of such regions can not be improved by grinding of the surface. Elapsed time from last inspection performed. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . The accumulated probability of failure is independent of design life (and need not be linked to 20 years service life. it implicitly forms the basis for requirement to in-service inspection. Thus. A normal distribution in logarithmic scale is assumed. Provided that grinding below the surface to a depth of approximately 1. Uncertainties in Fatigue Life Prediction 9. — It is recommended to grind a steering groove by means of a rotary burr of a diameter suitable for the hammer head to be used for the peening.. The effect of using Design Fatigue Factors (DFF) larger than 1. This figure shows the probability of a fatigue failure the last year in service when a structure is designed for 20 years design life. This figure is derived by probabilistic analysis where the uncertainty in loading is included in addition to uncertainties in S-N data and the Palmgren-Miner damage accumulation rule. ref. A Design Fatigue Factor equal 1. The same figure also shows the accumulated probability of failure the service life as function of DFF. For welded connections that are ground and inspected for fatigue cracks the following procedure may be used for calculation of an elongated fatigue life. If a fatigue crack is found. In some cases as much as 30% of the plate thickness may be removed by grinding before a weld repair is resorted to.. The fatigue damage at this region is the same as earlier. Such an evaluation should be based on: 1) Calculated crack growth.0 mm is performed and that fatigue cracks are not found by a detailed Magnetic Particle Inspection of the considered hot spot region at the weld toe. loading condition and accessibility for a repair. It should be noted that fatigue cracks growing from the weld root of fillet welds can hardly be detected by NDE..``. such as grinding and hammer peening.

``-`-`.``.6 0.00000001 0..`.0000001 0.``.01 Probability of fatigue failure 0.00001 0..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.4 0..`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.000000001 0 0..0001 0.`. August 2005 Page 42 Amended October 2006..N dat a ( mean minus 2 st andar d dev iat ions) Mean S.2 0...1 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ..N dat a --``.`.. see note on front cover 1 0..``.8 1 1.2 C alcu lated fatigue dam age Figure 9-1 Calculated probability of fatigue failure as function of calculated damage 200 Calculated fatigue life in years 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 250 300 350 400 Ma x imum a llow a ble stre ss ra nge in MPa Figure 9-2 Effect of scatter in S-N data on calculated fatigue life Design S.001 0.`.````..000001 0.

15.20.50 0. CoVnom = 0.``-`-`...00 0 50 100 Time in service (years) Figure 9-4 Accumulated probability of fatigue crack as function of service life for 20 years design life Uncertainty in S-N-Curve only Uncertainty in S-N. Miner.40 0.``.60 0.01 0. CoVnom = 0.05 Uncertainty in S-N. CoVnom = 0.15. Miner. CoVhs = 0.00001 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Design Fatigue Factor 8 9 10 Figure 9-3 Fatigue failure probability as function of design fatigue factor 1.`.````..30 0.``.`. CoVhs = 0..10 150 200 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale..`--- 0. CoVnom = 0..80 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..20. Miner.1 Accumulated Probability Annual Probability Failure probability --``.Amended October 2006.10 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .05 Uncertainty in S-N.70 0.90 Accumulated probability of fatigue failure 0..`. August 2005 Page 43 0.00 0.001 0. CoVhs = 0.10 Uncertainty in S-N. Miner. CoVhs = 0..20 0.0001 0..``..`.

If a fatigue crack is without substantial consequences an accumulated probability of 10-2 may be considered acceptable and from Figure 9-5 it is not required inspection the first 6 years. CoVhs = 0. July 1997. HSE. Olaisen.000001 0. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. References /1/ /2/ Classification Note No 30. Stress: CoVnom = 0.2 Requirements to in-service inspection for fatigue cracks Uncertainties associated with fatigue life calculation normally imply that some in-service inspection for fatigue cracks will be required during service life depending on consequence of a fatigue failure and calculated fatigue life. K. May 1976.T. and Wardenier. J.. number 5. Holtsmark. Paper No 55.. J.01 0.. London.R. Stress: CoVnom = 0.. CoVhs = 0. Recent Developments in Tubular Joint Technology. the Welding Institute Research Bulletin.: The Basis for the Revised Fatigue Design Rules in the Department of Energy Offshore Guidance Notes.`.. 239-250. August 1991. May 1982. Wang. M. July 1977.10 Uncertainty in S-N. OTC paper no 4407. G. and Kan. Miner. Løseth. Stress: CoVnom = 0.: An Analtyical study of Stress Concentration Effects in Multibrace Joints under Combined Loading. Lotsberg. Gurney. Houston..````.Stress: CoVnom = 0. Volume 17. BS7910:1999. BOSS’97. CoVhs = 0. E.: Fatigue Assessment of Floating Production Vessels. Miner. : Proceedings of the First International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference.00001 0. For other calculated fatigue lives (Lcalc) the numbers on the abscissa axis can be scaled by a factor f = Lcalc/20 for estimate of time to first required inspection. CoVhs = 0.10 Figure 9-5 Accumulated probability of through wall fatigue crack as function of service life for 20 years calculated fatigue life (Left part from Figure 9-4) 9. pp. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``. Figure 9-5 may be used for a first estimate of time to a first inspection based on the lower graph in this figure if normal uncertainties are associated with the fatigue life calculation. February 1993. K. Miner. Eurocode : Design of steel structures.`--- /10/ Guidance on Design. Efthymiou.: Stress Concentration Factors for Ring-Stiffened Tubular Joints.. Int.00000001 Uncertainty in S-N curve only 0. Guidance on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Fusion Welded Structures.. (Normally a calculated fatigue life significantly longer than 20 years would be required for a large consequence connection during design).20. Smedley.`. Publ by Int Soc of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE). Edinburgh.0000001 Accumulated probability of fatigue failure 0. OTJ’88. BSI.: Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for use in Fatigue Analysis.``. Figure 9-5 is derived for a calculated fatigue life equal 20 years. and Valsgård. K. Gurney. P.001 0. Parker. A. Cramer. February 1995. San Francisco. /6/ /7/ /8/ /3/ /9/ /4/ /5/ /11/ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.``-`-`.0001 0.: IIW Fatigue Rules for Tubular Joints. After a first inspection the time interval to the next inspection can be estimated based on fracture mechanics and probabilistic analysis taking the uncertainty in the inspection method into account. R. .15. conf. 10. M.: Fatigue Design Rules for welded Steel Joints.``. R.7 Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. on Performance of Dynamic Loaded Welded Structrues.. see note on front cover 0.. C. Construction and Certification. Van Wingerde.`. October 1988. Y. I. Gulati.05 Uncertainty in S-N. T.. August 2005 Page 44 Amended October 2006.20. and Fischer. Miner.. A. Draft 1999.. If the consequence of a fatigue crack is substantial the accumulated probability of a fatigue failure should be less than 10-4 and from Figure 9-5 an inspection would be required after 2 years. S.05 Uncertainty in S-N.15.. J. W.1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time in service (years) Uncertainty in S-N.``.. S.`.. Det Norske Veritas 2003.

Ø. E. O. Houston 2004. IIW... May 1993. VDI 2230 Part 1: Systematic Calculation of High Duty Bolted Joints. L. Choo. John Wiley & Sons. P. S. The International Institute of Welding. August 1988.``-`-`. J. XIII-1815-00. pp. June 2001. Van Wingerde. H. I. and Larsen... deBack Elsevier Science Publishers B. and Lotsberg.. C. Lotsberg. . Houston 2004. NTNU (In Norwegian).OMAE. NJ. Paetzold. Buitrago. August 2005 Page 45 /12/ /13/ /14/ /15/ /16/ /17/ /18/ /19/ /20/ /21/ /22/ /23/ /24/ /25/ /26/ /27/ /28/ /29/ /30/ Berge. San Diego. Pilkey.. and Landet.Amended October 2006. Wästberg. Y. “Recommended Methodology for Analysis of Structural Stress for Fatigue Assessment of Plated Structures”. Sun.. Conf. Landet. Bucharest. I.. Houston. (2001). and Haagensen. S. 1987. Heo. Int. of Offshore and Polar Engineering. I..: Fatigue Performance of Single-sided Circumferential and Closure Welds in Offshore Jacket Structures. “Inspection Planning of a Critical Block Weld in an FPSO”. S-N. --``. J. J. Houston 2004.. Waløen. G. J. Berge. DNV Offshore Standard.`.. Second Edition. Noorhook and J. OTC Paper no 4829.. ISOPE.`. Revision 5 July 2004. /31/ /32/ /33/ /34/ /35/ /36/ /37/ /38/ /39/ /40/ /41/ /42/ /43/ /44/ /45/ /46/ /47/ /48/ /49/ Fricke... I. Davies. Proc. Houston... Chen. 1996. Recommendations of IIW Joint Working Group XIII-1539-96/XV-845-96.Slind. 2003. “Hot Spot S-N Curve for Fatigue Analysis of Plated Structures”.. Å. Lotsberg. S. 1997 OMAE.. P. 2003. Int. Int. Edited by A. Fatigue 84. Tapir. S. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. E. “Fatigue Capacity of Fillet Welded Connections subjected to Axial and Shear Loading”. Gunleiksrud.: Special Task Committee VI. 2004.``. S. Houston 2004. W. Bergan. ASME 2000. 15th ISSC... edited by C. 799-810. W. S. Doc. R.S. January 1999. 1997 OMAE. OMAE-FPSO'04-0017. Maddox.. 11th ISOPE. Lotsberg. Houston... W. O. Int. and Zahidul Hasan. W. N. N. Houston 2004. OTC Paper No. Amsterdam. ASME 1997. (2004). Houston 2004.: Maskindeler 2.: Peterson’s Stress Concentration Factors. . Conf. W.. Proceedings OMAE Vancouver. and Lotsberg. H.. Inc. and Lotsberg. E.: API Provisions for SCF. “Recommended Hot Spot Analysis Procedure for Structural Details of FPSOs and Ships Based on Round-Robin FE Analyses”.V. J.. May 1984. OTC Paper no 7155.. P. P. Storsul. P. and Nichols. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . Kristofferesen.2 Fatigue Strength Assessment. and Marshall. H. Berge." Ed. and Maddox. E. Lotsberg. OMAE-FPSO'04-0013. J. Ninth Int. W. L. I.: IIW Recommendations on Post Weld Improvement of Steel and Aluminium Structures. Landet. Conf. P. O. OMAE-FPSO'04-0014.: “Low Cycle Fatigue Strength Assessment for Ship Structures”. and Kahlish.`. OMAE-FPSO'04-0012. S. Also Int.. C. I.. Maherault. J. Houston. Haagensen. D.. S. 4775. Conf. “Recommended Methodology for Analysis of Structural Stress for Fatigue Assessment of Plated Structures”.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.`. J. and Lotsberg. O. 1993 E & FN spon. I. “Stress Analysis of Cut-outs with and without Reinforcement”. I. Sharp. Conf. G.: ”Fatigue Design Criteria for Small Super Duplex Steel Pipes”. Conf. and Foss. A. 29-51. Dutta. I. and Zettlemoyer. I. Steel in Marine Structures.S. Prentice-Hall. C. R.. Conf. Houston. Int.. Packer. 12. S. B. Conf.. S. No. Birmingham. Conf. I. J.: Stress Concentration Factors at Circumferential Welds in Tubulars. Proc.. Lotsberg. IIW Document no XIII-2000-03 (XV-1146-03). Conf. Stavanger. Astrup. J. “Fatigue Test Data for Welded Connections in Ship Shaped Structures” OMAE-FPSO'04-0018. 2004.. and Size-Profile Effects.: Fatigue of Welded Joints Peened Underwater. Eide.. and Lind. OMAE Rio de Janeiro. Houston 2004. Stavanger. OMAE-FPSO'04-0013.A. Razmjoo. and Rove. D. Lotsberg. (1986) Methods of Structural Safety. Journal of Marine Structures. and Lian.. Paper 65 in "Tubular Structures V. Kim. 2004. “Hot Spot Stress Evaluation for Selected Connection Details”. M. “Fatigue Design of Welded Pipe Penetrations in Plated Structures”. Landet. Int. K. G.: Combined Hot-Spot Stress Procedures for Tubular Joints. “Convergence Analysis for Welded Details in Ship Shaped Structures”. (2004). N. Wardenier.:Effect of Plate Thickness in Fatigue of Welded Joints in Air ans in Sea Water.: Scale Effects in Fatigue Design Data for Welded and Unwelded Components.G. Sigurdsson... Houston. C.````. 1. OMAE-FPSO'04-0028. Lotsberg. Storsul. G. Conf. P. S. OMAE-FPSO'04-0015. 1997.: Advances in Fatigue Assessment of FPSOs. Palm. 3-7 September 1984. Haagensen. J. A. T. and Ørjasæter. Conf. Vol 17/ 1 pp. Verein Deutsche Ingenieure. “Calculated and Measured Stress at Welded Connections between Side Longitudinals and Transverse Frames in Ship Shaped Structures”.. Madsen. “Key Development in the Fatigue Design of Welded Constructions”..: ”Reliability of Calculated Fatigue Lives of Offshore Structures”. March 2002. J. S. (2001). Int. Lotsberg. I. Lotsberg. “Fatigue Capacity of Side Longitudinals in Floating Structures”. H. H. –H and Tomita.. OMAE-FPSO'04-0016... Kihl. February 1990. on Fatigue and Fatigue Thresholds.. Conf. I. Int. I. Marine Structures. Yoo. Krenk. Portewin Lecture IIW Int. S. Lotsberg. Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components. E. Mikkola. OS-C101 Design of Steel Structures Lotsberg.: Proposed Revisions for Fatigue Design of Planar Welded Connections made of Hollow Structural Sections.: Developments in Fatigue Design Standards for Offshore Structures. I. Marshall. OMAE-FPSO'04-0032. and Lotsberg. M. OMAE 1995. Y. Fines. PRADS 2004. Coutie and G. and Sigurdsson. V. Å... J. Stacey. Zettlemoyer.``. Vol. I. Kim.M. Buitrago. J. 2nd Int. I and Landet. Hobbacher Abington Publishing. S.. T. H. D. N. I. S.``.. Houston. May 1984. Lotsberg. On Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Nielsen. –H. Shin. P. P. Int. ASME. Int. R.: Design Guidance on Fatigue of Welded Stainless Steel Joints.: Effect of Plate Thickness in Fatigue Design of Welded Structures. Urm.: Stress Concenteration Factors for Butt Welds in Stiffened Plates.

O.. Halkidiki.. C. and Sonsino. Greece.. C. DNV-OS-F101 Submarine Pipeline Systems. Doerk. OMAE 2005-67549. Conf. Marine Structures NTNU 2002. see note on front cover /50/ /51/ /52/ /53/ /54/ /55/ /56/ /57/ /58/ Fricke. Int. June 2005. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. (2004). and Gruenitz. IIW-XIII-WG1-114-03..``. Chapter IX. Doc. O.`.`. G.````. July 2004. August 2005 Page 46 Amended October 2006. “Fatigue Strength Investigation and Assessment of Fillet-Welds around Toes of Stiffeners and Brackets. Houston.. : “Best Practice Guide on Statistical Analysis of Fatigue Data". Int.4. 2001.``-`-`. Ranestad Kaase. January 2000. Abington Publishing... Hobbacher.`--- .. and Maddox.`. A. S. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``.. ASME B.``. W. I..: IIW document XII-1965-03/XV-112703 Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded joints and Components.. Schneider. M. D. Lotsberg.: “Finite Element Analysis of SCF in Stiffener to Plate Connections”. OMAE-FPSO'04-0010.. Pre-Project Thesis.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. R. Code for Pressure Piping.31. A. (1998): Fatigue Assessment of Welded Joints by Local Approaches. Conf. DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers.. Background for Revision of DNV-RPC203 Fatigue Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures. J.``. Radaj.`. L.

4. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203... Machine gas cut or sheared material with no drag lines 3.10 for non-welded components made of high strength steel with a surface finish Ra = 3.``. usually either at surface irregularities or at corners of the cross-section. C 4.4.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . — No repair by weld refill.``-`-`. surface and rolling 2. In steel with boltholes or other stress concentrations arising from the shape of the member. fatigue failure will rarely occur in a region of plain material since the fatigue strength of the welded joints will usually be much lower. — At apertures the design stress area should be taken as the net cross-section area..`. 2..````.`. flaws to be improved by grindRolled sections ing..`. failure will usually initiate at the stress concentration. — For members that can acquire stress concentrations due to rust pitting etc. — All visible signs of edge discontinuities should be removed. The applied stress range shall include applicable stress concentration factors arising from the shape of the member. — Re-entrant corners (slope <1:4) or aperture should be improved by grinding for any visible defects. Subsequently dressed to remove all edge discontinuities No repair by weld refill. 1. fatigue cracks will initiate at the surface.. Re-entrant corners (slope <1:4) or aperture should be improved by grinding for any visible defects.`--- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.``.1 Non-welded details Table A-1 Non-welded details Notes on potential modes of failure In plain steel. to 2. 4. — — Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.. Rolled or extruded plates and flats — Sharp edges. curve C is required. — At apertures the design stress area should be taken as the net cross-section area. In welded construction. Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category B1 1... 1. Manually gas cut material or material with machine gas cut edges with shal.``.2 or better. B2 3. 3.`. August 2005 Page 47 APPENDIX A CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS A.Amended October 2006..— low and regular draglines. Reference is made to section 2.

Description Requirement 1. The shear stress to be calculated on Fitted bolts and normal bolts the shank area of the bolt.2 Bolted connections Table A-2 Bolted connections Detail Constructional details category C1 1. F1 W3 See Section 2.. 1.``. — For preloaded bolts.— Bolts subjected to reversal forces in shear shall be designed as ing stresses. Unsupported one-sided connections shall be avoided or else ef. 3.`. August 2005 Page 48 Amended October 2006. a slip resistant connection and 2.. Bolts and threaded rods in tension. Thread not in shear plane.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. “Maskindeler 2”. ref.`. and 2. the stressrange in the bolt depends upon the level of preload and the geometry of the connection. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .8. --``.. plates. /23/.`. 3.``-`-`. — Tensile stresses to be calculated using the tensile stress area of the bolt..`...— Stresses to be calculated in the gross section. Bolts in single or double shear. see note on front cover A.g.````.3 Cold rolled threads with no following heat treatment like hot galvanising Cut threads 4.. fects of eccentricities shall be taken into account when calculat.``.. only the members need to be Beam splices or bolted cover checked for fatigue.. see e.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 2..``. without load reversal. 3..

`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.`... execution of the repair. and 2. Although an edge distance can be specified only for the “width” direction of an element. If they are attached by welding. weld spatter. in Table A-8 2.. such welds must also comply with the relevant joint classification requirements (note particularly that tack welds. With the excess weld material dressed flush.`. category B2 may be used. August 2005 Page 49 A.``.``-`-`. ried out to verify the proper 2.Amended October 2006. fatigue cracks would be expected to initiate at weld defect locations.``. If undercutting occurs it should subsequently be ground smooth..`. of undercut.. In the as welded condition.`. would reduce the joint to class F) Edge distance An edge distance criterion exists to limit the possibility of local stress concentrations occurring at unwelded edges as a result.. 1. cracks may initiate at start-stop positions or. at weld surface ripples.````. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . it is equally important to ensure that no accidental undercutting occurs on the unwelded corners of. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 1. Automatic welds carried out from both sides. If a specialist inspec. or accidental overweave in manual fillet welding (see also notes in Table A-7).. Automatic fillet welds. they must be continuous. General comments a) Backing strips If backing strips are used in these joints. b) C --``. for example.``. if these are not present.. for example cover plates or box girder flanges.— No start-stop position is permitted except when the retion demonstrates that longitudipair is performed by a nal welds are free from significant specialist and inspection carflaws.3 Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress Table A-3 Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure... 1. Cover plate ends shall be verified using detail 5.. unless subsequently ground out or covered by a continuous weld.

see note on front cover Table A-3 Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category C1 3. particularly for box girders 6.``.``. C2 5. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale... C2 7.``-`-`. — A very good fit between the flange and web plates is essential.. Prepare the web edge such that the root face is adequate for the achievement of regular root penetration with out brake-out. Manual fillet or butt welds.````. 3.. Automatic fillet or butt welds carried out from both sides but containing stop-start positions..`.`. Automatic butt welds made from one side only. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .`. 6. Manual or automatic butt welds carried out from one side only.. Repaired automatic or manual fil— Improvement methods that let or butt welds are adequately verified may restore the original category. — When the detail contains but without start-stop positions. with a backing bar... 7..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 4. start-stop positions use category C2 --``. 4.`. August 2005 Page 50 Amended October 2006.``.`--- 4...

2.`. 3. 3. Ends of continuous welds at cope holes...6 may be used together with the D-curve.. 3. August 2005 Page 51 A.4 Intermittent welds and welds at cope holes Table A-4 Intermittent welds and welds at cope holes Detail Constructional details category E 1. 1....Amended October 2006. tinuous weld F 2.`. — The SCFs from 3.1. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .``..``. — Cope hole not to be filled with weld material.5. with cope hole advice on fatigue assessment may be found in 3. 2..`. Stitch or tack welds not subsequently covered by a con. Description Requirement 1.`--- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.`. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. Cope hole and transverse butt — For butt weld in material weld. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``..````.``.6..— Intermittent fillet weld with gap ratio g/h ≤ 2.``-`-`.1.

1. and 3. achieved and the weld is 3.5 Transverse butt welds.````. spection category I). 2.`--- 3. Design stresses In the design of butt welds that are not symmetric about the root and are not aligned.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. 4 1 1 4 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .. welded from both sides Detail cate.``.g.`. C1 1.Constructional details Description Requirement gory Notes on potential modes of failure With the weld ends machined flush with the plate edges. 1. plate edges to be ground flush in direction of stress.`. welded from both sides Table A-5 Transverse butt welds.``... may be inand rolled sections creased to Category C when 2.. If the overfill is dressed flush.. Transverse splices in plates flats — Details 1. — Weld run-off pieces to be used and subsequently removed.. the stress concentration caused by it is removed. and 2.``-`-`.. and 2. and failure is then associated with weld defects. 1..3).``. so that the fatigue strength depends largely upon the shape of the weld overfill. proved free from significant Transverse splices in plates or defects by non-destructive flats tapered in width or in thickexamination (it is assumed ness where the slope is not greater that this is fulfilled by inthan 1:4. see note on front cover A.1 and 3.`. — All welds welded in horizontal position in shop. --``.. high quality welding is Flange splices in plate girders. e. fatigue cracks in the as-welded condition normally initiate at the weld toe. August 2005 Page 52 Amended October 2006. flanges of a beam that are supported by the web.. eccentricity may be neglected. — All welds ground flush to plate surface parallel to direction of the arrow..`. 2. With connections that are supported laterally. the stresses must include the effect of any eccentricity (see section 3.

`....`. August 2005 Page 53 Table A-5 Transverse butt welds. plate edges to be ground flush in direction of stress.. 5 6. welded from both sides (Continued) Detail cate. 4 1 1 4 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.`.````. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`. --``.``-`-`. 5. 4. and 6.``.Constructional details Description gory D 4.Amended October 2006.. with smooth transitions to the plate surface.``. 5.`--- Requirement 4.. — Welds made in flat position in shop.. Transverse splices in plates and flats. — Weld run-off pieces to be used and subsequently removed. — The height of the weld convexity not to be greater than 10% of the weld width..... see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. Transverse splices in rolled sections or welded plate girders 6.``. Transverse splices in plates or flats tapered in width or in thickness where the slope is not greater than 1:4.

: — The stress concentration has been accounted for in the joint classification. Transverse splice between plates of unequal width.. August 2005 Page 54 Amended October 2006.`..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`. — The width ratio H/h should be less than 2. flats. plate edges to be ground flush in direction of stress. — The height of the weld convexity not to be greater than 20% of the weld width. — Weld run-off pieces to be used and subsequently removed.. F1 r ≥ 0. 8. 7..````. see note on front cover Table A-5 Transverse butt welds... welded from both sides (Continued) Detail cate.``.``.`..11 h . rolled sections or plate girders made at site.``-`-`.) Requirement 7.`--- r ≥ 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``. 4 1 1 4 8. with the weld ends ground to a radius.Constructional details Description gory E 7... (Detail category D may be used for welds made in flat position at site meeting the requirements under 4. Transverse splices in plates.``.`. and 6 and 100 % MPI of the weld is performed. 8. 5....16 h F3 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.

6 Transverse butt welds.larger than 1-2 mm (in the thickness direcing strip. e. G 3.Amended October 2006.`.. eccentricity may be neglected. The analysis should then be based on a relevant defect size. 1.``.````. August 2005 Page 55 A.``-`-`.. Design stresses In the design of butt welds that are not symmetric about the root and are not aligned. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.. Table A-5.. the stresses must include the effect of any eccentricity (see section 3. 3. 2. By grinding of the root after welding this side of the welded connection can be categorised to C1 or C..``. the stress concentration caused by it is removed.g. In welds made on permanent backing strip...``. welded from one side Notes on potential modes of failure With the weld ends machined flush with the plate edges. Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category W3 1.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. fatigue cracks in the as-welded condition normally initiate at the weld toe. fatigue cracks most likely initiate at the weld metal/strip junction.. Transverse butt weld on a backing strip fillet welded to the plate. so that the fatigue strength depends largely upon the shape of the weld overfill. ref. --``.1 and 3. Butt weld made from one With the root proved free from defects side only and without back. flanges of a beam that are supported by the web. tion) by non-destructive testing. If it is likely that larger defects may be present after the inspection the detail may be downgraded from F3 based on fatigue life calculation using fracture mechanics... F 2. welded from one side Table A-6 Transverse butt welds.3). With connections that are supported laterally. detail 1 may be categorised to F3 (it is assumed that this is fulfilled by inspection category I). Transverse butt weld on a temporary or a permanent backing strip without fillet welds.. 1. and failure is then associated with weld defects.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`.`. If the overfill is dressed flush.

this is the reason for specifying an “edge distance” in some of this joints (see also note on edge distance in Table A-3).``.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ....`. 1....`.````. Doubling plate welded to a plate.``. 1.``. When the welds are on or adjacent to the edge of the stressed member the stress concentration is increased and the fatigue strength is reduced. as opposed to a double. August 2005 Page 56 Amended October 2006.7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure When the weld is parallel to the direction of the applied stress.`. weld cracks may also initiate at the weld root. and 2. 3.`--- 2. When the weld is transverse to direction of stressing. fatigue cracks normally initiate at the weld ends.``-`-`. for attachments involving a single..`... Longitudinal attachment welded to transverse stiffener. The cracks then propagate into the stressed member. see note on front cover A. cracks usually initiate at the weld toe. l E F F1 F3 l ≤ 50 mm 50 < l ≤ 120 mm 120 < l ≤ 300 mm l > 300 mm 3. — Edge distance ≥ 10mm — For edge distance < 10 mm the detail category shall be downgraded with one S-Ncurve 2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. The detail category is Welded longitudinal attachment given for: --``. 1. l E F F1 l ≤120 mm 120 < l ≤ 300 mm l > 300 mm Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale..

4... Gusset plate with a radius welded The specified radius to be to the edge of a plate or beam achieved by grinding..``-`-`..``. r ≥ 150mm 3 W 1 r 1 ≤ < 6 W 3 F F1 1 r 1 ≤ < 10 W 6 F3 1 r 1 ≤ < 16 W 10 1 r 1 ≤ < 25 W 16 G Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.``. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. then subsequently grinding the weld area parallel to the direction of the arrow so that the transverse weld toe is fully removed. end of fillet weld reinforcement (full penetration). August 2005 Page 57 Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category E 4. 5.`.Amended October 2006.`--- 5.`.... r r Requirement 4.````.`. Smooth transition radius r formed by initially machining or gas cutting the gusset plate before welding. r > 150 mm Longitudinal fillet welded gusset with radius transition to plate or tube. 5. length of reinforcement weld > r. --``.``. E 1 r ≤ .`..... flange. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .

6. 7.``.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .`--- G W1 W2 l ≤ 150 mm 150 < l ≤ 300 mm l > 300 mm Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Flange welded to another flange at crossing joints.. see note on front cover Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category 6. For main stress in the other beam the distance L will govern detail category.`... 7.... and 7: The distance l is governing detail category for the stress direction shown in sketch... August 2005 Page 58 Amended October 2006..`.``-`-`.`. l --``.````. Requirement 6. Gusset plate welded to the edge of a plate or beam flange.``..``.

9.````. Vertical stiffener welded to a — The stress range should be beam or a plate girder..... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .. Transverse attachments with edge distance ≥ 10 mm t 9.`..``. August 2005 Page 59 Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category 8.`... see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. stresses if the stiffener termiDiaphragms of box girders weldnates in the web.. 8.`.`--- E G Edge distance ≥ 10 mm Edge distance < 10 mm Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. Welded shear connector to base material..Amended October 2006. calculated using principal 10. E F t ≤ 25 mm t > 25 mm 11.``-`-`.. and 10. 9.`..``. 10. The detail category is given for: — Edge distance ≥ 10 mm — For edge distance < 10 mm the detail category shall be downgraded with one SNcurve 9. ed to the flange or web 8. 11. --``.``.

`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.: cruciform joint — Inspected and found free from significant defects. Secondly. See also section 2..``. must include the effect of any eccentricity. cracks normally initiate at the weld end and propagate into the plate perpendicular to the direction of applied stress. evaluated taking Category W3 for σw.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. see note on front cover A. — If the requirement in section 2.. In joints made with load-carrying fillet or partial penetration butt welds. F 1.`..7 that toe cracking is the most likely failure mode is fulfilled and the edge distance ≥ 10mm. — Stress in the main plate to be calculated on the basis of area shown in the sketch... 3. if the weld end is located on or adjacent to the edge of a stressed member rather than on its surface.5. weld failure is uncommon. Design stresses In the design of cruciform joints.Partial penetration tee-butt 2. root cracking is butt joint.. Crack in main plate. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .``. — Shear cracking in the weld should be verified using detail 7..`. Fillet welded overlap joint. August 2005 Page 60 Amended October 2006.`..`. 1.3.— Two fatigue assessments are required.. however. F1 3.``-`-`. which are not aligned the stresses. The detail category is given for: — Edge distance ≥ 10mm — For edge distance < 10mm the detail category shall be downgraded with one SN-curve W3 2. — Weld termination more than 10 mm from plate edge.7..: joint or fillet welded joint and effective full penetration in tee. σw is defined in section 2. The design stress may be obtained as the nominal stress multiplied by the stress concentration factor due to the eccentricity.``. 2 1 Stressed area of main plate --``. >1 0m m 3. Firstly. In welds parallel to the direction of the applied stress. and the fatigue strength is therefore reduced. t < 20 mm 2.. or at the weld root and propagate through the weld. The maximum value of the eccentricity may normally be taken from the fabrication tolerances. In this case.8 Welded joints with load carrying welds Table A-8 Welded joints with load carrying welds Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure Failure in cruciform or T joints with full penetration welds will normally initiate at the weld toe. Category F1 may be used for partial penetration welds and F3 for fillet welds. cracking may initiate either at the weld toe and propagate into the plate. toe cracking is evaluated by determining the stress range in the load-carrying plates and use Category G. The stress concentration is increased.````.Full penetration butt welded 1.

is necwith or without frontal weld. Cover plates ground to remove undercut. 6. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.Amended October 2006.. 5. G W3 E t and tc ≤ 20 mm t and tc > 20 mm 6.``..``. Continuous fillet welds transmitting a shear flow. Requirement 4. — Shear cracking in the weld should be verified using detail 7.. End zones of single or multiple — When the cover plate is wider than welded cover plates in beams the flange.. such as web to flange welds in plate girders.````.``...`..`. — Weld terminations more than 10 mm from the plate edge.. 7.. August 2005 Page 61 Table A-8 Welded joints with load carrying welds (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category W1 4.. 5. 7. Crack in overlapping plate. — Stress range to be calculated from the weld throat area considering the total length of the weld. Fillet welded overlap joint. essary.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. --``.``-`-`. tc t tc t 5. 6. — Stress to be calculated in the overlapping plate elements — Weld termination more than 10 mm from plate edge. For continuous full penetration butt weld in shear use Category C2. — Stress range to be calculated from the weld throat area. Fillet welded lap joint. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . a frontal weld..`. and 7. carefully and plate girders. 4.`.

— The shear stress to be calculated on the nominal cross section of the stud...``-`-`.`. 9.. the stiffener.`. see note on front cover Table A-8 Welded joints with load carrying welds (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category E 8. 9. — For a fillet weld or a partial penetration butt weld.``.````.. the bending stress range shall be calculated on the basis of the throat thickness of the weld.`.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .. 9.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..``. or the thickness of the stiffener if smaller.. August 2005 Page 62 Amended October 2006..``. Requirement 8.. F G Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. 8...`--- DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. Trapezoidal stiffener welded to — For a full penetration butt weld. the deck plate with fillet weld or bending stress range shall be calcufull or partial penetration butt lated on the basis of the thickness of weld. Stud connectors (failure in the weld or heat affected zone).

``.3. 7.7. ref. August 2005 Page 63 A. and 6. ref. The weld should be proved free from defects by non-destructive examination (It is assumed that this is fulfilled by Inspection category I). Circumferential butt welds A machining of the surfaces will reduce the made from one side that are thickness.````. Category C may be achieved. 5.. — Sharp edges and surface flaws to be improved by grinding B2 2. section 3..`--- .3. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``. and free from defects outside the tolerances of OS-C401 Table A-3) Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures. Circumferential butt weld made from one side without a backing bar. ref. Table A-5. see — No stop /start positions.7. Circumferential butt weld made from both sides dressed flush.`.. 3.. 7.`.`. A reduced thickness fects and weld overfill.will have to be removed. — The requirements to the corresponding detail category in Table A-5 apply. 3. 8. Circumferential butt weld made from one side on a backing bar.. 6.9 Hollow sections Table A-9 Hollow sections Detail Constructional details category B1 1. C1 D E F F3 7. — The applied stress must include the stress concentration factor to allow for any thickness change and for fabrication tolerances. 2.. Automatic longitudinal seam welds (for all other cases. 5. 8. C1 — The applied stress should include the stress concentration factor to allow for any thickness change and for fabrication tolerances. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for --``. Circumferential butt weld made from both sides made at site....``. Circumferential butt weld made from both sides.Amended October 2006.... should be used for calculation of stress. 4. Description 1. section 3. Specially on the root side material machined flush to remove de. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. 4.`. Non-welded sections Requirement 1.. 2. — The weld root proved free from defects larger than 1-2 mm.``-`-`.

. 10 and 11. Butt welded end to end connection of rectangular hollow — With the weld root proved free from defects larger than 1-2 mm sections.`. weld made from both sides. 11. weld made from one side without a backing bar. 14..`. weld made from one side on a backing bar. and 11.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.``. weld made from both sides made at site.`. August 2005 Page 64 Amended October 2006. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 . D E F F3 12. 12. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections.``.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 9..9.. (This classification is for the root. — Section width parallel to stress direction ≤ 100 mm.. section 3. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections. — Non load carrying welds.. Requirement 8.. 10. 10. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections.. — The requirements to the corresponding detail category in Table A-5 apply. F 14. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections. ref. Circular or rectangular hollow section. Description 8.``-`-`. 13. 13..``.3. — All other cases.`.````. — The applied stress must also include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint — The weld root proved free from defects larger than 1-2 mm. see note on front cover Table A-9 Hollow sections (Continued) Detail Constructional details category C1 8. 9. weld made from both sides dressed flush. see Table A-7 --``. 12..... 14. For the outside weld toe see 8-11).. fillet welded to another section.. — The applied stress must also include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint. 9. F3 13..

`.``-`-`. W1 16.`. 16. — Welds inspected and found free from determediate plate. Circular hollow section butt welded end to end with an in. — Load carrying welds. Description Requirement 15... August 2005 Page 65 Table A-9 Hollow sections (Continued) Detail Constructional details category G 15.`--- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. 16..— Load carrying welds. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``..``.``.. Rectangular hollow section butt welded end to end with an intermediate plate. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..`.. fects outside the tolerances of DNV-OSC401 Fabrication and testing of Offshore Structures — Details with wall thickness greater than 8mm may be classified Category F3. — Welds inspected and found free from defects outside the tolerances of DNV-OSC401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures — Details with wall thickness greater than 8 mm may be classified as Category G.````..`.``... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . 15..Amended October 2006.

. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 . E F t ≤ 25 mm t > 25 mm --``. F1 2.. see note on front cover A.`.````.. and 4...10 Details relating to tubular members Table A-10 Details relating to tubular members Detail Constructional details category T Description 1... 3. 4.``. 3.`.3. Welded rungs. 2. D 3. The nominal design stress for the inside Parent material at the toe of a may be determined from section 3. — The design stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint. Parent material adjacent to the toes of full penetration welded tubular joints.8. Gusseted connections made with full penetration welds. — The design should be based on the hot spot stress. August 2005 Page 66 Amended October 2006. 5... F 5. Requirement 1. 4.``-`-`.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. — The design stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint.. Gusseted connections made with fillet welds.`. weld attaching a diaphragm to a tubular member.``.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`..``.

8. Class depends on attachment length (see Table A-7) but stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall shape of adjoining structure. C 7..`. Parent material (of the stressed member) adjacent to the toes of — a bevel butt or fillet welded attachments in region of stress concentration.1. 9.`--- Description Requirement 6. 7.``. W3 C 9. see Table A-7 --``. See also section 3. — The stress in the plate should include the stress concentration factor due to the overall geometry of the detail.1. Parent material to. See also section 3. 6.. At fillet weld toe in parent metal around a penetration in a plate. Without start and stop at hot spot region.... C C-C Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.``.. D 8.5. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .Amended October 2006. The stress in the weld should include an appropriate stress concentration factor to allow for the overall joint geometry.. 6...5. Weld metal in partial penetra— tion or fillet welded joints around a penetration through the wall of a member (on a plane essentially parallel to the plane of stress). Reference is also made to Appendix C.5.``. or weld metal in welds around a penetration through a wall of a member (on a plane essentially perpendicular to the direction of stress) 7.`.`.`. August 2005 Page 67 Table A-10 Details relating to tubular members (Continued) Detail Constructional details category E to G.1. See also section 3. In this situation the relevant stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall geometry of the detail. 8.``-`-`.````.

e) and h) shows joints with a combination of classifications. Joint classification is the process whereby the axial force in a given brace is subdivided into K. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.. the axial force in the brace is carried through the chord to braces on the opposite side.`.````. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``.`.`..``... the axial force in the brace should be balanced to within 10% by forces in other braces in the same plane and on the same side of the joint.. for joint types X in Table B-2.1 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints and overlap joints Stress concentration factors for tubular joints for joint types T/ Y are given in Table B-1.`--- . Definitions of geometrical parameters can be found in Figure B-2. In c) 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal in a Kjoint and 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a beam shear force in the chord in a Y-joint. For purposes of this provision. Such subdivision normally considers all of the members in one plane at a joint. Stress concentration factors are based on “Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for use in Fatigue Analysis"..``. /2/. brace planes within ±15º of each other may be considered as being in a common plane. the axial force in the brace is reacted as beam shear in the chord. Figure B-1 c).Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. A conservative classification may be used keeping in mind that: SCFX > SCFY > SCFK. The classification can be a mixture between the above three joint types. For Y-joint classification. Each brace in the plane can have a unique classification that could vary with action condition. X and Y components of actions corresponding to the three joint types for which stress concentration equations exists.. see note on front cover APPENDIX B SCF’S FOR TUBULAR JOINTS B.``.. For a brace to be considered as K-joint classification. ref.`. In h) 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal on the same side of the chord in a K-joint and 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal on the opposite side of the chord in a X-joint. for joint types K in Table B-3 and Table B-4 and for joint types KT in Table B-5. Figure B-1 provides some simple examples of joint classification. In e) 33% of the incoming diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal in a Kjoint with gap 1 and 67% of the incoming diagonal force is balanced with a force in the other diagonal in a K-joint with gap 2.``-`-`. August 2005 Page 68 Amended October 2006.... A classification of joints can be based on a deterministic analysis using a wave height corresponding to that with the largest contribution to fatigue damage. For X-joint classification.

..``...``-`-`.`..`.`.`--- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.Amended October 2006. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``..````.. August 2005 Page 69 Figure B-1 Classification of simple joints Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``..``....

``.``.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .````.. --``.`...`. August 2005 Page 70 Amended October 2006. see note on front cover d d t t T T D crown Θ D Θ crown saddle L β= d D dA α= 2L D γ= D 2T τ= t T dA D βB = dB D βA = BRACE A tA tB BRACE B dB τA = tA T τB = tB T T ΘA g ΘB D γ= D 2T ζ= g D dB dA A tA tB B C tC dC βA = dA D βB = dB D βC = dC D τA = tA T τB = tB T τC = tC T T ΘA ΘB ΘC D γ= g AB g BC D 2T ζ AB = g AB D ζ BC = g BC D Figure B-2 Definition of geometrical parameters...``-`-`.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale..`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.....``..

No.47 β + 0. (3)) Brace crown: ( ) (6) None F2 3 + γ1.(1)) + C1 ( 0.06γ -1.01α ) Brace crown: ( ) (3) F1 3 + γ 1.77β ) (sin θ )(0.2 8 4 20° ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ β τ γ α θ ζ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 1.12 exp (− 4 β) + 0.6 β sinθ Table B-1 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular T/Y Joints Load type and fixity condi.1 0.`.Amended October 2006.`.85 γ (1 − 0..2 τ 2.2 ) Chord saddle: ( ) (4) None (Eqn.````.52α 0.045 + β τ ( C3 α − 1.``.0 1.45β τ 0.187 − 1.4 γ (1.13..16 ) Chord saddle: (9) None γ τ β 1. − 0.2) Chord crown: ( ) (7) None 1.`..1 α − 1..`..54 γ −0.045 + β τ(0....0 Reference is made to Section 2.2 0.011β 2 − 0.99 − 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.25 α − 3) sin θ Brace saddle: ( ) (2) None 1.52) ( 2 ) (sin θ) 1.6 Brace saddle: ( ) (10) F3 τ −0. Short chord correction Axial loadGeneral fixity conditions In-plane bending Out-of-plane bending Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. August 2005 Page 71 The validity range for the equations in Table B-1 to Table B-5 is as follows: 0.96 ) (sin θ )(2.05 0.``.2 0..7 Brace crown: (8) None 1 + 0.09 − 0.65 + 5 (β − 0.1 1.7 -0.65)2 + τ β ( C 2 α − 3) sinθ Brace saddle: (Eqn. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .68β ) (sin θ )0.SCF equations tions Axial loadChord ends fixed Chord saddle: Eqn..12exp (− 4β ) + 0.``.011β2 − 0.1 (β − 0.11 − 3 (β − 0.10)) ( ) (11) F3 Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale..5 (sin2θ )2 (5) F2 γ 0.65β τ 0.7 − 1.2 τ 2.2 0.6 (1) F1 Chord crown: γ 0.3 + γ τ0.65)2 + τ β (0.2 if actual geometry is outside validity range.65 + 5 (β − 0.``-`-`.8 α − 6 ) τ β 2 1 − β 2 Chord crown: ( ) 0.`--- γ τ1.0 32 40 90° 1.05β 3 (sin θ )1.08 β 4 ⋅ ( Eqn.25β1.

71 γ -1.7 ( ) ( ) F2 = 1 . see note on front cover Table B-1 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular T/Y Joints (Continued) Chord-end fixity parameter Short chord correction factors (α < 12) C1 = 2(C-0.89 α 1.16 2.99 − 0..5 ( ) ( ) F3 = 1 ..8 γ 0.05 0. Typically C = 0.97 β 2 − 0.9 γ τ 0.23 -1.`.03 γ 0.0.0.. August 2005 Page 72 Amended October 2006. (16) and (17) can be reduced by the factor F3 where: ( ) (17) M F3 = 1 .54 γ −0.12exp ( − 4β ) + 0.89 α 1.`.0.(16)) In joints with short chords (α < 12) eqns.04 exp .``. (12) Table B-2 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple X Tubular Joints Load type and fixity SCF equation conditions Axial load (balanced) Chord saddle: P 3.1.0.21 γ α C3 = C/5 C = chord end fixity parameter 0.0.21 γ -1.47 β + 0.6 Brace saddle: ( ) (16) τ −0. (8)) Brace crown: (Eqn.5 (14) Brace crown: 3 + γ 1.04 exp ...16 exp where exp(x) = ex ( .`.````.0.97 β 2 − 0.0.5) C2 = C/2 2 0.38 α 2.16α 2.9 1.02 γ exp .`.1.0.7 P ( ) (sin θ ) 2.5 β 0.23exp ...``.09 − β 1.43 β .43 β .71 γ -1.8 Chord crown: ( ) (sin θ ) 1.56 − 1.0. no.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .16 exp .0.0.49 γ -0.0.34β 4 (sin θ )1.38 α 2.``.65 + 5 (β − 0.8 ) Eqn.56 β 2 − 0.55 β 1..03 γ 0.8 γ 0.0.045 ) (15) In joints with short cords (α < 12) the saddle SCF can be reduced by the factor F1 (fixed chord ends) or F2 (pinned chord ends) where F1 = 1 .5 In plane bending Chord crown: (Eqn.011 β 2 − 0.83 β .65 )2 − 3 τ β sin θ Brace saddle: ( ) (13) 1 + 1.10 − β 1.5 F1 = 1 .`--- Chord saddle: γ τ β 1.02 γ 0. (9)) ( ) ( Out of plane bending (balanced) M Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.55 β 1.83 β .49 γ -0..0..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 ( ) ( ) ) F2 = 1 .8 ( ) DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.7 γ 0.2 τ 2.2 ( 0.56 β − 0.0.5 ≤ C ≤ 1.87 γ τ β 1.08 β 4 ⋅ (Eqn.``-`-`.

23 exp .89 α 1.0.`--- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. (10)) Brace saddle: (Eqn.49 γ -0...83 β .03 Out-of-plane bending on one brace Chord saddle: only: (Eqn.43 β ..``.0.0.0.38 α 2.26 β ) ⋅ (Eqn.16 α 2. (10)and (11) can be reduced by the factor F3 where: F3 = 1 .97 β 2 − 0.``..21 γ -1..0.````.71 γ -1. August 2005 Page 73 Table B-2 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple X Tubular Joints (Continued) Axial load in one brace only Chord saddle: (1 − 0..5 ( ) In joints with short chords (α < 12) eqns.6)) Brace saddle: (1 − 0.`..8 γ 0.0.Amended October 2006.0.55 β 1.26 β ) ⋅ (Eqn.``-`-`. (11)) ( )γ 0.5 ( ) F2 = 1 ..02 ( )γ 0.``.16 exp ..56 β 2 − 0.`.8 ( ) Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.`.. (3)) 3 (19) Brace crown: (Eqn.1. (5)) 3 (18) Chord crown: (Eqn.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. (7)) In joints with short chords (α < 12) the saddle SCFs can be reduced by the factor F1 (fixed chord ends) or F2 (pinned chord ends) where: F1 = 1 .04 exp .

30 ( 1.``-`-`.25 τ −0. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale..`--- 1 + 1. (8))) (21) None ( ) Unbalanced in plane bending Gap joint brace crown: (Eqn.`.64 + 0. β. (10))A is the chord SCF adjacent to brace A as estimated from Eqn.14 (sin θ )0. no.````.1.5 exp (.2 · (Eqn.99 − 0.5 exp (.8 x ) + (Eqn.1.29 β − 0.05 β 0.08 (β B γ )0.08 β 4 ⋅ (Eqn.2 β )) ⋅ C β 1. Short chord correction ⎛ sinθ max τ 0. see note on front cover Table B-3 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular K Joints and Overlap K Joints Load type and fixity conditions SCF equation Balanced axial load Chord: Eqn.08 (β where Aγ )0.`.97 − 1.05 0. (20)) + sin 1.38 ATAN ( 8 ζ ) ) --``.9 + 0.. It is nominated by the user.``.5 γ 0.54 γ − 0.16 γ -1.67 − β 2 + 1.`.0. (10).5 for the overlapping brace Note that τ..5 τ −1. (9)) Overlap joint brace crown: (Eqn. (10))B ( ) (1 − 0.084 ATAN ( 14 ζ + 4.``.5 exp(.. θ and the nominal stress relate to the brace under consideration ATAN is arctangent evaluated in radians Chord crown: (Eqn.131 − 0..47 β + 0.88 exp .0.30 ⋅ (20) None ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.9 γ 0.`. August 2005 Page 74 Amended October 2006.0.4 ( ) (Eqn. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .4b) (22) Unbalanced out-of-plane bending Chord saddle SCF adjacent to brace A: (Eqn.22 Where: C = 0 for gap joints C = 1 for the through brace C = 0.``. (10))A ⋅ 1 − 0. Note that the designation of braces A and B is not geometry dependent.5 0...8 (θ max + θ min ) ⋅ (0.16 β sinθ ⎜ ⎜ sinθ min ⎝ ⎛ β max ⎜ ⎜β ⎝ min Brace: ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.06 α 2..3 x )) max (23) F4 x = 1+ ζ sinθ A βA Brace A saddle SCF τ − 0...57 β 0.7 ⋅ (Eqn. (8)) (for overlaps exceeding 30% of contact length use 1. (23)) ( ) (24) F4 F4 = 1 ..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 x )) ( 2. (9)) · (0.07 β 1.

````.. (25)) (26) F3 ( ) Short chord correction factors: F1 = 1 .0. (10))A ⋅ 1 − 0.0.5 exp (.`. (7)) Note that all geometric parameters and the resulting SCF’s relate to the loaded brace. August 2005 Page 75 Table B-4 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular K Joints and Overlap K Joints Load type and fixity conditions Axial load on one brace only SCF equations Chord saddle: (Eqn. Short chord correction F1 F1 - (Eqn.47 β + 0. (6)) Brace saddle: (Eqn...02 γ 0. (8)) Brace crown: (Eqn.`--- .0. No.08 β 4 ⋅ (Eqn.`.56 β 2 − 0.0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 x ) where ( ) (25) F3 ζ sinθ A x = 1+ βA Brace saddle: τ −0..08 (β B γ )0. (5)) Chord crown: (Eqn.55 β 1.``..``. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for --``.``..(3)) Brace crown: (Eqn.8 γ 0.16 α 2.23 exp .21 γ -1.Amended October 2006.16 exp . (9)) Note that all geometric parameters and the resulting SCF’s relate to the loaded brace.54 γ −0. In-plane-bending on one brace only Chord crown: (Eqn.. Out-of-plane bending on one brace only Chord saddle: Eqn..89 α 1.0..8 ( ) ( ) ( ) Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.`.5 F3 = 1 .99 − 0.`..``-`-`.0.05 0.83 β ..49 γ -0.

08 (β Aγ )0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``. 27)) or (Eqn. (10)) A ⋅ 1 − 0.5 exp (.08 (β )0.1. use ζ = maximum of ζAB.1. (28)) ( ) (29) Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. In-plane bending Unbalanced out-of-plane bending Chord crown: (Eqn.5 exp(.0.5 exp(.``.54 γ −0.0.5 exp ( ..1.3 x BC )) (28) x AB = 1 + x BC = 1 + ⎛β P1 = ⎜ A ⎜β ⎝ B ζ AB sin θ B βB ζ BC sin θ B βB 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛β ⎞ P2 = ⎜ C ⎟ ⎜β ⎟ ⎝ B⎠ Out-of-plane bending brace SCFs 2 Out-of-plane bending brace SCFs are obtained directly from the adjacent chord SCFs using: τ −0.5 max exp (.0.08 (β C γ )0. (21)) For the diagonal braces A & C use ζ = ζAB + ζBC + βB For the central brace.0. August 2005 Page 76 Amended October 2006.`--- .````.05 β ) 0. see note on front cover Table B-5 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple KT Tubular Joints and Overlap KT Joints Load type SCF equation Balanced axial load Chord: (Eqn. (10)) B ⋅ 1 − 0.0. no.. ζBC Eqn...05 β 0.0.08 (β A γ )0.08 (β B γ )0.8x AC )( ))(2.05 β ))(2.47 β + 0. (10)) A ⋅ 1 − 0..08 (β B γ )0..0.`.8 x BC )) P2 + )0.08 β 4 ⋅ SCFchord where SCFchord = (Eqn.8 x AB ) 2.08 (β Cγ (Eqn.8 x AC ) + (Eqn(10))B ⋅ 1 − 0.5 exp(.3 x AB ) + max (Eqn.5 max exp (.. B.3x AB ))+ (27) 0..5 exp( .1.8 x BC )( ))( 2. (10))C where Bγ ( ⋅ (1 − 0.0.8 x AB ) ( ) P1 ⋅ (1 − 0. (9)) Chord saddle SCF adjacent to diagonal brace A: (Eqn.``.`.5 exp ( .`.08 (β A γ )0.05 β ) 0.05 0.``.5 max exp (.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8x AB ( (Eqn(10))C where ( ⋅ (1 − 0.5 exp (..99 − 0. (20)) Brace: (Eqn.5 exp (.3x AC )) x AB = 1 + ζ AB sin θ A βA x AC = 1 + (ζ AB + ζ BC + β B ) sin θ A βA Chord saddle SCF adjacent to central brace B: (Eqn.. (8)) Brace crown: (Eqn.`.8 x AB ) 1 − 0.``-`-`..

08(β B γ )0.``.``-`-`.8 x BC )) P2 x AB = 1 + ζ AB sin θ B βB (31) x BC ζ sin θ B = 1 + BC βB ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛β P1 = ⎜ A ⎜β ⎝ B ⎛β P2 = ⎜ C ⎜β ⎝ B Out-of-plane brace SCFs 2 Out-of-plane brace SCFs are obtained directly from the adjacent chord SCFs using: τ −0.08 (β A γ )0.0.5 exp(.05 0.0.08(β C γ )0. (10)) B ⋅ 1 − 0.08 β 4 ⋅ SCFchord ( ) (32) Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale...`--- (1− 0.````.`.8 x AB ) ( ) P1 ⋅ --``.5 exp (..54 γ −0.. (3)) Brace crown: (Eqn.`.8 x AB ) 1 − 0.99 − 0.`.08 (β where Cγ )0.Amended October 2006.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`.0..``. (10)) A ⋅ 1 − 0.. (7)) Out-of-plane bending on one Chord SCF adjacent to diagonal brace A: brace only (Eqn.0.8 x AC ) ( )( ) (30) where x AB = 1 + ζ AB sin θ A βA x AC = 1 + (ζ AB + ζ BC + β B ) sin θ A βA Chord SCF adjacent to central brace B: (Eqn.... see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 exp (.. August 2005 Page 77 Table B-5 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple KT Tubular Joints and Overlap KT Joints (Continued) Axial load on one brace only Chord saddle: (Eqn. (5)) Chord crown: (Eqn. (6)) Brace saddle: (Eqn.47 β + 0.``.5 exp(.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 78

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

**APPENDIX C SCF’S FOR PENETRATIONS WITH REINFORCEMENTS
**

C.1 SCF’s for small circular penetrations with reinforcement

C.1.1 General Stress concentration factors at holes in plates with inserted tubulars are given in Figure C-1 - Figure C-14. Stress concentration factors at holes in plates with ring reinforcement are given in Figure C-16 - Figure C-19. Stress concentration factors at holes in plates with double ring reinforcement given in Figure C-20 - Figure C-23. The SCFs in these figures may also be used for fatigue assessments of the welds. Stresses in the plate normal to the weld , ∆σn; and stresses parallel to the weld, ∆τ//, in equation 3.1.4 may be derived from the stresses in the plate. The total stress range, ∆σw, from equation 3.1.4 (or from equation 2.3.4) is then used together with the W3 curve to evaluate number of cycles until failure. C.1.2 Example of fatigue analysis of a welded penetration in plate A tubular Φ 800 x 15 is used as a sleeve through a deck plate of thickness 20 mm. The tubular will be welded to the deck plate by a double sided fillet weld. Assume Weibull parameter h = 0.90 and that the deck has been designed such that S-N class F3 details can be welded to the deck plate and still achieves a fatigue life of 20 years. From Table 5-2 a maximum stress range of 199.6 MPa during 108 cycles is derived for the F3 detail. Questions asked:

weld toe. A negative SCF value in some of the figures means that the resulting stress is negative at the hot spot for a positive stress in the plate. Thus for fatigue assessment the absolute value should be used. The C-curve applies to position Figure 3-4 a. The D-curve applies to weld toes of Figure 3-4 b. The W3-curve applies to weld root of Figure 3-4 c. Check of fatigue cracking at the Figure 3-4 a position: ∆σ = ∆σ0 x SCF = 199.6 x 2.17 = 433.13 MPa which is just within the acceptable value of 445.5 MPa for a C detail, ref. Table 5-2. Check of fatigue cracking at the Figure 3-4 a b position: ∆σ = ∆σ0 x SCF = 199.6 x 1.07 = 213.57 MPa which is well within the acceptable value of 320.8 MPa for a D detail, ref. Table 5-2. Thus the fatigue life of weld toe is acceptable. The required throat thickness is calculated as follows. From Table 5-2 a maximum stress range of 128.2 MPa for a W3 detail (Weibull shape parameter = 0.90). Then from considerations of equilibrium in direction normal to the weld toe:

**∆σ n = σ no min al SCF = 199.6 ⋅ 0.15 = 29.94
**

From considerations of equilibrium in direction parallel with the weld toe:

1) Is the fatigue life of the penetration acceptable with respect to fatigue cracking from the weld toe? 2) How large fillet weld is required to avoid fatigue cracking from the weld root? The following assessment is made: r/tp = 20, tr/tp = 0.75. It is assumed that H/tr = 5. Then from: Figure C-4 SCF = 2.17 applies to position Figure 3-4 a. Figure C-6 SCF = 0.15 applies to position Figure 3-4 c and weld root. Figure C-8 SCF = 1.07 applies to position Figure 3-4 b and weld toe. Figure C-10 SCF = 0.46 applies to position Figure 3-4 b and weld root. Figure C-12 SCF = -0.75 applies to position Figure 3-4 b and

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

**τ // p = σ nominal SCF = 199.6⋅ 0.46 = 91.82
**

Then from equation (3.1.4):

128.2 =

20 2a

(29.94)2 + 0.2 (91.82)2

From this equation a required throat thickness is a = 4.0 mm for both sides of the plate. This is a required weld size that is well below the minimum required weld size specified in ship classification rules.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 79

C.1.3 SCF’s for small circular penetrations with reinforcements

tr tr r

A A

tp H

A A

3.5

3.0

r/tp

2.5

100 SCF

2.0

50

1.5

20

1.0

10

0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

tr/tp

Figure C-1 SCF at hole with inserted tubular. Stress at outer surface of tubular, parallel with weld. H/tr = 2

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 80

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

tr tr r

A A

tp H

A A

3.5

3.0

r/tp 2.5 100 SCF 2.0 50

1.5 20 1.0

10 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 tr/tp

Figure C-2 SCF at hole with inserted tubular. Stress at outer surface of tubular, parallel with weld. H/tr = 5

1.5

2.0

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16

``.`.`..5 3.``-`-`. August 2005 Page 81 tr tr r A A tp H A A 3.`.5 1..`--- 2.0 0.``.Amended October 2006..`.0 50 1. parallel with weld.0 Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale..0 2.5 2..0 0.0 tr/tp 1.````... Stress in plate.5 SCF r/tp 100 Figure C-3 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .5 20 10 1.``. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.... H/tr = 2 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.

`.5 3.0 tr/tp 1..5 2.5 1....``.`--- 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. parallel with weld.`...``.0 Figure C-4 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.`.0 0.0 --``.5 SCF r/tp 2. August 2005 Page 82 Amended October 2006. H/tr = 5 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.0 100 50 20 10 0..5 1.``-`-`. see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 3. Stress in plate.``.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .0 2..`.````...

`.4 10 0.``-`-`..2 50 0.``.5 r/tp 0.8 2..1 100 0.``. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 1.0 --``.`.````.``. August 2005 Page 83 tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.3 SCF 20 0.4 1... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.0 0...6 0.6 1.. H/tr = 2 1.`.2 1..Amended October 2006.`. normal to weld. Stress in plate.0 0.4 0...0 tr/tp Figure C-5 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.2 0..

08/09/2007 10:41:16 .6 0.8 2. H/tr = 5 1.8 1.2 1.`.0 tr/tp Figure C-6 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.4 10 0.``.2 100 0.0 --``.2 0... Stress in plate.4 0.. August 2005 Page 84 Amended October 2006.3 SCF 20 50 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``-`-`.1 0.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale....``.`.5 r/tp 0.. normal to weld.4 1..0 0.0 0.`...````.`..6 1.``. see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.

4 0.8 2.0 0.3 20 1. H/tr = 2 1.2 SCF 1. Principal stress in plate.4 1.2 1.0 1.1 --``.6 0.`.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .``. August 2005 Page 85 For θ see Table 1 σ1 θ tr r tr A A H tp A A Table C-1 θ = angle to principal stress.0 0..Amended October 2006..`..9 0. H/tr = 2 tr/tp 0...````.0 r/tp = 10 90 72 56 50 46 r/tp = 20 90 80 63 54 50 r/tp = 50 90 86 75 64 57 r/tp = 100 90 88 82 73 66 1..5 1.0 100 0.6 1..`--- 50 1.`.2 0.`..``.``-`-`.0 tr/tp Figure C-7 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.8 1.0 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..4 r/tp 10 1.``..5 2.

0 0.`.0 tr/tp Figure C-8 SCF at hole with inserted tubular..``-`-`. Principal stress in plate.0 --``..4 0..0 0.0 r/tp = 10 90 66 54 49 46 r/tp = 20 90 72 58 52 48 r/tp = 50 90 80 65 56 52 r/tp = 100 90 85 72 62 56 1.`.0 1.. H/tr = 5 tr/tp 0.`..6 0..4 1.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.5 1.``.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..2 SCF 50 1...``.``.6 1. see note on front cover For θ see Table 2 σ1 θ tr r tr A A H tp A A Table C-2 θ = angle to principal stress.9 0.3 20 1. H/tr = 5 1.8 1. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ..2 1.2 0.`.1 100 1. August 2005 Page 86 Amended October 2006.5 2.4 r/tp 10 1..````.0 0.8 2.

see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.6 1.6 0.6 SCF 0.2 0.8 1. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for --``.``.``..`--- 100 ...`....8 0.0 tr/tp 1.0 0.4 0.````.4 0..`.1 0.0 r/tp 10 20 Figure C-9 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.. August 2005 Page 87 tr tr r A A tp H A A 1. H/tr = 2 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.0 0..5 50 0.2 0.0 0.7 0.3 0. Shear stress in plate..9 0.8 2.2 1.`.`.``.4 1.Amended October 2006..``-`-`.

.0 0.`--- A A 1. H/tr = 5 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``..`.8 1.`.``.0 100 DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.````.0 0.6 0.``.4 1.``-`-`.0 tr/tp 1.0 0.`..4 0.`.3 0..9 0.2 1...4 0.1 0...2 0.8 2.8 r/tp 10 20 0.2 0. August 2005 Page 88 Amended October 2006.6 0...5 0.7 50 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H SCF Figure C-10 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.. Shear stress in plate. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .``.6 1.

5 20 100 50 2.05 SCF 10 r/tp 0.Amended October 2006.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`. Stress in plate.`.0 tr/tp 1.`..``.00 100 50 -0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. normal to weld.5 1....0 Figure C-11 SCF at hole with inserted tubular..``. August 2005 Page 89 tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.``..0 0..`.````.05 20 10 -0...10 r/tp 0.``-`-`.10 0.. H/tr = 2 --``..15 0.

.25 r/tp 0..15 0.0 1.``..5 2.`.``... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``.10 0.`.05 0.`--- .. H/tr = 5 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. August 2005 Page 90 Amended October 2006. see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``-`-`.`.20 10 0.````.0 0..05 50 100 -0...0 tr/tp Figure C-12 SCF at hole with inserted tubular. normal to weld..10 SCF 0.``.5 1..00 20 -0. Stress in plate.

5 The following relation applies (a = throat-thickness): a/tR tR/tp 0. Max stress concentration --``.5 SCF 3.8 3.``-`-`.. August 2005 Page 91 B R A tR A Kg A A tp 3.``.``.`.33 0.6 0.0 Kg 3.``.40 1.5 0.0 0.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`.0 Figure C-13 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement...3 0..`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale..Amended October 2006.````.5 3.....0 0.5 0.3 1.2 1.7 0.4 B/R 0.4 tR/tp 0.2 0..`.5 0..1 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.1 3.71 1.

``...1 0.0 1.``..0 1.``.`..5 0.`.. Stress at inner edge of ring Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.5 0..5 1. August 2005 Page 92 Amended October 2006..5 0.5 3..`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 1.6 0.``-`-`. see note on front cover B R A A Kg tR tp A A SCF Figure C-14 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.4 B/R 0.0 4. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .5 2.8 DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale..0 tR/tp 2.7 0...````.2 0.5 1.0 0.3 0.5 5.`--- 3.

`.````.`. August 2005 Page 93 B R A tR A tp A A 3.5 0.``.5 0.. Stress in plate.`. parallel with weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale..0 1..0 1.8 Figure C-15 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.0 2.5 1..0 4. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203....``..0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 SCF 1.``-`-`..2 0.0 0.6 0.`--- 0.5 tR/tp --``.5 3. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .5 1.5 5..4 B/R 0.``.0 1.`.5 2.Amended October 2006..0 0.

0 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.8 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. August 2005 Page 94 Amended October 2006.2 0...``.0 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .5 0. see note on front cover B R A tR A tp A A 1.5 3.0 Figure C-16 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.5 0.9 0.7 0..`.`..6 0..6 SCF tR/tp 0.4 B/R 0.`--- The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.7 0.5 1.0 4. Shear stress in weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.1 0..`...1 0...`.5 1.0 1.``.5 0.5 5.````..8 --``.4 0.``.``-`-`.0 1.2 0.

2 0.5 0.4 0..6 0.5 3.``-`-`. normal to weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.`--- tR/tp 1.5 1..5 1.. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.9 0.`.0 1.8 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0..Amended October 2006..1 1.0 --``. Stress in plate. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`.0 0.5 Figure C-17 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.3 0.. August 2005 Page 95 B R A tR A tp A A 1...2 1..3 1.``.6 0.0 0.``.````.``..2 0.4 B/R 0.1 0.0 0.`.5 5..7 0.0 0.`.8 SCF 0.0 4.

.0 1..5 tR/tp SCF 0.`.``..````.``-`-`. August 2005 Page 96 Amended October 2006.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``.8 --``.5 1.`.3 0.2 0.0 4..5 0.`.0 2...0 0.5 3.5 2.1 0.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0...5 0.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.6 0.5 5. Stress at inner edge of ring 0.4 B/R Figure C-18 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.``.`..7 0.0 1. see note on front cover tR B R A A A A tp 3.5 1.0 1..

`..5 1. August 2005 Page 97 tR B R A A A A tp 3..0 1.5 5.``.5 1.4 B/R 0..2 0.0 SCF 1.Amended October 2006. Stress in plate.`.6 0..7 0..`.5 3.0 0.5 2.`.5 1.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for --``.5 0..``.1 0.0 tR/tp 0.. parallel with weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.``-`-`.0 4. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 0.8 Figure C-19 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.5 1..0 0.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 0.`--- .3 0..0 2..``.````.

2 0.``-`-`.0 0.`.`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..5 1.``. see note on front cover tR B R A A A A tp 1...7 0. August 2005 Page 98 Amended October 2006.0 1.8 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.5 0.4 B/R Figure C-20 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.0 0.0 0..5 3..3 0..4 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0...````.2 tR/tp 1..2 0.`..6 0. Shear stress in weld 0.5 1.0 0..6 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 --``.`--- .`.1 0.0 4.8 0.``.5 SCF 0.5 5.``.0 1.

`.`. August 2005 Page 99 tR B R A A A A tp 1.5 1.9 0. Stress in plate.2 0.7 0... normal to weld --``.5 5.3 0.0 tR/tp 0...``.1 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`..0 0.8 Figure C-21 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.8 0.0 0.5 0.`.5 1.4 0.6 SCF 0.5 3..0 1.7 0..Amended October 2006.1 0..``..`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.5 0.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 4..5 0.``.3 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .2 0.``-`-`.4 B/R 0.````.0 1.6 0..

.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.````.``. reinforcement and hot-spot positions For geometry (D) and (F).2 SCF’s at man-hole penetrations C.... DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale..1 Geometry The following hole geometries are considered see also Figure C-22: 1) Circular cut-out with diameter = 600 mm 2) Rectangular cut-out 600 x 800 mm with rounded corner R = 300 mm 3) Rectangular cut-out 600 x 1200 mm with rounded corner R = 300 mm 1) Cut-out Ø600 Figure C-22 Cut-out geometry 2) Cut-out Ø600x800 3) Cut-out Ø600x1200 For the three cut-out geometry six different edge reinforcements are applied.2. (A) (C) (E) Figure C-23 Cut-out..`.. see also Figure C-23: (A) (B) (C) Cut-out alone (no reinforcement) (Figure C-23 (A)) Cut-out with inserted plate (15 mm thick.``. The reinforcement details are described below. For the other geometry the stresses are symmetrical about the mid-plane of the plate. see note on front cover C.. August 2005 Page 100 Amended October 2006. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 . the maximum stresses of the bottom or the top surface in the 20 mm plate at the cut-out edge are Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.`.``-`-`...``.`.. see Figure C-23.`--- (B) (D) (F) given in the plots.`. 300 mm wide) around the edge (Figure C-23 (B)) Cut-out with double side reinforcement 50 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (C)) (D) (E) (F) Cut-out with single side reinforcement 50 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (D)) Cut-out with double side reinforcement 100 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (E)) Cut-out with single side reinforcement 100 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (F)) Stress concentrations factors are presented for the hot-spots marked in Figure C-23.

08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .``-`-`. the maximum principal stress is normal to the weld toe.. σx — transverse stress. August 2005 Page 101 C.x( y) = max σ 1 ..``.. The stress concentration factor (Kg) is then: K g .3 Results In general.`. (not the nominal principal stress)..2 Applied stresses The following stresses has been considered: — longitudinal stress.````.. σy — shear stress... The maximum principal stress in the hot-spot is selected as the maximum of |σ1| and |σ2|.`.3 Stress Concentration Factor Definition The definition of the stress concentration factors presented for cut-outs are the maximum principal stress divided by the nominal normal stress.. C. τ The stresses in the longitudinal and the transverse directions are applied separately but are combined with shear stress.``.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. The following should be noted: — Maximum principal stresses are parallel to the weld toe (hot-spots 2 to 5) with only one exception: for double reinforcement and point 2 (see Figure C-23. σx or σy....Amended October 2006.`.2. stress concentration factors are given at 5 points (see Figure C-23) except for the cases shown in Figure C-23 (A) and (B). σ 2 ( ) σ x( y ) C. The shear stress is varied between zero and up to the value of the normal stress. --``.``.2. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`.(C) and (E)).

00 6.50 2.4 0.00 5..50 4.00 2.`.`.00 K g= σ 1max /σ x 4..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σx Figure C-24 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.50 3.``.`.3.7 0.````.5 0.50 5.00 3..00 2.1 0..`..50 3.00 3.3 0. August 2005 Page 102 Amended October 2006.00 5. σx and τ --``..4 0...50 2.50 6. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 . Figure C-23 6.6 0.8 0.. ref.50 6.7 0.3 0..``.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.9 1 1.5 0.1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σx Figure C-25 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm. see note on front cover C.6 0.2 0.00 0 0.9 1 1.1 0.00 4.2 0.8 0.00 0 0.``-`-`..1 SCFs for Point 1.50 K g = σ 1max /σ x 5.``. σx and τ 7.50 4.

..50 B1 C1 D1 3.2 0.`..6 0.4 0.`--- 5.50 --``.50 K g = σ 1max /σ y A1 4.50 0 0. August 2005 Page 103 7.50 1.50 E1 F1 2.9 1 1.50 6.``.``-`-`.````..Amended October 2006.50 A1 5.`.``. σx and τ 7.5 0.50 4. σy and τ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.00 4.00 K g = σ 1max /σ x 5.1 0.00 2.`.4 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.00 6..50 6.1 0.``.3 0.00 3.50 3.8 0..6 0....8 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.3 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .50 7..`.9 1 1.50 0 0.1 τ/σy Figure C-27 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σx Figure C-26 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm..7 0.

7 0. see note on front cover 7.00 6..3 0.50 2.00 4.1 0.50 C2 D2 3.1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σy Figure C-28 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.50 0 0..8 0.``-`-`. Figure C-23 5.50 Figure C-29 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm..00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 4.5 0..````. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ...``. ref.50 0 0.6 0.``.`.2 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.7 0.50 6.00 1.3 0.00 B2 3.50 5..00 3.`..8 0.50 3..3.`--- 2.9 1 1.2 0.``.`.9 1 1.6 0..50 5.00 5.1 τ/ σx DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. σx and τ stresses for C and E are normal to the weld Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``..00 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00 E2 F2 2.5 0. August 2005 Page 104 Amended October 2006.00 2.50 K g = σ 1max / σ x 4.2 SCFs for Point 2.50 4. σy and τ C.`.

00 1.Amended October 2006..3 0.6 0.50 K g = σ 1max /σ x 4.9 1 1.50 0 0.`.00 2.00 5.`.1 0.``.50 2..``.50 5.1 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 Figure C-30 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.00 3.````..00 4.1 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 τ/ σx Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.``-`-`.6 0.00 1.8 0.`.50 3.4 0.7 0.2 0. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. σx and τ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.00 4.50 3..00 2.`--- τ/ σx 6..00 5.50 2.50 6.00 3.50 4..5 0.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .7 0.50 5. August 2005 Page 105 6..50 0 0..9 1 1.5 0.``..8 0.`.4 0.3 0.1 0. σx and τ K g = σ 1max / σ x Figure C-31 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm..2 0.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 106

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

6.00

5.50

5.00

4.50

K g = σ 1max /σ y

4.00

B2 C2 D2 E2 F2

3.50

3.00

2.50

2.00

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

τ/ σy

Figure C-32 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm, σx and τ

7.00 6.50 6.00 5.50 5.00

K g = σ 1max /σ y

4.50 B2 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 C2 D2 E2 F2

τ/ σ y

Figure C-33 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm, σx and τ

DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.50

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 107

C.3.3 SCFs for Point 3, ref. Figure C-23

5.00

4.50

4.00

K g = σ 1max / σ

3.50

B3 C3 D3 E3 F3

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

τ/ σx

Figure C-34 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm, σx and τ

5.50

5.00

4.50

4.00

K g = σ 1max /σ

B3 3.50 C3 D3 3.00 E3 F3 2.50

2.00

1.50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

τ/ σ x

**Figure C-35 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm, σx and τ
**

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 108

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

6.50 6.00 5.50 5.00

K g = σ 1max /σ x

4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 C3 D3 E3 F3

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

B3

τ/ σ x

Figure C-36 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm, σx and τ

6.00 5.50 5.00 4.50

K g = σ 1max /σ y

4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

B3 C3 D3 E3 F3

τ/ σ

Figure C-37 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm, σy and τ

DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale, 08/09/2007 10:41:16

ref..40 K g = σ 1max / σ x 2.8 0.60 1..50 7.1 C4 D4 E4 F4 τ/ σx Figure C-39 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.3 0. σx and τ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.4 SCFs for Point 4...8 0.00 6.50 3..80 2.````.`.``.00 1.60 2.00 0 0.50 K g = σ 1max /σ y 5.4 0..00 2.7 0.6 0.20 3.`.00 2.20 1.5 0.3 0.50 6.`.80 1..00 3.00 0 0.`--- Figure C-38 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.2 0.00 5.6 0... σy and τ C.7 0.00 4. August 2005 Page 109 7.3.20 2.``.9 1 1.``-`-`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .1 0.50 2.5 0.40 1.Amended October 2006.`.50 4.4 0.00 1.50 1..9 1 1.2 0..``. Figure C-23 3.1 0.1 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 τ/ σ y --``. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.

00 3.2 0.50 3.`..3 0..`--- K g = σ 1max /σ x C4 D4 E4 F4 1.10 1.90 --``.``-`-`.`.`.50 K g = σ 1max / σ x 3.4 0..3 0..70 2.1 τ/ σ x Figure C-41 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.1 τ/ σx Figure C-40 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.2 0.``.``..7 0.``.8 0....9 1 1.8 0.`.````.6 0.30 3.5 0.50 D4 E4 F4 2.7 0. σx and τ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.10 2.90 2.9 1 1..1 0.6 0.00 C4 2.70 1. August 2005 Page 110 Amended October 2006.1 0.50 0 0..50 0 0.4 0. σx and τ 4.5 0. see note on front cover 3.50 2..30 2.00 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .

`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.00 3..50 1.3 0...2 0.1 0..00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 2.`.7 0. August 2005 Page 111 3.``.00 0 0.Amended October 2006.`.9 1 1..`.6 0.50 3. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203..00 D4 E4 F4 1. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .2 0.7 0..4 0.00 0 0.50 1.8 0.``-`-`.4 0.1 τ/ σy Figure C-43 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 2..50 3. σy and τ 4.6 0..8 0.``.50 C4 D4 E4 2.`..``.3 0.1 0.50 C4 2. σy and τ --``..5 0.````.00 F4 1.1 τ/ σy Figure C-42 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.9 1 1.5 0.

σx and τ 4.``-`-`..`..60 1.40 2..9 1 1.````.50 E5 F5 2.80 1.80 K g = σ 1max / σ x 2..5 SCFs for point 5.``.``.`.20 2.1 0..8 0.50 0 0..60 2.5 0.2 0.`--- C5 D5 E5 F5 τ/ σx Figure C-44 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.`.40 3.7 0.40 0 0.50 K g = σ 1max / σ x 3.2 0.4 0.6 0.00 3.1 0.4 0.7 0..3..``.1 --``. August 2005 Page 112 Amended October 2006.9 1 1.20 3.3 0.6 0..5 0.00 C5 D5 2.3 0.8 0.00 1. σx and τ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.`.1 τ/ σx Figure C-45 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.00 1...Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Figure C-23 3. see note on front cover C.00 2. ref. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .

80 2.`..7 0.60 3.``.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .4 0.2 0.5 0..00 2.. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 0.6 0.20 2..Amended October 2006.3 0..80 2.00 1.9 1 1.40 0 0.`.00 3.`--- τ/ σx 3.8 0. σx and τ K g = σ 1max / σ y Figure C-47 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm..20 2.2 0.40 2.60 3.3 0.1 0.60 1.7 0.80 0 0.6 0.1 D5 E5 F5 Figure C-46 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.1 C5 D5 E5 F5 τ/ σy Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.20 3.80 3.4 0.`.40 2.8 0... σy and τ Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.80 1.40 3..````.00 1.``.1 0.`.20 K g = σ 1max / σ x 3.00 C5 2.``-`-`.60 2..``. August 2005 Page 113 4.9 1 1.60 2.40 3.

`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.50 C5 D5 E5 2.``.00 0 0..00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 2..``-`-`.50 1. see note on front cover 4.5 0.00 3...4 0.2 0.````...6 0...`.3 0. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ..``.50 3..``.`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. σy and τ --``.8 0.1 τ/ σy Figure C-48 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm..1 0.`.`.7 0.9 1 1.00 F5 1. August 2005 Page 114 Amended October 2006.

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 115

APPENDIX D COMMENTARY

D.1 Comm. 1.2.3 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue

Fatigue strength assessment of offshore structures is normally understood to be the capacity due to high cycle fatigue loading. High cycle loading is normally understood to be cycles of more than 10 000. For example stress response from wave action shows typically 5 · 106 cycles a year. A fatigue assessment of response that is associated with number of cycles less than 10 000 is denoted low cycle fatigue. This Recommended Practice has been produced with the purpose of assessing fatigue damage in the high cycle region. The specified S-N curves are shown in the graphs above 104 cycles. Typical S-N test data are derived for number of cycles between 104 and 5 · 106 cycles. However, the S-N curves can be linearly extrapolated to fewer cycles for practical use in a fatigue assessment. High cycle fatigue analysis is based on calculation of elastic stresses that are used in the assessment. Low cycle fatigue is associated with load reversals that imply significant yielding at the hot spot. Therefore calculated strain is often used as a parameter to account for non-linear material behaviour when low cycle fatigue is considered. Offshore structures are normally designed for other limit states such as the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). Then a load and material coefficient is used in design to achieve sufficient safety. Even if stresses due to local notches are not accounted for in an ULS design the assessment of ULS imply that the actual strain ranges during an ULS loading is limited and that a further assessment of low cycle fatigue is not required. Thus for design of offshore structures in the North Sea it has not been practice to analyse the structures specifically for low cycle fatigue. However, it should be mentioned that low cycle fatigue is found to be of concern in some local areas in ship structures due to loading and unloading. The reason for this is that ship structures in general show a much higher utilisation in ULS than offshore structures. If required, a proposed design methodology for low cycle fatigue can be found in the paper: “Low Cycle Fatigue Strength Assessment for Ship Structures” ref. /43/. FPSOs are rather similar structures with similar loading and unloading as tankers; therefore low cycle fatigue may be an issue to consider for these structures depending on procedure used for loading and unloading.

0.16

0.14 Relative damage h = 1.0 and D = 1.0 Relative damage h = 1.0 and D = 0.5 0.12

Relative fatigue damage

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0 0 1 2 3 4 log n 5 6 7 8 9

Figure D-1 Relative fatigue damage in Weibull distribution of stress ranges

**D.3 Comm. 2.2 Combination of fatigue damages from two dynamic processes
**

Background

In some design cases one fatigue damage is calculated for one dynamic process. Then another fatigue damage for the same hot spot is calculated for another dynamic process. Then the question arises on how to calculate the resulting fatigue damage for the considered hot spot. It is non-conservative to simply add the two fatigue damages together. An example of such a design situation is swell response of an FPSO that also is subjected to wave response. Another example may be wave response of a floating platform that also may be subjected to wind response on a flare tower that are giving stress cycling at the same hot spot in the structure. In many cases it is practical to calculate the fatigue damage for each of these processes separately as the design may belong to different engineering contracts. When a detailed stochastic analysis of the complete structural system is performed for each of the dynamic processes a more accurate combined stress response can be calculated before the S-N curve is entered and the fatigue damage is calculated. Ref. for example DNV-OS-E301 Position Mooring, June 2001. In the following a simple method for derivation of resulting fatigue damage from two processes is presented. This methodology is based on information of mean zero up-crossing frequency in addition to the calculated fatigue damages for each of the processes.

Combined fatigue damage for one slope S-N curve

**D.2 Comm. 1.3 Methods for fatigue analysis
**

Important part of action history

The contribution to fatigue damage for different regions of a Weibull distribution is shown in Figure D-1 for fatigue damage equal 1.0 (and 0.5) for a 20-year period. The calculation is based on a Weibull long term stress range distribution with shape parameter h = 1.0 (in the range that is typical for a semisubmersible and an S-N curve with slope m = 3.0 for N >107 for and m = 5.0 for N > 107 cycles (Typical S-N curve for air condition). It is noted that the most important part of the long-term stress range is for actions having a probability of exceedance in the range 10-3 to 10-1. This corresponds to log n = 5-7 in Figure D1.

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Combined fatigue damage for the responses shown in Figure D-1 can be obtained as

⎧⎛ D ⎞ ν ⎪ D = D1 (1 − 2 ) + ν 2 ⎨⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ν1 ⎪⎝ ν 1 ⎠ ⎩

1/ m

⎛D ⎞ +⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ν ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠

1/ m

⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭

m

(1)

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--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 116

Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

where D1 = calculated fatigue damage for the high frequency response D2 = calculated fatigue damage for the low frequency response ν1 = mean zero up crossing frequency for the high frequency response ν 2 = mean zero up crossing frequency for the low frequency response m = inverse slope of the S-N curve = 3.0. The combined fatigue damage is based on the assumption that each of the fatigue damages D1 and D2 are derived based on a one slope S-N curve. The equation is derived based on analogy with Rainflow stress range counting.

— thickness of plate – which is explained by a more severe notch with increasing plate thickness at the region where the fatigue cracks are normally initiated — attachment length – which is explained by a more severe notch stress due to more flow of stress into a long attachment than a short — volume effect – which for surface defects can be explained by increased weld length and therefore increased possibility for imperfections that can be initiated into fatigue cracks. It might be added that some authors group all these 3 effects into one group of “thickness effect” or size effect. In this Recommended Practice, the thickness exponent is assumed to cover the first item in the list above and partly the second, although also an increased attachment length reduces the S-N class as shown in Appendix 1 of this Recommended Practice. Examples of the third effect and how it can be accounted for in an actual design is explained in more detail in the following. Reference may also be made to /12/, /19/ and /18/ for more background and explanation of the thickness effect. Test specimens used for fatigue testing are normally smaller than actual structural components used in structures. The correspondence in S-N data depends on the stress distribution at the hot spot region. For traditional tubular joints there is one local hot spot region, while at e. g. circumferential welds of TLP tethers there is a length significantly longer than in the test specimens having the similar order of stress range. Crack growth is normally initiated from small defects at the transition zone from weld to base material. The longer the weld, the larger is the probability of a larger defect. Thus, a specimen having a long weld region is expected to have a shorter fatigue life than a short weld. This can be accounted for in an actual design by probabilistic analysis of a series system, ref. e. g. “Methods of Structural Safety” ref. /21/. Weld length in a tether system is one example where such analysis should be considered to achieve a reliable fatigue design. A mooring line consisting of chains is another example where reliability methods may be used to properly account for the size effect or system effect. The system effect for the S-N curves in this RP has been investigated using reliability methods. The results are expressed analytically below. The length of weld and number of similar connections subjected to the same stress range should be assessed based on engineering judgement. If a tether system is subjected to a dynamic axial force without significant bending the assessment becomes simple as all welds will be subjected to the same stress range. As soon as there is some bending over the diameter of the tether there will likely be some hot spots at some connections that are subjected to a larger stress range than the other connections. Then only the regions with the most severe stress ranges need to be included for weld length and number of connections. For threaded bolts, the stress concentration at the root of the threads increases with increasing diameter. Based on fatigue tests, it is recommended to use k = 0.25 which can be assumed to include size effects both due to the notch itself, and due to increased length of notch around circumference with increased diameter. The thickness exponent may be less for rolled threads. Thus for purpose made bolts with large diameters, it may be recommendable to perform testing of some bolts to verify a fatigue capacity to be used for design. It should be remembered that the design S-N data is obtained as mean minus 2 standard deviation in a log S-log N diagram.

S-N curve with thickness effect

Figure D-2 Sketch showing high and low frequency response and combined response

Combined fatigue damage for two-slope S-N curves

For two-sloped S-N curves it is questioned if equation (1) can be used for calculation of resulting fatigue damage. The S-N curves in air have a transition in slope from m = 3.0 to m = 5.0 at 107 cycles. For a long term stress range distribution with Weibull shape parameter h = 1.0, 20 years service life, and a fatigue damage equal 1.0 the major contribution to fatigue damage occurs around 107 cycles. Approximately half the damage occurs at number of cycles below 107 cycles and the other half above 107 cycles. For lower fatigue damage than 1.0, which is the case in order to have acceptable resulting fatigue damage when considering two processes, the main contribution to fatigue damage will be at the S-N line with slope m = 5.0. Thus, in order to have a methodology that is safe one should use a slope m = 5.0 in equation (1) if the fatigue damages for the two processes have been calculated based on this two-slope S-N curve. An alternative to this is to calculate the fatigue damage for process no 2 with a straight S-N curve with slope m = 3.0. Then equation (1) can be used with D1 calculated from a two-slope S-N curve and with m = 3.0.

D.4 Comm. 2.4.3 S-N curves

Size effect

**The size effect may be explained by a number of different parameters:
**

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--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The design S-N curve with thickness effect included is given by:

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Amended October 2006, see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, August 2005 Page 117

Curve part (1), see Figure D-3

Curve part (1), see Figure D-3

⎛ t log N = log a 1 − m1 k log ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ t ref

⎞ ⎟ − m1 log ⎟ ⎠

(2)

⎛l ⎞ ⎛ t log N = log a 1 − 0.1 log ⎜ weld n s ⎟ − m1 k log ⎜ ⎜ l ⎟ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎠ ⎝ ref

⎞ ⎟ − m1 log ∆ σ (6) ⎟ ⎠

Part (2) of the curve is established assuming continuity at N1=106 or 107 cycles depending on the S-N curve is given for seawater with cathodic protection or in air is given by

log N =

⎛ m m2 log a 1 + ⎜1 − 2 ⎜ m1 m1 ⎝ ⎛ t ⎞ ⎟ log N 1 − m2 k log⎜ ⎟ ⎜t ⎠ ⎝ ref ⎞ ⎟ − m2 log ∆σ (3) ⎟ ⎠

--``,,,,`,,``,``,``,,,,,````,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

where

lweld = length of weld subjected to the same stress range lref = reference length corresponding to typical length of weld in tested specimen used for derivation of S-N curve. = 100 mm may be used. ns = number of similar connections subjected to the same stress range

where a 1 is for S-N curve without thickness effect included. log a 1 is given in Table 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3. Part (2) of the S-N curve can also be written on a standard form

Part (2) of the curve is established assuming continuity at N1=106 or 107 cycles depending on the S-N curve is given for seawater with cathodic protection or in air is given by

**⎛ t log N = log a 2 − m 2 k log ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref
**

where

⎞ ⎟ − m 2 log ∆ σ ⎟ ⎠

(4)

**⎛ t log N = log a 2 − m 2 k log ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref
**

with

⎞ ⎟ − m 2 log ∆ σ ⎟ ⎠

(7)

log a 2 =

⎛ m ⎞ m2 log a1 + ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ log N1 ⎜ m ⎟ m1 1 ⎠ ⎝

(5)

log a 2 =

m2 m1

⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ ⎜ log a − 0.1 log⎜ l weld n ⎟ ⎟ + ⎛1 − m2 ⎜ 1 s ⎟ ⎜l ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ m1 ⎝ ref ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ log N 1 (8) ⎟ ⎠

S-N curve with system effect and thickness effect The design S-N curve with system effect and thickness effect included is given by:

where a 1 is for S-N curve without thickness effect included. log a 1 is given in Table 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3.

1000

Stress range (MPa)

1

100

2

10

1.00E+04

1.00E+05

1.00E+06 Number of cycles

1.00E+07

1.00E+08

Figure D-3 Typical S-N curve with thickness effect included

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A factor for reduction of fatigue life due to a possible large root defect in a tubular joint compared to a butt weld may be evaluated based on fracture mechanics analysis. ref.7 it is assumed that the coating is efficient for some years and then the condition is that of free corrosion.. Increasing the DFF implies that the probability of a fatigue cracking becomes reduced. D.. 3. see note on front cover Link to S-N curves in other design codes The relationship between S-N curves in this document and those given by IIW. ref.5 Comm.3 Stress concentration factors Reference is made to “An Analytical study of Stress Concentration Effects in Multibrace Joints under Combined Loading”. 30.4. For example a DFF = 10 implies that the probability of a fatigue crack during the lifetime becomes very small (accumulated probability less than 10-4 and annual less than 10-5 the last year in service).````. The probability of having a fatigue crack that is so large that the coating is broken is considered to be low within the major part of the design life using a DFF = 10. Then the seawater curve with cathodic protection can be used in lack of documented S-N curves in seawater in free corrosion for coated joints (in the high cycle region above 106 cycles). — The stress field at the root may be derived from a finite element analysis.6 Comm. than for a butt weld welded from one side.`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .3 Tubular joints welded from one side The fatigue design of the root area of tubular joints welded from one side may be considered as follows: — Lack of penetration is hard to control by non-destructive examination and it is considered more difficult to detect possible defects at a root area of a tubular joint welded from one side. 2. /3/. for further background on this procedure of calculating a resulting hot spot stress from superposition of stress components. The fatigue life is first calculated for an initial defect size corresponding to that of the F3 curve: F(Life ai = 1 mm). /9/. ref.``-`-`. — For butt welds welded from one side the joint may be classified as F3. The formula for SCF at a tubular butt weld can be outlined based on theory for thin walled structures. Eurocode 3. Also the coating is not so durable. /30/... As long as the coating is not broken the condition corresponds to that of air.`. Then the fatigue life is calculated for an initial defect size corresponding to that of a tubular joint welded from one side: F(Life ai = 5 mm). — Fatigue cracking from the root is harder to discover by in service inspection than crack growth from the toe. — Normally the stress on the outside of the brace at the hot spot is larger than at the root area. 3. The defect size inherent in this curve is less than 1-2 mm (This defect size may be evaluated by fracture mechanics calculations and the calculated value will depend on plate thickness.. The crack growth may be assumed to be normal to the direction of the maximum principal stress.``. Therefore. is obtained from equation (9). The fatigue life reduction factor. In tanks without anodes the efficiency of the coating should be specially considered. D.7 for more details. It should be noted that the correspondence between S-N curves in this document and IIW relates only to number of cycles less than 5·106 in Eurocode 3.`. Reference is made to DNV Classification Note No.. It is assumed that the joints also have a good coating. Then the probability of presence of an open fatigue crack subjected to free corrosion becomes small in the major part of the service life of the platform life as explained above. Quite a lot of the fatigue life is associated with initiation of a fatigue crack and growth of small cracks. /25/.9 S-N curves and efficiency of corrosion protection S-N curve for joints in the splash zone In Norway it has been the practice to use seawater S-N curve with cathodic protection for joints in the splash zone and a larger Design Fatigue Factor (DFF) in the splash zone than in other areas in jacket structures. — A modified S-N curve below F3 is calculated from equation (10). This recommendation is linked to use of a high DFF and a good coating. Table D-1 DNV notation in relation to Eurocode 3 DNV notation IIW and Eurocode 3 notation B1 160 B2 140 C 125 C1 112 C2 100 D 90 E 80 F 71 F1 63 F3 56 G 50 W1 45 W2 40 W3 36 T In DNV Classification Note No. S-N curve for details in tanks in FPSOs R= F(Life a i = 5 mm) F(Life a i = 1 mm) (9) (10) log a = 11.3.``. As an approximation the SCF for Tanks in FPSOs are not designed with the same high DFF as used for splash zone joints in jackets. D. The cracks have to grow to some size before the coating is broken. Hence it is considered to be conservative to use the brace SCF for evaluation of fatigue life at the root.``..7 Comm.`.. for air environment is given in Table D-1.. A similar procedure may be used for design of tanks in FPSOs. The coating becomes more brittle with time and it is most likely to crack at hot spot regions with large strain cycles. 30.`.. August 2005 Page 118 Amended October 2006. an additional factor on fatigue life should be considered for crack growth from the root.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. ref. A long defect should be considered here with the defect size measured in the thickness direction of the tubular).546 + log (R) The following simplified approach for fatigue life assessment of the weld root may be performed as an alternative procedure: — As noted above an additional factor on fatigue life should be considered for crack growth from the root. --``. An S-N curve corresponding to this log a value (or below) may now be used for fatigue life analysis based on nominal stress at the root as calculated by a detailed finite element analysis. A high DFF is used because it is considered to be difficult to perform inspection and repair in this area. Defect sizes up to 5 mm may be present without being detected even with a detailed examination of the root of a tubular joint. R.. Based on this it is considered acceptable to calculate fatigue damage with an S-N curve that is somewhat reduced compared with that of air. The time with efficient coating depends on type and quality of the coating used.

358 17.`. The nominal stress in the weld is derived as: σw =σ Nominal Figure D-4 Analysis of effective notch stress Calculation of Effective Notch Stress Effective notch stresses or notch stress concentration factors can be calculated by parametric formulae. The mesh should be made with regular elements without transition to reduced refinement within the first three element layers from the notch surface. An element shape that is close to “quadratic” is preferred. Then the W3 curve may be used for fatigue assessment of the weld root using the nominal stress approach. Notch Stress S-N Curves D.``. To take account of statistical nature and scatter of weld shape parameters. The SN curves are presented as mean minus two standard deviations in logarithmic S-N format.0 13. The requirement to mesh size is depending on elements used. Calculation of effective notch stress by the finite element method requires that a fine element mesh is used around the notch region..880 and m1 = 3.````. 4. In some finite element programs it may also be efficient to add bar elements with a small area (negligible area) along the notch surface.0 mm has been verified to give consistent results.g.0 m2 = 5.``.. The effective notch stress to be used together with the recommended S-N curve is the maximum calculated t / 2a (13) Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale. as well as of non-linear material behaviour at the notch root... If simpler elements are used the mesh refinement should be improved correspondingly. the end of an un-welded root gap. Then the surface stress is finally derived as force in the bar divided by area.g. surface stress in the notch.`. a minimum of 4 elements should be used along a quarter of the circle circumference. e. For smaller wall thicknesses. e. Also it is not applicable where considerable stress components parallel to the weld or parallel to the root gap exist. Reference is made to Table A-5 in Appendix A for potential fatigue crack growth from ground areas at welded regions.17 times the nominal stress in the plate. taken from diagrams or calculated from finite element analysis. If elements with quadratic displacement functions are used. Figure D-4. The S-N curve is presented on the standard form LogN = Loga − mLogS (12) where a = intercept of the design S-N curve with the log N axis = negative inverse slope of the S-N curve m Table D-2 Notch stress S-N curves Environment Log a Air N ≤ 107 cycles N > 107 cycles m1 = 3.. Unless otherwise specified. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for .`--- Validation of Analysis Methodology The notch stress concept using finite element analysis can be validated against a well tested detail that also can be assessed based on nominal stress approach.958 17.. are not covered.. In case of uncertainty about elements ability to provide reliable surface stress it is recommended to perform a validation of the methodology against a well known case. Other causes of fatigue failure.``.. The effective notch radius is introduced such that the tip of the radius touches the root of the real notch. after certain post weld improvement procedures such as grinding. In cases where a mean geometrical notch root radius can be defined. The method is well suited to the comparison of alternative geometries. the method has not been verified.``-`-`. e.0 m2 = 5.g. ref.0 (11) — The fatigue life for the root may now be calculated using the W3 curve.0 corrosion Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. This procedure is applicable for simple tubular joints only.596 Seawater with free For all N log a = 12. Then the calculated notch stress should be entered into a relevant S-N curve.`.8 Comm.Amended October 2006. August 2005 Page 119 the inside can be calculated as SCFinside = SCFbrace − 2. Then a target notch stress at the weld root is obtained as 3. The method is limited to thicknesses t ≥ 5 mm.596 Seawater with cathodic N ≤ 106 cycles N > 106 cycles protection m1 = 3. from surface roughness or embedded defects.0 12. the actual geometrical radius may be used in the effective notch stress analysis.1 The application of the effective notch stress method for fatigue assessment of structural details General Effective notch stress is the total stress at the root of a notch. The F curve may be used for fatigue assessment of the weld toe using the nominal stress approach. A fillet welded cruciform joint may be selected for analysis as shown in Figure D-7 and Figure D-8. flank angles of 30o for butt welds and 45° for fillet welds are suggested.. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. The method is restricted to welded joints which are expected to fail from the weld toe or weld root. A cruciform joint may be selected for analysis as shown in Figure D-5 and Figure D-6. the real weld is replaced by an effective one.. Thus a further reduction of fatigue capacity for larger thicknesses is not required.. For fatigue assessment. This maximum surface stress may be obtained directly from the nodal stress calculated at the surface or from extrapolation of element stresses to the surface. obtained assuming linear-elastic material behaviour. Radius=1mm The calculated notch stress should be linked to a notch stress S-N curve for fatigue design as described in Table D-2. For structural steels an effective notch root radius of r = 1. The thickness effect is assumed accounted for in the calculated notch stress.`. the effective notch stress is compared with a common fatigue resistance curve.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.````. The target hot spot stresses for the specified load cases are listed in Table D-4.9 Comm. it is recommended to consider the accuracy of the methodology used such as type of element in relation to mesh refinement and read out of notch surface stress.. The hot spot stress analysis methodology may be verified based on analysis of these details with derived target hot spot stress. This result in a target notch stresses 3. a σ Nominal t/2 45 ° t Figure D-7 Detail selected for validation of procedure for root of fillet welds t Figure D-5 Geometry for validation of analysis procedure for the weld toe --``. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 t (14) . This correction factor is obtained as f = σ Hot spot Target σ Hot spot Calculated Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. Figure D-6 Geometry of the transition from weld to base material to be used in the analysis A correction factor to be applied to the analyses may be established if the calculated hot spot stress in general is different from the target hot spot stress..8 Verification of analysis methodology for FE hot spot stress analysis Specimens for verification of analysis methodology are shown in Figure D-9 ...``.``-`-`. 4.`. Loading on the specimens for calculation of hot spot stress is shown in Table D-3.3. If the calculated stress from validation analyses is far from the target values.`--- mm =1 r t Figure D-8 Notch to be included in FE model for the weld root D..``.`.`... August 2005 Page 120 Amended October 2006.`.57 times the nominal stress. see note on front cover where t a = thickness of member = throat thickness σ Nominal t = 16 mm a = 8 mm Then a target notch stress in the weld root is obtained as 6..Figure D-14.``..25 times the nominal stress in the fillet weld... The toe of the same detail would be classified as F3.

1..``.69 6 3.`. The specified point load is made to provide a nominal stress at this position equal 1.Amended October 2006...````.64 ..13 Figure D-9 Specimen 1 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.33 4 1.`.86 .700 MPa (= 1000 mm2) 4 Point load 119 N above bracket in cantilever at a distance 625 mm from the support plate in test rig 5 Point load 220 N above bracket in cantilever at a distance 435 mm from the support plate in test rig Nominal stress 1.`..667 MPa (= 900 mm2) 3 Stress in the axial direction over end area equal 0..667 MPa (= 900 mm2) 2 Stress in the axial direction over end area equal 0.1.00 MPa 1.1. August 2005 Page 121 Table D-3 Loading on the specimens Specimen Position of loading 1 Stress in the axial direction over end area equal 0.``-`-`..00 MPa 6 Stress in the axial direction of plate equal 1..32 2 1.`--- . see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00 MPa 1..``.00 MPa.00 MPa Nominal stress at weld toe to be calculated as bending moment calculated in this section divided by the elastic section modulus in this section.`..96 3 1.00 MPa Table D-4 Target hot spot stress values/stress concentrations linked to the D curve Specimen Hot spot target values 1 1.84 5 1. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for --``..``.

`.``..``-`-`.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ....````...Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``. August 2005 Page 122 Amended October 2006.``....`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale. see note on front cover Figure D-10 Specimen 2 Figure D-11 Specimen 3 --``.`...`.

`.`.. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for ..````...`--- Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.``-`-`. August 2005 Page 123 Figure D-12 Specimen 4 Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``.``.`.``..`..... see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``.Amended October 2006...

.. August 2005 Page 124 Amended October 2006.``.`.``-`-`.````.``..`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale....``.. --``.`.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.`. see note on front cover Figure D-13 Specimen 5 To be welded to test machine Plate 500x725 Full penetration weld 1500 50 Plate 500x500 Partial penetration 500 500 Figure D-14 Specimen 6 Thickness all plates t = 50 mm.`.... 08/09/2007 10:41:16 ..

to be found in standard tables = Complementary Incomplete Gamma function.60 = 1+ Ar 200 ⋅ 20 (23) SCF = 1 + 0.33 for m = 3. m1 The left part of S-N curve is described by notation 1..34 1. There are three different spaces for wire on the drum. Γ(1+ 2 ) is equal to 1. ∆σ 0 .Amended October 2006..`. h) ⎟ q(∆σ 0 . the fatigue damage expression is given as. j νo = long-term average zero-up-crossing-frequency (Hz) moij = zero spectral moment of stress response process rij The Gamma function. h) = ∆σ 0 (ln(n 0 ))1/h (18) ⎞ qm2 ⎟+ ⎟ a2 ⎠ ⎛ m ⎛S ⎞ γ⎜1 + 2 . Short term Rayleigh distribution and linear S-N curve a2 . ∆σ 0 .`. and a one-slope S-N curve is used. Then the reaction force at each support becomes equal P/2 and the maximum bending moment at the highest stressed ring stiffener is Pa/2. ∆σ 0 . j=1 ∑ ⎡ m1 ⎢ (2 2m 0ij ) rij ⎢ a1 ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ m ⎛ S0 Γ⎜ 1 + 1 . For definitions see also section 1. m f(S. When the drum is rotated 180 degrees the bending moment at the same position is reversed and the range in bending moment is derived as The section modulus for the drum is calculated as W = π 32 (D 4 − ( D − 2t ) 2 1 )D (22) where D = diameter = 600 mm and t = thickness = 20 mm. to be found in standard tables ⎛ a ⎞ m1 S1 = ⎜ 17 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 1 (19) a 1 . Reference is made to Figure D-15. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 MDT VERITAS Not for . The highest bending stress in the drum occurs when the wire is at the centre of the drum. m2 γ( ) Γ( ) When the long term stress range distribution is defined through a short term Rayleigh distribution within each short term period for the different loading conditions. ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2 2m 0ij ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ Example Fatigue analysis of a drum A drum used for transportation of equipment is assessed with respect to fatigue.``.4.56 ⋅ 20 300 ⋅ 20 = 1.. h) = h ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ Sh −1 S ⎟ exp⎜ − ⎜ h ⎜ ⎜ q(∆σ 0 . the fatigue damage expression is given by ⎡qm1 D = ν0Td ⎢ ⎢ a1 ⎣ ⎛ m ⎛S ⎞ Γ⎜1 + 1 .. The maximum allowable tension force in the wire on the drum is to be determined.. ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ h ⎜q ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h q(∆σ 0 ...56t rt 1.. Then W = 5114·103 mm3..8 α = 1+ ∆ M = Pa (21) 1. h) dS (16) N 1 (S) where the density Weibull function is given by = the relative number of stress cycles in short-term condition i.10 Comm.``-`-`.`. Short term Rayleigh distribution and bi linear S-N curve When a bi-linear or two-slope S-N curve is applied.`. h) dS + N 2 (S) ∆σ 0 S1 ∫ v 0 Td f (S. while the right part is described by notation 2. August 2005 Page 125 D.54 = 1.``. ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ h ⎜q ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ≤ η (15) ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ S-N curves for air condition are assumed here such that the crossing point of S-N curves is here at 107 cycles.````. The ring stiffeners are welded to the drum by double sided fillet welds. For the outside of the drum a stress concentration factor is calculated from section 3..54 α = 1+ 0.. 5 Simplified fatigue analysis Weibull distributed Stress Range and Bi-linear S-N curves When a bi-linear or two-slope S-N curve is used. j=1 where all seastates (20) D= ∫ 0 v 0 Td f (S.``. The stress range corresponding to this number of cycles is where S1 = Stress range for which change of slope of S-N curve occur = S-N fatigue parameters for N < 107 cycles (air condition) = S-N fatigue parameters for N > 107 cycles (air condition) = Incomplete Gamma function. h) ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ h ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (17) D = ν 0 Td all seastates all headings i =1.60 (24) The nominal stress at the outside of the drum at the considered --``. see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Alternatively the damage may be calculated by a direct integration of damage below each part of the bilinear S-N curves: S1 ν T m all headings D = 0 d Γ(1 + ) ⋅ ∑ rij (2 2m 0ij ) m ≤ η a 2 i =1. separated by external ring stiffeners 200 x 20 mm.3.0. the fatigue criterion reads. ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2 2m 0ij ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎞ (2 2m ) m 2 ⎟ 0ij ⎟+ a2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ m ⎛ S0 γ ⎜1 + 2 .`--- Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=AU location/5940240001 DET NORSKE Resale.

ref. ref.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.``-`-`. for effect of weld profiling on thickness effect.78 = 1 / 3.13 MPa (26) DFF 1 / 3. /22/.. ref. for fatigue of welded joints peened underwater.. August 2005 Page 126 Amended October 2006. S-N.`. 08/09/2007 10:41:16 .34 (27) Comm. for effect of weld improvements on fatigue life.. /16/.13 ⋅ 5114 ⋅ 103 = = 118. The number of rotations of the drum is not specified and is considered to be uncertain. Reference is made to “Fatigue of Welded Joints Peened Underwater”. Therefore a stress range below the constant amplitude fatigue limit is aimed for.1 kN a SCF 1200 ⋅1.`. and Size-Profile Effects”.````.`. Copyright Det Norske Veritas Provided by IHS under license with DNV No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``. see note on front cover ring stiffener is obtained as: ∆σ = ∆M Pa SCF SCF ≅ W W A (25) t D The distance from the drum support to the considered ring stiffener a = 1200 mm. A Design Fatigue Factor of 2 is specified: DFF = 2....`. Reference is also made to “API Provisions for SCF. /13/.. The detail classification is found from Table D-7 detail 8: The classification is E.`--- DET NORSKELicensee=AU location/5940240001 MDT VERITAS Not for Resale.0 2 A P a A-A M = Pa/2 Figure D-15 Drum for transportation Then the maximum tension force is derived as P= ∆σ allowable W 37..``.``. 7 Improvement of fatigue life by fabrication Reference is made to “Recommendations on Post weld Improvement of Steel And Aluminium Structures”. Then the allowable stress range is obtained from Table 2-1 for an E -detail and from section 2.``..10 as ∆σ allowable t = 25 mm = ∆σ at 10 7 cycles 46..0 = 37..

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