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GAZI UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EM331 POWER ELECTRONICS I, EM332 POWER ELECTRONICS II EXPERIMENT 1

SINGLE PHASE DIODE RECTIFIERS


Objective of the experiment: The objective of the experiment is to get familiar with the operation characteristics of single phase diode rectifiers. Single phase bridge and center-tapped full-wave rectifiers are studied in the experiment. 1. BACKGROUND Diodes are widely used in electronic circuits to convert ac power into dc power. These circuits called diode rectifiers. In this experiment single phase bridge rectifier (Figure 1) circuit will be investigated. This type is the most common rectifier in AC/DC conversion. Like other single phase rectifiers single phase bridge rectifier used in low power applications.But it can not be controlled. So it is dependent to input voltage and it can not supply variable output voltage.
iD1
0.1R

A
500mA
D3

io

+ Vs -

is

0.1R

D1

VD1 +

D4

D2

Figure 1: Single Phase Bridge Rectifier


is1 ip
0.1R 0.1R
D1

A
500mA

io +

+ Vs1

VD1

+ Vp -

+ Vs2 D2

is2

Figure 2: Single Phase Center Tapped (Mid Point) Full Wave Rectifier Experiment 1 1

LOAD

Vo

LOAD

Vo

A full wave rectifier circuit with a center-tapped (mid point) transformer is shown in Figure2. Each half of the transformer with its associated diode acts as a half-wave rectifier. Since there is no dc current flowing through the transformer, there is no saturation problem of transformer core. And the output of this rectifier acts as a full bridge rectifier. While the output voltage waveforms of the center-tapped and bridge type single phase rectifiers are the same, they differ in the number of switching devices as well as the switching device reverse voltage value and transformer utilization. The quality of a rectifier performance is measured by using some performance parameters. These parameters are defined below: (rectification ratio)=
Po dc Po ac

where Podc=VodcIodc (output dc power) Poac=VormsIorms (output ac power) Vodc=average value of output voltage Iodc= average value of output current Vorms=RMS value of output voltage Iorms= RMS value of output current The effective value of the ac component of the output voltage is defined as follows:
Vo ac = Vo
2 rms

Vo

2 dc

Where; Vo dc

= 1 Vo (t )dt , Vo rms = T
0

1 Vo 2 (t )dt T
0

Vo rms (ideal value=1) Vo dc Vo ac = FF 2 1 (ideal value=0) RF (Ripple factor)= Vo dc Po dc Po dc TUF (Transformer Utilization Factor)= Vs rms Is rms Vp rms Ip rms

FF (form factor)=

where Vsrms and Isrms are the RMS values of the transformer secondary voltage and current (or rectifier input voltage and current). DF (Displacement factor) = cos where : phase difference between the fundamental components of transformer secondary side voltage and current.
2 2 2 I Srms I S 1rms I Srms = 1 (Ideal value=0) 2 2 I S1rms I S 1rms where IS1rms is the RMS value of the fundamental component of rectifier input (transformer secondary) current iS.

HF (Harmonic factor)=

Experiment 1

Assuming the input voltage has a pure sine waveform, the input power factor is defined as follows: PF (Power Factor)=
I S 1rms cos (Ideal value=1) I Srms

TUF, HF, PF, could be found by using tarnsformer primary side currentand voltage. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE IMPORTANT NOTE: DO NOT ENERGIZE THE CIRCUIT UNTIL YOUR SET UP IS APPROVED BY THE SUPERVISING INSTRUCTOR! 2.1) Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Resistive Load: Make the necessary connections for the circuit of Figure 1. Observe and draw the following waveforms: vS, vO, iS, iD1, vD1, ( iO from iD1 ). Repeat b for inductive load. Fill in Table 1 by measuring or calculating the necessary values. Table 1 Vsrms Isrms Vodc(Analog) Vorms Voac(Digital) Iodc(Analog) R Load R-L Load Iorms Isrms e) Turn the power off. Disconnect the set-up. 2.2) Single Phase Center Tapped (Mid Point) Full Wave Rectifier Resistive Load: a) Make the necessary connections for the circuit of Figure 2. b) Observe and draw the following waveforms: vS1, vO, iS1, iP, vD1, ( iO from iS1 ). c) Fill in Table 2 by measuring or calculating the necessary values. Table 2 Vprms Iprms Vodc(Analog) Vorms Voac(Digital) Iodc(Analog) R Load Iorms Iprms*n(transformer turn ratio) d) Repeat b for iductive load and mesaure Iprms for inductive load. e) Turn the power off. Disconnect the set-up. 3. REQUIRED WORK FOR THE REPORT: 3.1) Include all the drawings in your report. Make the necessary explanations and comment whereever necessary. 3.2) Calculate and tabulate all the performance parameters (use tables) for both two circuits. a) b) c) d)

Experiment 1

3.3) Calculate the theoretical results for the performance parameters (use your drawings) and compare to the obtained results. Comment on the differences. 3.4) List the relative advantages and disadvantages of the rectifier circuits used in this experiment. 3.5) In order to build dc voltage sources, low pass filters are connected to the rectifiers. Design a low pass filter (LC) that attenuates the third and fifth harmonics of the rectifier output to an acceptable level (Choose the level and calculate the L and C values).

Experiment 1