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1960 USA four-cent postal stamp: Water Conservation. Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and agriculturalirrigation. Contents [hide] • 1 Introduction ○ ○ ○ • • • • • • • • 1.1 Water conservation 1.2 Water efficiency 1.3 Goals
2 Social solutions 3 Household applications 4 Commercial applications 5 Agricultural applications 6 Minimum Water Network Target and Design 7 See also 8 References 9 External links
Introduction Water conservation
Water conservation can be defined as: 1. Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use or waste as well as the preservation of water quality. 2. A reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures; or, 3. Improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. A water conservation measure is an action, behavioral change, device, technology, or improved design or process implemented to reduce water loss, waste, or use. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation. That results in more efficient water use and thus reduces water demand. The value and cost-effectiveness of a water efficiency measure must be evaluated in relation to its effects on the use and cost of other natural resources (e.g. energy or chemicals). Water efficiency Main article: Water efficiency Goals The goals of water conservation efforts include as follows: Sustainability. To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation. Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world (for example, California) over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management. Habitat conservation. Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructure. Social solutions
Drip irrigation system in New Mexico Water conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments. Common strategies include public outreach campaigns, tiered water rates (charging progressively higher prices as water use increases), or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering and car washing. Cities in dry climates often require or encourage the installation of xeriscaping or natural landscaping in new homes to reduce outdoor water usage. One fundamental conservation goal is universal metering. The prevalence of residential water metering varies significantly worldwide. Recent studies have estimated that water supplies are metered in less than 30% of UK households, and about 61% of urban Canadian homes (as of 2001). Although individual water meters have often been considered impractical in homes with private wells or in multifamily buildings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyestimates that metering alone can reduce consumption by 20 to 40 percent. In addition to raising consumer awareness of their water use, metering is also an important way to identify and localize water leaks. Some researchers have suggested that water conservation efforts should be primarily directed at farmers, in light of the fact that crop irrigation accounts for 70% of the world's fresh water use. The agricultural sector of most countries is
Low-flush toilets and composting toilets. allowing: Reuse of graywater for flushing toilets or watering gardens Recycling of wastewater through purification at a water treatment plant.Reuse Rainwater harvesting High-efficiency clothes washers Weather-based irrigation controllers Garden hose nozzles that shut off water when it is not being used. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world.important both economically and politically. See also Wastewater . Household applications Water-saving technology for the home includes: Low-flow shower heads sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy. and water subsidies are common. Saline water (sea water) or rain water can be used for flushing toilets. Wastewater reuse or recycling systems. An additional benefit is that they reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes. Conservation advocates have urged removal of all subsidies to force farmers to grow more water-efficient crops and adopt less wasteful irrigationtechniques (see Agricultural applications). instead of letting a hose run. Dual flush toilets created by Caroma includes two buttons or handles to flush different levels of water. as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water. Dual flush toilets use up to 67% less water than conventional toilets. using low flow taps in wash basins Automatic faucet is a water conservation faucet that eliminates water waste at the faucet. Faucet aerators. It automates the use of faucets without the use of hands. . which break water flow into fine droplets to maintain "wetting effectiveness" while using less water.
and when you walk on it. street. Other water-saving technology for businesses includes: Waterless urinals Waterless car washes Infrared or foot-operated faucets. or sidewalk. such as shortening showers and not running the faucet while brushing teeth. Commercial applications Many water-saving devices (such as low-flush toilets) that are useful in homes can also be useful for business water saving. upgrade to air. including increased wash time. However.75 GPM have been shown to have serious undesired consequences. because turfs can absorb too much water. and some users choosing to forgo washing altogether to avoid the inconvenience. Agricultural applications . particularly those whose flow rate is less than . which can save water by using short bursts of water for rinsing in a kitchen or bathroom Pressurized waterbrooms. avoid contamination of water Some tips on conserving water are to: fill 1 sink with wash water and 1 sink with rinse water when you are washing dishes.Water can also be conserved by landscaping with native plants and by changing behavior. Choose shrubs or groundcovers only. and not your house. one of the method of water conservation is rain water harvesting. which can be used instead of a hose to clean sidewalks X-ray film processor re-circulation systems Cooling tower conductivity controllers Utilization of Lake Water and or Sea Water for Cooling Towers Water-saving steam sterilizers. for use in hospitals and health care facilities. hands not completely cleaned. it becomes squishy and moist. ultra-low flow sink faucets.adjust your sprinklers so only your lawn is watered.cooled appliances.
creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff. However. especially for the home gardener and in light of rising water rates. Retrieved 2011-02-20. center pivot design For crop irrigation. the oldest and most common type. drip irrigation is increasingly affordable. using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers. Infiltration basins. optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation. Minimum Water Network Target and Design .Overhead irrigation. There are also cheap effective methods similar to drip irrigation such as the use of soaking hoses that can even be submerged in the growing medium to eliminate evaporation.Usually large gains in efficiency are possible though measurement and more effective management of the existing irrigation system. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type. Anevaporation pan in combination with specific crop correction factors can be used to determine how much water is needed to satisfy plant requirements. capture rainwater and recharge ground water supplies. is often very uneven in distribution. conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system. runoff or subsurface drainage while maximizing production. "Water Conservation". also called recharge pits. but offers the ability to deliver water to plant roots with minimal losses. and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules. As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking. has the potential for a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation. Use of these management practices reduces soil erosion caused by stormwater runoff and improveswater quality in nearby surface waters. This may include chiseling compacted soils. Flood irrigation.
and privately owned suppliers).e. industries. The technique ensure that the designer desired for payback Resilient period Process is satisfied Screening usingSystematic Hierarchical Approach (SHARPS) technique. or water supply operating procedures 2. This chapter addresses the following questions: What's the problem? What practices might be used to solve it? How effective are they? What do they cost? Where have they been used successfully? Practices for system users residential. it considers all conceivable methods to save water. Engineering Practices Plumbing An engineering practice for individual residential water users is the installation of indoor plumbing fixtures that save water or the replacement of existing plumbing equipment with equipment that uses less water. fixtures.The Cost effective minimum water network is a holistic framework/guide for water conservation that helps in determining the minimum amount of freshwater and wastewater target for an industrial or urban system based on the water management hierarchy i. Low-flow plumbing fixtures and . Practices for Residential Users The following sections present examples of conservation and water use efficiency practices that can benefit residential users. These users can choose from among many different water use efficiency practices. followed by practices for system operators. which fall into two categories: 1. industrial/commercial. Both engineering and behavioral practices are described. state and local governments. and agricultural are presented first. Behavioral practices: practices based on changing water use habits This chapter explores a number of water use efficiency practices. and farmers) and system operators (such as municipalities. Engineering practices: practices based on modifications in plumbing. The practices have been evaluated by many researchers. and there is a growing body of literature that presents the results of many studies related to water use efficiency. How to Conserve Water and Use It Effectively Water users can be divided into two basic groups: system users (such as residential users.
Residential demands account for about three-fourths of the total urban water demand. 1991). Since low-flush toilets use less water.000 gallons annually and can lower water bills by about $60 per year if water-efficient plumbing fixtures are used (Jensen. 1992). Toilets. Conventional toilets use 3. for example. and faucets combined represent two-thirds of all indoor water use. 1997 (NAPHCC. 1994.retrofit programs are permanent. they can even save the resident money over the long term.8 billion gallons of water is flushed down toilets each day in the United States. The City of Corpus Christi.5 gallons per flush were replaced with low-flush toilets that use approximately 1. they also reduce the volume of wastewater produced (Pearson. Low-Flush Toilets. The average American uses about 9. The change resulted in a decrease in water consumption from approximately 225 gallons per day per average household of 3® persons to 148 gallons per day per household a savings of 34 percent! Although the total cost for replacement of the conventional toilets with low-flush toilets was about $250 per unit (including installation). 1991). More than 4. the water conservation fixtures saved an average of $46 per year from each unit's water bill. Plastic containers (such as plastic milk jugs) can be filled with water or pebbles and placed in a toilet tank to reduce the amount of .5 gallons per flush will continue to be manufactured.6 gallons of water or less. Indoor use accounts for roughly 60 percent of all residential use. 1993). and of this. the cost for the replacement of the conventional toilet with a low-flush toilet could be recovered in 5.4 years.6 gallons per flush or less (Shepard. 1991). The effectiveness of low-flush toilets has been demonstrated in a study in the City of San Pablo.6 gallons per flush. Therefore. one-time conservation measures that can be implemented automatically with little or no additional cost over their life times (Jensen. toilets (at 3. but low-flush toilets (see figure above) use only 1. showers.5 gallons per flush) use nearly 40 percent. Effective January 1.5 to 5 gallons or more of water per flush. In a 30year-old apartment building. Even in existing residences. has estimated that an average threemember household can reduce its water use by 54. Toilets that operate on 3.000 gallons of water to flush 230 gallons of waste down the toilet per year (Jensen. In some cases. Further support for this conclusion is provided below. conventional toilets that used about 4. California. In new construction and building rehabilitation or remodeling there is a great potential to reduce water consumption by installing low-flush toilets. Toilet Displacement Devices. replacement of conventional toilets with low-flush toilets is a practical and economical alternative. the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486) requires that all new toilets produced for home use must operate on 1. but their use will be allowed for only certain commercial applications through January l. 1993).
Detailed data from 308 single-family residences involved in a pilot program in Seattle.5-gallon-per-minute showerheads with 2. l991b). For homes served by wells. Homeowners can reduce the water pressure in a home by installing pressurereducing valves. The estimated indoor water use per person dropped 6. a reduction in pressure from 100 pounds per square inch to 50 psi at an outlet can result in a water flow reduction of about one-third (Brown and Caldwell. By replacing standard 4. Washington. properly designed low-flow showerheads are available to provide the quality of service found in higher-volume models. Aerators can be easily installed and can reduce the water use at a faucet by as much as 60 percent while still maintaining a strong flow. leaking water heaters. which break the flowing water into fine droplets and entrain air while maintaining wetting effectiveness. Many water use fixtures in a home. so a reduction in water pressure would have little effect on water use at those locations. Faucet aerators.4 percent after low-flow showerheads were installed (Whitcomb. 1990). which use 3 to 5 gallons per minute--are also available (Jensen. 1991). such as washing machines and toilets. Showers account for about 20 percent of total indoor water use. Although individual preferences determine optimal shower flow rates. Pressure Reduction.000 gallons of water per year (Jensen. operate on a controlled amount of water. Toilet dams result in a savings of 1 to 2 gallons of water per flush (USEPA. For example. By placing one to three such containers in the tank (making sure that they do not interfere with the flushing mechanisms or the flow of water). A reduction in water pressure can save water in other ways: it can reduce the likelihood of leaking water pipes. are inexpensive devices that can be installed in sinks to reduce water use. Whitcomb (1990) developed a model to estimate water use savings resulting from the installation of low-flow showerheads in residential housing. It can . 1991). Faucet Aerators. Low-Flow Showerheads. more than l gallon of water can be saved per flush. reducing the system pressure can save both water and energy. a family of four can save approximately 20. can also be used instead of a plastic container to save water. More efficient kitchen and bathroom faucets that use only 2 gallons of water per minute--unlike standard faucets.5-gallon-perminute heads. The use of such valves might be one way to decrease water consumption in homes that are served by municipal water systems. Because flow rate is related to pressure.water used per flush. which cost less than $5 each. the maximum water flow from a fixture operating on a fixed setting can be reduced if the water pressure is reduced. were analyzed. which holds back a reservoir of water when the toilet is flushed. 1984). and dripping faucets. however. A toilet dam.
Another water use efficiency practice that can be applied to residential landscape irrigation is the use of cycle irrigation methods to improve penetration and reduce runoff. landscaping. lawn maintenance. Scheduling lawn irrigation for specific early morning or evening hours can reduce water wasted due to evaporation during daylight hours. and other innovative uses. Landscaping Lawn and landscape maintenance often requires large amounts of water. Careful design of landscapes water usage nationwide.also help reduce dishwasher and washing machine noise and breakdowns in a plumbing system. has implemented an urban dual distribution system for reclaimed water for nonpotable uses. and laundry tubs is called gray water (USEPA. illustrates the effect of water pressure on water savings. Nationally. outdoor water use in the arid West and Southwest is much greater than that in the East or Midwest. 1989). Florida. two principles of water . 1992). particularly in areas with low rainfall. and cleaning sidewalks and driveways. Gray water can be used by homeowners for home gardening. Colorado. bubbler/soaker systems. Outdoor residential water use varies greatly depending on geographic location and season. lawn care accounts for about 32 percent of the total residential outdoor use. A similar method is grouping plants with similar water needs. 1989). comprehensive and pollution prevention. Cycle irrigation provides the right amount of water at the right time and place. Homes with high water pressure were compared to homes with low water pressure. clothes washers. A study in Denver. Other outdoor uses include washing automobiles. Elevation of a home with respect to the elevation of a pumping station and the proximity of the home to the pumping station determine the pressure of water delivered to each home. for optimal growth. Petersburg. Other practices include the use of low-precipitation-rate sprinklers that have better distribution uniformity.000 residential homes and businesses (USEPA. On an annual average basis. 1991). Domestic wastewater composed of wash water from kitchen sinks and tubs. Water use in homes was compared among different water pressure zones throughout the city. The City of St. thereby saving not only water but labor and fertilizer as well (Grisham and Fleming. Xeriscape Landscapes. maintaining swimming pools. Landscape Irrigation. One method of water conservation in landscaping uses plants that need little water. or drip irrigation systems (RMI. An annual water savings of about 6 percent was shown for homes that received water service at lower pressures when compared to homes that received water services at higher pressures. Xeriscape landscaping is an approach to landscaping for water conservation Traditional landscapes might incorporate one or could significantly reduce innovative. This system provides reclaimed water for more than 7. Gray Water Use.
soil analysis. Water can be saved by taking short showers rather than long showers or baths and turning the water off while soaping. and appropriate maintenance (Welsh et al. and lower labor and maintenance costs (USEPA. selection of suitable plants. efficient irrigation. increased habitat for plants and animals. time. The contest spotlights homes that have water-conserving landscapes consisting of plants and grasses that require only a minimum of supplemental water and yet beautify the homes. More than 40 states have initiated xeriscape projects. thus reducing the overall water consumption in a home. Behavioral Practices Behavioral practices involve changing water use habits so that water is used more efficiently. This water savings can be increased even further by installing low-flow showerheads. reduced heating and cooling costs because of carefully placed trees. and cash prizes are awarded. Households with lead-based solder in pipes that flush the first several gallons of water should collect this water for alternative nonpotable uses (e. The tours begin with a slide show on the principles of xeriscape and continue with a walking tour of water-saving landscaping (Xeriscape tours. Benefits of xeriscape landscaping include reduced water use. 10 to 20 gallons of water a day can be saved by running the dishwasher only when it is full. practical turf areas. The offices of the Southwest Florida Water Management District in Tampa and Brooksville offer free xeriscape tours every month. decreased energy use (less pumping and treatment required).. 1993). 1991). bathroom. 1993). An open conventional faucet lets about 5 gallons of water flow every 2 minutes (Florida Commission. If dishes are washed by hand. and laundry room and outdoors. for example. These practices require a change in behavior. In the kitchen. can save water. People are invited to tour the grounds to get ideas on how they. Water can be saved in the bathroom by turning off the faucet while brushing teeth or shaving.. as discussed earlier. not modifications in the existing plumbing or fixtures in a home. use of mulches. El Paso Water Utilities and the Council of El Paso Garden Clubs sponsor an annual "Accent Sun Country" contest. The winning entries are publicized. water can be saved by filling the sink or a dishpan with water rather than running the water continuously. and money while maintaining an attractive landscape (RMI. too. Behavioral practices for residential water users can be applied both indoors in the kitchen. but xeriscape landscaping uses all of the following: planning and design.g. plant watering).conservation. 1990). decreased storm water and irrigation runoff. fewer yard wastes. 1993). . Toilets should be used only to carry away sanitary waste. Some communities use contests and demonstration gardens to promote public awareness.
the water should not be left running. Additional savings of water can result from sweeping sidewalks and driveways instead of hosing them down. A laundry tub should be filled with water. The car should be washed on the lawn if possible to reduce runoff. landscape irrigation. Factors that should be considered in an industrial water reuse program include (Brown and Caldwell. 1992). If the washing machine does not have a variable load control. when possible. Allowing the grass to grow slightly taller will reduce water loss by providing more ground shade for the roots and by promoting water retention in the soil. Engineering Practices Water Reuse and Recycling Water reuse [BROKEN] is the use of wastewater or reclaimed water from one application such as municipal wastewater treatment for another application such as landscape watering. and fire protection (USEPA. Growing plants that are suited to the area ("indigenous" plants) can save more than 50 percent of the water normally used to care for outdoor plants. Outdoor water use can be reduced by watering the lawn early in the morning or late in the evening and on cooler days. aesthetic uses such as fountains. 1990): • • Identification of water reuse opportunities Determination of the minimum water quality needed for the given use . Some potential applications for the reuse of wastewater or reclaimed water include other industrial uses. Some of these practices can also be applied by users in the other water use categories. to reduce evaporation. water can be saved by covering the pool when it is not in use. If washing is done by hand. and the wash and rinse water should be reused as much as possible. agricultural irrigation. As much as 150 gallons of water can be saved when washing a car by turning the hose off between rinses. Washing a sidewalk or driveway with a hose uses about 50 gallons of water every 5 minutes (Florida Commission. The reused water must be used for a beneficial purpose and in accordance with applicable rules (such as local ordinances governing water reuse). 1990). If a home has an outdoor pool.Water can be saved in the laundry room by adjusting water levels in the washing machine to match the size of the load. water can be saved by running the machine only when it is full. Practices for Industrial/Commercial Users Industrial/commercial users can apply a number of conservation and water use efficiency practices.
• • • • • . Three cooling water conservation approaches that can be used to reduce water use are evaporative cooling. drift. (Blowdown is a process in which some of the poor-quality recirculating water is discharged from the tower in order to reduce the total dissolved solids. Recycled water might require treatment before it can be used again. The use of ozone to treat cooling water (ozonation) can result in a five-fold reduction in blowdown when compared to traditional chemical treatments and should be considered as an option for increasing water savings in a cooling tower (Brown and Caldwell. 1990). Factors that should be considered in a water recycling program include (Brown and Caldwell.) Water savings associated with the use of evaporative cooling towers can be increased by reducing blowdown or water discharges from cooling towers. 1992). 1990): Identification of water reuse opportunities Evaluation of the minimum water quality needed for a particular use Evaluation of water quality degradation resulting from the use Determination of the treatment steps. The most waterintensive cooling method used in industrial applications is once-through cooling. and blowdown. Recycling water with a recirculating cooling system can greatly reduce water use by using the same water to perform several cooling operations. water loses heat when a portion of it is evaporated.Identification of wastewater sources that satisfy the water quality requirements • Determination of how the water can be transported to the new use The reuse of wastewater or reclaimed water is beneficial because it reduces the demands on available surface and ground waters (Strauss. and air heat exchange (Brown and Caldwell. in which water contacts and lowers the temperature of a heat source and then is discharged. that might be required to prepare the water for recycling Cooling Water Recirculation The use of water for cooling in industrial applications represents one of the largest water uses in the United States. 1990). In industrial/commerical evaporative cooling systems. Perhaps the greatest benefit of establishing water reuse programs is their contribution in delaying or eliminating the need to expand potable water supply and treatment facilities (USEPA. if any. Water is typically used to cool heat-generating equipment or to condense gases in a thermodynamic cycle. Water recycling [BROKEN] is the reuse of water for the same application for which it was originally used. The water savings [BROKEN]are sufficiently substantial to result in overall cost savings to the industry (see box). Water is lost from evaporative cooling towers as the result of evaporation. ozonation. 1991).
industries have used deionized water excessively to provide maximum assurance against contaminated products. The reuse of once-used deionized water for a different application should also be considered by industry. Deionized water contains no ions (such as salts). but the treatment for recycling can include many of the processes required to produce deionized water from municipal water. the technique reduces the station's water requirement to about 300 gal/min (Strauss. The Pacific Power and Light Company's Wyodak Generating Station in Wyoming decided to use dry cooling to eliminate water losses from cooling-water blowdown. 1990). 1990).000 gallons per minute (gal/min) of makeup (replacement water) for equivalent evaporative cooling. evaporation. In an air heat exchanger. Steam from the turbine is distributed through overhead pipes to finned carbon steel tubes. condensing the steam (Strauss. Deionized water can be recycled after its first use. and drift. The station was equipped with the first air-cooled condenser in the western hemisphere. but they can be relatively expensive when compared with cooling towers (Brown and Caldwell. 1991). Landscape Irrigation Another way that industrial/commercial facilities can reduce water use is through the implementation of efficient landscape irrigation practices. The use of deionized water can be reduced without affecting production quality by eliminating some plenum flushes (a rinsing procedure that discharges deionized water from the rim of a flowing bath to remove contaminants from the sides and bottom of the bath). Air heat exchangers involve no water loss. a fan blows air past finned tubes carrying the recirculating cooling water. There are several general ways that water can be more efficiently used for landscape irrigation. because deionized water is often more pure after its initial use than municipal water (Brown and Caldwell. 1990). The payback comes from the water savings.Air heat exchange works on the same principle as a car's radiator. and improving control of the use of deionized water (Brown and Caldwell. These are grouped in rectangular bundles and installed in A-frame modules above 69 circulating fans. which tend to corrode or deposit onto metals. . Compared to about 4. Historically. 1991). Rinsing [BROKEN] Another common use of water by industry is the application of deionized water for removing contaminants from products and equipment. where applicable. converting from a continuousflow to an intermittent-flow system. The fans force some 45 million cubic feet per minute (ft3/min) of air through 8 million square feet of finnedtube surface.
thus reducing overall water consumption by an industrial/commercial facility. field practices are not very costly. using recycled wash water for prerinse). Changes in behavior [BROKEN] can save water without modifying the existing equipment at a facility. and the quantities and quality of water use in individual processes. Monitoring the amount of water used by an industrial/commercial facility can provide baseline information on quantities of overall company water use. . 1990). Monitoring can make employees more aware of water use rates and makes it easier to measure the results of conservation efforts. Examples of these practices include the chiseling of extremely compacted soils. the distribution of irrigation equipment to make sure that water is dispensed evenly over areas where it is needed. Many of the practices described in the section for residential users can also be applied by commercial users. water-efficient landscaping. and the scheduling of irrigation to ensure maximum water use (Brown and Caldwell. the proper maintenance of irrigation equipment to ensure that it is working properly. the seasonal and hourly patterns of water use. The use of meters on individual pieces of water-using equipment can provide direct information on the efficiency of water use. Baseline information on water use can be used to set company goals and to develop specific water use efficiency measures. furrow diking to prevent runoff. Practices for Agricultural Users Engineering Practices Irrigation Water-saving irrigation practices fall into three categories: field practices.g. Field practices are techniques that keep water in the field.including the design of landscapes for low maintenance and low water requirements (refer to the previous section on xeriscape landscaping). the use of water-efficient irrigation equipment such as drip systems or deep root systems. and leveling of the land to distribute water more evenly. and water reuse and recycling (e. These include low-flow fixtures.. Typically. Records of meter readings can be used to identify changes in water use rates and possible problems in a system (Brown and Caldwell. and system modifications. management strategies. refer to the practices for residential users and agricultural users in this chapter. Behavioral Practices Behavioral practices involve modifying water use habits to achieve more efficient use of water. distribute water more efficiently across the field. 1990). For additional information on efficient water use for irrigation. or encourage the retention of soil moisture.
System modifications require making changes to an existing irrigation system or replacing an existing system with a new one. determining soil moisture. Water Reuse and Recycling Agricultural irrigation represents approximately 40 percent of the total water demand nationwide.Management strategies involve monitoring soil and water conditions and collecting information on water use and efficiency. The information helps in making decisions about scheduling applications or improving the efficiency of the irrigation system. • • • . 1990). installing surge irrigation. significant water conservation benefits could result from irrigating with reused or recycled water. and scheduling irrigation. Because system modifications require the purchase of equipment. they are usually more expensive than field practices and management strategies. The methods include measuring rainfall. retrofitting a well with a smaller pump. Changes in water use behavior can be implemented without modifying existing equipment. checking pumping plant efficiency. Reused water must be used for a beneficial purpose and in accordance with applicable rules (USEPA. or constructing a tailwater recovery system (Kromm and White. 1991a). 1992). Factors that should be considered in an agricultural water reuse program include: The identification of water reuse opportunities Determination of the minimum water quality needed for the given use Identification of wastewater sources that satisfy the water quality requirements • Determination of how the water can be transported to the new use (Brown and Caldwell. Behavioral Practices Behavioral practices involve changing water use habits to achieve more efficient use of water. Water reuse [BROKEN] is the use of wastewater or reclaimed water from one application for another application. Given that high demand. 1990) Water reuse for irrigation is already in widespread use in rural areas and is also applicable in areas where agricultural sites are near urban areas and can easily be integrated with urban reuse applications (USEPA. Typical system modifications include adding drop tubes to a center pivot system. Water recycling is the reuse of water for the same application for which it was originally intended. Behavioral practices for agricultural water users can be applied to irrigation application rates and timing.
Meters also aid in detecting leaks throughout a water system. Boston. could not account for the use of 50 percent of the water in its municipal water system. In 1977. Accurate information on crop water use requires information on solar radiation and other weather variables that can be collected by local weather stations. In making scheduling decisions. An additional method that can be used to improve irrigation scheduling and might result in high returns is the use of equipment such as resistance blocks. [BROKEN] The measurement of water use with a meter provides essential data for charging fees based on actual customer use. After installing meters. condominiums. 1989). Billing customers based on their actual water use has been found to contribute directly to water conservation. irrigators should consider: • The uncertainty of rainfall and crop water demand • The limited water storage capacity of many irrigated soils • The limited pumping capacity of irrigation systems • Rising pumping costs as a result of higher energy prices Local NRCS-Conservation Districts and Cooperative Extension Service offices can play an important role in promoting better irrigation scheduling. Practices for System Operators Engineering Practices Metering Metering. tensiometers. and trailer homes to indicate water use by those individual units. better irrigation scheduling can result in a reduction in the amount of water that is required to irrigate a crop effectively. and tenants who conserve water can benefit from lower water use costs. Submetering of water use in apartment or business complexes makes it possible to bill tenants for the water that they actually use rather than for a percentage of the total water use for the complex. and neutron probes to monitor soil moisture conditions to help in determining when water should be applied (Bosch and Ross. The careful choice of irrigation application rates and timing can help farmers to maintain yields with less water. Submetering is reported to reduce water usage by 20 to 40 percent (Rathnau. Unaccounted-for water dropped to 36 percent after metering and leak detection programs were started. Submetering. the city identified leaks and undertook a vigorous leak detection program (Grisham and Fleming. the entire complex of units is metered by the main supplier. 1990). for example. Submetering makes water users more aware of how much water they use and its cost. 1991). . Massachusetts.For example. [BROKEN] Submetering is used in units such as apartments.
treat. [BROKEN] Repairing leaks controls the loss of water that water agencies have paid to obtain. Using the database can help to lower maintenance costs and can result in more efficient use of the water resource. Some potential applications for water reuse • . water reuse [BROKEN] is the use of wastewater or reclaimed water from one application for another application. Such costs should provide an incentive for system operators to implement a leak detection program. and material • The condition of mains. such as corrosion • Soil conditions or type • Failure and leak records • Water quality • High/low pressure problems • Operating records. such as pump and valve operations • Customer complaints • Meter data • Operating and rehabilitation costs Water Reuse Another practice that should be considered by water system operators who operate publicly owned treatment works is the reuse of treated wastewater. Leak detection programs have been especially important in cities that have large. The database can help the utility manager to set priorities and efficiently allocate rehabilitation funds (Habibian. old. and pinpoint the exact locations of hidden underground leaks. When water leaks from a system before it reaches the consumer. As discussed earlier. deteriorating systems (RMI. As mentioned in the previous section. Water Main Rehabilitation A water utility can improve the management and rehabilitation of a water distribution network by using a distribution system database. metering can also be used to help detect leaks in a system. 1992). and pressurize. water agencies lose revenue and incur unnecessary costs. 1991). age. such as size.Leak Detection One way to detect leaks is to use listening equipment to survey the distribution system. identify leak sounds. The early detection of leaks also reduces the chances that leaks will cause major property damage. An effective way to conserve water is to detect and repair leaks in municipal water systems. A comprehensive database should include information on the following: The characteristics of the system's components. Programs for finding and repairing leaks in water mains and laterals (conduits) might be cost-effective in spite of their high initial costs.
However. utilities in Seminole County pump less than 40 Mgal/d. The state legislature has required that all such wells be capped beginning in 1993 (Florida Commission. aesthetic uses such as fountains. The cost to plug such wells is about $750 (1990 dollars) per well. These factors should be considered in a water reuse program: The identification of water reuse opportunities The determination of the minimum water quality needed for the given use The identification of wastewater sources that satisfy the water quality requirements • The determination of how the water can be transported to the new use (Brown and Caldwell. system operators can use several other practices to conserve water or improve water use efficiency. Planning and Management Practices In addition to engineering practices. unconstitutional (Collinge. Overall charges for water service increased at an average compound rate of 7 percent per year during the 1980s nearly double the rate of inflation (Russet and Woodcock. Florida. industrial uses. restrictions. 1992). 1990). state hydrologists estimate that 1. • • • . agricultural irrigation. and fire protection (USEPA. Customers use less water when they have to pay more for it and use more when they know they can afford it. and policing while retaining a greater degree of individual freedom of choice for water customers. 1992). in some states. 1992). most people consider water to be a "free good" and are not willing to pay higher prices that reflect the true costs associated with the water delivered to their homes. 1990) Well Capping Well capping is the capping of abandoned artesian wells whose rusted casings spill water in a constant flow into drainage ditches. 1991). To put that in perspective. Pricing Information and education promoting conservation do not appear to be effective by themselves in achieving a conservation goal without at the same time imposing significant price increases to provide a financial incentive to conserve water (Martin and Kulakowski.500 abandoned artesian wells are discharging 54 Mgal/d. l991a). In Seminole County. There is concern over "price gouging" due to increased water rates (Collinge.include landscape irrigation. Some pricing has been objected to on the grounds that it can lead to a substantial excess of revenues over costs an excess that might be inequitable and. Rate structures have the advantage of avoiding the costs of overt regulation.
Decreasing Block Rate Pricing. This task involves the following procedures: Determination of the water utility's total annual revenue requirements for the period for which the rates are to be in effect • Determination of service costs by allocation of the total annual revenue requirements to the basic water system cost components and distribution of these costs to the various customer classes in accordance with their service requirements • Design of water rates to recover the cost of service from each class of customer (Mui et al. Pricing. 1989). Time-of-day pricing charges users relatively higher prices during a utility's peak use periods. or Tiered. the first volume of water (block) used is charged a base rate. Increasing block rate. Arizona. Time-of-Day Pricing. pricing reduces water use by increasing per-unit charges for water as the amount used increases.Water utility managers must establish and design water rates that meet revenue requirements and are fair and equitable to all customer classes in the water system. l991). Summer water use records from 1976 to 1980 during a decreasing block rate period were compared to summer use records from 1981 to 1985 during an increasing block rate period. Increasing Block Rate. For example. to encourage year-round conservation. • . and the third block is charged the base rate plus a higher surcharge. Time-of-day pricing can cut generating capacity and reduce reliance on expensive secondary fuel sources (Sexton et al. Using seasonal increasing block rate pricing during summer and winter months. For example. 1991) Several price rate structuring alternatives are available for water system operators. 1989). Decreasing block rate prices reflect per-unit costs of production and delivery that go down as customers consume more water. residents used 33 percent less water between 1974 and 1980. resulted in estimated water savings for the single-family residential class in Tucson of an average 2.23 Mgal/d during 1983-1986 (Cuthbert. It is necessary to increase real prices significantly to overcome the effects of conservation (Martin and Kulakowski. the second block is charged the base rate plus a surcharge. A 10 percent increase in water rates provided about 3 percent more revenue while triggering a 7 percent reduction in use (Billings and Day. Texas. as the cost of water increased in Tucson... 1989). The monthly water use records of 101 customers were measured in a study of municipal water use in the city of Denton. 1989). whereas the increasing block rate scenario resulted in a reaction to the price increase and a corresponding decrease in water use (Nieswiadomy and Molina. Because customers are sensitive to price increases. these charges curtail demand. It was found that the decreasing block rate scenario encouraged greater water use. or tiered.
As a result of the retrofit 1. An apartment building in New England with 151 units was retrofitted with low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators at a cost of $1. 1991). the Lower Colorado River Authority installed low-flow showerheads and toilet dams in an apartment complex and public housing program in Marble Falls. and low-flow showerheads. n. For the winter/summer ratio. toilet tank inserts.000 gallons of water. and $980 for water were saved in 1 year (AWWA. The unit surcharge method establishes a threshold level for excess consumption based on average daily per capita or per-household consumption. $8. where to get them. 1991).725. an increase in usage of 14-20 percent occurs during the summer. refer to the practices for residential users.074.590 for energy.Water Surcharges. Retrofit programs have been shown to be cost-effective and useful in conserving water in many cases. winter/ summer ratios. Retrofit Programs Retrofit programs are another tool system operators can use to promote water use efficiency practices. one-time conservation measures that can be implemented with little or no additional cost over their lifetimes (Jensen. System operators can also purchase water-efficient fixtures and resell them at cost to the users. The increased rate is applied to all customers at all water-use levels (Schlette and Kemp. Indoor per capita water use was reduced by 21 percent (from 81 to 64 gal/cap/day) in the apartment complex and was reduced 11 percent (from 102 to 91 gal/cap/day) in the public housing program (Jensen. . but the most successful retrofit programs have been those in which the system operator purchases. A retrofit program can involve the use of education programs to let users know which fixtures are best. and alternative seasonal rates. A water surcharge imposes a higher rate on excessive water use. and installs the fixtures (AWWA.) As discussed previously. and how to install them. In another retrofit program. n. all water used during the summer or peak season is billed at a higher rate than that used during the other seasons. retrofit programs are permanent.d. Under an alternative seasonal rate structure. Typically.). The most successful water-saving fixtures are those which operate in the same manner as the fixtures they are replacing--for example. The customer pays more money per gallon for water use that is considered higherthan-average. Texas. shower flow restrictors. (For more information. A surcharge is imposed for all water use above that threshold level. and a higher rate or surcharge is imposed for water consumption above the average winter use. 1991). Retrofitting involves the replacement of existing plumbing equipment with equipment that uses less water. metered water use during the winter period is compared to consumption during the corresponding summer period.d.). Surcharges include unit surcharges. distributes.
The Texas Water Development Board estimates that the use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures should save a typical four-member household 55. 1990).Current use of low-flow toilets throughout Texas could reduce the need to build new water and wastewater treatment plants by 15 percent. Residential Water Audit Programs Residential water audit programs involve sending trained water auditors to participating family homes. Retrofit programs can be combined with water audit programs (discussed below) to further improve potential water savings. as well as to collect realworld data on water conservation and use efficiency. Another way to provide public information and education. booklets. 1991). A number of tools can be used to educate the public [BROKEN]: bill inserts. free of charge. posters and bumper stickers. 1989). workshops. is through the use of demonstration projects. to encourage water conservation efforts. The Board estimates that the use of low-flow fixtures might reduce water use statewide by 805 Mgal/d by the year 2040 (Jensen. In Tucson. The largest percentage of indoor use comes from bathing and toilet flushing. Residential water and sewer bills could also be reduced by as much as $200 million over the long term.4 billion during the next 50 years. has been used to demonstrate and study water conservation and reuse . and to recommend changes in water use practices to reduce home water use. feature articles and announcements in the news media. such as repairing leaks and low-flow plumbing. 1989). Public school education is also an important means for instilling water conservation awareness (Grisham and Fleming. Arizona. and the distribution of water-saving devices. Public Education Public education [BROKEN] programs can be used to inform the public about the basics of water use efficiency: • How water is delivered to them • The costs of water service • Why water conservation is important • How they can participate in conservation efforts Public education is an essential component of a successful water conservation program.800 gallons of water and $627 in reduced water and energy costs per year. a single-family home. Therefore. the bathroom is an ideal place for water system operators to focus water conservation efforts (Grisham and Fleming. The audit programs[BROKEN] try to stretch existing water supplies by getting water users to use water more efficiently (Whitcomb. resulting in a savings of as much as $3. the Casa del Agua. Auditors visit participating homes to identify water conservation opportunities.
. 1992). 1988). appraisers. 1988). including indoor and outdoor water savers and water harvesting or recycling systems. Index of Water Efficiency An index of water efficiency. based on a specific set of community water conservation goals (DeCook et al. The W-Index has been applied to the Casa del Agua. a rainwater harvesting system. Arizona. and zoning (Gollnitz. In 1985. 1991)... Architects. 1988). the University of Arizona designed and retrofitted the Casa del Agua with water-conserving fixtures. The index provides a calculated numerical value for each dwelling unit. environmental assessment requirements. The index was applied to about 30 other homes in the Tucson area. homeowners. W-80 good. A W-Index can serve as a measure of the effectiveness of water efficiency features in a home. A heightened awareness of water's scarcity might make educational programs more effective in the West than in the rest of the country (Nieswiadomy. which is derived from the number and kind of water-saving features present. an overall W-Index rating of W-50 would be considered fair. The Casa del Agua received a value of W-139. Adverse effects on a water supply source can be lessened through land use controls such as land preservation. and drought-tolerant plants. Measurements of water use and water quality at the Casa del Agua have provided a useful collection of data for evaluating the possible benefits of conservation techniques and technologies in a residential home (Karpiscak et al. Planning for Resource Protection Monitoring and managing land use and waste disposal practices around water supply sources can potentially reduce the need for new water supply development and keep water treatment costs to a minimum (Gollnitz. or "W-Index. A study of water demand in the United States using American Water Works Association (AWWA) data indicated that water users are more sensitive to a change in price in the South and the West than in the other regions of the country. Typically." can be used as a device to evaluate residential water savings and as a way to motivate water users to adopt watersaving practices.or multi-family dwelling unit (DeCook et al. water conservation demonstration home discussed in the preceding section. with resulting values ranging from W-75 to W-100. the Tucson. nonregulatory and regulatory watershed programs. and W-110 excellent. water suppliers. gray water reuse and storage systems. 1988).techniques and technologies. Public education appears to have reduced water usage in the West. or water management agencies can use the W-Index as a basis for evaluating the water-saving capability of any particular single. builders. The protection of a water .
or the improper use and runoff of insecticides and herbicides. The contamination of a water supply source can result in the need to develop expensive treatment systems or to find new sources for water supply.. Contamination of a water source can result from point and nonpoint sources of pollution such as chemical spills. waste discharges.). Conserving water can also extend the life of your septic system by reducing soil saturation. Water quality often decreases as water quantity decreases.d. stream flows. We need water every time now and then. The followings are tips for water conservation at our house and yard. from political and technical matters to public involvement. Managing a resource essential to people's welfare during disaster and dealing with the associated emotional. even in areas where water seems abundant.. and reducing any pollution due to leaks. and physical consequences makes drought management a very challenging task. n. In addition. and reservoir levels and to recharge ground water. Water. Drought Management Planning When less rain falls than usual. costly sewage system expansion has been avoided by communitywide household water conservation. there is less water to maintain normal soil moisture. economic. Falling levels of surface waters create unattractive areas of exposed shoreline and reduce the capacity of surface waters to dilute and carry municipal and industrial wastewater.. The smaller the amount of water flowing through these systems. 1.. Water conservation has become an essential practice in all regions. In addition to saving money on your utility bill. Check faucets and pipes for leaks . water conservation helps prevent water pollution in nearby lakes. A drought management plan [BROKEN] should address a range of issues. Water supply source protection should play an important role in the overall management of a municipal water utility. Overloading municipal sewer systems can also cause untreated sewage to flow to lakes and rivers. In some communities. adversely affecting fish and wildlife habitats. dry conditions make trees more prone to insect damage and disease and increase the potential for grass and forest fires (TVA.source by a utility can range from simple sanitary surveys of a watershed to the development and implementation of complex land use controls. the lower the likelihood of pollution. rivers and local watersheds.
Insulate your water pipes. 5. Also. If the meter does not read exactly the same. all household faucets should be fit with aerators. or add a ShowerStart converter to existing showerheads. 3. you have a leak that should be repaired immediately. long. safely away from the operating mechanisms. Also. put an inch or two of sand or pebbles inside each of two plastic bottles to weigh them down. which automatically pauses a running shower once it gets warm. the color begins to appear in the bowl within 30 minutes. Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. wash down and rinse off. and put them in your toilet tank.5 gallons per minute. Most replacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install. buy an inexpensive tank bank or float booster. which use 1 to 2 gallons per flush instead of the usual 3 to 5 gallons. screw the lids on. You'll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up. This may save ten or more gallons of water per day. Or. there is a leak. Don't use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket Every time you flush a cigarette butt. If. It's easy and inexpensive to insulate your water pipes with pre-slit foam pipe insulation.A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Check your toilets for leaks Put a little food coloring in your toilet tank. five to seven gallons of water is wasted. Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons. 7. This single best home water conservation method is also the cheapest! 6. Be sure at least 3 gallons of water remain in the tank so it will flush properly. For new installations. Fill the bottles with water. Put plastic bottles or float booster in your toilet tank To cut down on water waste. Install water-saving shower heads and low-flow faucet aerators Inexpensive water-saving low-flow shower heads or restrictors are easy for the homeowner to install. consider buying "low flush" toilets. facial tissue or other small bit of trash. "Low-flow" means it uses less than 2. . Replacing an 18 liter per flush toilet with an ultra-low volume (ULV) 6 liter flush model represents a 70% savings in water flushed and will cut indoor water use by about 30%. without flushing. 4. Limit your showers to the time it takes to soap up. hot showers can use five to ten gallons every unneeded minute. 2. You can easily install a ShowerStart showerhead.
adjust water levels to match the size of the load. A four-minute shower uses approximately 20 to 40 gallons of water. consider buying a water-saving front load washer. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads Automatic dishwashers and clothes washers should be fully loaded for optimum water conservation. With clothes washers. 12. there is usually no need to pre-rinse the dishes. 10. . 11. Most makers of dish washing soap recommend not pre-rinsing dishes which is a big water savings. Use a dual-setting aerator. Replace old clothes washers. Store drinking water in the fridge in a safe drinking bottle.50% less water and 50% less energy per load. Rinse your razor in the sink Fill the sink with a few inches of warm water. Turn off the water after you wet your toothbrush There is no need to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. New Energy Star rated washers use 35 . which uses an added 20 liters (5 gallons) for the extra rinse. If using a dishwasher. with far less waste of water. 15. If you're in the market for a new clothes washer. This will rinse your razor just as well as running water. then turn it back on to rinse. Keep a bottle of drinking water in the fridge. and also add considerably to the volume of solids in a septic tank which can lead to maintenance problems. 14. Dual-swivel aerators are available to make this easier. For partial loads. Don't let the faucet run while you clean vegetables Just rinse them in a stoppered sink or a pan of clean water. One way to cut down on water use is to turn off the shower after soaping up. Running tap water to cool it off for drinking water is wasteful. 13. gather washed dishes in a dish rack and rinse them with a spray device or a panful of hot water. When washing dishes by hand. Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing food waste. If you have a single-basin sink. fill one with soapy water and one with rinse water. Take shorter showers. don't leave the water running for rinsing If your have a double-basin. Minimize use of kitchen sink garbage disposal units In-sink 'garburators' require lots of water to operate properly. avoid the permanent press cycle. 9.8. Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing.
18. 20. Early watering. 21. Deep-soak your lawn When watering the lawn. also reduce water loss to evaporation. For information about different mulch materials and their best use. the lawn is ready for watering. and late watering. shrubs and plants If you are planting a new lawn. 19. Try not to water when it's windy . or over seeding an existing lawn. If it stays flat.water conservation in the yard and garden. you've watered about the right amount. Plant drought-resistant lawns. Visit our natural lawn care page for more information.wind can blow sprinklers off target and speed evaporation. Put an empty tuna can on your lawn when it's full. use droughtresistant grasses such as the new "Eco-Lawn". Many beautiful shrubs and plants thrive with far less watering than other species.. Replace herbaceous perennial borders with native plants. If it springs back up when you move. Letting the grass grow taller (to 3") will also promote water retention in the soil. Native plants will use less water and be more resistant to local plant diseases. avoid watering when it's windy Early morning is generally better than dusk since it helps prevent the growth of fungus. Also. Consider applying the principles of xeriscape for a low-maintenance. drought resistant yard. 16. Watering early in the day is also the best defence against slugs and other garden pests. avoid watering on windy days. . Put a layer of mulch around trees and plants Mulch will slow evaporation of moisture while discouraging weed growth. Water during the early parts of the day. do it long enough for the moisture to soak down to the roots where it will do the most good. it doesn't need water. Press the mulch down around the drip line of each plant to form a slight depression which will prevent or minimize water runoff. Water your lawn only when it needs it A good way to see if your lawn needs watering is to step on the grass. not on paved areas. 17. click here. Don't water the gutter Position your sprinklers so water lands on the lawn or garden. Group plants according to their watering needs. Adding 2 4 inches of organic material such as compost or bark mulch will increase the ability of the soil to retain moisture. A light sprinkling can evaporate quickly and tends to encourage shallow root systems.. Plant slopes with plants that will retain water and help reduce runoff.
Use hose washers at spigots and hose connections to eliminate leaks. But they can be just as wasteful as leaks indoors. You can greatly reduce the amount of water used for shrubs. Don't run the hose while washing your car Clean the car using a pail of soapy water. use a variable spray nozzle for targeted watering. Use a broom. hoses. flower beds and lawns Adding organic material to your soil will help increase its absorption and water retention. as this can actually diminish plant health and cause yellowing of the leaves. 23. faucets and couplings Leaks outside the house may not seem as bad since they're not as visible. Better yet. . beds and lawns by: . Water conservation comes naturally when everyone in the family is aware of its importance.installing a rain barrel water catchment system . and parents take the time to teach children some of the simple watersaving methods around the home which can make a big difference.this simple practice can save as much as 150 gallons when washing a car. Water Use Checklist There are a number of simple steps that homeowners can take to reduce home water use without significant up front investment. When hand watering. use a waterless car washing system. Add organic matter and use efficient watering systems for shrubs. Check for leaks in pipes. such as EcoTouch. Areas which are already planted can be 'top dressed' with compost or organic matter.installing a simple drip-irrigation system Avoid over-watering plants and shrubs. Check frequently to keep them drip-free. Use a spray nozzle when rinsing for more efficient use of water. 24. not a hose. which are now on the market. there are several brands. Use the hose only for rinsing . to clean driveways and sidewalks 25.the strategic placement of soaker hoses .22.
if your water heater's tank leaks. be sure the source is reputable and trustworthy. Also. consult your utility company. or with help from a professional. Fix Leaks Indoor leaks You can significantly reduce water use by simply repairing leaks or drips in fixturesfaucets and showerheads-or pipes. Your bill and water meter are tools that can help you discover leaks. Many water providers will conduct home water audits for free or will provide you with home water audit kits at little or no cost! If using instructions from the Internet. Monitor your water bills Monitor your water bill for unusually high use. including faucet aerators and low-flow showerheads. Smarter Appliances and Fixtures Fixtures Low flow fixtures. Also. sprinklers.Audit your Water Use Home water audit To conduct a home water audit yourself. remember to keep the sprinkler heads in good shape. and faucets for leaks. you may need a new water heater Outdoor leaks Don't forget to periodically check the outdoor hoses. are generally inexpensive to replace and are one of the most cost-effective water conservation .
consider appliances that offer cycle and load size adjustments. when washing dishes by hand. which uses less water (a maximum of 1.3 gallons per flush). For instance. Do not let faucets or sprinklers run unnecessarily. and are responsible for much of the water wasted in American homes. manufactured before the 1992 Energy Policy Act mandated more water efficient versions. Toilet Older toilets. faucets. Consider EPA WaterSense®-labeled aerators. Consider installing a WaterSense® labeled toilet.measures. Also. use up to 3. consider a high-efficiency ENERGYSTAR® labeled model when purchasing a new dishwasher or washing machine. Use Only the Water you Need Everyday activities Always use only the water you need. Reuse Water Water reuse in the home . to use less water. Appliance use Wash only full loads in your dishwasher and washing machine. turn the water off while you brush your teeth or shave. or set the water level for the size of your load. Also. Appliances To save water and energy. while offering equal or superior performance. don't let the water run while rinsing. if possible.5 gallons per flush. and showerheads for improved efficiency without sacrificing performance. which are more water and energy efficient.
time and money. Also. avoid overwatering. when you give your pet fresh water. and don't water your lawn on windy days when most of the water blows away or evaporates. retain moisture. isolated strips. Rain water can be used to irrigate lawn and garden areas. use a layer of organic mulch around plants to reduce evaporation. shrubs. Group plants with similar watering needs together to avoid overwatering some while underwatering others. Lawn & Garden with Care Lawns Reduce the amount of lawn in your yard by re-naturalizing certain areas. such as in play or recreation areas. lawns only need one inch of water per week. and trees. For instance. Also. native shrubs or groundcover) for steep slopes.Don't pour water down the drain when there may be another use for it. Plantings Plant native or drought tolerant grasses. Most of the year. Select a type of grass that can withstand drought periods and become dormant during hot. Only use turf where it aesthetically highlights the house or buildings and where it has practical function. Rainwater collection Rain barrels are mosquito-proof containers that collect and store rainwater that would otherwise wind up in storm drains and streams. reuse the old water for your houseplants. consider lawn alternatives (i. reduce weed growth.e. shady areas or near streams and lakes. and a . ground covers. For instance. and save water. which make up a large amount of total household water use during the summer. dry seasons. Watering practices Water your lawn during the coolest part of the day. where it takes a lot of extra work to maintain grass.
Outdoor Activities: Pool and recreation Install a water-saving pool filter.heavy rain eliminates the need for watering for up to two weeks. When backflushing your pool. If you wash your own car. fountains) that require a constant stream of water. Irrigation system Use soaker hoses or drip irrigation for shrubs and trees to apply water directly to the roots where it's needed. try to cover pools and spas to reduce evaporation of water. Also. that's why it's more important than ever to use our water . Conserving Water Did you know that less than 1% of all the water on Earth can be used by people? The rest is salt water (the kind you find in the ocean) or is frozen. Car washing Use a commercial car wash that recycles water.e. unless they use recycled water. use a shut-off nozzle that can be adjusted down to a fine spray on your hose. not mist. Communities across the country are starting to face challenges in maintaining healthy and affordable water supplies. Avoid using recreational water toys and ornamental water features (i. consider using the water on your landscaping. If you decide to use a sprinkler. and set them to water lawns and gardens only. Also. look for models that produce droplets. Apply water only as fast as the soil can absorb it. install a rain sensor on any automatic irrigation so your system won't run when it's raining. or use water from a bucket.
installing high efficiency clothes washers and toilets. As communities across the country begin facing challenges regarding water supply and water infrastructure. money. and energy. and accessories that reduce water use in the home and help preserve the nation's water resources.000 gallons per year!). A typical household uses approximately 260 gallons of water every day. and practices. programs. please click here Water-Efficient Appliances and Fixtures Most of us know we can save water if we turn off the tap while brushing our teeth (as much as 3. and watering the lawn and garden with the minimum amount of water needed. have identified high-performance. By saving water. We can reduce this amount and save money by using water more efficiently -.detecting and fixing leaky faucets. WaterSense can help consumers identify water-efficient products and programs.wisely and not waste it. fixtures. Look for the WaterSense Label WaterSense. In addition. programs sponsored by EPA. it takes large amounts of energy to produce and transport clean water and to process waste water. water-efficient appliances. • • • • • • Water-Efficient Appliances and Fixtures Landscaping and Irrigation Managing Stormwater Water Use and Energy Home Maintenance and Household Practices New Homes For the Water Use Checklist. you also save energy. The WaterSense label tells the consumer that products and programs that carry the label meet water efficiency and performance criteria. and will help save water. a partnership program sponsored by EPA. the link is discussed in detail here. but did you know that there are products that will help save water when the tap is on? WaterSense and ENERGYSTAR®. . seeks to protect the future of our nation's water supply by promoting water efficiency and enhancing the market for water-efficient products. water systems.
composting toilets can help conserve water and energy. Toilets are by far the main source of water use in the home. Toilets also happen to be a major source of wasted water due to leaks and inefficiency. There are a number of high-efficiency toilet options. Dual flush toilets have two flush volumes-a full flush for solids and a reduced flush for liquids only. Whether you're remodeling a bathroom. use up to 3.For more information on EPA's WaterSense program. Composting toilets are another option for those who want to be very green. Check to see if composting toilets are allowed under your local building codes. Older toilets. as well as water saving tips. water-efficient option worth considering. including dual flush technology.epa. reduce water pollution. building a new home. Replacing these toilets with WaterSense labeled toilets could save nearly 2 billion gallons per day across the country. Composting toilets have been an established technology for more than 30 years. on average. a WaterSense labeled toilet is a high-performing. manufactured before 1992 when the Energy Policy Act mandated water efficient toilets. Switching to high-efficiency toilets can save a family of four.gov/watersense/index. accounting for nearly 30 percent of residential indoor water consumption. $2.htm Toilets Although they take a bit more attention than ordinary toilets.000 in water bills over the lifetime of the toilets. and may generate useful garden compost. leaky toilet. or simply replacing an old. go to: http://www.5 gallons per flush. .
htm http://www.pdf Faucets and Showerheads Faucets Faucets account for more than 15 percent of indoor household water use-more than 1 trillion gallons of water across the United States each year.2 trillion gallons of water consumed each year. so you might want to replace older models if you're not sure of the flow rate. WaterSense labeled bathroom sink faucets and accessories can reduce a sink's water flow by 30 percent or more without sacrificing performance. For more information on water efficient toilets for your home. go to: http://www. As they require little to no water. If every household in the United States installed WaterSense labeled bathroom sink faucets or faucet accessories. Showerheads Showering accounts for approximately 17 percent of residential indoor water use in the United States-more than 1. Aerators are inexpensive to replace and are an effective water-efficiency measure. consider replacing the aerator in your older faucet with a more efficient one. .and recent advances have made them easy to use and similar in look and feel to regular toilets. rural. and suburban areas. high-efficiency shower fixtures for around $10 to $20 a piece and achieve water savings of 25-60 percent.5 gpm (gallons per minute) for maximum water efficiency.gov/owmitnet/pdfs/comp.5 gpm. and showerheads-or pipes. some showerheads had flow rates of 5. You can purchase quality. Select a high-efficiency showerhead with a flow rate of less than 2. composting toilet systems can provide a solution to sanitation and environmental problems in unsewered. faucets.epa.epa. we could save more than $350 million in water utility bills and more than 60 billion gallons of water annually-enough to meet public water demand in a city the size of Miami for more than 150 days! If you are not in the market for a new faucet. Before 1992.gov/watersense/pp/het. Also keep in mind that you can significantly reduce water use by simply repairing leaks in fixtures-toilets. The aerator-the screw-on tip of the faucetultimately determines the maximum flow rate of a faucet.
and is the second largest water user in your home. consider installing an insulation blanket on your water heater tank. When installing a hot water heater insulation blanket: • For electric hot-water storage tanks. the average washing machine uses about 41 gallons of water per load.gov/index.eere. To save more water. If you are in the market for a new dishwasher or clothes washer.pr_appliances http://apps1. look for a clothes washer with a low water factor.gov/watersense/pubs/ws_bathroom_faucets.epa.energystar. So.For more information on water-efficient faucets. For more information on water. go to: http://www.0.and energy-efficient appliances. households installed water-efficient appliances. . If you are not in the market for a new hot water heater.S. High-efficiency washing machines use 35 to 50 percent less water. and can account for 14%-25% of the energy consumed in your home.0 cubic feet.energy. showerheads.cfm?c=appliances. the more efficient the washer is. It typically accounts for about 13% of your utility bill.epa.htm Appliances If all U. then the water factor is 6. and accessories. got to: http://www. heat pump. If your water heater's tank leaks. as well as 50 percent less energy per load. water-saving ENERGY STAR® model to reduce water and energy use. or solar hot water heaters-and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies.cfm/mytopi c=13050 Hot Water Systems Water heating is the third largest energy expense in your home. you may need a new water heater. A water factor is the number of gallons per cycle per cubic foot that a clothes washer uses. if a washer uses 18 gallons per cycle and has a tub volume of 3. You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool-such as tankless.gov/WaterSense/pp/showerheads. the country would save more than 3 trillion gallons of water and more than $18 billion dollars per year! For instance.htm http://www. The lower the water factor. be careful not to cover the thermostat. and insulate at least the first 3 to 6 feet of the hot and cold water pipes connected to the water heater. consider buying an efficient.gov/consumer/your_home/water_heating/index.
and preserve natural resources. For more information on energy efficient hot water heaters. fertilization. prevent pollution. eyecatching gardens and landscapes that save water. However. the amount of water used outdoors by a household can exceed the amount used for all other purposes in the entire year. Landscaping Choose climate-appropriate. approximately 7. is devoted to outdoor uses. By making your landscape a GreenScape. and are more resistant to pests and disease. go to: Efficient Hot Water Systems and Strategies Top of page Landscaping and Irrigation Of the 26 billion gallons of water consumed daily in the United States. Using native plants and landscape designs that optimize local conditions can reduce irrigation water use. you can save time and money by eliminating unnecessary watering. In .000 gallons of water above and beyond rainwater each year. or 30 percent. and protect the environment are. and soil type. In the summer. The following are some water-efficient landscaping and irrigation methods. saving thousands of gallons of water per year in each household. lower maintenance costs. thermostat. Select plants that grow well in your area of the country and are appropriate given the amount of sun. drought-tolerant. or burner compartment. Because native plants are adapted to local soils and climatic conditions. in fact. Many people believe that stunning gardens and beautiful lawns are only possible through extensive watering. This is especially true in hot. dry climates. they typically do not require fertilizers. and native/adapted plant species The typical suburban lawn consumes 10.8 billion gallons. easily achieved. Always make sure to follow the manufacturer's recommendations These strategies will help get hot water to you faster. The majority of this is used for irrigation. and pesticide application. as well as reduce soil erosion. rainfall.• • For natural gas or oil hot-water storage tanks. bottom. be careful not to cover the water heater's top.
it makes sense to use low-water plants to save the time and expense of watering. as some of them may be invasive. There are now many options widely available that demand up to 2/3 less water. Midwest." as these types of plants frequently require greater amounts of supplemental water. When selecting plants. such as in play or recreation areas. Subsequently. including the Northeast. dry seasons. Also. Re-naturalize your lawn or xeriscape In many areas of the country. this will allow . Spread mulch if you want to help kill back the grass within the naturalizing area. fertilizers.most climate zones. Consider replacing Kentucky blue grass (the most common turf outside of the Southern U. Don't mow. Select a type of grass that can withstand drought periods and become dormant during hot. Use turf grass where it aesthetically highlights your house and where it has a practical function. or other leafy plants help absorb. and Pacific Northwest. both functions help to reduce global warming. Appropriate amounts of water and the natural dormant periods mean the grass will go brown during the summer. Don't rake leaves. Lawns require a large amount of supplemental water and generally more intensive maintenance than other vegetation." "susceptible to disease. An invasive plant might be a water guzzler and will surely choke out native species. intercept and slow down rainfall. Plant shrubs. After a rainfall. thereby reducing runoff. plants help control storm water runoff.) with low water grasses. and they help cool the earth's surface. Grouping turf areas can increase watering efficiency and significantly reduce evaporative and runoff losses." or "needs frequent attention. Be careful when selecting non-indigenous species. With time (2-5 years). avoid those labeled "hard to establish. Reduce turf grass areas How and where turf is placed in the landscape has a significant impact on the amount of irrigation water needed to support the landscape. and pesticides. focus on preserving as many existing trees and shrubs as possible because established plants usually require less water and maintenance. Mid-Atlantic. fertilize or apply pesticides. Plants also absorb carbon dioxide (a principle greenhouse gas). trees and other vegetation in place of lawns or bare. you can convert areas of your lawn to a more natural landscape by allowing the area to grow as it would if the lawn were not there. large quantities of water are retained on the surface of leaves in the form of droplets. eroding areas Trees. shrubs. but watering it once a month will allow it to spring back later.S.
as well as help restore natural habitat. It is lost through evaporation. shade and cool the water.pdf http://www. bushes. Xeriscaping takes many forms but is defined as landscape design tailored to withstand drought conditions. This also means you'll use less fertilizer and pesticides and you won't have to mow the re-naturalized area! Although the re-naturalized area may not appear very attractive for a while (and a neighbor may even raise a comment or two). Eventually the vegetation will grow thick and dense and provide a nice visual screen or green buffer between your home and surrounding properties when leafed-out. In arid parts of the country such as the West. and have lower maintenance needs than lawns. you can encircle it with field stone or other edging materials.epa.gov/epawaste/partnerships/greenscapes/owners.lrconline. Leaving. go to: http://www. it can help to spread mulch and plant some ornamental plants appropriate for your climate to give the re-naturalizing area a garden-like appearance as it gets established. provide homes for wildlife. or along streams and lakes. You can do as much of this as you wish to achieve a happy balance between a totally natural look and a garden look. trees and other natural vegetation will dominate and create a maintenance-free portion of your yard.epa. or by . Once the native vegetation has replaced the lawn. runoff. or creating.pdf http://www. a cost-effective and increasing popular landscaping option. and prevent stream bank erosion. Southwest. small shrubs.htm http://www. Re-naturalized areas help to absorb rainwater better than lawns and can lead to less storm water runoff from your property. re-establish their presence through succession. Xeriscaped landscapes also require little or no fertilizer or pesticides.denverwater. and Rocky Mountain regions. For more information on water efficient landscaping.native plants to take root. where it takes a lot of extra work to maintain grass. Once you have achieved the desired size of the re-naturalized area. if you wish.gov/watersense/docs/ws_watering508. a "buffer" of dense native vegetation along streams and lakes will filter and slow runoff. by using draught tolerant plants and grouping plants with similar watering needs.org/cons_xeriscape/xeriscape/xeriscape_index. consider xeriscaping. shade.com/Extension_Notes_English/pdf/Naturalize. vines.html Water-Efficient Irrigation Systems and Practices With common watering practices. a large portion of the water applied to lawns and gardens is not absorbed by the plants. Also consider re-naturalizing areas with steep slopes.
or other landscape is the most waterefficient practice. and landscapes can be accomplished either manually or with an automatic irrigation system. • Manual watering . those with in-ground sprinkler systems use 35 percent more water. Irrigating lawns. garden. Consider purchasing one with a weather-based controller. the most important features are how well they can be programmed to handle diverse landscape and weather conditions. are considered the most efficient of the automated irrigation methods because they deliver water directly to the plants' roots. gardens. sometimes irrigation is necessary. Install system controllers such as rain sensors that prevent sprinklers from turning on during and immediately after rainfall. Irrigation Practices • . Efficient irrigation systems and practices reduce these losses by applying only as much water as is needed to keep your plants and lawn healthy. Although not watering your lawn. While controllers come in all types of shapes and sizes. and those with drip irrigation systems use 16 percent more water than households that manually water. as households that manually water with a hose typically use 33 percent less water outdoors than those who use an automatic irrigation system. Over-watering with automated sprinklers is most common during the spring and fall because irrigation schedules are set to summer watering needs.Manual watering with a hand-held hose tends to be the most water-efficient method. Automatic irrigation systems .watering too quickly or in excess of the plants' needs. or soil moisture sensors that activate sprinklers only when soil moisture levels drop below pre-programmed levels.Drip-type irrigation systems. including water efficient spray heads. In-ground sprinkler and drip irrigation systems need to be operated and maintained properly to be water-efficient. Households with automatic timers use 47 percent more water. It is also important to revise your watering schedule as the seasons change.
which helps reduce the need for water treatment works expansion. Make every drop count . weed growth. Some experts estimate that • • . it does not need to be watered. However.If you step on your lawn and the grass springs back. potable drinking water. Familiarize yourself with the settings on your irrigation controller and adjust the watering schedule regularly to conform with seasonal weather conditions.Over-watering a lawn and adjacent paved areas not only consumes unnecessary water.To further reduce your water consumption. Information on local water regulations may be available on local government Web sites. therefore. check with public health or municipal officials before using alternative sources of water. and collected rainwater via rain barrels. reclaiming water is not allowed. Homes with access to alternative sources of irrigation water can reduce their water bills significantly. disease. save money on water bills. in some drought-prone localities. and no more. and fungus. Watering plants too much and too frequently also results in shallow roots. we reduce the burden on water treatment facilities. By reducing the amount of drinking water used for landscape irrigation. consider using alternative sources of irrigation water. and conserve precious water resources by learning to give your lawn and garden just what they need. Did you know that watering too much or too little is the cause of many common plant health problems? You can have healthier plants. over-watering can increase leaching of fertilizers into ground water and can harm your lawn and plants. Use alternative sources of water . In addition to wasting water. since it takes energy to produce and distribute clean water to our homes. reclaimed water. Most of the water we use to irrigate landscapes is treated. • Less is more . but also wastes energy.The typical single-family suburban household uses at least 30 percent of their water for irrigation. such as gray water.
.Water lawns separately from other plantings. fabric softener. . For more information on EPA's GreenScapes program for homeowners and WaterSense irrigation partners. use the leftover water from the bath or sink on plants or the garden. go to: GreenScaping for homeowners Water. trees and shrubs in many areas of the U.longer grass blades help shade each other.When soil is dry or compacted. it won't absorb water quickly. generally do not require any watering. and inhibit weed growth.more than 50 percent of landscape water goes to waste due to evaporation or runoff caused by over-watering.When using a hose. . which require smaller amounts of water more often. much of the water just evaporates.Water in the early morning-if you water at mid-day.or sensor-based Irrigation controls Landscape irrigation services Water efficient irrigation brochure Top of page . which artificially promotes new growth that will need additional watering.Raise your lawn mower cutting height . control the flow with an automatic shut-off nozzle. or other chemicals. exceptions being arid regions. Make sure sprinklers are not watering pavement. Water just once a month and brown areas of the lawn will bounce back in the fall. .S. reduce evaporation. . Evening watering should be avoided because it can encourage the growth of mold or plant diseases. . you can also allow an established lawn to go dormant in nonarid parts of the country. . stop watering until the water has time to soak in. If water puddles. Note: Once established.Water new trees and shrubs longer and less frequently than shallow-rooted plants. Don't use water that contains bleach.When outdoor use of city or well water is restricted during a drought. automatic-dishwashing detergent. . .Amend your soil with compost and mulch to hold water and reduce evaporation.Minimize or eliminate chemical fertilizing. Easy ways to lower water bills and get more water to plants include: . Use soaker hoses or drip irrigation systems for trees and shrubs.In a dry spell.
debris. Let the Rain Soak In Porous paving bricks and pervious parking areas can help reduce storm water runoff by allowing rainwater to soak into the ground. rain gardens help reduce soil erosion. fishing and providing drinking water. dirt. driveway. filter fine particulates. stream. Planting . and capture fertilizer and excess nutrients that can pollute rivers and lakes. Anything that enters most storm sewer systems is discharged untreated into the waterbodies we use for swimming.Raingardens are landscaped areas designed to soak up rainwater from your roof. which harms fish and other wildlife. and muddies the water. By reducing the volume and velocity of storm water runoff. You can help slow runoff and help the soil hold the moisture plants need in summer by directing downspouts out into lawns. and/or lawn.Managing Stormwater Rain rushes off roofs. and limiting impervious "hardscape" surfaces. rain gardens. These gardens collect rainwater runoff and filter and slowly release it into the ground. and typically can retain 30 percent more rainwater than a conventional patch of lawn. or coastal water. This rush of stormwater causes flooding downstream. Stormwater picks up chemicals. or rain barrels. river. • Raingardens . wetland. erodes soil and stream banks. in combination with reducing impervious surface areas and pollutants such as pesticides. and other pollutants and flows into a storm sewer system or directly to a lake. pavement and compacted soil in developed areas. Reducing irrigation water use. helps to minimize the negative impacts of stormwater runoff.
In the Rocky Mountains and Southwest.Lawns . or other pavement options that let rain seep into the soil. or buy it in bags or bulk. or grass clippings that you spread around your plants.Mulch is a layer of organic material like leaves. reducing the need for fertilizer by 25 to 50 percent. Mulch stabilizes soil temperature. • Mulch . You can make your own compost at home.Compost helps sandy soils hold nutrients and water. and helps to conserve water. shrubs and groundcovers next to streams. lakes and ditches helps to stabilize the soil and to slow and filter runoff. thereby reducing the runoff from a site and surrounding areas. rock mulches are preferable. in place of asphalt and traditional concrete.Mulch your lawn? Yes. In addition. you can "grasscycle" (leave the clippings on the lawn when mowing). and feeds the beneficial soil life so it can feed and protect your plants. Mulch can be used in and around: . Porous pavement is a special type of pavement that allows rain and snowmelt to pass through it. Limit impervious surfaces .dense strips of native trees. shrubs and woody perennials .Trees. aged wood chips. porous pavement can filter pollutants from the runoff. loosens clay soils. The clippings quickly decompose and release valuable nutrients back into the soil to feed the grass.Use porous pavement. • Rain gardens reduce stormwater runoff from roofs and impervious surfaces. • Compost .Flower beds and vegetable gardens . . adds nutrients to the soil to help feed plants. prevents weeds. gravel paving blocks.
rain barrels may not be legal. In some drought-prone regions. Rain barrels are a cost-effective way to collect and store water for garden and lawn irrigation and other purposes.300 gallons of water during the peak summer months. lime or calcium-making it ideal for gardens. A rain barrel will save the average homeowner about 1. Rain provides free "soft water" to homeownerscontaining no chlorine. flower pots. For more information about pesticide use in your lawn and garden. Use chemical pesticides and fertilizers sparingly and always in strict accordance with the application directions.Capture Rainwater Another alternative is to collect rainwater from rooftops in rain barrels . . A rain barrel can also be used to collect water and store it for when you need it most-during periods of drought-to water plants.epa. In addition. Check to see if rain barrels are permitted in your area.gov/pesticides/controlling/garden. go to: http://www. and car and window washing.mosquitoproof containers that collect and store rainwater that would otherwise wind up in storm drains and streams. yard clippings and leaves can wash into storm drains and contribute excessive nutrients and organic matter to the watershed. or to top off a swimming pool. Reduce fertilizer and pesticide use Chemical fertilizers and pesticides applied to lawns and gardens wash off and pollute streams and water bodies.htm. Use compost and other non-toxic alternatives whenever possible. so check with local authorities before using them. or 40% of total household water use. wash your car.
by reducing water use and saving energy in the process.S. about eight percent of U. That is equivalent to removing nearly 15.000 automobiles from the road for one year! If 20 percent of U. Water heating also accounts for 19 percent of home energy use. go to: Stormwater overview GreenScaping Porous pavement Rain barrels Composting Top of page Water Use and Energy You may wonder what water use and energy have to do with each other.S. as well as treat sewage generated by the community.For more information on managing stormwater around your home. In addition. By reducing your household water use. • • Water use and energy use are closely related! . and this costs you money.enough to supply the energy needs of over one million homes. but you also help to reduce the energy required to pump and treat public water supplies. Currently. If one out of every 100 American homes were retrofitted with water-efficient fixtures. the country would save more than 38 million kilowatt-hours of electricity-enough electricity to power more than 43. homes used high-efficiency clothes washers. we could save about 100 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity per year-avoiding 80.000 households for one month. In most cases. which is enough electricity to power more than 5 million homes for an entire year. electricity or gas are used to heat water. In fact: • If just 1 percent of American homes replaced an older toilet with a new WaterSense labeled toilet. energy demand goes to treating. In addition.000 tons of greenhouse gas emissions. thereby helping to address climate change. and heating water. pumping. you are decreasing the amount of greenhouse gases produced to generate electricity. you not only reduce your water bill. national energy savings could be 285 billion BTUs per day . your water utility uses energy to purify and pump water to your home.
• Lawn. you can save a significant amount of water. Using moisture sensors to determine watering needs is a better strategy than using a fixed schedule or estimating watering needs based on rainfall. and toilets. In addition to wasting water. pipes. Garden. A leaky faucet wastes gallons of water in a short period of time.For more information on how water use impacts your energy bills. and Outdoors Lawn and Garden • Avoid over-watering your lawn or garden. • • . and can harm your lawn and plants. which require smaller amounts of water more often. go to: Benefits of water efficiency Water efficiency in the home Reduce hot water use for energy savings Saving water saves energy: make the drops-to-watts connection Top of page Home Maintenance and Household Practices Below are home maintenance strategies and everyday household practices to help you conserve water. Position automatic sprinklers to water the lawn and garden only-not the street or sidewalk.You can significantly reduce water use by simply repairing leaks in fixtures (faucets and showerheads). over-watering can increase leaching of fertilizers into groundwater. Use soaker hoses or drip irrigation systems for trees and shrubs. That would be like flushing your toilet more than 50 times for no reason! If your water heater tank leaks. which will help you save money and preserve water supplies for current and future generations. you may need a new water heater. By making just a few small changes. Water new trees and shrubs longer and less frequently than shallow-rooted plants. Maintenance Inside the House • Fix Leaks . A leaky toilet can waste 200 gallons per day.
A shower only uses 10 to 25 gallons. sidewalks. Use mulch around shrubs and garden plants to reduce evaporation from the soil surface and to cut down on weed growth. • • Daily Practices Bathroom • Do not let water run unnecessarily. A hose can waste 6 gallons per minute if you leave it running.longer grass blades help shade each other. or other chemicals. which artificially promotes new growth that will need additional watering. Consider purchasing a new water-saving swimming pool filter. Minimize or eliminate chemical fertilizing. • • • • • • Other Outdoor Uses • Wash your bike or car with a bucket and sponge instead of a hose to save water. Watering when it's hot and sunny is wasteful because most of the water evaporates before the plants have time to absorb it. use the leftover water from the bath or sink on plants or the garden. and uses up to 8 gallons of water a day! Take short showers instead of tub baths. reduce evaporation. When using a hose. and inhibit weed growth. When outdoor use of city or well water is restricted during a drought. • Kitchen and Laundry . Incorporate compost into the soil to help improve water absorption and retention.• Water your lawn or garden during the coolest part of the day (early morning is best). control the flow with an automatic shut-off nozzle. Sweep driveways. be sure to plug the drain right away and adjust the temperature as you fill the tub. consider using a commercial car wash that recycles its water. Use a pool cover to reduce evaporation when a pool is not being used. fabric softener. but using a bucket and sponge only uses a few gallons. while a bath takes up to 70 gallons! If you do take a bath. Letting your faucet run for five minutes while shaving or brushing teeth uses about as much energy as letting a 60watt light bulb run for 14 hours. automatic-dishwashing detergent. rather than letting it run off into sewer drains. Also avoid watering on windy days. and steps rather than hosing them off. Raise your lawn mower cutting height . Alternatively. Don't use water that contains bleach.
too. reducing the amount of water wasted and decreasing your utility bills. But soon it will be easy to make water-efficient choices just by looking for the EPA WaterSense label when you build or buy a new home.htm http://www. This gets hot water to the user quicker. For more information on household water conservation. saves water and money. rather than rinse.htm New Homes Building or buying a new home is a big decision and the resulting environmental impacts can be big. WaterSense labeled new homes will be designed to reduce water consumption by incorporating the latest water-saving technologies that meet criteria for both reducing indoor and outdoor water use. If you're building a new home. Scrape. Insulate hot water pipes. consider the following ways to save water and money on your utility bills: • Install a pressure-regulating valve to reduce the pressure of water entering your house to 60 pounds per square inch (psi). appliances). or you can accomplish • • . Design the hot water system to minimize the distance between the hot water heater and each fixture (faucets.epa. and select the appropriate water level or load size option on the washing machine or dishwasher.epa. This helps with leaks. showers. dishes before loading them into the dishwasher. Two systems that can help are recirculating and manifold systems.• • • • • Wash only full loads of laundry or dishes.gov/watersense/water/simple. thaw foods in the refrigerator overnight. Keep drinking water in the refrigerator instead of letting the faucet run until the water is cool. Compost food waste instead of using the garbage disposal or throwing it in the trash. Do not use water to defrost frozen foods.gov/watersense/pubs/res. go to: http://www. and can lower the chance of damage from burst pipes. and by educating homeowners about water efficiency. a WaterSense labeled new home will be designed to use about 20 percent less water per year than similar new homes today. Stay tuned for the latest news about WaterSense New Homes by visiting the WaterSense Web site. On average.
this by centrally locating the water heater instead of putting it in a garage or other far away area of the home. • • Install WaterSense labeled fixtures, which perform as well as or better than their less efficient counterparts. Install ENERGY STAR qualified appliances, and look for a clothes washer with a water factor of 6 or less.
100 Ways To Conserve
There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.
#2 When washing dishes by hand, don't let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other with rinse water. #3 Some refrigerators, air conditioners and ice-makers are cooled with wasted flows of water. Consider upgrading with air-cooled appliances for significant water savings. #4 Adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street. #5 Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month. #6 Choose shrubs and groundcovers instead of turf for hard-to-water areas such as steep slopes and isolated strips. #7 Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps. #8
Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost vegetable food waste instead and save gallons every time. #9 Plant in the fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful.
For cold drinks keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running the tap. This way, every drop goes down you and not the drain.
#11 Monitor your water bill for unusually high use. Your bill and water meter are tools that can help you discover leaks. #12 Water your lawn and garden in the morning or evening when temperatures are cooler to minimize evaporation. #13 Wash your fruits and vegetables in a pan of water instead of running water from the tap. #14 Spreading a layer of organic mulch around plants retains moisture and saves water, time and money. #15 Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway and sidewalk and save water every time. #16 If your shower fills a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, replace the showerhead with a water-efficient model. #17 Collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to water houseplants. #18 If water runs off your lawn easily, split your watering time into shorter periods to allow for better absorption. #19
We're more likely to notice leaks indoors, but don't forget to check outdoor faucets, sprinklers and hoses for leaks. #20 If you have an automatic refilling device, check your pool periodically for leaks. #21 Check the root zone of your lawn or garden for moisture before watering using a spade or trowel. If it's still moist two inches under the soil surface, you still have enough water. #22 When buying new appliances, consider those that offer cycle and load size adjustments. They're more water and energy efficient. #23 Shorten your shower by a minute or two and you'll save up to 150 gallons per month. #24 Upgrade older toilets with water efficient models. #25 Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. A taller lawn shades roots and holds soil moisture better than if it is closely clipped. #26 When cleaning out fish tanks, give the nutrient-rich water to your plants. #27 Use sprinklers for large areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid waste.
Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl without flushing, you have a leak. Fixing it can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
#29 When running a bath, plug the tub before turning the water on, then adjust the temperature as the tub fills up. #30
• • • Use drip irrigation for shrubs and trees to apply water directly to the roots where it's needed. inexpensive. #35 Don't use running water to thaw food. #39 When doing laundry. match the water level to the size of the load. and you can save 140 gallons a week. • #37 Grab a wrench and fix that leaky faucet. #34 Install a rain sensor on your irrigation controller so your system won't run when it's raining. #41 • • • • . These useful "rooms" can also add value to your property.• • Walkways and patios provide space that doesn't ever need to be watered. This will cut down on the number of glasses to wash. check for soil moisture two to three inches below the surface before watering. #40 Teach your children to turn off faucets tightly after each use. #33 Rather than following a set watering schedule. #32 Designate one glass for your drinking water each day or refill a water bottle. #31 Collect water from your roof to water your garden. It's simple. #38 Reduce the amount of lawn in your yard by planting shrubs and ground covers appropriate to your site and region. Defrost food in the refrigerator for water efficiency and food safety.
Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep the sprinkler heads in good shape.
Use a water-efficient showerhead. They're inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 750 gallons a month. See how Waterpik® EcoFlow® can help reduce your water use.
#43 Soak pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean. #44 Don't water your lawn on windy days when most of the water blows away or evaporates. #45 Water your plants deeply but less frequently to encourage deep root growth and drought tolerance. #46 Know where your master water shut-off valve is located. This could save water and prevent damage to your home. #47 To decrease water from being wasted on sloping lawns, apply water for five minutes and then repeat two to three times. #48 Group plants with the same watering needs together to avoid overwatering some while underwatering others. #49
Use a layer of organic material on the surface of your planting beds to minimize weed growth that competes for water. #50 Use a minimum amount of organic or slow release fertilizer to promote a healthy and drought tolerant landscape. #51 Trickling or cascading fountains lose less water to evaporation than those spraying water into the air. #52 Use a commercial car wash that recycles water. #53 Avoid recreational water toys that require a constant flow of water. #54 Turn off the water while brushing your teeth and save 25 gallons a month. #55 Use a rain gauge, or empty tuna can, to track rainfall on your lawn. Then reduce your watering accordingly. #56 Encourage your school system and local government to develop and promote water conservation among children and adults. #57 Learn how to shut off your automatic watering system in case it malfunctions or you get an unexpected rain. #58 Set a kitchen timer when watering your lawn or garden to remind you when to stop. A running hose can discharge up to 10 gallons a minute. #59 If your toilet flapper doesn't close after flushing, replace it. #60 Make sure there are water-saving aerators on all of your faucets.
• • • •
Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year.
#62 Install an instant water heater near your kitchen sink so you don't have to run the water while it heats up. This also reduces energy costs. #63 Use a grease pencil to mark the water level of your pool at the skimmer. Check the mark 24 hours later to see if you have a leak. #64 If your dishwasher is new, cut back on rinsing. Newer models clean more thoroughly than older ones. #65 Use a trowel, shovel, or soil probe to examine soil moisture depth. If the top two to three inches of soil are dry it's time to water. #66 If installing a lawn, select a turf mix or blend that matches your climate and site conditions. #67 When you save water, you save money on your utility bills too. Saving water is easy for everyone to do. #68 When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn needs it the most. #69 Make sure your swimming pools, fountains, and ponds are equipped with recirculating pumps. #70 Bathe your young children together. #71 Consult with your local nursery for information on plant selection and placement for optimum outdoor water savings. #72 Winterize outdoor spigots when temperatures dip below freezing to prevent pipes from leaking or bursting.
• Drop your tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save water every time. reduce the amount of water used for each flush by inserting a displacement device in the tank. #78 Support projects that use reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and industrial uses.• #73 Insulate hot water pipes for more immediate hot water at the faucet and for energy savings. #77 Make suggestions to your employer about ways to save water and money at work. plus more on utility bills. #80 Share water conservation tips with friends and neighbors. You'll save up to 100 gallons every time. #74 Wash your car on the lawn. • #76 Direct water from rain gutters and HVAC systems toward water-loving plants in the landscape for automatic water savings. #83 Washing dark clothes in cold water saves both on water and energy while it helps your clothes to keep their colors. #82 Setting cooling systems and water softeners for a minimum number of refills saves both water and chemicals. • • • • • • • • . #81 If your toilet was installed before 1992. #84 Leave lower branches on trees and shrubs and allow leaf litter to accumulate on the soil. #79 Use a hose nozzle or turn off the water while you wash your car. and you'll water your lawn at the same time. This keeps the soil cooler and reduces evaporation.
#91 One more way to get eight glasses of water a day is to re-use the water left over from cooked or steamed foods to start a scrumptious and nutritious soup. #95 When shopping for a new clothes washer. Smaller water drops and mist often evaporate before they hit the ground. #88 Use sprinklers that deliver big drops of water close to the ground. More plants die from over-watering than from underwatering. Fixing a leak can save 300 gallons a month or more. • • • #93 Turn off the water while you wash your hair to save up to 150 gallons a month. . #90 Water only when necessary. • • • • • • Adjust your watering schedule each month to match seasonal weather conditions and landscape requirements. Some of these can save up to 20 gallons per load. #86 Let your lawn go dormant during the summer. compare resource savings among Energy Star models.• #85 Report broken pipes. #94 Wash your pets outdoors in an area of your lawn that needs water. and energy too. Dormant grass only needs to be watered every three weeks or less if it rains. #87 Plant with finished compost to add water-holding and nutrient-rich organic matter to the soil. #89 Listen for dripping faucets and running toilets. open hydrants and errant sprinklers to the property owner or your water provider.
consider washing your face or brushing your teeth while in the shower. planters and pots. #102 If you accidentally drop ice cubes when filling your glass from the freezer. #100 Turn off the water while you shave and save up to 300 gallons a month. #101 When you give your pet fresh water. Drop them in a house plant instead. place ice cubes under the moss or dirt to give your plants a cool drink of water and help eliminate water overflow. fill the sink basin or a large container and rinse when all of the dishes have been soaped and scrubbed. consider reusing your towels. #104 While staying in a hotel or even at home. #107 Throw trimmings and peelings from fruits and vegetables into your yard compost to prevent using the garbage disposal. consider using the water on your landscaping. #108 • • • • • • • • • • • . don't throw the old water down the drain. #97 Aerate your lawn at least once a year so water can reach the roots rather than run off the surface. #106 For hanging baskets. Use it to water your trees or shrubs. #105 When backflushing your pool. #99 Catch water in an empty tuna can to measure sprinkler output. #98 When washing dishes by hand. One inch of water on one square foot of grass equals two-thirds of a gallon of water. don't throw them in the sink. #103 To save water and time.• • #96 Apply water only as fast as the soil can absorb it.
#109 Have your plumber re-route your gray water to trees and gardens rather than letting it run into the sewer line. From open community lands. They harvested water from flooded rivers • • . From rooftops. and if it isn't allowed in your area. with our ancestors perfecting the art of water management. they collected water and stored it in tanks built in their courtyards. • • TRADITIONAL Water has been harvested in India since antiquity. #111 When you are washing your hands. They harvested monsoon runoff by capturing water from swollen streams during the monsoon season and stored it various forms of water bodies. Check with your city codes. start a movement to get that changed. don't let the water run while you lather. Many water harvesting structures and water conveyance systems specific to the ecoregions and culture has been developed. they collected the rain and stored it in artificial wells. #110 Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use this water to flush toilets or water plants. dump it on a plant. • They harvested the rain drop directly. don't throw it in the trash.• When you have ice left in your cup from a take-out restaurant.
Trans-Himalayan Region Zing 2. Eastern Himalaya Apatani 4. Brahmaputra valley Dongs Dungs/jampois 6. Thar Desert . Western Himalaya Kul Naula Kuhl Khatri 3.1. Northeastern Hill Ranges Zabo Cheo-oziihi Bamboo drip irrigation 5. Indo-Gangetic Plains Ahars-pynes Bengal's Inundation channels Dighis Baolis 7.
Western Ghats Surangam 12. Western coastal plains Virdas . Deccan Plateau Cheruvu Kohli tanks Bhandaras Phad Kere The Ramtek Model 11. Eastern highlands Katas/Mundas/Bandhas 10.Kunds/kundis Kuis/beris Baoris/bers Jhalaras Nadi Tobas Tankas Khadins Vav/Vavdi/Baoli/Bavadi Virdas Paar 8. Central Highlands Talab/Bandhis Saza Kuva Johads Naada/bandh Pat Rapat Chandela tank Bundela tank 9.
This is the most predominant form of rainwater harvesting in the region. It is a common place where the rainwater flows from the agar (catchment) and in the process percolates into the sandy soil. In order to access the rajani pani (percolated water) kuis or beris are dug in the agor (storage area). Normally six to ten of them are constructed in a paar. The Islands JackWells mor Paar system: Paar is a common water harvesting practice in the western Rajasthan region. See also: Jethu Singh Bhatti Manapia Technology Rural Techniques Traditional Zing Kul Naula Kuhl Khatri Apatani Zabo Cheo-oziihi Bamboo-drip irrigation Dongs . However depending on the size of the paar the numbers of kuis or beris are decided. Rainwater harvested through PAAR technique is known as Patali paani. Eastern Ghats Korambu 14. Kuis or beris are normally 5 metres (m) to 12 m deep. Bhatti mentions that there are paars in Jaisalmer district where there are more than 20 kuis are in operation. Eastern Coastal Plains Eri Ooranis 15. The structure was constructed through traditional masonary technology.13.
a harva. in which buffaloes are used to lift water. Johad Johads are small earthen check dams that capture and conserve rainwater. bigger lakes are called sagar or samand. the sloping platform is for the chada. improving percolation and groundwater recharge.Talab / Bandhis Dungs Ahar-pyne Bengal's Inundation channels Talabs are reservoirs. the pond beds are cultivated with rice. The first is built to accomodate the rehat. The pokhariyan serve irrigation and drinking purposes. helps fix the site. They can be human-made. eastern Rajasthan. Starting 1984. a man with special skills in groundwater detection. such as the ponds (pokhariyan) at Tikamgarh in the Bundelkhand region. AT A GLANCE Community based Water management Initiatives Rural Water . A reservoir area of less than five bighas is called a talai.Saza kuva construction is generally taken up by a group of farmers with adjacent landholdings. When the water in these reserviors dries up just a few days after the monsoon. They may be natural. such the lakes in Udaipur. saza kuva is the most important source of irrigation in the Aravalli hills in Mewar. has come alive. This has resulted in a general rise of the groundwater level by almost 6 metres and a 33 percent increase in the forest cover in the area. the last sixteen years have seen the revival of some 3000 johadsspread across more than 650 villages in Alwar district. such as the River Arvari. a traditional water lifting device. Five rivers that used to go dry immediately following the monsoon have now become perennial. a medium sized lake is called a bandhi or talab. Rajasthan. Dighis Baolis kunds Kuis Baoris Jhalaras Nadi Tobas Tankas Khadins Vav Virdas Talab Saza kuva Johads Bandh Pat Rapat Chandela Tank Bundela Tank Katas Cheruvu Kohli tanks Bhandaras Phad Kere The Ramtek Model Surangam Korambu Eri Ooranis Jackwells Contemporary Saza Kuva An open well with multiple owners (saza = partner). The soil dug out to make the well pit is used to construct a huge circular foundation or an elevated platform sloping away from the well.
and also sheer cliffs before reaching the fields. The channel requires constant maintenance and it is the duty of the family irrigating the fields on a particular day to take care of the pat on that particular day. . The villagers irrigate their fields by turns. It takes about two weeks to get the pat flowing and the winter crop is sown in early November. Submerged in water. Naada / Bandha Naada/bandha are found in the Mewar region of the Thar desert. Harvesting Tank Management SEE ALSO No water Water war Look up! How to harvest In rural areas In urban areas Jal yodhas Way ahead READ MORE : Source: Making water everybody's business The diversion bunds across the stream are made by piling up stones and then lining them with teak leaves and mud to make them leakproof. Stone aqueducts have to be built to span the intervening nullahs. It is a stone check dam. to capture monsoon runoff on a stretch of land. These sections invariably get washed away during the monsoons. Jhabua district of Madhya pradesh developed the unique pat system. This system was devised according to the peculiarities of the terrain to divert water from swift-flowing hill streams into irrigation channels called pats. The pat channel has to negotiate small nullahs that join the stream off and on. constructed across a stream or gully.Pat Bhitada village . the land becomes fertile as silt deposits on it and the soil retains substantial amounts of water.
being small. are all masonry structures. the bund may be built of masonary. many older and smaller tanks were constructed near the human settlement or near the slopes of a cluster of hills. If the height of the structure is small. These tanks are made up of lime and mortar and this is the reason why these tanks survived even after thousand years but the only problem. pavillions and royal orchards designed to show off the glory of the king who built them. which these tanks are facing. Rapat Chandela Tank These tanks were constructed by stopping the flow of water in rivulets flowing between hills by erecting massive earthen embankments. These tanks were constructed to meet the growing water demands in the area. . forming a series of stone steps.A rapat is a percolation tank. These tanks served to satisfy the drinking water needs of villagers and cattle. The earthen embankments were supported on both sides with walls of coarse stones. acted as natural ground water barrier helping to trap water between the ridges. but recharges well within a distance of 3-5 km downstream. But these tanks are not as cost effective and simple as Chandela tanks. maintenance of these tanks was done by the person employed by the king but in case of smaller tanks villagers collectively removed silt and repair embankment. But these structures had chabootaras. These tanks had solidly constructed steps leading to water in the tank. Rajasthan Source:CRIDA rapats. Chandela tanks usually had a convex curvature somewhere in the middle of the embankment. is siltation of tank beds. having width of 60m or more. with a bund to impound rainwater flowing through a watershed and a waste weir to dispose of the surplus flow. These hills with long stretches of quartz reefs running underneath them. Silting is a serious problem with small rapats and the estimated life of a rapat varies from 5 to 20 years. Rapats and percolation tanks do not directly irrigate land. otherwise earth is used. Bundela Tank These tanks are bigger in size as compared to Chandela tanks.
or domestic water requirements). These structures harvest rainwater for drinking. of village Pithla in Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan. Kuis can also be used to harvest rainwater in areas with meagre rainfall. or at least a lid. The water is used sparingly. and dot the sandier tracts of the Thar Desert in western Rajasthan and some areas in Gujarat. They can be owned by only those with money to invest and land to construct it. or put under lock and key. is an engineer skilled in making kuis/beris. If need be. as a last resource in crisis situations. The mouth of the pit is usually made very narrow. Essentially a circular underground well. Magga Ram Suthar. The pit gets wider as it burrows underunder the ground. The openings of these entirely kuchcha (earthen) structures are generally covered with planks of wood. Thus for the poor. kunds have a saucer-shaped catchment area that gently slopes towards the centre where the well is situated. The sides of the well-pit are covered with (disinfectant) lime and ash. Most pits have a dome-shaped cover. water can be drawn out with a bucket. Also see Ran Singh who makes kunds Kunds / Kundis Kuis / Beris Found in western Rajasthan. these are 10-12 m deep pits dug near tanks to collect the seepage. to protect the water. large public kunds have to be built.A kund or kundi looks like an upturned cup nestling in a saucer. The depth and diameter of kunds depend on their use (drinking. Also see Magga Ram Suthar who has mastered the art of making beris . A wire mesh across water-inlets prevents debris from falling into the well-pit. This prevents the collected water from evaporating. so that water can seep in into a large surface area.
jhalaras have steps on three or four sides. The oldest jhalara is the mahamandir jhalara which dates back to 1660 AD Nadis Nadis are village ponds. Jhodhpur city has eight jhalaras two of which are inside the town & six are found outside the city . found in Rajasthan and Gujarat. . The water from these jhalaras was not used for drinking but for only community bathing and religious rites . They are dune areas range from 1. They are used for storing waterfrom an adjoining natural catchment during the rainy season.0 metres and those in sandy plains varied from 3 to 12 metres. A hard plot of land with low porosity. Most of them are very old and were built by banjaras (mobile trading communities) for their drinking water needs. the steps are built on a series of levels . They can hold water for a long time because of almost negligible water evaporation. essentially meant for community use and for religious rites. found in Rajasthan. The site was selected by the villagers based on an available natural catchments and its water yield potential. the jhalars are rectangular in shape with steps on three or even on all the four sides of the tank . Jhalars areground water bodies which are built to ensure easy & regular supply of water to the surrounding areas . Often rectangular in design. consisting of a depression and a natural catchment area was selected for the construction of tobas.Baoris / Bers Baoris or bers are community wells. Jhalaras Jhalaras were human-made tanks. Water availability from nadi would range from two months to a year after the rains. that are used mainly for drinking.5 to 4. Tobas Tobas is the local name given to a ground depression with a natural catchment area. The jhalaras collect subterranean seepage of a talab or a lake located upstream . The location of the nadi had a strong bearing on its storage capacity due to the related catchment and runoff characteristics. found near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
Solanki period (11th to 12th century CE). Sluices and spillways allow excess water to drain off. temples. The construction of stepwells date from four periods: Pre-Solanki period (8th to 11th century CE). this system has great similarity with the irrigation methods of the people of Ur (present Iraq) around 4500 BC and later of the Nabateans in the Middle East. or baolis or bavadisin Rajasthan and northern India. In this way. Khadin A khadin. First designed by the Paliwal Brahmins of Jaisalmer.Tankas Tankas (small tank) are underground tanks. in which raiwater was collected. western Rajasthan in the 15th century. Vav / vavdi / Baoli / Bavadi Traditional stepwells are called vav or vavadi in Gujarat. Most of them are defunct today. A similar system is also reported to have been practised 4. They are built in the main house or in the courtyard. lined with fine polished lime. which helped to keep the water cool. It continues to be used in residential areas. The water was used only for drinking.000 years ago in the Negev desert. and in southwestern Colorado 500 years ago. The khadinsystem is based on the principle of harvesting rainwater on farmland and subsequent use of this water-saturated land for crop production. they were secular structures from which everyone could draw water. dharamshalas and hotels. the people of Bikaner were able to meet their water requirements. water from nearby wells and tanks would be obtained to fill the household tankas. If in any year there was less than normal rainfall and the tankas did not get filled. also called a dhora. Built by the nobility usually for strategic and/or philanthropical reasons. found traditionally in most Bikaner houses. They were circular holes made in the ground. is an ingenious construction designed to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture. Tankas were often beautifully decorated with tiles. The tanka system is also to be found in the pilgrim town of Dwarka where it has been in existence for centuries. Its main feature is a very long (100-300 m) earthen embankment built across the lower hill slopes lying below gravelly uplands. Vaghela period .
It is a small village 28 km southwest of Patna city. 2. the distinguishing features of the irrigation system were: 1. The people grow two cereal crops and one crop of vegetables every year. Essentially. Sir William Willcocks. Bengal's Inundation Channel Bengal once had an extraordinary system of inundation canals. carrying the crest waters of the river floods. some villages in Bihar have taken up the initiative to re-build and re-use the system. 3. The village is no longer a poor one. By 2000 AD. One such village is Dihra. After a month of shramdaan (voluntary labour) the villagers completed their work mid-June. a British irrigation expert who had also worked in Egypt and Iraq. This helped to check malaria in this region. The returns from the sale of what they produce are good.Of late. Cheruvu Cheruvu are found in Chitoor and Cuddapah districts in Andhra Pradesh. According to Willcocks. the ahar was irrigating 80 ha of land. carrying not only rich silt but also fish.) the canals were long and continuous and fairly parallel to each other. In 1995. rich in fine clay and free from coarse sand. some village youths realised that they could impound the waters of the Pachuhuan (a seasonal stream passing through the village that falls into the nearby river Punpun) and use its bed as a reservoir to meet the village's irrigation needs. which swam through these canals into the lakes and tanks to feed on the larva of mosquitoes. the village powers-that-be gave the go-ahead. though. and was never revived. Floodwater Source:Making Water Everybody's entered the fields through the Business inundation canals. which were closed when the flood was over. the ancient system of overflow irrigation had lasted for thousands of years.) the canals were broad and shallow. Unfortunately. Their efforts have borne fruit. and at the right distance from each other for purposes of irrigation. during the Afghan-Maratha war in the 18th century and the subsequent British conquest of India. Money was collected and work began in May 1995. this irrigation system was neglected. According to Willcocks. Dungs or Jampois Dungs or Jampois are small irrigation channels linking rice fields to streams in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. They . claimed that inundation canals were in vogue in the region till about two centuries ago.) irrigation was performed by cuts in the banks of the canals. this meant creating an ahar-pyne system After many doubts.
Cheruvu embankments are fitted with thoomu(sluices). their presence raises the water level of the rivers so that it begins to flow into channels. some 250-300 years ago. They are also used to impound water and form a large reservoir. Where a bandhara was built across a small stream. Kohli Tanks The Kohlis.381 water tanks in the district of Bhandara. A traditional system found in Maharashtra. It is still crucial for sugar and rice irrigation. A very few are still in use. Maharashtra. Bhanadaras These are check dams or diversion weirs built across rivers. the water supply would usually last for a few months after the rains. often with provisions to bring water literally to the doorstep of villagers. The tanks were of all sizes. They are built either by villagers or by private persons who received rent-free land in return for their public act Most Bandharas are defunct today. alugu or marva or kalju (flood weir) and kalava (canal). built some 43. . a small group of cultivators.are reservoirs to store runoff. These tanks constituted the backbone of irrigation in the area until the government took them over in the 1950s.
probably came into existence some 300-400 years ago. The system operated on three rivers in the Tapi basin .in Dhule and Nasik districts (still in use in some places here). Only one type of crop is allowed in one phad. usually divided into The size of a phad can vary from 10-200 ha. The phad system has given rise to a unique social system to manage water use. In this way water reaches the kayam baghayat (agricultural command area). Every year. the average being 100-125 ha. Charis (distributaries) are built for feeding water from the kalva to different areas of the phad. sugarcane is grown in one or two phads. called kere in Kannada.Sarangs (field channels) carry water to individual fields. and were fed either by channels branching off . Kere Tanks. From the bandharas branch out kalvas (canals) to carry water into the fields. prevalent in northwestern Maharashtra. Each canal has a uniform discharge capacity of about 450 litres/second. Sandams (escapes). the village decides which phads to use and which to leave fallow. Source:Making Water Everybody's Business The system starts with a bandhara (check dam or diversion-weir) built across a rivers. drain away excess water. and reduces the danger of waterlogging and salinity. The length of these canals varies from 2-12 km. Mosam and Aram . Generally. were the predominant traditional method of irrigation in the Central Karnataka Plateau. along with kalvas and charis. seasonal crops are grown in the others. This ensures a healthy crop rotation system that maintains soil fertility.Panjhra.Phad The community-managed phad irrigation system.
They are small tanks. these tanks form a chain. Once tanks located in the upper reaches close to the hills were filled to capacity. A scientific analysis revealed an intricate network of groundwater and surface waterbodies. This sequential arrangement generally ended in a small waterhole to store whatever water remained unstored. the water flowed down to fill successive tanks. Constructed and maintained mostly by malguzars (landowners). the tanks were built in a series. This system. The Ramtek model has been named after water harvesting structures in the town of Ramtek. kundis. This ensured a) no wastage through overflow. As glaciers melt during the day. having a steep slope on both sides. this model harvested runoff through tanks. usually situated a few kilometres apart. in which collects melted glacier water. and is used the next day. generally through interconnecting channels. . Essential to the system is the network of guiding channels that brings the water from the glacier to the tank. or by streams in valleys. conserving about 6070 per cent of the total runoff. A water official called the churpun ensures that water is equitably distributed. intrinsically connected through surface and underground canals. The outflow of one tank supplied the next all the way down the course of the stream. The water collects towards the evening. and b) the seepage of a tank higher up in the series would be collected in the next lower one. supported by high yielding wells and structures like baories. A fully evolved system. results in quick runoffs and little percolation. This might have led the residents of the southern plains of the Ramtek hills to construct different types of water conservation structures (like tanks) where they could trap the maximum Zings Zings are water harvesting structures found in Ladakh. Maharashtra.from anicuts (chech dams) built across streams. intelligently designed to utlise every raindrop falling in the watershed area is disintegrating due to neglect and ignorance. The presence of the Ramtek ridge in the middle. and waterholes. the channels fill up with a trickle that in the afternoon turns into flowing water. extending from the foothills to the plains.
There are two types of khatris: one for animals and washing purposes in which rain water is collected from the roof through pipes. if and. These are small wells or ponds in which water is collected by making a stone wall across a stream. The kuhls were constructed and maintained by the village community. Khatris are structures. Where the terrain is muddy. similar irrigation systems called kuhls are found. would be denied water for that season. which are maintained by the panchayat. with boulders and labour forming the major input.surface channels diverting water from natural flowing streams (khuds).000 each. the kohli (the water tender) would organise the irrigators to construct the headwall. The specially trained masons construct them at a cost of Rs 10. There are government khatris as well. The water would flow from field to field and surplus water. Naula Naula is a surface-water harvesting method typical to the hill areas of Uttaranchal. A typical communitykuhl services six to 30 farmers. The kuhl was provided with moghas (kuchchaoutlets) to draw out water and irrigate nearby terraced fields. building kuhls was simple. The kohli played the role of a local engineer. The system consists of a temporary headwall (constructed usually with river boulders) across a khud (ravine) for storage and diversion of the flow through a canal to the fields. Since denial of water was a religious punishment. Khatri Kuhl Kuhls are a traditional irrigation system in Himachal Pradesh.Kul Kuls are water channels found in precipitous mountain areas. These traditional water harvesting structures are found in Hamirpur. would drain back to the khud. repair the kuhl and make the system operational. Any person refusing to participate in construction and repair activities without valid reason. about 10x12 feet in size and six feet deep carved out in the hard rock mountain. These channels carry water from glaciers to villages in the Spiti valley of Himachal Pradesh. and other used for human consumption in which rainwater is collected by seepage through rocks. A person was also free to . Interestingly. the kul is lined with rocks to keep it from becoming clogged. In the Jammu region too. At the beginning of the irrigation season. By modern standards. it ensured community participation and solidarity.000-20. Kangra and Mandi districts of Himachal Pradesh. irrigating an area of about 20 ha. the khatris are owned by individual as well as by a community.
agriculture and animal care. it combines water conservation with forestry. preventing soil erosion and wastage of runoff during periods of heavy rainfall. Erishave played several important roles in maintaining ecological harmony as flood-control systems. From this channel.participate by providing a substitute for his labour. Also known as the ruza system. and towards the foot of the hill are paddy fields. Though drinking water is a major Source:Dying Wisdom problem. many branch channels are taken off. Villages such as Kikruma. Zabo The zabo (the word means 'impounding run-off') system is practiced in Nagaland in north-eastern India.oziihi means water and Cheo was the person responsible for the laying of this 8-10 km-long channel with its numerous branches. and some terraces in the neighbouring village. as the water runs off along the slope. . The water is collected in pond-like structures in the middle terraces. One of the channels is named Cheo-oziihi . are located on a high ridge. where the run-off ultimately meanders into. Cheo-ozihi The river Mezii flows along the Angami village of Kwigema in Nagaland. it passes through various terraces. The kohli also distributed and managed the water. and recharging the groundwater in the surrounding areas. and water is often diverted to the terraces through bamboo pipes. Eri Approximately one-third of the irrigated area of Tamil Nadu is watered by eris (tanks) . below are cattle yards. This channel irrigates a large number of terraces in Kwigwema. The riverwater is brought down by a long channel. where zabos are found even today. Without eris. There are three khels and the village water budget is divided among them. The presence of eris provided an appropriate micro-climate for the local areas. paddy cultivation would have been impossible. the area receives high rainfall. The rain falls on a patch of protected forest on the hilltop.
The enormous expropriation of village resources by the state led to the disintegration of the traditional society.Till the British arrived. local communities maintained eris. These allocations ensured eri upkeep through regular desilting and maintenance of sluices. in south Travancore. Assignments of revenue-free lands. Historical data from Chengalpattu district. inlets and irrigation channels. . and these extraordinary water harvesting systems began to decline. The channel sections. Bamboo Irrigation Drip Meghalaya has an ingenious system of tapping of stream and springwater by using bamboo pipes to irrigate plantations. made of bamboo. About 18-20 litres of water entering the bamboo pipe system per minute gets transported over several hundred metres and finally gets reduced to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant. Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity. This 200-year-old system is used by the tribal farmers of Khasi and Jaintia hills to drip-irrigate their black pepper cultivation. the neerkatti who managed eris Ooranis The tanks. were made to support village functionaries who undertook to maintain and manage eris. The early British rule saw disastrous experiments with the land tenure system in quest for larger land revenues. These ponds are individually owned with no community involvement. divert and convey water to the plot site where it is distributed without leakage into branches. now Tamil Nadu. calledmanyams. Dongs Dongs are ponds constructed by the Bodo tribes of Assam to harvest water for irrigation. Allocations for maintenance of eris could no longer be supported by the village communities. its economy and polity. Read more about Ganesan. indicates that in the 18th century about 45 per cent of the gross produce of each village was allocated to maintain erisand other irrigation structures. The irregular topography of the region and the absence of large open spaces facilitated the construction of only small tanks unlike large ones seen in the flat districts of the then Madras Presidency. were in most cases oornis containing just enough water to cultivate the few acres of land dependent on them. for instance. though numerous.
again made and laid out with different forms of bamboo pipes. Later. The last channel section enables the water to be dropped near the roots of the plant. Manipulating the intake pipe positions also controls the flow of water into the lateral pipes. In Apatani system . having an average annual rainfall about 1700 mm and also rich water resources like springs and streams. About a third of the outer casing in length and internodes of bamboo pieces have to be removed while fabricating the system. They are systems built by the nomadic Maldharis. Apatani This is a wet rice cultivation cum fish farming system practiced in elevated regions of about 1600 m and gentle sloping valleys. They are found all over the Banni grasslands. who used to roam these grasslands. a part of the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. valleys are terraced into plots separated by 0. The stream water is tapped by constructing a wall of 2-4 m high and 1 m thick near forested hill slopes. Other components are small pipes and channels of varying sizes used for diversion and distribution of water from the main channel. These structures harvest rainwater. The terraced plot can be flooded or drained off with water by opening and blocking the inlets and outlets as and when required. By studying the flow of water during the monsoon. a round chisel fitted with a long handle. Bamboos of varying diameters are used for laying the channels. the Maldharis identify these depressions and make their virdasthere. The inlet of lowlying plot functions as an outlet of the high lying plot. they persist in using virdas. All plots have inlet and outlet on opposite sides. . Virdas Virdas are shallow wells dug in low depressions called jheels (tanks).6 meters high earthen dams supported by bamboo frames. with depressions on the ground. the bamboo channel is smoothened by using a dao. This system harvests both ground and surface water for irrigation. a type of local axe. It is practiced by Apatani tribes of ziro in the lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh. Now settled. Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water application. About four to five stages of distribution are involved from the point of the water diversion to the application point. Deeper channels connect the inlet point to outlet point. This is conveyed to agricultural fields through a channel network. The topography of the area is undulating.
the bottom of which is the bahalland and the sides are the mal terrace. etc. the surplus flow was passed into a nullah. A strong earthen embankment. The word surangam is derived from a Kannada word for tunnel. or from field to field along terraces. (highland). After rainwater infiltrates the soil. and bahal (low land). In years of scanty rainfall. As freshwater is removed. in that case. The undulations of the country usually determine its shape as that of a long isosceles triangle. therefore on groundwater. curved at either end. Most of these katas were built by the village headmen known as gountias. or east to west. going lower down to the fields. Land here is classified into four groups on the basis of its topography:aat. there exists a zone of brackish water. The terrain is such that there is high discharge Source:Dying Wisdom in rivers in the monsoon and low discharge in the dry months. there is a cut high up on the slope near one end of the embankment from where water is led either by a small channel or tal. As a rule. who in turn. and on a special water harvesting structure called surangam. mal (sloped land). mala. berna (medium land). Katas / Mundas / Bandhas The katas. thorapu. Between these two layers of sweet and saline water. it gets stored at a level above the salty groundwater because of the difference in their density. irrigation was not needed because of moisture from percolation and. of a village. It commands a valley. of which the dam forms the base. received the land from the Gond kings. the centre of the tank was sometimes cut so that the lowest land could be irrigated.Essentially. in different parts of Kasaragod. Surangam Kasaragod district in the northern Malabar region of Kerala is an area whose people cannot depend directly on surface water. A structure is built to reach down (about 1 m) to this upper layer of accumulated rainwater. the structures use a technology that helps the Maldharis separate potable freshwater from unpotable salt water. mundas andbandhas were the main irrigation sources in the ancient tribal kingdom of the Gonds (now in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh). People here depend. It is . In years of normal rainfall. This classification helps to select A kata is constructed north to south. is built across a drainage line to hold up an irregularly-shaped sheet of water. the brackish water moves upwards. and accumulates towards the bottom of the virda. It is also known as thurangam.
A full length of bamboo is cut longitudinally and placed along a gentle slope with the lower end leading into a shallow pit. They are built twice a year especially before the onset of the monsoon season in order to supply water during winter and summer season. Water is allowed to flow from one field to another until all the field are irrigated.72 m dug) is the only expenditure needed. Usually several subsidiary surangams are excavated inside the main one. The excavation continues until a good amount of water is struck. The height of the Korambu is so adjusted that the fields lying on the upstream are not submerged.45-0. A coat of mud is applied to the matted frame. It is constructed by horizontally fixing a strong wooden beam touching either banks of the canal. and water would collect in the pits so formed. a surangam (Rs 100it hardly requires any at a very slow pace such as Kunnikannan Korambus Korambu is a temporary dam stretching across the mouth of channels. Jackwells The difference in the physiography. A surangam is about 0. made of brushwood.2 By 714 BC. In Kasargod and Thrissur districts of Kerala. Today. a number of vertical air shafts are provided to ensure atmospheric pressure inside. mud and grass. The length varies from 3-300 m. Traditionally.8-2. If the surangam is very long. rock types and rainfall meant that the tribes in the different islands followed different methods of harvesting rain and groundwater. A series of vertical wooden beams of appropriate height is erected with their lower ends resting firmly on the ground and the other ends tied to the horizontal beam. bunds were made using logs of hard bullet wood. Surangams are similar to qanats which once existed Babylon around 700 BC. Closely knitted or matted coconut thatch is tied to this frame. as maintenance. The initial cost of digging 150 per 0. the southern part of the Great Nicobar Island near Shastri Nagar has a relatively rugged topography in comparison to the northern part of the islands. The distance between successive air shafts varies between 50-60 m. and the depth varies from place to place. A layer of grass is also applied carefully which prevents dissolution of the applied mud. This water is usually collected in an open pit constructed outside the surangam. Korambu is known as chira. in Mesopotamia and had spread to Egypt. a surangam was excavated and was completed over generations. A series of increasingly bigger .0 m high. They make extensive use of split bamboos in their water harvesting systems. For instance. this technology Persia (now Iran) and India. The approximate dimensions of the air shafts are 2 m by 2 m. These serve as conduits for rainwater which is collected drop by drop in pits called Jackwells.a horizontal well mostly excavated in hard laterite rock formations. these split bamboos are placed under trees to harvest the throughfalls (of rain) through the leaves. It is so built that excess water flows over it and only the required amount of water flows into the diversion channels. In lower parts of the undulating terrain. topography. The shompen tribals here made full use of the topography to harvest water. Korambu is constructed to raise the water level in the canal and to divert the water into field channels. engineers Nair are faster and keep the tradition alive. Often.70 metres (m) wide and about 1. Water seeps out of the hard rock and flows out of the tunnel.1.
Agriculture improves animal husbandry. people prefer to depend on themselves.jackwells is built. They have dared to traverse the path from ecological regeneration to economic miracle. These rural engineers prefer to find ways to better harvest the rain. Quietly at work Taking forward the work of these pioneers are those invisible rural engineers who don't go to Indian Institutes of Technology to try and do quantum physics. Fashioning change Water improves agriculture. Initial failures did not deter these men of steel who in most cases have faced rebellion from their own people. rural poverty. with an approximate diameter of 6 m and depth of 7 m so that overflows from one lead to the other. particularly water. All of them have developed watersheds as a platform for social change. And so fashion local ecological and social change. Some have gone beyond water to alleviating. given the delay in implementing plans to conserve natural resources. Jal Yodhas (Water warriors) is a tale of individual efforts that can act as a precursor to bring a shift in peoples' attitude towards conservation of natural resources. prosperity beckons. ultimately leading to the biggest jackwell. With watershed development. Those with this water vision overwhelmingly belong to civil society. Rural Anil Agarwal . People begin to take care of their watershed. or genome or defense research in the US for the US. This section is about ordinary men with extraordinary will in the context of water harvesting. which means more trees and forests. Going beyond water is a philosophy and a practice. from water to wealth. Jal Yodhas When it comes to the Indian sub-continent. connected by split bamboos so that overflows from one lead to the other. actually eradicating.
Anna Hazare Anupam Mishra A Vaidyanathan Bhinde B B Hardikar Bhupal Singh CR Shanmugam Chewang Norphel Devendra ERR Sadasivam Ganesan Hardev Singh Jadeja Harnath Jagawat Janaki Jawan Lal Rebari K G Vyas Komal Lochan Jani Kunhikannan Nair Laxman Singh Laxmi Narayan joshi Magga Ram Maharaja Gaj Singh Manna Singh Mansukh Bhai Suvagia M I H Ansari Narayan .
Hazary Obensao Kikon P R Mishra Popat Pawar Premjibhai Patel Pt Punyadhar Jha R K Gupta R S Jamir Rajendra Singh Rakesh Trivedi Ram Karan Bhadana Ran Singh Ranjit Kumar Ravindra Shetye Roland Martins Sachidanand Bharti Shamjibhai Antala Shivanajayya Shree Padre TR Sureshchandra Tiameren Aier V Radha and Manisha Mhaiskar Vasimalai M P Vijay Kedia Vilasrao Salunke .
There are a number of people who worked. against all odds. can be found in most urban centres in India Experience is the best teacher… There are no limits to technological innovations in rainwater harvesting. They. theHarvesters.Urban water harvesting in India is still in its youth. War over waterbodies… Petitioners are those who are waging a battle against the forces that are bent upon killing the country's waterbodies Harvesters Ashutosh Agnihotri Brig Jagdev Singh D C Chowta DV Subramanaian K R Gopinath KR Narayanan Lakshmi Narayanan M N Mitra Madhu Bhatnagar Mangalam Balasubramaniam Mohit Ray Pawan Garg R Ramani Shanta .Innovators are those who have learned from their experiences and contributed to the betterment of rainwater harvesting technology in India. to make this concept popular.
of course River water. water in lakes. In India the monsoon is brief. In India. water that seeps into the ground. It is this 100-hour bounty that must be caught. and used over the other 8. lay kilometers of pipes. Not build canals. tapwater. Not boost water out the ground. Jeyakumar S Vishwanath Petitioners Dossier What is the source of all water? Rain. The water harvesting basis: catch water where it falls. collecting in the belly of the earth. The water harvesting rationale: extend the fruits of the monsoon. Dry wells come to life. The water harvesting method: build systems that enable such an extension. and block its flow.Sheela Nair Shekhar Raghavan Surinder Bansal Tej Razdan Venkatraman Vijay Kumar Innovators Indukanth Ragade M Mohan Rao R. and create a structure to manage the extension. But merely harvest the rain In essence. then. Not dam a river. We get about 100 hours of rain in a year. harvesting water means harvesting the rain. Flash floods churn up dry river beds. stored. and suck the earth dry. even bottled water! The source of all water is rain. . the monsoon is a deluge. Let us understand this: Supply comes from the sky.660 hours that make up a year.These structures are eco-region specific. Let us apply this understanding: in order to meet demand. what we actually need to do is harvest the rain. ponds and wells. lakes and ponds brim with water.
First recognise that the source of all water on earth is not the river. But. Another 20 mham flow in as surface water from outside the country. But this is enough to meet our water needs. This total 420 mham provide the country with river flows of 180 mham. About 173 mham is lost as evaporation or becomes soil moisture . Fills ponds. But it was thirsty. Another 67 mham is available as groundwater. Rivers heave.mham can be captured through rainwater harvesting. We are cawing alarmed.The water harvesting experience: millennial and born of local wisdom. "Dregs. Third. well or stream. If even 20 . like the crow. It peered into an earthen pitcher. We receive most of its rainfall in just 100 hours out of 8.which can be captured directly as rainwater or as runoff from small catchments in and near villages or towns. Water Balance in India According to a study. This water harvester of a crow could teach us a thing or two. is not the underground aquifer. recognise the rainwater needs to be harvested through capturing. We stare at the dregs of our ingenuity. But the monsoon is also brief. Lets get on. The crow drank and flew away sated. at a resource scientifically misutilised. what is the potential of rainwater harvesting? Understand the water arithmetic. is not the lake. Rain is the source of all water. tremendous pressure can greatly extend the availability of clean water. Why is Cherrapunji today short of drinking water when it gets more than 11 meters of rainfall annually? Simply because it does not capture the rain that falls over it. raucously at that. Fashion a pebble-by-pebble approach to meet our needs. It began to drop pebbles into the pitcher.3. Lakes brim. It didn't. Rain spatters the earth. A Lesson There was a thirsty crow. There was water at the bottom. Second. India receives 400 million hectare meters (mham) of rain and snowfall. But we only keep cawing. the focus of innovation in the present and the best way to a nonscarce future. The key component of water management is 'storage' . Drop by drop. provide food security and eradicate rural poverty. participatory and the basis of people's movements." it cawed alarmed.760 hours in a year. The water arithmetic. scientific and still in use. It could have used a pneumatic drill to smash through to the water. storing and recharging it and later using it during prolonged parched periods. recognise that in India the monsoon is a deluge. the water rose to the top.
bamboo etc.000 mm 20 million litres High Low More rooftops and built-up surfaces available with high runoff 553 Urban - - Very high Very low (*)Assuming rainwater collection efficiency of 100 per cent Water is what we make of it. The hidden link: The most beautiful thing about water harvesting is that there is a human-rain-land synergy. Michael Evenari.stones. Synergies exist between rainfall. Small means even more water. promoting environmental self-reliance.especially in India. mud. Several other studies conducted by the Central Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute in different parts of the country revealed similar results. with nothing imposed. Watershed management From Wikipedia. What the table shows clearly is that rainwater harvesting is possible in all human-land-rain scenarios. It is just a matter of using material locally abundant . COLLECTIVELY. Any land can be used to harvest rainwater. (See potential) In tune with the terrain. Please help improve the article with a good introductory style. an Israeli scientist's study clearly demonstrates that ten dams with one hectare catchment will store more water than one dam of ten hectare. human population density and land availability Region Annual level of rainfall Rain yield potential from one hectare of land (*) Human population density Land Surface Number of availability quality people for water for water whose harvesting collection water efficiency needs can be met at 100 litres per person per day from one hectare of land Ruralarid 100 mm 1 million litres Low High - 27 Ruralhumid 2. the free encyclopedia The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. (October 2009) Water portal .
and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant. programs. water rights.1 Co astal Zones Sources of pollution In an agricultural landscape. and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. or flushes them out of the soil through leaching. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Sources of pollution 2 Controlling pollution 3 Governance 4 Environment al law 5 References 6 External links ○ 6. animal. stormwater runoff.Watershed management is the process of creating and implementing plans. Point source pollution originates a specific point . called surface runoff. Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply. drainage. land use agencies. These types of pollutants are considered nonpoint source pollution because the exact point where the pollutant originated cannot be identified. Landowners. andhuman communities within a watershed boundary. water use purveyors and communities all play an integral part in the management of a watershed. common contributors to water pollution are nutrients and sediment which typically enter stream systems after rainfall washes them off poorly managed agricultural fields. Such pollutants remain a major issue for water ways because the inability to trace their sources hinders any attempt to limit the pollution. water quality. stormwater management experts. environmental specialists.
the implementation of any common vision presents a new role for NGOs because of their unique capabilities in local community coordination. In the case of soil erosion prevention. allows for water and the contaminants that it can carry with it to exit the urban landscape quickly and end up in the nearest stream.of contamination such as if a manure containment structure fails and its contents enter the drainage system. grassed waterways. and nutrient enrichment from lawn fertilizers exist. combined with modern storm drainage systems. such as concrete. In urban landscapes. the greatly increased area of impervious surfaces. crop rotation and intercropping. and forms of sustainable agriculture practices such as conservation tillage. managing areas to prevent soil loss and control stormwater flow are a few of the areas that receive attention. Also. a few common practices include the use of silt fences. issues of soil loss through erosion. it is important to continually monitor these systems to ensure that they are working properly in terms of improving environmental quality. A few practices that are used to manage stormwater before it reaches a channel are retention ponds. The concept of network governance where all stakeholders form partnerships and voluntarily share ideas towards forging a common vision can be used to resolve this clash of opinion in freshwater management. It is important that stormwater is given an opportunity to infiltrate so that the soil and vegetation can act as a "filter" before the water reaches nearby streams or lakes. common practices include the use of buffer strips. held that freshwater resources should be seen as a social good. In urban settings. Controlling pollution In agricultural systems. private and government institutions backed by the World Bank. thus making them a valuable partner in network governance. The main objective in all cases is to slow water movement to prevent soil transport. the reestablishment of wetlands. Governance The second World Water Forum held in The Hague in March 2000 raised some controversies that exposed the multilateral nature and imbalance in the demand and supply management of freshwater. While donor organisations. landscape fabric with grass seed and hydroseeding. Point source pollution. Also. filtering systems and wetlands. believe that freshwater should be governed as an economic good by appropriate pricing. . from construction sites for example. After certain practices are installed. NGOs however. such as effluent from wastewater treatment plants and other industries play a much larger role in this setting.
essential local coordination and education are areas where the services of NGOs have been effective. makes it necessary for the institutionalisation of an ecological-scale cooperative network of stakeholders. private and government institutions and community representatives like NGOs in watersheds is to enhance an ‘organisational society’ among stakeholders. knowledge and use of resources within the watershed are mostly disproportionate and divergent. net gain for the watershed ecology could be lost when other groups seizes the opportunity to exploit more resources. even with the likely presence of the usually reactive and political boundary-constraint state regulations. As a partner in the commonly shared vision. This posits a type of publicprivate partnership. while some knowledgeable groups are shifting from efficient water resource exploitation to efficient utilization. their interests. the need to create partnerships between donor organisations. Although these groups share a common ecological space that could transcend state borders. theLake Chad and river Nile Basins. NGOs has adopted a new role in operationalising the implementation of regional watershed management policies at the local level. which essentially brings together stakeholders that share a common watershed under a voluntary. Moreover. This makes NGOs the ‘nuclei’ for a successful watershed management. killing over 1784 individuals and the Wabigoon River incidence of 1962.Watersheds replicate this multilateral terrain with private industries and local communities interconnected by a common watershed. This ‘gap’ in cooperative communication among multilateral stakeholders within an interconnected watershed. the nine Rhine states. it explicates the concept of network governance. commonly referred to as Type II partnership. . idea sharing and collectively agreed vision aimed at granting mutual benefits to all stakeholders. with a common vision of pollution control. requiring government to rescale its role in decision making and collaborate with other stakeholders on a level playing field rather than in an administrative or hierarchicalmanner. Several riparian states have adopted this concept in managing the increasingly scarce resources of watersheds. For instance. resonating strongly with the Integrated Water Resources Management system proposed by Global Water Partnership. whose common vision is to ensure environmental sustainability. Furthermore. which is ‘.. This concept supports an integrated management style for interconnected natural resources. These include. Also. resulting to the activities of a specific group adversely impacting on other groups.the only alternative for collective action’. Classic examples being the Minamata Bay poisoning that occurred from 1932 to 1968.
 . Those concerned about aquatic habitat protection have a right to participate in the laws and planning processes that affect aquatic habitats.Environmental law Main article: Environmental law Environmental laws often dictate the planning and actions that agencies take to manage watersheds. others can be used to make a plan legally enforceable and others set out the ground rules for what can and cannot be done in development and planning. By having a clear understanding of whom to speak to and how to present the case for keeping our waterways clean a member of the public can become an effective watershed protection advocate. Most countries and states have their own laws regarding watershed management. Some laws require that planning be done.
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