Instead of steel ball. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST[ABV-RHN] A steel ball or conical diamond point is used and is pressed under a specified load into the polished surface of a material. . a square based pyramid is used. Various types of surface hardness tests are as follows. KNOOP HARDNESS TEST [Abv-KHN] It employs a diamond tipped tool that is cut in to geometric configuration. y BRINELL y ROCKWELL y VICKERS y KNOOP BRINELL HARDNESS TEST [ABV-BHN] A hardened steel ball is pressed under a specified load into the polished surface of a material. Smaller the indentation . the depth of penetration is measured directly by the dial guage on the instrument. The load is divided by the area of the projected surface of the indentation &the quotient is referred to as the BRINELL HARDNESS NUMBER.HARDNESS Resistance of a material to plastic deformation typically measured under an indentation load. Instead of measuring the diameter of the impression. Due to its direct reading of the depth of the indentation led to its wide usage in industry.the larger is the number and harder is the material. Vickers hardness test [Abv-HV] It employs the same principle of hardness testing that is used in the brinell test.

It can be determined by the relative number of 90 degree cold bends indicates the comparative formability. Here stress-strain graph for stainless steel wire is drawn The yield strength of stainless steel wire(0. loops etc.2% offset. To determine the yield strength for a material at 0. It is measured by the slope of the elastic region of the stress-strain graph. It determines the practical limit of the elastic working range. The Ultimate Tensile Strength of stainless steel = 1625 Mpa FORMABILITY The ability to be permanently deformed into complex shapes such as coils.a line is drawn parllel to the straight line region. .36mm diameter KHN.The stress corresponding to this point is the yield strength. From the above mentioned graph. It mainly determines the alloy contribution to the orthodontic force delivery from a wire. YIELD STRENGTH The stress at which a test specimen exhibits a specific amount of plastic strain.2% of the plastic strain.The impression is rhombic in outline and the length of the largest diagonal is 550 .56mm diameter 543 ELASTIC MODULUS (MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OR YOUNGS MODULUS) It describes the relative stiffness or rigidity of a material. starting at a value of 0.2%) -1536 Mpa ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH It is a measure of tensile stress required to fracture a material. KHN FOR STAINLESS STEEL WIRES . along the strain axis and is extended until it intersects stress-strain curve. Number of 90 degree cold bends without fracture for stainless steel is 5 which represents good formability.

89 [represents adequate springback] .RESILIENCE It can be defined as the amount of energy absorbed within in a unit volume of a structure when it is stressed to its proportional limit. SPRINGBACK Amount of elastic strain that a metal can recover when loaded to and unloaded from its yield strenth. It can be measured in a stress-strain graph. Springback of stainless steel (YS/E). The quotient of yield strength and elastic modulus measures the springback. 10-2 =0. the area bounded by the elastic region is a measure of resilience.

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