VFDs are solid state devices for converting 3-phase AC line voltage to a quasisinusoidal pulse width modulated (PWM) waveform in which the frequency and voltage level can be varied. The output is a series of narrow voltage pulses having constant amplitude but sinusoidal-varying widths. Internally, VFDs consist of three main sections: an AC-to-DC converter based on Arectifier Bridge of diodes, a DC bus that filters and smoothes out the rectifier output, and a DC-to-AC inverter to change the DC back to AC. The inverter, which is most typically based on insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology, creates the variable voltage and frequency output that will control the motor’s speed. A microprocessor in the VFD, with programming resident in firmware, governs the overall operation of the device. VFDs allow a motor’s speed to be varied electrically instead of by mechanical means. This permits much greater efficiency and flexibility of operation. They are capable of controlling both the speed of the motor and the torque. Without a VFD, industrial induction motors run at full speed continuously; valves, or other mechanical methods, are employed to control the machine output. Unfortunately, running a motor at maximum speed regardless of the varying demands of production means a great deal of electric power is wasted. Another benefit of VFDs is their soft-start capability in which motors are ramped up to speed instead of being abruptly thrown on line. This useful feature reduces mechanical stresses on the entire motor system and leads to lower maintenance costs, as well as a longer motor life. Still another benefit is improved process control. Since industrial process throughput in most operations depends on a range of variables, a motor that is only able to operate at a constant speed even when one or more process variables change might contribute to creation of scrap, not to mention wasted energy. With a VFD, motor speed can be changed almost instantaneously to adapt to changing process conditions. Building a Reliable



The Company was incorporated on 29th June 1964 as "The Ramadas Paper Mills Ltd." at Rajahmundry. The Ramadas Paper Mills Ltd. was formed with infusion of funds and high calibre management of the well-known industrial house. Ramadas Paper Mills Ltd. has adopted the Sulphate (Kraft) Process for Pulping. Our major raw materials are Casuarinas and Subabul. These raw materials are chipped in drum type of chippers in a fixed proportion and the chips are screened to get the required size (5mm - 35mm). The dust generated is fed to a Bio-Gas plant to generate producer gas. This producer gas is used in Lime kilns to replace Furnace oil. RPM has had a consistent track record of profitability and dividend distribution and is committed to the creation and increase in value of its shareholders and other stakeholders. Writing and Printing Hi Bright Maplitho Cream wove Colour Printing Others Industrial White Poster Color Poster Stiffner Coating Base Copier Office Documentation Multipurpose Color Copier

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Integrity of management, union, staff, workers and all people associated with us. Eco-friendly Process, Innovative Value Engineering, Human Engineering, Technology for better Quality and cost effectiveness, Customer satisfaction for untainted growth and business. Consistently increased Profitability for prosperity and growth of the individual and industry. Corporate citizenship for meeting societal objectives. The Values of RPM are: i) Employee Empowerment for commitment to total quality, ii) Team efforts and increased productivity, iii) Ethical Management Practices for Esteem & Credibility. RPM to a very great extent has been successful in unifying quality with eco friendliness. The Company strictly follows the highest-standards-of-quality. This is reflected in the wide acceptance of its products around India. Almost 90 percent of all the wood procured comes from its various farm forestry efforts i.e. from high quality seedlings. This not only ensures better quality raw materials that translate to finer quality products but also a continuous and dependable source of raw materials supply. The ongoing MDP will further help the Company adopt better production techniques which in turn will help ensure even better quality products. Key benefits of the MDP in relation to quality will come in the areas of: The pulp produced will have a brightness of more than 88 percent which when compared to the present brightness levels of 84 percent is significantly higher. RPM will be able to focus its attention towards finer quality alkaline sized papers which


will facilitate permanence. RPM will be able to improve the quality of copier paper and will be able to increase its brightness to 95 percent. Better technology and better processes will help reduce usage of certain chemicals and increased strength of the pulp which will help improve the paper’s properties. Elevated quality of the products and services will help us attain zero levels of customer complaints. As the process of bleaching changes and the use of chlorine gas is made redundant, the physical impact to the environment will reduce dramatically.

CHAPTER-1 Introduction of VFD
Variable Frequency Drives

VFD’s adjust the speed of a driven shaft to a predetermined speed, often this is done via an automatic speed selection process. These automatic processors often use reference signals generated by other devices, drives, controllers, limiters etc. VFD’s can control speeds to within 0.1% tolerance and are the control system of choice in many speed control applications. Typical VFD Applications

• • •

Marine – propulsion, power generation, dynamic positioning, and work vessel systems. Oil & Gas – control systems for pumps, gas and diesel engines, compressors, turbines, boilers, conveyers. Environmental – in waste water, potable water, pollution control, pumping, desalination, ozone regeneration. Industrial – Paper Mills, Cement Plants, Mining Controls, Car Plants, Steel Mills,

Advantages of VFD’s • • Good process control, no other AC motor control method compares in accuracy and ease of use. Cost savings, by better control of motors, a motor run at half speed only uses 25% of the energy it needs at full speed.


and motor bearing failures. is installed. Disadvantages of VFD’s • • • • • Produces “noise” due to PWM that can interfere with other susceptible circuits. Smaller mismatch between cable and motor surge impedances reduces reflected wave voltages. and reduces motor bearing currents. Type VFD exists. Non-Electrical Advantages of Type VFD • • Extremely flexible. Develop a Type VFD Cable that combines the “user friendly” features of the other Gexol Brand Cables. EMI both reflected and conducted. reduces CM current. Noise can lead to drive over current. both conducted and radiated. Reduces motor over heating. VFD’s can run special operating patterns for complex processes. Solutions for VFD Disadvantages • • • • Develop a cable that reduces the amount of “noise” produced by the VFD. single speed motors go from stop to full speed abruptly leading to early failures. Need to keep cable runs short to limit “noise”. Combination shield/ground system reduces EMI. makes it easy to install. Make sure such a cable is commercially viable. 2kV insulation thickness prevents corona inception at 3 x voltage spikes normally seen from VFD’s. Small bend radius. Reflected Wave Voltages. 5 KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN . Cable symmetry reduces impedance imbalances. Higher temperature rating of Type P Insulation withstands high heat conditions caused by high motor loads. Lower capacitance allows for longer cable lengths. Type VFD Advantages • • • • • • • • Extremely low dielectric constant reduces cable capacitance. circuit malfunction. and recommended by several VFD Manufacturers. Combination foil + braid shield and insulated ground wires return reflected wave and common mode currents back to the drive.• • • Smooth start and stop.

current flows in one direction. the current flows in the opposite direction. This type of power system enables large amounts of energy to be efficiently transmitted over great distances. DNV.” The benefit of “multipulse” VFDs will be described later in the harmonics section. Open Wiring marking allows installation of cable without using conduit or cable tray for the first/last 20m runs. Division 1 (if armored) and Class 1. Silicon controlled rectifiers include a gate circuit that enables a. with 6 rectifiers per section. enabling a VFD to be “12 pulse. The voltage on an alternating current (ac) power supply rises and falls in the pattern of a sine wave * When the voltage is positive. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 6 . Reduced installed cost. or transistors to rectify power. Two rectifiers are required for each phase of power. A second rectifier will allow power to pass through only when the voltage is negative. dc bus. One rectifier will allow power to pass through only when the voltage is positive. ABS. the term “6 pulse” is used to describe a drive with 6 rectifiers. there will be a minimum of 6 rectifiers used (see Figure 1). Vibration suitability. and Open Wiring.” or “24 pulse.” “18 pulse. silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR). and inverter. Rectifiers may utilize diodes. and LRS Type Approved. The rectifier in a VFD is used to convert incoming ac power into direct current (dc) power. A VFD may have multiple rectifier sections. Since most large power supplies are three phase. Type TC.• • • • • UL listed as Marine Shipboard Cable. Division 2 hazardous areas. Diodes are the simplest device and allow power to flow any time voltage is of the proper polarity. Suitable for use in Class 1. when the voltage is negative. Chapter-2 VFD OPERATION Operation of VFD: Understanding the basic principles behind VFD operation requires understanding the three basic sections of the VFD: the rectifier. Appropriately.

store it. or similar items that add inductance. A VFD using transistors in the rectifier section is said to have an “active front end.” After the power flows through the rectifiers it is stored on a dc bus. making this type of rectifier useful for solid-state starters as well. The final section of the VFD is referred to as an “inverter.Fig. The IGBT uses a method named “pulse width modulation” (PWM) to simulate a current sine wave at the desired frequency to the motor. chokes. making the transistor the most useful device of the three. of poles Example: KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 7 . VFD basics: Existing technology Fig VFD system microprocessor to control when the power may begin to flow. The IGBT can switch on and off several thousand times per second and precisely control the power delivered to the motor. Varying the frequency output of the VFD controls motor speed: Speed (rpm) = frequency (hertz) x 120 / no. The “Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor” (IGBT) is a common choice in modern VFDs. 1. thereby smoothing the incoming power supply to the dc bus.” The inverter contains transistors that deliver power to the motor. Transistors include a gate circuit that enables a microprocessor to open or close at any time. The dc bus may also contain inductors. Motor speed (rpm) is dependent upon frequency. dc links. The dc bus contains capacitors to accept power from the rectifier. and later deliver that power through the inverter section.

air handlers. fans. and chillers can benefit from speed control. and provides some energy savings. but reduces flow. devices that throttle output have been employed to reduce the flow. Power consumption is the product of head and flow.2-pole motor at different frequencies 3600 rpm = 60 hertz x 120 / 2 = 3600 rpm 3000 rpm = 50 hertz x 120 / 2 = 3000 rpm 2400 rpm = 40 hertz x 120 / 2 = 2400 rpm BENEFITS OF VFD As VFD usage in HVAC applications has increased. thereby forcing the fan or pump to ride the curve to a point where it produces less flow (Figure 2). vanes. or dampers may be employed to control capacity of a constant speed pump or fan. Throttling the output increases head. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 8 . The remaining hours of operation need only a fraction of the flow. However. Traditionally. VFD Capacity Control Saves Energy Most applications do not require a constant flow of a fluid. Equipment is sized for a peak load that may account for only 1% of the hours of operation. pumps. Variable frequency drives provide the following advantages: • Energy savings • Low motor starting current • Reduction of thermal and mechanical stresses on motors and belts during starts • Simple installation • High power factor • Lower KVA Understanding the basis for these benefits will allow engineers and operators to apply VFDs with confidence and achieve the greatest operational savings. Mechanical Capacity Control Throttling valves. these methods are significantly less efficient. when compared with speed control. These devices increase the head.

it is common for AC induction motors to draw 6 to 8 times their full load amps when they are started across the line. 2. the motor does not require a high level of current. With these considerations in mind. Various types of synchronous motors offer advantages in some situations.Fig. Comparison of mechanical capacity control and speed capacity control Low Inrush Motor Starting Motor manufacturers face difficult design choices. In addition to the benefit of low starting current. but three-phase motors are usually preferred. many engineers specify a means of reducing the starting current of large AC induction motors. and cost. The VFD incrementally increases the frequency and motor speed until the desired speed is met. Some types of single-phase motors can be used. When large amounts of current are drawn on the transformers. Unlike all other types of starters. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 9 . The VFD will start the motor by delivering power at a low frequency. power factor. VFDs as Starters A VFD is the ideal soft starter since it provides the lowest inrush of any starter type as shown in Table B. The current level of the motor never exceeds the full load amp rating of the motor at any time during its start or operation. For this reason. the VFD can use frequency to limit the power and current delivered to the motor. adversely affecting other equipment on the same electrical system. size. Designs optimized for low starting current often sacrifice efficiency. At this low frequency. but induction motors are suitable for most purposes and are generally the most economical choice. motor designs can now be optimized for high efficiency. Some voltage sensitive applications may even trip off line. a voltage drop can occur. The motor used in a VFD system is usually a three-phase induction motor.

Fig. such as MG-31 rated motors.3 Variable Frequency Starters VFDs as Starters Fig. Certain enhancements to the standard motor designs offer higher reliability and better VFD performance. VFD Starter Control Panel KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 10 .Motors that are designed for fixed-speed operation are often used.

High Power Factor Power converted to motion.Soft Starters Fig. Decreasing reactive current will increase power. Typical AC motors may have a full load power factor ranging from 0. is called real power and is measured in kilowatts (kW). Motors draw reactive current to support their magnetic fields in order to cause rotation. the motor will still draw two to four times the full load amps (FLA) during starting.84 to 0. and autotransformer starters use special electrical connections to reduce the voltage. part winding. autotransformer. etc. Easy Installation Many pieces of equipment are factory shipped with unit mounted VFDs that arrive pre-programmed and factory wired. sound. utilities often penalize owners for low power factor. Power that charges capacitors or builds magnetic fields is called reactive power and is measured in Kilovolts Amps Reactive (kVAR). part winding. Additionally. Motor leads. In addition. and solid state starters are often used to reduce inrush during motor starting. control power for auxiliaries. rapid acceleration associated with wye-delta starters can wear belts and other power transmission components. and communication lines are all factory wired. VFD Soft starter Fig. As the motor load is reduced. The amount of voltage reduction possible is limited because the motor needs enough voltage to generate torque to accelerate.88. VFD soft starter panel Wye-delta. The vector sum of the kW and the kVAR is the Total Power (energy) and is measured in Kilovolt Amperes (KVA) Power factor is the ratio of kW/KVA. Excessive reactive current is undesirable because it creates additional resistance losses and can require the use of larger transformers and wires. With maximum allowable voltage reduction. Utilities may require site KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 11 . heat. Wye delta. The VFD cooling lines on unit-mounted chiller VFDs are also factory installed. The installing contractor needs only to connect the line power supply to the VFD. Solid-state starters use SCRs to reduce the voltage. the power factor becomes lower. All of these starters deliver power to the motor at a constant frequency and therefore must limit the current by controlling the voltage supplied to the motor.

brown outs. work through magnetic interaction.3 Fixed Speed Fan Application. VFDs often result in higher line side power factor values than constant speed motors equipped with correction capacitors. it will help alleviate voltage sags. The two basic parts of the motor. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 12 . we will take a short review of AC induction motors. this results in maximum corrected values of 0. Power factor correction capacitors can be added to reduce the reactive current measured upstream of the capacitors and increase the measured power factor. A motor contains pole pairs. but higher in power factor has significantly lower KVA. Fig. Low Full Load KVA Total Power (KVA) is often the limiting factor in the amount of energy that can be transmitted through an electrical device or system. The unit efficiency and power factor are equally weighted when calculating KVA. In most cases. This eliminates the need to add power factor correction equipment to the motor or use expensive capacitor banks. equipment with a higher power factor uses 15% less KVA while performing the same. In addition. and power outages. If the KVA required by equipment can be reduced during periods of peak demand. Fig.95 and impose penalties to enforce this requirement. the rotor and stator. The VFDs include capacitors in the DC Bus that perform the same function and maintain high power factor on the line side of the VFD. To prevent damage to the motor.85 to 0.90 to 0.power factor values ranging from 0. wound in a specific pattern to provide a north to south magnetic field. equipment that may be equal or worse in efficiency.In this example. A drive can control two main elements of a 3-phase induction motor: speed and torque. These are iron pieces in the stator. power factor correction capacitors should not exceed the motor manufacturer’s recommendations. To understand how a drive controls these two elements. 4 shows the construction of an induction motor.95. Therefore.

the rotor takes on magnetic fields of its own. These rotor magnetic fields will try to catch up to the rotating fields of the stator. The number of poles and the frequency applied determine this speed (Fig.Slip 4 KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 13 .Slip P Slip for NEMA B Motor = 3 to 5% of Base Speed which is 1800 RPM at Full Load F = Frequency applied to the motor P = Number of motor poles Example: Shaft Speed =120 X 60 Hz .Figure 4. Basic Induction Motor Construction Figure 5. Motor Slip: Shaft Speed = 120 X F. they will continue to revolve around the track. it never does -." Slip is the difference between the rotor speed and the rotating magnetic field in the stator. Slip is what allows a motor to turn. As long as they don't catch up to the hare. This formula includes an effect called "slip. Operating Principles of Induction Motor With one pole pair isolated in a motor. 4). However.this difference is slip. Think of slip as the distance between the greyhounds and the hare they are chasing around the track. the rotor (shaft) rotates at a specific speed: the base speed. When a magnetic field passes through the conductors of the rotor.

7 Block Diagram of Basic VFD KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 14 . 6 shows a basic PWM drive. but this is a physical change to the motor. Volts/Hertz Ratio How Drive Changes Motor Speed Just how does a drive provide the frequency and voltage output necessary to change the speed of a motor? That's what we'll look at next. with subtle differences in hardware and software components. Fig.We can conveniently adjust the speed of a motor by changing the frequency applied to the motor. Fig. and result in a step change to the speed. we change the frequency. Fig. and precision. 6 shows the torque-developing characteristic of every motor: the Volts per Hertz ratio (V/Hz). So. A drive provides many different frequency outputs. Figure 6. As long as this ratio stays in proportion. cost-efficiency. the motor will develop rated torque. An induction motor connected to a 460V. You could adjust motor speed by adjusting the number of poles. At any given frequency output of the drive. It would require rewinding.67. All PWM drives contain these main parts. We change this ratio to change motor torque. 60 Hz source has a ratio of 7. for convenience. you get a new torque curve.

How does it do this? That depends on what kind of power devices your drive uses. this section inverts the DC voltage back to AC. see the Sidebar. the cleaner the output waveform from the drive. Switching Bus with IGBTs Today's inverters use Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) to switch the DC bus on and off at specific intervals. In doing so. arranged in an electrical bridge. 8 . which will form the basis for our discussion. The input section of the drive is the converter. The diodes actually reconstruct the negative halves of the waveform onto the positive half. In the early 1990s. If you have many SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based drives in your facility. The next section-the DC bus section-sees a fixed DC voltage. Basic PWM Drive Components Although some drives accept single-phase input power. you'd measure an average DC bus voltage of about 650V to 680V. The DC bus feeds the final section of the drive: the inverter. These diodes convert AC power to DC power. As the name implies. The DC Bus section filters and smoothes out the waveform. the output of the drive doesn't provide an exact replica of the AC input sine waveform. In a 460V unit.Fig. Instead. it does so in a variable voltage and frequency output. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 15 . Bipolar Transistor technology began super ceding SCRs in drives in the mid-1970s. 8. But to simplify illustrations. we'll focus on the 3-phase drive. But. The smoother the DC waveform.414. The inductor (L) and the capacitor (C) work together to filter out any AC component of the DC waveform. As shown in Fig. it provides voltage pulses that are at a constant magnitude. the waveforms in the following drive figures show only one phase of input and output. It contains six diodes. You can calculate this as line voltage times 1. those gave way to using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) technology. the inverter actually creates a variable AC voltage and frequency output.

However. Conversely. The higher the switch frequency.9). Figure 9. the higher the output voltage. (With an older. the lower the output voltage (shown in Fig. better performance. the higher the switch frequency.000 to 4. but the designs continue to improve. higher switch frequencies decrease the efficiency of the drive because of increased heat in the power devices. the longer the power device is off.Figure 8. and lower cost with successive generations. Drive Output Waveform Components The speed at which power devices switch on and off is the carrier frequency. the smoother the output waveform and the higher the resolution. the lower the output frequency. the more resolution each PWM pulse contains. Drive Output Waveform The drive's control board signals the power device's control circuits to turn "on" the waveform positive half or negative half of the power device. switch frequencies are 250 to 500 times per second).000 times per second (3KHz to 4KHz). Unlike computers. The trend is similar to that of the personal computer. As you can imagine. And also unlike computers. the typical drive of today doesn't spew gratuitous harmonics into your distribution system-nor does it affect your KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 16 . Drives come in smaller packages with each generation. SCR-based drive. drives have dramatically improved in their reliability and ease of use. however. Shrinking cost and size Drives vary in the complexity of their designs. This alternating of positive and negative switches recreates the 3 phase output. also known as the switch frequency. The longer the power device remains on. Typical switch frequencies are 3. The less time the power device is on. More features.

are employed to control the machine output." As electronic power components improve in reliability and decrease in size. providing a more precise output waveform. motor speed can be changed almost instantaneously to adapt to changing process conditions. their performance and ease of use will only get better. valves. This permits much greater efficiency and flexibility of operation. While all that is going on. The IGBT output also depends the length of time the gate is on. VFDs allow a motor’s speed to be varied electrically instead of by mechanical means. The device conducts voltage until the polarity of the device reverses-and then it automatically "turns off. running a motor at maximum speed regardless of the varying demands of production means a great deal of electric power is wasted. Another benefit of VFDs is their soft-start capability in which motors are ramped up to speed instead of being abruptly thrown on line. a motor that is only able to operate at a constant speed even when one or more process variables change might contribute to creation of scrap. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 17 . you would approach troubleshooting differently if you have an SCR-based drive. They are capable of controlling both the speed of the motor and the torque. industrial induction motors run at full speed continuously. This useful feature reduces mechanical stresses on the entire motor system and leads to lower maintenance costs. Still another benefit is improved process control. Without a VFD. However. or other mechanical methods. Sidebar: What if you have SCRs? With the large installed base of SCRs. The gate acts as the "turn-on" switch that allows the device to fully conduct voltage. With a VFD. Drives are increasingly becoming "plug and play. Thus. the cost and size of VFDs will continue to decrease. but this circuitry is less complex and doesn't require a reversal of polarity. Unfortunately. not to mention wasted energy. you might want to know how these operate. Since industrial process throughput in most operations depends on a range of variables.power factor. it can turn off anytime in the control cycle." Special circuitry. usually requiring another circuit board and associated wiring. The SCR's output depends on how soon in the control cycle that gate turns on. An SCR (originally referred to as a thyristor) contains a control element called a gate. as well as a longer motor life. controls this switching. IGBTs also require a control circuit connected to the gate.

and the cable that connects them. flow in improperly grounded motor shafts.the purchase cost for a new VFD can be steep. the very fast voltage rise times associated with IGBT technology contributes to precise motor speed control but can also lead to voltage spikes that damage cables of poor quality. it makes sense to first describe VFDs. to give the reader some context. though this must be balanced with the fact that the payback period can be a matter of just a few months to under three years. The usual design first converts AC input power to DC intermediate power using a rectifier or converter bridge. In addition. Other possible concerns with use of VFDs are the potential for acoustical motor noise and motor heating. their benefits and potential problems. and their relationship to the motors they control.Fig. It looks at some fundamental cable design considerations. Special consideration must be given to the proper installation and operation of the overall system that comprises the VFD. However. VFDs are not without drawbacks. when currents. the motor it controls. and presents suggestions for installation. 10 Single Phase VFD However. The rectifier is usually a three-phase. or ones that are improperlyinsulated. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 18 . induced by pulse width modulated switching. The result can be damaged bearings. This paper is primarily concerned with the motor-supply cable in the VFD/motor system. full-wave-diode bridge. The way in which VFD-based systems are constructed and operated will have an impact on both the longevity and reliability of all the components of the system. VFD controller Variable frequency drive controllers are solid state electronic power conversion devices. as well as nearby or adjacent systems. For example. The inverter circuit is probably the most important section of the VFD. The DC intermediate power is then converted to quasi-sinusoidal AC power using an inverter switching circuit.

Naturally the mechanical strength of the rotor and lifetime of the bearings is also limiting the maximum speed of the motor. This is sometimes called "field weakening" and. Operation of the motors above rated name plate speed (base speed) is possible. These methods adjust the motor voltage in such a way that the magnetic flux and mechanical torque of the motor can be precisely controlled. The usual method used to achieve variable motor voltage is pulse-width modulation (PWM). KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 19 . At higher speeds the induction motor torque has to be limited further due to the lowering of the breakaway torque of the motor. With PWM voltage control. the applied voltage must be reduced to 230 volts when the frequency is reduced to 30 Hz. AC motor characteristics require the applied voltage to be proportionally adjusted whenever the frequency is changed in order to deliver the rated torque.75 RPM) = 100% power. if a motor is designed to operate at 460 volts at 60 Hz. and low sensitivity to the incoming phase sequencing than older phase controlled converter VFD's. means operating at less than rated volts/hertz and above rated name plate speed.300% of the base speed is used. for AC motors. For example. some further voltage adjustment may be necessary especially at low speeds. For optimum performance. Wound rotor synchronous motors can be run even higher speeds. the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) became the device used in most VFD inverter circuits in the first decade of the 21st century.134 V/Hz). a 100 hp. but is limited to conditions that do not require more power than nameplate rating of the motor.150% of the rated name plate speed.changing DC energy into three channels of AC energy that can be used by an AC motor. This ratio can be changed in order to change the torque delivered by the motor. but constant volts per hertz are the general rule. In rolling mill drives often 200.67 V/Hz in this case). 460 V..... would be limited to 60/75 = 80% torque at 125% speed (2218. the inverter switches are used to construct a quasisinusoidal output waveform by a series of narrow voltage pulses with pseudo sinusoidal varying pulse durations. Wound rotor synchronous motors and induction motors have much wider speed range. These units provide improved power factor. In addition to these simple volts per hertz control more advanced control methods such as vector control and direct torque control (DTC) exist. Since incoming power is converted to DC. many units will accept single-phase as well as threephase input power (acting as a phase converter as well as a speed controller). 1775 RPM (4 pole) induction motor supplied with 460 V. 60 Hz. these have promptly been applied to inverter circuits at all voltage and current ratings for which suitable devices are available. It is recommended to consult the motor manufacturer if more than 150% speed is required by the application. 75 Hz (6. For example. Thus rated power can be typically produced only up to 130. As new types of semiconductor switches have been introduced. Introduced in the 1980s. less harmonic distortion. however the unit must be derated when using single phase input as only part of the rectifier bridge is carrying the connected load. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have quite limited field weakening speed range due to the constant magnet flux linkage. Thus the ratio of volts per hertz must be regulated to a constant value (460/60 = 7.

However. the applied frequency and voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up to accelerate the load without drawing excessive current. A serial communications port is also often available to allow the VFD to be configured. some degree of configuration programming and parameter adjustment is usually provided so that the user can customize the VFD controller to suit specific motor and driven equipment requirements. that cooling of the motor is usually not good in the low speed range. the available torque usually drops a little and then rises to a peak while the current remains very high until the motor approaches full speed. The keypad display can often be cableconnected and mounted a short distance from the VFD controller. The main microprocessor programming is in firmware that is inaccessible to the VFD user. This starting method typically allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated torque while the VFD is drawing less than 50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range. Additional operator control functions might include reversing and switching between manual speed adjustment and automatic control from an external process control signal. An operator interface keypad and display unit is often provided on the front of the VFD controller as shown in the photograph above. After the start of the VFD. adjusted. switches and other operator interface devices or control signals. The starting frequency is typically 2 Hz or less. By contrast. VFD operator interface The operator interface provides a means for an operator to start and stop the motor and adjust the operating speed. Thus starting at such a low frequency avoids the high inrush current that occurs when a motor is started by simply applying the utility (mains) voltage by turning on a switch. it draws several times (up to about 6 times) its rated current. it initially applies a low frequency and voltage to the motor. when a VFD starts a motor. Note. Thus KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 20 . Most are also provided with input and output (I/O) terminals for connecting pushbuttons. As the load accelerates.Fig PWM VFD Output Voltage Waveform An embedded microprocessor governs the overall operation of the VFD controller. When an induction motor is connected to a full voltage supply. however. A VFD can be adjusted to produce a steady 150% starting torque from standstill right up to full speed. The operator interface often includes an alphanumeric display and/or indication lights and meters to provide information about the operation of the drive. monitored and controlled using a computer.

When the frequency approaches zero. thus the current on line side is in direct proportion of the power drawn by the motor. the current on the motor side is in direct proportion to the torque that is generated and the voltage on the motor is in direct proportion of the actual speed. or just a few very large-load VFDs are used. when either a large number of low-current VFDs. The manufacturer of the motor and/or the VFD should specify the cooling requirements for this mode of operation. creating harmonic distortion in the power line voltage. When the utility voltage becomes misshaped and distorted the losses in other loads such as normal AC motors are increased. the voltage is constant. U for voltage [V]. the motor is shut off. while on the network side.N where C is torque and N the speed of the motor (we shall consider losses as well.Nm (motor mechanical power = motor electrical power) Given Un is a constant (network voltage) we conclude: In = Cm.running at low speeds even with rated torque for long periods is not possible due to overheating of the motor. This may in the worst case lead to overheating 21 KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN . in low voltage networks the harmonics caused by single phase equipment such as computers and TVs are such that they are partially cancelled by three-phase diode bridge harmonics. If continuous operation with high torque is required in low speeds an external fan is usually needed. When the VFD load size is small and the available utility power is large. n stands for network (grid) and m for motor 2. the VFD is able to brake the load by applying a reverse torque and reverting the energy back to the network. With a VFD. 1. Additional braking torque can be obtained by adding a braking circuit (resistor controlled by a transistor) to dissipate the braking energy.I or C. neglected in this explanation). With 4-quadrants rectifiers (active-front-end).In = Um. Further. Power line harmonics While PWM allows for nearly sinusoidal currents to be applied to a motor load. and N for speed [rad/s] We neglect losses for the moment: • • • Un. the effects of VFD systems slicing small chunks out of AC grid generally go unnoticed. A small amount of braking torque is available to help decelerate the load a little faster than it would stop if the motor were simply switched off and allowed to coast. they can have a cumulative negative impact on the AC voltages available to other utility customers in the same grid. the stopping sequence is just the opposite as the starting sequence.Im = Cm. that is U.Nm/Un That is "line current (network) is in direct proportion of motor power". the diode rectifier of the VFD takes roughly square-wave current pulses out of the AC grid. C stands for torque [Nm]. The frequency and voltage applied to the motor are ramped down at a controlled rate. In principle. I for current [A]. However.Im (same power drawn from network and from motor) Um.

Expect the older motor's life to shorten. it is possible to use instead of the diode rectifier a similar transistor circuit that is used to control the motor. At 460 V. For very long cables or old motors with insufficient winding insulation more efficient sinus filter is recommended. Since the transmission-line impedance of the cable and motor are different. Thus no braking resistor is needed and the efficiency of the drive is improved if the drive is frequently required to brake the motor. the utility may choose to install filtering equipment of its own at substations affected by the large amount of VFD equipment being used. manufacturers call it by several names such as active rectifier. However. The stray capacitance of the windings provide paths for high frequency currents that close through the bearings. The resulting voltages can produce up to twice the rated line voltage for long cable runs. the rapid rise time of the pulses may cause trouble with the motor bearings. Increasing the cable or motor size/type for long runs and 480v or 600v motors will help offset the stresses imposed upon the equipment due to the VFD (modern 230v single phase motors not effected). The longer cables distances are allowed at the lower Carrier Switching Frequencies (CSF) of 2. The lower CSF can produce audible noise at the motors. pulses tend to reflect back from the motor terminals into the cable. Even better attenuation of the harmonics can be obtained by using an LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor) filter instead of single three-phase filter inductor. This kind of rectifier is called active in feed converter in IEC standards. Also substation transformers and compensation capacitors are affected. the latter especially if resonances are aroused by the harmonics. ISU (IGBT Supply Unit). Further. AFE (Active Front End) or four quadrant rectifier. Because of the rapid rise time of these pulses. Alternatively. the maximum recommended cable distances between VFDs and motors can vary by a factor of 2.5 kHz. If the voltage between the shaft and the shield of the motor exceeds few volts the stored charge is KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 22 . Purchase VFD rated motors for the application. For applications requiring long motor cables VSD manufacturers usually offer du/dt filters that decrease the steepness of the pulses. In high power installations decrease of the harmonics can be obtained by supplying the VSDs from transformers that have different phase shift. With PWM control of the transistors and filter inductors in the supply lines the AC current can be made nearly sinusoidal. Transmission line effects The output voltage of a PWM VFD consists of a train of pulses switched at the carrier frequency. In order to limit the voltage distortion the owner of the VFDs may be required to install filtering equipment to smooth out the irregular waveform. putting high stress on the cable and motor winding and eventual insulation failure.and shorter operation life. Motor bearings Further. Additional advantage of the active in feed converter over the diode bridge is its ability to feed back the energy from the DC side to the AC grid.5:1. transmission line effects of the cable between the drive and motor must be considered.

The power of MV drives is generally in the range of 0. which increases the likelihood of damage and eventual failure. Medium voltage drives are generally rated amongst the following voltages : 2.162 V (60 Hz). VFD controllers designed to operate at 110 V to 690 V are often classified as low voltage units.000 hp should probably be considered to be one-of-a-kind (one-off) designs. Dynamic braking stops the system more quickly than coasting. it is highly recommended to route the motor cables as far away from signal cables as possible. Further. The minimum CSF for synchronize tracking of multiple conveyors is 8 kHz.25 horsepower (hp) up to several megawatts. some systems transfer this energy to an outside bank of resistors. Thus it is essential to use a cable designed to be used with VSDs. 3. Since dynamic braking requires relative motion of the motor's parts.5 kHz and 5 kHz CSFs cause fewer motor bearing problems than the 20 kHz CSFs. Dynamic braking Using the motor as a generator to absorb energy from the system is called dynamic braking.6 MW. the largest ABB ACS800 single drives are rated for 5. Medium voltage VFD controllers are designed to operate at 2. In big motors a slip ring with brush can be used to provide a bypass path for the bearing currents. 4 kV. During normal braking of an electric motor the electrical energy produced by the motor is dissipated as heat inside of the rotor.3 to 100 MW however involving a range a several different type of drives with different technologies.2 kW or 0. and 11 kV. The high frequency current ripple in the motor cables may also cause interference with other cabling in the building. Cooling fans may be used to KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 23 . In some applications a step up transformer is placed between a low voltage drive and a medium voltage load. Medium voltage units are typically designed for use with motors rated to deliver 375 kW or 500 hp and above. This is another reason to use a motor cable designed for VSDs that has a symmetrical three-phase structure and good shielding.3 kV. The in-between voltages are generally possible as well. The 2. it becomes less effective at low speed and cannot be used to hold a load at a stopped position. For example. Alternatively isolated bearings can be used. Repeated sparking causes erosion in the bearing surface that can be seen as fluting pattern. Therefore. Medium voltage drives rated above 7 kV and 5. 3 kV (50 Hz) or up to 10 kV. 6 kV.discharged as a small spark. Available VFD power ratings Variable frequency drives are available with voltage and current ratings to match the majority of 3-phase motors that are manufactured for operation from utility (mains) power.400/4.000/10. In order to prevent sparking the motor cable should provide a low impedance return path from the motor frame back to the inverter.3 kV. Low voltage units are typically designed for use with motors rated to deliver 0. Shorter cables are recommended at the higher CSF of 20 kHz.

The blow is done at a much lower temperature than conventional cooking. as the Non Condensable Gases (NCG) are collected and burnt in Lime kiln (LVHC gases from evaporator section) and Recovery Boiler (HVLC from blow tank and other tanks). KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 24 . Modern systems have thermal monitoring. The cooking temperature is also lower than the conventional batch cooking. it will be switched off. generally associated with the conventional Kraft pulping process. The initial washing of the pulp is done at the bottom of the digester before the stock is blown to the blow tank. The continuous digester is a single vertical vessel. The odor problem. where the chips along with the cooking liquor are charged at the top of the digester and the pulp is extracted from the bottom of the digester on a continuous basis. Chips are first pre-steamed in Diamond back chip bin and then charged to the digester. is at its lowest. so if the temperature of the bank becomes excessive.This Lo-solids continuous cooking process is first of its kind in the country. Transportation of the chips from Diamond back chip bin to the digester is done by pumping the chips along with white liquor by three chip pumps installed in series. The whole cooking process is the most energy efficient system as white liquor (cooking liquor) is pre-heated with black liquor extracted from the digesters. CHAPTER-3 Production Of Paper Cooking Process: The Cooking process of wood chips is carried out in the continuous digester (Lo-Solids cooking). hence generation of High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) TRS gases from digester are at negligible level. reducing damage to the cellulose during the cooking process. Cooking liquor is injected in to the digester in installments and Black liquor is extracted from the digester in phases maintaining low solids concentration across the digester throughout cooking period.protect the resistors from damage.

12 Chip Feeding to Diamond Back Chip Bin and Continuous digester. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 25 . Brown Stock Washing : Pulp from the digester is blown to the blow tank and sent to brown stock washing. Pulp washing is accomplished in a single Drum Displacer Washer (ANDRITZ DD) equipped with two washing stages.Fig 11 Chip Conveyer-chips to Silo Stock Fig. The washed pulp is then sent to the Oxygen Delignification (ODL) stage. Black liquor is sent to the Soda Recovery Plant for chemical recovery.

Fig. The process is carried out in two stages where the pulp is allowed to react with oxygen and sodium hydroxide at certain specified conditions. the paper industry is hard pressed to adopt new and state-of-the-art technologies and APPM has adopted the KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 26 .13 Drum displacer Washers for Brown Stock Washing and Post Oxygen Washing Oxygen Delignification Pulp from the Brown stock washer is sent to the Oxygen Bleaching (Oxygen Delignification) Stage. the primary stage being a combined knotting and screening stage. The screening process is carried out in three stages.14 Oxygen Plant ECF Bleaching With environmental pressures mounting on the Industry and the need for a more energy efficient and cost effective process of pulping and bleaching. the pulp is sent to the Pulp Screening Section to remove knots and shives. which again. After reaction in ODL. is a DD washer. Accepts from the screening stage are taken to the ODL washer. Fig. The washed pulp is then sent to the High Density (HD) storage tower.

thus lowering the AOX (Absorbable Organic Halogens) levels in the Bleach Plant effluents per ton of product. Fig. In this process. Thus ECF bleaching reduces the impact of pollutants on the environment by reducing their generation during the bleaching process. The generation of chlorinated organic compounds is comparatively lesser in ECF bleaching.15 ECF Bleaching Plant Bleaching of Pulp KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 27 . usage of Elemental Chlorine (Chlorine in gaseous form) is eliminated.ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) bleaching process. The generation of other pollutants like chlorinated phenols. unlike in the standard bleaching processes. dioxins and furans are also brought down to a minimum level when compared to the standard bleaching sequences.

which has its own independent pulp refining system. the freeness level is brought up to 24° SR. APPM has both MG (Machine Glazed) and MF (Machine Finished) paper machines with size press arrangement on the MF machines to impart starch coating on the surface of the paper. Refiners located at the individual machines then obtain the required freeness levels. for the various grades of paper. etc. After reaction with chlorine dioxide. are some of the new concepts introduced on the paper machines. the pulp is washed again and sent to a HD (High Density) storage Tower from where the pulp is taken to the paper machine/wetlap machine. Most modern calendar stacks are provided to impart smoothness to the paper.16 Fiberline Stock Preparation and Paper Machines Bleached pulp from the HD storage tower is supplied to Five paper machines via a centralized refining system. PAC. together with the required dyes are added and the stock is made ready for papermaking. AKD. The extracted and washed pulp is then sent to the D1 stage where it is treated again with chlorine dioxide. Duo Former. The centralized refining concept has been introduced to conserve energy. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 28 . In the Stock Preparation Section. The final brightness of the pulp is maintained at 88-89% ISO. etc. Alum. In the Extraction stage. Hydraulic head box.The bleaching sequence is an ECF sequence with Do EOP D1 as the sequential stages. the pulp is treated with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide under specified conditions and washed again. Bleached pulp from HD tower is supplied separately to Paper machine No 6. In the centralized refining system. Pulp is treated with chlorine dioxide in the Do stage with specified conditions and washed before being sent to the Extraction stage. Fig. various additives like Rosin.

on the wire of the fourdrinier table (see Figure 18).17 stock Preparation Plant in paper Mill Variable frequency drives have many uses in paper mills. and ultimately. we will focus on their potential use to control the fan pump in the approach section. The fan pump is the center of the paper mill approach system and serves to mix the pulp stock with white (treated) water.Fig. The fan pump delivers this mixture to the headbox. In this discussion. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 29 .

This flow change has traditionally been accomplished by throttling valves. Increasingly tighter tolerances are expected in the future.Simplified Paper Mill Approach System. and will increase maintenance and power consumption. the flow from this system is constantly varying. As water KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 30 . The only way to meet these increased requirements is to control each variable that impacts the steady state condition. These methods can potentially cause flow and/or pressure transients. Because of change in product requirements or operating conditions. Today's requirements for paper quality require very close tolerances and extremely tight variation requirements. Precise pressure and water flow is required.Figure 18 . recirculating systems or by turning different pumps on and off. without pulsations or surges. Fan pumps must also be able to vary the flow over the entire range of paper machine operation. as well. Enhanced Product Quality The fan pump is typically the largest pump in the paper machine system and the demands made on it are very critical to the paper making process. Flow rate and pressure must be stable.

makes the Dura-Bilt5i MV a great choice. and initial investment.usage in each mill process increases or decreases. operational costs. the pump efficiency is severely affected when flow is controlled by throttling. Applying a VFD to the fan pump eliminates the need for throttling or recirculation. minimized system and motor maintenance requirements. Significant savings can be achieved by operating fan pumps with variable speed AC KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 31 . This technology. requiring accurate speed control. A fast response adjustable speed driven pump can reduce or eliminate this flow transient. fan pumps are well suited for variable frequency drives (VFDs) to regulate flow and operate at peak efficiency. AC drive vector control technology for induction motors in variable torque applications. Therefore. throttled or re-circulated. As seen in Figure 19. Reduced Power Consumption Historically. tied in with the excellent performance of AC drive systems in the pump market. Any pressure variation will change water flow at a given header or valve setting. a constant speed pump must be turned off. When a reduced flow is required. constant speed induction motors have been used to drive fan pumps.Typical head-flow (H-Q) and throttling efficiency curve of specific pump at rated speed. Throttling and recirculation techniques cause additional losses in the system. the pressure available for any other mill process may vary. Medium voltage AC VFDs like the Dura-Bilt5i MV� have become an attractive alternative when focusing on consistent product quality. Figure 19 . has improved to the level where the need for a speed feedback device has been eliminated. This variability in flow can impact the paper product tolerance.

By utilizing pressure sensors. The Dura-Bilt5i MV drive maintains a power factor of 0. Artificially adding friction by throttling changes the system curve and reduces pump flow.95 or greater over the entire motor speed range. Figure 20 . resulting in a higher input power factor and less reactive power consumption than found in a typical fixed-speed pump application.Typical pump H-Q curve with system curve added. the pump can be controlled to deliver a constant pressure under any conditions. A VFD allows the pump to operate on the system characteristic curve as shown in Figure 20 (thus saving throttling energy loss). As flow requirement change. Retrofits and New Installations KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 32 . the Dura-Bilt5i MV variable speed drive is capable of providing the same high starting torque across the full motor speed profile. the pump will maintain constant pressure. Additionally. Improved Power Quality Variable speed drives have proven to be superior over all other types of mechanical flow control. Changing the speed of the pump motor. allows the flow and the head pressure to be controlled. The Dura-Bilt5i MV drive uses a 24-pulse input diode rectifier to convert the utility power into a DC buss for the inversion to Variable frequency by the inverter. meeting or exceeding IEEE 519-1992 standards without filters. This technique improves system response and reduces energy consumption. This 24-pulse input design is significant in that it produces less than 3% total harmonic distortion in most applications.drives. and thus the pump.

22 Sheet Converting Machines in Paper Mill Soda Recovery and Causticizing KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 33 . Indian paper industry should also explore the possibility of installing VFD for different equipment. This helps avoid considerable cost and expensive downtime. A VFD also limits the need for flow regulating valves. The benefit is less wear on motor and pump seals and bearings. and Warranty GE Toshiba has a significant number of Medium Voltage VFDs for pump applications in service today. the Dura-Bilt5i MV provides a controlled application of voltage and current when the motor is started. Reliability. The ability to vary pump speed. startup. The valves may be needed for isolation. GE Toshiba is available 24/7 to meet your engineering. as well as shorter downtime for maintenance. Several mills abroad are operating with VFD for all the pumps. In retrofits and new installations. but the wear associated with constant use for flow regulation is eliminated. and training needs. VFDs are recommended wherever speed variation is required from 50 to 100% range. as plant conditions require. service. Our current generation Medium Voltage VFD is the DuraBilt5i MV. results in longer motor and pump life. This product has been designed from the ground up to be a high performing and reliable product. Converting Paper is cut into folio sheet (if the order is in sheets) on Duplex as well as Simplex cutters and converted into reels in case of reel orders.VFDs are ideal for retrofit applications of existing constant speed pump motors and can usually be applied to existing motors without modifying the motor or pump foundations. The concept of installation of variable frequency drive (VFD) is picking up in paper industry. The reels are packed on a semi automatic reel-packing machine. Fig. It is also backed by one of the largest field service organizations in the world. Motor heating and system mechanical stress from high inrush currents are also eliminated. RPM also produces cut sheets on A4 lines. Service.

first of its kind in the country. Once the power the Boiler comes into operation.On the soda recovery front. Limekilns provide for lime mud re-burning. state-of-the-art evaporation plant (Free Flow Falling Film Evaporators) to concentrate the liquor to 75% solids. the TG will generate power to its full capacity.23 Paper Wrapping using VFDs Power Generation: RPM has installed a 34 MW Double Extraction Condensing type turbine to meet its power requirements. Initially. the turbine is supplied with steam generated from the Recovery boiler to produce 18-20 MW of power. RPM has the most modern. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 34 . The CD Filter is highly compact equipment. In the Re-causticizing Section. APPM has employed the CD filter technology (yet another first in the country) for white liquor separation from the causticizing slurry in place of the conventional white liquor clarifier. thus taking care of the solid waste disposal. Recovery boiler (the biggest single recovery boiler in the country) incinerates the black liquor and produces steam at 64 ATA. Fig.

24 Power Generation Plant in Paper Mill with VFD Inverters KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 35 .Fig.

iii) Stock Preparation a) Installation of VFD for stock pumps to blending chest b) Installation of VFD for machine chest pumps iv) Paper Machine a) Installation of VFD for fan pumps b) Installation of VFD for secondary and tertiary centricleaner pumps c) Installation of VFD for mould fan pumps d) Installation of VFD for save-all clarified water pump KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 36 . secondary and tertiary centricleaners. c) Installation of VFD for all dilution pumps of unbleached and bleached sections. The suggested areas where VFDs can be considered in paper industry are as follows i) Recovery Boiler a) Installation of VFD for forced draught fans b) Installation of VFD for induced draught fan ii) Washing. pumps of unbleached/bleached pulp.Chapter- Installations of VFDs in Different Areas in Paper Industry Usage of VFD in different areas of paper industry . Screening and Bleaching a) Replacement of eddy current drives with VFD for drum washers drives b) Installation of VFD for primary.

Additionally. 9 boiler and reducing the steam load on the No. Fig.21 Different Types of VFDs using in Paper Mills. vibration. the No. should be increased. and ambient noise. which has reduced maintenance. 9 boiler now can run very efficiently throughout the year.e) Installation of dual speed motors for couch pit and press pit agitators f) Installation of VFD for MG machine/MF machine hood fans g) Installation of VFD for coating knife edge blowers h) Replacement of small steam turbines with DC drives or AC motors with VFDs v) Raw Water/Recycle Water Pumps a) Installation of VFD for raw water/recycle water pumps vi) Effluent Treatment Plant a) Installation of VFD for roots blower (for agitation purposes) b) Installation of VFD for final effluent discharge pumps. 6 boiler. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 37 . And because the motor runs cooler. Recovery Boiler Installation of VFD for Forced Draught Fans & Induced Draught Fan : The new FD fan and its upgraded controls allowed the university to change the way it operates the plant by increasing the steam load on the No. 9 boiler through the full span of its production rating. its lifespan. The motor’s average speed is down to about 45 Hz. regardless of ambient temperature or demand. along with the operating life of the FD fan and associated equipment. Other benefits of the VFD installation include precise and efficient control of the No.

because of the large amount of air required for proper combustion and because natural draft is subject to ambient-air conditions. Balanced Draft Balanced draft is achieved through the use of both induced and forced draft. Often. The three types of mechanical draft are induced. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 38 . air is heated prior to entering a boiler to increase overall efficiency. An ID fan removes flue gases from a boiler and forces exhaust gas up a stack. rather than natural draft. or an induced-draft (ID) fan. Nearly every ID furnace operates with a slightly negative pressure. Balanced draft is controlled at a slightly negative pressure. increasing flue-gas velocity and overall draft in a boiler. in which the air is less dense than the ambient air. forced. With a heated chimney or stack. in which flue gases have to travel long distances through many boiler passes.High-pressure boilers depend on mechanical draft. Traditionally. This was common with steam-driven locomotives. Forced Draft Forced draft (FD) is achieved by forcing air into a furnace with a special fan and ductwork. Using a variable-frequency drive to control the speed of a FD-fan motor eliminates the need for dampers. a steam jet. which could not have tall chimneys. and balanced. Induced Draft Induced draft can be achieved with a heated chimney or stack (stack effect). An ID fan works in conjunction with a FD fan. This is common with larger boilers. dampers have been used to control the quantity of air admitted to a boiler. steam oriented in the direction of flue-gas flow induces flue gas into a stack. combustion air is forced into and through a boiler. With a steam jet. FD boilers usually operate with a positive pressure. allowing boiler pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric.

The ratio between cloudy and clear filtrate fractions can be adjusted. A third filtrate split is available for super clear filtrate where required. provide a sharp split between cloudy and clear filtrate fractions. which are bolted to the center shaft. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 39 . and maximize discharge consistency. The slim sectors and taper of the shaft channels are chosen for each application to optimize drainage. A vertical drop leg creates a vacuum. which includes tapered filtrate channels leading to the outlet end of the shaft.Fig. The VDF is built around a horizontal center shaft. The disc sectors are supplied as cassettes mounted in rugged frames. VFD Filter is a state-of-the-art conventional vacuum disc filter that is widely used for paper machine save all and pulp thickening applications. Regenerative variable-frequency drives Regenerative AC drives have the capacity to recover the braking energy of a load moving faster than the motor speed (an overhauling load) and return it to the power system.

and braking is required to slow the load during lowering. where the hoist motor stops and reverses frequently. voltage-source inverters require an additional converter to return energy to the supply. Regenerative variable-frequency drives are widely used where speed control of overhauling loads is required. which filter the regenerated power.[24] and if the system requires frequent braking and starting. showing capacitors(top cylinders)and inductors attached. Another example is a crane. Cyclo converters and current-source inverters inherently allow return of energy from the load to the line. so that the parts can be assembled correctly and moves on.Fig Line regenerative variable frequency drives. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 40 .[24] Regeneration is only useful in variable-frequency drives where the value of the recovered energy is large compared to the extra cost of a regenerative system. An example would be use in conveyor belt during manufacturing where it should stop for every few minutes.

Conclusion A cable should never be the weak link in a VFD system. shielded instrumentation cable should be used. and shield/ground system. impedance. or less to reduce the likelihood of radiated noise issues. are the most appropriate for VFD applications because of the low impedance path they provide for common-mode noise to return to the drive. including copper tape. It must be able to stand up to the operating conditions. combination foil/braid. and maintain the life of other components in the system. Special attention should be paid to the cable’s insulation type. It would also be prudent to limit the run length of VFD cable parallel to instrumentation cables to 10 ft. When VFD cables are installed in close proximity to low-level communications cables and other susceptible devices. KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 41 . Shielding systems. Cables employing a heavy wall of thermoset insulation are recommended because of the proven electrical benefits and improved high temperature stability it offers. Selecting an appropriate VFD cable can improve overall drive system longevity and reliability by mitigating the impact of reflected waves. and continuous armoring types.

“Riding the Reflected wave .” IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference. G. E. Evon. Skibinski. Saunders..References 1.” IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference.BELDEN. S. G. Sept.” IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference. Finke. Phillips and Eric J. 1999 4.IGBT Drive Technology Demands New Motor and Cable Considerations. 1996 Belden Technical Support 1. S. E. Abney. "Specifying Cables for VFD Applications.800. Kempke. D. Skibinski. Brandon L. Sept. Bartolucci. B. J. Burlington." 2007 2. “Cable Alternatives of PWM AC Drive Applications. Sept. “Cable Design for PWM Variable Speed AC Drives. 1998 3.. Bulington..H.1 KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN 42 .. L.