NPLQ Unit 1 Master Programme

A resource to help you deliver Unit 1 of the 7th edition of the National Pool Lifeguard Qualification

Version 1.0 06/2006 © RLSS UK

CONTENTS
1 2 3 4 5 Introduction Course Layout Course Overview Course Aims and Objectives Lesson Plans 2 3 4 6 10

1 – INTRODUCTION
Welcome to the NPLQ Unit 1 Master Programme. The NPLQ Unit 1 Master Programme contains the aims and objectives with accompanying lesson plans for each of the 31 hours of Unit 1 of the NPLQ. Also included is sample course structures and a course overview. This is designed to help the RLSS UK Pool Lifeguard Trainer Assessor (TA) run an NPLQ course more easily, whilst offering a consistent approach to key teaching points. Where is shown on the top right hand corner of a Lesson Plan, a presentation is included on the Master Programme CD.

Author’s note: Throughout the text the masculine includes the feminine (unless the context dictates otherwise) and vice versa.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2

2 – COURSE LAYOUT
Hours The hours set out on the NPLQ Unit 1 Master Programme are compliant with the recommendations given in the Unit 1 Guidance and Syllabus for Pool Lifeguard TAs (Red Stripe). The hours are as follows: CPR Spinal Cord Injury Management (SCIM) Pool operational practice Aquatic rescue skills First aid and casualty management Consolidation and revision at end of course Total 6 hours 6 hours 8 hours 4 hours 6 hours 1 hour 31 hours Examples Example 1: A 4-day Unit 1 Course Day 1: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Day 2: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Day 3: 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Day 4: 25, 27, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31

Example 2: A 5-day Unit 1 and Unit 2 Course Day 1: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 plus Unit 2, Element 5 Day 2: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 plus Unit 2, Element 6 Day 3: 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 plus Unit 2, Element 7 Day 4: 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 plus Unit 2, Element 8 Day 5: 28, 29, 30, 31 plus Unit 2, Elements 9, 10 and 11

Structure The examples of courses given here are suggestions as to ways a TA may wish to structure an NPLQ course. A full Scheme of Work should be completed for the course before the course starts. A TA may devise other sequences to meet the requirements of the Approved Training Centre. It should be noted that: 1. The Unit 1 assessment should follow on from the Unit 1 course. 2. The Unit 1 course and assessment may be arranged separately from Unit 2. Alternatively, Unit 2 (which is continually assessed) may be added or integrated as shown in examples 2 and 3. 3. The numbers given in the examples refer to the session numbers 1-31 in the following pages. 4. The “Day” references indicate a sequence which might (or might not) be on consecutive days.

Example 3: A 10-session Unit 1 and Unit 2 Course Session 1 : 1, 2, 3, 4 Session 2 : 5, 6, 7, 8 Session 3 : 9, 10, 11, 12 Session 4 : 13, 14, 15, 16 Session 5 : 17, 18, 19, 20 Session 6 : 21, 22, 23, 24 Session 7 : 25, 26, 27, 28 Session 8 : 29, 30 plus Unit 2, Element 5 and 6 Session 9 : Unit 2, Elements 7, 8, 9 and 10 Session 10 : 31 plus Unit 2, Element 11

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3

3 – COURSE OVERVIEW
Operational Practice Wet & Dry First Aid Basic Life Support & S.C.I.M Aquatic Rescue Skills & S.C.I.M 16 4) • Physical fitness and
• • • • • • • 5) • Use of technology in 20 6) • Management of heart 22 7) • Cardiac arrest. assisting bather attacks. • Adult Basic Life supervision. • Hygiene procedures and Support (BLS). • Lifeguard positions. importance. • Problems with BLS • Managing the rowdy. • Moving and handling • Asphyxia. • Small pool supervision. casualties. • Risk assessment. • Management & causes of • Hazard types. shock.

1) • Attendance 11 2) • Principles of first aid. 14 3) • Chain of survival. requirements. • First aid regulations. • Priorities of casualty • Role of the lifeguard. • Contents of first aid box. management. • Attributes of a lifeguard. • History & symptoms, signs. • Managing vomiting. • Principles of swimming pool • Primary assessment. • Principles of airway supervision. • Management and causes of management. • Principles of scanning. unconsciousness. • Recovery position. • 10:20 system. • Turning casualty from front • Zoning. to back.

18

ability test. Land based rescue. Reaching and throwing rescue. Slide in, step in, straddle with/without torpedo buoy. Safe diving where appropriate. Wading rescue. Feet head first surface dive and submerged casualty. Swimming techniques & strokes. casualties. Escape from front & rear grasp. Hip support tow. Under arm support tow. Under shoulder support tow. Extended arm tow. Turning unconscious casualty in the water.

24 8) • Safe approach to
• • • • • •

26

9) • Characteristics of:28 10) • Management of 30 11) • Adult BLS with 2 34 12) • Stirrup lift. 36 – Drowning bather. bleeding. rescuers. • Assisted lift – – Distressed swimmer. • Types of bleeding. • Implications of casualty conscious casualty. – Weak swimmer. • Management of a with tracheostomy. • Rescue of unconscious – Unconscious nosebleed. • Pocket mask and adult casualty with/without bather/swimmer. • Dressings & bandages. BLS. torpedo buoy. – Injured swimmer. • Burns and scalds. • Adult choking. • Submerged casualty. • Sequence of actions during • Electric shock. • In water rescue breathing rescue. • Fainting & head injuries. – shallow & deep water • Advantages of different • Secondary assessment. supported. rescue methods & • Assisted lift – unconscious equipment. casualty. • Communication systems. 13) • Supervision of 41 15) • Child BLS. 44 16) • Safe approach of 46 38 14) • Management of specialist equipment:fractures. • Pocket mask & child casualty out of – Diving boards and • Types of fracture. BLS. standing depth. platforms. • Upper body fractures • Child choking. • Vice grip within standing – Water slides and flumes. including:– • Infant BLS. depth. – Wave making – Collar bone. • Infant choking. • Vice grip turn & trawl. equipment. – Ribs. • Lone rescuer. • Stabilise the casualty. – Moving water features. – Wrist. • Communication with team – Inflatable and play – Forearm. members. equipment. – Upper arm. • Admissions policy. – Dislocation. • Management of the very • Elevation sling. young and children. • Arm sling. • Child protection • Crush injuries. procedures. • Special provision for some bathers including for example, disability.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4

3 – COURSE OVERVIEW (continued)
Operational Practice Wet & Dry First Aid Basic Life Support & S.C.I.M Aquatic Rescue Skills & S.C.I.M

17) • Supervision of 49 19) BLS –Pool 47 18) • Management of 52 20) • Team leadership. 53 • Safe approach of • Submerged casualty. specialist activities:fractures. casualty • Assisted lift unconscious – Diving and jumping. • Lower body fractures within standing depth. casualty. – Lane swimming. including: • Head splint. • Turning casualty from front – Water polo. – Upper leg • Stabilise casualty with to back. – Sub aqua. – Lower leg effect in communication • Recovery position. – Canoeing – Knee with team members. • Conscious casualty -20m – Teaching of Swimming – Ankle • When/why stabilised in swim & 20 tow, stirrup lift • Structure of PSOP. – Foot the water. out & treatment for heart • Structure & content of • Ligament & muscle • Horizontal lift. attack. NOP. injuries – RICE. • 20m swim & 10m tow with • Programmed and other • Cramp. unconscious casualty, regulated activities. • Eye & dental injuries. assisted lift, turn from front to back, primary assessment into adult or child BLS. 21) • Links with NOP 57 23) • Signs and symptoms. 61 24) • Safe approach of 55 22) • Poisoning, bites 62 casualty in very • Types of & injury & EAP. and stings. shallow water. recognition. • Principles involved in EAP. • Identification and • Bear hug turn. • Care during resuscitation • In and out of water management of • Team support and with suspected spinal emergencies. anaphylactic shock. stabilisation of casualty. injury. • Major and minor • Medical conditions: • Vice grip turn and trawl • Obtaining a clear airway emergencies. – Epilepsy. into stabilisation. with suspected spinal • Structure and content of – Asthma. injury on/off spinal board. EAP. – Diabetes. • Chin lift. • Teamwork during – Heat and cold injuries. emergency response. – Hyperthermia. • Post incident follow up – Hypothermia. activities and reporting • PTSD. 25) Operational practice – pool simulated incidents • Lifeguard positions. • Spot the casualty. • Alert colleague. • Progressive rescue skills. • Affect a rescue. • Teamwork. • Demonstration of lifeguard hazards. 28) Operational practice – pool or dry simulated incidents • Accident prevention. • Teamwork & communication. • Physical hazards. • Activity hazards. • People hazards. • Sprints & tows. 31) One hour skills consolidation Depending on candidates strengths and weaknesses either:1. BLS as per assessment matrix. 2. Operational practice theory as per assessment matrix. 3. Aquatic rescue skills as per assessment matrix. 4. First aid as per assessment matrix.

63 26) • Principles of

64 27) • Bear hug turn into
• • • • • •

65

casualty aftercare. • Spinal BLS. • Action for vomit with suspected spinal injury with/without spinal board. • Log roll.

support. Preparation of spine board. Position of straps & head strap. Team member assistance. Secure casualty on board. Safe lift onto poolside. Adult BLS on spinal board.

67 29) • BLS with cold

casualties. • Drowning • Recognition & prevention of hyperventilation. • Review of a BLS protocol.

68 30) Reach, throw, and wade 69

with torpedo buoy. • Multiple rescue / casualties. • Moving & handling casualties safely.

71

Wet
R L S S U K T R A I N E R

Dry

Wet/Dry

No. Page Reference for Lesson Plan
P R O G R A M M E 5

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

4 – AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Aims
1 To introduce the role of the lifeguard and principles of swimming pool supervision.

Objectives By the end of the session a candidate will be able to… 
explain the role of the lifeguard and teamwork  identify three attributes of a good lifeguard  compare the advantages and disadvantages of intensive, extensive and combined zoning.  list the three 'P' principles of first aid  identify three items that should be found and one item that would be inappropriate in a first aid box at work  identify the elements that should be considered in making a diagnosis  demonstrate the primary assessment of an unconscious adult  list three possible causes of unconsciousness  demonstrate turning a casualty from front to back.     name the four links in the chain of survival explain the priorities of casualty management (non-spinal) demonstrate appropriate action for a vomiting adult casualty demonstrate application of the recovery position.

2

To introduce the principles of first aid and management of unconscious casualties.

3

To provide an understanding of the chain of survival and priorities of casualty management. To introduce a range of pool rescue methods and equipment.

4 

demonstrate the effective use of a range of reaching and throwing rescue aids  demonstrate safe entry into the water with and without a torpedo buoy  demonstrate a safe and effective wading rescue and identify when this type of rescue might be appropriate  demonstrate head first and feet first surface dives to retrieve a submerged manikin.  describe one way how technology might be used to assist in bather supervision  identify two advantages and two disadvantages each of standing, sitting and patrolling lifeguard positions  discuss the implications of small pool supervision  list the four hazard categories and give two examples from each  describe how rowdy customers might be managed  complete a simple risk assessment using the HSE format.                  provide a simple definition of a heart attack describe five possible signs and symptoms of a heart attack demonstrate appropriate management of a casualty who is having a heart attack describe two hygiene procedures and explain their importance give two examples of situations where it might be appropriate to move a casualty define shock and identify five signs and/or symptoms list three possible causes of shock demonstrate with explanation the management of a casualty who is suffering from shock. define cardiac arrest demonstrate adult basic life support on an adult manikin. define asphyxiation and give two possible causes identify two possible problems with BLS. demonstrate a safe stand off distance from casualties demonstrate techniques to escape from front and rear grasp demonstrate the application of each of the three support tows over 5 metres demonstrate use of extended arm tow over 20m demonstrate how to turn a face down unconscious casualty.

5

To provide an awareness of the use of technology in bather supervision. To provide an understanding of the benefits of different supervision positions. To introduce the principles of hazard identification and risk assessment. To provide an understanding of heart attacks, hygiene precautions and secondary assessment.

6

7

To introduce practical adult basic life support techniques. Identify two possible problems with BLS To develop pool rescue skills to include a range of casualty tows and provide an understanding of personal safety.

8

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6

4 – AIMS AND OBJECTIVES (continued)
9 To provide an understanding of different casualty types, their implications and recognition. To develop competence in the first aid management of bleeding, burns, head injuries and shock.  demonstrate the characteristics of different aquatic casualty types  list the correct sequence of actions during rescue  select three different communication systems that might be used by lifeguards and provide an advantage and disadvantage of each.  describe three types of bleeding wounds  demonstrate appropriate management of simple bleeding wounds  describe the management of burns and scalds and identify three situations when a casualty would be sent to hospital  identify the implications of electric shock on the management of a casualty  describe the treatment of fainting  identify three possible outcomes of a head injury and describe the treatment for conscious and unconscious casualties.  demonstrate effective basic life support on an adult manikin  describe the implications on basic life support techniques of a casualty who has a tracheostomy  demonstrate application of the pocket mask and effective rescue breathing on an adult manikin  demonstrate on a manikin the management of a conscious and unconscious choking adult casualty  demonstrate the management of adult choking.  demonstrate a stirrup lift in deep and shallow water  demonstrate an assisted lift of a conscious or unconscious casualty  demonstrate the techniques for in-water rescue breathing.  discuss the implication of specialist equipment on pool supervision  identify and discuss management issues associated with children  identify and discuss management issues associated with disabled swimmers.

10

11

To develop and practise adult basic life support skills.

12

To develop casualty rescue situations to include use of torpedo buoy and recovery techniques. To provide trainee lifeguards with an awareness of the implication of specialist equipment on pool supervision. To provide trainee lifeguards with an understanding of management issues associated with higher risk bather groups. To provide an understanding of fracture management principles and develop competence in the first aid management of upper body fractures. Introduce practical basic life support techniques and the management of choking for children and infants. Introduce the principles of aquatic spinal cord injury management.

13

14 

identify and describe three different types of fractures  demonstrate the management of a range of upper body fractures.  explain the management of crush injuries.     demonstrate effective child basic life support on a manikin demonstrate the management of child choking on a manikin demonstrate effective infant basic life support techniques on a manikin demonstrate the management of infant choking on a manikin.

15

16 

demonstrate safe approach of a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury out of standing depth  apply a vice grip to a face down casualty in deep water, turn and trawl the casualty to standing depth  as part of a team, stabilise the casualty.  discuss the implication of specialist activities on pool supervision  identify the elements of PSOPs  list five topics which might be included within a Normal Operating Procedure.

17

To provide trainee lifeguards with an awareness of the implication of specialist activities on pool supervision. To provide trainee lifeguards with an understanding of the structure of PSOPs and NOPs.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

7

4 – AIMS AND OBJECTIVES (continued)
18 To develop understanding of fracture management. To provide an understanding of the management of ligament and muscle injuries. To provide an understanding of the management of eye and dental injuries. To develop and practice basic life support and rescue techniques.      demonstrate the management of a range of lower body fractures define strains and sprains list the four elements in the treatment of ligament and muscle injuries describe the appropriate treatment of dental injuries demonstrate on a manikin the appropriate treatment of an eye injury.

19 

demonstrate 20m swim with 20m tow of conscious casualty, stirrup lift and treatment for heart attack  demonstrate 20m swim with 10m tow, assisted lift, turn from front to back, primary assessment into adult or child basic life support.  demonstrate safe approach of a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury within standing depth  turn a face down casualty using a head splint  as part of a team, stabilise the casualty  identify situations where a casualty must be removed from the water  as part of a team, demonstrate a horizontal lift.     discuss the links between the NOP and EAP explain the structure and content of an EAP identify post incident follow up activities and reporting describe the symptoms of PTSD and identify three situations when help should be sought.

20

To develop and practice aquatic spinal cord injury management skills.

21

To provide trainee lifeguards with an understanding of the structure of EAPs.

22

To provide trainee lifeguards with an understanding of poisoning and anaphylactic shock, common medical conditions, and injuries caused by heat and cold. 

describe appropriate treatment for insect stings  provide a definition for anaphylactic shock, list three signs and/or symptoms and describe appropriate first aid management  define epilepsy, list three possible signs / symptoms of an epileptic emergency, describe appropriate management in and out of water  define asthma, list three possible signs / symptoms of an asthmatic emergency, describe appropriate management in and out of water  define diabetes, list three possible signs / symptoms of a casualty with low blood sugar levels, describe appropriate first aid management  identify a situation where heat exhaustion might occur, list three possible signs / symptoms, describe appropriate first aid management  define hypothermia, list three possible signs / symptoms, describe appropriate first aid management for a conscious and unconscious casualty  identify two situations in a swimming pool environment where the risk of hypothermia might be increased.  describe three signs and or symptoms of spinal injury  identify two types of spinal injury and for each provide an example of an accident that might cause that injury  as part of a team, demonstrate appropriate technique for obtaining a clear airway for a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury  identify the priorities of casualty management where there is a suspected spinal cord injury.  demonstrate (or describe where appropriate) safe approach of a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury within very shallow water and turn a face down casualty using a bear hug  as part of a team, stabilise the casualty  in deep water demonstrate a safe and effective vice grip turn and trawl to shallow water.

23

To develop understanding of spinal injury causation and management.

24

To develop aquatic spinal cord injury management skills.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

8

4 – AIMS AND OBJECTIVES (continued)
25 To develop understanding of swimming pool supervision techniques. Develop and practise pool rescue skills.  evaluate different poolside locations in relation to lifeguard positions (standing, sitting, patrolling), zoning type and communication  accurately mimic different casualty types in the water  correctly identify different casualty types from accurate demonstrations  as part of a team, demonstrate the management of minor pool emergencies and evaluate performance  identify a range of lifeguard hazards.  as part of a team, demonstrate effective technique for obtaining a clear airway in a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury  as part of a team, demonstrate action for a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury who is vomiting - with/without spinal board.  as a team member and team leader, demonstrate the preparation and application of an approved spine board  as a team member and team leader, demonstrate a safe lift onto poolside  as a team member, demonstrate basic life support techniques on a spinal board using an adult manikin.  supervise an area of the pool and take action to prevent a rescue situation developing  as part of a team, demonstrate emergency response to a range of minor incidents and rescues  as part of a team, demonstrate emergency response to a major incident (spinal injury)  complete the two lifeguard fitness tows within the required time limits (20:20 conscious casualty in 65 secs and 20:10 unconscious casualty in 45 secs).  define the term 'drowning'  describe possible implications of hypothermia on basic life support techniques  demonstrate adult, child and infant basic life support techniques on appropriate manikins.

26

Develop skills in basic life support of a casualty with suspected spinal cord injury.

27

Develop skills in the management of a casualty in the water with suspected spinal cord injury.

28

Develop awareness and skills in accident prevention.

29

To provide trainee lifeguards with an understanding of the drowning in its various forms. To practise and develop basic life support techniques.

30

To practise and develop pool rescue techniques. 

  

demonstrate a range of rescue techniques attempt and evaluate multiple rescues demonstrate (or describe) pull ashore, assisted walk out, assisted carry complete the two lifeguard fitness tows consecutively within the required time limits.

31

To consolidate and improve confidence in any areas of weakness identified by the trainer or trainee lifeguards.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

9

5 – LESSON PLANS

The purpose of these lesson plans is to provide you with a clear guide to content and information pertaining to Unit 1 of the NPLQ 7th Edition. To accommodate the numerous learning styles and teaching approaches it is considered valuable for candidates to understand fully the range of teaching points given, and to add in their own suggestions for preferred method of training and equipment to be used. We realise that there is often considerable information to learn when you are developing a new skill. However, by working through these lesson plans, we are confident that you will find it easier and quicker to develop your own training style and develop a course, which meets the criteria, and develops a consistent approach to the NPLQ.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

10

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 1 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Attendance requirements TEACHING POINTS • Minimum of 31 hours of training followed by an independent assessment for Unit 1 of the NPLQ • Minimum of 7 hours of training and continuous assessment for Unit 2 of the NPLQ • • • • • • • • • To act as part of a team Be proactive To watch pool and its users To identify emergencies quickly and acts accordingly To supervise specialist activities To give immediate first aid To communicate with bathers and team members To follow pool rules and procedures Be courteous to customers and staff members METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Role of the lifeguard

Attributes of a lifeguard Alert

Personal attributes: • Be caring and want to help others • Be able to work on their own and as part of a team • To look and behave in a professional manner • Be clean, tidy, correct uniform • Be punctual • Be seen to be alert when supervising Training includes: • Working effectively as part of a lifeguard team • Maintaining observation of pool and pool users • Water safety and accident prevention • Supervision of pool users • Effective communication with pool users and other team members • Effect prompt rescue • Use of a range of emergency equipment • Entering water safely for different situations • Dive to deepest part of pool • Recover and land a pool user in difficulty • Perform Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid • Be trained in Pool Standard Operations Procedures (PSOPs) • Retain competence by attending in service training In service training: • During work hours • Competency based • Incident training

Well trained

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

11

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS • • • • • Regular dives to deepest part to recover manikin Regular fitness & speed swimming CPR training Spinal Cord Injury Management (SCIM) training Training should be recorded

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Physical fitness

Physical fitness – this should be continuously maintained but when beginning training you should be able to: • Jump or dive into deep water • Swim 50 metres in no more than 60 seconds • Swim 100 metres continuosly on front and tread water for 30 seconds back in deep water • Surface dive to floor of the pool • Climb out unaided, without ladder/steps and where the pool design permits Supervision: • Be a good communicator • Educate pool users • Be aware of hazards and dangers, congested areas • Know number of pool users • Be aware of pool users activities • Be aware of pool users trying to get attention • Enforce PSOPs, explaining why • Have good observations skills (watching activities without taking direct action) • Supervise activities (directing an activity, taking control of bather behaviour) • Be proactive, early recognition of those in difficulty • Be well positioned • Be continually scanning Definition: Constantly watching the area of the pool designated to you. How: • Use a sweeping action • Take in everything that happens at various points • Use frontal vision • Use peripheral vision • Scan through the water as well as the surface • Look left, right and if necessary behind you • Scan hand rails, scum channels & gutters • Scan areas around features • Use all your senses • Be aware of bathers smelling of alcohol • If using a high chair, also look in front, as this maybe a ‘blind spot’ • Ensure you know where team members are • Focus on pool users, make eye contact if possible • Watch their facial expressions • If patrolling, ensure you continue scanning throughout • At the beginning and the end of a rotation scan area thoroughly • Pass on comments to next lifeguard • Continue scanning as you pass information to another lifeguard or pool user 10:20 Definition: Scan area in 10 seconds, get to an incident within 20 seconds Definition: Splitting pool into areas for different lifeguards to scan & observe. • Zones include steps, walkways, entrances & pool. • Zones vary depending of size and shape of the pool, activities, lighting, features, number of users, number of lifeguards. • Zones aren’t flat, remember to look through water to pool floor

Principles of swimming pool supervision

Principles of scanning

10:20 system

Zoning

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

12

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Advantages of zones: • Responsible for fewer pool users • Users are nearer and easier to supervise • Scan a manageable area • Rotate between zones to prevent boredom • Share observation of high risk areas with lifeguard team • Can be assigned according to experience & skills

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Intensive

Intensive: Definition – specific section of pool allocated to a lifeguard, maybe part of pool or a specific feature e.g. programme swim area, flume, wave machine, recreational area split into overlapping sections. Intensive zones may follow a lie e.g. river ride Disadvantages: • Lifeguards might miss an incident • Maybe hard to recognise boundaries • In an incident there might be confusion as to who is responsible • More lifeguards needed (more expensive) Extensive: Definition – usually in smaller or traditional pools. Each lifeguard scans whole pool Advantage: • Each lifeguard looks at whole pool • Gives good team work • Lifeguards can be positioned to suit activities • Fewer lifeguards needed • Whole pool covered by more than one lifeguard Disadvantages: • Not suitable for special features • Lifeguards can’t rotate as much • High risk areas may not get enough attention • Lifeguards may be further away from incidents • Lifeguards may be distracted by boisterous behaviour & miss a ‘silent drowner’ Defintion – in a smaller facility each lifeguard looks after a smaller area e.g. diving area and has over view of whole pool Larger free form pools have special features needing intensive observation with extensive scanning of more general areas Advantages: • Many or all lifeguards have an overview of all activities • Lifeguards can work as a team • Lifeguards can identify patterns of pool use • In emergencies lifeguards can contact emergency services without leaving a zone unsupervised Disadvantages: • Greater concentration on the whole pool • Less interactions with users • Need for elevated positions

Extensive

Combined

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

13

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 2 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Principles of first aid TEACHING POINTS • Preserve life • Prevent the situation from getting worse • Promote casualty recovery The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 require that in order to provide first aid to their employees who are injured or become ill at work, employers must have adequate and appropriate equipment, facilities and personnel. • White cross on green background • Contents should be replaced immediately after use • No drugs should be in a first aid box Definition: identifying cause of illness or injury • History and symptoms – what the casualty or others tell you • Signs – what a lifeguard can see or feel The primary assessment is concerned with assessing the casualty for life threatening injuries and taking immediate and appropraite action. Priorities when treating a casualty are: 1 Determine the need for and give CPR 2 Control severe bleeding 3 Manage choking 4 Care for the unconscious, breathing casualty 5 Treat for shock Note the process: • Danger • Responsiveness • Airway • Breathing • Chest compression Management and causes of unconsciousness Causes include: • Reduced supply of blood to brain from suffocation, heart attack, stroke, shock • Head injury • Poisoning, drugs, alcohol • Extremes of temperature • Drowning • Epilepsy • Diabetes METHOD / EQUIPMENT

First aid regulations

Contents of first aid box

Making a diagnosis – History & symptoms, signs Primary assessment

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

14

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Diagnosis: • May vary from slight drowsiness or confusion to deep coma • Gently ‘tap’ casualty on shoulders • Ask ‘are you awake?’ • Don’t move casualty whilst doing this • Look for any facial response Treatment: • Extreme care needed if unconscious casualty needs handling • Primary assessment • Secondary assessment if necessary • Place in recovery position if regular breathing, ensure injuries aren’t aggravated • Protect from cold and wet • Record any changes in condition • If consciousness returns, provide reassurance • Treat for shock

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Turning casualty from front to back

If you cannot detect if a casualty is breathing in a face down position, or you are certain they are not breathing turn them onto their backs • Kneel by the casualty’s side and turn his head to face away from you • Place the arm nearest to you above his head • With one hand grasp the casualty’s far shoulder and with your other hand clamp his wrist to his hip • With a steady pull roll the casualty over against your thighs • Lower the casualty to the ground on his back, supporting his head and shoulders as you do so • Place the casualty’s extended arm by his side • It is important to turn the casualty over as quickly as possible, taking great care not to injure his head

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

15

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 3 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Chain of survival TEACHING POINTS • • • • 1 2 3 4 5 Implementation of your EAP and alerting of emergency services Early basic life support Early defibrilation Early advanced life support Determine the need for and give CPR Control severe bleeding Manage choking Care for the unconscious, breathing casualty Treat for shock METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Priorities of casualty management

Managing vomiting

• May happen during or after resuscitation. • Danger of vomit entering airways & lungs. • This can cause breathing problems and pneumonia Treatment: • Turn the casualty away from you. Keep him on his side and use your elbow and forearm to prevent him toppling on to his head • Ensure that his head is turned towards the floor and his mouth is open and at the lowest point, thus allowing vomit to drain away • Clear any residual debris from his mouth with your fingers • Immediately turn him on to his back, re-establish an airway, and continue rescue breathing at the normal rate • Turn the casualty onto their back and then open the airway using head tilt and chin lift Keeping the airway open, look, listen and feel for normal breathing: • LOOK for chest movement • LISTEN at the casualty’s mouth for breath sounds • FEEL for air on your cheek Look, listen and feel for 10 seconds to determine if the casualty is breathing normally. If you have any doubt whether breathing is normal, act as if it is not normal.

Principles of airway management

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

16

TOPIC Recovery position

TEACHING POINTS When: • Casualty unconscious, breathing Why: • Safe position, allows monitoring of casualty, and vomit to drain away safely How: • Remove the casualty’s spectacles (if worn) • Kneel beside the casualty and make sure that both his legs are straight • Place the arm nearest to you out at right angles to his body, elbow bent, with the hand palm uppermost • Bring the far arm across the chest, and hold the back of the hand against the casualty’s nearest cheek • With your other hand, grasp the far leg just above the knee and pull it up, keeping the foot on the ground • Keeping his hand pressed against his cheek, pull on the leg to roll the casualty towards you onto his side • Adjust the upper leg so that both the hip and the knee are bent at right angles • Tilt the head back to make sure the airway remains open • Adjust the hand under the cheek, if necessary, to keep the head tilted • Check breathing

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

17

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 4 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT Pole, torpedo buoy, throw bag, submersible manikin TOPIC Physical fitness and ability test Land based rescue Reaching and throwing rescue TEACHING POINTS • Please see lesson plan 1 • Shout and signal Reaching • Very effective. Suitable for most conscious casualty types • Safe for lifeguard • Best form of land based rescue • Can be performed with pole or torpedo buoy • Lifeguard should kneel or lie on poolside for stability and reach • Lifeguard firmly holds rescue aid • Instruct casualty to take hold of it • Pull them in steadily, talking to them throughout • Help them out of the water Throwing • Suitable for weak swimmers, possibly injured • Safe for lifeguard Slide in entry – slow but safe method, good in busy pool • Entry should be controlled • Maintain sight of casualty • Establish firm foot hold on pool floor • Use for suspected spinal casualties Step in entry – if you have to enter from a height • Loose sight of casualty • Don’t use into shallow water METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Slide in, step in, straddle with / without torpedo buoy

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

18

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Straddle entry – specialised skill only into deep water and not from a height over 1 metre • Maintains sight of casualty • Slow entry method • Look at point beyond casualty • Step out from standing position, aim for distance • Lean forward • Extend one leg forward, one back, knees slightly bent, arms extended sideways and forwards, palms down • Keep head still, looking forward • As you enter the water, press down with arms and close legs using scissor action • Keep head above water throughout With torpedo buoy • Hold it across your chest, ends under your arms throughout • Hold strap so it doesn’t tangle in your arms or legs

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Safe diving where appropriate

Dive from poolside to recover casualty from pool bottom: • Water should be at least 1.5 metres deep • Ensure no other bathers near • Take one deep breath • Keep your eyes open • Dive at steep angle • Swim to the casualty or grasp them if in your reach • Place both hands under their arm pits • Push off from the bottom, holding the casualty When: • Up to waist depth water How: • Enter safely and as close to casualty as practical • Can perform hand to hand grasp of casualty or grasp around their waist • Consider taking reach pole or torpedo buoy for reach rescue • Consider torpedo buoy for throw rescue • Proceed to pull them towards lifeguard as reach / throw rescues Feet first surface dive: How: • Tread water above casualty • Using strong breast stoke kick or egg beater kick • Press down with your hands, raising your body vertically • Breathe in before submerging • Keep your legs together, hands by side • As your head goes underwater sweep arms upwards • When your feet touch the bottom, tuck or pike your body • Swim to the casualty or grasp them if in your reach • Place both hands under their arm pits • Push off from the bottom, holding the casualty Head first surface dive: • Swim to a point above the casualty • Submerge head & shoulders by pulling your arms backwards in breast stroke type movement • Bend at waist • Lift your legs out of the water • Swim down to casualty • Place both hands under their arm pits • Push off from the bottom, holding the casualty

Wading rescue

Feet / head first surface dive and retrieve submerged casualty

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

19

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 5 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Use of technology in assisting bather supervision TEACHING POINTS • • • • • • • Video / CCTV Shouldn’t be used to replace lifeguards May assist a lifeguard in identifying an incident Acts as back up Confirms actual chain of events May give clear view of underwater Cannot perform a rescue METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Lifeguard positions

High chairs: Advantage: • Wide view • Less reflection and glare • See bottom of pool in deep water • Away from noise, splashing, distractions • Highly visible to bathers Disadvantage: • Remote from pool users for communication • Reduced concentration • Usually hot • Maybe difficult to see pool immediately in front of chair Patrolling: Rules: • Follow NOP guidelines how to patrol • Never turn back on water • Look behind you periodically • Step back from edge, gives wide view but not immediately in front of you Advantage: • Easy to communicate with bathers • Helps lifeguard to prevent accidents • Makes use of frontal & peripheral vision • Moving aids concentration • Gives different views of pool Disadvantage: • Lifeguard may get wet leading to loss of concentration • Can be tiring

Small pool supervision

Small pools have specific risks. • Subject to risk assessment • Governed by PSOPs • Maybe conflict between recreational users and swimmers • Over crowding • Pool sides maybe crowded too • Physical characteristics of the pool T R A I N E R A S S E S S O R E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M M E 20

R L S S

U K

TOPIC Managing the rowdy

TEACHING POINTS • • • • • • • Smile and appear approachable Establish eye contact Be courteous but firm Give reasons for any warnings or instructions Avoid anger or inappropriate language Never try to intimidate users Remain calm and in control

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Hazard Types Physical

1. Look for hazards 2. Decide who might be harmed & how 3. Evaluate the risks, decide whether existing precautions are adequate or if more can be done 4. Record findings 5. Review assessment & revise if necessary • • • • • • • • • • Changing rooms to pool Size of pool Shape, gradients and features of pool Depth of water Troughs, gutters, hand rails, lane ropes Floor surfaces Natural light Special features (flumes, rides, waves, diving, river rides etc) Drain covers Steps / ladders

Lifeguard People

• The way the lifeguard works Activity • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LESSON EVALUATION Bathers under influence or drugs / alcohol Disabilities Poor health, medical conditions Elderly Young Nervous / timid bathers Swimming near features e.g. diving board Self appointed teacher Pushing in / ducking / bombing Fighting / bullying Running on poolside Gymnastics / acrobatics Boisterous games Underwater swimming / hyperventilation Diving Using equipment e.g. snorkels, fins, rings in general swimming Lifeguard not trained Lifeguard not watching the pool Lifeguard not following PSOP Lifeguard tired, talking inappropriately on poolside

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 1

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 6 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Management of heart attacks – conscious casualty TEACHING POINTS Heart Attack: Definition: Coronary artery supplying blood to heart suddenly becomes blocked Cardiac arrest can follow Diagnosis: • If casualty is conscious he will complain of severe, crushing, tight pain in the centre of their chest • Pain may spread to arms, throat, back • Appears pale, sweaty, signs of shock • Difficulty breathing • Feels giddy • May sink to the ground • Circulation may become weak and irregular and may fail Treatment; • Alert lifeguard team • Send for ambulance • If the casualty is in the water they should get out immediately • Consider assisting them up the steps, or horizontal lift • If conscious, place in half-sitting, half-lying position ( W ) • Loosen tight clothing at neck & waist • Provide reassurance • Fetch medication • If casualty becomes unconscious, place in recovery position • Monitor breathing and / or signs of circulation • Start CPR if needed Hygiene: • Wear protective gloves • Aprons ideal because T shirt and shorts give little protection • Wash hands (soap and water) before and after first aid • Lifeguards should cover cuts with waterproof dressing • Do not touch a wound • Do not cough / sneeze / talk over a wound • Follow clean up procedures • Wash area with disinfectant • Follow hazardous waste procedures METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Hygiene procedures and importance

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 2

TOPIC Moving and handling casualties

TEACHING POINTS Determine how to move a casualty considering the following: • Type of injury & seriousness • Conscious & able to walk – conscious but unable to walk – unconscious • Suspected spinal injury • Casualty’s weight • Number of team members & helpers • Distance to move casualty • Only move a casualty if absolutely necessary • Follow manual handling procedures Shock: Definition: Failure of circulatory system which results in an inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to the vital organs. Causes include: • Loss of fluid from the circulation • Heart failure; heart attack; severe irregularity to heart beat • Drowning Diagnosis: • Feels faint • Dizzy, confused • May become unconscious • Skin becomes pale • Cold to touch • Cold sweat, shivering • Pulse is rapid but weak • Breathing is rapid, casualty gasps for air • Behavioural changes • Slurred speech • Lack of co-ordination Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Call ambulance • Prevent heat loss with under-blankets and over-blankets • Re-warm passively • Nil by mouth • No smoking • Treat cause • Tender loving care • Lay casualty down, raise legs providing this is not detrimental to the cause • Loosen tight clothing • Observe and record casualty’s condition

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Management & causes of shock

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 3

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 7 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Cardiac arrest TEACHING POINTS The term cardiac arrest means that the heart has stopped pumping blood around the body. Cardiac arrest may be due to a lack of oxygen resulting from asphyxia caused, for example, by drowning. It may also occur because of direct damage to the heart through injury, coronary thrombosis (a heart attack), electric shock, or some other medical condition. Within seconds, the casualty will lose consciousness and if the heart is not restarted, will die within a few minutes. Urgent action is needed if the casualty is to survive. Adult BLS Adult Basic Life Support (Sudden Collapse): Check for danger Check casualty for a response METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Alert colleagues

Open airway

Assess for breathing – absent / not normal

Ensure an ambulance is called

Give 30 chest compressions Give 2 rescue breaths

Continue 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 4

TOPIC Problems with BLS

TEACHING POINTS If distension of the stomach is seen (a swelling appearing in the abdomen below the left lower ribs): • Attempt to improve the casualty’s airway by increasing head tilt and chin lift if possible. • Do not apply pressure over the stomach as this is very likely to induce vomiting. Provided a clear is maintained the air in the stomach is likely gradually to escape. Chest doesn’t rise: • Increase chin lift, check head tilt. Don’t over extend head • Check casualty’s mouth for debris • Make sure you make a good seal round mouth • Consider changing to mouth to nose • Assess if action for choking is needed During chest compression one or more ribs may be heard to break. In elderly people, or those with particularly rigid chests, this may be unavoidable. It is far more likely to occur if the hands are incorrectly placed on the sternum with pressure no longer being applied directly downwards towards the spine. If a rib does break, no action should or can be taken during resuscitation, which should continue uninterrupted. After recovery, the casualty may be expected to be in some pain.

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Asphyxia

The term asphyxia means that not enough oxygen is getting into the body, either because someone has stopped breathing, or cannot breathe properly. There are many causes, including: • Suffocation • Reduction in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen, for example because of poisoning or severe bleeding • Inadequate breathing because of a chest injury, deep unconsciousness, drug overdose, or electric shock • Drowning • Fluid in the lungs stopping oxygen being transferred to the blood

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 5

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 8 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Safe approach of casualties Escape from front & rear grasp TEACHING POINTS • If you have to enter the water, enter as near to the casualty as possible. • If wading, wade no deeper than waist depth so you aren’t off balance. Escape from rear grasp: If grasped around neck: • Take a deep breath, tuck your chin onto your chest • Grasp their elbow and wrist on the upper arm • Push up the elbow, pull down on wrist of the same arm. Act quickly and vigorously • Push casualty’s arm over their head • Duck under the arm and elbow • Escape behind and away from casualty • Take up defensive ‘stand off’ position • Reassess If grasped round waist from behind: • Take hold of a finger or thumb on each of casualty’s hands • Exert pressure against joint, lever hands apart • Push the elbows and hands outwards, forcing casualty’s arms apart • Release hold, swim away • Take up defensive ‘stand off’ position • Reassess Escape from a from grasp: • Start to escape immediately to prevent casualty’s legs wrapping round you • Take a deep breath, tuck your chin onto your chest • Extend your arms forcefully against casualty’s chest, armpits or waist • Duck away vigorously • Take up defensive ‘stand off’ position • Reassess If grasped round neck from front: • Grasp casualty’s shoulders • Take a deep breath • Push vigorously upwards to push casualty’s arms above you • Duck underwater • Take up defensive ‘stand off’ position • Reassess Hip support tow: When: • panicking casualty, gives control and reassures casualty How: • Approach from behind casualty and underwater • Grasp around chest or waist, (depending on size) with your arm under theirs T R A I N E R A S S E S S O R E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M M E 2 6 METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Hip support tow

R L S S

U K

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS • • • • • • • Sit them on your hip Maintain grip on your casualty Swim sidestroke Observe them and direction of travel Lifeguard likely to be underwater Use over short distance Surface to breathe if necessary

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Under arm support tow

Under arm tow: When: • Relatively passive / co-operative casualty How: • Grasp underside of their upper arm • Use right arm to right keeping towing arm straight • or right arm to left, supporting casualty’s shoulder’s on your towing arm • apply gentle lift to casualty’s arm, ensure their head is above water • swim sidestroke or lifesaving backstroke • Observe them and direction of travel Under shoulder support tow: When: • Alternative to hip support. Good with large casualty. • Can also be done in standing depth or panicking children. How: • Approach from behind casualty and underwater • Grasp around their chest • Place your shoulder under their armpit • Keep side of your face close to centre of their back • Swim sidestroke • Observe them and direction of travel Extended arm tow: When: • Passive casualty. Unconscious casualty, maintains open airway. How: • Hold casualty’s chin using cupped palm of your hand • Ensure fingers clear of throat • Lock elbow of towing arm straight • Use side stroke or lifesaving backstroke • Keep towing arm straight and in line with casualty • Observe casualty and direction of travel Turning casualty: • Swim to one side • Place hands on casualty’s shoulders • Pull furthest shoulder towards you • Push closest shoulder down • Roll the casualty’s body to face up position • Support their back and chin • Take up extended arm tow

Under shoulder support tow

Extended arm tow

Turning unconscious casualty in the water

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 7

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 9 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Characteristics of:Drowning bather Drowning bather • Vertical in water • Head out at very early stages only • Takes a gulp and then sinks • Pushes down with arms head tilted back • Sinks again with arms over head • May repeat but most likely to disappear under water Distressed swimmer • Can attract attention may wave or shout • Tends to be at an angle in the water • Can help themselves a little Weak swimmer • Static in water but able to attract attention • Hold injured part • Appear unconscious Unconscious bather • Face down arms and legs limp • Totally limp in water • Incapable of supporting themselves Injured swimmer • Clutching injured part of body • Attracting attention Rescue pathway • Shout and signal • Reach • Throw • Wade • Swim and aid • Swim and tow TEACHING POINTS METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Distressed swimmer

Weak swimmer

Unconscious bather

Injured swimmer

Sequence of actions during rescue

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 8

TOPIC Advantages of different rescue methods and equipment.

TEACHING POINTS Land based • Safe • Controlled • Quick Reaching and throwing • Safe • Controlled • Ropes can become tangled Wading • Injured bathers may need assistance Swimming Rescues • Last option Communication Systems • Signage • Whistle • Hand signals • Speech • Alarm systems • Radio • PA system

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

2 9

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 10 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Management of bleeding TEACHING POINTS Diagnosis: External bleeding – obvious but secondary assessment maybe necessary to ensure hidden bleeding isn’t missed Internal bleeding – signs of shock, treat for shock Treatment: • Follow hygiene measures as before • For severe bleeding, alert lifeguard team • Apply direct pressure to wound using sterile pad or dressing • If bleeding comes through dressing apply another on top of first • If bleeding still persists take off both dressings and start again. It is likely that either the dressing wasn’t directly over the wound or not providing sufficient pressure • If the wound is large pressure may be required by pressing the edges of the wound together • Lay casualty down • Raise injured part above the heart where possible • Treat for shock • Scalp and head wounds may be associated with other head injuries • Minor bleeding, apply pressure using to wound using sterile pad or dressing • Foreign body in wound - don’t apply dressing over wound but edges of wound • Treat for shock Types – external or internal Arterial bleeding – oxygenated, bright red blood. Under pressure from heart so spurts from would in time with heart beat. A severed artery can rapidly drain circulation and cause shock and death. Venous bleeding – dark red blood. Will gush profusely from wound Capillary bleeding – occurs at site of most wounds especially grazes Bruising – is a form of capillary bleeding. Capillaries are ruptured by a blow and bleed into the tissues below the skin. METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Types of bleeding

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

30

TOPIC Management of a nosebleed

TEACHING POINTS Causes include: • Spontaneous bleeding • Blow to the nose • Violent sneezing Treatment: • Sit casualty down • Lean their head forward • Ask them (if possible) to pinch the soft tissue on both sides of their nose, just below bridge • Tell them to breathe through their mouth • Apply pressure for up to 10 minutes • Pressure maybe reapplied for another 10 minutes if necessary • Ask casualty not to cough, sniff etc as this may dislodge a clot • If bleeding continues get medical assistance Dressings and bandages: Definition: Dressing – sterile, protective covering, placed on a wound to control bleeding, prevent infection, absorb discharge NB: if wound has a foreign object no pressure should be applied to it. Triangular – can be used as a sling to support or protect arm or chest. Can be used to secure dressings on hands, feet, head - all being folded as necessary. Slings – support and protect injured arms, wrists, hands. Slings – elevated or arm Definition: • Burn is caused by dry heat • Scald is caused by wet heat Causes include: • Likely to be incurred in kitchen areas or plant room • Cooking • Electric shock • Chemicals Diagnosis: • Pain • Swelling • Blistering • Serious burns will have little or no pain as nerve endings are damaged through the whole thickness of the skin • Loss of fluid leading to shock • If casualty is unconscious look for scorching; skin damage; reddening Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Unless very minor call for ambulance • Immerse burned area in cold running water for 10 minutes. This draws the heat from the injured area • If clothing is stuck to burnt area don’t remove it • Remove rings and jewellery before burnt area swells • If necessary cover lightly with sterile dressing • Don’t burst blisters, this leads to infection and fluid loss • Don’t apply creams • Treat for shock • Chemical burns – get ambulance immediately and refer to COSHH sheets Definition: • Unconsciousness • Spasm of respiratory muscles which stops breathing • Cardiac arrest • Burns at point of contact Treatment: • Start CPR if necessary • Place in recovery position • Look for signs of shock and burns and treat accordingly • Get medical aid

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Dressings & bandages

Burns and scalds

Electric shock

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 1

TOPIC Fainting and head injuries

TEACHING POINTS Fainting: Definition: • Temporary reduction of blood supply to brain • May follow feeling dizy Causes include: • Injuries • Illness • Fatigue • Long periods in hot atmosphere Diagnosis: • Yawning • Swaying, unsteady and giddy • Face pale • Cold sweat on face, neck & hands • Consciousness maybe clouded • Full faint casualty will be unconscious • Breathing may be shallow • Pulse weak and slow initially, becoming quicker Treatment: • Casualty feeling faint, advise them to breathe slowly and deeply • Sit them down lower head between their knees (depending on severity) in fresh air or lay them down • Loosen any tight clothing • Full faint – lay casualty down, raise legs, ensure open airway • If recovery is delayed place in recovery position and call ambulance Head Injuries: Can damage the brain leading to dizziness, confusion, unconsciousness. Causes include: • Falls • Banging head on overhead objects • Diving into shallow water • Direct blows may cause scalp wounds, bleeding Concussion: • Brain shaking • Dizziness or nausea • Mild headache • Short term loss of memory Compression: • Level of consciousness will deteriorate • Intense headache • Noisy breathing, getting slow • Slow strong pulse • High temperature • Change in personality Treatment: • If unconscious alert lifeguard team • Call ambulance • Follow treatment for unconscious casualty • If conscious treat cuts etc • If concussion suspected monitor level of consciousness and record • Transfer casualty to hospital

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Secondary assessment

Assessing unconscious casualties – secondary assessment: • Check breathing • Hygiene • Talk to casualty throughout, hearing is the last sense to go • Look at casualty’s face during assessment to see pain stimulus • Head • Eyes • Nose • Face • Mouth • Breathing rate

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

32

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS • • • • • Neck Chest or back Abdomen Pelvic girdle Limbs (legs first, then arms)

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Lifeguards should also ask bystanders for information LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 3

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 11 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Adult BLS with 2 rescuers TEACHING POINTS Whenever possible, lifeguards should work in teams. CPR, particularly chest compression, is very tiring. When two or more rescuers are present at a resuscitation attempt they should take turns to perform life support, changing places about every 2 minutes to prevent fatigue. Ensure the minimum of delay during the changeover of rescuers. Continue rescue breathing with lifeguards mouth or around the opening in the neck. Although the risk of transfer of infection from casualty to rescuer (or rescuer to casualty) is very low, training in the use of pocket masks and other barrier devices is an important part of your foundation training. However, the use of oxygen and defibrillation (electric shock) is not included as these are techniques requiring additional specialist training. The most effective barrier device is the pocket mask with a one-way valve to prevent the casualty’s exhaled air being inhaled by the rescuer. Masks are reusable but must be thoroughly cleaned after use. One-way valves must be discarded after use on a casualty. METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Implications of casualty with tracheostomy Pocket mask and adult BLS – single and two rescuers

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 4

TOPIC Adult choking Conscious

TEACHING POINTS Choking: Definition – when vomit or food is swallowed but goes into the windpipe blocking the airway. Signs & Symptoms: • History of eating or vomiting • Gripping their throat • Partial blockage causing distress • Coughing • Noisy / wheezy breathing

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Assess severity

Severe airway obstruction (ineffective cough)

Mid airway obstruction (effective cough)

Unconscious Start CPR

Conscious 5 back slaps 5 abdominal thrusts

Encourage cough Continue to check for deterioration to ineffective cough or until obstruction relieved

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 5

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 12 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Stirrup lift TEACHING POINTS • • • • • • Move to a position behind casualty Cup one hand under their foot or knee, right hand to right foot With firm grip on poolside with your other hand Tell them to climb out and move away from pool edge If you’re in shallow water and standing both hands maybe cupped During landing place one hand on casualty’s lower back to ensure they are constantly moving forward • Casualty may also be able to assist in lifting them • Support casualty throughout landing • • • • • • • • • Requires 2 or 3 lifeguards 1 lifeguard must take charge Helpers in the water can assist by lifting & supporting casualty’s hips Keep the casualty facing poolside Raise their hands, wrists and forearms onto poolside On agreed command everyone should lift at same time. Lift to casualty’s hips or thighs Lower casualty’s truck to poolside, supporting their head Both legs can usually be lifted together. In case of heavy casualty’s one leg at a time • Swing casualty so they are parallel to poolside • One Lifeguard must support head throughout • Turn casualty & assess for resuscitation as necessary • Slide in entry – hold the torpedo buoy in one hand with the strap over one shoulder. • Straddle entry - hold the torpedo buoy across your chest with the ends under your arms. • Swimming – place the shoulder strap across your shoulder and make sure the trailing strap does not get tangled in your legs. • Conscious casualty – torpedo buoy over one shoulder – hold with both hands and reach out to casualty – instruct them to lean forward and grab it • You need to be able to dive to the deepest part of the pool you work at to recover a casualty lying on the bottom. • Feet first surface dive • Head first surface dive • Dive from the poolside METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Assisted lift conscious casualty

Rescue of unconscious and conscious casualty with / without torpedo buoy

Submerged casualty.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 6

TOPIC In water rescue breathing in shallow and deep water supported

TEACHING POINTS The mouth-to-nose technique of rescue breathing is preferable in the water because it frees an arm and hand (used to close the nose in the mouth to mouth technique) to support the casualty and to hold on to the side. On reaching support:– • Support the casualty with one arm passing behind the neck to grip the side or other means of support. • Use your other hand to lift the casualty’s chin. • If assistance is immediately available, recover the casualty onto the poolside. • If there is a delay before assistance arrives, look, listen, and feel for normal breathing for no more than 10 seconds. • If the casualty is NOT breathing normally, maintain chin lift and start rsecue breaths. • Continue rescue breaths until assistance arrives to recover the casualty onto the poolside. • Once the casualty has been recovered onto the poolside, reassess for normal breathing. • If the casualty is NOT breathing normally, maintain head tilt and chin lift and give 5 initial rescue breaths. • Then give 30 chest compressions. • Continue with 2 rescue breaths to 30 compressions. • Ensure that an ambulance has been called.

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Assisted lift unconscious casualty

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Requires 2 or 3 lifeguards 1 lifeguard must take charge Helpers in the water can assist by lifting and supporting casualty’s hips Keep the casualty facing poolside Raise their hands, wrists and forearms onto poolside On agreed command everyone should lift at same time. Lift to casualty’s hips or thighs Lower casualty’s trunk to poolside, supporting their head Both legs can usually be lifted together. Swing casualty so they are parallel to poolside One lifeguard must support head throughout Turn casualty and assess for resuscitation as necessary

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 7

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 13 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Supervision of specialist equipment:Diving boards and platforms Hazards in diving areas: • Depth of water must meet current guidelines • Starting blocks should only be used for competitive swimming and supervised by a qualified coach Causes of accidents: • Collision due to poor visibility at entry point • Collision due to divers not clearing area quickly • Misuse of equipment e.g. multiple bouncing • Damaged equipment • Weak swimmers diving into deep water • Diving from side of board & hitting pool edge • Running dives from diving boards Supervision: • Lifeguard dedicated to boards and landing area • Don’t allow those waiting to sit on guard rails • Control queues Waterslides & flumes: Range from very short rides to large inflatable structures and multiple slides Hazards: • Meant to provide element of danger • Attract poor & non swimmers • Swimmers splashing down may fall onto other bathers • Attract large number of users • Queuing leads to overcrowding and pushing Supervision: • Check daily • NOP identifies ride technique • Minimum size of user • How long it takes to ride the flume • May have camera at splash down • May have traffic light system • Staffing levels determined by risk assessment • Usually direct supervision at top to control riders and bottom to control exit • Good communication between top and bottom is essential TEACHING POINTS METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Water slides and flumes

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 8

TOPIC Wave making equipment

TEACHING POINTS Wave making equipment: Regular training is essential Hazards: • Wave warnings (audible and visual) lead to increase bather numbers • Bathers should be restricted near wave making chambers • Waves cause disorientation especially with weak swimmers • Small children may be knocked off their feet • Diving and jumping should be prohibited during wave sessions • Turbulence reduces visibility through the water Supervision: • NOP should identify level of supervision • Need to know how long it takes for waves to grow and drop back • Surf features need extra supervision • Before and after sessions scan pool floor • Look for bathers getting tired or struggling River rides etc: Sometimes inflatables or floating mats are provided for users Hazards: • NOP should identify level of supervision • NOP should identify lifeguard positions to reach a bather in difficulty • Small children maybe knocked off balance • Bathers may find it difficult to leave the ride Supervision: • Inflatables or mats require closer supervision • Give bathers specifics instruction re rides • Maintain as much view as possible of the ride • Don’t allow jumping or diving Inflatables and play equipment: NOP will identify when, where & how these are used. Hazards: • Diving, jumping or falling from them • Trying to jump onto them from poolside • Becoming trapped underneath • Getting caught in anchor lines • Jumping onto anchor lines Supervision: • Very direct supervision needed • Follow manufacturers guidelines re staffing levels • Large inflatables should be away from pool side • Tethered in deep water • Need a clear view of inflatable and surrounding water • Lifeguard must be able to see under it • Enforce rules relating to it’s use strictly • Stop bathers jumping or diving from equipment or from one item to another • Only allow bathers of similar age / size at a time • Children can topple off mats • Weak non swimmers can end in too deep water • Don’t allow jumping onto mats from poolside The NOP at each pool will contain the admission policy. It is essential this is complied with at all times. The NOP at each pool will contain the policy for dealing with the very young and children. Forms of abuse: • Physical • Emotional • Sexual • Neglect • Bullying Lifeguard needs to consider: • Reporting signs of child abuse • Responding to a child’s disclosure of abuse

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Moving water features

Inflatable & play equipment

Admissions policy Management of the very young and children. Child protection procedures.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

3 9

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Lifeguard action: • Be aware of pool operator’s policy & act accordingly

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Special provision for some bathers including for example, disability.

Swimmers with disabilities. • Covers huge range of disabilities. • Provides degree of independence, mobility & activity • Pool operators should encourage enjoyable & safe use of facilities for those with special needs Remember: • Treat all people equally whether they have special needs or not • Don’t patronise • Combine care & dignity • Don’t generalise • Ask if someone needs assistance, ask them not a helper • Take care when handling wheelchairs etc • Get same level eye contact with wheelchair uses Supervision: There are two main groups of disability 1. Congenital disabilities 2. Acquired disabilities • Need for good observation • Assess bathers ability • Provide assistance where needed, e.g. to get into the pool, once in they maybe very competent • Swimming techniques maybe unconventional • Be sensitive & aware to their needs • Training should be given in there is a hoist etc • Special care maybe needed in rescuing bathers

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 0

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 14 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Management of fractures TEACHING POINTS Diagnosis: • Protruding bone • Deformity • Pain • Bruising • Swelling • Cracking sound at time of injury • Lack of movement • Limb maybe at unusual angle Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Get an ambulance • Don’t move the casualty unless essential • Immobilise affected area • Support affected area • Support upper limb or hand with a sling if this doesn’t cause more discomfort • Cover an exposed wound with a dry, sterile dressing • If it is an open fracture apply dressing ensuring no pressure on any exposed bone • If a lower limb injury has to be moved, gently strap uninjured leg to injured leg padding between • Consider use of stretcher or spineboard if moving is essential • Treat for shock Types of fracture Fractures: Types: Open Fracture – exposed wound, end of broken bone protrudes through the skin Closed Fracture – skin isn’t broken Complicated Fracture – associated with open or closed fractures. This is an injury to a major blood vessel, brain, lungs, nerves, liver, joints or other parts of the body METHOD / EQUIPMENT

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 1

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Upper body: • Collar bone • Ribs • Wrist • Forearm • Upper arm

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Dislocation

Dislocation: Definition: When a bone or joint is displaced. Often associated with muscle or ligament damage. Diagnosis: • Pain • Lack of movement • Deformity • Swelling • Nausea Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Call an ambulance • Let casualty stay in a ‘comfortable position’ • Support that position with padding and / or bandages • Don’t try to re locate joint • Treat for shock Elevation sling: • Support casualty’s forearm on the injured side across their chest • Place their fingers over the opposite shoulder • Place triangular bandage over their hand and arm • Right angled point extended below elbow of injured arm • Upper end of bandage over shoulder where fingers are • Gently place base of bandage under forearm • Using reef knot tie both ends • Secure point with safety pin or tuck in between arm and bandage • Check circulation on injured side Arm sling: • Casualty sitting • Support forearm on injured side; casualty maybe able to do this • Use hollow between elbow and chest and slide one end of open triangular bandage between chest and forearm • Right angled point should extend past elbow on injured side • Place upper end over shoulder on uninjured side and around the back on the injured side • Support forearm, carry lower end of bandage up over forearm and hand • Leave fingers of injured arm supported but exposed • Using reef knot tie in hollow above collar bone on injured side • Secure point with safety pin or tuck in between arm and bandage • Check circulation on injured side Crush injuries: Causes include: • Structural damage • Equipment falling over or collapsing • Possible pinning of a person to wall by a vehicle

Elevation sling

Arm sling

Crush injuries

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

42

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Call ambulance • If primary survey shows that CPR needed, proceed with CPR • If CPR not required it is essential to ascertain how long the casualty has been trapped • If it is unknown or exceeds 15 minutes, DO NOT remove the object trapping the casualty • Toxins build up and would be released into the body. • Treat for shock if necessary

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 3

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 15 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Introduction TEACHING POINTS An ‘infant’ is defined, for the purposes of resuscitation, as in the first year of life. A ‘child’ is considered to be up to the age of puberty. When carrying out CPR of infants or children, the techniques of rescue breathing and chest compression are similar to those for an adult, modified to allow for the difference in size and maturity of the casualty. Many children do not receive resuscitation because potential rescuers fear causing harm. This fear is unfounded; it is far better to use the adult sequence for resuscitation of a child than to do nothing. Child BLS Infant BLS The following modifications to the sequence of life support, however, make it even more suitable for use in children and should be learnt as additional skills by lifeguards, particularly those likely to be faced with a child or infant that requires life support: • Give 5 initial rescue breaths before starting chest compressions • A lone rescuer should perform CPR for approximately 1 minute before going for help. • Compress the chest by approximately one-third of its depth. Use two fingers for an infant; use one or two hands for a child needed to achieve an adequate depth of compression. • The most effective barrier and device is the pocket mask with a one way valve to prevent the casualty’s exhaled air being inhaled by the rescuer. METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Lone Rescuer

Pocket mask and child BLS

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 4

TOPIC Child and Infant choking

TEACHING POINTS Assess severity

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Severe airway obstruction (ineffective cough)

Mid airway obstruction (effective cough)

Unconscious Start CPR

Conscious 5 back slaps 5 abdominal thrusts
* see note below

Encourage cough Continue to check for deterioration to ineffective cough or until obstruction relieved

* Abdominal thrusts are dangerous in infants. Instead, give 5 chest thrusts LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 5

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 16 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC SCIM Safe approach of casualty out of standing depth Vice grip within standing depth Vice grip turn and trawl – deep water • Reach under casualty going round their near arm • Place forearm along their breastbone, supporting their face just above chin, your finger and thumb in Y position • Place your other forearm along their spine • Fingers outstretched on back of head, clamping securely • Position elbows then hands • Keep fingers, hands, wrists and elbows rigid • Elbows and forearms should be gently but firmly pressed together • To turn casualty face up, look at their nose, place your head in the water and slide underneath them • Maintain vice grip • Slowly and controlled roll them to face up • In deep water as you do the turn kick hard to ensure they stay on the surface • Ensure casualty isn’t ‘lifted’ during turn Trawl: • Maintain vice grip • Sse egg beater leg action if possible or side stroke, breast stroke legs • Avoid jerking movements • Keep casualty horizontal • When you put your feet down ensure casualty remains flat • Maintain vice grip • Instruct first lifeguard to support head, one hand each side of head, fingers and thumbs above and below casualty’s ears • Instruct next lifeguard to support same side as vice grip at waist and buttocks with their forearms, palms down • If another lifeguard is available they can support under knees and ankles, palms down • When at poolside ready for horizontal lift or where lifeguard has spineboard initial lifeguard can remove vice grip, placing their arms palms down under the casualty’s shoulders and waist • Communication with all team members is vital • The person in control of the head is in charge at all times TEACHING POINTS Spinal Cord Injury Management • Enter carefully to avoid excessive water movement • Swim head up, slowing near casualty • Approach casualty from one side METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Stabilise the casualty

Communication with team members

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 6

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 17 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Supervision of specialist activities Diving and jumping TEACHING POINTS Hazards in diving areas: Depth of water must meet current guidelines Starting blocks should only be used for competitive swimming and supervised by a qualified coach Causes of accidents: Collision due to poor visibility at entry point Collision due to divers not clearing area quickly Misuse of equipment e.g. multiple bouncing Damaged equipment Weak swimmers diving into deep water Diving from side of board and hitting pool edge Running dives off poolside Running dives from diving boards Diving sideways off poolside Diving into crowded pool Backward dives Dives with arms by sides of body Somersaults Supervision: • Lifeguard dedicated to boards and landing area • Don’t allow those waiting to sit on guard rails • Control queues Hazards in lane swimming: • Misuse of lane ropes • Fast swimmers catching slower swimmers • Nose to tail swimming • Swimmers colliding with others moving in opposite direction • Crowding at end of lane hampering turning • Swimmers in lanes stopping to talk • Children or weak swimmers in incorrect lanes • Swimming across lanes Supervision: • Control direction of swimmers • Control ability of swimmers in each lane Hazards of water polo: • Injury • Swimmers colliding Supervision: • Structured training and matches only METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Lane swimming

Water polo

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 7

TOPIC Sub aqua

TEACHING POINTS Sub aqua: Popular in many pools. Hazards: • Relate to activity • Lifeguards need specialised training if they are to be involved • Damage to poolside • Contamination from equipment used in open water venues Supervision: • NOP / EAP must reflect policies • Only supervise if you have specialised training provided beforehand • If sub aqua provide their own lifeguards they must know NOP / EAP • If rescue is necessary remove mask and snorkel asap Canoeing: Some pools permit canoe training especially for beginners Lifeguards needs specialised training and vigilance. Hazards: • Activities range from basic to advanced training • Novices often capsize, risking hitting pool floor or side. Suitable head protection should be worn • Games e.g. canoe polo may lead to collision, participants being hit with paddle or ball • Damage to poolside • Contamination from equipment used in open water venues Supervision: • NOP / EAP must reflect policies • Only supervise if you have specialised training provided beforehand • If sub aqua provide their own lifeguards they must know NOP / EAP • How many canoes at any one time • Who & how rescues to be effected • Close supervision needed Hazards: • Suitability of pool design • Water temperature • Water clarity • Water depth • Organisation of the pool for lessons • Staff requirements • Number of pupils • Ability of pupils PSOP – required by law, written following a risk assessment, has two parts NOP and EAP • Details of facility • Potential risk factors • Systems of work and operating systems • Dealing with customers • First aid arrangements • Lifeguard duties and responsibilities • Arrangements for programmed activities • Details of alarm systems • Arrangements for hiring The NOP will contain details of how to deal with programmed and any other regulated activities.

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Canoeing

Teaching and coaching

Structure of PSOP. Structure and content of NOP.

Programmed and other regulated activities.

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 8

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 18 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Management of fractures – lower body TEACHING POINTS Please see lesson plan 14 • • • • • Ligament and muscle injuries • Strains – muscle • Sprains – ligament Upper leg Lower leg Knee Ankle Foot METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Sprains and Strains Definition: Often referred to as ‘soft tissue’ injuries because they affect ligaments and muscles Sprain – occur at joints where ligaments have been wrenched or torn Strain – occur if a muscle is over stretched Sprain Diagnosis • Pain • Swelling • Immobility if it’s a joint • Bruising / discoloration Treatment • Rest • Ice • Compression • Elevation Strain Diagnosis • Localised intense pain • Swelling • Possible severe cramp Treatment • Rest • Ice • Compression • Elevation

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

4 9

TOPIC Cramp

TEACHING POINTS Cramp Definition A sudden and involuntary and painful contraction of a muscle. Dangerous in water as it impedes swimming. Causes include: • Cold conditions • Sudden or unusual exercise • Blow or injury to the muscle • Excessive loss of salt through sweating Diagnosis • Pain in the muscle, often calf or trunk • Muscle will feel hard and tight • Casualty won’t be able to relax it Treatment • Alert lifeguard team • Assist casualty from the water • If lower limb affected the casualty may lie down and elevate affected limb • Stretch the muscle carefully and gently straighten • If calf muscle is affected straighten the knee and gently push the casualty’s toes towards their knee • If abdominal muscle affected, casualty should stand straight and gently arch their back • Advise the casualty to massage the area gently to help it relax • Advise the casualty to rest before further activity • Treat for shock if necessary Eye Injuries Definition Any eye injury is potentially serious and can result in damage, infection or blindness. Causes include: • Particles of grit and dust • Loose eyelashes Diagnosis • They stick to the inner surface of the eyelid causing discomfort and inflammation • Eye will be painful and itchy • Vision may be impaired • Eye may water • Area around the eye may be red and painful Treatment • Alert lifeguard team • Advise the casualty not to rub the eye • Sit casualty facing the light • Gently separate the eyelids with finger and thumb • Examine every part of the eye • Take extra care if the casualty wears contact lenses • If foreign body can be seen try to wash it out with sterile or tap water using an eye glass or irrigation unit • If unsuccessful apply eye pad • If eyes have been exposed to direct glare from sun, protect from light, get medical assistance • Never attempt to remove a foreign body from the coloured part of the eye or embedded in the eye ball • Call an ambulance for the above immediately

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Eye and dental injuries

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 0

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Dental injuries Causes include: • Casualty slips and trips • Casualty struck in the mouth Diagnosis • Possible bleeding • Damage to teeth Treatment • Alert lifeguard team • Retrieve broken / damaged tooth • Teeth knocked out should be put into milk • Let casualty rinse their mouth with warm water • Apply cold pack to outside of cheek • Send to dentist • If tooth socket is bleeding place sterile pad or gauze over socket and apply pressure

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

51

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 19 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC BLS – Pool Submerged casualty Assisted lift unconscious casualty Turning casualty from front to back on poolside Recovery position Conscious casualty – 20m swim with 20 tow, stirrup lift out and treatment for heart attack Unconscious casualty – 20m swim with 10m tow, assisted lift, turn from front to back, primary assessment into adult or child BLS (exchange live casualty with manikin on poolside) LESSON EVALUATION TEACHING POINTS The aim of lesson plan 19 is to ensure candidates have time to practice the skills previously taught in the classroom METHOD / EQUIPMENT

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 2

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 20 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet/Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Team leadership Safe approach of casualty within standing depth Head splint Stabilise casualty with effective communication with team members TEACHING POINTS Team leadership is essential in any spinal cord injury management. Enter the water with care and approach the casualty from one side. Approach swimming head up and as you get closer slow down to minimize splashing and water distance. Head splint doesn’t give such secure care as a vice grip or a bear hug Technique used in pool with low staffing levels • Slide into pool • Approach from one side of casualty facing their head • Gently grasp their right and left arms with your corresponding right and left arms. Place your hands midway between casualty’s elbows & shoulders • Gently move their arms to water surface with teir ears covered by their upper arms • Carefully squeeze their arms against their head, preventing any movement • Position your thumbs on the back of their head • Maintain pressure on their arms • Roll the casualty towards you by pushing the arm nearest to you down and pulling the arm furthest away towards you • Continue the roll until they are face up • Keep your shoulder nearest to them out of the water • Maintain pressure on arms • Support back of their head on your submerged forearm • Instruct next lifeguard to secure head as for vice grip • Next lifeguard secures at waist and buttocks • Lifeguard with spineboard can lower casualty’s arm, communicating with the other lifeguards Refer to PSOP METHOD / EQUIPMENT

When / why stabilised in the water

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 3

TOPIC Horizontal lift

TEACHING POINTS When used: If spineboard isn’t available If casualty has stopped breathing • Recommend 5 personnel (2 lifeguards, 3 trained) • Lifeguard will have done spinal turn • Lifeguard will take head • Trained person at hips, supporting at waist and buttocks • Trained person supporting at knees and ankles • Trained person on poolside to take charge of head • Lifeguard who did turn is in charge of lift, giving clear instructions to team members • Lifeguard on poolside takes care of head as casualty lifted to poolside • Initial lifeguard supporting head carefully removes their hands • Rest of team remove hands starting with lower legs, then waist then initial lifeguard who performed turn • Lifeguard remains securing head

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 4

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 21 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Links with NOP & EAP. Principles involved in EAP. TEACHING POINTS Describe the fact the NOP & EAP both from part of the PSOP. • • • • • • Responsibilities and key tasks Communication Emergency equipment Post incident actions Number of staff Local factors METHOD / EQUIPMENT

In and out of water emergencies.

Aquatic emergencies include: • Swimmers getting into difficulties • Non swimmers getting out of their depth • Injuries sustained in water Out of Water emergencies: • Falls or slips on poolside or changing rooms leading to injuries • Equipment failure • Public order disturbances • Fire & security alerts • Chemical discharges Minor emergencies – pose little danger Major emergencies – is serious, may be life threatening Details to be included: • Whose in charge in an emergency • Whose calls emergency services • Whose in charge after further assistance is sought • Key tasks and steps in dealing with an emergency • Details of the systems of communications during an incident including public announcements, info to police, family etc • Type of emergency equipment and its location. First aid provision and procedures for aftercare • Procedures for compiling reports, replenishing First aid supplies and equipment • Links with NOP ensuring number, location and role of staff • Number of lifeguards to deal with an incident and public response Types of emergency to be included: • Overcrowding • Disorderly behaviour and abuse to staff • Lack of water clarity • Evacuation of building A S S E S S O R E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M M E 5 5

Major and minor emergencies. Structure and content of EAP.

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS • • • • • • Casualty in water Serious injury to bather or customer Emission of toxic gases Bomb threat Lighting failure Structural failure

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Teamwork during emergency response.

• Teamwork is essential. Lifeguards need support from other lifeguards and staff • Good team is more effective than individuals • Team can deal with major emergencies • Incident report form • Debrief staff Reaction to a situation. Some feel fear, shame or anger. Sometimes this lasts days, weeks or occasional years Types of fear: • Danger or injury • Breaking down or losing control • Similar event happening • Being blamed Shame: • At feeling they might be helpless even if they weren’t • Being emotional & needing others • Not reacting as per training Anger: • About what happened • Towards the cause of the incident Feelings: • Sadness • Guilt • Could have done more This will last longer if someone died, it was horrifying, you had a close relationship with victim Other signs / symptoms: • Tiredness, sleeplessness, nightmares • Loss of memory • Dizziness, shaking • Breathlessness or choking sensation • Nausea or diarrhoea • Headaches • Tensions, aches in neck or back • Strained relationships

Post incident follow up activities and reporting. Post traumatic stress disorder.

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 6

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 22 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Poisoning, bites and stings. TEACHING POINTS Poisoning: Causes: • Drug abuse • Alcohol abuse • Industrial chemicals or gases • Conscious or unconscious • Disorientation • Breath may smell • Staining around mouth/nose • Needle marks • Drug/medication around casualty Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Get medical aid • Do not attempt to resuscitate in a smoke filled room • Remove casualties to a safe place • Check breathing and circulation • If necessary start CPR • Do not inhale casualty’s exhaled breath • If unconscious, but breathing put in recovery position • Check COSHH if appropriate Insect stings and bites: Definition: Stings are usually more painful than dangerous. Diagnosis: • Pain • Swelling • Redness Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • If sting is visible try to remove by brushing it out of the way from the skin using the back of a knife, finger nail or credit card • Do not use tweezers, this may squeeze the poison into the casualty • Apply cold compress to relieve pain and swelling • Advise casualty to seek medical help if pain persists • Advise casualty to seek medical help if swelling persists • Stings in mouth, give ice to suck • Call an ambulance or transfer to hospital for mouth stings METHOD / EQUIPMENT

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 7

TOPIC Identification and management of anaphylactic shock.

TEACHING POINTS Definition: Massive reaction to wasp, bee sting, some fish, nut and some medicines. Multiple stings can cause anaphylactic shock to those who otherwise aren’t affected. Potentially fatal condition. Can develop in seconds Diagnosis; • Shock • Anxiety • Swelling of face and neck • Blotchy skin • Puffiness around the eyes • Impaired breathing • Rapid pulse • Nausea • Unconsciousness Treatment: • Alert lifeguard team • Call for an ambulance • Look for medic alert bracelet or SOS talisman • Conscious casualty – place in a comfortable position • Unconscious casualty – place in recovery position, monitor, give rescue breaths and / CPR if necessary Epilepsy: Definition: Normal brain activity is disrupted resulting in seizures. Type of seizure is dependant on which part of the brain is affected. Diagnosis: • Major seizures which affect a large area of the brain • Casualty becomes rigid and falls to the ground making jerking movements • Muscles stiffen but jerking isn’t rhythmical • Casualty collapses suddenly • Brief loss of consciousness (absences may pass unnoticed and treated as ‘day dreaming’) • When the disturbance in the brain activity involves a distinct area of the brain and include rhythmical twitching of a limb. Sensations e.g. ‘pins and needles’; involuntary action e.g. plucking at clothing; lip smacking • Reponsiveness clouded • Confusion • Possible aura before seizure – strange feeling; smell or sensory disturbance, this may act as a warning Treatment: Seizures in the water • Alert lifeguard team • If non convulsive seizure or absence, help casualty out of water quietly and calmly • If a convulsive seizure, support casualty to keep their face out of the water. Hold from behind either their head or under both shoulders • Ensure their head doesn’t hit the lifeguard • Ensure the lifeguard and casualty are positioned in shallow water and away from poolside • Assist them from the water after the seizure • Monitor their breathing and circulation, treat accordingly • Call an ambulance, all seizures in water should be sent to hospital because of possible secondary drowning • Treat for shock if necessary Seizures on land: • During a non convulsive seizure or absence the casualty may only require observation and understanding • During a convulsive seizure do not restrain the casualty • Only move them if there is danger of injury or of falling into the water • Objects which could cause injury should be removed

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Medical conditions. Epilepsy

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 8

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS • Put casualty into recovery position as soon as possible • Following the seizure they should rest until fully recovered • Get an ambulance if: – there is an injury – attack lasts more than 5 minutes – attack is repeated without consciousness gained – if seizure is unusual for that person • Treat for shock if necessary

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Asthma

Definition: Occurs when muscles in the air passages go into spasm, narrowing the airway. This and accumulated mucus in the airway lead to Diagnosis: • Shortness of breath • Wheezing • Usually have more difficulty breathing out Treatment: • Reassure the casualty • Assist them from the water if necessary • Sit them down, usually on a chair, and lean them forward • They will usually know a comfortable position • Encourage them to use their inhaler • Don’t let them use someone else’s inhaler, it may be a different prescription • If attack is mild and quickly relieved (within 3 minutes) they can re enter the water • If attack is severe and / or lasts longer / medication doesn’t help / casualty feels distressed • Send for ambulance • Treat for shock if necessary Definition: A disturbance in the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels. It may result in: • Hyperglycaemia (too much blood sugar) • Hypoglycaemia (too little blood sugar) Both conditions are very serious, if not treated can result in unconsciousness and possible death. Hyperglycaemia usually develop gradually so the lifeguard is unlikely to encounter this. Hypoglycaemia can develop very quickly. Usually caused by lack of food or too much insulin Diagnosis: • Paleness • Profuse sweating • Rapid pulse • Shallow breathing • Limbs may tremble • Faintness • Possible unconsciousness • Can be mistaken for drunk Treatment: • If conscious, give a sweet drink (2 or 3 tablespoons of sugar). If they improve quickly they had too much insulin. If not it won’t cause harm. • Alert lifeguard team • Call for an ambulance • Place unconscious casualty in recovery position • Monitor breathing and signs of circulation • Treat for shock if necessary

Diabetes

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

5 9

TOPIC Heat and cold injuries. Hyperthermia Hypothermia

TEACHING POINTS Definition: Cooling of core temperature by at least 2 degrees from 37 to 35. Diagnosis: • Shivering • Changes in behaviour • Slurred Speech • Lack of co-ordination • Slowing of physical and mental activity • Skin may go blue Causes: • Exhaustion • Intoxication by drugs or alcohol • Injury especially spinal • Evacuation from pool Treatment: • Move casualty into warm area • Cover with blanket, under and over • Keep casualty horizontal • Observe breathing and circulation • Get medical aid • Transfer to hospital • If there is a need to give CPR the resistance in the chest for both rescue breathing and chest compressions will be notably increased

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 0

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 23 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Signs and symptoms of a spinal injury TEACHING POINTS • • • • • • Lack of movement in one or more limbs Disorientations, confusion Tingling or numbness in limbs Casualty floating face down, unable to turn over Unconsciousness Possible respiratory & cardiac arrest METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Types of and injury recognition. Vertebral fracture Vertebral dislocation

When fragments can move & push onto the spinal canal. If canal is narrowed spinal cord is crushed. Severe impact causes this, e.g. diving into shallow water If ligaments are torn allowing one bone to move forwards or backwards thus crushing spinal cord Injuries involve ligaments and / or bones, leaving spasm of muscles holding spine together Result of collision at an angle e.g. two bathers colliding in a flume Ligaments at back of vertebrae are torn allowing vertebrae above to slide forwards Happens when head is forced forwards As flexion injury but when head is forced backwards Ensure head isn’t allowed to go further backwards Obtaining a clear airway with suspected spinal injury including chin lift – on and off spinal board.

Flexion injuries Extension injuries Care during resuscitation with suspected spinal injury. LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 1

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 24 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Safe approach of casualty in very shallow water. Bear hug turn. TEACHING POINTS Enter shallow water near to casualty Approach carefully not to cause excessive water movement Bear hug – provides secure care for casualty. Performed in water less than Lifeguards waist depth. Provides better care than head splint and should be used in preference providing there is at least 1 team member present and preferably 2 available. • Approach from one side • Lean forward and slide each of your arms under the casualty’s corresponding armpits • If water is very shallow and lifeguards size permits they may straddle casualty but should avoid their leg ‘catching’ the casualty • Stretch your hands to grasp casualty’s head, fingers outstretched, thumb and forefinger above and below ears • Casualty’s head and neck are stabilised by locked lifeguard fingers, wrists, forearms and elbows • Apply gentle pressure to both side’s of casualty’s head and torso with elbow and forearms • Lifeguard drops shoulder furthest away from casualty, using opposite leg to start push and rolling movement • Roll underneath casualty • Finish by lying on pool floor, casualty on top of lifeguard • Casualty’s head and neck secured by bear hug grip • Second lifeguard should stabilise head as other spinal casualties • trained person should place their forearms underneath casualty’s lower back at their waist and buttocks • Lifeguard who performed bear hug can slide out when the see that the head and lower body are supported • Relax bear hug grip and slide out supporting casualty at shoulders and waist • Another trained person can support at knees and ankles Please see lesson plan 16 METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Team support & stabilisation of casualty.

Vice grip turn and trawl into stabilisation. LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 2

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 25 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Operational practice – Pool Advantages and disadvantages TEACHING POINTS During lesson plan 25, use simulated incidents to ensure candidates cover the topic given. METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Spot the casualty Alert colleague

Affect a rescue

Teamwork Demonstration of how lifeguard hazards LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 3

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 26 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Principles of casualty aftercare TEACHING POINTS • • • • • Stabilise the head Stabilise the whole spine maintaining a horizontal position Recover from water urgently to prevent heat loss Reassure unconscious casualty Monitor airway and breathing METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Spinal BLS: Care during resuscitation Obtaining a clear airway Chin lift Action for vomit with suspected spinal injury with/without spinal board. Log roll. LESSON EVALUATION • Chin lift NOT jaw thrust • The priority is to save a life • Person at the head is in charge • All rescuers on one side • All rescuers should be prepared for vomiting during rescusitation • Person at head to ensure the nose, navel and toes all stay in line

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 4

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 27 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet/Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Bear hug turn into support TEACHING POINTS • Use when the depth of water is less than the rescuers waist • Used to turn and initially secure the casualty Spine board provides best care for suspected spinal casualty who is breathing Approved spine board must comply with BS8403 2002 Preparing spine board: • Prepare spine board on poolside • Loosen straps and head restraint • When placing board in water ensure head icon is to head of casualty • Ease straps nearest to casualty under the board • Team are supporting casualty, palms down • Lifeguard who did turn can assist in ‘lining’ up the board • Tip board onto edge nearest casualty to right angles to the water • Push it into the water • Slide it under the casualty • Team are still stabilising casualty, make alignments to board position • Lifeguard who put board under holds board • Person supporting lower legs slides their arms out and moves to foot of board, holding it to prevent lateral movement • Lifeguard supporting shoulders then slides their arms out and holds the board • Lifeguard with board place green strap across chest • Head restraint – lifeguard with board places hand nearest casualty’s feet on their eyebrows using thumb and forefinger • If the casualty’s head is not resting on the board get the lifeguard at the feet to tip the board to bring the board to the casualty’s head • The board should then be placed horizontal again • Lifeguard who was stabilising casualty’s head now removes their hands and holds the board • Lifeguard brings head restraint onto casualty’s head with their free hand • Base of the head restraint should be level with casualty’s eyebrows • Lifeguard removes first hand and then tightens side straps in turn gently • Apex strap is tightened last, avoid over tighten this • Lifeguard then tightens remaining straps working down the body • Body straps maybe rechecked if necessary • Casualty should be removed in a horizontal position METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Preparation

Position of straps and head strap

Team member assistance

Secure casualty on board

Safe lift onto poolside

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 5

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS • One team member should climb onto poolside to receive the board • The remaining 3 should be positioned either side at casualty’s shoulders and foot of board. Team leader to arrange members re strength and size of casualty • Team leader gives clear instructions to lift • Keep board level • Slide it fully onto poolside • If necessary gently turn it parallel to poolside to give access to casualty’s head should RB or a log roll be needed or follow EAP • Cover casualty

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Adult BLS on spinal board

• Strap manikin onto board to practice spinal BLS.

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 6

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 28 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet/Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Operational practice – Pool or Dry side. Accident prevention TEACHING POINTS During lesson plan 28 use simulated incidents to ensure candidates cover the topic/subject areas given METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Teamwork and communication

Major incident and rescues caused by:• Physical hazards • People hazards • Activity hazards Lifeguard fitness sprints and tows. Conscious casualty Unconscious casualty

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 7

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 29 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC BLS with cold casualties TEACHING POINTS In cases of profound hypothermia the heartbeat is often slow and weak. Chest compressions should be started unless you are certain the casualty is breathing normally. Wet drowning: When – unconscious casualty’s reflex action that closed airway relaxes and reopens. Water will then enter the lungs, increasing as casualty sinks in the pool. Dry drowning: When – unconscious casualty’s reflex action stays closed so no water enters the lungs. Usually in children. As casualty’s head submerges the airway closes preventing water or air into the lungs. Immediately open airway with mouth clear of the water • • • • • Very small quantities of water enter the lungs No initial interference with oxygen transfer - no visible signs Water irritates lungs and they fill with fluid Pneumonia At risk for up to 72 hours METHOD / EQUIPMENT

Wet / dry drowning

Secondary drowning

Recognition and prevention of hyperventilation – risks to the bather

Definition – Repeated, rapid, breathing. Lifeguards may observe swimmers doing this before trying to swim underwater. They mistakenly believe that it will increase oxygen content to stay underwater longer. It actually decreases carbon dioxide level which takes away desire to breathe. Swimmer will run out of oxygen, loss consciousness before desiring to breathe again. Lifeguard needs to assist casualty to increase carbon dioxide level Use this session to review all BLS protocol, if necessary.

Review of all BLS protocols LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 8

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 30 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet

EQUIPMENT TOPIC Reach, throw, and wade with torpedo buoy Multiple rescues / casualties TEACHING POINTS Please see lesson plan 4 METHOD / EQUIPMENT

When: an initial casualty has grasped another bather. Maybe necessary for more than one lifeguard to enter the water How: • Maybe able to be towed together • Use buoyant rescue aid whenever possible • Tow to shallow water if possible • If contact tow required use double arm tow • Avoid water over casualties faces • Always support weaker casualty first • If one casualty is unconscious turn them and tow using appropriate method Separating casualties: • Grasp top casualty under their armpits from behind • Force both casualties underwater • Place your legs round first casualty, your feet against the hips & thighs of the second • Maintain grip of first casualty • Straighten your legs to separate the them • Give torpedo buoy to stronger casualty or tow both to support • Get lifeguard team support if necessary Pull ashore: When – pool bottom slopes gently, e.g. beach area and casualty can’t help How: • Bring casualty to waist depth near edge • With team help • Walk backwards, keep your back straight • Hold casualty under armpits and holding their wrists Assisted walk out: When – shallow water, casualty can walk with assistance How: • Slide your head under their armpit • Put your arm round their waist • For large casualty’s a second lifeguard can do the same on their other side

Moving and handling casualties safely

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

6 9

TOPIC

TEACHING POINTS Assisted carry: When – if casualty can’t help themselves How: • Lifeguard supports casualty under armpits and takes hold of their wrists • Second lifeguard takes hold of their legs and ankles • Additional lifeguards can support body if available

METHOD / EQUIPMENT

LESSON EVALUATION

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

7 0

NPLQ UNIT 1 MASTER PROGRAMME
LESSON PLAN DATE 31 TRAINER’S NAME VENUE

NEW / RENEWAL

TIME

NO. IN CLASS

DURATION: 1 hour

WET / DRY Wet/Dry

EQUIPMENT TOPIC One hour skills consolidation Depending on candidates strengths and weaknesses either:1. BLS as per assessment matrix 2. Operational practice theory as per assessment matrix 5. Aquatic rescue skills as per assessment matrix 4. First aid as per assessment matrix LESSON EVALUATION TEACHING POINTS During lesson plan 25, use simulated incidents to ensure candidates cover the topic given. METHOD / EQUIPMENT

R L S S

U K

T R A I N E R

A S S E S S O R

E D U C A T I O N

P R O G R A M M E

7 1

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful