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Institution of Chemical Engineers

Trans IChemE, Vol 77, Part A, May 1999

**A SIMPLE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY-TEMPERATURE
**

CORRELATION FOR UNDEFINED PETROLEUM AND

COAL LIQUID FRACTIONS

A. ABOUL-SEOUD and H. M. MOHARAM

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt

A

**simple correlation, requiring the speci® c gravity as the only input, is found to predict
**

the thermal conductivity of unde® ned petroleum and coal liquid fractions with

comparable or better accuracy than other methods. The correlation was derived from

64 data points for 25 unde® ned petroleum fractions, and tested against 13 unde® ned petroleum

fractions and 39 data points for 5 coal liquid fractions to give 2.93% and 3.99% AAD,

respectively.

Keywords: thermal conductivity; temperature effect; prediction; petroleum fractions; coal

liquid fractions

**Teja and Tardieu3 proposed a method based on the
**

Effective Carbon Number (ECN) which can be calculated

from the thermal conductivity at a reduced temperature of

0.6.

Lakshimi and Prasad4 proposed a correlation for estimating the thermal conductivity of liquids. The correlation was

developed for pure liquids. However, it can be applied

to unde® ned petroleum fractions. The correlation has the

following form:

INTRODUCTION

Thermal conductivities of substances are required in

correlations and design methods for heat transfer equipment

as well as non-isothermal mass transfer equipment and

reactors. Most of the procedures that were suggested for

the calculation of the thermal conductivity of hydrocarbon

mixtures (Reid et al.1 ) are only applicable to mixtures

of well-de® ned components. Few theories, however, lead

to useful expressions for the calculation of the thermal

conductivity of liquids, and, consequently, empirical

methods are employed in engineering applications.

Riazi and Faghri2 developed a simpli® ed equation for

the prediction of the thermal conductivity of liquid hydrocarbon systems as a function of the temperature with the

normal boiling point and the speci® c gravity as input

parameters. The equation has the following form:

l

aT bb c c

l

d3

20 1

Tr

lr

l r P, T

lL

20 1 Tr

Tbr 2/3

6

l P, T / Tc

1/6

P 2/3

c MW

1/2

7

**The nominator of the expression, at the right side of
**

equation (7), may be regarded as an approximation of the

thermal conductivity at the critical point. Using the simple

corresponding states theory, the thermal conductivity of

component x at a temperature T , and a pressure P, may be

found from the following equation:

3

where d is a constant.

Combining equation (2) and equation (3), the following

correlation can be derived,

1.11/MW1/2 3

3 20 1

f Pr , Tr

**where f is the same function for a group of substances
**

obeying the corresponding states principle. For the reduced

thermal conductivity, l r , the following equation is used:

2

2/3

5

1

where T is in (K), and l is in (W m K ).

Among the most accurate procedures for the calculation

of the thermal conductivities of hydrocarbon mixtures

are those based on a corresponding states method. In

terms of pressure and temperature, the corresponding states

theory applied to thermal conductivity can be expressed

as follows:

**where lL Tb is the thermal conductivity of the liquid at
**

the normal boiling point (W m 1 K 1 ).

To estimate lL at other temperatures, the Riedel equation,

as given in reference 1, may be used. The equation has the

form:

lL

0.00197 T /MW 0.5

1

1

1.11/MW 0.5

0.00005 T

1.3855

**where a, b and c are functions of the temperature. From
**

reference 1, the work of Sato indicates that, at the normal

boiling point, the thermal conductivity is given by

l L Tb

0.0655

l x P, T

2/3

4

Tcx /Tco

1/6

Pcx /Pco

´ MWx /MWo

248

1/ 2

2/3

l o Po , To

8

0053432 rt 2. Input property requirements for liquid thermal conductivity estimation methods tested in the present work. and for the corresponding states method [equation (10)] 8. The test was made on 39 data points for 5 coal liquid fractions.x are given by the following expression (Christensen and Fredenslund5 ): lint 1.x ax Pc.0 T Tc. The values of the constants included in equation (14) were determined for the studied unde® ned fractions using the Solver method (Excel 5. boiling point and critical temperature Normal boiling point and speci® c gravity Molecular weight Molecular weight. 4. which can be found from the procedure suggested by Kesler and Lee7 . The correlation uses the speci® c gravity as the only input parameter to predict the thermal conductivity of petroleum fractions at different temperatures.74%. for the Lakshimi and Prasad method 14.18653 g1 Cp1 f r 1.SIMPLE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY-TEMPERATURE CORRELATION where DEVELOPMENT OF THE CORRELATION Po PPco /Pcx To TTco /Tcx lo thermal conductivity of the reference substance at the temperature To and pressure Po Christensen and Fredenslund5 suggested a corresponding states model that has two contributions to the thermal conductivity.x ´ 1/6 Pc.31%.84% for the Sato-Riedel method. were published by Baltatu8 . 27. critical temperature and critical pressure Trans IChemE. The data comprises 13 petroleum fractions. requiring the speci® c gravity as the only input.x Pc. The data of this table (25 petroleum fractions with 64 data points). Part A. of constants 6 9 5 . Sato and Riedel Riazi and Faghri Lakshimi and Prasad Corresponding States RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 2 shows the results of the comparison of the prediction capabilities of equation (14) with the previously published methods.27% for the Riazi and Faghri method. is comparable with most accurate and more complicated methods that require more input parameters.029725 r3r 13 where g1 is the viscosity at the actual temperature and at a pressure of 1 atm. The developed method gives 2. This observation was used to develop the following correlation: l 12 0.x where T0 249 No. Pedersen and Fredenslund6 used the following expression for a derived from thermal conductivity data: a 1 0.0 l tr. The above methods are compared in terms of their input data requirements in Table 1. a comparison was made on the thermal conductivity data of petroleum fractions published by Baltatu9 .93% AAD compared with 8.030182 r2r Thermal conductivity data for petroleum fractions.540312 c /T 0. lint : l l tr 9 lint For a component x.x Tc. the developed correlation gives 5. 16. The table shows that the present method. which is methane. 17. P0 a0 2/3 MWx MW0 1/2 lint. Each of the petroleum fractions contains hydrocarbons with a normal boiling point within a narrow temperature interval. 2.07% for the Lakshimi and Prasad method and 6. the following expression is used for the transitional part: Tc.043 MW 1. Vol 77.54% for the Sato-Riedel method. with which the proposed correlation was developed.014. one due to transport of transitional energy. it was observed that the thermal conductivity of petroleum fractions are related to the square root of the quantity (c /T ) in a straight line relationship. May 1999 1 where l is the thermal conductivity in (W m K ) and T is in (K).58% for the Riazi and Faghri method. Input Data Molecular weight.0 a0 1 and P0 P Pc.0006004 r2. The corresponding AAD for the Sato-Riedel method is 7. R is the gas constant and Cp1 is the ideal gas heat capacity at the temperature T.64% for the corresponding states method.65% for the Lakshimi and Prasad method and 3. 2. In Table 4. Method 14 1 10 lint. From the analysis of these data.62% AAD.36%.0 ax l 0 T0 . reported by Baltatu8 . The developed correlation was tested in Table 3 against other methods for coal liquid fractions data published by Baltatu9 .0 a0 1 The subscript 0 is used for the reference substance. 25. The present correlation gives 3. Generally.0 and lint..4485 1. 3. an attempt was made to develop a simple estimation method requiring the speci® c gravity as the only input property. whereas all other methods require a host of other properties which may not be readily available for unde® ned fractions.49% for the corresponding states method. Microsoft).5 R f r /MW 0.086 r 11 lint.x ax Tc. The method proposed by Lakshimi and Prasad4 requires the molecular weight as the only input. The data set comprises 64 data points for 25 unde® ned petroleum fractions. l tr and one to transport of internal energy. In the present work. were used to develop the present correlation.87%. for the Riazi and Faghri method. 18. Table 1.0.5 0.99% AAD compared with 13.

02 28.10 1.08 31.62 Trans IChemE.2 0.22 24.15 398.12723 0.09564 0.57 18.30 295.52 0.90 0.29 21.71 4.05 5.75 12.15 36.87 5.09 1.11014 0.7 0.30 338. May 1999 .77 13.12870 0.42 3.20 8.4 0.6 0.05 11.19 13.12760 0.17 6.8 0.10860 0.90 412.26 17.09240 0.34 8.11890 0.57 27.56 10.31 30.66 19.13100 0.30 443.87 10.78 17.34 1.20 298.8560 17 557.46 10.38 9.24 8.08960 0.01 6.47 10.90 332.00 4.06 9.11819 0.10670 0.05 27.92 11.8751 19 572.7559 2 359.0 0.29 5.7800 0.02 6.12 2.75 3.12160 0.22 7.09620 0.12900 0.15 8.70 360.10 6.78 6.08 4.07 17.20 378.57 2.69 10.10341 0.02 8.93 2.91 0.09581 0.87 23.60 341.30 453.31 5.16 2.30 273.43 1.10909 0.33 0.11437 0.76 12.12017 0.33 15.11972 0.48 13.83 10.4 0.50 16.8174 13 528.09830 0.90 13.46 14.80 8.90 393.00 388.9 0.70 5.09 10.89 7.54 2.22 28.10646 0.66 7.17 16.53 0.37 20.35 9.3 0.49 3.14 0.22 15.39 12.03 7.32 8.88 11.11125 0.12290 0.3 0.12 13.11755 0.37 2.89 11.55 14.29 8.58 12.11690 0.11136 0.62 7.7499 4 388.84 24.14 14.30 383.93 4.8031 16 543.3 0.52 20.01 17.30 273.39 1.63 3.42 5.72 43.10180 0.57 19.15 333.60 347.85 4.60 5.48 12.43 13.01 2.59 13.51 9.82 5.25 7.99 14.12 8.8504 22 610.11050 0.10 373.89 19.8478 14 531.65 11.65 0.4 0.73 21.29 0.29 32.60 338.27 4.85 43.60 9.59 4.82 13.79 4.83 12.96 11.93 6.96 32.15 17.87 2.53 1.9 0.32 8.13910 0.83 3.30 338.1 0.15 6.11160 0.85 20.77 9.29 0.51 2.33 10.33 5.08960 0.25 16.22 4.60 338.5 0.10 378. % Deviation Sample no.11000 0. Part A.30 398.42 5.9 492.8772 25 631.77 12.11 1.14 9.9 0.30 24.52 3.28 4.17 5.91 10.30 295.55 23.58 13. Vol 77.87 11.63 11.82 12.36 4.56 14.11 16.56 0.07 12.57 10.12446 0.11315 0.25 7.65 8.30 1.94 10.30 296.97 17.7887 8 9 489.25 6.75 5.19 16.33 5.50 295.4 0.8509 21 603.44 18.11080 0.66 23.45 17.51 1.39 21.32 3.8067 6 460.46 9.11 17. Tb (K) c 1 355.11220 0.27 16.20 378.8132 7 469.47 4.89 7.96 6.11860 0.68 2.8555 24 616.98 3.51 27.89 11.06 25.49 4.18 4.30 273.12050 0.10878 0.50 4.80 377.90 332.30 355.38 24.7788 5 421.67 27.11705 0.72 4.83 5.49 8.12100 0.44 31.4 0.15 333.17 17.8072 10 498.74 5.48 31.11165 0.63 12.78 19.69 2.09 23.15 333.87 1.79 8.12149 0.8740 23 615.71 8.47 22.57 11.08 8.56 6.10052 0.15 333.57 2.12 10.86 26.93 23.11927 0.15 9.30 293.87 10.98 21.11785 0.00 295.88 11.10904 0.61 20.30 9.30 295.01 14.52 3.90 388.98 0.54 23.30 298.20 273.69 3.22 3.09977 0.90 332.6 0.90 328.19 18.28 12.79 4.30 305.13530 0.72 9.8383 20 586.78 33.01 22.12 27.11993 0.14 3.72 4.85 0.52 10.76 17.67 3.7990 12 524.31 15.11 1.62 17.78 1.4 0.24 2.55 5.51 1.28 20.24 11.18 1.58 15.13329 0.32 3.06 0.6981 3 384.60 326.40 293.42 13.09036 0.55 3.11978 0.14 3.09797 0.96 14.40 18.94 19.30 273.00 295.44 6.7861 15 535.16 5.9 0.50 22.14 2.20 3.30 298.33 5.08 0.90 394.250 ABOUL-SEOUD and MOHARAM Table 2.69 0.10668 0.05 10.7 0.90 12.11600 0.22 6.90 303.77 12.36 8.8555 18 566.31 14.34 0.20 5.45 3.66 9.30 298.09 31.59 9.30 368.30 305.07 0.87 18.69 20.94 0.60 326.15 333.51 1.01 21.48 3.56 23.92 7.70 360.28 2.73 13.60 1.20 5.65 13.38 0.02 12.12180 0.00 295.72 24.04 7.39 11.15 7.65 26.52 1.24 23.49 28.30 473.55 2.9236 % AAD T (K) l (Wm 1 K 1 ) 273.28 3.10564 0.77 10.33 9.15 13.10158 Sato & Riedel1 Riazi & Faghri2 Lakshimi & Prasad 4 Corresponding states6 Developed correlation 3.73 9.28 23.23 9.11667 0.11483 0.22 18.30 288.20 357.82 20.37 9.3 0.32 2.91 0.27 4.1 0.30 298.9535 11 504.66 8.30 398.32 15. A comparison of the results of the developed correlation with those of previous methods for the petroleum fraction data from Baltatu8.00 4.61 13.11615 0.99 8.33 6.87 7.34 25.18 3.

12900 0. Vol 77.8070 0.13202 0.54 5.65 3.30 295.62 24.00 0.5 7.7 0.8 1.81 42.51 11.12556 0.36 9.65 34.27 34.11743 0.6 498.43 511.55 28.52 12.30 0.53 3.59 473.58 16.66 8.85 3.4 4.01 7.51 1.36 10.40 44.53 23.15 0.13 32.38 5.62 7.76 6.42 25.15 2.76 464.66 15.09 395.8 535.92 10.2 4.88 0.8380 0.12326 0.65 3.80 1.03 6.87 473.11700 0.12191 0.59 436.91 72.79 28.30 295.9550 0.62 4.02 19.54 1.9 4.33 5.90 18.46 54.48 16.12220 0.23 22.67 31.71 79.80 13.9 1.62 40.11221 0.95 19.35 10.50 24.16 23.60 303.41 4.13 21.69 2.11790 0.23 5.8030 0.42 8.98 394.76 398.2 2.83 32.13330 0.09 1.13 18.78 27.00 398.12270 0.22 11.01 2.11634 0.98 8.13 5.07 6.70 15.83 16.11537 0.71 302.50 54.28 5.40 10.12 17.42 1.48 19.48 481.3 7.87 363.34 13.7701 2 410.82 0.11 9.11418 0.99 Table 4.67 2.18 20.12930 0.12541 0.85 1.13030 0.11368 % AAD Sato & Riedel1 Riazi & Faghri2 Lakshimi & Prasad 4 Corresponding states6 Developed correlation 12.38 7.12402 0.29 6.35 12.30 305.98 10.64 6.7310 0.35 25.56 30.52 46.37 428.16 5.43 4.8125 3 524.8070 0.00 5.12150 0.65 348.1 2.85 19.08728 0.68 91.75 10.71 348.92 3.0793 5 749.57 1.3 7.52 14.71 14.78 7.75 9.10389 0.8570 0. % Deviation Sample no.42 7.78 4.09468 0.81 13.54 3.30 305.86 1.60 295.90 12.20 30.76 430.87 394.12868 0.77 38.1 492.34 11.27 20.37 299.91 0.00 31.72 4.12833 0.50 9.63 3.08544 0.92 41. A comparison of the results of the developed correlation with those of previous methods for the coal liquid fraction data from Baltatu9.5 684.90 295.2 0.30 341.75 15.21 4.31 25.82 2.12823 0.66 40.59 0.02 26.2 616.15 0.9 7.20 3.83 5.65 3.27 0.11056 0.91 7.55 3.82 24.98 395.60 443.36 7.70 1.9240 1.99 17.89 3.1 603.33 7.32 19.59 24.2 498.61 5.80 41.7 0.36 9.65 27. May 1999 Sato & Riedel1 Riazi & Faghri2 Lakshimi & Prasad 4 Corresponding states6 Developed correlation 17.65 430.06 2.09 298.7 572.43 22.12 14.57 17.11025 0.15 4.43 37.6 2.93 344.26 466.8770 0.53 24.2 7.65 510.23 1.15 356.8770 0.61 14.35 29.70 23.8 0.04 23.61 40.37 16.10031 0.08301 0.12 9.84 15.21 471.31 33.8060 0.09600 0.11672 0.14 34.SIMPLE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY-TEMPERATURE CORRELATION 251 Table 3.62 3.49 38.64 8.78 6.49 2.07709 0.9550 0.6 0.54 438.21 391.10204 0.93 5.64 3.94 18.20 13.76 22.22 5.84 3.15 404.91 26.61 15.45 39.76 6.10480 0.9 3.98 3.09 20.61 13.66 13.88 45.98 510. Tb (K) c 1 372.4 0.58 1.98 511.6 421.11022 0.34 9.09 512.4 1.2 3.77 19.41 14.91 11.37 492.74 7.11 0.27 25.1733 T (K) l (Wm 1 K 1 ) 302.80 21.93 .81 13.11065 0.11985 0.86 12.66 25.12 26.15 9.34 36.75 2.37 0.86 33.26 433.65 4.11859 0.25 2.92 1.98 1.84 50.03 10. A comparison of the results of the developed correlation with the results of previous methods for the petroleum fraction data from Baltatu9.57 23.16 2.32 0.12880 0.08 2.34 34.10534 0.4 506.66 4.15 13.11811 0.11 8.54 301.11676 0.11975 0. % Deviation Sample no.43 347.1 616. Part A.49 3.28 5.50 6.32 0.46 7.22 7.0010 333.83 11.70 0.86 16.68 0.68 12.57 6.12465 0.12010 0.93 510.10 298.43 301.79 9.13141 0.84 27.11820 0.28 4.11 3.21 6.34 1.56 4.9761 4 650.76 1.55 9.05 19.1 3.54 43.11522 0.11 21.95 6.33 0.11000 % AAD Trans IChemE.65 409.70 4.20 8.4 631.18 21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Tb (K) c T (K) l (Wm 1 K 1 ) 347.12 17.50 9.30 303.3 0.89 14.11 1.00 0.60 0.68 1.58 11.54 17.49 16.

.. 9.. M. K. Trans IChemE. L. J. 1985. and Poling. S. A. (McGraw-Hill. 1. c Cp d MW P R T constants in equation (1) ideal gas heat capacity constants in equation (2) molecular weight pressure the gas constant temperature Greek a c g l r parameter in equation (10) speci® c gravity viscosity Thermal conductivity density Subscript b boiling point c critical int internal L liquid o reference component r reduced property tr transitional x any component ADDRESS Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to Dr H. Thermal conductivity of liquid and vapor hydrocarbon system: Pentane and heavier at low pressures. and Fredenslund. A rapid estimation method for thermal conductivity of pure liquids. 24: 325±332. 6.252 ABOUL-SEOUD and MOHARAM Figure 1. and Fredenslund. and Lee.. 1987. F. B. Prediction of the thermal conductivity of liquids and liquid mixtures including crude oil fractions. A.. March. G. Chem Eng J. Baltatu. Vol 77. E. Christensen. 48: 211±214. 7. Moharam. Baltatu. and Sloan.. M. Graboski. Part A. M. 2.. Chem Eng Sci. 1988. El-Ibrahimia 21321. 66: 980±986.. Atlanta Georgia. Alexandria. paper presented at the 1984 Winter National Meeting AIChE.eg). A. New York). R. Ind Eng Chem Proc Des Dev. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES The thermal conductivity of unde® ned petroleum and coal derived liquid fractions was successfully estimated using a simple correlation needing the speci® c gravity as the only input.93% and 3. The developed correlation was derived from 64 data points for 25 unde® ned petroleum fractions and tested on 13 unde® ned petroleum fractions and 5 coal liquid fractions to give 2. NOMENCLATURE a. Hydrocarbon Processing. Kesler. and Prasad.eun. Egypt (E-mail: moharam@alex. Teja. D. M. J.. Ely. M. R. 5. PO Box 172. The Properties of Gases and Liquids. respectively.. 1987. An improved corresponding state model for the prediction of oil and gas viscosities and thermal conductivities. Prausnitz. C. A. A. 153±158. M. In comparison with other methods in the literature. A. May 1999 . S. G. and Faghri. Ind Eng Chem Proc Des Dev. The manuscript was received 6 April 1998 and accepted for publication after revision 4 February 1999. B. S. 1992. Reid. H. Canada J Chem Eng. Chem Eng Sci.. A corresponding states model for the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids. Improve prediction of enthalpy of fractions. J. E. Perkins. Pedersen. R. 42: 182±186. 4th ed. Thermal conductivity of coal-derived liquid and petroleum fraction. S. L. D. 1985.99% AAD. 3. Riazi. 1980. P. E. 8. 35: 871±875. Lakshimi. and Tardieu.. M. a comparable or better accuracy was obtained. D. 4.. 24: 398±401. 1976. I.. Prediction of the transport properties of petroleum fractions. b. Hanley.. E. 1984.

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