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POKHARA UNIVERSITY Level: Bachelor Programme: Course: Semester Year : 2003 Full Marks : 100 Time : 3hrs.

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Attempt all the questions. 1.

Instructions: Aftempt 7 questions. Question Number 1 is compulsory. Except Question Number 1, all questions carry equal Marks. 1) Write whether True or False 10 a) Deterministic signals can't be deflnW by a Mathematical Expression b) Mesh Network needs extensive protocols. c) PDH is Frequency Division Multiplexing and SDH is Time Division Multiplexing.
12 d)

BER in Optical Fiber Medium can be up to IT e) Simultaneous both-way communication is possible only through circuit switching. f) ISDN provides different services using 32 kbit/s digitstream. g) Trunking is the arrangement of transmission mediums in a telephone exchange. h) The grade of service deteriorates more with traffic overloads in large groups than for small groups of trunks. i) Number of voice channel in standard CCITT group is 12. j) Word interleaving is used in SDH. 2) Describe briefly about the different types of Network used in Telecommunication. 15

3) Describe Briefly. (Any Three) 15 1) Characteristic of Analog and Digital Transmission 2) Random and Non Random Distortions. 3) Telephone Set. 4) Switching Systems. 5) PCM Frame Format and AT&T Frame Format. 4) What is Multiplexing? Elaborate different types of Multiplexing used in Telecommunication. 15 5) Describe the followings: 15 a) Components of Data Communication. b) Interface and Protocols. c) Data communication Topology and Networks. 6) a) Derive the equation of second Erlang Distribution. 15 b) A cross bar exchange is required to set up 5000 calls in the busy hour. The marker holding times may be assumed to be exponentially distributed, with an average holding time of 0.5 second. i. Find the number of markers required, if the probability of a register having to wait for a marker is to be less than 0.2. ii. What will happen if a local crises causes 25000 calls to originate in the busy hour? 7) a) How was the current Digital Switching System evolved? 15 b) A terminal is connected to a computer by a data link transmitting at 2.4 kbit/s in each direction. On average, the terminal user issues a request to the computer once per minute. The average length of a user's message is ten 8-bit characters and the average length of the computer's reply is 100 8-bit characters. The time taken by the computer to process the information and

the propagation time of the link are negligible.Find : i) The average delay before the terminal has received a complete reply. ii) The occupancy of data channel. c) It is decide to share the data link between several terminals by installing a statistical multiplexer. This adds a two-character header to each message. It is required that the average delay before a user receives a re ly shall not exceed 0.5 second. (It can p . be assumed that the lengths of messages have a negative exponential distribution). i) ii) have How many terminals can the data link then serve? If all the terminals are in use, what percentage of requests

to wait one second or more for reply? iii) For the same number of terminals, what data rate would the

link need to transmit if a synchronous multiplexer were used instead of a statmux? 8) Report. 15 9) a) What is the effect of overload on grade of service? 15 b) What are the transmission medium used in Telecommunications? c) Describe the functions of Switching Systems. State the topic of your Report. Abbreviate the Major contents of your