Pipe fittings

Pipe Elbow A fitting that forms an angle of less than 180 degrees (3.141 radians) from the straight flow. Both connecting ends have standard pipe threads or are unthreaded and designed to accommodate a pipe. It may have side or heel inlet(s). (OR) A fitting with two openings changes the direction of the line. Also known as an ell. It comes in various angles from 22 ½ degrees to 90 degrees; often referred to by their angles (i.e. 45, 90)

Pipe Bushing A fitting with pipe threads having a female connection inside of a male connection used in conjunction with another fitting, to connect in the same line, two pipes of different sizes. A bushing is threaded inside and out. Also a cylindrical part used as a lining or guide

Pipe Cap A pipe fitting primarily designed for permanent installation during piping system operation to fit over or butt against a pipe or pipe fitting for sealing

Pipe Coupling A straight fitting having the same or different type pipe connection of the same size on both ends. It is designed to join a pipe or pipe fitting to another pipe or pipefitting. Excludes fittings with threaded external connections on both ends.

Pipe Nipple A straight fitting having the same or different type pipe connection of the same size on both ends. It is designed to join a pipe or pipe fitting to another pipe or pipefitting. Excludes fittings with threaded external connections on both ends. A short length of pipe installed between couplings or other fittings

Pipe Plug A pipe fitting primarily designed for permanent installation during piping systems operations to fit into another pipe or pipe fitting for sealing. It usually is threaded. (OR) Male threaded fitting which seals the end run of a pipe when fitted into a female threaded fitting.

Pipe Reducer A straight pipe fitting having a different size connection on each end. It is designed to join two pipes of different sizes or two pipefittings of different sizes. (OR) A fitting that connects pipes of different sizes together. Pipe Tee T-shaped fitting with three openings that allow another pipe to be joined at a 90-degree angle, used to create branch lines.

Pipe Union

A straight pipefitting designed to join two lengths of pipe or pipefittings in such a manner that they may be disconnected without disturbing the rest of the pipeline. The end connections have pipe threads or are unthreaded and designed to accommodate a pipe. (OR) Three piece fitting that joins two sections of pipe, but allows them to be disconnected without cutting the pipe.

Pipe Stub ends

Pipe Cross Fittings that are used to connect four pipes.

CHARACTERISTICS OF PIPE FITTINGS CLASS PIPE THREAD TYPES
Iron Pipe Thread Abbreviations

N National P Pipe T Tapered Thread

F Fuels S Straight Thread M Mechanical Joint

1. NPT: National Pipe Tapered Threads 2. ANPT: Aeronautical National Pipe Taper threads A.N.P.T Internal Taper Pipe Threads are basically the same as the NPT threads except that for Army and Navy Aeronautical use they must be more carefully controlled for diameter, taper and thread form. 3. IPT: Iron Pipe Thread 4. NPTF: National pipe tapered thread for fuels. 5. FPT: Female pipe tapered thread. Internal Taper Pipe Threads. 6. MPT: Male pipe tapered thread. External Taper Pipe Threads. 7. NPS: National Pipe Straight Threads Standard (IPS: iron pipe size) 8. NPSM: National Pipe Straight Mechanical Threads. 9. NPSL: National Pipe Straight Locknut threads. 10. NPSH: National Pipe Straight Hose Threads. 11. FIPT/MIPT: Female Iron Pipe Thread, Male Iron Pipe Thread. Specifies the end is threaded and the thread pattern used is standard iron pipe style. 12. BSP: British Standard Pipe Threads 13. BSPT: British Standard Pipe Taper Threads. 14. BSPP: British Standard Pipe Parallel Threads. 15. GHT: Garden Hose Threads 16. NST/NH: National Standard thread /National Hose used for Fire Hose Coupling 17. NPSF: National pipe straight thread for fuels
About Thread types

Two common pipe thread sizes exist, the tapered National Pipe Thread (NPT) and the straight National Standard Free-Fitting Straight Mechanical Pipe Thread (NPSM). The tapered threads are for joining and sealing, the straight threads are only for joining. The Dry-seal thread (NPTF) allows for joining without sealants. Three less common threads exist, the Garden Hose Thread (GHT), Fire Hose Coupling (NST) and British Standard Taper Pipe Thread (BSPT). The NPT and NPTF threads are interchangeable with sealants such as PTFE tape. None of the other thread standards are interchangeable. Female NPT threads can be designated as "FPT" and male NPT threads can be designated as "MPT." Both the TPI and OD of the thread are required for positive identification of thread size because several sizes have the same TPI.

TYPES OF PIPE END CONNECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Threaded (or) Screwed [E.g.: NPT, NPS, IPT, BSP] Butt weld Socket weld Flanged GroovedSAE 45° Flared- Economical brass fittings that resist mechanical pullout. Can be assembled and disassembled repeatedly. For use with copper, brass, aluminum and welded steel hydraulic tubing that can be flared, or as an SAE hose adapter 7. JIC 37° flare: Connection is 37° Flared compression fitting 8. Solvent Weld- Socket connection with use of solvent cement (in case of PVC pipes) 9. O-RING BOSS: Fitting with O-ring seal 10. O-Ring Face Seal (ORFS) J1453: Fitting with O-ring Face seal 11. SAE Inverted Flare: 12. Solder Joint- Connected by Soldering

PIPE FITTINGS COMMON ATTRIBUTES AND THEIR POSSIBLE VALUES
END CONNECTION SIZE: End

connection size is respective connection size of

fitting will be in IN/MM
CONNECTION TYPE:

Possible values are MALE/FAMALE, FACE x FACE. type of thread that fitting (NPT, FPT, MPT, NPS, NPSM, with inside

THREAD TYPE: Indicates

BSP, BSPT, BSPP)
SCHEDULE NO: Indicates the thickness of the fitting when using diameter (5, 5s, 10, 40, 40S, 40 XS, 80,XXS, Std, 120 etc.) Details PRESSURE RATING: Indicates bar, LBS) FLARE ANGLE: Indicates

the maximum allowable pressure of the fitting (PSI,

the flare angle of the flared fittings. (37°,45°)

EXTERNAL COATING: Indicates

the External Coating on the fitting.(Black, Galvanized, Zinc Chromate plated)
END CONNECTION: Threaded,

Flanged, Butt Weld, Socket Weld, Solder Joint, Grooved, JIC, 45° flared, Solvent Weld.

MATERIAL: MS,

SS, CI, CS, Forged Steel, Brass, Bronze, Copper, Aluminum, PTFE lined, PVC.
PITCH:

Possible values are MM.TPI

1.PIPE ELBOW: BEND ANGLE: Possible values are 45 DEG, 90 DEG ELBOW TYPE: Street elbow, Reducing elbow, Long radius

(LR), Short

radius (SR)
2.PIPE COUPLING: COUPLING TYPE:

Possible values are Straight, Half, Merchant,

Reducing, Hex
3.PIPE TEE: TEE TYPE: Standard, 4.PIPE REDUCER: REDUCER TYPE: Possible 5.PIPE NIPPLE: NIPPLE TYPE: Possible Values

Reducing

values are Concentric (bell), Eccentric.

are Straight, Hex, Reducing, and

Closed.
6. PIPE BUSHING: Bushing Type: Possible 7. PIPE CAP CAP TYPE: Possible

values are Face bushing, Hex Bushing

values are Hex Head, Round Head.

8. PIPE PLUG PLUG TYPE: Possible

values are, Square socket, hex socket, hex head, Square head, Round head with socket.
9. PIPE UNION UNION TYPE: Standard

unions, dielectric union, leak tight union.

Schedule:

To distinguish different weights of pipe, three long-standing traditional designations are used: standard wall (Std., extra strong wall (XS) and double extra strong wall (XXS). These last two designations are sometimes referred to as extra heavy wall (XH) and double extra heavy wall (XXH), respectively.

For the purpose of standardizing pipe dimensions, the American Standards Association (ASA), sponsored by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), published ASA. B36.10. To broaden the range of wall thickness, schedule numbers from schedule 10 (S.10) thru schedule 160 (S.160) were adopted for steel pipe. These schedule numbers indicate approximate values for 1000 times the pressure-stress ratios. Later, stainless steel schedule numbers from schedule 5S through schedule 80S were published in ASA B36.19 for sizes thru 12-inch. The addition of the letter S after the schedule number identifies it as pertaining to stainless steel. Certain relationships exist among the traditional designations of Std, XS, XXS, the ASA schedule numbers and the actual wall thickness. Std and S.40 are the same in sizes thru 10-inch; in sizes above 10-inch, Std has a wall of 3/8-inch. XS and S.80 are the same in sizes thru 8-inch; in sizes 10-inch and above, XS has a wall of 1/2-inch. XXS has no corresponding schedule number, but in sizes thru 6-inch, XXS has a wall twice as thick as XS. Stainless steel schedules 40S and 80S are identical with carbon steel designations Std and XS, respectively, thru 12-inch.
NPTF

This is a dry seal thread; the National pipe tapered thread for fuels. This is used for both male and female ends. The NPTF male will mate with the NPTF, NPSF, or NPSM female. The NPTF male has tapered threads and a 30° inverted seat. The NPTF female has tapered threads and no seat. The seal tales place by deformation of the threads. The NPSM female has straight threads and a 30° inverted seat. The seal takes place on the 30° seat. The NPTF connector is similar to, but not interchangeable with, the BSPT connector. The thread pitch is different in most sizes. Also, the thread angle is 60° instead of the 55° angle found on BSPT threads

NPSF

The National pipe straight thread for fuels. This is sometimes used for female ends and properly mates with the NPTF male end. However, the SAE recommends the NPTF thread in preference to the NPSF for female ends.
NPSM

National pipe straight thread for mechanical joint. This is used on the female swivel nut of iron pipe swivel adapters. The leak-resistant joint is not made by the sealing fit of threads, but by a tapered seat in the coupling end.

*37° Flare (JIC)

The society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) specifies a 37° angle flare or seat be used with high-pressure hydraulic tubing. These are commonly called JIC couplings. The JIC 37° flare male will mate with a JIC female only. The JIC male has straight threads and a 37° flare seat. The JIC female has straight threads and a 37° flare seat. The seal is made on the 37° flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 45° flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate.

SAE (45° Flare)

A term usually applied to fittings having a 45° angle flare or seat. Soft copper tubing is generally used in such applications as it is easily flared to the 45° angle. These are for low-pressure applications - such as for fuel lines and refrigerant lines. The SAE 45° flare male will mate with an SAE 45° flare female only. The SAE male has straight threads and a 45° flare seat. The SAE female has straight threads and a 45° flare seat. The seal is made on the 45° flare seat. Some sizes have the same threads as the SAE 37° flare. Carefully measure the seat angle to differentiate.

O-Ring Boss

The O-Ring boss male will mate with an O-Ring boss female only. The female is generally found on ports. The male has straight threads and an O-Ring. The female has straight threads and a sealing face. The seal is made at the O-Ring on the male and the sealing face on the female.

SAE Straight Thread O-Ring Boss

O-Ring Face Seal (ORFS) J1453

A seal is made when the O-ring in the male contacts the flat face on the female. Couplings are intended for hydraulic systems where elastomeric seals are acceptable to overcone leakage and leak resistance is crucial. The solid male O-ring face seal fitting will mate with a swivel female O-ring face seal fitting only. An O-ring rests in the O-ring groove in the male.

SAE Inverted Flare

The SAE 45° inverted flare male will mate with an SAE 42° inverted flare female only. The male has straight threads and a 45° inverted flare. The female has straight threads and a 42° inverted flare. The seal is made on the 45° flare seat on the male and the 42° flare seat on the female.

Thread measurement

Male threads: The outside diameter of the large portion of the thread at "A"is measured. The figure nearest this dimension in column 1 or 2 of chart is found out. The dimension in column 3 will be the nominal pipe thread size. Female Threads: The top diameter of thread at "B" is measured. The figure nearest this dimension in column 1 or 2 of chart is found out. The dimension in column 3 will be the nominal pipe thread size.

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