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Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

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Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and -ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota

Function Manufacturer Country of origin Height Diameter Mass Stages Payload to LEO Payload to HCO Payload to GTO Status Launch sites

Medium Lift Launch System ISRO India Size 44 metres (144 ft) 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) 294,000 kilograms (650,000 lb) 4 Capacity 3,250 kilograms (7,200 lb) 1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb)[1] 1,410 kilograms (3,100 lb)[1] Launch history Active Sriharikota

19 PSLV: 11 Total launches PSLV-CA: 6 PSLV-XL: 2 17 PSLV: 9 Successes PSLV-CA: 6 PSLV-XL: 2 Failures 1 (PSLV) Partial failures 1 (PSLV) PSLV: 20 September 1993 Maiden flight PSLV-CA: 23 April 2007 PSLV-XL: 22 October 2008 Notable payloads Chandrayaan-1 Boosters (Stage 0) boosters 6 Engines 1 solid Thrust 502.600 kN Specific impulse 262 sec Burn time 44 seconds Fuel HTPB (solid) First stage Engines 1 solid Thrust 4,860 kN Specific impulse 269 sec Burn time 105 seconds Fuel HTPB (solid) Second stage Engines 1 Vikas (liquid) Thrust 725 kN Specific impulse 293 sec Burn time 158 seconds Fuel N2O4/UDMH Third stage Engines 1 solid Thrust 328 kN Specific impulse 294 sec Burn time 83 seconds Fuel Solid Fourth stage Engines 2 liquid Thrust 14 kN Specific impulse 308 sec Burn time 425 seconds Fuel MMH/MON

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (Hindi: ), commonly known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the

PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The PSLV has launched 41 satellites (19 Indian and 22 from other countries) into a variety of orbits to date. PSLV costs 17 million USD flyaway cost for each launch.


1 Development 2 Vehicle description 3 Variants 4 Launch history 5 References 6 External links

[edit] Development
PSLV has been designed and developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The inertial systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram. The liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the reaction control systems are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at Thiruvananthapuram. The solid propellant motors are processed at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, which also carries out launch operations. After some delays, the PSLV had its first launch on 20 September 1993. Although all main engines performed as expected, an altitude control problem was reported in the second and third stages. After this initial setback, ISRO met complete success with the third developmental launch in 1996. Further successful launches followed in 1997, 1999, and 2001. PSLV continues to be the work horse of Indian satellite launches, especially for LEO satellites. It has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version, especially those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight.

[edit] Vehicle description

The PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid-fuel rocket boosters in the world and carries 138 tonnes of Hydroxylterminated polybutadiene (HTPB) bound propellant with a diameter of 2.8 m. The motor case is made of maraging steel. The booster develops a maximum thrust of about 4,430 kN. Six strap-on motors, four of which are ignited on the ground, augment the first stage thrust. Each of these solid propellant strap-on motors carries nine tonnes of HTPB propellant and produces 677 kN thrust. Pitch and yaw control of the PSLV during the thrust phase of the solid motor is achieved by injection of an aqueous solution of strontium perchlorate in the nozzle to constitute Secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control System (SITVC). The injection is stored in two cylindrical aluminum tanks strapped to the solid rocket motor and pressurized with nitrogen. There are two additional small liquid engine control power plants in the first stage, the Roll Control Thrusters (RCT), fixed radially opposite one on each side, between the triplet set of strap-on boosters. RCT is used for roll control during the first stage and the SITVC in two strap-on motors is for roll control augmentation.

The second stage employs the Vikas engine and carries 41.5 tonnes (40 tonnes till C-5 mission) of liquid propellant Unsymmetrical Di-Methyl Hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer. It generates a maximum thrust of 800 kN (724 till C-5 mission). Pitch & yaw control is obtained by hydraulically gimbaled engine (4) and two hot gas reaction control for roll. The third stage uses 7 tonnes of HTPB-based solid propellant and produces a maximum thrust of 324 kN. It has a Kevlar-polyamide fiber case and a submerged nozzle equipped with a flexbearing-seal gimbaled nozzle (2) thrust-vector engine for pitch & yaw control. For roll control it uses the RCS (Reaction Control System) of fourth stage. The fourth and the terminal stage of PSLV has a twin engine configuration using liquid propellant. With a propellant loading of 2 tonnes (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine as fuel + Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen as oxidiser), each of these engines generates a maximum thrust of 7.4 kN. Engine is gimbaled (3) for pitch, yaw & roll control and for control during the coast phase uses on-off RCS. PSLV-C4 used a new lightweight carbon composite payload adapter to enable a greater GTO payload capability. PSLV is developed with a group of wide-range control units. Stage 1 Pitch SITVC Yaw SITVC Roll RCT and SITVC in 2 PSOMs Stage 2 Engine Gimbal Engine Gimbal HRCM Hot Gas Reaction Control Motor Stage 3 Flex Nozzle Flex Nozzle PS4 RCS Stage 4 Engine Gimbal Engine Gimbal PS4 RCS

[edit] Variants
ISRO has envisaged a number of variants of PSLV to cater to different mission requirements. There are currently three opernational versions of the PSLV the standard (PSLV), the corealone (PSLV-CA) without the six strap-on booster motors, and the (PSLV-XL) version, which carries more solid fuel in its strap-on motors than the standard version. All the three versions have proved to be unalloyed successes.[2] These configurations provide wide variations in payload capabilities ranging from 600 kg in LEO to 1900 kg in sun synchronous orbit. PSLV (Operational) The standard version of the PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately and six strap-on boosters. It currently has capability to launch 1,678 kg to 622 km into sun synchronous orbit. PSLV-CA (Operational) The PSLV-CA, CA meaning "Core Alone", model premiered on April 23, 2007. The CA model does not include the six strap-on boosters used by the PSLV standard variant. Two small roll control modules and two first stage motor control injection tanks were still attached to the side of the first stage.[3] The fourth stage of the CA variant has 400 kg less propellant when compared to its standard version.[3] It currently has capability to launch 1,100 kg to 622 km sun synchronous orbit.[4] PSLV-XL (Operational)

PSLV-XL is the uprated version of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its standard configuration boosted by more powerful, stretched strap-on boosters.[3] Weighing 320 tonnes at lift-off, the vehicle uses larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL) to achieve higher payload capability. PSOM-XL uses larger 13.5m, 12 tonnes of solid propellants instead of 9 tonnes used in the earlier configuration of PSLV.[5] On 29 December 2005, ISRO successfully tested the improved version of strap-on booster for the PSLV. The first version of PSLV-XL was the launch of Chandrayaan1 by PSLV-C11. The payload capability for this variant is 1800 kg compared to 1600 kg for the other variants.[4] Future launches include the RISAT Radar Imaging Satellite.[6] Variant Launches Successes Failures 1 0 0 Launched 10 satellites in one go. Launched Chandrayaan I. Partial failures Remarks

PSLV (Standard) 11 9 1 PSLV-CA (Core 6 6 0 Alone) PSLV-XL (Extended) 2 2 0 PSLV-HP (Under development / Proposed)

As reported on the website of The New Indian Express newspaper (April 26, 2007), PSLV project director N Narayanamoorthy spoke of another version being planned called the PSLVHP, standing for high performance. It will have improved strap-ons motors,[4] and the payload capability will be raised to 2000 kg.[4] The HP version will be used to launch a constellation of seven navigation satellites between 2010 and 2012. Among other things, the efficiency of the stage 4 engine will be improved in this version. PSLV-3S (Under development / Proposed) ISRO is also considering the development of a three-stage version of the rocket without six strap-on boosters (with the second stage of the four-stage version removed) which will be capable of placing 500 kg to LEO.[4][7]

[edit] Launch history

Launch Launch Flight Variant date/time Pad (UTC) Payload Payload Mass Mission Note(s) Status



20 Sriharikot September a FLP* 1993[8]


846 kg[8]

First development flight. Software error causes the vehicle to Failure crash in to the Bay of Bengal 700 seconds after take off.



15 October 1994[9]

Sriharikot a FLP*


804 kg[9]


First successful development flight.



21 March 1996[10]

Sriharikot a FLP*


920 kg[10]




29 Sriharikot September a FLP* [11] 1997


1,250 kg[11]

Sub-optimal Partial injection of failure Satellite.

OceanSat 1 C2 PSLV 26 May 1999[12] Sriharikot DLRa FLP* Tubsat KitSat 3

1,050 kg[12] First successful 107 kg[12] Success commercial flight. 45 kg[12]



22 October 2001[13]

Sriharikot a FLP*


1,108 kg[13] Speculated as a Spy 94 kg[13] Success Satellite.[14] 92 kg[13]



12 Sriharikot METSAT September a FLP* 1 (Kalpana 1) [15] 2002

1,060 kg


First launch to Success Geostationary transfer orbit.[15]



17 October 2003[16]

Sriharikot ResourceS 1,360 kg[16] Success a FLP* at 1



5 May 2005[17]

Sriharikot a SLP**

CartoSat 1 1560 kg[17] Success 42.5 kg[17] HAMSAT

CartoSat 2 10 January 2007[18] Sriharikot a FLP* SRE LAPANTUBsat PEHUENS AT-1 680 kg[18] 500 kg[18] 56 kg[18] 6 kg[18]



Used a device called 'Dual Launch Adapter' for the first time to launch four Success satellites.[19] LAPAN-TUBsat is Indonesias first remote sensing satellite.



23 April 2007[20]

Sriharikot a SLP**


352 kg[20] 185 kg[20]

First flight of the 'Core-Alone' version. Success ISRO's first exclusively commercial launch.



21 January 2008[22]

Sriharikot a FLP*


295 kg


An Israeli Success reconnaissance satellite.[23]



28 April 2008[24][25]

Sriharikot a SLP**

Cartosat2A IMS1/TWSAT RUBIN-8 CanX6/NTS CanX-2 Cute1.7+APD II Delfi-C3 SEEDS-2 COMPASS -1

690 kg 83 kg 8 kg 6.5 kg 3.5 kg 3 kg 2.2 kg 1 kg 1 kg 0.75 kg

Success World Record for most satellites (10) launched in a single attempt.




22 October 2008[26]

First flight of the Sriharikot Chandraya 1,380 kg[26] Success PSLV-XL version. a SLP** an I India's first mission to the Moon.[27]



20 April 2009[28]

Sriharikot a SLP**


300 kg[28] 40 kg[28]

India's first all weather observation spy satellite.[29] Success ANUSAT is the first satellite built by an Indian University.

Oceansat-2 960 kg[30] 8 kg[30] Rubin 9.2 8 kg[30] 23 Sriharikot September 1 kg[30] a FLP* [30] SwissCube- 1 kg[30] 2009 1 1 kg[30] 1 kg[30] BeeSat UWE-2 ITUpSAT1 CartosatALSATC15 PSLVCA July 12, 2010 [36] Sriharikot 2A a FLP* AISSat-1[37] TIsat-1[38][39] STUDSAT 690 kg [40] 117 kg[40] 6.5 kg[40] 1 kg Rubin 9.1




Rubin 9.1 and 9.2 were non-separable payloads,[31] orbited attached to the vehicle's fourth stage.[32][33] SwissCube-1[34] and ITUpSAT1[35] are Switzerland's and Turkey's first homegrown satellites launched into space.


Main satellite Cartosat-2B and Algeria's ALSAT2A along with AISSat-1, TIsat-1, and StudSat. TIsat-1 Success is the second ever Swiss satellite launched into Space. AISSat-1 and TIsat are part of NLS-6.[41]



20 April 2011[43]

In the current flight, ResourceS the standard version, at-2 1206 kg[43] with six solid strapSriharikot 106 kg[43] Success on booster motors X-Sat a 92 kg[43] strung around the first stage, was used. YouthS [43] at Sriharikot a SLP** Indigenously developed flight Success computer 'Vikram' used for the first time.[45]



15 July 2011[44]


1410 kg[44]

Planned launches C18 PSLV 2011 Sriharikot a RISAT-1 Planned


PSLV-? 2011 ?

& MeghaSriharikot Tropiques a SRMSAT



PSLV-? 2011 ?

Sriharikot a



'*'FLP - First Launch Pad, Satish Dhawan Space Centre; **SLP - Second Launch Pad, Satish Dhawan Space Centre

[edit] References
1. ^ a b Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle 2. ^ "The PSLV is a proud symbol of ISRO's self-reliance". 3. ^ a b c "PSLV Datasheet". 4. ^ a b c d e "India's PSLV". 5. ^ PSLV-C11 Successfully Launches Chandrayaan-1 6. ^ "New Solid Propellant Motor to Increase PSLV Capability". ISRO. 7. ^ "Evolution of Indian launch vehicle technologies". Indian Academy of Sciences. 8. ^ a b IRS-1E 9. ^ a b IRS-P2 10. ^ a b IRS-P3 11. ^ a b IRS-1D 12. ^ a b c d PSLV-C2 13. ^ a b c d PSLV-C3

14. ^ India's spy satellite boost 15. ^ a b c PSLV-C4 16. ^ a b PSLV-C5 17. ^ a b c PSLV-C6 18. ^ a b c d e PSLV-C7 19. ^ PSLV-C7 using DLA 20. ^ a b c PSLV-C8 blasts off with Italian payload 21. ^ First commercial launch of PSLV-C8 successful-India-The Times of India 22. ^ a b PSLV-C10 23. ^ NDTV - ISRO Launches Israeli Satellite 24. ^ Delfi-C3 Mission status page 25. ^ PSLV Rocket Launches 10 Satellites 26. ^ a b PSLV C11 27. ^ Yahoo News India IPSLV-C11 to launch Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft 28. ^ a b c PSLV C12 29. ^ India's spy in the sky: ISRO launches RISAT-2 30. ^ a b c d e f g h PSLV-C14 31. ^ ISRO - CUBESATS 32. ^ PSLV-C14 lift-off today 33. ^ Oceansat 2, 6 nanosats launched in 20 mins by ISRO 34. ^ It's a First! Swiss Satellite In Space This Cube Isn't Cheese 35. ^ First Turkish-Made Satellite Launched From India 36. ^ PSLV CA-C15 Countdown 37. ^ AISSat-1 Facts 38. ^ TIsat-1 Home 39. ^ SUPSI-DTI 40. ^ a b c "ISRO to launch five satellites on July 12". IANS. Sify. 2010-07-03. Retrieved

41. ^ NLS-6 Launch Blog 42. ^ More info 43. ^ a b c d e T.S., Subramanian (19 April 2011). "PSLV-C16 launch today". The Hindu.

Retrieved 19 April 2011.

44. ^ a b "PSLV-C17

45. ^ ISRO-developed computer helped PSLV-C17 put satellite in orbit

[edit] External links

Isro.Us - Space Exploration PSLV Moon Mission's Launch PSLV-C7 launch Video ISRO PSLV page Bharat-Rakshak PSLV page India in Space PSLV page PSLV-C8 Mission Photo Gallery RISAT News on PSLV C15 success v d eExpendable launch systems
Spaceflight portal

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ASLV SLV v d eIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Earth observation Communication Meteorological Bhaskara Satellite series IRS Indian National Satellite System Kalpana-1 INSAT-3D Aryabhata Astrosat Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System Aditya Chandrayaan-1 Chandrayaan-2 Mars mission PSLV GSLV GSLV-Mk III AVATAR RLV


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Other Bhuvan Categories: Space launch vehicles of India | Indian space program | Space launch vehicles | 1993 introductions

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