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COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA
Council for' Scientific and Industrial Research
BULLETIN No. 224
Mechanical Composition of Soil
m Relation to Field Descriptions
of Texture
By
T. J. MARSHALL. M.AGR.Sc .. PH,D,
MELBOURNE. 1947
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CON rENTS
Summary
1. INTRODUCTION
2. RgtdmANGEMENT or e.S,LR. DIAGRAM (INTERNATIONAL FRACTIONS)

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3. COMI'AltTSON or Ngw TnIANGULI',[t D't.GRAM CINTICRNATtON,\[.
FItACI'TONS) WITi[ S'J'ANDAIIOS IN TilE UNITED STATES 13
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Ij, A TEXTURE Dtt.GlIAM n"SF;D ON CLI\Y CONTENT AND AVE,",AG*'.'Z,.E,
m' FltAC'l'ION - "
n. 01-' TP.XTURE STANDARDS
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SUMMARY
A triangular texture diagram has been drawn for t!:J International
fraction sizes (wilh limiting diamelers of 21" 2:1", and 2 mm.
respectively for the clay, silt, and sand fracllons). This is based on
scatter diagrams showing the relation between mC!chanical composition
and field descriptions oI texture made by the DivIsion of Soils between
1939 and 1945. No serIous departures have been made from standards
already established in 1934 on the International basis.
It has been found from field descriptions that the relative amounts
of sand and silt affect the apparent II claylness II of a sample. Evidence
is presented to show that limiting lines for the clay content of the
texture classes should slope upwards towards the zero sand line in
a triangular diagram. A theoretical basis Is discussed for this departure
from the practice followed in existing diagrams.
Rearrangement 011 the basis of sloping lines has brought out a
more logical relationship between classes than was apparent in the
1934 diagram.
The new triangular diagram Is compared with texture standards
of the United States Department of Agriculture based on limiting
diameters of 2 and 50p. respectively for the clay Bnd silt fractions.
Serious differences in the limiting percentages of clay for sandy loalns,
sanely clay loams, and sanely clays are noted and are discussed in the
light of the sloping lines.
An approximate adaptation is maele of the neW diagram (Inter-
national fractions) to the fraction sizes of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. '
A new type of texture diagram Is presented In which the median
-size of the non-clay fraction is plotted against the clay cnntent. The
diagram is subdivided horizontally into categories of II fineness II of the
non-clay fraction and vertically into categories of II claylness." The
diagram is unaffected by the size chosen for dividing the silt and
sand fractions as is the case in the triangular representation of
mechanical composition. Further it allows differences due to the
relative amounts of coarse and fine sand to be brought out. These
two fractions have to be combined as total sand in the usual triangular
diagram. Possible applications of this type of dlc.gram are discussed.
Symbols combining the II fineness II and II clayiness " categories are
used to name the classes. These symbols avoid the confusion between
fraction and texture names and the prejudice involved in the use of
such terms as II 10am.
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Conventional texture names are also applied
to the diagram.
Descriptive standards have in general been maintained since the
original examination was made In 1934. The chief departures In field
practice are discussed. Methods are suggested for checking personal
factors and for allowing for the effect of physical properties other
than mechanical composition.
The upper limiting size of the silt fraction has been reviewed and
it was concluded that
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In Australian field practice", particles between
20 and 50p. in diameter are considered to be sand rather than silt.
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Mechanical Composition of Soil in Relation to Field
Descriptions of T exture*
1. Introduction.
Texture descriptions made in the field by soil surveyors are usually
related primarily to the mechanical composition of the soil. Other
properties I such as the nature of the clay minerals and of the exchange-
able cationsl and the presence of large amounts of organic matter, may
in some soils mask this relation. However, it is possible to express field
texture descriptions in terms of mechanical composition with SUfficient
reliability to set standards against which trends with time and
differences between individual workers may be chEcked. Since texture
terms are the most important of the soil descriptions made In the
field! It is important that they should be based on a quantitlve standard.
It is further desirable that there should be international agreement
on some standard.
The first diagrammntic relation between field descriptions of texture
and mechanical compOSition of soil was drawn up in 1911 by Whitney
(11) who used a right-angled triangle on which the percentages of
clay and silt were represented. In 1927 an eqUilateral triangle was
used by Davis and Bennett (3) on which the percentages of clay,
silt and sand were plotted. This triangle has been widely used by
soil worIters in agriculture and engineering throughout the United
States. The areas In both of these diagrams for each texture class
were based on limiting diameters of 5/-L' 50p.1 and 2 mm. for the clay,
silt, and sand fractions and were not applicable to results of analyses
expressed on the International fraction basis with limiting diameters
of 2fL, 20,lLI and 2mm. respectively. Furthermore the analyses on which
these diagrams were based were carried out by a dispersion procedure
which was less complete than that followed in the International method.
Because no suitable diagram was available in countries which
adopted the International procedure and fraction sizes, one was drawn
up by Prescott, Taylor, and Marshall (8) In 1934 based on field descrip-
tions and mechanical analyses made ,lor soil surveys undertaken by
the Division of Soils. The present position regarding texture standards
in Australia was reviewed in 1945 by a representative group of Aus-
tralian soil workers before whom a number of the scatter diagrams
shown in the present paper were placed.
The Vnited States Department of Agriculture has since 1930 adopted
a procedure of mechanical analysis (6) which is not greatly different
from the International procedurej and in 1938 an upper limit 01 2p.
was also adopted Ior the clay Iraction (5). The division between the
silt and sand fractions was allowed to remain at 50ft although measure-
ments were also to be made corresponding to 20,.1. to enable the
conversion of data to the International basis if desired. These changes
have made necessary a revision of standards in the Untted States
and, in 1945
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a triangular diagram based on the new analytical pro-
cedure and new particle sizes was drawn up tentatively. This diagram
Typescript l'ecelverl Decembor 9, HNG.
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(Fig. 4a) Is more easily compared with one based on the International-
procedure and fraction sizes than was its predecessor, since procedure
not now matter greatly on the . average: soil and, the
upper Hmlt of the clay fraction is now cominon to both sets of data.
A copy of this diagram was made available to the writer through
the courtesy of officers of the United States Department of Agrlcul-
ture* and in return notes were sent dealing with Australian standards
and their probable relation to the proposals of the United States
committee dealing with this subject. It was found that although
rnechEmical composition limits Were essentially similar for most texture
classes, the limiting clay contents for sandy loam, sandy clay loam,
and sandy clay were seriously different. Since it is highly desirable
that there should be international agreement on the meaning of te.xture
descriptions, and since the opportunity for the comparison of Aus-
tralian with United' States data is now 50 much greater, the causes
of this disagreement have been investigated in some detail. In the
course of this inquiry a logical rearrange.ment of the original C.S.I.R.
diagram has been worked out and an alternative method of expressing
textural relations has also been developed.
2. Rc-armng-cment of C.S.I.R. Diagram (Internl1tionnl
An examination has been made of an samples for which field
texture descriptions and mechanical analyses have been undertaken
between 1939 and 1945 In the course of the soil survey activities of
the Division of Soils. The samples have been grouped according to
texture classes and plotted according to mechanical composition (Fig.
1).** All the mechanical analyses were undertaken using the pipette
technique described by Piper (7) involving pretreatment of the sample
with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric 'acid and dispersion with
sodium hydroxlde.t No A- or B-horizon samples were excluded from
the scatter diagrams except those containing much calcium
and those described In the field as II organic." The number of samples
and the mean 'clay content for each texture class are given in Table 1.
It" was noted from these diagrams that the scatter of points for
a given texture class tended to slope upward from left to right. This
trend is demonstrated in Fig. 2 where lines Bre drawn representing
the approximate slope of some of the classes. Re-examination of the
data on which the 1934 C.S.I.R. diagram was based shows that the
trend is present there also. It is less marked however and passed un-
noticed because of the poor representation of soils wIth moderate or
high slit content at that time.
The writer Is Indebted to Professor G. B. Bodman of the University of
California for drawing his attention to the proposals, and to Mr. J. K.
Ableltel' nncl Dr. L. T. Alexander of the United Stntes Department of Agrl-,
culture for details regarding the tllagrnm.
The writer wishes to thnn\{ Mr. P. D. Hooper and Mr. A. V. Blackmore
[or drnwlng the' dlagrnms. Mr. Blackmore also assisted In the tabulation
of data.
t Ammonia was used as' the dispersing agent prior to 19,14. Used In
conjunction with the present sevel'e pretreatment and mechanical dispersion,
ammonia gave clay percentages which were low only on unusual salls.
Salls having more than 3 per cent. II loss on acid trentment" were
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FIG. I.-Scntter diagrams showing, the relation of field descrlptlons
of texture to mechanlcal 'composltion (International fractions).
Lines for the texture classes ',\re those gIven In Fig. 3. Those
bounding the loamy sand class do not actually apply to the
scntter because thM class was n'ot recognized when the samples
were described. \
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1001 CLAY rlt. Ib:
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Frc. 2.-8loping trends within the texture classes shown by means
of lines drawn through the scatter of points of Fig. 1. TextUl'e
... In""", .. 'On".' ..l,____ ,7. .. .. .
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The lines of Fig. 2 are in effect lines of equal II c1ayiness.
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According
to the centre line for fine sandy clay loam given in Fig. 2, soil
talnlng per cent. of clay with 11 per cent. silt feels to the soil
surveyor to be as clayey as one with 28 per cent. of clay and 40 per
cent. silt. Similarly a soil wlth 20 per cent. clay is described as a
sandy clay loam if it contains 5 per cent. silt and as a fine sandy loam
if it contains 25 per cent. sUt. Two factors probably contribute to the
reduction in the effectiveness of the clay fraction with increasing
amounts of sUt.
(I) The same weight percentage of non-clay material will " dilute ..
the clay less if it Is present as a few large particles than if it is made
up of finely divided particles.
(li) For any given percentage of clay, there wlll usually be more
non-colloidal particles present In the clay fraction when the content
of silt Is high than when it Is low.
TABLE I.-TrIm IvlElAN CLAY PmRCENTAOE 2/1 ) AND 'fHE NUMBElR OF
SAMPLElS CORnElSPONDING '1'0 EACH TRXTUIl8 CLASS.
Descllptlon. Numbel' of Snmples. Menn Cloy Content.
%
Sond 15\ 52
Sondy lonm, . 71 130
Loum GO 201
Silty lonm 8 220
Sundy cloy loom 34 215
Cloy 100m '13 311
Silty cloy 100m 12 300
Sonely cloy 24 307
Silty clay 18 300
Clay-
"llght" clay 24 100
"medium" clay .. 3D 500
"henvy" clay 165 571
clny (unqualified) 143 531
nil cloys 371 538
It appears then'that contrary to the practice In all existing diagrams,
the lines defining the limiting percentage of clay for the texture
classes shOUld slope upwards towards the sand base line. With this
principle as a basis, texture classes have been ie-defined, maintaining
at the same time the essentials of the 1934 C.S.LR. diagram. No
general change in standards is involved, but the' diagram is rearranged
on what is now seen to be a more logical basis. Details are given
In Fig. 3. Two minor changes have been Introduced which affect the
sandy soils. Following recent field practice (as indicated In Fig. 1a)
the area allotted to the sand class has been reduced. Further, as the
result of suggestions made at the 1945 meeting of Australian workers
in soil science, the class II loamy, sand" ,has been included; This class
would Include a number of the samples plotted In the scatter diagrams
as sandy loams and sands if such soils were to be described again.
Subdivision of the clays Into light. medium. and heavy clays has been
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dropped since it is clear from the scatter that . this is
impracticable on the basis of mechanical compositlon alone. Burvlll
(2) has shown that fluctuations in the water content of the soil can
sufficiently influence the estimate of texture to make such a subdivision
impracticable.
It can be seen from the scatter diagrams that In general a better
fit is obtained with the sloping lines for defining the limiting percentage
of clay than with the old limits shown In Fig. 2 or with any system
involving the use of horizontal lines. The logical sequence between
related classes of equal n c1ayiness "-for example sandy clay loam,
clay loam. silty clay loam-Is also brought out better than in the 1934
diagram. A connection between these and between other groups of
classes has always been a feature of the triangular diagrams developed
by the United States Department, of Agriculture in which upper clay
limits of sandy loam, loam, silty loam and of sandy clay loam, clay
loam, and silty clay loam respectively are shown as tWCl continuous
lines.
FIC. 3.-Trlangulor texture diagram based on Internatlonnl
fractions with efCectlve dlnmeters of 0.002, 002, and 2 mm.
COL' the upper limits of the clay, silt, onel sand fractions
respectively.
3. Compnt'lson of New Trinng-uInr Dlngram (Internntiom'Li Fractions)
with Stn.nrlll..rds Developetl In the Unitel! states.
. In the early years of soil surveys by the Council for Scientific
and Industrial Ftesearch, efforts were made to adopt similar standards
ih texture descrIptions to those whIch had been In use In the United
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States for many years before the Australian work commenced in 1928.
This has been checked through visits to fieid parties in the United
States and by a comparison of texture diagrams. The comparison
made in 1934 (8) was not completely satisfactory, as noted by Shaw
(9). because of the obstacle of dispersion differences. The position is
greatly simplified now by the changed procedure and fraction sizes
of the United States Department of Agriculture. The most substantial
difference between this and the International proced\-lre is that of the
limiting size dividing the silt and sand fractions.'
In order to find the relation of the new C.S.I.R. diagram (Inter-
national basis) shown in Fig. 3 to the diagram adopted by the United
States Department of Agriculture In 1945 (Fig. 4a), a conversion of
the latter was attempted on to the International fraction basis. It was
found from data for representative salls available on the two fraction
sizes (8) that the following approximate relation could be used for
converting the percentage of silt in the U.S.D.A. fraction to that corres-
ponding to the International fraction-
0.5 + 0.13
percentage between 2p. and 5UfI- diameter -
The rough conversion shown in Fig. 4b has been made using thIs
factor for adjusting the silt percentage and allowin-g a complementary
change in the sand percentage. No change was made In the clay
percentage since the limiting diameter Is the same under both systems.
It will be seen from a comparIson of FIgs. 3 and 4b, that for classes
with moderate or high amounts. of sl1t the relation between the two
sets of standards is satisfactory. On the other hand there is \ViM
dIsagreement on the position of lines representing the limiting clay
percentage of classes with low amounts of silt. For example, from
the scatter in Fig. lc, it can be calculated that 80 per cent. of sol1s-
described as sandy clay loam by Australian workers con taln less clay
than the lower limit of 27 per cent. in the U.S.D.A. diagram.
This position arises because of the fact that the two lines defining
the upper and lower clay percentages of the sandy clay loam, clay
loam, and silty clay loam classes are placed horizontally (at 40 per
cent. and 27 per cent. respectively) in the U.S.D.A. diagram while
sloping lines are used in the C.S.I.R. diagram. From the data dIscussed
above It was concluded that the slopIng trend noted within classes
should also exist between such related classes as sandy loam, loam,
silty loam. However this inter-class trend may be a peculiarity of
Australian descriptive methods resulting from the original arrange-
ment of classes shown in Fig. 2. It is equally possible nevertheless
that further investigation of low silt classes now being undertaken in
the United States may reveai a similar trend. If this proves to be
the case, closer agreement shOUld result and texture standards may
be found to be so little dIfferent as to be easily adjusted to a common
basIs. Some objections to the high clay limlts for these classes In
the U .S.D.A. diagram have in lact been raised in certaIn quarters In
the United States} .
... The present U.S.D.A. procedllre differs also In the omission of acid
treatment and the use of sodium metnphosphnte as the dispersing agent.
t Personal commllnleallon Cram Dr. L.' T. Ale:<nnder. United States
Department of Agriculture.
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FIG. 4n.-Tl'lnngulnr dlngmm established lcntnllvcly by the United
States Depnrtment of A/;rleullLII'e In lfl<13. The upper lImlls
of thc clny, sill, nnd saml fl't\cllol\!i COI'rcsllOnd to effective
cllnmelcrs or aom!, 0.05, und 2 min. rcsllOctlvely.
IDol CLAY
FlO. 4b.-Rc[lI'esentatlon ot the diagram at Fig. 4n on International
frnctlon sizes; -
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An approximate conversion of the new C.S.LR. diagram from the
International to the United States ir:action basis Was also made using
as a guIde the inverse process to that already. described. In the resulting
diagram (Fig, 5) the slope of the limiting clay lines is considerabiy
reduced, . .
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FlO. 5.-The new It'lnngulnr diagram trnnsfened to the fraction
sizes of the United Slales Depnrtment of Agriculture with
eHective diameters of 0002, 005, and 2 mm. for the Upper ',i,,'
limits of the clay, silt, and !mnd respectively. _
4. A Texture Din,v;rnm llllsed on Cln.y Content anti Avcrur;e Size of
Non-clay Fraction.
There are two disadvantages to the triangular diagram for
senting mechanical composition.
(1) It Is not possible to make a direct comparison between texture
based on International and United States size systems because of the
different arbitrary bases for defining silt and sand fractions.
(Ii) Coarse sand and fine sand are grouped together and observable
differences In field texture due to the relative proportions of these
fractions cannot be This applies particularly to salls of
low clay content, but it is also probable that errOrs in representing
the texture of other soils can be reduced somewhat if the relative
proportion of coarse and fine sand Is taken into conslderatlon (8).
These disadvantages can be avoided in a different type of diagram
in \vhlch the average size of the non-clay fractlon is plotted against
lhe clay content. Areas representing the texture classes have been
assigned tq. this diagram (Fig, 6) by reference to scatter diagrams
similar to those prepared in drawing up the triangular
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MEDIAN SIZE OF NON-CLAY FRACTIOIt. (MICRONS)
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FIC. G.-Texture diagram based on clny content and median size
o[ the non-clny fraction. The upper limit of the clay fractioll
n.nn2 mm.
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The median size of the non-clay fraction has been used for this
diagram. It is obtained very easily from the cumulative curve by
taking the size corresponding to the percentile given in the expression
Median percentile of non-clay fraction = 1(100%...,clay%) + clay%
= 50% + ! clay%.
Percentages have been expressed by weight of particles passing a
2 mm. sieve and the clay fraction has the limiting diameter of 2}'.
One set of roughly horIzontal lines defines four categories of
10 fineness" of the fraction: coarse (C), medium (M), fine
(FJ. and very fine (VF). The other set of roughly vertical lines
defines five categories of II clayiness" which afe numbered from 1 to 5.
The first and second categories of II clayiness" represent non-plastic*
soils; the fourth and fifth represent plastic soils; and the third is an
intermediate category representing solIs of low plasticity. The texture
classes represented in this diagram are designated by symbols in which
". fineness " and II clayiness" are represented by the appropriate letters
and numbers. Orthodox texture names are also shown where applicable
on the diagram. These have the same meaning and the same mechanical
composition relations as the corresponding -names shown in Fig. 3
except that fUrther breakdown has been made for soils with low clay
content. With the subdivision shown here, the categories of " clayi-
ness" become progressively wider as the clay content increases and
the ease of distinguishing small differences In clay content decreases.
Limiting llnes for clay content slope In a similar manner to those on
the triangular diagram.
In this diagram disadvantages of the triangular diagram can be
overcome. The limiting size between the slIt and sand fractions ceases
to be of any consequence and further it becomes possible to represent
the relative proportions of coarse and fine sand which can only other-
wise be shown as a point In a tetrahedral diagram (8). With suitable
adaptations the diagram could also be extended to Include particles
larger than 2 mm. in gravelly soil. This approach would have to be
used with caution where separate distributions are combined within
the nQn-clay fraction, as in examples given by Prescott (personal
communication) where lateritic gravel is present among siliceous sand.
A single average can only be of value when there are no major dis-
continuities in the non-clay portion of the cumulative cUrve.
In thIs discussIon no consideration has been given to the spread
(or dispersion) of the distribution about the average. It Is however
possible to represent the mechanical composition of individual samples
fully on this type of diagram If, through the point which represents
the median size of the non-clay fraction and the clay content, a vertical
Hne Is drawn whose length is equal to some chosen measure of the
dispersion. Alternatively the geometrical mean size of the non-clay
fraction and Its standard deviation can be obtained graphically on
logarithmic probablllty paper and these values can be used In the
same way.
Plnstlcity refers here to the whole snmpie excluding gravel, and not to
the nne portion used In engineering tests tor soil plasticity.
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The use of symbols proposed with this diagram overcomes two
general objections to the texture names in current use-
(a) The words I'sand," II clay," II silt tJ are used both as fraction
and texture names and confusion frequently arises.
(b) Some of the nameS have an old agricultural significance which
prejudices their use as texture terms. For example In Australian
practice, few subspils are described as Ioams.
It is felt as well that the use of categories based directly on the
II fineness" of the n'on-clay particles and the tI clayJness " of the soll-
both of which are readily determined by the sense of touch-offers a
more objective basis for field descriptions of textures than that at
presen t in usc.
n. nruintennnt',I! of StauuliLrds.
It appears frum a comparison of the, present with the older scatler
diagrams pl'epared in 193/! (8) that descriptive standards of the
Division of arc being Il1Aintained fairly well. The new texture
diagram fits the original data as do.sely us did the 1934 diagram
which was based largcly on thal scatter. Ther'c has however been
a slight reduction in the range of clay conlenl found to cOl'l'espond
to some of thc c!c;.;crJplive classes. Thl!-i lrend can he seen In Fig. 2.
In the cnse nf the division between sands and sundy Ioams, this has
been acccpted by soli :iurvcy()l'l'i as n c1ellberute policy and a change
in the limits has now been int1'Oduced correspondingly. At the same
time the. loamy sand class been introduced intn the new diagram.
Sandy clay and silty clay nrC:! unsatisfactory classes. The scatter of
points for the silty clays overlaps almost completely with that for
the silly cla.y loams and It appears that both silty clay and sandy
clay should be reserved marc closely for soils which have an effective
claylness as great or greater than" light" clays. The fine sandy laams
and tine sandy clay loams are anomalous classes which overlap
respectively with lcams and clay laams as a less clayey sub-class of
each. They were not fOl'nlally recognized In the 1934 C.S.I.R. diagram.
nor have they been consciously related to loams and clay loams in the
past. Consequently their Inclusion in the scatter diagrams with loams
nnd clay loams has added somewhat to the variability within those
classes.
The continuous review of standards would be helped JI each worke!'
kept a progressive record on a texture diagram of all samples handled
by himself. By starting afresh every few years after enough data
had accumulated possible trends In descriptive standards could also
be watched. Any future alterations that might be required In the
present diagrams would be greatly facilitated J.f such records were kept.
Undoubtedly the maintenance of descriptive standards would be
assisted if the I'elatlon to mechanical composition could be relied upon
for Individual samples. For the reasons dIscussed above, this is not
possible and the texture diagrams provide a guide only for average
conditions.
It should _ be possible, however, to Use an " activity" coefficient as
suggested by Shaw and Alexander (10) to correct the clay content
to rep res en t more closely the effective 11 clayiness" of each .sample.
It Is possible that such a coefficient could be obtained through con-
sistence measurements or through a measure of the stability of
structure tn
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, .. The general adoptlon of a lImltlng diameter of for the cla)'
fractlon in the United States should assist materially in securing
Internatlonal uniformity of descriptive standards, However there Is
still disagreement on the less Important matter of the upper Um!t
for the silt fractlon. The question whether the material between 201'
. and 501' in diameter should In fact be called silt or sand, has been
discussed by Giossop and Skempton (4) who formed the opinion that
it should be Included with silt. They referred to the behaviour of
particles of this size in relation to movement by wind, ground
movement, consolidation, and frost heaving in support of this opinion,
In the course of the present investigation eight persons experienced
in field descriptions were ash:ed to describe a sample of particles of
that size range separated from a silty soil. Six called it sand, one
called it silt and one was undecIded. It is true of course that this
does not represent an unblassecl opinion since 'all these persons were
Hccustomed to working with the International size basis.
The equal logarithmic intervals for limiting sizes of the
nntlonal system are an attractive feature which is worth maintaining
If other physical properties of the fractions are reasonably well related
l.u sLlch subdivision. Atterberg (1)' noted such a relation when he
chose this series of limiting sizes. He chORe the limit of 20
p
. for the
fraction because particles smaller than that size were not visible
to the naJ\:ed eye, they were capable of some degree of flocculation,
and the pares between compacted particles Were so small as to prevent
the entry of root hairs or the ready movement of " capillary" water.
The use of the median size of the non-clay fraction would overcome
I,he need for this or any ather division between silt and sand 50 far
as texture dlagrnms are concerned.
6. Ucfcrcnccs.
1. Att{!rberg, A,- --D[(I l'fltlonelle Kln:;slilknllon cll!l' lInd 1\.1 esc. G/tem,
Zolt. 29: UI5S (1905),
2. Burvill, G, H.--The relntlon between some plastic properties of the 5011
nnd the eslllllote oC texttll'e In the fleM. Thesis, Un!vet'slty of Adelnlde.
(lD3D).
,3, Dnvls, R: O. E., nnd Bennett, H. H.-Grouping o[ salls on the bnsls of
mechanical U.S. Dept. Agrlc., Dept. Cire. 'lUI (1927),
4, Glossap, R., nnel Sltemptan, A. W.-Pfll'tlcle In slits and sunds: J.
Il1St. Oi'v. E-lllj, 26: 81-105 (1945),
5. Knight, H. G.-New size limits fOI' silt and do;,-. Soil. Sel. Soc. Amer.
Proe. 2: 592 (1037).
6. Olmstead, L. B., Alexnnclel', L. T., and Middleton, H. E.--A pipette method
of mechanical lnniysls of salls hnsed on impro\'ed dispersion procedure,
U.S. Dept. Agrlc., Tech. Bull. 170 (19301.
7. Piper, C. S.-" SolInnel Plant Analysis." \Adelalde: Hassell Press,
8. Pi'escott, J. A., Tnylol', J. K., llnd Mm'shnll, T . T.-The relationship
between the mechnnlcnl composition oJ: the solI and thc csllmnte of
textme In the Held. Tra'lIs. 1st Com Ill, Int. Soc. Boil Sci.) pp, 143[j3
(103])
8. Shnw, C. F.-Field te.'i.tUl'es ancl physical composition determined by two
method:; of mcchanlcnl nnnlysls, Trnlls. ilrll Int. Co'ug. Boll Sci. 1: 42-6
(1035).
10. Shnw, -T. M., nncl AlexnndIH', L. T.-A nole on mechnnlcal analysis and
- soils texture. ,O;:oil flci. Soc. Am!:?I'. P/'oe. 1: 3034 (1135), .
11. Whitney, J\'I.-Thf.! use of soils east of the Great Plnlnf> region: V,S. Dept.
, Agrlc., Blil'. Soils Bull. 78 (1911l.
.1. ,J. I .'!."."." .. .. ". IL'_."