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General Conditions Relating To Supply And Use Of Electrical Energy

Classification Of Voltage
a) Low voltage b) Medium Voltage c) High Voltage ---------------Not exceeding 250 volts Not exceeding 650 volts More than 650 volts & upto 33kV (-)(+) 6% ( + ) 6 % or ( - ) 9 % ( + ) 10 % or ( - ) 12.5 %

Permissible Voltage Variation ( I.E. Rule - 54 )


a) Low & Medium Voltage -----b) High Voltage -----c) Extra High Voltage ------

Permissible Frequency Variation ( I.E. Rule - 55 )

Supplier is not permitted to exceed the frequency 3 % more than the declared one. In India generally attempt is made to keep the frequency within 48.5 to 51 cps.

Standard Electrical Clearances


Line Voltage ( kV ) 66 132 220 400 Phase Difference ( in mm.) Horizontal Vertical 3500 2000 6800 3900 8400 4900 9000 8000 Mid-Span Clearance ( in mm.) 3000 6100 8500 9100 Ground Clearance ( in mm.) 5500 6100 7000 8400 Live Metal Clearance (no swing condition) ( in mm.) 915 1530 2130 3050

Permissible Minimum Clearance Above Ground ( I.E. Rule - 77 )


Line Voltage (in kV) 0.650 11 33 66 132 220 400 N. B. :Across the Street (in m.) 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.8 Along the Street (in m.) 5.5 5.8 5.8 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.8 Other Areas (in m.) 4.6 4.6 5.2 5.5 6.1 7.0 8.8

For extra high voltage lines the clearance above ground shall not be less than 5.2 mtrs. Plus 0.3 mtr. For every 33kV or part thereof by which the voltage of the line exceeds 33kV.

Permissible Minimum Clearance From Building ( I.E. Rules - 78&80 )


Line Voltage Vertical From Highest Horizontal From

(in kV) 0.650 11 33 66 132 220 400

Object (in m.) 2.5 3.7 3.7 4.0 4.6 5.5 7.3

Clearance Of Overhead Lines Crossing Each Other ( I.E. Rule - 87 )


Line Voltage (in kV) 0.250 0.650 11 33 66 132 220 400 N. B. :11kV (in m.) 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 3.05 4.58 6.00 33kV (in m.) 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 3.05 4.58 6.00 66kV (in m.) 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 3.05 4.58 6.00 132kV (in m.) 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.05 4.58 6.00 220kV (in m.) 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 6.00 400kV (in m.) 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

Nearest Point (in m.) 1.2 1.2 2.0 2.3 2.9 3.8 5.6

# Suitable guarding arrangement should be provided to guard against possibility of coming in contact with each other. # No guarding is required when an extra high voltage line crosses over another extra high voltage / high voltage / medium voltage line. # Crossing shall be made as nearly at right angles, as near the support of the upper line. Support of the lower line shall not be erected below the upper line.

Railway Crossing Clearances


Line Voltage Up to and including 11kV Above 11kV and up to 66kV Above 66kV and up to 132kV Above 132kV and up to 220kV Above 220kV and up to 400kV Broad Gauge & Narrow Gauge ( in mtrs. ) Normally by Cable 14.10 14.60 15.40 17.90

En-route Tree Clearance From Over Head Lines


Line Extra High Voltage Line High Voltage Line On Either Side Of The Line ( in mtrs. ) 12.19 6.095

Low & Medium Voltage Line

0.914

Clearance Over The River

Clearance must be minimum of 3.048 metres over highest flood level ( in case of non-navigable river ). In case of navigable river clearance must be decided in relation to the tallest mast of the ship passing through the river.

Clearance Between Power And Communication Lines


a) Low and medium voltage line b) H.V. lines up to & including 7.2 kV c) H.V. lines up to 12 kV -------------

1380 mm ( 46 ) 1525 mm ( 50 ) 2130 mm ( 70 )

Clearance between communication and ground wires will not be less than 1070 mm ( 36 ). The minimum clearance between the guard wires and telecommunication lines shall be 600 mm. If the guards are fastened to the same supports as the power line, then the minimum distance will be 900 mm.

Line Clearance In WBSEB System


Line Voltage ( kV ) 400 220 132 66 Ph - Ph (mts.) Single Double Circuit Circuit 11 8 7.55 7.8 5.37 5.63 4.8 Ph - E (mts.) Single Double Circuit Circuit 9.26 9.30 4.9 4.9 4.0 4.0 3.44 Ground Clearance (mts.) Single Double Circuit Circuit 8.84 8.84 7.015 7.015 6.10 6.10 5.49

Total Number Of Disc Insulators In A String


Line Voltage ( kV ) 66 132 220 400 Suspension String 5 9 14 22 Tension String 6 10 15 23

Switchyard Parameters
Phase Clearance (Outdoor) Bus
Bus Voltage (kV) 33 Ph - Ph (mts.) 1.3 Ph - E (mts.) 1.9 Bay Width (mts.) 6.1

66 132 220 400

1.7 2.8 4.5 7

2.2 3.4 4 6.5

7.7 12.2 17 27

Bus Height
Bus Voltage (kV) 132 220 400 Low Bus (mts.) 5.5 6.25 8.2 Main Bus (mts.) 8.42 10.95 15.5 Jack Bus (mts.) 12.85 16.5 23

Earthing Resistance (Ideal Value)


Generating Station and Big Sub-Station 132 kV Sub-Station 66 kV Sub-Station 33 kV Sub-Station : : : : < < < 0.5 1 2-4 4-6

Current Carrying Capacity Of Underground Cable


Conductor 6.6 & 11 kV Size P.I.L.C. armoured, (sq. mm) served belted, 3 core Aluminium Conductor (Amps) In Ground 16 58 In Air 50 6.6 & 11 kV insulated 6.6 & 11 kV XLPE armoured, screen Cable Aluminium sheathed, Aluminium Conductor Conductor (Amps) (Amps) Single Core In In Grou Air nd Three Core In In Grou Air nd Single Core In In Grou Air nd Three Core In In Grou Air nd -

25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 225 240 300 400 500 625

72 84 105 130 155 170 190 220 240 250 280 320 360 385

68 80 100 125 155 175 200 230 260 275 310 365 415 470

73 90 115 140 170 195 215 240 255 265 325 360 410 450

69 87 105 145 180 210 245 285 320 335 395 455 530 580

73 88 105 130 155 180 200 230 255 260 295 330 365 430

69 84 105 130 155 185 210 240 270 285 320 380 435 520

90 110 135 165 195 220 250 285 320 360 420 465 -

110 135 160 205 250 285 330 375 445 500 610 710 -

86 100 125 155 185 200 225 260 300 335 385 -

90 105 135 165 205 230 265 300 360 410 480 -

Assumptions :- 1. Maximum Conductor Temperature - 6.6 kV cable - 800C 11 kV single core - 700C 11 kV 3 core belted - 650C 11 kV 3 core screened - 700C 0 2. Ambient temperature - 40 C 3. Ground temperature - 400C 4. Depth of laying - 90 cm. (for 6.6 & 11 kV cable)

Important Data Of All Aluminium Conductor ( A.A.C. )


Code Ward Strand Size Cu. Eq. Nominal Nominal (mm.) SWG Copper Area Aluminium No. (sq. mm) Area (sq. mm) 7 / 1.96 7 / 2.21 7 / 2.44 7 / 3.10 8 7 6 3 13 16 20 30 20 25 30 50 Max. Current Carrying Capacity At 400C Ambient (Amp.) 105 125 145 200 Resistance at Approx. ultimate Approx. Weight 200C Tensile Strength (Kg/KM) (Ohms/KM) (Kg) 1.362 1.071 0.879 0.544 385 485 580 892 58 73 89 144

Canops Gnat Weevil Ant

Important Data Of Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced ( A.C.S.R. )


Code Ward Nominal Copper Area (sq. mm Squirrel Weasel Rabbit Raccoon Dog Panther Deer Zebra Moose 13 20 30 48 65 130 260 260 325 Calculated No. Of Dia. Of Eq. Area Of Wires Wires Aluminium (mm) (sq. mm) Al. St. Al. St. 20.71 31.21 52.21 77.83 103.6 207.0 419.3 418.6 515.7 6 6 6 6 6 30 30 54 54 1 1 1 1 7 7 7 7 7 2.11 2.59 3.35 4.09 4.72 3.00 4.27 3.18 3.53 2.11 2.59 3.35 4.09 1.57 3.00 4.27 3.18 3.53 Overall Dia Of Conducto r (mm) 6.33 7.77 10.05 12.27 14.15 21.00 29.89 28.62 31.77 Max. Current Resistance at Approx. Carrying 200C ultimate Capacity At (Ohms/KM) Tensile 400C Ambient Strength (Amp.) (Kg) 115 150 200 270 324 520 806 795 900 1.374 0.9116 0.5449 0.3656 0.2745 0.1375 0.06786 0.0680 0.05517 771 1136 1860 2746 3299 9127 18230 13316 16250 Approx. Weight (Kg/KM)

85 128 214 318 394 976 1977 1623 2002

Recommended Size Of Fuses


Fuses are overcurrent devices and must have ratings well above the maximum transformer load current in order to carry without blowing during the short duration overloads that may occur because of motor starting. Also the fuses must able to withstand the magnetising inrush current drawn when the power transformers are energised. Sl. No. POWER TRANSFORMER Transformer Voltage High Voltage Side Low Voltage Side Capacity Ratio (33 kV) (11 0r 6.6 kV) (MVA) (kV) Full load Size of Full load Size of current fuse wire current fuse wire (amps.) (SWG) (amps.) (SWG) 0.50 33/6.6 8.75 28 48 18 1.00 33/6.6 17.5 23 96 14 3.00 33/6.6 52.5 17 288.7 OCB 0.50 33/11 8.75 28 26.3 21 0.63 33/11 11.0 24 33.0 21 1.00 33/11 17.5 23 52.5 15 1.60 33/11 28.0 21 84.0 14 3.15 33/11 55.0 17 165.3 2 X 14 5.00 33/11 87.5 OCB 262.4 OCB 6.30 33/11 110.2 OCB 330.6 OCB DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER Transformer Voltage High Voltage Side Low Voltage Side Capacity Ratio (11 0r 6.6 kV) (MVA) (kV) Full load Size of Full load Size of current fuse wire current fuse wire (amps.) (SWG) (amps.) (SWG) 25 6.6/0.4 2.4 38 36 22 63 6.6/0.4 6.0 35 91 17 100 6.6/0.4 9.6 28 149 12 25 11/0.433 1.31 39 33.3 22 63 11/0.433 3.30 38 84.0 17 100 11/0.433 5.25 35 133.3 1 X 14 200 11/0.433 10.5 28 266.6 HRC 250 250 11/0.433 13.12 25 333.3 HRC 320

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Sl. No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Construction Of Transmission And Distribution Lines

Transmission means conveyance of electrical power at Extra High Voltage from the generating stations to the grid Sub-stations or between Grid Sub-Stations. Distribution is the term used for conveyance of electrical power from the Sub-stations to the actual consumers at high or medium or low voltage. Transmission & distribution of power can be done with the help of i) Overhead lines ii) Underground cables. Type Of Power Advantages Transmission Overhead lines Cheaper Easy to maintain Underground cables

Disadvantages Prone to disturbances from weather, lightning strokes etc. Takes longer time for breakdown repair. Costlier

Easy for power distribution in congested urban areas, factories, residences, power houses, Sub-stations etc.

1. The main items in an over head line are : a) Conductor, b) Supports, c) Insulators,

d) Metal Hardware

a) Conductor The principal materials used as conductors in construction of overhead lines are i) Hard drawn copper, ii) All Aluminium Conductor (AAC) iii) Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) iv) Cadmium Copper i) Steel v) All Aluminium Alloy Conductor (AAAC) i) Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) vi) Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel Reinforced (AACSR) b) Supports i) Wood poles ii) Steel Tubular poles iii) Rails and R.S. Joists iv) Lattice type poles v) Steel Towers vi) Reinforced cement concrete poles (RCC) vii) Pre-stressed cement concrete poles (PCC) c) Insulators i) Pin insulators ii) Shackle insulators iii) Disc insulators iv) Strain insulators

i) Post insulators d) Metal Hardware i) Strain clamp ii) Suspension clamp iii) Twisting joint sleeve iv) Repair sleeve v) Bolted clip vi) Tubular compression joint vii) Parallel Groove clamp (P.G.) viii) Vibration damper 2. Other Factors For Line Construction i) Bracket or cross arm ii) Earthing system iii) Stay and struts iv) Foundation v) Jointing vi) Armoring vii) Dumper viii) Guard and safety device ix) Anti climbing device x) Danger notice xi) Pole numbering

Functions Of Transmission (O&M) Sub-Division

1. Attending breakdown of lines and Sub-Stations. 2. Preventive maintenance work i) Winter maintenance program.

ii) Pre-puja maintenance work. iii) Pre-norwester maintenance work. 3. Procurement of spare equipment and equipments spares for both breakdown replacement and preventive maintenance work. 4. Up-keepment of control room building switchyard by periodical maintenance through annual maintenance program. 5. Ensuring round the clock vigilance for maintenance of power system. a) Through the duty roaster of operational staff, arrangement of necessary availability of maintenance staff, vehicle for attending breakdown jobs at the shortest possible time. b) Maintaining proper communication system with other Sub-station from which power is drawn and other distribution Sub-Stations and bulk consumer through which power is distributed. 6. Means of communication : i) P & T telephone ii) VHF communication iii) PLCC ( power line carrier communication ) iv) Future communication - VSAT communication i) Maintaining walkie-talkie sets for small distance communication. v) Allotment of staff quarters for emergency maintenance & operational staff. 7. Operation of the Sub-station : Switching instruction are displayed in all Sub-stations for switching operation of different equipment during faulty condition or shutdown operation or interchanging of source of supply, shedding of power in case of scarcity in availability as directed by Central Load Despatch and also to save the system from total disaster.

Functions Of Transmission Construction Sub-Division


Construction Of Sub-Station :1. Selection of site and acquisition process of the land through land acquisition department, Govt. of West Bengal with the assistance of the land acquisition cell of WBSEB, after issuance of work order by the CP & ED wing. 2. Soil testing work to facilitate CP & ED wing to prepare the design of foundation of structures and equipment and also control room building, staff quarters etc. 3. Preparation of estimate for boundary wall, foundation of equipment and structures, control room building on the basis of soil testing report for tender call. 4. Preparation of estimate for erection of structures and equipment as per lay out drawing submitted by CP & ED wing.

5. Preparation of list of materials and equipment like - isolators, C.Ts., L.As., OCBs etc. are to be prepared and requisition of materials are to be placed to CP & ED wing through proper channel for procurement action. 6. Estimate for a) earthmat arrangement for earthing of equipment. b) cable trenches are also to be prepared as per layout drawing. c) similar estimate for land filling work, surface drain work, construction of store shed, staff quarters, children park, recreation room etc. should also be prepared for inviting tenders for construction work. 7. List of equipment to be installed for inside the control room like control pannel, battery charger pannels and control cable for connecting equipment in the switchyard with the control pannel should also be prepared for procurement action by the CP & ED / Central purchase wing.

Construction Of Over head Transmission Line:1. By preliminary route survey, alternative routes or alignment are to be prepared avoiding congested areas, railway crossings, roads, rivers, as far as practicable. 2. Gazette notification & newspaper publication will be necessary mentioning the names of Mouzas through which the line will pass for general information of public in terms of section 29 & 42 of I.E. Act, 1948. 3. Soil resistivity test is to be conducted along the route alignment and after that, schedule of towers involving the angle at different points are to be prepared. i) A type tangent tower tolerable angle up to 20 ii) B type tower tolerable angle 20 to 300 iii) C type tower tolerable angle 300 to 600 iv) D type tower above 600 and dead-end tower. The foundation of the towers are designed according to the condition of the soil over which the route alignment is drawn i) dry soil ii) semi-submerged soil iii) fully submerged soil. 4. After getting the preliminary survey report, specification for supply of different kind of towers and required foundation are to be prepared for tendering purpose. 5. Permission for Rly. Crossing & forest deptt. & clearance for environment deptt. & Airport Authority, National High way Authority are to be taken.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
Protection Is Provided To Minimise a) b) c) d) Cost of repair of damage. Possibility of spreading & involving other equipment. Timely out of service of the equipment. Loss in revenue and of course the strained public relations.

Protection System Should Be -

a) Very fast - Operate with correct speed i.e. fast clearance of fault to minimise damage and increase power system stability. b) Selective - Able to discriminate between faulty & healthy equipment. c) Sensitive - Can operate under minimum generating condition and d) Stable - Stabilise under external fault condition and should not result in undesired tripping when there is no fault in the equipment protected.

TRANSFORMER IS VIRTUALLY AN IMPEDANCE CONNECTED TO THE SYSTEM.

Faults In Transformer
Sl. Fault No. 1. Phase Fault (Phase to Phase) 2. Ground Fault 3. 4. 5. 6. Inter Fault Causes Mostly ground faults in 2 phases, flashover, insulation failures. Insulation failure. Effect High current, Mechanical Stress. Occurrence Rare

Turn Insulation failure.

Inter Winding Insulation failure Fault between windings primary to secondary. Core Fault Laminations getting bridged, core bolt insulation failure. Radiator Choking of pipes by Fault, sludge in oil, cooling Cooling duct ducts also may be Fault affected.

High current in grounded Common neutral operation. Short circuit current is Common high but line terminal current is low. Over voltage leading to Rare developing ground fault. Eddy current heating Common increases, Increase of noise. Abnormal heating, Common Winding damage, Oil break down and gas formation.

In our system transformer ratings up to 3 MVA are generally protected only by fuse. Fuses are over-current devices and must have ratings well above the maximum transformer load current in order to carry, without blowing, the short duration over loads that may occur because of such as motor starting, also the fuses must withstand the magnetising inrush current drawn when power transformers are energised. The protection provided for large capacity transformers are described hereunder 1) Temperature Relay : The temperature indicator is fitted with mercury switches fixed on the pointer, so that on temperature rise, the switch tilts and makes contact through mercury between two electrodes which are connected to electric to initiate proper action. Detection of over-heating is normally done by a) Oil Temperature Indicator (OTI) b) Winding Temperature Indicator (WTI) The winding temperature is indirectly obtained by measuring the top oil temperature by a Bourdon liquid expansion indicator mounted in a pocket, which also contains a heater element energised from a phase CT. The thermometer thus measures top oil temperature plus an increment proportional to load current.

Settings of WTI & OTI in WBSEB for several actions Protection System Alarm Trip 80oC 90 oC 90 oC 95 oC Fan ON 65 oC Cooling System Fan OFF Pump ON o 55 C 70 oC Pump OFF 60 oC

O.T.I. W.T.I.

2) Oil and Gas Devices : a) Boucholz Relay / Protective Surge Relay When a transformer is fitted with conservator, the formed gas within the transformer, flows towards the conservator where atmospheric pressure exists. Boucholz Relay is mounted in the pipe which has a slope between main tank and conservator. If the fault is of very minor nature, gases are liberated slowly and stream of gas bubbles flow towards conservator. But if there is violent evolution of gas, a sudden surge of oil flow towards the conservator followed by the gaseous products. Bucholz relay has two floats with mercury switches attached i) The upper float (for alarm) moves down when gas slowly accumulates on the upper part of the chamber (result of incipient fault, failure of lamination insulation / core bolt insulation / interturn fault). ii) A surge of oil however deflects the lower float (for trip) and closes mercury switch (indicating heavy fault / short circuits). In this case gas may not accumulate in relay. For a loss of oil condition also, both the floats make contacts of the corresponding mercury switch (low oil level condition). I.S.S. (Indian Standard Specification) 3637 1966 sets down the following figures relating to a Bucholz relay Nominal Pipe Bore (mm.) 25 50 80 Gas volume for alarm at 5 o pipe angle (cc) 90 165 175 225 200 300 Steady oil flow for trip at 1-9 o pipe angle (cm/sec) 70 130 75 140 90 160

N.B. 1. Often after initial energisation of transformer, the trapped air get released by vibration & warming up of the oil and operate the Bucholz Relay. To prevent this proper release of air from bushing turrets, radiators, tank-tops are required. 2. Oil surges also occur when the transformer feeds external short circuits and there is dynamic stress in the windings. Thus if Bucholz Relay is made very sensitive, there is chance of operation for fault outside the transformer.

Type of Relay Relay No. 2 3 21 25 27 Name Of The Relay Time delay relay Checking or interlocking relay Distance protection relay Synchronising / Syn. Check relay Under voltage check relay

30 32 37 40 46 49 50 50 N 51 51 N 52 52 a 52 b 55 56 59 60 64 67 68 74 79 80 86 87

Annunciation relay Directional power relay Under current or under power relay Field failure relay Reverse phase or phase balance current relay Machine or transformer thermal relay Instantaneous over-current relay Instantaneous earth-fault relay IDMT (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) O/C relay IDMT (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) E/F relay Circuit Breaker Circuit Breaker auxiliary contact N/O Circuit Breaker auxiliary contact N/C Power factor relay Field application relay Over voltage relay V / I balance relay REF (Restricted Earth Fault) Relay Directional O/C & E/F relay Blocking relay Supervision relay AC reclosing relay DC fail relay Lock out / Trip Differential relay

Protective Relays
Over Current Relay
Excessive current flow through an electrical circuit due to a fault in any part of the network or due to abnormal operating condition in the system, is most conveniently detected by overcurrent relays which operate when the magnitude of current through it exceeds a set value. These are again of the following types -

i) Instantaneous - time a few cycles only ii) Definite time - fixed intentional time delay independent of current magnitude iii) Inverse time - operating time decreases as actuating current increases. According to the characteristics, these are classified as a) Inverse, b) Very Inverse, c) Extremely Inverse. The most commonly used type of relays work on induction (electromagnetic) principle and develop torque proportional to I 2. Hence the torque increases rapidly with current, but beyond a certain value of current depending on the core construction, saturation sets-in and the induction decreases so that further increase of current does not increase the torque and the relay operating time levels out to a definite time. Such characteristic is known as Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT).

Fault Calculation
For determining the settings of relays a knowledge of the fault current that can flow through the network into the fault is necessary. Hence the data required for the setting study are : a) Single line diagram of the system with ratings and impedance of Generators, Transformers, Feeders with details of CTs and protective relays shown. b) Maximum and minimum of short circuit current expected to flow through each protective device. c) Characteristic curve of relays. d) Maximum peak load current through the protective device including starting current of motors, if supplied. The basic principle followed in relay settings is to allow shortest operating time for maximum fault current and then recheck the time co-ordination at minimum fault current. For the calculation of the fault current, the data of %IZ or the line impedance in ohms must refer to a common base MVA and base voltage level. With the above the network may be reduced to a single source with series impedance for ease in fault current calculation.

Base MVA is the 3-phase power Base voltage is line voltage in kV We know, MVA = 1000 . kV . I = 1000 . kV . ( V / Z ) = 1000 . kV . { ( kV / 1000 ) / Z } = ( kV )2 / Z So, Base Impedance = ( kV )2 / MVA Per unit impedance = (Actual Impedance) / (Base Impedance) = Z / {( kV )2 / MVA } = Z . (Base MVA) / (Base kV )2 Z p.u. (new base MVA) = Z p.u. (given base MVA) X [(new base MVA) / (given base MVA)] Z p.u. (new base kV) = Z p.u. (given base kV) X [(new base kV) / (given base kV)]2 Example :
10 Miles 0.6 / m 5 Miles 0.6 / m

132 kV Source

A
132 / 33 kV 50 MVA, 10% %%%%%%

33 / 11 kV 10 MVA, 7% % %%%%%

The h.v. source is assumed to have negligible source impedance. Converting all the impedance to a common base MVA of say 100 MVA, Tr. at D, % impedance on 100 MVA = 7 x (100 / 10) = 70 % = 0.7 p.u. Line BC, % impedance = (5 x 0.6 x 100) / 332 = 0.2754 p.u. Line AB, % impedance = (10 x 0.6 x 100) / 332 = 0.55 p.u. 50 MVA Tr., % impedance on 100 MVA = 10 x (100 / 50) = 20 % = 0.2 p.u. 2 x 50 MVA Tr. in parallel, % impedance on 100 MVA = 10 % = 0.1 p.u Fault Levels At Bus D = 100 / (0.7 + 0.2754 + 0.55 + 0.1) = 61.35 MVA At Bus C = 100 / (0.2754 + 0.55 + 0.1) = 107.53 MVA At Bus B = 100 / (0.55 + 0.1) = 153.85 MVA At Bus A, Maximum = 100 / 0.1 = 1000 MVA Minimum = 100 / 0.2 = 500 MVA Considering only one 50 MVA Tr. in service, the minimum fault levels are At Bus D = 57.9 MVA At Bus B = 97.5 MVA At Bus C = 133.3 MVA At Bus A = 500 MVA Location Fault MVA Maximum Minimum 1000 500 154 133.3 108 97.5 61.5 57.9 Fault Current, Amps. Maximum Minimum 17540 8770 2700 2340 1900 1710 1080 1010

A B C D Alternative Method : The same calculation of fault current could as well be done from ohmic values of the impedance in the circuit. Z in ohm = Z p.u. x kV2 / MVA For 50 MVA Tr. at 33 kV, Z = 0.1 x 332 / 50 = 2.18 For the transformers in parrel at 33 kV side, Z s = 1.09 Line AB, ZAB = 6 Line BC, ZBC = 3 For 10 MVA Tr. at 33 kV, Z T = .07 x 332 / 10 = 7.623 Fault at A at 33 kV side, I FA = (33 / 3) / 1.09 = 17480 amps. Fault at B, I FB = (33 / 3) / (6 + 1.09) = 2687 amps. Fault at C, I FC = (33 / 3) / (3 + 6 + 1.09) = 1888 amps. Fault at D at 33 kV side, I FD = (33 / 3) / (7.623 + 3 + 6 + 1.09) = 1075 amps. at 11 kV side, I FD = (11 / 3) / (7.623 + 3 + 6 + 1.09) = 3225 amps.

Selection Of CT Ratios :
The CT ratios for each section of the feeders are selected from the data of maximum load current flowing into the section. The settings of the protective relays should be safely

above the maximum load current and also the transient peak load but well below the minimum fault current.

Co-ordination For Phase Fault Protection :


For the system considered let us assume, Load from Bus C - 10 MVA Load from Bus B - 20 MVA Load from Bus A - 30 MVA
300 / 5 1200 / 5 10 Miles 0.6 / m 600 / 5 5 Miles 0.6 / m 200 / 5

132 kV Source

200 / 5

A
132 / 33 kV 50 MVA, 10% %%%%%%

B
20 MVA

33 / 11 kV 10 MVA, 7% % %%%%%

30 MVA

10 MVA load at 33 kV = 175 amps., 10 MVA load flowing through BC, 10 + 20 MVA load flowing through AB, 50 MVA Transformer, 33 kV side, 50 MVA Transformer, 132 kV side,

CT Ratio at C CT Ratio at B CT Ratio at A CT Ratio CT Ratio

200 / 5 200 / 5 600 / 5 1200 / 5 300 / 5

Depending on the amount of fault current the CT Ratio may have to be increased to prevent saturation.

Selection Of Relay Characteristic :


The relay at C possibly has to co-ordinate with fuses provided in the 11 kV circuits which generally have extremely inverse time-current characteristic, as such an extremely inverse relay is chosen. Time Grading- Phase Fault Relays Relay at Sub-Station C This relay has to co-ordinate with possibly fused sub-circuits from sub-station D i.e. it must allow time for faults in the 11 kV system to be cleared by fuses.
33 kV 200 / 5 11 kV

33 / 11 kV 10 MVA, 7% % %%%%%

Fuse

For a fault very close to a sub-circuit with a fuse of 200 amps., the current may be assumed to be the maximum fault current at Bus D at 11 kV. IFD =3225 amps. This current will result in 33 kV side, fault current of 1075 amps. Which will flow through CT at C in the transformer circuit. Typical characteristic of a 200 amps. Fuse is :

Operating Current (amps.) 500 1000 1200 2000 3000 6000

Operating Time (sec.) 300.0 3.0 1.0 0.2 0.07 0.01

The operating time may vary by about 30% whereas the relay operating time is assumed to vary by 10%. These are made additive for security and a further factor of safety of 0.15 sec. Is applied. Thus at the fault level of around 3000 amps., Operating time of fuse = 0.07 + (0.4 x 0.07) + 0.15 = 0.248 sec. 0.25 sec. Thus this time must elapse before the relay at C clears the fault at Sub-station D. Relay C Settings Maximum fault current through C for a fault at D = 1075 amps. So, CT Ratio 200 / 5. As a general guide for discrimination relay setting of approximately 3 times the fuse rating reffered to same voltage base is satisfactory. Hence 200 amp. Fuse at 11 kV is (1/3 x 200 ) amp. At 33 kV and ( 3 x 1/3 x 200 ) i.e. 200 amp. Is a satisfactory setting for relay at C. So, 100% current or plug setting is chosen i.e. 5 amp tap plug. The fault current is 1075/200 = 5.37 times tap value. Multiple of relay tap or plug setting multiplier = 5.37 For extremely inverse relay characteristic at Time Dial 1.0, relay operating time = 2 sec at 5.37 times tap. So, required time dial setting = 0.25/2 = 0.125, say 0.15 Minimum Current The pick up of relay C is set for 3 times the fuse rating referred to same voltage base. Let us check the operating time at 5 times fuse rating i.e. 1000 amp. At 1000 amp fuse operating time is 3 sec. 1000 amp at 11 kV corresponds to 333.3 amp at 33 kV. So, plug setting multiplier = 333.33/200 = 1.57 At this multiple of relay tap the operating time of the relay at time delay 1.0 is 20 sec. Hence, at time delay 0.15 it is 3 sec. So, there is sufficient co-ordination.

33 kV
10 Miles 0.6 / m 600 / 5

IDMT
5 Miles 0.6 / m 200 / 5

EXTREME INVERSE 200 / 5

11 kV

P 5.0 TD 0.3

P 5.0 TD .35

33 / 11 kV 10 MVA, 7% % %%%%% P 5.0 TD .15

20 MVA

Relay at Sub-Station B This relay has to co-ordinate with the relay at C and must allow time for faults at the 10 MVA Tr. h.v. bushings also to be cleared by relay C.

For a fault very close to the CT primary for relay C the fault current is the same as that at the bus C which is 1888 amps. The operating time for relay C at this current from extremely inverse characteristic is :-

Economics Of Different Types Of Power Stations


Particulars (1)
1. Site

Hydroelectric (2)
Ample quantity of water at sufficient head and possibility of constructing a dam to store water in the catchment area are decisive factors. Transportation facilities should also be available.

Thermal (3)
Generally located near the load centre but other factors such as - transportation of fuel, enough water for cooling the condensate, cost of land are also kept in view. Present thinking is to install thermal stations near coal mines.

Nuclear (4)

Diesel (5)

Located near the load centre. Can be installed anywhere. Easy transportation of nuclear fuel, availability of cooling water and disposal of radioactive waste determine the site for a nuclear power station.

2. Cost a) Initial cost

Initial cost is very high because Initial cost is lower than those Initial cost is highest because Initial cost is less as compared of dam construction and of hydroelectric and nuclear of huge investment on building to other plants. excavation work. power plants. a nuclear reactor. 13 % High 15 % Low 15 % Very high

b) Fixed cost per annum as a percentage of initial cost 10 % c) Variable cost i) Cost of fuel Particularly Nil ii) Transportation of fuel Nil

Very high specially when the Since quantity of fuel required Higher than nuclear stations but power stations are away from is very small, transportation lower than that for thermal coal mines and railway sidings. cost is low. stations. Higher as compared to hydro On the high side as skilled and Comparatively low. and diesel but comparable to well trained staff is required to nuclear stations. handle the equipment. Low except in the case of Low mine-head stations. 3 - 4 years 10 years Nil 1 - 3 months

iii) Maintenance cost iv) Transmission cost 3. Time required for completion

Comparatively low.

Very high About 7 - 8 years

(1)
4. Simplicity and cleanliness

(2)
Simple and clean

(3)
Causes air pollution. Disposal Clear

(4)
source of power Simpler

(5)
and cleaner than

5.

Field of application

generation. However, handling of equipment is complicated and nuclear wastes disposal is a major problem. Can be used to supply peak Generally used to supply base Used to supply base load as the load or base load load. reactors cannot be easily controlled to respond quickly to load changes.

of ash is another problem.

thermal plants.

6. Reliability 7. Limit of source of power

Simple, robust and most reliable Water is the source of power which is not dependable because of wide variations in the rainfall every year. Can be started instantly. Most efficient. Overall efficiency is about 85 %. Need a lot of space for civil engineering construction works such as dams. The building has to be much larger than that required for other types of plant.

Reliable

Reliable

Used as a standby to supply part of load in a power system when required. Also used to supply peak load demand in conjunction with hydro, thermal or nuclear stations which supply base load. Less reliable. Diesel is the source of power which is not available in huge quantity due to limited reserves. Can be started quickly. Efficiency is about 35 %. Normally of small sizes and need less space.

8. Starting 9. Overall efficiency

10. Space

Coal is the source of power The source of power is the which has limited reserves all nuclear fuel which is available over the world. in sufficient quantity. It is because small amount of fuel can produce huge power. Requires a lot of time for Can be started easily. starting Least efficient. Overall More efficient than steam efficiency is about 25 %. power station. Need much more space than Need less space as compared to Diesel electric stations but hydro and thermal stations. much less when compared with hydro stations. A huge space is required for storage of fuel (i.e. coal).

Earthing
Earthing is separated into two separate and distinct group :1. System and winding earthing 2. Equipment, structure and enclosure earthing. 1. System Earthing :- System earthing is associated with the problems of circuit functioning & performance and is essential in system design & equipment application problem. In an earthed system, the neutral point earthing is absolutely necessary to stabilise the neutral point of the system and hereby the system insulation is uniformly stressed under normal condition and the danger of overstressing under fault condition is reduced. In our system neutral point is solidly earthed. 2. Equipment Earthing or safety earthing :- The second type of earthing deals strictly with safety and accidental earthing of equipment structures and enclosure which could otherwise create hazard to personnel. Therefore for construction of a Sub-Station, system and equipment earthing is done in a proper manner by designing an Earth-mat in the area where Sub-station switchyard will be constructed

Effectively Earthed System


A system is said to be effectively earthed if under any fault condition the line to earth voltage on the healthy phase will not exceed 80 % of the system LINE TO LINE voltage. In general a system in which all the transformers have star connected windings with all neutrals solidly earthed (i.e. multiple earthed system) is regarded as effectively earthed. The system highest voltage is generally assumed as 110 % of the corresponding nominal system voltage. The co-efficient of earthing is defined as the ratio of the highest r.m.s. voltage to earth of sound phase at the point of application of an arrester during a line to earth fault to the highest line to line r.m.s. voltage expressed as a percentage of the latter voltage. Therefore it follows that the highest r.m.s. voltage to earth of sound phase equal to the highest line to line r.m.s. voltage multiplied by the co-efficient of earthing, i.e., Voltage Rating Of Arrester = Highest Line to Line r.m.s. Voltage X Co-efficient of earthing For effectively earthed system, the co-efficient of earthing is 0.8. So that, in a 132 kV effectively earthed system, Voltage rating of arrester = 132 X 1.1 X 0.8 = 116 kV

Soil Resistivity
The resistance to earth of an electrode of given dimensions is dependent upon the electrical resistivity of soil in which the electrode is installed. Type of soil largely determines its resistivity. Earth conductivity is however essentially electrolytic in nature and the same is affected by the moisture content of the soil and its chemical composition and concentration of salt dissolved in the contained water. Since soil resistivity rises sharply with fall of moisture content, it is essential to bury current carrying electrodes at such a depth that the surrounding soil is not affected by seasonal variations particularly drying out during dry weather. For measurement of resistivity of soil, WENNERs four electrode method is mostly used. Four probes are driven into the depth along a straight line at equal distances S apart, driven to a depth B. The voltage V between the inner (potential) electrodes is then measured and divided by the current I between the two outer electrodes. Then, = { 4 S ( V I )} [ 1 + {2S (S2 + L2 )} - {2S (4S2 + 4L2 )}]

Measurement Of Resistivity Of Soil And Earth Resistance 4 Point Megger

P1

P2

C1

C2

= (4 S R ) 2SR where, R S L = = = =

[ 1 + {2S (S2 + 4L2 )} - {2S (4S2 + 4L2 )}] [ when S >>> L, atleast S is 20 times greater than L ]

Soil resistivity in ohm-m Megger reading in ohm and is measure of V / I Electrode spacing in mts. Depth of burial of electrode in mts.

3 Point Megger

P1

P2

C1

C2

= { 4 S ( V I )} [ 1 + {2S (S2 + L2 )} - {2S (4S2 + 4L2 )}] 2SR [ when S >>> L, atleast S is 20 times greater than L ] where, R S L V I = Soil resistivity in ohm-m = Megger reading in ohm and is measure of V / I = Electrode spacing in mts. = Depth of burial of electrode in mts. = Voltage between two inner electrodes in Volts = Current flowing through two outer electrodes in Amp.

Dimensions Of Tower Superstructure

d1 d2 L d3

h1 h2 h3 d2 h d1

h1 h2

Double Circuit
Tower (kV) 220 D/C 132 D/C 132 S/C 66 D/C 66 S/C L (mts) 30.44 25.5 22.172 18.22 17.5 h1(mts) 6.93 5.19 5.787 3.81 5.5 h2 (mts) 4.90 4.0 4.0 2.44 2.2 h3 (mts) 4.90 4.0 2.44 -

Single Circuit
h (mts) 13.71 12.31 12.385 9.53 9.665 d1 (mts) 3.93 3.15 3.14 2.14 2.55 d2 (mts) 4.15 3.40 3.32 2.14 2.675 d3 (mts) 4.6 3.60 2.21 -

Datas Regarding E.H.V. Tower Lines

A. Types Of Tower
Tower (kV) 132 220 400

Suspension A Type 0 - 2 0 - 2 0 - 2 -

B Type 30 30 15 < 25 25 13.2 6.6 4 - 6

Tension C Type 60 60 30

D Type 60 - 90 60 - 90 60

B. Earth Footing Resistance Of Tower


400 kV line 220 kV line 132 kV line 66 kV line Below 66 kV line

Transformer Oil Characteristics

Diff. in 100 Temp. Factor 1.65 K

150 2

200 2.6

250 3.2

300 4.2

350 5

400 6.6

450 7

500 10.5

Filter Machine at Kaliompong NISHA Engineering Corporation 285E B.B.Ganguly Street, Calcutta-12. Model TOPL 100 Capacity 100 lts./hr. Heater 6 kW Sl. No. 87 / 10 / 05 HP Motor Capacity (Inlet / Outlet / Vaccum) Bus Pipe Specification 132 kV Bus 66 kV Bus 33 kV Bus 2 dia. Bus Pipe 2 dia. Bus Pipe 1 dia. Bus Pipe 73 mm. Outside dia. 57 mm. Outside dia. 45 mm. Outside dia.

Current Equivalent in Different System In 132 kV System In 66 kV System In 33 kV System In 11 kV System In 6.6 kV System 1 MVA 1 MVA 1 MVA 1 MVA 1 MVA 4.35 amp. 8.70 amp. 17.4 amp. 52.2 amp. 87.0 amp.

Conversion for Compensation 1 katha 1 bigha 1 acre 1 hector 720 sq. ft. 20 katha 0.4047 hector 2.471 acres 1338.29 sq. m. 10,000 sq. m.