This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CD 16.1 - GENERAL
Draft A B C D E F 0 1 2
Updated Updated Updated Updated Updated Updated Updated Tender Issue Updated Tender Issue
19 May 2004 3 July 2004 8 July 2004 12 July 2004 12 July 2004 16 July 2004 17 July 2004 19 July 2004 21 July 2004 20 September 2004 6 Oct 2005 3 Apr 2009
C Arnold C Arnold P Mondora L Santarossa P Mondora L Santarossa P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora
P Mondora P Mondora L Santarossa P Mondora L Santarossa P Mondora L Santarossa L Santarossa L Santarossa L Santarossa
P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora P Mondora L Santarossa
New Format Updated
L Santarossa L Santarossa
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 2
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND WIND SPEED ........................................................................................... 3 UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS ........................................................................................................................ 3 PROVEN DESIGN ............................................................................................................................................. 3 PLANT TRIPPING AND SHUTDOWN .......................................................................................................... 4 PROTECTION AGAINST THE ENVIRONMENT ....................................................................................... 4 MAINTAINABILITY ........................................................................................................................................ 4 ISOLATION OF EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................................... 4 MAINTENANCE STRATEGY ........................................................................................................................ 5 SPARES .............................................................................................................................................................. 5 MAINTENANCE LIFTING ............................................................................................................................. 5 APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE ...................................................................... 6 PLANT AND MACHINERY - FIELD INSTRUMENTATION .................................................................... 6 DESIGN APPROACH ....................................................................................................................................... 7 DESIGN INFORMATION ................................................................................................................................ 8 ENGINEERING AND DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS ................................................................ 9 EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION AND LABELLING .............................................................................. 10 DRAWINGS AND SCHEMATICS ................................................................................................................ 12 DETAIL DESIGN DEFINITION ................................................................................................................... 13 ENGINEERING DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION MILESTONES .................................................... 13 MANUALS........................................................................................................................................................ 15 TOOLS .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 NOISE ............................................................................................................................................................... 17 VIBRATION ..................................................................................................................................................... 20 WELDING ........................................................................................................................................................ 23 ACCESSWAYS ................................................................................................................................................ 26
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 3
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND WIND SPEED
All equipment shall be designed, manufactured and treated to provide reliability and durability under tropical climatic conditions. The plant is to be situated in a tropical area, which is occasionally subject to cyclone-force winds. Design wind loading for structures shall be in accordance with AS 1170.2 (latest Version) for cyclonic winds, Region C, with a mean return period of 50 years in Terrain Category 2. Appropriate height multipliers shall be used. Equipment shall be designed to operate in a humid, dust-laden tropical atmosphere with an ambient o temperature range of 0 to 50 C. The prevailing humidity can range from 0-100 % Relative Humidity. The site is also subject to occasional partial inundation by flooding. In order to protect new equipment from flood damage all equipment plinths shall be arranged so that the top concrete surface is a minimum of 300 mm above the Major Flood Height. Details of the AHD relating to the Major Flood Height are available from the Superintendent.
UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS
All units of measurement and symbols shall conform to the "Systeme International d'Unites" (SI units) for basic and derived units or names of units. Named Unit Length Area Volume Pressure Temperature Flowrate Kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity Power Energy Name Metre Hectare Litre Kilopascal Degree Centigrade Litres per second Stoke Poise Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Symbol m ha l kPa
l/s St P kW kWh
All equipment provided by the Contractor shall be of proven, current design and commercially available. All equipment shall be new, unused and of the highest quality available from the manufacturer. The Contractor shall not propose to provide equipment, which is not in regular commercial use in installations of scope and magnitude similar to this contract or for which local support (including spare parts) and/or services in Australia are not currently available.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 4
PLANT TRIPPING AND SHUTDOWN
Plant and equipment shall be designed so that when it and its associated systems trip offline or are shutdown they will do so in a fail-safe manner without consequential damage to the equipment or operating personnel.
PROTECTION AGAINST THE ENVIRONMENT
All materials shall be selected to minimise the potential for corrosion under their service and ambient conditions. Corrosion protection systems shall comply with Part 5 “Surface Protection” which is based on a "long term" classification (at least 15 years to first maintenance). Materials subject to corrosion, including all exterior equipment surfaces and structural steelwork, shall be protected with suitable coatings systems. Protection systems shall meet the requirements of the Contract Documents. Where the Contract does not stipulate a requirement for a particular item of plant then the protection system shall generally be to AS 2312-1984 "Guide to protection of iron and steel against exterior atmospheric corrosion", with exposure classed as "very severe" in terms of SAA Miscellaneous Publication MP 2312:1987.
The entire Facility shall be designed with provision for safe and ready maintenance access and for ease of maintenance as defined in clause 1.26.1. All routine maintenance shall be achievable from permanent work platforms with suitable access and safety devices (such as handrails, thermal insulation from hot parts, etc) Provisions for maintenance access and facilities shall comply with the relevant Australian Standards. A preventative maintenance concept shall be adopted for the design of mechanical and electrical elements, which could be expected to exhibit wear-out characteristics. All such maintenance activities must be planned by the Contractor to be in accordance with safety requirements and applicable laws and standards, and described in the maintenance manuals. It shall be practical to complete maintenance on redundant equipment items, or items not essential for maintaining continuous operation of the Facility, (eg. pumps, thermocouples, sensors) without reducing output of the Facility from full load. Where routine maintenance requires the isolation of steam or water that is hotter than 70°C or at a pressure >500kPa, the Contractor shall provide double block and bleed isolation valves on each potential supply source or alternatively drain valves shall be provided to give proof of isolation.
ISOLATION OF EQUIPMENT
It is the Superintendent’s philosophy that all equipment shall be positively isolated so that the equipment cannot operate or be placed in an unsafe state whilst personnel are performing maintenance tasks. This philosophy shall be maintained with all new equipment under the Contract.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 5
All isolation points, types of isolation, and numbering systems shall be agreed upon by the Superintendent. Any exemption to this requirement shall be discussed and agreed with the Superintendent. The Contractor shall design for safe and positive isolation of all new equipment during the installation, commissioning and ongoing maintenance. Positive isolation shall include removal of stored energy. The Contractor shall supply isolation procedures as part of the documentation. All isolation points shall be lockable via the Mill’s approved isolation system.
The Contractor shall prepare a program within the Contract nominating all maintenance activities required to be performed on the plant on site. The plan shall outline items that require inspection, the frequency of activities, the work required, tolerances requiring inspection and any additional requirements. The procedures shall include the criteria for replacement or maintenance of each component, including, but not limited to details on: • wear and corrosion • dimensional limits, • loss of position or adjustments required, • surface finish, • monitoring for evidence of fatigue and • number of cycles of operations.
The Contractor shall provide a comprehensive list of recommended spares to allow the Superintendent to have ready access of all items needed to maintain the system at a high level of availability. Further, this degree of availability shall be consistent with the typical use of the plant within quality factory operations. The Contractor shall furnish the scope of maintenance spare parts, which the Superintendent should procure in order to permit expedient repairs of critical equipment items. The spares listings shall contain full details including individual part numbers, prices, supplier details, and typical availability/lead times for each listed part. A “piecemeal” approach to the supply of and layout of the Spare Parts listing shall be rejected.
1.10 MAINTENANCE LIFTING
All plant components or assemblies weighing more than 35 kg which may or will require periodic inspection, testing, overhaul, or replacement (such as valves, gearboxes, pumps, heat exchangers,
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 6
actuators, conveyor components and the like) shall be supplied with an overhead monorail and/or lifting lug to allow the item to be safely moved to the nearest main platform. This requirement shall be waived only where an overhead crane is readily available for carrying out such lifting duties and where the use of the overhead crane is practical for the specific item of plant, or where the specific item or plant can be readily accessed by the site mobile crane or forklift. The identification of this mobile equipment shall be obtained from the Superintendent. Each item of plant shall be considered individually when assessing the requirements of this clause. The Contractor shall nonetheless install a monorail and/or lifting lugs above each item of plant which is adjacent to or under an overhead crane but which still requires ‘pre-lifting’ to make the item easily accessible and safe to lift with the overhead crane. The configuration and length of any monorails shall be sufficient to enable the ready transfer of these plant items from their operating location to the nearest major platform from where a hoist or mobile crane can easily lower the item to ground level for removal by mobile plant. Access to monorails and lifting lugs for the purposes of setting up and fitting monkeys, chain blocks, and shackles shall be from permanent platforms.
1.11 APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE
The design, manufacture, erection and operation of equipment shall comply with latest revisions of the relevant Australian Standards and codes as appropriate for the application and service, and additionally with the local CSR site policy or requirements of any Statutory or Local Authority having jurisdiction over the equipment. Where more than one standard applies, or equipment is manufactured to standards other than those listed, the more stringent standard shall apply. For equipment manufactured overseas that may not comply with Australian Standards and Codes an appropriate International Standard shall be demonstrated to be equivalent to or better than to the Superintendent.
1.12 PLANT AND MACHINERY - FIELD INSTRUMENTATION
The Contractor shall provide a sufficient level of local instrumentation for all machine components and plant to provide for the field monitoring of plant condition to ensure a high level of safety, reliability, and operability. This requirement is in addition to any other requirements for the provision of instrumentation for remote monitoring and control of the plant. Local instrumentation shall be via high quality transducers and readouts to measure and display important temperatures, pressures, differential pressures, flow rates, and any other machine parameters that the user would or should reasonably need to monitor. As a minimum the Contractor shall provide field instrumentation to the extent and quality of that normally provided on plant of a similar size and nature in other similar plants.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 7
1.13 DESIGN APPROACH
Equipment shall be of a standard design for the specified duty in accordance with the best proven technology for the industry with the additional requirements, if any, as required by this Specification. Equipment shall be designed with emphasis on safety, efficiency, reliability and maintainability. Where practicable all components of manufactured equipment shall be manufactured or be readily available in Australia. As moderately high pressure water hoses are used to maintain a satisfactory level of housekeeping, all equipment shall be designed to be proofed against the ingress of water during high pressure water wash-down, unless otherwise specified in the Contract, or agreed with the Superintendent. Components shall be designed to surpass the fatigue life of mechanical components and structural components that are susceptible to cyclic loading that may otherwise lead to fatigue cracking of welds and other mechanical failures. Steel sections and welds shall be designed for a minimum of 10 number of cycles to Section 11 of AS 4100. Machines and their components shall be designed for a 100,000 hour life at full load, under the most severe operating conditions to which the plant will be subjected. Items not operating continuously may be offered for less hours of operation subject to the Superintendent’s approval. Exempt from this criteria are those components that are routinely maintained for wear, e.g. drive chains, drive belts, conveyor belt skirting rubbers, wearing surfaces and the like. From a corrosion and surface protection point of view structures, machines and their components shall be designed for a minimum useful life of 25 years with consideration given to environmental and service influences. All mechanical plant shall be designed such that there shall be less than one chance in ten that any particular item will fail before the nominated life (ie L10 life design approach shall be used) All equipment shall be mounted on rigid bases and structures to reduce vibration during operation unless there are specific reasons for mounting on resilient pads etc which shall be agreed with the Superintendent. The design and erection of structures shall also reflect this requirement. Mechanical equipment shall be designed to prevent thrust loads being transmitted to the motor through the coupling. Adequate end float shall be provided where required. Operating speed ranges of components shall be selected to meet the manufacturer’s recommendations as well as to suit the requirements of the mill operating conditions. All service and application factors shall be applied to rated maximum motor or prime mover power, speed, and torque unless otherwise nominated in the appropriate Specification. Sheaves, chain wheels, couplings and mechanical transmission components shall be bored, keyed (where appropriate) to the appropriate tolerances and shop fitted prior to shipment. Drives shall be designed to prevent the temperature of lubricants, bearings and gears rising above their respective design limits under the worst case operating conditions. Adjustments shall be provided to maintain correct belt and chain tension
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 8
The designer shall design and select components with a view to maximising their efficiency from a consumed power standpoint whilst still meeting other requirements for machine durability. Equipment shall be designed with generous drainage angles or drains to prevent the accumulation of spilled material, dust and water. Equipment shall be provided with drip trays to collect process contaminants and dangerous fluids for subsequent removal through drain points. The method of cooling for heat exchangers (ie the choice of the cooling medium) shall be subject to the Superintendent’s approval.
1.14 DESIGN INFORMATION
The Contractor shall submit for the Superintendent’s review a summarised written copy of salient design information to enable the Superintendent to effectively maintain and operate the plant. This information shall be provided in a timely manner during the design phase of the Contract and shall allow the Superintendent a reasonable review period within the constraints of the overall program. The Superintendent shall undertake their review in an expedient manner. The Contractor shall not order any items or continue with subsequent design stages until the Superintendent has reviewed and accepted in writing the concepts, plant layout, sizing, and plant selection offered for review by the Contractor. Design information that the Contractor shall submit for the Superintendent’s review shall include, but not be limited to, the listing detailed below: Basic assumptions, material characteristics, material properties, material parameters, standards and codes used and specific performance requirements for all plant eg. − 1) for pressure vessels – the basic design parameters, the minimum thickness, corrosion allowance and nominal installed thickness; − 2) for machined shafts - the basic design parameters including factors of safety, minimum diameters, corrosion allowances (where applicable), − 3) pumping and piping systems – basic design parameters ( including pumped medium temperature, density and viscosity, system pressures, flow rates, pressure drops minimum pipe thicknesses, corrosion allowance and nominal installed thickness). Ambient conditions used for design purposes, including; temperature, relative humidity and wet bulb temperature. The Contractor shall relate these items back to the Contract Specifications where they are relevant. Design Life, including operating hours at maximum load and design life in years. The Contractor shall relate these items back to the Contract Specifications where they are relevant. Corrosion allowance for plant and equipment. Full details of proprietary plant proposed for the Contract, including Manufacturer, country of manufacture, model number, performance specification, and other relevant details.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 9
The items of plant and equipment to which the submission of design information applies shall include, but not be limited to: 1. Earthworks, excavations, and site drainage systems 2. Structural and plant footings, foundations, and floors 3. Cane bin handling equipment 4. Conveyors 5. Prime movers powered systems (including electric motor, hydraulic, and steam turbine powered systems) 6. Pumps 7. Fans 8. Stirrers 9. Ploughing and scraping equipment 10. Boilers 11. Piping systems, including gaseous and liquid fluids 12. Pneumatic and hydraulic systems 13. Heat exchangers of all types, including cooling towers 14. Bins and silos 15. Tanks 16. ‘Stand alone’ ancillary equipment 17. Structures 18. Any lifting equipment, including monorails Notwithstanding the Superintendent’s review of Contractor-supplied design information, the Contractor shall maintain full responsibility for ensuring that the Works within the Contract meet the full range of specified requirements for performance, function, timing, and any other matters within the Contract.
1.15 ENGINEERING AND DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
1.15. 1 GENERAL
All documentation shall be supplied in English. Documents shall be divided into sections and contain a table of contents where applicable.
As a minimum, the following formal design review meetings shall be held within the Contract program:
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 10
Basic design review meeting Detail design review meeting Design review meetings shall be held at the Superintendent’s premises. The Contractor shall make due allowance for personnel including their Contract Manager, designers, engineers, drafters, and other relevant personnel from both Contractor and Superintendent to attend the Superintendent’s site for each of the design meetings, to permit those present to be able to resolve all design issues in a timely manner..
In addition to the formal design reviews, the Superintendent will conduct ongoing reviews of the Contractor’s design. These reviews shall be the subject of ongoing correspondence between the Superintendent and Contractor and both parties shall acknowledge the need for timely response to these items as they arise. The Contractor shall submit drawings and other documentation for review by the Superintendent in accordance with the Contract program as per Clause 18. The basic design drawings and functional description shall be supplied within 20 (twenty) working days of Contract award, or receipt of letter of intent to award. Calculations that are required to meet statutory requirements and the requirements specified in the Contract shall be provided in accordance with the Contract program.
1.16 EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION AND LABELLING
1.16. 1 GENERAL
Each item of plant including valves, vessels, field devices and drives shall be durably and legibly labelled, indicating the purpose, plant identification number and where necessary any operating position functions. Each shall have a unique number based on the CSR standard plant identification system. The CSR plant identification coding structure will be supplied to the Contractor within 2 weeks of Contract award. Within 8 weeks of acceptance of the general arrangement drawings, P&ID’s and general access provisions, the Contractor shall provide to the Superintendent the ‘draft’ listing of identification numbers and plant descriptions for review and acceptance. The Superintendent will undertake to complete this review in a timely manner. The description and number of each item of plant shall be consistently applied throughout the Contract in all drawings, manuals, documents and labels.
1.16. 2 NAMES, FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS AND PLANT IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS
The Contractor shall determine names, function descriptions and plant identification numbers consistent with the Superintendent’s Plant Identification System
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 11
Whilst the Superintendent’s Plant Identification System is intended to be comprehensive, the Contractor may experience difficulty in some cases. In those cases the Contractor shall submit names function descriptions and numbers to the Superintendent for approval before use. The Contractor shall provide this information as an electronic list.
The Contractor shall supply and install labels to facilitate effective operation and maintenance of equipment supplied under the Contract. Labels shall be conspicuous without being obtrusive and shall be capable of being read by the user when viewed from a normal working position. The plant to be labelled shall include, but not be limited to the items described below: • • • Plant items such as fan units, feed water heaters, conveyors, heat exchangers, mills, pressure vessels, pump sets, tanks, valves and piping. Measurement and control circuits and the associated tapping points, instrument and control devices and instrument panels. Electrical equipment and devices, distribution boards, control cubicles and associated controls, switchboards, transformers, local control stations, solenoid, marshalling and junction boxes. Labels/signage identifying safety, hazardous and dangerous goods (including flammable and toxic gases), acids and alkalis shall be in accordance with relevant Australian Standards e.g. AS 1216 – 1995, Class labels for dangerous goods, AS 1319 – 1994 – Safety Signs for the occupational environment.
Unless due to limitations of available space, it is necessary to use abbreviations, than the preferred abbreviations supplied by the Superintendent shall be used. Should the Contractor consider the form, or abbreviation is not suitable for a specific application, he shall submit alternatives for consideration by the Superintendent. Where several items are mounted together in a common panel, a group labelling philosophy shall be adopted. That part of the inscription, which is common to the whole group should appear on a label identifying the panel, the remainder of each inscription should appear on a label attached/adjacent to each item in the group. Similarly where a group of items, mounted other than in a common panel, can be reasonably labelled as a group, that part of the inscription which is common to the whole group shall appear on the label relating to the dominant item in that group.
Aluminium or stainless steel plate of 1.2 mm minimum thickness shall be used.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 12
All labels shall be firmly fixed by means of suitable attachments. Clamps, brackets, backing plates and other attachment devices including bolts, rivets and screws, shall be stainless steel.
The Contractor shall submit for approval, a list showing the inscription (in the form that it will appear on the label), type, size and fixing method he proposes to use for each label.
All labels shall be supplied and fixed before commissioning of the plant begins.
SPECIAL LABELLI NG
The identification of control equipment e.g. push buttons, relays, switches, etc., cubicles and of control, protection and monitoring circuits is extremely important. In such areas, the Contractor shall submit proposed details for the approval of the Superintendent.
All pipework shall be identified in accordance with the PSM Pipe Identification Schedule and with AS 1345 Rules for the Identification of Piping Conduits and Ducts.
MANUFACTURERS NAME PLATES
The Contractor will be permitted to attach Maker’s nameplates to the works. Nameplates shall be discrete and mounted at low level so that they may be easily seen by visitors to the Sugar Mill. Large nameplates affixed at high level will not be permitted.
CONFINED SPACE LABELS
To ensure compliance with the Australian Standard AS2865 - Safe Working in a Confined Space the Superintendent requires that all entry points to Confined Spaces have the Australian Standards Danger Symbol “Danger Confined Space Restricted Access” sign permanently placed at each entry point. The Contractor shall identify all confined spaces as per AS2865 and attach signage to meet CSR Sugar’s requirements. These signs shall be located in a position that is clearly visible at all times, for example above manhole doors so that when the door is open, vision is not obstructed in any way. Signs shall be made from aluminium plate with a minimum dimension of 225 x 110 x 1.2 mm and attached using screws or rivets.
1.17 DRAWINGS AND SCHEMATICS
All drawings shall be supplied in the English language in accordance with the Superintendent’s requirements.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 13
All drawings supplied for review shall be typically A1 size paper copies or electronic file copies in pdf format and marked “Not For Construction” on both hard copy and electronic media. Final drawings shall be supplied marked as “as-built” drawings. Final drawings shall be supplied as full-size (typically A1 size) hard copy drawings and AutoCAD.DWG drawing files or pdf format, in accordance with the Superintendent’s standard drawing format and marked as “as-built” drawings on both hard copy and electronic media. In addition to the plant general arrangement and detail drawings, diagrams, P&ID’s, and PFD’s included within the Operating and Maintenance Manuals, the Contractor shall provide: A large-scale, fully labelled, general arrangement drawing of the installation, including sufficient sectional views to indicate the main features of the plant design, and with the various services (such as water, steam, air and process fluids) defined in contrasting colours. This drawing shall be mounted in a glazed frame and shall be hung in a location to be nominated by the Superintendent.
1.18 DETAIL DESIGN DEFINITION
The detail design shall fully describe how the equipment is to be supplied, manufactured, installed, commissioned, operated and maintained. The detail design shall include:1. General arrangement drawings 2. Detail drawings sufficient to maintain and operate the equipment 3. Bills of materials 4. Dimensions and tolerances for all equipment 5. Material specifications for all components 6. Listing of proprietary equipment 7. Spare parts ordering details including unique part numbers 8. Installation procedures and instructions 9. Electrical wiring schematic diagrams, including ladder diagrams 10. Pneumatic and hydraulic schematic and detail diagrams 11. Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID’s) 12. Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) 13. Detailed description of control philosophy for all plant
1.19 ENGINEERING DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION MILESTONES
The following requirements describe the process of “Sign Off” required under the Contract. Any exemption or modification to this process will be subject to approval by the Superintendent.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 14
“SIGN OFF” OF BASIC DESIGN
The deliverables for this stage shall be: Final functional description Basic design drawings and documentation The pre requisites for the Superintendent to sign off on this stage shall be: Basic design and functional description reviewed and accepted by the Superintendent Documentation (amended where necessary) to reflect the agreed design and submitted in accordance with the Superintendent’s format requirements The methodology to be followed for the sign off of this stage shall be: Formal review meetings between the Superintendent and the Contractor following the Contractor’s submission to the Superintendent of all relevant Documentation for review. Formal sign off of documentation by both parties Commence detail design under Contractor’s scope
“SIGN OFF” OF DETAIL DESIGN
The deliverables for this stage shall be: Detail design, drawings, and documentation. The pre requisites for the Superintendent to sign off on this stage shall be: Detail design and documentation reviewed and accepted by the Superintendent. Documentation (amended where necessary) to reflect the agreed design requirements and submitted in accordance with the Superintendent’s format requirements. The methodology to be followed for the sign off of this stage shall be: Formal review meeting between the Superintendent and the Contractor following the Contractor’s submission to the Superintendent of all relevant Documentation for review. Formal sign off of documentation by both parties. Commence manufacture of equipment under the Contractor’s scope.
1.19. 3 “SIGN OFF” OF SUBMISSION OF PRELIMINARY VERSIONS OF MANUALS
The deliverables for this stage shall be: Preliminary versions of installation, commissioning, training and operating and maintenance manuals within the Contractor’s scope. The pre requisites for the Superintendent to sign off on this stage shall be:
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 15
Preliminary versions of installation, commissioning, training and operating and maintenance manuals reviewed and accepted by the Superintendent and to be the subject of a formal review meeting, should the Superintendent require this. Manuals documentation amended to reflect the agreed design and submitted in accordance with CSR Sugar’s format requirements.
1.19. 4 “SIGN OFF” OF SUBMISSION OF AS BUILT DRAWINGS AND DOCUMENTATION
The deliverables required for this stage shall be: As built functional description As built design drawings and documentation As built operating and maintenance manuals The pre requisites for the Superintendent to sign off on this stage shall be: As built documentation reviewed and accepted by the Superintendent As built documentation amended to reflect the as built condition of the plant and submitted in accordance with the Superintendent’s format requirements The methodology to be followed for the sign off of this stage shall be: Formal review meeting between the Superintendent and the Contractor Formal sign off of documentation by both parties
1.20. 1 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS
The Contractor shall furnish 2 (two) complete hard copy sets and 1 (one) complete electronic set (as detailed below) of the Operating and Maintenance Manuals for all plant and equipment within the Contract. The soft (ie electronic) copy of the full set of Manuals shall include the supply of Word, Excel and DWG files. Where Word, Excel or DWG files are unavailable or it is impractical to supply them, then it is acceptable to supply the Superintendent with a .pdf file. The Manuals shall provide via text, data lists, drawings, diagrams, catalogues and other data, all information, which the Superintendent will require in order to properly operate and maintain the plant. This information shall include but shall not be limited to: Detailed description of the overall plant arrangement and interactions between sub-groups of plant. Schedules detailing the performance of the total plant (eg a boiler), groups within the plant (eg a fan within a boiler), and individual plant items within the groups (eg gearbox specifications as part of a boiler fan transmission)
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 16
All procedures required and recommendations for preparing the plant for entering or re-entering service. All procedures required and recommendations for safe and efficient start-up, operation and shut-down. Emergency situations and procedures for dealing with them. Recommended on-line and off-line maintenance procedures. Recommended procedures for storing the equipment between operating seasons. Schedules of recommended lubricants and other consumables. Product and maintenance data for all auxiliary plant items and proprietary equipment. Diagrammatics, schedules, P&ID’s, and PFD’s for all systems, which clearly identify all components and their functions. Performance data and curves for fans, pumps, prime movers, heat exchangers and other relevant equipment. Electrical wiring diagrams. Detailed control descriptions. Rectification and repair techniques and precautions. The Manual shall be written wholly in the English language. Text shall be arranged clearly and unambiguously. In each set, one volume of the Manual shall be the master volume and shall contain a table of contents for all volumes. Each separate volume shall contain a table of its own contents. All pertinent cross-references shall be given. Binders shall be highly durable. Identification labelling shall be applied to the front cover and to the spine of each volume. Labelling shall be permanently affixed and non-erasable. Pages shall be firmly retained by brass screws or by other durable clamping system. The Manual volumes shall comprise a matched set. All items relating to the safety of personnel shall be prominently highlighted. The Manual shall relate specifically to the plant and equipment within the scope of the Contract. No procedure or description shall be "typical" only; the relevance of any typical data to the Contract shall be made clear. The maintenance manual shall specify the maintenance schedule for the equipment commencing with the largest replaceable unit (eg fan) and ending with the individual component parts (eg seals). Where the details of proprietary items are illustrated by the inclusion of suppliers' multi-product catalogues, the particular items installed in this Contract shall be clearly identified in the catalogue. Prior to commencement of commissioning, the Contractor shall furnish a substantially complete preliminary issue of the proposed Manual for the Superintendent's review and approval.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 17
The final version of the Manual shall contain all amendments necessary to account for the as-built, as-commissioned condition of the installation.
The Contractor shall supply a Commissioning Manual 28 days prior to the commencement of commissioning for the Superintendent’s review and approval. The commissioning manual shall include: The program of events during commissioning A narrative of commissioning activities carried out each day of the commissioning campaign All performance testing requirements A section detailing the daily log to which significant events, both planned and unplanned, which occurred during the commissioning campaign shall be entered. A section detailing those difficulties encountered during the commissioning and plant/equipment deficiencies, and how these difficulties and deficiencies were overcome or corrected. A section on the Performance Testing of the plant, including logs of all relevant performance parameters over an extended period of time. A section detailing the Performance Guarantee Tests and Results carried out, including witnessing signatures by the Superintendent’s Representative. A copy of the Vibration Tests for the plant. A copy of the report detailing the methodology and results of plant/equipment noise tests. The Contractor shall note that Practical Completion shall not be granted until the Commissioning Manual has been provided.
The Contractor shall supply the requisite number of special tools (that is, those beyond the normal scope of tradesmen's toolkits), which are required for operation and routine maintenance of the plant and its ancillary equipment. The application of each such special tool shall be clearly identified. The Tender shall list the special tools included in the proposal.
1.22. 1 INTENT
The intent of this section is that plant and machinery supplied installed or operated under this specification shall be tested to ensure compliance with CSR Sugar Mills’ requirements for plant and machinery noise limitations, the requirements of the Workplace Health and Safety Act and Regulations and Queensland Workplace Health & Safety Advisory Standard for Noise and generally outlined in AS 1269: “Hearing Conservation”, AS 1081 “Acoustics – Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Rotating Electrical Machinery ”, as well as all requirements under the Environmental Protection Act (Noise).
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 18
PERMISSIBLE NO ISE LEVELS
The equivalent continuous ‘A’ weighted sound pressure level produced by any machine or group of machines shall not exceed 85 dBA during any and all operating conditions. This shall include full or partial loading, start-up, shutdown, trip and any other conditions in which the plant is designed to operate. Where plant operations are cyclic or intermittent (eg. full yard/tippler operations, boiler soot blowing, air compressor cycles etc.) the equivalent continuous ‘A’ weighted sound pressure level shall be based on either the maximum design duty cycle at the higher noise level, or 25% operating time at the higher noise level, whichever is the greater. For plant which produces higher noise levels during certain transient operating sequences such as start-up, shut-down, trips, venting, etc., the equivalent continuous ‘A’ weighted sound pressure level based on two occurrences in an 8 hour period shall not exceed 90 dBA. These events shall not exceed 2 minutes’ duration. This higher level may only be applied for events that on average will not occur more frequently than once in 5 days. The measurement shall be based on the integration of the transient noise events with the normal maximum continuous noise from the plant. (AS 2659 Part 2 “Guide to the Use of Sound Measuring Equipment”). Where noises involve short duration transients, no item of plant shall produce levels that result in maximum readings exceeding 110 dBA for a sound level meter ‘slow’ response setting. (Ref. AS 2659) Plant shall operate at less than the specified noise levels specified above, for any measurement location at a distance of one metre or greater from the plant item or group of items. In the testing of noise level on equipment, the noise level shall be measured with a sound level meter on slow response at a distance of 1 metre from the equipment surface. If a slow response is inadequate to determine the noise level of an item of plant due to it producing brief noise ‘spikes’ then a faster response shall be used. The meter shall comply with the requirements of AS 2659 Part 11988 and Part 2-1983; whichever Part is applicable for the piece of equipment or application in question. The noise levels produced under any load condition between no load and full load shall not exceed the following levels which correspond to Noise Rating Number NR80 as defined as AS 1469-1983 “Methods for Determination of Noise Rating Numbers”.
Octave Band Mid Frequency HZ Sound Pressure Level (dB) re 2 x 10 - 5 Pa
The Contractor shall require their Suppliers to provide noise measurements on identical installed equipment prior to purchase and shall advise the Superintendent where specified noise levels are exceeded by that installation.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 19
The item or group of items under test shall meet the specified noise levels under any and all operating conditions. This shall include full or partial loading, start-up, shutdown, trip and any other conditions in which the plant is designed to operate.
Tests shall be conducted by an independent, approved testing authority at the Contractor’s expense. Test procedures and techniques shall comply with those outlined in AS 1269 and AS 2659 Parts 1 and 2. Sound Level Meters used shall conform to AS 2659 and shall have an integrating facility for the evaluation of equivalent continuous ‘A’ weighted sound pressure levels. Field calibration shall be performed before, during, and after tests at no more than 4 hourly intervals, using acoustical reference standards of + 0.3 decibel accuracy. Test results shall be assembled in a report conforming to AS2659, and a copy of the results shall be provided by the Contractor to the Superintendent. A copy of the report shall be included in the Commissioning Manual.
ALLOWANCE FOR AMBIENT NOISE
The measured levels may be corrected for the contribution of other “background” sound sources in accordance with AS 2659. However, ancillary equipment provided by the Contractor shall not be considered as part of the “background” sound source.
If test results exceed the specified noise level, the Contractor shall at their own expense carry out corrective treatment. Such corrective treatment shall in no way impede proper function of the item, maintenance activities, proper ventilation, heat dissipation or reasonable access.
Some noises are unavoidable on a construction site, but many can be reduced by the use of standard control measures. The Contractor shall take all practical measures to minimise site noise, using AS 2436 “Guide to Noise Control on a Construction Site” as a guideline. Wherever possible “silenced” tools shall be employed. Noise control devices such as covers and mufflers shall be maintained in good repair. Unavoidable noise such as that from jackhammers, grinders, heavy equipment and the like, shall be programmed to occur at times to minimise noise annoyance to others. If a particular noise is deemed by the Superintendent to be unnecessary the Contractor shall abate the noise. The Contractor shall comply with their obligations under the Workplace Health and Safety Act and Regulations for the protection of all personnel in the vicinity against noise-induced hearing damage.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 20
This section sets out methods for measuring vibration severity and for assessing the acceptable vibrations on items of equipment including rotating machinery, pipework and ductwork, and structures subject to dynamic loading, including mobile plant when it is supplied or installed under this specification/contract:
The intent of this section is to ensure that machinery and plant supplied under this Specification operates in a safe and acceptable manner with respect to vibrations generated by the plant. The plant shall operate so as to comply with the requirements of the Workplace Health & Safety Act and Regulations and Queensland Workplace Health & Safety Advisory Standard and all requirements under the Environmental Protection Policy. The acceptability or otherwise of vibration in this context will be evaluated in relation to one or more of the following criteria: Vibration levels shall be equal to or less than internationally accepted good practice; Vibration levels shall not be such as may result in premature failures or accelerated deterioration of plant; Vibrations generated shall not adversely affect the surrounding plant or office environments, or adversely affect the life or operation or adjacent plant or machinery or personnel working in the vicinity.
1.23. 2 ACCEPTABLE LIM ITS OF VIBRATION FOR ROTATING PLANT
Acceptable limits of vibration shall, in general, be assessed in accordance with AS 2625 “Mechanical Vibration – Evaluation of Machine vibration” (or ISO 2372, where appropriate). Under no condition of usual operation shall the vibration of any machine exceed the “A” quality vibration level of AS 2625 (or ISO 2372) for the appropriate machine classification. This requirement does not preclude the use of regional or industrial standards. However, if the Contractor prefers to use a standard other than AS 2625 then the Contractor shall state the standard to which each item of plant shall be manufactured and the vibration levels which shall be achieved. The Contractor shall nominate at least five separate installations where plant of similar size, manufactured to the alternative standard, has been in satisfactory service for more than two years. The Contractor’s use of Standards other than AS 2625 and ISO 2372 is subject to the Superintendent’s approval.
1.23. 3 ACCEPTABLE LIM ITS OF VIBRATION FOR NONROTATING PLANT
The Superintendent is unaware of the existence of a standard for acceptable vibration levels for non-rotating plant such as pipe work, ductwork and structures. Therefore, the Contractor shall assess each individual case separately. The assessment shall be based on a determination of dynamic stresses, wear and external effects caused by the vibration. These and other working stresses shall be related to material properties and a required operating and fatigue life in excess of 25 years.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 21
Vibration levels of the Non-Rotating Plant shall be to the satisfaction of the Superintendent.
The Contractor shall measure and record the vibrations of the following items: all rotating machinery pipework and ductwork nominated by the Superintendent structures nominated by the Superintendent Boiler furnace/Rear pass walls/Other ductwork The Superintendent shall be invited to be present whenever vibration measurements are being made. A copy of the measurements shall be forwarded to the Superintendent. The Superintendent may have measurements carried out independently in which case all results will be made available to the Contractor. Should any measurements exceed the allowable level/s, the Contractor shall modify the plant and remeasure vibration levels. All modifications and remeasuring shall be at the Contractor’s expense.
1.23. 5 VIBRATION PARAMETER S AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
For rotating plant the vibration shall be measured at all bearings in the horizontal, vertical and axial direction. In each case measurements shall be made on surfaces which are rigidly connected to the bearing housings. For machines operating at speeds above 600 rpm or for slower speed machines where significant vibration occurs above 10 Hz frequency, the vibration shall be measured as the root mean square (RMS) velocity. For machines operating at speeds below 600 rpm the vibration shall be measured as the timeaveraged displacement amplitude. For non-rotating plant, including pipe work, ductwork, and structural elements, vibration shall be measured as the displacement mode shape. Sufficient measurement points shall be chosen, to the satisfaction of the Superintendent, to define completely the motion of the component in three coordinate directions and to discriminate between rigid-body and distortion components. For non-rotating plant, the time response of the vibration shall also be measured. If the vibration is at steady state then the time-averaged amplitude (+ and -) and oscillation frequency shall be measured. If the vibration is transient, peaks shall be measured.
INSTRUMENTATI ON AND ACCURACY
Measuring instrumentation shall comply with AS 2625 (or ISO 2372, where appropriate). Measurement accuracy shall be within +/- 5%. Instrument calibration certificates shall be furnished to the Superintendent and/or field calibration checks described in the test report.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 22
1.23. 7 OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR ROTATING PLANT UNDER TEST
Where plant usually operates at a constant speed, vibration measurements shall be made at that speed and under conditions of no load, half load, and full load. If the results of the no load, half load, and full load tests have a relative difference of more than 40%, additional plant load tests shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the Superintendent to define load dependence. Where plant usually operates over a range of speeds the plant shall have vibration measurements made on it at no load and full load over a range of speeds. Vibration load dependence shall be checked as for plant which usually operates at a constant speed. The Contractor shall perform any tests necessary, to the satisfaction of the Superintendent, to prove the absence of any resonance behaviour in all plant, structures, and foundation/soil systems.
TEST CONDITIONS FOR NON-ROTATING PLANT
The Superintendent will stipulate test conditions under which vibration measurements are to be carried out on non-rotating plant.. Generally the tests will be made at usual operating conditions and where appropriate a resonance search will be required.
Vibration measurements shall be recorded and included in a test report. The report of the plant in its final installed condition shall be included in the final operating and maintenance instructions. This record shall include the following : Contract reference; Drawing showing measuring positions; Statement of operating conditions; Instrumentation used including characteristics such as band width and time constants together with manner of calibration and measurement accuracy; Test results (units to be indicated).
PLANT DATA PROVISION
The Contractor shall provide all information gained from the manufacturer that will facilitate Vibration Analysis. This information will include, but not be limited to, data on rotating components such as: 1. Bearing designation 2. Number of gear and pinion teeth on each shaft 3. Number of internal teeth, splines or drive pins in couplings 4. No of blades in fan runners or centrifugal pump impellors
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 23
1.25. 1 GENERAL
All welding shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant and latest codes applicable to the works and as defined in the Contract Specifications and Drawings. All welding shall follow the requirements in the Queensland Health and Safety Welding Advisory Standard (WTIA Technical Note No. 7 Health & Safety in Welding). Australian Standards shall be applied wherever possible but where alternative Standards are offered the Contractor shall nominate the alternative standards for approval by the Superintendent prior to their use.
Welding Procedures shall be carried out in accordance with the appropriate Standards. The Contractor shall document fully, all welding procedures, including test results. Where welding is required and procedures are not specified by any Standard, the Contractor shall provide the procedure to be used. The responsibility for any welding procedure to provide satisfactory welds in practice remains with the Contractor. Welding procedures shall reproduce the production welding conditions as closely as practicable, including pre-heat, electrode condition, inter-pass temperature, degree of restraint, weld position, access to weld, and stress relief.
All welding shall be carried out under the supervision of Welding Supervisors satisfying the requirements of the relevant Code. Only qualified welders, experienced in the type of work covered by the Specification, shall be used. Welders shall be acceptable in accordance with the relevant Code although the Superintendent may accept current AS 1796 Certification or equivalent Certificates in lieu of specific welder qualification tests. The requirements of the Statutory Authority shall be met where applicable. The Contractor shall supply a list of approved welders for the Contract, complete with the relevant detailed information concerning each welder's qualification, and maintain an up to date list throughout the Contract period. Each welder employed on welding which may be subject to non-destructive testing shall be designated by a number, and this number together with the date of making each joint shall be added to the relevant final ‘As-built’ arrangement drawings, and to the production quality assurance Checklist. Records of weld procedures and qualification and certification of welders shall be maintained and made available to the Superintendent on request.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 24
Weld preparations shall be machined or flame cut. Irregular, substandard flame cut edges shall be ground back to clean, straight metal. Weld preparations in alloy steel materials shall be machined to remove all heat-affected material from flame cutting operation. The Contractor shall prepare the joint faces to the dimensions, root gaps and plate alignment tolerances shown in the relevant Standards, welding procedures and/or drawings. All weld preparations shall be examined for material flaws prior to welding. The Contractor shall ensure that at the time of welding all surfaces are clean and dry for a distance of at least 100 mm on either side of the weld fusion area. Welds shall be to a minimum standard of AS 1554 Class GP, unless otherwise specified on the drawings. Welding to AS 1554 for Structural or Fatigue purposes will be nominated on the drawings, where and as required. All welds in structures or components which may be subject to fatigue loadings, or which are normally considered to be welds that must be of the highest standard, shall be to AS 1554.5. Full section complete penetration welds shall be used except where otherwise specified. All welds shall be of a configuration, which allows full coverage by the specified NDT method. Where ultrasonic testing is specified, the parent metal shall not have tapered sections within a distance of six times the wall thickness of the weld joints.
WELD APPLICATI ON
The dimensions of welds shall be those set out in the relevant Standards and/or approved drawings. Welds exposed to weather, moisture, or in contact with fluids in service, or to be galvanised or given a protective coating, shall be continuous. Where joints are welded from both sides, the second side to be welded shall be chipped, ground or flame or arc gouged to sound metal and a shape, which will ensure proper fusion and penetration. Tack welds shall be subject to the same code and procedures as the main weld and, if cracked during welding, shall be removed and not incorporated in the main weld. The surface of welds shall be smooth and free of sharp contour changes. Craters shall be back filled if less than full weld size. Arc strikes on surfaces other than the weld shall be avoided. Where arc strikes are made on surfaces other than the weld they shall be ground out by the Contractor. Where such an arc strike could have a deleterious effect on the parent material, suitable repairs shall be carried out by the Contractor, at the Contractor’s expense. Welded-on fabrication aids shall be kept to a minimum. They shall be attached and removed by qualified welders using only approved procedures. All members to be site welded shall be adequately prepared in the shop by the fabricator. Welding shall be done before erection wherever possible.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 25
Unless otherwise shown on the Specification Drawings, all butt welds shall be continuous complete penetration butt welds. All fillet welds shall be a minimum of 6 mm continuous type. All butt welds and hand or automatic fillet welds shall have "run off" and "run on" plates which shall be removed after completion of the weld. Slag from each bead shall be completely removed before succeeding beads are deposited. Stiffeners on flat plate work, (e.g. chutes), that are attached via stitch welding shall have a light fillet weld run between the main joining welds so as to prevent the formation of moisture and dirt collecting crevices. The Contractor shall ensure that plate distortion does not occur as a result of welding operations and shall use appropriate materials, methods, and techniques to achieve this
1.25. 6 HEAT TREATM ENT AND POST WELD PASSIVATION
Pre-heating and post-weld heat treatments shall be in accordance with the approved welding procedures. Post-weld heat treatment by hand held oxy-acetylene torch is not acceptable unless specifically approved within the relevant Standard. Evidence of temperatures and temperature control, in the form of Temperature Recorder Charts, shall be submitted to the Superintendent. Monthly calibration of temperature recorders is required for recording the post-weld heat treatment. Where site post-weld heat treatments have to be performed in the open, temporary protection from wind and rain shall be provided by the Contractor to ensure that abnormal temperature gradients do not develop in the work piece. Where appropriate, post weld passivation using pickling paste or other appropriate compounds shall be carried out.
REPAIR OF WELD S
The Superintendent shall be notified of any weld cracks and other significant defects requiring welding repairs. Repair of welds shall not commence without approval by Superintendent in relation to the type, extent and procedure proposed for the repair. If a weld is rejected the repair shall be in accordance with procedures. These procedures shall cover details of excavation, pre-heat, re-welding, non-destructive testing and post-weld heat treatment. All costs of such repairs and non-destructive testing shall be at the expense of the Contractor.
WELDING OF DISSIMILAR MATERIALS
All welding of dissimilar metals shall be performed as shop welds. In situations where this is impracticable, the Superintendent shall approve the connection by field welds. Where dissimilar metals have to be connected by field welds, a transition piece shall be shop welded to the higher duty material so that the field weld will be made on identical materials.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 26
NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NDE)
Non-destructive testing of welds shall be performed strictly in accordance with the standards or codes applicable to the work. Only approved personnel from NATA registered laboratories shall be employed for this work. If non-destructive testing reveals unacceptable defects in a weld, the Superintendent may direct further testing in at least two other weld locations in the group represented by the defective weld. The locations shall be nominated by the Superintendent and the sample size will be similar to the initial test. If the test of these further two locations in the group reveal no unacceptable defects, the defects recorded in the first test shall be repaired and retested. If the repair is satisfactory, the group of welds shall be accepted. If the tests of the two further weld locations reveal any unacceptable defects, all welding represented by the test locations selected will be tested. If initial Non-Destructive testing reveals unacceptable defects, the cost of all additional tests as specified above shall be at the cost of the Contractor. Where percentage testing is specified, this percentage shall be applied to each welder’s work and to each type of weld, unless otherwise covered by the relevant testing code. The Superintendent at his discretion may determine the weld joints to be tested on a percentage basis, and the composition of this percentage with respect to each welder’s work. The Superintendent also reserves the right to conduct independent NDT audits on the Works. This will be done at the Superintendent's expense, except where defects outside the specified limits are detected in which case the cost of testing, weld repair and retesting, and other associated costs shall be borne by the Contractor. This testing shall be performed in consultation with the Contractor to ensure that disruption to the construction program is minimised. The Contractor shall make allowance in his program for up to 5% audit checking. Provided such testing is completed in a reasonable time, the Contractor shall have no grounds for claiming a hold-up to the programme.
1.25. 1 GENERAL
The Contractor shall supply and install a system of galleries, platforms, walkways and stairs which provides access to all equipment, areas, tapping and test points and any other items requiring attention for operational, inspection, testing, calibration, cleaning or maintenance purposes. The intent of this Clause is to ensure that the Contractor and the Superintendent engage in a consultative process (Access Study) to establish the access requirements. This study will deliver an effective series of galleries, platforms, walkways and stairs and/or means of accessibility to all items of plant that are deemed to require access. This Access Study shall extend to all items regardless of their required frequency of attention, even those that require only infrequent inspection or maintenance.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 27
In the first instance the Contractor shall propose by means of drawings, the required galleries, platforms, walkways and stairs to effectively operate and maintain the supplied plant. The Contractor shall base the pricing for the works on the above drawings in their initial proposal, and supply a schedule of prices for any additions or deletions as determined from the joint Access Study. To this end the Contractor shall conduct a detailed analysis of the location of all mechanical plant, instruments, field instruments (local pressure gauges and the like), instrument tapping points, sample points, testing points, valves, access doors and manholes, choke dig out points, inspection ports, tank vents, electrical plant and equipment and any other such items. The permanent access network, including all platforms, galleries, and stairways shall be completed prior to commissioning of the plant. The access system shall comply in full with the provisions (including recommendations) of AS 1657. Access between levels shall be gained by stairways. Ladders may be employed only where the Contractor has sought and been granted the Superintendent’s approval. The Tender drawings shall indicate the proposed arrangement of galleries, floors and stairs, including the access provisions within the annex building. The Tender shall also list the total included areas of open grid flooring and of chequer plate flooring.
WIDTHS AND LOADINGS
At no point shall the unobstructed width of a gallery be less than 600 mm in accordance with AS 1657 unless otherwise specified by the Superintendent. Particular emphasis is required during the design stage to ensure that a clear accessway of 600 mm is achieved in the final construction. In primary access areas of the galleries an unobstructed width of a gallery shall not be less than 750mm and shall be of significantly greater width to provide a substantial working area around the tail pulleys, gravity take-up areas, snub pulleys, drive pulleys conveyor drives and the like. Galleries and floors shall be designed for a uniformly distributed live load as per AS 1657, unless otherwise specified by the Superintendent.
Other than where specified to the contrary, all galleries and walkways shall be formed from hot-dip galvanised open gridwork such as Webforge or approved equivalent. The Contractor shall ensure that the open gridwork is of sufficient strength to prevent permanent deformations occurring when subject to loads typical for that area of plant. Grid sections shall have full perimeter edge members and shall be supported by beams and stringers in accordance with the grid manufacturer's recommendations. All grid sections, other than permanently fixed sections, shall be fastened in position with galvanised bolts and clips. The grid pattern shall be maintained in one direction for all sections of grid forming a contiguous grouping, and amongst logically related gallery levels. Each penetration through a grid section shall provide a working clearance for the penetrating item and shall be trimmed with a galvanised toe plate. Where the penetrating item is not readily dismantlable, the penetration shall be at a joint between grid sections.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 28
Solid galvanised chequer plate floors shall be provided in areas where spillage may occur due to operational upsets or to create a work platform where maintenance will involve the removal of a number of small items (such as nuts and bolts and small parts from machine components). Chequer plate floors shall be from minimum plate thickness of 8 mm and shall be attached to the structural support system with full seal welding. Care shall be taken in the welding of chequer plate to ensure that the plate remains flat and distortion free. The Contractor shall ensure that the support system and the welding of chequer plate do not result in any sections where deformation and localized water pooling may occur. Any such areas may be rejected by the Superintendent. Chequer plate shall be fixed in position by welding and installed without significant buckles or depressions. Surface protection shall be reinstated after welding, by cold galvanising touch-up of the weld-affected zones. Chequer plate areas shall be free of crevices, which are not easily cleanable by normal hand sweeping or low pressure hosing. For wash-down, chequer plate floors shall be equipped with guarded drain openings and a down-pipe system discharging to a ground trench. Each penetration through chequer plate shall provide a working clearance for the penetrating item and shall be trimmed with a seal-welded toe plate. The Contractor shall advise the Superintendent of the extent of both chequer plate and gridwork flooring systems.
In all aspects other than those stairways widths specified below, the construction of any stairways and or access ladders shall conform with AS1657. Stair treads shall be hot-dip galvanised open grid type, of a pattern compatible with the platform gridwork. Stair treads shall be fitted with non-slip nosing plates and shall be connected to side stringers by bolting. At no point shall the unobstructed width of any stairway be less than 600 mm in accordance with AS 1657, unless otherwise specified by the Superintendent. . Stairways shall comply with AS 1657 with a preferred maximum angle to the horizontal of 40 degrees. Sloping walkways (other than conveyor galleries) shall have a maximum angle to the horizontal of 10 degrees. Conveyor gallery walkways shall have a maximum angle to the horizontal of 15 degrees.
Handrail stanchions shall be Monowills, steel, heavy duty hot-dip galvanised type. Stanchions and tubular handrailing shall be hot-dip galvanised. The top handrails shall be finish treated in accordance with the standard requirements of CSR Sugar Mill’s colour code.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 29
The handrailing system shall be free of discontinuities, sharp corners and rough surfaces. Site welds shall be properly prepared and touch-up painted. This requirement shall be site tested on completion of the handrail system by the Superintendent. All nuts and bolts for attachment of stanchions, toe plates and stair treads shall be hot-dip galvanised.
Each vessel, chamber, duct and cavity of enterable size shall be fitted with at least one access door. In addition to this requirement, where space is available at least a second access door shall be fitted to aid with ventilation and to provide an alternative means of ingress and egress. The second and any subsequent doors shall be located with regard to the requirements for cross ventilation so that the location of all access doors provides the greatest sweep and coverage of cross ventilation draughts and that dead spots are minimised or eliminated. No access door manway shall be less than 600mm across its shortest dimension. All access door assemblies, either heavier than 5 kg or of the downward opening type, shall be mounted on hinges or davits and fitted with a robust clamping system for firm, leak-free closure. Lightweight doors, under 5 kg total weight, may be of the quick-release type, either hinged or lift-off, fixed by cam action handles. Bolt-on access doors are not acceptable. All access door arrangements shall be designed to safely withstand any pressures or loads that may be expected from plant operations and relevant to the design pressure of the vessel. All hinged or davited doors shall be arranged to open through at least 150 degrees to provide clear access. Handles shall be arranged to permit full open/closure movements without risk of injury to the Attendant's hand by encounter with local items or surfaces. All access doors shall be fitted with gaskets and shall seat against robust, distortion-free frames. Doors that are in the vicinity of operating personnel shall be internally lined or insulated or guarded as necessary to ensure that exposed surfaces do not attain temperatures that are dangerous to the touch. At least one access door shall be of large enough area to permit the ready passage of a stretcher carrying an injured person, and shall be so located that the stretcher may be safely manoeuvred on the external platform local to the door. Other than where an access door is located on the upper surface of an equipment item it shall be accompanied by a fixed external access platform located at a safe and functional distance below the door. Each access door in a vertical or steeply sloping wall shall be located such that the manway lower ledge is not more than 650 mm above safe internal footing within the chamber or cavity. Each such manway shall be provided with an external grab handle to facilitate entry and exit via the manway.
TECHNICAL SERVICES PAGE 30
The proposed locations of all access doors and the provisions included to gain access to the doors shall be indicated on the Tender drawings. The sizes of access doors shall be listed in the Tender. All accesses to confined spaces shall be numbered and registered as part of the site system and signage that includes the individual confined space number shall be affixed beside the accessway in a position which cannot be obstructed by the opened door.
Where the system of galleries, platforms, walkways and stairs impedes the maintainability of machinery and it is necessary to remove sections of access way on an annual or regular basis to maintain plant effectively, consideration shall be given to the installation of robust quick release access ways. An agreement between the Contractor and Superintendent is required on this issue if it is identified that some of the access ways are required to be removed on a regular basis. Systems for barricading or gating the sections of accessway adjacent to the removed section shall be included in the tender.
The system of galleries, platforms, walkways and stairs which provides access to all equipment, areas, tapping and test points shall be configured with consideration for adequate housekeeping, giving due consideration to the plant, machinery and materials in the surrounding environment and the expected method of housekeeping for the particular area of plant covered by the Contract.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.