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Lecture 1, Objective 2 1.

Leafy sea dragons have leaf-like appendages that mimic the fronds of the sea kelp beds in which they inhabit. This inherited characteristic enables the delicate sea dragon to evade capture by its enemies. The evolution of these leafy appendages is an example of which of the characteristics of life? a. organization b. adaptation c. growth and development d. maintenance of internal constancy e. irritibility, or reacting to environmental change Lecture 1, Objective 2 2. One of these is NOT a requirement of living things. Choose that trait. a. organization b. ability to think c. maintenance of internal constancy d. response to the environment e. energy Lecture 1, Objective 4 3. What is a theory in biology? a. an opinion or educated guess b. proof that a hypothesis is true c. the outcome of an experiment d. a hypothetical set of facts e. a hypothesis that has been supported by many experiments and/or observations Lecture 1, Objective 3 4. Which of the following is formulated as a hypothesis to explain why the different sexes of a ringed pheasant look different? a. The drab coloration of the female pheasant allows it to be camouflaged in its natural habitat b. Painting a female pheasant bright red will draw attention to it. c. Male pheasants, painted a drab color, were ignored by the females during mating season. d. In an experiment, it was found that male pheasants were attracted to the drab-colored female pheasants. e. If female pheasants were more brightly colored, then they will be "sitting ducks," especially during the hunting season. Lecture 2, Objective 3 5. What are the two primary environmental factors determining the distribution of biomes in different regions of our planet? a. latitude and elevation b. temperature and precipitation c. the tilt of the Earth and relative distance from the sun d. global air circulation and ocean currents e. El Nio and global warming Lecture 2, Objective 3

6. "Seasons" on the planet Mars are characterized by variation in the size of its polar ice cap and the severity of its dust storms over the course of the Martian year. What causes these "seasons" of Mars? a. topographical differences, such as its great channels and tall volcanoes b. gravitational forces from other bodies in the solar system c. rising and falling air masses d. its relative distance from the Sun at different times of the Martian year e. the tilt of the planet and relative changes in the angle of incidence of sunlight Lecture 2, Objective 2 7. Why can many different species coexist in an ecosystem when they are competing for limited resources? a. each species is found in a different biome b. each species occurs in a slightly different habitat c. each species occupies a different niche d. each species comprises a different population e. resources are shared among all species Lecture 2, Objective 1 8. Which of the following is NOT an ecosystem or a definition of one? a. the planet Earth b. all the organisms, sometimes hundreds of species, in a given area c. a leaf that has fallen to the ground d. a tropical rainforest e. the kelp beds of southern Australia, home of the sea dragon Lecture 2, Objective 3 9. Many major deserts of the world are situated around 30 degrees N and S latitude. The aridity of these regions can be best explained by: a. the water-conserving adaptations of desert plants and animals b. the absence of pioneer species c. sea surface temperatures and global ocean currents d. their high relative humidity e. the dry air masses over these regions are falling, increasing in temperature, and sucking all the moisture out of the ground Lecture 3, Objective 4 10. The transition of your neighbors lawn from a uniform lawn of grass to one that is now crowded with tall weeds, tree saplings, and small shrubs is called: a. primary succession b. secondary succession c. invasive succession d. disclimax e. transitional succession Lecture 3, Objective 4 11. Returning to your neighborhood some 100 years from now, you see a mature oak-hickory forest. You are told that if this forest is not disturbed, it will remain fairly constant in species composition for ever. How would you describe the ecological status of this land?

a. disclimax community b. climax community c. pioneer community d. primary successional community e. invasive species community Lecture 3, Objective 5 12. Shortly after visiting your old neighborhood, the weather deteriorates and a freak tornado scours the area, effectively removing the vegetation. How will pioneer species alter the nonliving components of this ecosystem during the early stages of succession? a. they prevent later successional species from establishing themselves b. they maintain the community in a recurring state of disclimax c. they convert existing organic matter to mineral substrate d. they reduce light intensity and temperature and add organic matter to the soil e. they permit as much sunlight (energy) as possible to reach the ground Lecture 3, Objective 2 13. Species that are non-native to a particular ecosystem and whose introduction has caused economic or environmental harm are called what? a. pioneer species b. disclimax species c. invasive species d. secondary species e. successional species Lecture 3, Objective 6 14. John Deere and his self-scouring steel-bladed plow, and all others who used this implement, were able to convert tallgrass prairie into agricultural land. The maintenance of this land by repeated plowing, sowing, and raising crops is an artifical form of maintaining what? a. a disclimax commnity b. a climax community c. a biological community d. a pioneer community e. all of the above Lecture 4, Objective 4 15. Which factor would cause the change in the growth rate of the population from time 1 to time 2?

a. intrinsic growth factors b. density dependent factors c. generation time d. biotic potential e. genetic make up of the species

Lecture 3, Objective 3 16. In the portion of the poem below, how would the birds, snakes, and wolves be classified in terms of biological population terminology?

Thousands of chipmunks scurrying about But soon their exponential future would be in doubt For the birds and the snakes and wolves got the hunch That chipmunks make a delectable lunch Charles Sokoloff (former Bio 100 student) a. as factors determining the intrinsic rate of increase of the chipmunk population b. as density independent factors for the chipmunk population c. as density dependent factors for the chipmunk population d. as exponential growth factors for the chipmunk population e. as members of the chipmunk population Lecture 4, Objective 3 17. The actual growth rate of a population is calculated by ____________. a. adding up all the environmental resistance factors b. subtracting the death plus emigration rates from the birth plus immigration rates c. subtracting the death rate from the generation time d. birth rate alone e. multiplying the generation time by the birth rate Lecture 4, Objective 1 18. Which group of organisms is a population? a. all the plants in the U of I experimental prairie b. all the trees in Urbana c. all the Canadian geese (a species of bird) living in the pond next to Menard's building supply store. d. all the insects living under the grass of the quad e. all the pets in Champaign Lecture 5, Objective 3 19. The cellular process of ___1___ requires chemical energy produced by ____2___ . 1 a. photosynthesis 2 respiration

b. net primary production decomposition c. decomposition d. biosynthesis e. photosynthesis Lecture 5, Objective 5 20. Over a plant's lifetime ____1____ of the energy converted from sunlight to the energy of sugar is lost as ____2____. 1 a. 10% water 2 photosynthesis respiration decomposition

b. 90% heat c. all oxygen

d. 10% carbon dioxide e. 1% simple carbohydrates

Lecture 5, Objective 4 21. Energy is said to flow through the ecosystem rather than cycle because it: a. is passed from one trophic level to the next. b. is destroyed by each organism as it is used. c. never returns to be re-used by the autotrophs. d. increases in supply as it moves up the food chain. e. is returned to the soil to be absorbed by plants. Lecture 5, Objective 2 22. A phosphorus atom that is part of a molecule of DNA in an animal can be made available to a plant by the process of: a. net primary production. b. biosynthesis. c. decomposition. d. biomass. e. photosynthesis. Lecture 6, Objectives 1 and 2 23. Which organelle is involved in the energy production of a prokaryotic cell? a. chloroplast b. mitochondrion c. nucleus d. endoplasmic reticulum e. none of the above Lecture 6, Objective 3 24. A membrane protein in a plant root works in conjunction with ATP to transport phosphate ions from a weak fertilizer solution in the soil water and concentrates them in the cell's cytoplasm. This process is called: a. passive transport b. hormone reception c. active transport d. exocytosis e. facilitated diffusion Lecture 6, Objective 4 25. The spindle fibers that move chromosomes apart during mitosis are made of proteins. The information needed to construct this critical protein is passed from one generation of cells to the next as: a. ribosomes b. endoplasmic reticulum c. golgi bodies d. DNA e. messenger RNA

Lecture 6, Objective 4 26. Where does the assembly of amino acids to produce the CCK peptide hormone occur? a. nucleus b. ribosomes c. golgi bodies d. pores of the nuclear membrane e. outer cell membrane Lecture 6, Objective 3 27. Which of the features below would be found in the membranes of all cells and organelles? a. CCK hormone receptors b. photosynthetic pigments c. HIV virus receptor proteins d. phospholipid bilayer e. electron transport proteins Lecture 7, Objective 2 28. The light dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur in the: a. thylakoid membranes b. stroma c. mitochondrion d. golgi bodies< e. outer surface of the chloroplast Lecture 7, Objective 3 & 4 29. Energy, which originated as light, is transported from the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis to the Calvin cycle in the form of: a. heat b. ATP and NADPH c. ADP and NADP d. oxygen and sugar e. carbon dioxide and water Lecture 7, Objective 6 30. When plants do not receive enough water their photosynthetic rate drops significantly. This is because: a. water is a raw material needed for the light dependent reactions. b. the stomates close and carbon dioxide is not available. c. sugar builds up and inhibits photosynthesis. d. not enough oxygen is produced to keep glycolysis running. e. water provides the carbon atoms used to make sugar. Lecture 7, Objective 7 31. The sugar produced by photosynthesis is used: a. to produce biomass. b. to produce ATP in respiration. c. as raw material for biosynthesis.

d. to make new DNA. e. for all of the above Lecture 8, Objectives 1 & 7 32. Plant seeds germinated in complete darkness will continue to loose biomass and eventually die. The loss of biomass occurs in the form of ________ that is lost from the plants. a. heat b. water c. oxygen d. carbon dioxide e. sugar Lecture 8, Objective 5 33. During the process of respiration CO2 is produced by _____1_____ and oxygen is used during _____2_____ . 1 a. the Calvin cycle b. the Krebs cycle c. glycolysis glycolysis the electron transport chain the Krebs cycle 2

d. the light dependent reactions glycolysis e. the electron transport chain Lecture 8, Objectives 3 & 10 34. Which part of aerobic respiration produces the greatest amount of ATP? a. the electron transport chain b. the Krebs cycle c. glycolysis d. alcoholic fermentation e. lactic acid fermentation Lecture 8, Objectives 3 & 4 35. Krebs cycle produces _________ that transports electrons to the electron transport chain. a. ATP b. CO2 c. acetyl COa d. NADH e. pyruvic acid Lecture 9, Objective 1 36. Sister chromatids are produced by the process of _____1_____ during the ___2___ phase of the cell cycle. 1 a. mitosis b. DNA replication c. catabolism G1 S G2 2 the light dependent reactions

d. protein synthesis meta

e. decomposition Lecture 9, Objective 4

apoptosis

37. The ends of chromosomes that act as a "cellular clock" that control the number of times cell can divide are called: a. centromeres b. sister chromatids c. telomeres d. spindle fibers e. kinases Lecture 9, Objective 2 38. Mitosis produces: a. two cells that are genetically different b. gametes c. one cell that is genetically different from the original cell d. four cells that are genetically different e. two cells that are genetically identical Lecture 9, Objective 3 39. The function of a stem cell is to: a. secrete digestive proteins b. undergo apoptosis c. divide d. remain in the G1 phase e. produce hormones Lecture 9, Objective 1 40. DNA replication is described as semi-conservative because: a. half of the DNA is replicated in each cell cycle. b. each new DNA molecule contains half of the original molecule. c. half of the DNA molecule is destroyed during replication. d. DNA replication occurs on the right side of the cell in about half of all cell divisions. e. there really is no good reason to call it that. That is just its name. Lecture 10, Objective 3 41. The drawing below shows the alignment of chromosomes during:

a. the division of a skin cell b. the first division of a fertilized egg c. the first division of meiosis d. cell division by mitosis e. the second division of meiosis

Lecture 10, Objective 2 42. The two structures circled in the diagram below represent:

a. a pair of homologous chromosomes b. two identical DNA molecules c. two alleles d. two gene loci e. a pair of gametes

Lecture 10, Objectives 4, 5, 6, 8, & 9 43. A cell division occurs in a human being. The resulting cells contain 23 unduplicated chromosomes. This is a description of ____1___ cells formed by the process of ____2_____.

1 a. body DNA b. egg c. zygote d. sperm

2 Replication mitosis meiosis meiosis

e. homologous crossing over

Lecture 10, Objective 3 44.Shania Twain produced a two-disk set of original songs. One disk is a collection of nineteen songs, performed in a country style. The other disk includes the same nineteen songs in the same order, but performed in a "pop" style. If we think of music CDs as being analogous to chromosomes, these two disks would be analogous to ____________________ . a. sister chromatids b. exact copies of the same DNA segment c. different numbered chromosomes d. homologous chromosomes e. homozygous genotypes Lecture 11, Objective 2 45.The four types of sperm cells illustrated below are produced by the process of: a. crossing over b. mitosis c. fertilization d. independent assortment e. zygotic division

Lecture 11, Objective 5 46. A man who is homozygous dominant for sickle cell anemia, an autosomal recessive disease, has a child with a woman who is acarrier for the disease. What is the chance that their first child will be healthy? a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% e. 100%

Lecture 11. Objective 6 47. A couple have had two children. One of the children is afflicted by cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disease. The other child is normal. What are the most likely genotypes for the parents? a. Both are homozygous dominant. b. Both are homozygous recessive. c. One is homozygous dominant and the other is homozygous recessive. d. One is homozygous dominant and the other is heterozygous. e. One is heterozygous and the other is homozygous recessive. Lecture 11. Objective 5 48. A couple is planning to have a child. The man is homozygous recessive for Huntington disease, an autosomal dominantdisorder. The woman is also homozygous recessive for the disease. What is the chance that their first child will inherit the disease? a. 100% b. 75% c. 50% d. 25% e. 0% Lecture 12, Objective 1 49. Meiosis of a cell containing the chromosomes illustrated below would most likely produce a sperm cell with the genetic makeup:

a. AaGgBb b. AgB c. AGBb d. AGb e. AG

Lecture 12, Objective 5 50. Hemophilia A is a recessive, sex-linked (on the X chromosome) disease. A man who does not have the disease is having a child with a woman who is a carrier. Through prenatal testing, they discover they are having a boy. What are the chances the boy will suffer from hemophilia A? a. 0% b. 5% c. 50% d. 75% e. 100% (Hint: You don't have to worry about girls because we know the child is a boy.) Lecture 12, Objective 6 & 7 51. People with Kleinfelter syndrome have 47 chromosomes, including three sex chromosomes (XXY). What is the term used to describe the mistake that occurs during meiosis that results in this abnormal chromosome number? a. crossing over b. nondisjunction c. independent assortment d. pairing of homologous chromosomes e. DNA replication

Lecture 13, Objective 1 52. A specific place on a particular chromosome where you would find a segment of DNA that codes for the production of a protein associated with the expression of a characteristic, for instance cystic fibrosis, would be called a/an: a. allele. b. centromere. c. nucleotide base. d. gene locus. e. recessive trait. Lecture 13, Objective 1 53. In humans, the nucleus of a body cell that is stuck in G1 has how many molecules of DNA? a. 1 b. 23 c. 46 d. 92 e. 3 billion Lecture 13, Objectives 1 & 2 54. Different alleles of a specific gene: a. are located on the same chromatid. b. are identical in nucleotide sequence. c. may produce proteins with varying abilities to function. d. are found at different places on sister chromatids. e. all of the above Lecture 13, Objectives 2 & 3 55. What is a gene? a. all the genetic material thats exchanged between homologous chromosomes during meiosis b. all the DNA in a nucleus of an eukaryotic cell c. a continuous strand of DNA comprising one-half of a replicated chromosome d. a sequence of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids of a particular polypeptide e. pants made of denim cloth Lecture 14, Objectives 1 & 3 56. The process by which proteins are assembled in the cytoplasm is called what? a. replication b. translation c. transcription d. DNA synthesis e. polypeptides Lecture 14, Objective 3 57. DNA holds the code for which of the following molecules? a. messenger RNA b. transfer RNA c. ribosomal RNA d. ribosomal proteins e. all of the above Lecture 14, Objective 3 58. Which RNA molecule is small and has a very specific secondary and tertiary structure so that it can bind an amino acid at one end and messenger RNA at the other?

a. RNA nucleotide b. transfer RNA c. ribosomal RNA d. RNA polymerase e. promoter binding protein Lecture 14, Objective 3 59. During the process of transcription, a sequence of RNA is generated in which the RNA base cytosine (C) is inserted complementary to the DNA base guanine (G). Which RNA base is inserted complementary to the DNA base thymine (T)? a. A (adenine) b. C (cytosine) c. G (guanine) d. T (thymine) e. U (uracil) Lecture 14, Objective 1 60. Which answer best describes RNA processing? a. the process by which RNA is assembled from a DNA template b. the attraction of a binding protein and other transcription factors to tell the RNA polymerase where to bind and begin making RNA c. the removal of introns from mRNA d. the stepwise addition of amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain e. the folding of a polypeptide chain into a specific three-dimensional structure Lecture 15, Objectives 2 & 6 61. The defective protein causing sickle cell anemia is caused by the substitution of one nucleotide in the gene HBB on chromosome number 11, resulting in the change of the amino acid glutamic acid to valine. This is an example of what kind of mutation? a. missense b. nonsense c. silent d. noisy e. frameshift Lecture 15, Objectives 2 & 6 62. A mutation that results in the deletion of a single nucleotide pair from the coding region of a gene might: a. have a different sequence of amino acids from the point of the mutation onward. b. result in a "garbage gene," as the entire amino acid sequence after the mutation may be devastated. c. result in a protein shorter than that produced without the mutation. d. result in a protein longer than that produced without the mutation. e. all of the above Lecture 15, Objectives 1 & 5 63. How do new alleles arise in a population? a. sexual reproduction b. mutations of pre-existing alleles c. meiosis d. protein synthesis e. the fusion of egg and sperm cells Lecture 16, Objective 1 64. In the illustration below the "proteins needed for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription" are: a. mRNA molecules b. enzymes

c. transcription factors d. tRNA molecules e. DNA primers

Lecture 16, Objective 3 65. Cells can detect signal molecules, like estrogen, from outside the cell because they have __________ which bind to the estrogen molecules. a. ribosomes b. RNA coding regions of genes c. restriction enzymes d. hormone receptor proteins e. transfer RNA molecules Lecture 16, Objectives 2 & 3 66. Shrubs that bloom in the early spring have receptors in their cells that are sensitive to the changing lengths of the night and day period in the spring. The light-activated receptors interact with the promoter regions of the genes that control flowering. This developmental response to a changing environmental factor is an example of which fundamental quality shared by all living organisms? a. Life is organized b. Living things must maintain an internal constancy c. Living things react to environmental change d. Living things grow, develop, and reproduce e. Living things adapt Lecture 16, Objective. 2 67. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, infects only cells with the CD4 receptor protein in their outer cell membranes. Why do some cells in the human body have the CD4 protein while others do not? a. Cells with CD4 protein have mutated. b. The CD4 gene is missing from most cells. c. The CD4 gene is active only in certain cells. d. Some cells are haploid and some are diploid. e. Cells with CD4 proteins are aneuploid. Lecture 17. Objective 6 68. Strategies for the treatment of various types of cancer involve: a. preventing the reconstruction of telomeres. b. removing the source of hormones that stimulate tumor growth. c. preventing the development of blood vessels to tumors. d. blocking cell division with chemicals. e. all of the above. Lecture 17. Objective 5 69. Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina of the eye. Two recessive alleles for a tumor suppressor gene are required in a cell of the retina for a tumor to develop. A person who inherits one recessive allele ________________ risk of developing the disease as/than someone who is homozygous dominant for the gene at birth.

a. is at greater b. has the same c. has less (Only 3 choices) Lecture 17, Objective 1 & 2 70. Normally, cells lose a bit of the tips of their chromosomes each time they go through a cell cycle. When the tips of the chromosomes degrade too much the DNA can no longer be replicated and the cell can no longer divide. Cancer cells avoid this problem and continue to divide indefinitely by producing: a. DNA polymerase b. RNA polymerase c. ribosomes d. telomerase e. restriction enzymes Lecture 17, Objective 3 71. Cancer can be the result of changes in the genes that control cell division in the cells in a persons body. What can produce these genetic changes? a. a copy mistake during DNA replication b. ultraviolet light c. carcinogenic chemicals d. chromosome damage during mitosis e. all of the above Lecture 18, Objective 7 72. A molecular genetics lab is given a tooth from the skull of a man suspected to be the Czar of Russia and is asked to prepare a sample of a small portion of the Y chromosome from the DNA that is, hopefully preserved in the central tissue of the tooth. Which technique would the scientists use to produce millions of copies of this specific segment of DNA? a. recombinant DNA< b. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) c. gel electrophoresis d. Sanger method of DNA sequencing e. DNA microarrays Lecture 18, Objective 6 73. Many biotechnology companies work with recombinant DNA plasmids with the goal of producing large quantities of a particular human protein. Once a human gene has been recombined with a bacterial plasmid what must be done to get the human protein produced? a. Cut the recombinant plasmid with restriction enzymes. b. Put the recombinant plasmid into bacterial cells. c. Sequence the recombinant gene. d. Separate the human DNA from the plasmid DNA using electrophoresis e. Make many copies of the gene using PCR. Lecture 18, Objective 1 & 2 74. "Cc", the cat, was cloned this past year by combining: a. two unfertilized cat egg cells. b. a cat egg cell with a cat sperm cell. c. a cat diploid body cell with a cat egg cell from which the nucleus was removed. d. two cat sperm cells. e. skin cells from two different cats.

Lecture 19, Objective 1 75. A blood sample from an individual will produce a unique DNA fingerprint, also called a DNA profile. This is because each individual has a unique set of: a. mutations in his/her DNA b. proteins in his/her cells c. RNA in his/her nuclei d. enzymes in his/her mitochondria e. amino acids in his/her blood Lecture 19, Objective 1 76. The graphic below illustrates: a. a method of sorting DNA fragments by length. b. micro array or gene chip technology. c. gene therapy. d. a method of producing recombinant DNA plasmids. e. a method of producing many copies of a segment of DNA.

Lecture 19. Objective 7 77. DNA from spores that are suspected to be the bacterium that causes anthrax is being tested using small, flat pieces of glass or silicon containing thousands of tiny spots of unique sequences of DNA from known viruses. Matching DNA from a spore sample sticks to the corresponding anthrax DNA spots on the piece of glass or silicon and shows up as glowing spots when illuminated with a laser. This tool is called a. a gene chip or micro array b. DNA fingerprinting c. electrophoresis d. PCR e. cloning Lecture 20, Objective 2 78. Sequencing of a 5 base-long segment of DNA using the Sanger method produced the set of DNA fragments listed below. Each fragment ends with the fluorescent dideoxynucleotide indicated by the letters A, C, G, or T. Construct the sequence of this complementary strand and determine the sequence of the ORIGINAL DNA molecule.

Choose the Original DNA Sequence Complementary DNA Fragments produced during sequencing: a. A-T-C-A-G b. U-A-G-U-C c. T-A-G-T-C d. A-U-C-A-G e. C-T-G-A-A O-O-C O-O-O-O-G O-T O-O-O-A A

Lecture 20. Objective 1 79. The human genome project was undertaken to: a. cure all genetic diseases by the year 2003 b. sequence the 3 billion base pairs in all 22 types of human autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes c. develop germline gene therapy strategies d. replace human chromosomes with artificial chromosomes e. create genetically perfect humans Lecture 10, Objective 4 80. Gene therapy is a biotechnology method that attempts to: a. sequence a person's genes. b. replace a person's mutated genes with good genes. c. produce a DNA fingerprint to identify a person. d. make millions of copies of a segment of a person's DNA. e. clone human beings.