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Reinforcing bars must be embedded a minimum distance into the concrete in order to achieve the full tensile capacity, T of the bar. This length is referred to as Development Length, Ld.

Ld

The development length is based upon the BOND between the rebar and the concrete. Factors affecting this bond include the following: Type of ribbing on the bar Presence of epoxy (or other ) coating Concrete quality Distance between bar and edge of concrete Type of end anchorage into the concrete

Lecture 11 Page 1 of 9

Ld = d b f y 25 f ' c

Ld = d b f y 20 f ' c

where: db = diameter of bar fy = yield strength of bar, PSI fc = specified concrete compressive strength, PSI = alpha = Bar location factor = 1.3 for top reinforcement = 1.0 for all other locations = beta = Coating factor = 1.5 for epoxy coated bars = 1.0 for uncoated bars = lambda = Lightweight aggregate factor = 1.3 for lightweight aggregate = 1.0 for normal weight aggregate

Lecture 11 Page 2 of 9

Example 1

GIVEN: A #6 rebar under tension force. Assume the following conditions: Concrete fc = 4000 PSI Normal weight concrete ( = 1.0) ASTM A615 Grade 60 rebar #6 rebar ( = 0.8) Uncoated bar ( = 1.0) Bar location is bottom of beam ( = 1.0)

REQUIRED: Determine the development length, Ld to achieve full tensile strength of the bar. Step 1 Use the formula above to determine Ld:

Ld = d b f y 25 f ' c

Concrete #6 Rebar

Ld = 28.5

Lecture 11 Page 3 of 9

Assuming normal conditions, the following table may be used to determine development lengths of bars in tension:

Development Length Ld of Grade 60 bottom bars in normal weight concrete

Condition

Clear spacing of bars > db, clear cover > db

Concrete fc 3000 PSI 4000 PSI 5000 PSI 3000 PSI 4000 PSI 5000 PSI

No. 6 and smaller bars 44db 38db 34db 66db 57db 51db

No. 7 and larger bars 55db 47db 42db 82db 71db 64db

Example 2

GIVEN: The same information as Example 1. REQUIRED: Using the table above, determine the Ld for a #6 bar. Step 1 Use table above to determine Ld: Concrete fc = 4000 PSI

Clear spacing of bars > db, clear cover > db

Lecture 11 Page 4 of 9

Determining Ld for Compression Bars: The development length of bars in compression is not as large as the development length in tension because of the absence of tension cracking in the concrete. Ldc = Development length in compression Ldc = 0.02 = larger of

db f y f 'c

or Ldc = 0.0003dbfy

Example 3

GIVEN: A #6 bar in compression. Use fc = 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars. REQUIRED: Determine the Ldc for the bar. Ldc = Development length in compression

db f y f 'c

or

Ldc = 14.2

Lecture 11 Page 5 of 9

Bars are generally fabricated to lengths of about 60-0, but transportation, workability and other concerns often require bars to be less than about 40-0 long. For long walls, beams, slabs and other situations requiring long lengths of bars, lap splicing is commonly used. It is good practice to place laps at regions of small tension, i.e., low moment.

Concrete

Ls

Ls = Length of lap splice = 1.0Ld for Class A splice if the area of reinforcement provided through the splice > twice that required by analysis and not more than 50% of the total reinforcement is spliced within the lap length = 1.3Ld for Class B splice if reinforcement does not meet Class A requirements

Lecture 11 Page 6 of 9

Hooks are used in concrete members where there is not sufficient straight length to achieve the full development length Ld. The following is a diagram showing the required lengths of bends and hooks:

Ldh = Lhb

Lecture 11 Page 7 of 9

db f 'c

= 1.0 unless otherwise specified below: fy if using other than Grade 60 bars = 60,000

= 0.7 if side concrete cover > 2 or end cover > 2 = 0.8 if ties or stirrups spacing < 3db = 1.3 if lightweight concrete =

Re quired _ As Pr ovided _ As

Example 4

GIVEN: A #5 Grade 40 bar is in tension as shown below. Use LIGHTWEIGHT concrete with fc = 4000 PSI. REQUIRED: Determine the min. required hook dimensions X, Y and Z.

Z = Ldh Side cover = 1

End cover = 1

Critical section

5 = 12 " 8

X = 7

Lecture 11 Page 8 of 9

5 = 4 " 8

Y = 2 Step 3 Determine length of hooked bar, Lhb: Lhb = 1200

db f 'c

= 11.9 Step 4 Determine total development length, Z = Ldh: Ldh = Lhb Where: = 1.0 since side cover = 1 < 2 = 1.3 since lightweight concrete =

fy 60000 PSI

Lecture 11 Page 9 of 9

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