You are on page 1of 4

Lee Choon Kiat (16) 4S2

16/3/11

Question 1
Aim of experiment To find out the iron nail which has the largest percentage of iron among the 3 nail samples. Theory of reaction Each individual nail sample will have to be weighed first to determine its original weight before the experiment, to enable to percentage composition of iron in each nail to be calculated after the mass of iron in the nail has been obtained through experimentation. Rust is hydrated iron (III) hydroxide, which can be removed by dissolving the nail in dilute sulphuric acid. The entire nail should be dissolved to obtain a mixture of 2 different ions Fe2+ ions from the pure iron in the nail, and Fe3+ ions from the rust on the nail. The resultant solution should then be titrated against 1.00 mol/dm3 potassium manganate (VII), and the volume of potassium manganate (VII) needed for the solution to turn from pale green to pinkish orange is recorded. The mass of pure iron in the nail can then be calculated, and with the original mass of the nail sample, the percentage composition of iron in the nail can be calculated. Variables Independent variables: Nail sample Dependent variables: Amount of Potassium manganate (VII) needed for the solution to turn from pale green to pale pink Controlled variables: Concentration of Potassium manganate (VII)solution used

Lee Choon Kiat (16) 4S2

16/3/11

Procedure 1. Weigh the nail sample using a microbalance scale and record the weight of the nail sample 2. Attempt to dissolve the nail sample in a beaker containing 100cm3 dilute sulphuric acid. If possible to dissolve the nail completely in the 100cm3 dilute sulphuric acid, proceed to step 6. If not, proceed to step 4. 3. Take out the nail from the previous mixture and place it into another beaker containing 100cm3 dilute sulphuric acid, and attempt to dissolve it in the dilute sulphuric acid. 4. Repeat step 4 until nail is completely dissolved. 5. Transfer the contents of a beaker into a conical flask. 6. Rinse the beaker with deionised water a few times and transfer the washings into the conical flask. 7. Wash the burette with a little 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) solution, and then let the 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) run out from the burette. 8. Place a clean, dry filter funnel at the top of the burette and fill the burette with 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) until it is nearly full. 9. Remove the filter funnel. 10.Secure the burette onto a burette holder. 11.Place the conical flask on a white tile underneath the burette. 12.Titrate the 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) against the solution in the conical flask, swirling the conical flask all the time until the solution changes colour from pale green to pale pink at end point. 13.Record the volume of 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) needed for the solution in the conical flask to reach end point. 14.Repeat steps 6 -14 for each beaker of solution prepared during steps 3-5.

Lee Choon Kiat (16) 4S2 Obtaining the percentage composition of iron in each nail sample

16/3/11

The iron in the nail sample after step 1 will react with the dilute sulphuric acid to form iron (II) sulphate according the equation below: Fe(s) + H2SO4 (aq) FeSO4(aq) + H2(g) On the other hand, the rust (iron (III) hydroxide), will react with the dilute sulphuric acid to form iron (III) sulphate according the equation below: Fe(OH)3(s) + H2SO4 (aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + H2(g) The iron (II) ions in the mixture of iron(II) sulphate and iron(III) sulphate will then be oxidised by the 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) during the titration to form iron (III) ions according to the equation below: Reduction: 8H+ + MnO4- + 5e- Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + eOverall: 8H+ + MnO4- + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ The iron(III) ions and the sulphate ions will not react. To calculate the percentage composition of iron in each nail sample, follow the steps below. Let the total volume of 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) needed to reach end point be 1000x cm3 Number of mol of 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) needed = x x 1.00 = x mol 1 mol KMnO4 reacts with 5 mol Fe2+

x mol KMnO4 reacts with 5 x mol Fe2+


Number of mol Fe2+ reacted = 5 x mol Mass of Fe2+ reacted = 5 x x 56 = 280 x g Percentage composition of iron in nail =

Mass of iron 100% sample Original mass of nail sample 280 x 100% Original mass of nail sample

Conclusions

Lee Choon Kiat (16) 4S2

16/3/11

The greater the volume of 1.00 mol dm-1 potassium manganate (VII) needed to reach end point, the higher the percentage composition of iron in the nail samples

Question 2
Amount of heat energy needed to cook the day: food per Q = mcVt Q = 1500 5.00 (90 10)] Q = 600000 J Q = 600kJ

Amount of heat energy needed to cook the food

Q = 600kJ 13 for 13 days: Q = 7800kJ

Chemical formula for reaction: 2C4H10 + 13O2 = 8CO2 + 10H2O Amount of heat energy released by 1 mol of Butane during total combustion:

VH VH VH VH

= (VHbond breaking +VHbond making ) 2 = [(2 10 410 + 2 3 350 + 13 498) + (8 2 732 + 10 2 460)] 2 = 4138kJ 2 = 2069kJ

Number of mol of Butane Bob has to bring = 7800kJ 2069 kJ 3.77 (3s.f) Total mass of Butane Bob has to bring = 3.77 (12 4 + 1 10) = 219 (3s.f) Number of butane bottles Bob has to bring = 219 10 = 2.19 3 (rounded up to nearest whole number) Bob needs to bring 3 butane bottles.