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A scalar is a quantity that has magnitude only. Examples of scalar quantities are mass, time, temperature, energy. A vector is a quantity which has both magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors are velocity, acceleration and force. Diagrammatic representation A vector is represented as a straight line with an arrowhead at one end. The length of the line, when drawn to scale, represents the magnitude of the vector. The direction of the line with an arrowhead points to the direction of the vector. Resultant vector The resultant vector is that single vector which will replace two or more vectors and produces the same effect on an object as the two or more vectors do. When two vectors act together, the resultant is given by the vector sum of the two vectors. Vector addition – By drawing a triangle (Triangle Method) Ex. A hiker walks 1.0 km due east and then 0.5 km due NE. Find his resultant displacement. Step 1: Choose a suitable scale. Step 2: Draw a line to scale with an arrowhead to represent one of the vectors, say 1.0 km due E. The line must be in the east-west direction. Mark the direction with an arrowhead and label the vector. Step 3 : Likewise, draw the second vector, which is 0.5 km due NE, starting from the tip of the arrow representing the first vector. The two arrows representing the two given vectors are drawn to form two sides of a triangle. Step 4 : Draw a line joining the tail of the first arrow and the tip of the second arrow. Mark the direction with two arrowheads. This line represents the resultant in both magnitude and direction. 1.4 km 0.5 km 1.0 km Thus, his resultant displacement is 1.4 km in the direction N75oE .

Tanhc/Sec3PhysicsNotes/Scalars&Vectors

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4 x 103 m 18x60s = 1. Step 4: Complete the parallelogram with the help of compasses. The line must be in the east-west direction and the length of the line drawn is proportional to the magnitude of the vector. Draw the diagonal starting from the tails of the arrows. The two arrows drawn representing the two given vectors now form two sides of a parallelogram.4 m/s b.4 km 1. which is 0. a. A hiker walks 1.5 x 103 m 18 x 60 s = 1. say 1.5 km Average speed = total distace total time taken = 1.5 km due NE. Mark the direction with an arrowhead and label the vector. b.Addition of vectors .4 km along N750E Average velocity = displacement Time taken = 1. Refer to example above.0 km due E. his resultant displacement is 1.3 m/s along N750E Tanhc/Sec3PhysicsNotes/Scalars&Vectors 2 .0 km due east in 10 min and then 0. 0.0 km Thus. draw the second vector. Find a. Step 2: Draw a line with an arrowhead to represent one of the vectors. the total distance he has walked and the average speed of his journey. his displacement and his average velocity.5 km due NE in 8 min.By drawing a parallelogram Step 1: Choose a suitable scale. Mark the direction with two arrowheads. Step 3: Likewise.5 km 1. his displacement = 1. Ex. Total distance travelled = 1. starting from the tail of the arrow representing the first vector. This line represents the resultant in both magnitude and direction.4 km in the direction N75oE .

A horizontal string attached to the microphone exerts a pull which keeps the wire at an angle of 20o to the vertical. 20o tension (in wire) weight tension (in string) Answer : The tension in the wire is 0. To improve accuracy: 1. A microphone of mass 500 g hangs from the end of a long wire fixed to the ceiling. from the tip of the first arrow representing the first vector. the three vectors can be represented as the three sides of a closed triangle. The intersection of the second arrow and the third enable the magnitude of both the tensions to be determined.Forces in Equilibrium When three forces are in equilibrium.500N downwards. Find the tension in both string and wire. Tanhc/Sec3PhysicsNotes/Scalars&Vectors 3 . Label the vector.48 N and the tension in the string is 0.16 N Note. Ex. Step 3: Draw a line in the horizontal direction. label the direction of the pull. say 0. 20o Tension pull weight Step 1: Choose a suitable scale. Step 2: Draw a line to scale with an arrowhead to represent one of the vectors. with arrows running in the same direction. Step 4: Draw a line from the tail of the first arrow and at 20 o to the vertical to represent the tension in the wire. Always choose a scale so that the vector diagram occupies almost completely the space available. (the length of which is not determined yet).(Big Diagram) 2. Always use a sharp pencil to draw vector diagrams.

Mass is the same independent on where we are. then the weight of the body = mass x acceleration due to gravity = mg For example if the mass m of a body is 70 kg. If the mass of a body is m and the acceleration due to gravity is g. on the surface of the Moon or on the surface of Mars our mass is the same. THE END Tanhc/Sec3PhysicsNotes/Scalars&Vectors 4 . However our weight is dependent on gravitation pull. then its weight is 70 x 10 = 700 N (taking the acceleration due to gravity g as 10 m/s2). Its direction is towards the Earth’s centre.Mass and Weight Weight is gravity acting on a mass. Weight is a vector quantity. For example whether we are on the surface of the Earth. So our weight on Earth’s surface is different from our weight on the Moon’s surface or on the surface of Mars. Mass is a scalar quantity.

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