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BEA S S E Y^^cA^^ N A V A L ANN tf AE
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1915

CONDUCTED BY

EARL BEASSEY,
Edited by

G.C.B.,

D.C.L.

JOHN LEYLAND.

WAE EDITION

LONDON

WILLIAM CLOWES AND
31,

SONS, LIMITED,

Haymarket, S.W.
And
sold hy all

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ENGLISH AND FOREIGN BOOKSELLERS AND AGENTS.

E. STAMFORD STREET. AND SONS. CL0\1 ES S. AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET. LIMITED. W ..: LONDON PRINTED BY WILLIAM DUKE STREET.

and Admiral Sir Henry Jackson has succeeded Lord Fisher as First Sea Lord. Lord ably discharged his duties as Editor. in preparing the volume. and in other responsible work. of the armies with Since the Naval ]\Ir. Mr. in which British sea-power enabling us to despatch armies abroad and to organise others the ruling influence and factor. Lord Brassey has therefore gladly undertaken once more intend the publication of the Naval Annual. who has edited the volume. Great discretion has been necessary. of whom it may be permitted to say that he has To-day. John Leyland. W. can in no assist the way The Naval Annual was founded by Lord Brassey. Park Lane. It seemed desirable that the Naval Annual is should be issued in this year of War. giving us and our Empire security. Later. and has been observed. but It will be of use to the British service it and enemy. on May 23rd. at home. . but much light is thrown upon the situation and character of the navies of the enemy. and Commander 24. constituting also the indispensable link their base. the British people. The war is world-wide. and even as the volume was passing through the press. who years for undertook the task of production unaided. Hythe is engaged in the more urgent patriotic duty of enrolling and training men for a Eeserve Eegimeut of Yeomanry.PEEFATOPvY. 1915. Mr. to whom he tenders grateful thanks. Balfour has replaced Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty. declared hostilities against Austria-Hungary. Italy. Eobinsou. May. Annual was completed. he some was relieved by his son. N. C. The circumstances under which briefly the present volume appears may be explained. Its to super- appearance would have been impossible without the valuable assistance of his old friends. Nothing is included concerning the British and Allied Navies except what is accessible in many official publications.

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PLANS OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN SHIPS. II.N. CONTENTS. II. . M.. G.I.. N. .. H. .. LIST OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN AIRSHIPS. IV. . . S. Hurford 67 CHAPTER The Enemy Navies III. AND FOREIGN SHIPS. Commander . Bohinson 18 A Diary of the War . PART CHAPTER I. . .. John Leyland 74 CHAPTER The United States NA^T ..A. N. Considerations on the Causes and the Conduct OF THE Present War Earl Brassey 1 CHAPTER The "World War . . C. . R. John Leyland 88 Thought-^ on the Present and the Future Earl Brassey 92 PART LIST OF BRITISH Commander G... Baenaby. . I.N. W. . Robinson. and John Leyland..

. . . .. . PAGE OFFICIAL STATEMENTS AND PAPERS.... . . .... IV. . . ....... .VI THE NAVAL ANNUAL.. .. .. 1915 . . 240 243 245 British Declaration and Order in Council Official Despatches on the Operations ... . . ... ..... . . February 15... . . ... November 27.1914 .. ... PART Introduction . ENEMY ORDNANCE. . . ENEMY AND NEUTRAL ORDNANCE TABLES.. 218 224 237 239 First Lord's Speech on the Navy Estimates. .. . . United States Declaration thereon . .. 217 First Lord's Statement.. ... PART III. North Sea War Area —Admiralty German Declaration —War Area Statement .

. . . .. . Emperor of India . ...S. . .. 201 . H.. Queen Elizabeth H... New Ehrhardt Ship Guns . 33 65 81 German battleship Konig . German Submarine U 36 . . „ „ Krupp High-Angle Ship Guns 200.. . 202 ..M.. Frontispiece facing page . ..S. .. .M..LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS.

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In many branches the two countries have co-operated in the production of goods in important lines of trade. In 1847-48. Parcere subjrctis. Xext to India." .PART CHAPTER I. he says. memento : . debeUarc superbos. Naval aspirations are not of at first recent date. then Imperial Minister placed on record his views. We have been willing buyers. published in the of Athens. Germany has been our best customer. the present writer attended resides. many meetings It in the part of the country in which he to was endeavoured explain why we had been forced reluctantly to go to war. Both have prospered. When the present war was declared aud the call to arms was being made through the length and breadth of the land. Prince his biography : — " One volume is lohe^"^' reason. but of those manufactures in which Germany excels. II. I. Germany could not remain permanently in a position of hopeless inferiority at sea. as a military power. The trade of Great Britain and Germany has been advancing in recent We have run a ueck-and-neck race. Considerations on the Causes and the Conduct of the Present War. The conflict has nut been the outcome of commercial rivalry. not only of food and raw materials. Hoe tibi crimt nrtes et pacisq^iie imponcrc moron. Itoinaiw. Prince Hohenlohe. Xor should the creation of a fleet necessarily lead to war. Competition has not been a disadvantage to either country. in a memoir. years by leaps and bounds. Strong Navy. when universal discontent prevailed in Germany. " for discontent is universally diffused in Germany every thinking German deeply B . Tu rcijerc imiierio populos.

German flag is flying from his And when we study the map. or as her antagonist. States. and see how the Baltic.613 8.370 8." lately published :— " Our fleet had to be built with an eye to English policy and in this way it was built. ." . . the Kavy Estimates compared. . 1905. Powers in close alliance. ±23. Germany was bound to create a fleet.796 18.444.676.683.478.264 11. France Russia United States Great Britain ±4. 2 other and painfully aware of it.080 forward. while Germany pushed steadily We have since made vigorous efforts.. Germany . surely the hue of shame alone will survive from the red. Prince von Billow.052 26..604.206 4.856 12.000 Voted or Estimated for New Ccnstructiox.368.000 11. nor might we. become dependent upon her. and how no German flag commands the customary salute from the haughty French. The objects in view are explained by Prince von Biilow in his book on " Imperial Germany. . and not friendly to Germany. 301.576. had cut down expenditure.141 51. .— THE NAVAL ANNUAL. North Sea.788 British Navy Estimates." Looking to the Navies of France and Eussia.705.667.746 £10. .862 11. 1905 1914 £33. 1914.' not to energetic man to be unable to say abroad — ' be able to pride himself that the vessel. England's un- reserved and certain friendship could only have been bought at the price of those very international plans for the sake of which we had sought British friendship . programmes of German conNavy Estimates compare as struction have not been excessive. and the Mediterranean break upon our shores. .720. under: 1905.550.295 4. Germauv France Russia ' . . for the sake of England's friendship. I ara a German. ill. decisions We could not be guided in our and acts by a policy directed against England. ( We — internationally independent position.151.684 Germanv France Russia .818.392. and mount into our cheeks.129 19. Both dangers existed. 1914-15. My efforts in the field of international politics had to be directed to the For two reasons Germany had to take up an fulfilment of this task.443. As a first-class Power. 370 12. black and yellow.772. and more than once were perilously imminent. In our development as a Sea Power we could not reach our goal either as England's satellite. This is the impotence of Germany among No one will deny that it is hard on a thinking.316..

: GERMAN NAVAL POLICY. reliance ISTor can it be contended that failure of resources compels on external aid. and surely not less in the Mediterranean than elsewhere. without naval protection and Vast regions of the world were being opened out to trade. and England force in the background. which could not justly ." by Great Britain there had never been a question in Germany. Resentment had only been ships as felt when we did not lay down as many we believed we required. of the Commissioners of The income brought under the review Inland Revenue increased in ten years 1903-13 from £903. considerations Few and simple are the on which the people's judgment depends. It was wounding to the national When ships were laid down pride to fill the role of the suppliant. It will be generally agreed that the Fleet of England should be strong in every sea. in " tlie is safely guided.of If the United States. we on Causes of * ^'"' our side are engaged in the present war. from the Franco-German war onwards. III. it which. Germany could not hopeless inferiority at sea. Negotiations were in liand from time to time with semi-barbarous states. for example. reasonable concessions were not to be expected without some shoM. and I neither now do.000.000. nor ever will. arouse the susceptibilities of an English patriot. she must depend entirely on the consideration of other countries for participation in any advantages secured. and looked to help from another Power. had ships in Eastern waters. As Burke has truly said The principles of true politics are those of morality enlarged. France. has held the of German people as it were in a vice. nor could left her great and growing commercial interests be support. .000 to £1. and Germany had none. . admit of any other. witli which it was impossible If. with one consent. Tirpitz explanations of The present writer has heard more than once from Admiral von German naval policy.secure of power. while turning a cold shoulder to Germany. Tirpitz. The war party had seen They were eager M 'J Russia coming on in wealth and military strength.000. ^ Admiral von.111. It has been the curse Germany and the scourge of Europe. negotiations were in hand to an open door for merchants in the valley of the Yangtse. Let us now consider the reasons M'hy. the ambition of " It had never been compete with Great Britain for the supremacy of the seas." Military influence. Germany had desired it was a natural to possess a fleet which should desire on the part of a great Power to Germany — — command acquiesce the in respect of all other nations. and by main. to deal without some visible emblem .

to and from the point of view of British British obligations. on condition that the neutrality should be respected by other belligerent Powers. We are fighting as a united Empire in a sources of inspiration. looking that Belgium. At cause worthy of the highest traditions of our race. and bombarded and battered the north-eastern ports of France. The feelings which have been roused in the country do not depend on formal negotiations. British honour." Sir Edward Grey set forth in detail the position in regard to The international guarantee to that country that its Belgium. free from all passion. In Parliament. He was deeply moved by the assassination of the heir apparent. so were we contending " Never had a people more or richer to-day in the cause of freedom. In and out of Parliament the British case has been stated by the Prime Minister with convincing argument and moving eloquence." Sir Edward Grey. It was an opportunity not to be lost. The papers be presented would make it clear how strenuous and genuine and whole-hearted our efforts for peace had been. abeady deemed to be dangerous." He explained at length the attitude of the Government at every stage of the negotiations. Asquith. before a rival. was dragged Mr. earnestly desiring peace. the Guildhall he rested his appeal to arms on the unanimous As our forefathers voice of the Empire and the civilised world. Austria insisted upon terms which could not be conceded by Servia without utter loss of national independence. to cross swords. England. was renewed and confirmed in 1879 by Prince Bismarck. and the aged Emperor was naturally averse to war. and doing nothing. Sir Edward Grey delivered a made a profound impression. He believed would be the feeling of the country. Lord Granville abandon Belgium was a course which the . They would enable people to form their own judgment as to what forces were at work which operated against peace. we could not stand aside and see all this going on practically in sight of our own eyes. with our arms on dispassionately. of the British Government. Germany needed the support of Austria. When war was declared between France and Germany the folded. in. France stood by Piussia. struggled against the dominion of Napoleon. Liberal leaders in both Houses of Parliament explained the attitude Earl Granville.. Germany stood by Austria Russia was bound to stand by Servia. THE NAVAL ANNUAL. We shall all concur with Sir Edward Grey when he said that " if a powerful fleet engaged in war came down the English Channel. He asked the House " to approach the present crisis interests. It neutrality should be respected was first given by treaty in 1839. : ^gg^ these words — " To In the Upper House. had grown too strong. on August speech which 3rd.

Gladstone spoke with some reserve " He was not able to on the general question of treaty obligations. Let us hear Mr. An existing guarantee was of necessity an important fact. Roosevelt. There was also this further consideration. by Lord Kewton. to maintain the integrity and independence of Belgium and that the best security for these essential objects would he found in the knowledge that any proceedings which seemed to threaten their . but by interests of vital importance to herself. . and that was the common interests — — Lord against the unmeasured aggrandisement of any Power whatever. is widely Mr. In 1869. The great authorities upon foreign policy to whom he had been accustomed to listen Aberdeen and Lord Palmerston had never held that view. Her Majesty's Queen views were stated in a letter from General Grey to Lord Clarendon. Mr. -in. not only by the obligations of Treaties. and a weighty element in the case. Glad^ °°°' who hold that the existence of a guarantee is binding." life The references to the guarantee of Belgian independence in the of Lord Lyons." In the Commons. the force (if which we must all feel mo-st deeply. : Gladstone. with any due regard to tlie country's honour or the country's interest. With the unanimous wish of the American people. 1869: — "The Queeu had invariably expressed the strongest opinion that England was bound. possible annexations was under date January 14. he had ordered the signature of the United States to the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Eoosevelt. irrespective of changes of circumstances at the time when the occasion for action arises." In the United States sympathy with the British cause felt. "If tliose Conventions meant nothing. are of deep interest in this connection. subscribe to the doctrine of those Mr. If they it . giving in the clearest language the British position The suspicion even of an intention to pay less respect to the inde- pendence of Belgium than to the independence of England would produce a temper in the country which would put an end to good understanding. violation would bring England at once into the field. meant a serious sense of obligation to world was the plain duty of the United States. to investigate the charges solemnly made. As President. and to take whatever action .. as to violations of the Hague Conventions. as the trustee of civilisation. the signature was a mockery.. when apprehension was aroused by the proposed concessions of railways in Belgium." This conmiunication was followed by a " Memorandum from Mr. ^'ctona. the note of alarm as to first sounded by the Queen.— BELGIAN NEUTRALITY. and in accordance Theodore righteousness. 5 Government thought it impossible to adopt in the name of the country. to which we were bound to give full and ample consideration.

so as to be ready when the hour should strike.6 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and her lofty ambition to establish a world empire upon the ruins of the British Empire." Members Modern History Faculty of to Every thinking man must admit that the ambition of Germany have a share in colonial expansion has. as Choate writes as follows towards England : — shown by Professor Cramb. springing from her mid-European — situation. Choate. her naval and military power. quietly but steadily. and. as justly described by ' Webster. have taken a Even they have made admissions as strong line against Germany." statesman. with inadequate access to the sea. is the intense hatred of Germany for England. But all remains an inland empire. and of almost invincible power. the while she has been building up. to the national aspirations for expansion. simultaneously with the humiliation of France in 1870. has established the still German Empire. and 'England's without room for her rapidly increasing population. largely by force of arms. to might be necessary Conventions. in their statement of the British case for the declaration of war. "remember. (^Jreat. Joseph " The real cause [of the present war]. thus far been held in check in a regrettable degree. vindicate the principles set forth in those is This strong language from a representative IV. Meanwhile. Mr. has been extending all her imperial power over the world. from the force of circumThe stances. mere existence as an Empire has become a continuous aggression to Germany. perpetuated . has of all Germany." they say. she has become a Power which has dotted over the surface whose of the whole globe with her possessions and military posts morning drum-beat. and has succeeded in creating in her army a military machine of boundless numbers. so that. under the lead of the HohenzoUerns. Since the days of Frederick the while England. " become the master which. in extenuation of Prussia. circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England. Mr. Prussia. and an evil tradition of ruthless conquest. "Let us. that she has suffered from two things geographical pressure. following the sun and keeping company with . to cope with and to crush if possible the combined forces of all the other nations of Europe.' Germany has remained cooped up within her narrow boundaries. What are the ? main causes of the hostile sentiment in Germany In an introduction to the American edition of Professor Cramb's lectures on England and Germany. however. and her proud claim to be mistress of the seas a perpetual ' affront. members of the Oxford Faculty of Modern History. the hours.

terms. We joined the retained the suzerainty of the island. to think. The latest is volume of the encyclopaedic history planned by abundant in relation to these proceedings. Eeluctantly. Geographical pressure on has a state of chronic strangulation. sometimes the protection of missionaries. The Guinea list is long of the annexations Fiji. or commercial advantage on (xreat Britain. 1878. . l>y 7 lier HohenzoUern rulers since all sides. 1903." The present writer Sir recalls a conversation many years ago with Sir Henry ]\I. We had done nothing to help the Turk we had no claim to a share. as the present Czar has done. was inspiring to listen to the glowing language in wliich he dilated it on the greatness of the British Empire. man essentially of the cosmopolitan order. 1886. . AmiexaEgypt. The Sultan To the diplomatic world it was represented that the Cyprus Convention was designed to secure important objects. It was deemed necessary that we should get sometliing in the general scramble at the Congress of Berlin. political. tlie days of the Great Elector. not always to our own advantage. 1888. we have seen our boundaries extending greater than — our responsibilities becoming almost : we can bear. Lord Acton Fiji. The commercial interests of Sydney and the fear lest some other Power might anticipate us were further motives to action. New sjncems. as deprecated further extension . made in recent years 1874. and to think nobly. As to Cyprus. secure on the East. perhaps too readily accepted. explorer beside it —a Stanley.. or it. Sometimes the expansion of trade. — 1890. The views of the traveller were fully shared by the leading statesmen of the time. Zanzibar (taken over in exchange for Heligoland) 1902. In each case it that policy required was held that annexation was forced upon us. Sitting him at the annual dinner of the Eoyal Cieographical Society. involving mutual engagements. . for the police of the seas. has conferred no military. The islands were annexed on the plea that the abuses connected with the labour traffic required regulation and oversight. Cyprus. to .. Taking first Fiji. naval. and it think in other has been possible for Eussia. sometimes a responsibility. then was. 1882. We engaged to pay annually to the Porte the largest tribute which the most prosperous year on the island had ever yielded. It an island State in the West. of inter- national obligations. the Transvaal. Northern Nigeria. too He strongly we should have much on our hands. and a struggle ruthlessly for breath. made Prussia feel lierself in man who feels strangled will has been easier for England. Upper Burma. has been the moving cause. it is safe to say that the acquisition of the island Cyprus.. exempt from pressure. BRITISH IMPERIAL EXPANSION. then at the height of his fame as a bold stan\ev.

all classes We have done much We have established in To the creditors confidence in the justice of British rule. standing at a tavern window and gazing on the moonlit mudbanks of the barbarous Thames — Egypt. innumerable benefits of every kind have been conferred. It . On her departure. and the Sultan promised in return to introduce necessary reforms in consultation with his ally. The British Protectorate in discouraged by Lord Palmerston chief users of the Canal."' " The being who would be content with nothing less than communing with celestial powers in sacred climes. in that country a large force at a time is been necessary to detain our available strength when all needed elsewhere. have not strengthened ourselves as a military power. Egypt was strongly deprecated by statesmen of commanding influence in England in the days when The project for the Suez Canal was the present writer was youog. into a deep meditation was hard. moored off Greenwich. of interest of Egypt punctual payments have been assured. his friend. life in he foresaw that we should be the in Egypt. ! supply of water Capital is is assured. The British occupation of Cyprus was the fuliilment of an early " dream of Lord Beaconsfield. to improve the condition of the fellaheen. even in a thirsty year. To-day are at We we will war with the Sultan. river which neither angel nor prophet had ever visited. the writer recalls an incident of Parliamentary days long ago. In this connection. Our occupation of Egypt was encouraged by Prince Bismarck he knew it would be the occasion of many trouldes : with France.a 8 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. The struggle to part from fell Lady Bertie. supplied on easy terms to the cultivator by advances from instituted the Land Banks by Lord Cromer. It should at least be the hour. must lead to commitments and we had already more than enough on our hands. " Farewell.cht Basilisk. the work of civilisation has been conBy irrigation works on a colossal scale. a sound which makes us linger. In a word. . Sultan in the delence of his Asiatic dominions against any further Eussian attack. In an interval in the proceedings of the House . Tancred he had lingered too long. louder Lord Cromer. and later under Lord Kitchener. was the Isle of Dogs. The threatened invasion It has of Egypt doubtless be triumphantly overcome. softened by " Cyprus In 1882 we first occupied Egypt. a tinuously carried on. Before him. We recall the description in " Tancred of a farewell dinner given by the hero to his friends after inspecting the yp. over a vast area. Our administration of that country has been eminently successful.

The island is important chiefly as a field for the self-denying labour of missionaries of many denominations.BRITISH IMPERIAL EXPANSION. They have their the native population. giving as little occasion of offence as possible to other Powers. as he discussed a British Protectorate in Egypt. He held that we should lose the singular advantage all of our insular position. to the invasion of — — much good as we can to the people of the country. in in exchange for a trouser button. Taking advantage New an opportunity when the relations between England and France of were strained by contentions as to Egypt. We fly the British flag. southern part of New Guinea. and we cannot leave it. a large tract in East Africa. then leader of the Liberal Party and leader Lord of the House. Prince Bismarck initiated a forward colonial policy in Africa and in the Pacific. he strongly deprecated it. that England had " got a new suit territories. New South Wales. of Continental Europe. Zanzibar. We are in Egypt. and Our vigorous Britons beyond a part of New Guinea were acquired. Hartington was considering the subject as an academic proposition. homely but expressive words." We is need not attempt to deal with the Boer War. and doing as tragic fate of General Gordon. The Cameroons. Zanzibar was the next addition to the extended dominions of In July 1890 the island of Heligoland was ceded to Germany by an agreement with reference to Zanzibar and the Uganda On this transaction Sir Henry Stanley remarked. Samoa and other Pacific Islands. There was no prospect of such a step at the time. present in the public recollection. he stood with a small group of interested lisfeuers around Lord Hartington. amount. the sea resented the intrusion of any foreign Power in regions which they had looked upon as spheres of future expansion. The proceedings are ^"™''^- by the writer of the chapter on Burma in the Cambridge History as " sufficiently high-handed. reward in the spread of civilisation among The trade of New Guinea is chiefly with It is inconsiderable in Queensland and Great Britain. to the avenged in the Battle of Omdurman. to the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir. Lord Stanley Great Britain annexed the yielded to pressure from Australia. The action taken by Upper In 1885 we conquered Upper Burma. Egypt now threatened. we see now that Lord Hartington as he then was not untruly prophesied. AVe should be dragged into the conflicts As we look across the years to the bombard- ment and of the forts of Alexandria. We have to fulfil our destiny. Lord Dufferin characterised may have been inevitable. Under its ample Boer and Briton . of 9 Commons. Every incident The main advantage we have folds South secured from final \ictory appeals largely to the imperial sentiment." In Xew Guinea we had to deal with Germany.

in Saigon. Finally. the blessings of liberty and self- enjoy in unrestricted measure government. The lands within the temperate zone had long before been taken up. a French Empire has been established over a wide area in Central population has increased tenfold. and such proposals are not likely to be well received. Stanley Loathes. German Algeciras flag in dominions beyond the last fifty years. the writer of the chapter on Great Britain in the Cambridge History. Turning eastward. with a population of fifty millions. principles. South of the Sahara. Powers in the The share of Germany has not satisfied national aspirations. but a strong jealousy between England and Germany has grown up. million square kilometres. They are self-governed. by the construction of railways. In a general review in progress. In the words of Mr. a protectorate has been Annam. were not well received." it While may be agreed that Germany has not unreasonably . Having secured the position of Germany in Europe. Trade with the French colonies has increased since 1870 from 350 millions to nearly two milliards of francs. Tunis Africa. on strong democratic The material gain to Germany of her colonies has been It is gratifying unimportant. it is not necessary to refer to the now Since the Franco.10 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. rich in natural resources. The alliance with Japan was resented. German Colonial In Germany the enthusiasm for colonial exploration and conquest is Expansion. universal. made in connection with the Hague Conference of 1907.German AVar. certain to be developed under orderly government. accompanied by mutual suspicions. maritime superiorit}^ M'hich is necessary to her safety. operations French Colonies. The commerce of this dependency increased in twenty years from 27 to 200 millions of francs. and Tonkin. We have passed in review the colonial expansion of the great Conference. European harmony created by the Algeciras ConOfficial relations have always been correct. Proposals for a limitation of armaments. which were not dispelled by the later understanding with Eussia and lesser Powers. became a French protectorate. by the Treaty of Bardo. The extent of colonial empire thus created under the French flag has been increased to nearly twelve established in Madagascar. so long as Great Britain maintains her claim to the overwhelming serious rift "A in ference has not yet disappeared. to the national pride to hoist the seas. Morocco has been annexed. an almost instinctive effort has been made by the French Government in the direction of colonial expansion. as blocking German designs in the Far East. It has not brought territories adapted for European settlement under German protection. Bismarck embarked on the colonial policy already described. The colonial In 1886.

to which the world has seen nothing similar. colour. Italy. in our self-governing colonies. . We we interrogate the past in vain. manners. inhabited by men differing from us in race. morals. The Army. chiefly to the United States." X. and in industry. the present clear revenue of which exceeds tlie present clear revenue of any state in the world. no danger in the growing weight of " Lord Salisbury told us that England owns. see vast territories acquired. to and to every quarter of the globe. . and. Everywhere they have been welcomed as capable citizens. without any consent of the people whatever. Here in England they have had their full share in finance. Prince von Biilow has rightly said that no important colonial possessions have been gained by P^ngland at the expense of Germany. above all. everywhere our endeavour loyalty of the people. in commerce. nor the War Office. . nor in the Cabinet. in 1833. Spain. France excepted a territory. liave travelled round the globe. religion these are prodigies Pieason is confounded.Expan- pansion of the British Empire in every zone. side of Prussia. it 11 is true to say that in the dominions beyond the sea remaining under the direct authority of the British Crown. Germans went forth in vast numbers. when we acquired in India. When war was declared we took a tremendous leap at in the dark. . It Macaulay paid a long past : just tribute to the good work done in India in days That a handful of adventurers from an island in the Atlantic should have subjugated a vast country divided from the — " place of their birth by half the globe — a country which at no very distant period was merely the subject of fable to the nations of Europe a country never before violated by the most renowned of Western Conquerors a country which Trajan never entered a country lying beyond the point where tlie phalanx of Alexander refused to . sought a place in the sun. govern justly rewarded in the enthusiastic Let us not say that there responsibility. more nationalities than she can comfortably count. . a territory. in the United AMien States." As we look across the years. and Germany put together. settlers from all lands enter Ijy the open door. has conferred many B°[iish In his speech in the House of Commons. proceed us . that we should govern —a territory larger a territory ten thousand miles from and more populous than France. language. We have traced the ex.THE BRITISH EMPIRE. emigration was more active than it has been of late years. Lord Empire. Everywhere increasing prosperity is . Xeither at the Admiralty. In the Seven Years' War. Canada and established our rule we were fighting on the We benefits.

Serious merable hosts of Crermany. Mobilisation in a vast empire.384. and Poictiers. the fine old County regiments. The strength of the German Field Army of the first line was Behind the forces with the 750. Agincourt. and equipdebates had revealed a ment. the second line 500. it had been decided to add with caution to Estimates. Germany encountered our Expeditionary Our soldiers of these Force.12 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. We hold our own. in quality superli. Belgium was scheme for a large increase in numbers.000. . Their numbers are not accurately known. Their main 5. had been approved by the Belgian Parliament. Germany was fully prepared. must be a slow process. In deference to financial considerations. arms. the same steadiness under fire. country fought magnificently.000. In 1914 the well-organised reserves. have shown the same grit and courage. the longbow-men of Crecy. Their They were overwhelmed.000. too few in numbers. Our Allies are doing prodigies of valour in daily conflicts. India and on foreign stations. We were utterly unprepared for war on the Continent of Europe with the most perfectly organised army which the world has ever seen. have stood with unflinching courage shoulder to shoulder with their gallant comrades of the Eegular Army. nor could it have been known. the Artillery.400. The proposed reforms were in the first stage when Belgium was invaded by the innuFrance was unprepared. Territorials. were renowned. have more than The sustained. later days. Eussia was not prepared. opposition had been offered to the proposals for extending the term Eecent of compulsory service with the colours to three years. Francc Russia. our forces in A allies were powerless to help. Pushing on into France. was it known. We have fought hard. colours were the strong and number of men who had done their military service was put at The Germans were promptly in the field. hotly contested with the enemy. for which their forefathers. how things would go by sea or by land. armed with the rifle. The Guards. and improved training and equipment. with the colours are the reserves.000. While the Allies were backward. the Cavalry. our new force. imperfectly supplied with railways. In Eussia the total military strength in time of peace is Behind the men given in the "Almanach de Gotha " at 1. It has been the settled policy of Great Britain to keep down the Regular for Army to a strength barely sufficient to furnish reliefs unprepared. their grand historic fame. large deficiency in stores. the creation of Lord Haldane. The small army of that forces were concentrated on Belgium. they ha^'e enhanced. contending with superior numbers.

We have as many recruits as Professor we can arm. It was believed that South Africa was of civil war in Ireland.Witness. We shall have a fine army from that far-away part of the Empire. contempt. the oldest of our colonies not rich in men or in money has sent to our Army and to our Navy a combined force of 2500 men. In men recruited by compulsion it were vain to look for the same uniform cjuality which we see aud admire in those who have voluntarily responded to Lord Kitchener's call.THE ARMY As " IN THE FIELD." writing from headquarters. Australasia has been overflowing with enthusiasm. Canada Gallant has sent us 33. India has been swept by a mighty wave of enthusiasm. Germany had been ill-served by her The Ambassador in Vienna was anxious for war. Hilaire Belloc battles consist of continuous assaults on trenches resembling the Great Wall of China and the Britain. not . Newfoundland. Advances are made on both sides ("ompulsory servnce has been strongly advocated. and indignation suffered to spread across the that a greart un. aud Mr. in the nature of moral scorn. that was seething with discontent. Treitschke for Ti-eitschko England was world. and equip for Cramb tells us that the hatred Power should be the of field. We every part of the Empire. Ijrought into the field reinforcements from The present war has representatives abroad. Roman Wall in Great by sap and mine. the hatred of Prussian Germany. Australasia was ready to cut the painter.warlike We were betraying our weakness by pleading with Germany " to disarm.000 men. ^Ve are making tremendous efforts to reinforce our Army. as smooth And tender as a * * girl. * * Presume hand upon the ark Of her magnificent and awful cause ? " to lay their AVe have put to silence these idle vapourings. tained a front which has never been broken. the close of the War we must be prepared for demands for a share The question is imperial ^on*^^'^^ in directing the foreign policy of the Empire. 13 point out. conducted on a gigantic scale. Should England prosper when such things. that India disaffected. all essenc'd o'er. The conflict is a series of siege operations. train. the Eye. Dobeyond^ ^^^• have many legions of our Indian fellow-subjects at the front. As many more are promised. We have mainWe may have incurred is In war it better to be hated than to be despised. The Ambassador in Petrogi-ad had reported that liussia would From London it was reported that we were on the eve not mobilise. Xor are the numbers lacking. — — ' at Having received the strong support of the Dominions beyond sea.

among others. Mr. Then. and none which The history of the last governments more consistently pursue.14 uew. Prime Minister. intervention in domestic quarrels. Nor can any far-reaching proposals of as now. We have invited ing their interests. 1891. the Dominions are consulted. Bryce. years is strewn with the wrecks of national prosperity which seventy . . to THE NAVAL ANNUAL. Lord Lamington. Acting on these suggestions. a deputation from the They had come to urge the convocation of a second Conference of the self-governing countries of the Empire." . One policy. lu June. Without them we could not get very far. This is not the time for full discussion of grave problems of Imperial Federation. . Those who pay may claim a voice in matters of policy on which there may conflict of opinion. we had no plan. He thought the time had almost come when schemes should be proposed. constitutional change be considered until the return of peace. on every grave question affectis desirable to go. may be constituted must relate to foreign for defensive preparations The charges must be a be voted by the representatives of the taxpayers. an influential such a Conference as Committee was constituted. their representatives to sit We on the Committee of Imperial Defence. then Lord Imperial Federation League. have already taken some steps in the direction in which it In recent times. The matters to be dealt with Ijy Imperial Council which policy and to defence. Mr.\11 failures that have taken place have arisen from one cause the is practice of foreign There no practice which the experience of nations more uniformly condemns. Lord Salisbury in his reply admitted that there was a feeling of unrest in the Dominions. the present writer had the honour of introducing Salisbury. so earnestly deplored by Lord Salisbury. We have given them unreservedly our confidence. On any some points we see clearly. . We should have " less of the evils of foreign intervention. and Lord Reay. including. He pointed to the objections to calling had been proposed. said : In his essay on Lord Castlereagh. these well-meant interventions have caused. unless we had some definite proposition to make. result is certain to follow from consultation as to external Nor would such a result be a thing to be lamented. he all L^ndoubtedly the arrangements of Vienna were not absolute : perfection nor have they in cases been proof even for the the : limited period of forty years against the destructive agencies that prey upon political organisations. an unwillingness to acquiesce precisely in the existing state of things. Arnold-Forster.

large AVe have had experience of disaster from the attacks of sub- We had ships in our squadrons not fitted more powerful vessels. writing Light Cruisers. to engage -^il. marines and from mines. These were not powerful In speed they had a marked advantage over many fighting vessels. Germany eight. Comparing the relative strength in Eastern waters at the outbreak of the present war. as against under the German flag. We had too many cruisers in commission of little value except for the police of the seas. German light cruisers ranged the Bay of Bengal. Not long ago. and only lost by a neck. To an officer of his chivalrous and daring nature that alternative was impossible. A silent pressure has been maintained. with no anticipation of a state of war. The Captain and officers of the Emden gallantly did their duty to It was fitting that their swords should be returned. the total number over. only of a similarly ineffective type . served our shores from invasion. destroyed by the Sydney. It has It has pre- The Navy. of ships in commission were Great Britain thirty-six. he rode second in the Grand Military at Sandown. as a veteran. / ^ %t. five under 20 knots. war there was regrettable delay cruisers. To win a decisive victory was impossible In the early stages of the while the enemy remained secure in port. up the strength by continued reinforcement. capturing our merchant steamers in numbers and bombarding Madras. Our squadrons have been reinThe Emden has been forced with light cruisers of high speed. vessels which have pursued them. 15 VI. made it possible to send our Expeditionary Force across the Channel unchallenged. and to keep The commerce of the enemy has been destroyed. . which in time must tell. the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic. All the German cruisers had a speed of 23 knots and speed numbered twelve.— - BRITISH SKA POWER. in clearing the seas of the enemy's Speed is an essential quality for such service. The fate which befell Sir Christopher Cradock was due to the' inferiority of the ships under his command. The young Australian Navy has been justly congratulated by the Admiralty on this first achievement. as against forty Our list included thirty-six of a speed for Germany. called attention to the need of reinforcement. light cruisers five vessels The British vessels classed in the Naval Annual as numbered no less than eighty-nine. He might have declined battle. If he had been in command of a gunboat he would have fought. Tim British Fleet has ful611ed its essential purpose. their country. The British cruisers of equal On other foreign stations the Editor of the Naval Annual.

Grand that Admiral von Tirpitz." The country has responded well has done nobly. rich or poor. which in full is we have not all lightly all drawn. learned or simple. We seek no other advantage than the establishment of peace on soon to treat of peace. under brilliant commanders. have shown what our Navy can do if it has the chance. more recently. YIII. of all existing means. will be hereafter the duty of experts to YIl. busy or leisurely. which consider. frequent changes in the constitutiun of the Board of Admiralty. capacity and experience. It needs for its accomplishis a great task. unsurpassed in speed and gun-power. old or young. Eecruiting for the Army has been a triumph for full Men have come forward in . The Navy numbers. The actions off ]6 off the Dogger Admiral von Spee off the Falklands. 5lr. ment that every man among us. should give what he has and do what he can. worthy of a great nation. voluntary enlistment. the feats of our submarines and aeroplanes. Bank. and manned by brave and skilful seamen. to is not the time for dealing with organisation. tremendous conflict in conditions wliich will endure. of It is too results of the shall The terms must depend on the which we are engaged. Our Navy has suffered from too until their task is accomplished.— THE NAVAL ANNUAL. The essential make use There will be much to consider In the reinforcement of the say that the work will best Army. and until the That military domination of Prussia is wholly and finally destroyed. the bombardments on the coast of Belgium and the north-east coast of France. until the rights of the smaller nationalities ol Europe are placed upon an unassailable foundation. it is safe be accomplished by men of tried the Navy and It were policy to retain Lord Fisher and Lord Kitchener in the places of responsibility which they now fill. Terms peace. it This i« not the occasion to discuss technical questions. to the call to arms. Our battlecruisers. in his speech at the Guildhall banquet. let us resolve to keep themThe German Navy is the creation of one capable ^Minister. Now we have secured good men. Organisation for is to War later on. made clear the terms on which we must insist "We shall never sheathe the sword. Asquith. until Belgium recovers measure and more than that she has sacrificed. the well-timed meeting with flag triumphantly to victory. until France adequately secured against the menace of aggression. have carried our Heligoland and.

frightful is Yet there something on the other " side. Mr." he said. They have dug themselves in deep. at the present time. Brassey. it However long may last. which. to discuss the problems of future naval The writer forbears to offer naval warfare to which the enemy has any comments on the methods of lately had recourse. would not be prudent. " in is for moderation in the hour of victory. precisely as the dismembering and shattering of the British Empire or of the French Republic would be. but construction. and throughout the length and breadth of the Empire. Some months have elapsed since the writing of the above essay." The present war is an awful experience of suffering and misery. standing were shoulder to shoulder. 17 Once more. To dismember and hopelessly shatter Germany would be a calamity for mankind.! BRITAIN AT WAE. To chronicle the too little. of which afield. talk as present war would be the utter dismemberment of Germany and her reduction to impotence. duced as the introductory chapter of the Naral Annual Much us far has happened in the interval. we have seen to what a height of self-sacrifice and devotion a nation may be raised by love of country. God Almighty evil. by the desire of the Editor. He " Extremists. to extol the deeds of valour." men observingly distil At home. it There If is some soul of goodness in things out. incidents. Roosevelt has been quoted as a supporter of our cause. . we do not doubt how the War will end. if the proper outcome of the England. France and Eussia. The final result for months. confidentially printed. is here reprofor 1915. depends on the combined efforts of the Allied Powers. we may regret that when war was declared the Allies The Germans have been in occupation of Belgium ill prepared. we know beyond all would take War on a scale far precedent must teach many lessons. contending in a righteous cause. All recent experience has shown the transcendental it importance of superiority on the side of materiel. such as that which followed the Thirty Years' War.

It is being waged in both hemispheres and across all oceans. and letters from officers and men who were eye-witnesses fulfil should a useful purpose.* a war of unprecedented character. but which will surely leave its mark on the civilisation. can yet be compiled for lack of complete information. Scope of chapter. the official despatches. and the reinforcement of that force by men. The British Navy. During all this momentous period Sea Power has been exerted in the interests of humanity. . ^^^ It is the intention here to No entirely satisfactory description of the actions less of the policy and engagements. A chronicle of the events of the conflict. assisted by those of our Allies. the outcome of which none can predict. scope. The British Empire. Accuracy and care have been primary objects. however. Narrative of Naval Events and Incidents. That it will bring about a re-colouring of the map of the globe is equally certain. * The period covered by this review is from the outbreak of hostilities to May 4. At the same time. and by the exercise of economic pressure is slowly but surely producing a strangling effect upon the aims and ambitions of the enemy. overrunning a large part of France. Compiled chiefly from Official Documents. possible to produce a history in the Nor is it modern sense of that word. stores. in its many aspects. and the narrative has been supplemented. and every provision necessary to its continued effectiveness. and conduct has convulsed the world. the industrial progress. and invading Russia. with its Allies. has secured the continuation of our oversea trade. wherever the material is available. it has swept the commerce of the enemy from the seas. For nine months now. place on record the naval incidents of 'Wox and the movements and'operations of the contending fleets. 1915. has prevented the violation of the shores of these islands.18 CHAPTER II. and the social and economic conditions of all nations. by the Admii'alty communiques. is engaged in a tremendous struggle. although it has been unable to restrain Germany from crushing Belgium. and much and purpose of strategical dispositions. The World War. and has enabled the Empire to of its friends come to the assistance by ensuring the safe transit of an Expeditionary Force to the Continent.

No attempt has been made to draw or to criticise or lessons from the incidents of the War. the work of the Committee of Imperial Defence must be reviewed. invaluable work which was inaugurated by Mr. indicate the influence of maritime strength. will contain War. J. it was due that the standard of the fighting efficiency of the Another name which cannot be Fleet had never been excelled. and so far as the facts have been revealed. and to which the finishing touches were put under the encouragement of Mr. To Lord Fisher the country owes the sufficiency and adequacy of the Navy for its work. and it When tliree War. and demonstrate the manner in which the potentiality of Sea of the Power has proved to be the dominating factor forthcoming. and the timely mobilisation of the Fleet. when war clouds broke. Out of the labours of this Committee came the machinery which was found so effectual. In a third chapter. inspired Defence mittee. for the energy and determination with whicli he pressed reforms in gunnery and so improved the marksmanship of the Navy. Nor will the names of the admirals at sea be omitted from this page of history.PREPARING FOR WAR. 191-1. this change was made with the entire confidence and -approval of the country. Winston Churchill and his principal naval adviser. the encouragement of the commercial community. Prince Louis of Battenberg. Much as are to be regretted the immediate circumstances which led to Lord Fisher's return to office as First Sea Lord on October 30. an adequate history of the struggle is all The Navy the events are surveyed in their proper perspective. will be connected with the These matters names of Mr. To Sir Arthur Wilson and Sir George Callaghan. A. Balfour. including the aiithorisation by the House of Commons of larger Navy Estimates than this country had ever before in one year devoted to naval name Lord Fisher. Yet the narrative must some extent. Law of the itself. more than to any others. of the events 19 they describe. and the modification of the shield of the Fleet. important chapters. Another chapter will describe the cii'cumstances which preceded the outbreak of hostilities. of One of these will be devoted to the story of the renaissance of the British Navy. to whom defence. To his successors must be given the credit of having the Fleet in all respects ready for action. Eealm novel conditions in which the country found to meet the Behind the sure effort and cheered by the unity of . comment on to the tactical details of the engagements. indelibly associated with the the country owes a deep debt of gratitude for the many valuable reforms which marked his long period of service at the Admiralty. Asquith. in the provision of precautionary measures for the prevention of panic. overlooked is that of Sir Percy Scott.

We have been able. increasing its dominating Thus it has been that our supremacy at sea has affected the issues of the conflict. safety. its has been thought well not to set down every event in chronological sequence of time. displayed by the chiefs of all political parties. it is a fact to be remembered that our Navy was relatively stronger and better prepared for action than it ever was at the beginning of any of our wars in past times. the danger of famine and financial ruin has been averted. and is still having. shows how daily events presented themselves It should be of more than ephemeral interest. It is hoped that a concise review such as follows all may prove of value to naval students. but to group together certain occurrences having a similar relation to phases of sea warfare and the principal theatres of action. We have been able.— 20 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. to increase of the . Sea power has its victories by silent or static pressure as well as its successes by the exercise of dynamic force. and it furnish to the future historian material which. Although it is a hundred years since this country has been engaged in a naval war on such a huge scale. and this even whilst there has been no decisive battle between the main fleets. " lost to view amid the northern mists. and strength of the Kingdom chiefly depend. Owing to the presence and latent potentiality of that Fleet. and a well-founded confidence displayed which finds expression in the declaration of policy set forth in the Articles of " It is tlie War : upon the Navy that." we have been able to send to France and Flanders an army of larger dimensions than any heretofore employed by this country. under the good providence of God. And it is also because that Fleet keeps the seas that the country has been secured from invasion. the patriotic sentiment of the country in the security was aroused. while every month since the war These will be found tabulated on later pages of the began has seen additions made influence. Nor has it been considered necessary to set forth the sea strengths of the great Powers which are engaged in the struggle. to raise and train a still larger army for use when the propitious moment arrives. as to bystanders. Naval Annual as they stood at the outbreak oi" war. moreover. and the social and industrial our uutput life of our people has proceeded without dislocation. both by our own people and by our Allies." Supresea. wealth. to our Fleet. a throttling effect upon the economic condition of Germany. It is well that the prodigious influence on the War exerted by the Fleet should be fully realised. also. This gave us an initial advantage which has not been lost. It has been the former operating cause which has had.

" Power dominate the development By an aiTangement which proved most fortunate.— THE PREMIERS DECLARATION. while as the story unfolds itself will be seen New Zealanders how contingents wrenched from Germany her free. The completeness of the results of the eight months of sea warfare has been made possible by his ships. could be gi\'en full play. Asquith in a speech at Edinburgh on September 18. have been captured or driven to take refuge in neutral ports. where the yachts anchored. with the torpedo flotillas. to is vindicate the sanctity of treaty obliga Causes of '^ tions. The external commercial activity of Germany has entirely ceased. led by the King and Albert as far as the Nab End Buoy. to assert and to enforce the independence of free States. in the ships of which our seamen are still eagerly awaiting the opportunity for a Ijattle in which they may emulate the glorious deeds and achievements of their predecessors. relatively small and weak. to the arrogant claim of a single of the destinies of Europe. still Throughout the world our ports are the oceans. and the Fleet steamed in procession past them. Never before has there been such a striking manifestation of the relation of Sea Power to Empire. Test tion." said the Prime Minister. decided upon five months earlier. On July 20th. our commerce covers enemy has been forced to withdraw merchantmen. quite one-half of and the protection aftbrded by the Grand Fleet. and the First. against the encroachments . of Australians and oversea possessions. In the third place. 1914. and Third Fleets. This change of plan. and flotillas weighed anchor and proceeded in the Victoria . and of what properly called the public law of Europe ^^' " In the second place. Spithead for an inspection by his Majesty the King. the patriotic aspirations of the Dominions direction. to withstand.seas unmolested. the usual grand manoeuvres of the British Navy in 1914 had been abandoned in favour of a test mobilisation of the reserves. numbering nearly 5000 them steamers. Second. 21 munitions of war and materially to assist our Allies in the same Further afield. the squadrons to sea. in regard to the reasons ' for three " reasons : In the first place. as we believe in the best interests not only of our Empire. and the violence of the strong " and. Canada. but of civilisation at large. was earned out on July 15th and assembled at the days immediately folloM'ing. and other colonies crossing it the . It will be unnecessary for the purpose of this survey to say more which led Great Britain to embark in the War than was said by Mr. reinforcements from Australia. . " We are at war. while the Fleet of the into his fortified harbours.

how complete and effective had been the arrangements of the authorities and the means of putting them into effect. Admiralty extended if measures of precaution in order to ensure that. The only movement on July 29th. On these terminating on the 24th. But it was not until midnight on July 26th that any definite measures of precaution affecting the At that hour arrangements of the British Fleet became necessary. Admiral Sir George Callaghaii was the Commander-in-Chief. not to disperse for manceuvre leave for the present. the Fourth Cruiser Squadron. put to sea that morning there was some cheering. The Second Fleet ships prepared to disembark their officers and men who had completed the vessels to full complement from the training establishments. of the significance of their departure. First Fleet returned to Portland their Home ports. Not a few vessels but every ship in commission as a fighting unit had her appointed war station This fact was not at once recognised. that Austria had to have given manceuvre leave. were brought into play swiftly and silently. there was issued the following notice by the Admiralty : Orders have been given to the First Fleet. and the men returned to their civil occupations. and the arrangements of the Admiralty in conjunction therewith. although at the same time negotiations were going on. and the situation of some of the squadrons was revealed. the and the Second and Third Fleets to The ten days' training of the reservists in the Third Fleet was completed on July 25t]3. Austrian declaration of diately Austria-Hungary declared war upon Serbia on July 28th. but otherwise the vessels left their base without the country being aware ships. and it only to proceed to. been pressing Serbia over the matter of the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. the British its war. or when this country should become involved in the immediate force of the Navy should be ready to act. which became known to the country As the at once was the departure of the First Fleet from Portland. About the same time Callaghan left that the forty or more vessels of Sir George Portland. or the day after the Austrian declaration of war. which is concentrated at Portland. was significant of coming trouble. dawned upon the public as the war progressed. conflict. and that a state of tension existed between the two nations. and the bands were playing.— 22 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. Immeupon the opening of hostilities on the Continent. that the plans of the under the command of Sir George Callaghan. however. the It was now Committee of Imperial Defence. All vessels of the Second Fleet are remaining at their Home ports in proximity to their balance crevrs. The First Fleet was The fact. under Pear- . and under liis direction the vessels proceeded to carry out tactical exercises in the Channel.

. August 4th the captain read the declaration of war against Germany amidst tense silence on the quarter-deck. On the 31st. lyddite shells were fused. We We We From July 29th to reveal the actions a curtain was drawn over the movements and operations of the fleets at sea. to the diplomatic events. On the night of Germany had declared war on Russia. and how the Second Fleet. gave an indication of what happened throughout the Fleet by the following description of the preparations . under Admiral Sir Berkeley Milne. Fleet. 1915. but she assured Great Britain that she would on no account begin hostilities if the Germans did not cross her frontier. which has only been raised at intervals with the enemy. a small independent State adjoining Belgium. where it had been for some months owing to the disturbed conditions there the Mediterranean Fleet. within eighteen hours. in that vessel :^ The ship was lying in Cowes. ships made ready for any emergency. A midshipman of the cruiser Cumberland. the programme of which was cut short and all over the world. The cadets There we coaled with all possible speed and took on board extra men were sent off to their war stations. The news that we had received was that Austria had declared war on Serbia. and we proceeded at If) knots to Gibraltar. in a letter quoted in The Times of April 30. The guns were prepared. decision to call out the Eeserves. impossible to agree to Germany's demand. and we had all returned from a peaceful game ci cricket at Osborne the cadets were all turned in. weighed and proceeded to Devonport. It was a code telegram. and early on the following morning German troops committed the first act of war by invading Luxembourg. to place the Navy on a war footing was to invite the war station. left Gibraltar that night and spent the next few days preparing the ship for battle. 23 Admiral Sir Christopher Uradock. with the hammocks slung on the upper deck. All that was necessary. also manned by active had embarked its balance crews from the shore barracks and training establishments. warheads were put on the torpedoes. twelve remaining on board. it Turning for a moment will suffice to Dipio- record here that the effect of the rupture between Austria and Serbia ^tture was that Eussia notified the mobilisation. DIPLOMACY AND WAR. and the ship was settling down to a quiet night when a slip of paper was taken from the wireless office to the captain. Immediately everyone was astir we had to turn out and go below to be out of the way. raised steam for 13 knots. Germany demanded that Eussia should stop the mobilisation of her forces within twelve hours. left ^lexico. whether or not she would remain neutral in the event Eussia replied that it was technically of a Eusso-German war. returned to Malta from its cruise to the East. — — . and a request was made to France at the same time to state. consisting of for its Tliis led to the British been shown how the First ships permanently fully manned. therefore. in fact. War was declared by Germany upon Eussia on August 1st. as from July 29th.. On the way to Gibraltar we received a wireless message that coaled at Gibraltar. had already left It has service ratings. of certain of her forces in the south.

to the nearest Men registrar of Naval Reserve (superintendent of a Mercantile Marine office). as shown belov?. near Aix-la-Chapelle. Notice is hereby given by their lordships that all Naval and Marine Pensioners under the age of fifty-five. of the violation of On July 31st. Germany took Belgium. all classes. through absence at sea or for other unavoidable cause. if possible.— 24 Eeservists to THE NAVAL ANNUAL. the British Foreign Minister had asked both France and Germany whether they were prepared to respect Belgium neutrality. So immediate was the response that on the evening of August 3rd the following was issued by the Admiralty : The mobilisation of the British Navy was completed in all respects at four o'clock this morning. cause of the entry of Great Britain into the War. to their registrar at their port of enrolment. and the British Government immediately sent an ultimatum to Germany requiring that her demands upon Belgium should be withdrawn. By command of the Lords Commissioners of the : — Admiralty. . a German ultimatum was delivered to Belgium. . Class B. Royal Fleet Reserve. Class B Eoyal Naval Eeserve. or. before which time. are to report themselves as soon as possible. are unable to join immediately. including men of Class A. Naval and Marine pensioners. Men who. viz. Immediate Class. Great position^ On August the neutrality 4th. Royal Fleet Reserve. This ultimatum was to expire at midnight.. and in the case of pensioners their pension identity certificate. Immediate Class Fleet Eeserve. Reasonable travelling expenses will be allowed. to their pensioner centre officer. . and the former replied in the affirmative the same evening. all classes (including Trawler Section) Naval Pensioners Marine i'ensioners and Eoyal Naval Volunteer Eeserve. The King of the Belgians telegraphed a personal appeal to King George for diplomatic intervention to safeguard the integrity of Belgium. All men should. and all men of the Naval Fleet Reserve and Royal Naval Reserve are to proceed forthwith to the ship or establishment already notified them. Germanv intimated her refusal to . The entire Navy is now on a war footing. but on the morning of August 4th Belgian territory was violated at Gemmenich. . The Admiralty gave orders that these classes of Naval Eeserve and Naval and Marine Pensioners should be called into actual service. . failing any previous orders. irrespective of whether they have been previously appropriated or not. however. Class A Eoyal Eeserve. The summons wns as follows Fleet. of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve are all to report themselves immediately to their officer instructor or volunteer mobilising officer. come up to their various depots for service in the Third The notice of mobilisation was addressed to the Eoyal Fleet Eoyal Fleet Eeserve. This is due to the measures taken and to the voluntary response of the Reserve men in advance of the Royal Proclamation which has now been issued. Royal Naval Reserve. the action which was the primary viz. however. . : — ^[ohilisa- tion orders. On August 3rd. Royal Fleet Reserve. appear in uniform and bring with them their regulation kit. they are to report themselves in person immediately. certificate book or Service certificate. in accordance with instructions already issued. . demanding permission to pass an answer was required in twelve troops through her territory hours or Belgium was to be treated as an enemy.

Hamilton's appointment was approved by the King. At the same time. waterways of the ports and the approaches to them were watched by patrol boats. certain times. This appointment was not unexpected. as in the Press on July 23rd it was officially stated that the King had approved of Sir John Jellicoe being nominated to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleets. On the day that war was declared between Great Britain and Naval Germany. whose three years tenure of the command would have expired at the end of the year. Defence areas were indicated by notices to mariners. Pilotage was made compulsory in certain ports. and it was officially announced from the British Foreign Office that a state of war existed hetween Great Britain and Germany In as from 11 p. An at examination control was established. The use of wireless telegraphy of any description was proMbited. were where examination steamers could be found. and signals were arranged to facilitate the examination service in . All ships with the exception of those in the King's service were ordered to take down their aerial wires. such Points entrance signified the Xeedles. and as were of taken for the identification of mercantile traffic using the anchorages the Some passages. ou August 4th. In succession to Sir John as Second Sea Lord of the Admiralty. in succession to Admiral Sir George Callaghan. While the naval arsenals were thus put in a state of defence. all classes were warned in connection with their movements within precautions these limits.m. Sir Frederick Hamilton went to the . it was officially announced that Vice-Admiral Sir John K. certain routes were also recom- mended for ships to take the different localities. and any buildings which obstructed the fire of the guns were removed. The outbreak of war obliged an acceleration of these plans. 25 comply with it. with the acting rank of Admiral. who were engaged in watching the shores in conjunction with the local bodies under the naval authorities. Other measures of defence included the placing of All booms and similar obstructions at the entrances to harbours. the work of the Coastguard on the south and east coasts was supplemented by the military forces. measures. were closed altogether. Armed guards were provided for all magazines. and traffic within these areas was regulated. m^utT Jellicoe had assumed supreme command of the Home Fleets. and to a large extent the areas were closed at night. Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick T.BRITISH DECLARATION OF WAR. all the forts were manned. the change to take effect on September 1st. Home waters many the precautionary measures came into force Precauof automatically with the mobilisation Particularly the to laud and sea forces. was this case in regard harbours and roadShips of steads of naval importance.

he succeeded Admiral Sir Eichard Poore as Commander-in-Chief at the Nore. I. He was one of the of the officers constituting the Court of Inquiry Goeben and Breslau from Messina. " George Admiral E. — — Staff." The patriotism and self-abnegation with which Admiral Sir George Callaghan acquiesced in the arrangements of the Admiralty Board.Admiral C. Admiralty two months earlier than had been originally intended.Admiral A. or on July 30th. into the escape . The officer chosen as Chief of the Staff to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe was Eear. and who. through you to the officers and men of the Fleets of which you that under have assumed command. and prove once again the sure shield of Britain and of her Empire in the hour of trial. in the vacancy caused by the retirement of Admiral Sir Edmund Poe. George had flown his flag it at sea continuously since November 1906. S. E." Sir In reply to this message of the King Jellicoe sent the following reply " : to the Fleets. were unanimously commended. and his predecessor hoisted his flag on board the battleship Iron Duke as Commander-in-Chief on August 4th. which will inspire all with determination uphold the glorious traditions of the past. G. It is hardly Lord. but for the war. would have succeeded Eear. 1915. ashore. confidence both of the Navy and the nation. and on January 1. Sir 16. On September 11th. and handed over the command afloat at this time to a younger officer. Moore as Third Sea His appointment was also dated August 4th. he was appointed First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp to the King. who on July 29th had been relieved as Eear-Admiral Commanding the Second Cruiser Squadron by Eear- Admiral the Hon. the assurance of my confidence your direction they will revive and renew the old glories of the Eoyal Navy.— 26 — THE NAVAL ANNUAL. necessary to say that Admiral Sir John Jellicoe possessed the entire On his appointment. A. W. Gough-Calthorpe. King George sent the following gracious message to Sir John : The message. Madden. John On behalf of the officers and men of the Home Fleet beg to to tender our loyal and dutiful thanks to your Majesty for the gracious message. when he hoisted and in continuous command M'hich was a period of those eight years probably unique he had done much to promote the fighting On coming efficiency and readiness of the Navy in Home waters. H. " '^^^ At this grave moment in our national history I send to you. he was appointed for special service on the Admiralty War in the Illustrious as Eear-Admiral in the Channel Fleet.

in a speech to the Navy League. Indeed. Thus the reserve ships were mobilised and despatched to their war They were. Nor was there any lack of officers and men to man them. of which the January official " Navy List " showed As the need that no less than eighty were in use in December. It will give you the time. and never was there a time when confidence was more justified in the power of the Navy to protect our commerce and our shores. that fortunately for us the readiness and efficiency of our laud and sea forces were never at a higher mark. too." A great many officers and men w^ere required for the examination and patrol services. Sydenham said. not in vain. Sir Edward Grey stated in the House of Commons on August 3rd. The Fleet its organisation revealed an elasticity in many directions which showed the forethought and thoroughness of recent administration. contrary to the expectations of many. and the seafaring population drawn upon for dangerous duties had shown great heroism. number With the declaration of war. arose for the absorption of various classes of ships and craft to perform Lord special duties." When but the emergency came. was eventually used for quite another purpose. in defining Great Britain's attitude. " You may rely with good confidence upon the strength and That defence will enable you to the efficiency of our naval defence. hundreds of merchant Supply auxiliary vessels. upon yachtsmen and owners of motor boats as well as upon the Mercantile Marine. there was a considerable surplus. not only was the Fleet found ready. live and work and draw the means of life and power from the uttermost ends of the earth. and the like. effective condition so far as their material and equipment was concerned. and an . Mr. colliers. for which a demand was made. in addition to the merchant vessels commissioned as auxiliary cruisers. moreover. in an stations in a remarkably short space of time. 27 The state of preparation of the British Fleet for any action was most conspicuous at the critical moment when it became clear that Germany had determined to force a war upon Europe. Churchill also told the historic meeting at the Guildhall a month later. hospital ships. The Fleet required many supply ships. that crews had to be found for a warships. to create the powerful military force which this country must wield before the struggle is brought to its conclusion. on March 24th " One of the most startling features of this War was the employment of the general maritime resources of the country. which. after providing for the needs of all the ships. It was not of only the case. so the lists of officers and men were expanded. A " Eoyal Naval Motor Boat Eeserve " was established under the presidency of Admiral Sir Frederick S. Inglefield. vessels of various kinds were taken up for service. and it will give you the means.: SITUATION OF THE FLEET.

they exercised their right of pre-emption over the war- ships building in Great Britain for foreign governments. 60 791 . 524. . and Assistant Paymasters. The fearlessness. that in the Iloyal Naval Eeserve the number of were: officers allotted temporary commissions 12. . Mr. Churchill said: "We have at the present moment a powerful and flexible machinery. This course added several powerful and useful units to the British Fleet. 3 Lieutenant-Commanders. 983 and Telegraphists.—— . 13. Lieutenants. 28 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. Commanders. wherever desired. promptitude. 31 . : Commanders 6 . 150. and readiness of resource displayed by the Board of Admiralty were further exemplified in the manner in which. Keady. : On August 3rd. this expansion necessitated a made on the Merchant Service. Lieutenants. of the fact. 532 Assistant-Paymasters. in meeting which niany hundreds of trawlers and drifters were utilised. and the fishern i men and others forming their creAvs ran into some thousands. 128 Skippers. on the seafaring in civil life. one completed and the other shortly due for completion. 275 Lieutenant-Commanders. . unobtrusively and in some cases without public revelation : — .N. These last-named figures do not include the officers holding temporary commissions in the Eoyal Naval Volunteer Eeserve for service in the Motor Boat Eeserve. . 361 Senior Engineers. Midshipmen. Paymasters. 290 Sub-Lieutenants. -which had been ordered in this country . In the Eoyal Naval Volunteer Eeserve. 122 and Sub-Lieutenants. — Captains (retired admirals. . 47 Assistant-Engineers. 2 Lieutenants. and even on men of The April issue the official "Navy List" for 1915 showed E. 117. 8 Surgeons and Dental Surgeons. Surgeon Probationers. which can move whole armies with celerity. . Touching upon this transport question in his of officers that no delay speech in Parliament on February 15th. Sub-Lieutenants. . the Admiralty made the following announcement His Majesty's Government have taken over thfe two battleships. . which were Commanders. 19 Engineers. 151.). . and more efficient in point of organisation than had The broadcast manner for in mines brought a need ^ ^ • mine-sweeping • ^ • -r. therefore. 30. i been thought possible by great draft being many people. as the main force of the Eoyal Navy was found to be on the outbreak of war. and Fleet-Paymaster. Expeditionary Force and of the Dominion troops also required a number manner allotted and men. The transport of the English Section and Scottish Section organised. community generally. 19. of. Chief Engineers. and these were forthcoming in such a was occasioned in conveying them to their destinations. the number of officers holding temporary commissions were . in a manner never before contemplated or dreamt Demands creased auxiliary pcrsonnel." which the Germans scattered their vessels. . Lieutenant-Commanders.

and Eeshadieh. had orifrinally been intended for Brazil as the llio de Janeiro. Canadian Government also placed at the service of the Admiralty the cruisers Niobe and Eainbow for the purposes of commerce protection. 6-in. a more numerous battery the British Iron of such weapons than any other battleship in existence. The battleships referred to were kuown up to that time as the Addiwarships. and the destroyer-leaders will be called Faulknor and Broke. and armed with six 4-in. They were of 1260 tons. They were constructed by the Armstrong and Vickers firms respectively. Osman I. immediately placed the Koyal Australian Navy under the control of The the Admiralty. " they have been able to contribute materially to the success of the operations in this district. guns. which were understood to be sister ships to the Broke and Faulknor. Vickers had been taken over by Great been brought into action on the Belgian and on the right " Owing to their light draught. Then on November 27th. This ship had a main armament of fourteen 12-in. thus the four which were absorbed into the British Navy completed the class.FLEET EXPANSION. 1911. before the vessel's completion. On October 21st. The attitude of the Dominions when the war clouds gathered Th DoThe Commonwealth Government minions. with 11^ knots speed. Britain. firing Brazil by Messrs. it was liad officially admitted that three armoured river gunboats built for coast. and renamed the Canada." and armed with two two 4'7-in. Mr. guns. in his speech in the House of Commons. the purchase by Turkey taking place in December. 1913. and two had been completed and delivered before war broke out. The new destroyer-leaders were of a type rather similar to the British special type destroyer Swift. with ten 13'5-in. 1913. howitzers. Further additions to the Navy at of warships constructing for other Powers were made known subsequent dates. class. with 31 knots speed." said flank of the German Army. Churchill stated that the battleship Almirante Latorre had been acquired from Chile. guns. Furthermore. guns. in addition to offering an expeditionary force. in the December as those of " Navy List " appeared the names of Botha and Tipperary two new flotilla leaders. guns. There were six vessels in this which were ordered by Chile in September. 1912. and the two destroyer-leaders ordered by the Government of Chile. The two battleships will receive the names Agincourt and Erin. by the Turkish 29 Government. was one of ready helpfulness. resembled Duke class. This vessel was begun in December.000 tons. and they have already abundantly justified their acquisition on the outbreak of war. besides offering a military expeditionary force. after two famous naval officers. She was of 28. and launched in November. being of 1850 tons. the commmiique. while the Eeshadieh. and four 3-pounders. and the Osman I. with a main armament of ten 14-in. Two .

notification. on August 4th. New- foimdland. and the Third Destroyer The destroyers Flotilla thus scored the first success of the War. was indicated on the first day of hostilities. Shortly after 9 a. Fox. Commander W. the local reserve forces especially promptly to be ready for any calls upon them was this the case in Newfoundland. In South Africa. The New Zealand Government placed their Naval Force at the Admiralty's disposal. and before noon on August 5 th the Germans were already laying mines off the east coast of England. though its significance was not appreciated at the moment. and many of them lost their lives in the auxiliary cruiser Bayano when she was torpedoed on jNIarch 11th by a German submarine. speed 20 knots.M. and other parts of the Empire. and without complying with the rule that a converted merchant vessel must. and. revealing long pre- paration on the part of Germany. offered a military contingent. which was chiefly instrumental in C. although the immediate naval assistance given was not of the same character.m. like the Australians. in the Third Flotilla were of the new L type. Amphion and the Third Torpedo Flotilla sanli th^ German minelayer Konigin Luise at noon yesterday. The War opened with fullest startling suddenness. H. de M. which was afterwards so marked a feature of the German method of conducting the campaign. The Konigin Luise is a passenger vessel of the Hamburg-Amerika Line. of 2163 tons gross tonnage. 1 for 2. without notifying neutral Powers of the areas in w^hich these mines were being placed. A state of war came about between Britain and Germany at 11 p.— 30 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and were commissioned as British vessels the designations of C. and those specially mentioned as having taken part in the action were the Lance. Captain . carry the war and not the commercial flag. Egerton. bear the external marks of a warship. the liner Konigin Luise was caught in the act of mineThe following ofl&cial laying off the Suffolk coast and sunk. whose fishermen in the Eoyal Naval Reserve responded eagerly to the call.C. on August 5th. mobilised . in fact. The Opening War of Attkition. duty on the Pacific coast under and C. The Amphion. specially fitted as a mine-layer.C. for submarines which had been constructed in the United States Chile were also purchased by the Canadian Government.m. be duly commissioned for the fighting navy. was issued on possible extent the violation of all international law. the first of an operation of the War. and.S. August 6th : The Admiralty announces that the commander of the torpedo Hotilla reports that H. and an intention to use to the The ruthless newer weapons of war.

. on the British side was excellent. was quite ineftective. for following ships to run upon. Dihris falling from a great height struck the rescue boats and destroyers. By the time the destroyers closed it was clearly time to abandon the ship. This occurrence was official described in detail in the following communiqiie issued on August 19th : At 9 a. in accordance with a policy expressed before the War began. and one of the Amphion's shells burst on the deck of one of the latter. the second got home in the bows. E. and anotlier tore propeller. till its foremost part was on the bottom and the whole after-part tilted up at an angle of 45 degrees. longitude 2 25 deg. and no casualties were caused in the British vessels. and towards getting her in tow by the stern. As all the fore part was on fire. Con wy. and she was already settling down by the bows. Commander L. Amphion. and captain left the ship. All was done without hurry or confusion.S. and in about an hour's time she was rounded up and sunk. From one destroyer four shots which one struck the bridge and practically blew it of off the away.30 a. officers. too. a practice which was to be repeated many times during the "War. the men. and resorted to ^^^ a method of dropping them. the Mine. In particular. till 3. Linnet. proceeded prearranged plan of search. W. and he fell on to the fore and aft bridge. • • This method proved fatal to the British cruiser the first misfortune to Amphion on the succeeding day. Four destroyers gave chase.m. every effort would be made.. G. The course was altered so as to avoid the danger zone. A sheet of flame instantly enveloped the bridge. causing our Xavy in the conflict. Every order was promptly obeyed. on the other hand. Shortly afterwards the mine-layer Konigin Luise was sighted steering east. The men fell in for this purpose with the same composure that had marked their behaviour throughout. and the Lark.30 a.— GERMAN MINES. and were fired. when the Amphion struck a mine. to lat. by the . The efiects showed that she must have struck a second mine which exploded the fore magazine. to carry out a certain — It was thus early indicated that. and twenty minutes after the mine \va3 struck. and about an hour later a trawler informed them that she had seen a suspicious ship throwing things overboard in an indicated position. Commander Jones. Before being rounded up and sunk by the British patrol. Captain Fox speaks in high terms of the behaviour of the officers and men througliout. After picking up the survivors. without incident. The German fire. the prearranged plan of search was carried out. As soon as he recovered consciousness. RowleyThe marksmanship sinking the Konigin Luise. The ship's back appeared to be broken. which rendered the captain insensible. which were still going at revolutions for 20 knots. The after-part now began to settle quickly. H. on August 5th. with the Third Flotilla. 31 E. In another quarter of an hour this. X. when the Amphion was on the return course neariug the scene of the Konigin Luise's operations. This was successfully done till 6.m. All efforts were therefore directed towards placing the wounded in places of safety in case of explosion. when pursued. Konigin Luise succeeded in laying a number of mines.. had disappeared. he ran to the engine-room to stop the engines. Three minutes after the captain left his ship another explosion occurred which enveloped and threw up the whole fore part of the vessel. a line of mines was laid from Aldeburgh Eidge 52 10 deg. M. it proved impossible to reach the bridge or to flood the fore magazine. without confusion or perturbation. Thus the first engagement of the War proved the peace standard of gunnery efficiency of the British destroyers to be well maintained in the stress of action.m. killing two of the men and a German prisoner rescued from the cruiser.

and these vessels. formerly the cruising yacht Yiking. by keeping drifters danger. ^^ ^-^^ East coast. In spite. In the earlier days of the War. and on more than a result of aftairs one occasion seized or sank the trawlers at their work. although accompanied by distressing loss of gallant comparatively small military value. Hundreds of trawlers and were taken up for this purpose and converted into mine-sweepers. or the which after nine months left the British campaign Fleet with a superiority which had increased rather than diminished. of the meeting of patrols. with all her officers and men. while engaged in their difficult and perilous task. to lessen the preponderance which was possessed by the British Fleet. wear and tear. although As no action ensued.M. owing not only to the extra ships which had been added to the Navy. and was renamed Yiknor on being commissioned as an armed merchant cruiser on December 12. the light cruisers and destroyers issued from the German ports fairly frequently. by Commander auxiliary .S. as compared with those completed for Germany. were protected by small men-of-war from molestation by the lighter cruisers of the enemy.S." These two vessels. but also to the incontestable failure of attempts to bring about the losses which had been hoped for. the Amphion and struck a mine Speedy. or engaged in scouting other duties.M.32 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. She was last week of January. however. and sank. however. lives. Mine sweeping. of 5386 tons. occurred for of its use. certain liveliness" came and Speedy ^°^*" about. and sank. w^ould be locked At the same time. the material victims on the British side were almost invariably old vessels of It was as a result of this policy of mine-laying on a large scale traffic. the The former was missed in the Yiknor and Clan MacXaughton. On September commanding 3rd it the officer of cruisers. necessaiy movements of the British vessels protecting mine-sweepei. and the consequent danger to of that tlie to Admiralty instituted a system the mine which the trade could ensure comparative immunity from swept passages. Germany's Fleet up in its fortified ports until a favourable opportunity Thus began the war of attrition. were the only victims of mines among British warships of Two the regular Navy during the first nine months of war. use of mines and torpedoes. Speedy also coast. 30 miles off the East A quarter of an hour later H. were destroyed l>y this agency. a state of the characterised in the official communiques as "a.s. was officially stated that " A report from H. 1914. the losses of such vessels from mines were small. built as the Atrato in 1888. Speedy states that the steamdrifter Linsdell struck a mine this morning. With regard to the incidents of this war of attrition.

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Nor did the J^?^*'^"'^" neutrals receive any better treatment than British craft. but their crews escaped. and is being. no doubt. has since been discovered. struck a mine in the seas where Germans are known to have laid them. being carried out of her course. otherwise the safety of the would have been jeopardised by what a Cabinet Minister called " this murderous menace. I think the danger from mining even unscrupulous and indiscriminate mining of the open seas is one the limits of which can now be discerned. the announcement. lost on November 5.— MR. 1914. The risks and difficulties which we have had to face from that cause cannot be underrated." said missing since February 3rd. " and wreckage. the powerful Admiralty in the mines blowing them to pieces. we should not have thought would have been practised by any civilised Power. Mr. 0. — — explosives Trawlers and fishing vessels were the worst sufferers. further restricted and controlled by the very extensive measures which have been and are being taken. in the list of officers and men killed in action. 1914. but I am glad to tell the House that although we have suffered losses. but as The Admiralty announced on January 25th that some bodies and wreckage have been washed ashore on the North Coast of Ireland. " ON MINES. while other vessels were Victims of mines were more numerous lost. in regard to the danger from mines of all nations : commerce Our enemies have allowed themselves to puisue methods in regard to the scatteriug of mines upon the highways of peaceful commerce which. and in the Mary. and which can be. Churchill said. there appeared the names of several who were serving in the trawlers Princess Beatrice and Drumoak. and. 33 the cause of her loss is uncertain. the German mines was no greater in proportion than that with our warships. On Feliruary 24th the Admiralty announced that this ship. will suffer more losses." similar small craft taken among trawlers and up by the Admiralty. belonging to the Clan Line of steamers. lost on October 5. supposed to be portions of this The last signal received from the ship. as was natural in view of the work upon which they were engaged. It was in connection with the danger to which these vessels were liable that D . until the outbreak of war. it is presumed that during the recent bad weather she either foundered or." Speaking in the House of Commons on November 27th. The interference with British and neutral merchant shipping liy Mine danger. of 4985 tons gross." The Clan MacNaughton was lost within a few days of the Yiknor. In the official " Navy List " for January. CHURCHILL E. and it is feared that she was lost during the bad weather which the prevailed at that time. Clan MacNaughton was made in the early morning of February 3rd. had been " Unsuccessful search was made. built at Glasgow in 1911. The policy of the Admiralty of keeping certain important channels swept regularly proved peaceful effective. Ballantyne.

Maryland. or as a distinct operation against a fighting fleet. as well as of the laws of humanity. first. are exposed to the gravest dangers. departed from Admiralty directions. stated that " sixty persons of neutral nationality have perished" by what was described as a official list published in ^ ^Q up to September 23rd fifteen violation of international law. but appear to be scattered on the chance of catching individual British war or merchant vessels. have within the last twenty-four hours been destroyed by these deadly engines in the North Sea while travelling on the ordinary routes at a considerable distance from the British coast. in the same announcement. while reserving to themselves the utmost liberty of retaliatory action against this new form of warfare. it is reported that two Dutch steamers. were yesterday blown up by mines in the Baltic. In addition to this. which " was sunk by a mine in a known mine-field. and one Swedish. mobile or floating mines which do not become harmless within a specified period of time after they have . the rest being saved by the trawlers Cameo and Euripides. On September 3rd an official announcement was made that the Euno. and along which those dangers to neutrals are reduced so far as possible. anchored mines which do not become innocuous if they should break adrift." The Admiralty. eight of them being British. In these circumstances the Admiralty desire to impress not only upon British but on neutral shipping the vital importance of touching at British ports before entering the North Sea in order to ascertain. it was reported. and steamship Broberg. of 1679 tons. and. There were 238 passengers on board. a communication issued by the British Legation at Amsterdam on October 13th. such as the closing of a military port. which was destroyed off the Tyne on September 5 th. In the case of the Wilson liner Euno. owing. The largest vessel in the tons. no matter what their destination. her people being all saved. The Hague Convention prohibited the use of. 22 lives were lost. the routes and channels which the Admiralty are keeping swept. Similarly. Losses due to mines. to a panic among some Eussian emigrants. however. Two Danish vessels. the first week of October showed that merchant vessels had been destroyed by German mines. one Norwegian.34 the THE NAVAL ANNUAL. in connection with some discussion on this matter. following official announcement was published on August 23rd :— The Admiralty wish to draw attention to their previous warnings to neutrals of the danger of traversing the North Sea. In consequence of this policy neutral ships. The Germans are continuing their practice of laying mines indiscriminately upon the ordinary trade routes. which would have assured lier a safe voyage. of 5136 Admiralty list was the Danish steamer which was sunk on August 21st off the mouth of the Thames. five Danish. impressed upon all concerned the extraordinary dangers attendant upon such disregard to warning and advice. These mines are not laid in connection with any definite military scheme. the steamship Maryland. according to the latest information. secondly. The Admiralty. clearing from Swedish ports. The methods by which Germany placed mines around the British coasts were not in conformity M'ith the requirements of international law in any particular. announce that they have not so far laid any mines during the present War and that they are endeavouring to keep the sea routes open for peaceful commerce.

' " J^li^e- In the last week of October the remarkable activity of the German mine-layers received fresh illustration by the discovery that a " field " of unknown extent had been laid to the north-west of Ireland. in connection with the sinking of the mine-layer Konigin Luise. by the first Germans. not as part of any definite military operation. But for tlie warnings given by British cruisers other British and neutral merchant and passenger vessels would have been destroyed. of the transports bringing the Canadian troops across.ships have already been blown up. but by German trawlers. pointed out. rid the North of Peaceful merchant . establishing a " military area " in the North Sea. an : — " ' AE 24 Emden. There was evidence FIELDS. with Ireland. regardless of whether they are friend or foe.GERMAN MINE been dropped. which has come along the trade route as if for the purpose of peaceful commerce. liritish Their purpose was to interfere with the free movements of warships using the North Channel. has wantonly and recklessly endangered the lives of all who travel on disaster the sea. hospital ships. 1914. as already not taken the necessary precautions to render their mines innocuous after the expiration of the fixed period. by this agency. As was pointed out in the Admiralty statement of November 2nd. ." The mines the north coast of Ireland were discovered by the destruction of the merchant steamer Manchester Commerce on October 26th near Tory Island. and the definition D 2 . on August 30. 35 to show that the Germans had Furthermore. nor by German ships of war. The White Star liner Olympic escaped by pure good luck. nais-sance or Mine-laying under a neutral flag. The number of one such trawler actually seen to be doing this was In support of this point. The practice both fixed and drifting. . The mines oft' the Tyne were laid 30 miles to seaward. and while profiting to the full by the immunity enjoyed by neutral merchant ships. loss of life. and recouvessels. and neutral are the ordinary features of German naval warfare. continued practically without cessation during the a nine months of the War. or perhaps to catch some of using mines. mines had been scattered indiscriminately in the open sea " on the main trade route from America to Liverpool. These mines cannot have been laid by any German ship of war. of whicb a considerable number appear to have been engaged on this work. laying under ^^"t"^^! nag. owing to the measures taken in connection with the closing of the East Coast ports on September 29th. although in the latter part of this period to much less degree. the vessels chosen to strew them had no proper status as belligerent ships. said official announcement. oft" conducted by trawlers. civilian military in character. They have been laid by some merchant vessel flying a neutral flag.

that not only were submarines to be used for the purpose of sinking enemy ships.36 of certain sea areas as THE NAVAL ANNUAL. however. This was shown not only by what occurred at the crew complied with. and the coast of the number of vessels laying mines considerably decreased. but it was replied to German from the localities in them to that international law obliged not only the nationality of a ship be established. one tliat was entirely novel. a fresh situation was created by the use made of submarines. this callous disregard of the laws of nations and of humanity was further exemplified in the treatment accorded to the crews of British and neutral merchant ships. and such mines were still active. It will be noticed from the foregoing that a new problem was presented by the German use of mines. only showed the British ships affected. the business of searching merchant ships for contraband. As a consequence. the protection of mine-sweeping vessels. neutral vessels found it dangerous to move. according to the table corrected up to May 5th. from November 5tli. Similarly. Later on. and almost all nations whose vessels used the North Sea suffered from this cause. time of the sinking of the three cruisers of the Cressy the case of the class. off our naval authorities described the area Although Kent which they mined on October 2nd. the patrol work. and various regulations with regard to detention. but also that the Germans had determined upon increasing in every possible way the loss of life attendant upon such disasters. no indication was given by Germans of the localities in which their mines were placed. twelve firitish merchant vessels and twenty-one trawlers and fishing boats were sunk by mines. search. But the casualties among neutral ships were far larger. where boats which attempted to save life from rafts were driven away by the German submarines. which they had been originally placed. quite early in the War. notably in that between Eussia and Japan. including that of the destruction of commerce. Such mines had been employed during earlier wars. both fixed and drifting. but in Hawke. As already described. Speculative writers had suggested before the War that submarines might be used for a variety of purposes. first nine months of the War. but on nothing like the same scale. and the During the losses to these from mines were not very numerous. but a proper blockade declared. Hardly a week being injured or passed without some merchant destroyed by ship or trawler The submarine. which were issued weekly from the beginning of March. nor under the peculiar conditions which ruled in this case. except in specified routes. and the safety of the It was manifest. The official tables of merchant and fishing vessels lost by hostile action. Many of the machines were found miles mines. .

2940 tons and 25 knots' speed.. obliged the lifting of the curtain of mystery.30 p. and the atmospheric conditions were described as being Subsequently it became Lieutenant-Commander Hersing. M. which torpedoed the Pathfinder. etc. the danger from which was not at first sufficiently realised. risk from the German submarines. off the Dutch . Within three weeks of the loss of the Pathfinder. none of our ships was damaged. but one of the German submarines. U 15. The enemy's boats became official active almost as soon as the it War was began. Submarine attacks. guns. on the morning of September 22nd. Germany's submarines made their biggest coup of the first nine months of the War. the Cressv class. and foundered very rapidly.— GERMAN SUBMARINE ATTACKS. fragments of wreckage being found by the fishing first to which were Abbs' coast- reach the scene of the occurrence. Duff. The The Pathfinder was a light cruiser of loss of life has probably been heavy. whether judged by the number of lives lost or the tonnage of This was the sinking of the three cruisers of the vessels destroyed. Captain F. St.gave the earliest intimation that the vessel had been destroyed. Fortunately. were stationed. Where these ships. as flotilla cruiser of the Eighth Her destruction was very complete. Captain Francis Martin Leake. armed with nine 4-in.S. She was built in 1904. nor all the later precautions taken to meet it.. was rammed and sunk by the light cruiser Birmingham. Pathfinder. destroyers. and cruisers their spheres of action. The Pathfinder was serving Destroyer the Flotilla. A. at 4. of course. Pathtor- which was at first Admiralty made the following announcement In regard to the sinking of this vessel. o7 and many other duties. assumed to have been mined. for in an statement issued on August 10th announced that on the previous day one of the cruiser squadrons of the main fleet had been attacked by German submarines. only small craft. the Secretary of the : P^doed. known that it was U 21. H. affording extreme visibility. Leake. struck a mine to-day. necessitated the presence of large numbers of and small craft in the Xorth Sea.m. were not. about 20 miles off the East Coast. M. The mayor of the city so named was congratulated by the Admiralty on the good fortune of its representative ship. and showed these watch-dogs at Naturally. by enemy craft began with the destruction of the Pathfinder. it was these ships that ran the greatest their calling. or the clash of arms. The guard men . but every now and again some incident of the War. revealed. the bases from which they worked.M. Captain A. and February. with success. This boat afterwards gained notoriety by her operations against merchant shipping in the Irish Sea in January very clear. in the Firth of Forth on September 5th.

of course. But it has been necessary to point out. thus presenting an easy and certain target to further submarine attacks. however.M. The loss of nearly 60 officers and 1400 men would not have been grudged if it had been brought about by gunfire in an open action. 23.25 a. was the most successful submarine commander on the (lerman side. however.S. and the lives lost are as usefully.M. and ready self-sacrifice among all ranks and ratings exposed to the ordeal. prevent the display of discipline. or is exposed to submarine attack. cheerful courage. on September 25th. and remained with engines stopped endeavouring to save life. it is important that this point of view should be thoroughly appreciated. an ordinary hazard of patrol duty. should lead to a neglect of the proper precautions and dispositions of war. andCressy S. apart from the loss of life. following Memorandum : The facts of this afiair cannot be better conveyed to the public than by the attached reports of the senior officers who have survived and lauded in England. Captain IJobert W. however. The Hogue and the Cressy — . coast. Aboukir and Hogue. Drummond the Hogue. Captain Wilmot and the Cressy. and that the rule of leaving disabled ships to their own resources is applicable. be directed by wireless to close the damaged shij) with all speed. and that they should make their way to the sale list as soon as serious defects became manifest. as necessarily. the sinking of H. The natural promptings of humanity have in this case led to heavy losses. but it is peculiarly distressing under the conditions which prevailed. : L. Captain . Cressy. dated September 1914. and whilst the Hogue and the Cressy had closed. The duty on which these vessels were engaged was an essential part of the arrangements by which the control of the seas and the safety of the country are maintained. which would have been avoided by a strict adherence to military considerations. Whilst on patrol duty the Aboukir was struck at about 6.— 38 — THE NAVAL ANNUAL. they were also torpedoed. that the conditions which prevail when one vessel of a squadron is injured in a minefield. The sinking of the Aboukir was.Commander Otto Weddigen. an officer who.m. by U 'J. on the morning of September 22nd. are omitted. were sunk because they proceeded to the assistance of their consort. spent in repairing any of this class.M. on the starboard beam. whether to friend or foe. Cressy. so far at any rate as large vessels are concerned. are analogous to those which occur in an action. in company with H. until be was destroyed with bis crew in l^ 29 in March. Nicholson John E. Xicholson. No act of humanity. Three days later. . Small craft of all kinds should. had been suuk by a submarine in the North Sea. H. On the afternoon of September 22nd the Admiralty announced that the ' HoCTe pedoed. Parts of the report by late of Commander Bertram W. The loss of these three cruisers. The absence of any of the ardour and excitement of an engagement did not. but the main points are as follows I have the honour to submit the following report in connection with Sir. Lieutenant. for the future guidance of his Majesty's ships. class of cruisers whose speeds have been surpassed by many of the enemy's Before the war it had been decided that no more money should be battleships.S. they belonged to a significance.S. Modern naval war is presenting us with so many new and strange situations that an error of judgment of this character is pardonable. certainty of a proportion of misfortunes of this character occurring from time to time. and no measures can be taken to save life which prejudice the military situation. The Hogue and Cressy. The Aboukir was torpedoed. is of ?mall naval Although they were large and powerful ships. these being prefaced by the "^ bonkir. Johnson. and as gloriously devoted to the requirements of his Majesty's In view of the service as if the loss had been incurred in a general action. and were standing by to save the crew. the Admii-alty published the reports of the commanders of the Cressy and Hogue.

It is possible that the same submarine fired all three torpedoes at the Cressy. obeying orders even when in the water swimming for their lives. She heeled over to starboard very slowh% a dense black smoke issuing from her when she attained an angle of about 90 degrees.m. dated September 23.m. Time 7. with the starboard screw slightly out of the water. All mess tools and tables.m.30 a. Captain . says: late of H. 5 boiler-room. When the cutters full of the Aboukir's men were returning to the Cressy. and I received orders to hoist out the launch. The ship at once began to heel to starboard. and scuttles bad been securely closed before the torpedo struck ship. our port bow about 300 yards off. I have already reported the splendid service rendered by Captain Phillips. The second torpedo which struck the Cressy passed over the sinking hull of the Aboukir. shores.30 a. and I witnessed many cases of great self-sacrifice and gallantry. master of the trawler L. The steam pinnace floated out of her crutches. It A He I after G in the morning when I caught sight was then 18 miles north-westerlv off the Hook of Holland. I had travelled . Aboukir.m. whether from coal or torpedo cordite I could not say. but before the launch could get away the Hogue was struck on the starboard side amidships by two torpedoes at intervals of ten to twenty seconds. Office.M. A dense black smoke was seen in the starboard battery. as a very heavy explosion took place immediately after the first Almost directly after the Hogue was hit we observed a periscope on explosion. — ARMOURED CRUISERS LOST. : — to me to take about 35 minutes to sink. remaining so for about 20 minutes before she finally sank at 7. and all available timber below and on deck had been previously got up and thrown over the side for saving of life. The upper deck was not blown up. Fire was opened. fired from a submarine just before starboard beam. I consider that it was thirty-five to forty-five minutes from the time when she was struck until she was bottom up. Hogue.Johnson then manoeuvred the ship so as to render assistance to the crews of the Hogue and Aboukir. and unlash all timber on the upper deck. the Hoguo was struck apparently under aft 9' magazine.15 and 6. — H.15 a. The Aboukir appeared for ***** said : bottom up German account of the affair appeared in the Neio Yorh World when the story of the commander of U 9 was allowed to be published by the permission of the German Navy of October 11th. — ***** The report of Commander Eeginald A. The Cressy I watched heel over from the cutter. Sir. The ship listed about 10 degrees to starboard and remained steady. About five minutes later another periscope was seen on our starboard quarter. was 10 minutes of the cruisers. The ship then began to heel rapidly. 2 39 and took up position the Hogue ahead of the Aboukir and the Cressy about 400 yards on her port beam. 1914.55 a. dead lights. The two lifeboats were sent to the Aboukir.S. The track of the torpedo she fired at a range of 500 to 600 yards was plainly visible. who picked up 156 officers and men. All the men in the Hogue behaved extraordinarily well. About a quarter of an hour after the first torpedo had hit. turn out and prepare all boats. narrowly missing it. Coriander. and engines put full speed ahead with intention of running her down. the Aboukir was struck by a torpedo. hit us in No. The Hogue closed the Aboukir. The conduct of the crew was excellent throughout. Fire was immediately opened. and it struck us starboard side just before the after bridge. but filled and sank. all boats were sent away from the Cressy and the picket boat was hoisted out without steam up. Norton.— TIIIIEE closed. a third torpedo. All watertight doors. and Cressy Between 6. and floated bottom up for some minutes. and his crew. T. Time 7. A second torpedo fired by the same submarine missed and passed about 20 feet astern. I have the honour to report as follows concerning the sinking of ships Hogue. The Hogue turned turtle very quickly in about five minutes. and finally turned keel up. She took a long time from this angle until she floated bottom up. floating about five minutes. A large number of men were saved by the casting adrift of a pattern three target.M. As soon as it was seen that the Aboukir was in danger of sinking. and only one other small explosion occurred as we heeled over.

L. My luck was with me again. Hawke. base.S. I had scarcely to move out of my position. U pedoed *^® Admiralty issued the following : H.) was attacked at about the same time.M. Evitt. The following oificers. and this particular the attention of the examining ship and bring her within reach of happened in the case of the Hawke seems uncertain. As soon as I reached my torpedo depth I sent a second charge at the Hogue. The attack went true. to give a list of the further losses which have taken place from torpedoes fired by submarines.S. the Hermes. with large loss of life.40 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. gunner Mr. which I later learned was the Aboukir. T. H. a flash of fire. have been landed at Aberdeen from a trawler Mr. true to their country's sea traditions.M. The remaining officers and men are missing.N. Theseus (Captain Hugh Edwards.N. When I got within suitable range I Fcnt away my third attack. Qn October IGtli. together with 49 men of the crew. and was sunk. and Niger was torpedoed <Jn the 17th. Harry C. It may be as well. occasion that the German submarines. Knowing this. Then she turned turtle. Whether this a raft. but a vessel under neutral colours was in the neighbourhood just before the misfortune took place. On October 31st. prevented a rescue of a number of the cruiser's men who had sought safety on the torpedo. Several times the British vessel approached the raft. Then I loosed one of my torpedoes at the middle ship. . Sidney Austin. was sunk by a German submarine in tlie Straits of Dover as she . which had torpedo fired by a been recently used as a seaplane carrying ship. I got another flash through my periscope before I began action. but was missed. T. She also fell a victim to 9. E. it was the practice of the German submarines to accompany some larger surface vessel which might attract Scottish waters. Captain C. the Hawke. R. This time I sent a second torpedo after the first to make a hit doubly certain. The Cressy and the Hogue turned and steamed to their sister ship. a sixth British cruiser. more than 200 miles from with about five feet of my I my periscope showing. a burst of smoke. which was a great aid since it helped to keep me from detection. James Dennis. for the enemy at once began sinking by the head. Hermes. by constant attacks. before returning to the general events which occurred in the North Sea. a tifth British cruiser. Hawke (Captain Hugh P.) was attacked by submarines in the northern waters of the North Sea yesterday afternoon. had been going ahead. boatswain Mr. All the while her men stayed at their guns looking for their invisible foe. partly submerged. I submerged at once. and part of the cruiser rose in the air. R. acting-gunner. Immediateh' I caught sight of the cruisers I submerged completely and laid my course so as to bring up in the centre of the trio. while each time the number of men clinging to their frail support became fewer. and disappeared It was on this without rendering any assistance to the crew. only to be driven away by the submarine. They were brave. the Hogue half turned over and then sank. The Hawke was employed upon examination duties in northern work entailed large risks from the submarines owing to the circumstance that the ships thus engaged had to lower their boats to carry out the duties of inspection and search. There was a fountain of water. Williams. : — . Lambe. The third cruiser stood her ground as if more anxiovis to help the many sailors who were in the water than to save herself.

THE SUBMARINE CAMPAIGN.
was returning from Dunkirk.
saved.

41

Nearly
the
l)y

all

the officers and crew were

Lieutenant-Commander Downs and foundered. All the officers and seventy-seven of the crew were saved fifteen men were killed and two were wounded. The Niger was a torpedo gunboat of <S10 tons, built in 1892. She was employed in semi-combatant duties. Slie was the seventh victim of submarine attack, and the last in 1914. On January 1, 1915, the battleship Formidable was sunk in the Channel, whether by mine or submarine was not at once ascertained, I;i the House of Lords on January 7th, Lord Crewe announced that it was the definite opinion of the Admiralty that the Formidable was sunk by two torpedoes fired from a submarine. After the ship had
lltli,

On November

Niger,

Artliur T. Muir, was torpedoed

a submarine in the

;

Loss of
midable.

been struck, Captain A. N. Loxley signalled to another ship in the

neighbourhood not to stand by
the danger from the submarine.
said Lord Crewe, "

to lielp, "

but to keep off, because of That was a very gallant act,"

Navy."

and worthy of the highest traditions of the British The Formidable remained afloat for two hours after being
first

struck by the

torpedo, sinking about 4.30 a.m.

Some

forty of

her crew got ashore at
for 20 hours,

Lyme

Eegis after rowing in the ship's cutter

the

and seventy others were rescued in skilful manner by Brixham trawler Providence. No other British men-of-war

suffered in this way, until on

May

1st the torpedoing of the destroyer

Eecruit brouglit the average loss of the British
attack up to one vessel per

Navy from submarine

months of the and by her destruction the total displacement of warships sunk by submarines was raised to 59,545 tons, or at the rate of 6616 tons per month. The news of the last engagement in the North Sea during the nine months under review was contained in the following coi/unimique issued by the Admiralty on May 2nd
for the first nine

month

War.

This was the

first

British destroyer to be lost,

:

A series of small affairs took place in the neighbourhood of the Galloper and North Hinder Lightships on Saturday During the forenoon H,M. destroyer Recruit was sunk by a submarine, 4 officers and 21 men being saved by the trawler Daisy. A 3 p.m. the trawler Colombia was attacked by two German torpedo-boats, who approached her from the westward, and commenced the action without hoisting their colours. The Colombia was sunk by a torpedo, only one
deck-hand being saved by other trawlers. A division of British destroyers, comprising Laforey, Leonidas, Lawford, and Lark, chased the two German vessels, and after a brief running fight of about one hour, sank them both. The British destroyers sustained no casualties. Two German officers and forty-four men were rescued from the sea and made prisoners of war.

on

May

Supplementing the above, the Secretary of the Admiralty made, 3rd, the following announcement
:

to rescue the

After the destroyer action on Saturday afternoon strenuous efforts were made CTcrman sailors, Lieut. Hartnoll going into the water himself to

42
save a German.
of fifty-nine,

THE NAVAL ANNUAL.
In consequence, two officers and foity-four men. out of a total were picked up. The German prisoners stated that they had sunk a British trawler before being sighted by the Laforey, and that they picked up a "two-striped officer," i.e., a lieutenant, and two men. When asked what had become of them, they stated that their prisoners were below, and time was short. It must therefore be concluded that the officer and two men have perished.

Auxiliary
cruiser

Bayauo.

sunk by submarine. She was a vessel of 5948 tons, built at Glasgow in 1913, and owned before the War by Messrs, Elders and Fyffes, Ltd., who had a large
auxiliary cruiser, the Bayauo, was also
fleet of

One

steamers engaged in the

West Indian

trade.

She was com-

missioned for naval purposes early in December by
C. Carr,

Commander H.

and

at the time of her loss w^as

March

11th, the \\T:eckage of the vessel

Losses of
personnel.

and circumstances pointed to torpedo. Capt. McGarrick, of the steamship Castlereagh, of Belfast, stated that his ship passed that morning through a quantity of wreckage and dead bodies floating in lifebelts. He attempted to search the spot in the hope of saving any men who might still be alive, but was prevented Ijy the appearance of an enemy submarine, which gave chase for about twenty minutes. Eegarding the number of officers and men lost in these ten cases
of

engaged on patrol duty. On and bodies were discovered, her having been sunk by an enemy's

submarine attacks, an
that

official

statement, published on

November 25,

and 1397 men went down in the cruisers of the Cressy class; 26 officers and 499 men in the Hawke; and 15 men in the Niger. In 1 officer and 21 men in the Hermes the Formidable, about 600 officers and men were lost in the Recruit, 33, and in the Bayano, 200 making the total loss about 2854 officers and men. It will be noticed that over 2000 of these were lost in the first half of the period of nine months which is covered by the review. The lessons taught by the early mishaps had been appreciated by the Fleet, with the result that the movements and handling of the High British vessels gave fewer cliances to the enemy's submarines. speed, coupled with frequent changes of course, were recognised to be
1914, showed

62

officers

;

;

;

necessary precautions against the

attack of the under-water craft.
"

One

of the reasons assigned for the inauguration of the
Isles

blockade

"

of the British

submarines were ordered systematically

by Germany on February 18th, when her to attack commercial vessels,

was that by this time they had realised their inability to restrict the movements of our warships or make any diminution in our naval Dealing with the submarine menace in his speech on strength. November 28th, ]\Ir. Churchill said
:

Submarines introduced entirely novel conditions into naval warfare. The old freedom of movement which belonged to the stronger Power is affected and restricted There is a in narrow waters by the developments of this new and formidable arm. difference between military and naval anxieties which the House will appreciate. A But at any moment division of soldiers cannot be annihilated by a cavalry patrol.

FAILURE OF THE WAR OF ATTIIITIUN.

43

a great ship, equal in power as a war unit to a division of an army, may be destroyed without a single opportunity of its fighting strength being realised or a man on board having a chance to strijje a blow in self-defence. It is necessary for the safety of this country, for the supply of its vital materials, that our ships should move with freedom and hardihood through the seas on their duties and no one can pretend that anxiety must not always be present in the minds of those who have the responsibility for their direction. It is satisfactory, however, to reflect that our power in submarines is much greater than that of our enemies and that the only reason why we are not able to produce results on a large scale in regard to them is that we are so seldom afforded any target to attack.
; ;

Thus the events of the iirst nine months of hostilities showed and effect of this species of warfare upon the general naval situation were not what the German naval authorities expected. The Admiralty Staff in Berlin were continually disappointed by their failure to impress the imagination of the British public by the ruthless manner in which it was carried out. The
that the influence

motive underlying each successive exhibition of
the schemes for impressing the British people

" frightfulness," as

to be known, was the same. It was hoped to bring pressure to bear indirectly upon the British Admiralty, so as to induce them to alter their plan of naval campaign and preconceived policy, and thus to aftbrd some opportunity offering possibilities of successful action by the German Fleet. The war of attrition by mines and submarines, the raids on the East Coast by cruisers and airships, and the destruction of life and property in the mercantile marine, were all tried with a similar
ol)ject.

came

Attention

may now
it

be directed to the British part in this

war
were

of attrition, for
all

must not be overlooked that Germany's gains
to her

offset

by mishaps

own

vessels.

It

has been show^n

damage done by mine and submarine was so comparatively small as to be almost negligible in any case, but when it is remembered that German vessels also suffered in this campaign of wear and tear, it will be realised that the promoters
that the extent of the

of

it

hopelessly failed in their undertaking.

The Nokth Sea and Baltic.

Among
a

the general public, and, indeed, in the case of

many

naval

students, an impression prevailed that one of the earliest incidents of

war between Great Britain and Germany would be a naval battle which would probably be decisive of affairs at sea. In nearly all the pre-War literature, such a battle had been a prominent feature. Linked with this idea of a prompt challenge of British naval strength was a belief that Germany would forestall us in the matter of preparation, and that it would therefore be to her advantage to deliver what the German Emperor is said to have described as a splendid hussar-like stroke, and what in this country had been spoken of as a

44
bolt

THE NAVAL ANNUAL.
from the blue.

Some people thought

that, at

the

selected

moment, from Germany's point of view such a stroke might prove effective. The majority, however, expected that while the British Fleet might lose heavily, the German would suffer still more so. In any case, there would be no further event of great importance in the North Sea. "Whichever way the tide of fortune turned, the war was to be, in the rhetoric of after-dinner speakers, " short, sharp, and
decisive."

As far back as 1894:, I was permitted to explain in the Naval Annual why !• thought this assumption ought not to be readily
accepted
as
correct.
"

" Sharp,

in

the sense of being violent and

painful," I wrote,
be, and,

we may
it

confidently expect that the conflict will

once begun,
but

can hardly terminate without being decisive,

one way or the other, of the continued existence of the British

Empire
to

;

why
.

it
.

should necessarily be of short duration has yet
.

be explained.

We
in

resources at our back

— resources
is

have an enormous
but time
is

effect

needed to

utilise

immense and unequalled properly utilised, must determining the result of a war by sea them to the fullest advantage and extent.
have
. . .

which,

if

;

That we shall have the time
be kept in view by those

at least one of the aims

which should

who

are responsible for the defence of the
in view
is

Empire."

That

this

aim was kept

now

as manifest as

anything can

be, for

when
act

the declaration of war came, Germany's

naval chiefs were faced with a situation which they had probably
not anticipated.

To

on the offensive without any preliminary
to take a step

rearrangement of their forces would have been
w^as

which

hazardous in the extreme.
lost to them.
it

Hence

the advantage of initiative

was
Popular
ceptious.

Nevertheless,

was

tliis

belief in

an early

battle,
"

and

in other
is

misconceptions of naval warfare, that led people to ask,
Elect doing
?

AMiat

the

"—a

question more frequently propounded, perhaps, in

the early days of the War, and about the time that the

Yarmouth

and Scarborough

raids

occurred, than

afterwards.

Although not

frightened, the public were certainly startled

by the appearance of

German
"

cruisers within gunshot of the East Coast.

The expression,

North Sea," used loosely to indicate the wheieFleet, although it had no official sanction, encouraged a notion that the Fleet stood between our coasts and those of Germany and prevented the High Sea Fleet from coming out. The
in the

somewhere

abouts of the

British

actual conditions were very different. the

No attempt was made to keep German Fleet in the mines in the North Sea were laid by Germany herself, and whatever may have been the situation of the

British Fleet,

it

certainly could not at all times be lying directly in

BRITISH

AND GERMAN STRATEGY.
The functions

45
of the patrolling

the path of the would-be raiders.

were also misunderstood. Movements and incidents which occur in land warfare were expected to have their analogies at sea, and the disappointment caused by their nonsquadrons and
flotillas

occurrence blinded

many

people to the marvellous results attained
firing a gun.
it is

by the Fleet, almost without
If there

were such a thing as public opinion in C}erniany,

moan would have found expression there. After spending huge sums upon their Fleet, tlie German people might well wonder why it remained within the shelter of its fortified ports. But the German Fleet has, since the War began, been able to play an important and valuable part in the War. With the Kaiser Wilhelm
probable that a similar

Canal connecting the Xorth Sea and the Baltic,

it

has been facing

two fronts and protecting two lengths of coastline. It has, therefore, been fulfilling a strategical conception, and may continue to perform this work so long as it remains effective and ready to come out

and

fight.

by no means an entirely negligible Baltic and naval force in the Baltic, and if there were no German Fleet to meet it ^°^ this force might have been used to convoy troops to the German In any consideration of the plans which have guided the coast.
Similarly, Eussia has had
'

German naval

authorities

in

their

conduct of

the

naval war,

the North Sea and the Baltic should be treated as one theatre, the
operations in which, at either end of the canal, were part of a single

plan and co-ordinated one
superiority over the

to

the other.

Owing, however,

to our

enemy

in the elements of naval force, his refusal

to accept the challenge of battle

has given this country the virtual

command
its Allies.

of the sea communications,

and

this,

under the protection

of the Fleet, has conferred inestimable advantages to the

Our people have

suffered no scarcity of food.

been saved from invasion and the violation of their

Empire and They have shores. While
These are the
of a

German maritime commerce has
has continued
its

collapsed, the trade of the Allies

course

practically

unhindered.

substantial advantages derived from the possession

supreme

Navy
It

able to dominate the situation.

seems necessaiy

to

add

to this
if it

summary

of the advantages

obtained by a supreme Fleet that

had been permitted from the

beginning of the

War to institute

a real commercial blockade, not only

would German industry have been paralysed, but the enemy would have been deprived of the raw material for the manufacture of munitions of war, and the economic consequence of such a strangulating grip would have helped to shorten hostilities. A further manifestation of the working of sea power as the paramount

46
factor of the "War is

THE NAVAL ANNUAL.
found in the way
it

has secured for us and

our Allies time and opportunity to use our wealth and resources in

men and material to balance such advantages as Germany obtained in its many years of preparation for the conflict it has forced upon
the world.
HeiigoBight.

Attention may now be drawn to many of the naval incidents which have occurred beyond those already mentioned in what has been described as the war of attrition. Although not a single battleship has been seen beyond a few miles from the German coast, her battlecruisers have made fugitive raids to their own harm, and without
the attainment of any military object, or influencing the progress
of the "War.

On August

18th the following

ofiicial

statement was

issued

:

Some desultory fighting has taken place during the day between the British patrolling squadrons and flotillas and German reconnoitring cruisers. No losses are reported or claimed. A certain liveliness is apparent in the southern area of the North Sea.

These movements indicated an intention to begin a species of guerilla
warfare, as a

number

of British trawlers were

sunk about

tliis

time

and
(1

their

crews captured.

Then

suddenly came the dramatic

enouemciiL

of

The Admiralty, August 28th, said
:

in a preliminary report on tlie evening

Early this morning a concerted operation of some consequence was attempted Germans in the Heligoland Bight. Strong forces of destroyers, supported by light cruisers and battle-cruisers, and working in conjunction with submarines, intercepted and attacked the German destroyers and cruisers guarding the approaches to the German coast. According to the information which has reached the Admiralty so far, the operation has been fortunate and The British destroyers have been heavily engaged with the enemy's fruitful. destroyers. All British destroyers are reported afloat and returning in good Two German destroyers were sunk and many damaged. The enemy's order. The First cruisers were engaged by the British cruisers and battle-cruisers. Light Cruiser Squadron sank the Mainz, receiving only slight damage. The First Battle-Cruiser Squadron sank one cruiser (Koln class), and another cruiser disappeared in the mist, heavily fired on and in a sinking condition. All the German cruisers engaged were thus disposed of. The Battle-Cruiser Squadron, although attacked by submarines and floating mines, successfully evaded them and is undamaged. The Light Cruiser Squadron suffered no casualties. The British loss of life is not heavy. The commanding officers concerned in this skilfully-handled operation were Rear-Admirals Beatty, IMoore, and Christian, and Commodores Keyes, Tyrwhitt, and Goodcnough.
against the

Two

days later a further description of the engagement was issued
qualities of the

by the Admiralty, in which the

on the British side were extolled, and the seamen to save the crews of the German ships, which had been sunk,

new vessels engaged efforts made by the British

were described. The total British casualties were reported as eightyeight killed and wounded, among the former two officers of exceptional merit, Lieutenant-Commander Nigel K. W. Barttelot and Lieutenant
Eric

W.

P.

Westmacott.

It

was further stated that

all

the British

THE BIGHT OF HELIGOLAND.
ships would be
fit

47

for service

again in a week or ten days.
:

following passages are taken from this communique
The

The

principle of the" operation was a scooping movement hy a strong force headed by the Arethusa to cut the German light craft from home and engage them at leisure in the open sea. The Arethusa, leading the line of destroyers, was first attacked by two German cruisers, and was sharply engaged for thirty-five minutes at a range of about 3000 yards (under two miles), with the result that she sustained some damage and casualties, liut drove off the two German cruisers, one of which she seriously injured with her 6-in. guns. Later in the morning she engaged at intervals two other German vessels which were encountered in the confused fighting which followed, and in company with the Fearless and the Light Cruiser Squadron contributed to the sinking of the cruiser Mainz. In these encounters the Arethusa's speed was reduced to ten knots and many of her guns were disabled, and at one o'clock she was about to be attacked by two other cruisers of the German town class (Mainz, Koln, etc.), when the Battle-Cruiser Squadron most opportunely arrived and pursued and sank these new antagonists. The success of this operation was due in the first instance to the information brought to the Admiralty by the submarine officers, who have during the past three weeks shown extraordinary daring and enterprise in penetrating the enemy's waters.
of destroyers

was not until October 21st that the despatches of Vice-Admiral nr. .Sir David Beatty and other officers concerning this action were published.* Throughout the Empire, this record of stirring events The and gallant deeds was read with pride and satisfaction.
It
1
1

Heligolakiid

1

des-

patches.

narratives set forth succinctly the achievements and exhibited the
enterprise, daring,

There was evidence of the
during this

and resource of those who had been concerned. skill, coolness, and courage displayed engagement. Commodore Tyrwhitt, who commanded the

destroyer flotillas in the Arethusa, describes the earlier incidents of

the action, in which his vessel received considerable damage, after

having inflicted with her consorts loss upon the enemy.

Sir

David

Beatty reports the receipt of signals from Commodore Tyrwhitt and

Commodore Keyes

that they required assistance, and

how he
flotillas.

ordered

the Light Cruiser Squadron to support the torpedo

This

squadron, ou coming into action, reduced the Mainz, which, with
several other

German

big cruisers,

Beatty
vessels.

now

decided that the

made moment had
it

her appearance.

Admiral

arrived for the completion

and the smaller was evident that to be of any value the support must be overwhelming and carried out at the highest speed possible. He had already frustrated the submarine attack upon his squadron by rapid manceuvring, and he trusted to the high speed of his cruisers and tlie smoothness of the sea to make further attack of this kind difficult. At half-past eleven, or four and a half hours after the issue was first joined, he worked the battlecruisers up to full speed and proceeded in the direction of the firing.
of the concerted
battle-cruisers

movement between his

As he

says in his despatch,

An

hour later he opened
*

fire

on a cruiser of the Kolberg

class,

and

These documents are given in Part IV.

early on the morning of September 13th. when their much smaller opportunities are remembered. long time before they again risked an engagement in force. she attacked the cruiser Hela. one of which struck the vessel amidships. excellent marksmanship the battle-cruisers. periscope. employed as yacht of the Commander-in-Chief. in the Gazette of October 21. with another submarine. Lieutenant-Commander Horton in the same boat also torpedoed and sank. It will be seen that almost directly after the outbreak of war these boats carried out scouting work in the Heligoland Bight. she disappeared into the mist.48 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. with the extraordinary activity of the submarines in a sea engagement. 1914. on October Gth. the German destroyer S 116 off the mouth of the Ems. commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Max K. and of the the new destroyers. but also the value of these boats as scouts. tlie crushing power of the valuable qualities of the Arethusa class. and the rest of the fired then sighted the Ariadne. The cruiser burst into flames. Lieutenant- the Hela was observed close in to the German Keeping within range under water. * See his report in Part IV. Noticeable features in this dashing all little action were the excellent co-operation of splendid fighting of the the classes of vessels concerned. the gunners. From another source it was learnt that. men. . burning furiously. belongs the honour of the first score to a British submarine.O. the chief importance of the affair rested in the moral effect the sound drubbing they were given had upon the German seamen. but in this novel form of warfare. The brilliant work of E 9 not only illustrates the deadly nature of the submarine attack under favourable conditions. and sank within an hour. issued with the despatches on October 21st.* describes the services performed by the submarines during the first ten weeks of Commander Horton's German waters when boat. and torpedoed her. two salvos at her and and in a sinking the Lion sank the Koln. w^as scouting in the War. wlien the Lion condition. Later on. most of her crew being apparently rescued by merchant vessels which were in the neighbourhood. The report of Commodore Eoger Keyes. Foi his achievements he was awarded the D. To Submarine E 9. and sighting through the coast. Horton. Almost under the guns of Heligoland. Apart from their material and other It losses. The official account merely recorded the fact on the return of E 9 to Harwich harbour.S. the most capable leading. was a Some of the successes of the German submarines have already been described. German the vessels fled. the achievements of the British submarines showed that they were equally ready by skilful handling Successes and resourcefulness to utilise this new product of scientific invention. two torpedoes were fired.

have lieen ever expectant of action but deprived They have. p. 68. Churchill. of whom it is impossible to say too much. without which the}' would have attacked the German Fleet shown any inclination to interfere with the passage of the The submarines also continually occupied the enemy's waters and reconnoitred his anchorages. and very seldom indeed have the and men. August 28. men * See Diary. Several gallant actions by the commodore. and watching. so that they may be worthy of their menkind. he reports as having performed their duties most admirably. described later. children and sisters of our men of the spirit that prevails. the news which came from Spirit of the Grand Fleet* was scanty. During the transportation Expeditionary Force they maintained day and night. but most on all sides of numerous instances of men giving up unselfishly. and the men under their command. all of whom. and men have gone to their death not only most gallantly. Mr. and during the engagement transports. Nothing can ever have been finer than the coolness and courage shown in every discipline has been case where ships have been sunk by mines or torpedoes perfect. these submarine boats continued to afford evidence of their value and utility. in the Heligoland Bight the officers in command of the submarines handled their vessels with coolness and judgment in an area which was occupied by friends as well as foes. referred to the fact that the health of the Fleet was never better. often under most discomforting and strenuous conditions. but where our have had the opportunity of fighting the foe above the water they have shown that they possess the same pluck and endurance as our comrades ashore. Admiralty referred to the doings or whereabouts of the ships under During the long period of waiting Sir John Jellicoe's command. and I feel prouder every day that passes that I command such men. . however. the seamen. and it is clear that not only was the news of war received with the greatest enthusiasm. are described in a letter which he sent to Lady Jellicoe to be read at a meeting for the wives and families of men afloat. positions from liad it 49 of the relief. thus spoke of the magnificent : spirit whicli prevailed in the ships under his command old spirit The Navy has not yet as a whole had an opportunity of showing that the which carried us to victory in the past is with us now. During the period of waiting and watching they are cheerful and contented in I am sure you will tell the wives and spite of the grey dulness of their lives. and especially in the Cuxhaven raid. the period of tension which preceded it. One heard on these occasions the plank which had supported them to some more feeble comrade. . endurance the strain upon nerve and muscle occasioned by their work. and I know that it will make them all desire to show in their own lives that they are dominated by the same spirit to do the best they can for their country. From the very beginning of the "War. borne with patience and of its inspiration. 1914. most creditable to the commanding officers of the boats. but that both fore and aft in the ships there was a sense of relief from The Commander-in-Chief. on more than one occasion. On many other occasions. returning witli useful iuformation.THE GRAND FLEET.

in the new light cruiser Undaunted. squadrons of the enemy have attempted to cross the interveningwaters between their coasts and those of the British Isles. and lier casualties amounted to one officer and four men wounded. Legion. Fox. the Lance. 119. few movements of the enemy can have taken place without the Gn those occasions when knowledge of the naval authorities. they have always been watched. and S Belgian * °^*^ which had been scouting ofl' the mouth which S 116 had been sunk by submarine E 9 on October 6th. and of . masquerading as a hospital ship. The German Fleet made no attempt to interfere with our movements. the British vessels at once manoeu\red to cut oft' All the vessels their retreat. and no German ship of any kind was seen at sea. It may be repeated that at no time during the nine months of war has any attempt been made to keep the German Fleet from coming out. and Loyal. Captain Cecil H. The Loyal was tlie only one of the British destroyers to be struck by shell fire. and some of the survivors. at the same time. late of the Amphion. S 118. and the action lasted about an hour. S 117. These vessels formed the remainder S 115. Yet. \tj illustration of this constant watchfulness was given by the engagement on October 17th off the Dutch coast.laconic note : Yesterday aud to-day strong and numerous squadrons and flotillas have made a complete sweep of the North Sea up to and into the Heligoland Bight. German sunk. with four destroyers. it is understood that similar operations frequent intervals. picked up by the ]^>ritish boats. to the number of 31. One of the chief examples of amphibious warfare aftbrded during the first nine months of the campaign was seen in the use of a number of warships for the bombardment of the right of the German Army's of a half flotilla of five boats of the Ems. and the difficulties and dangers of the movement amid mines and submarines will be realised when the space covered by stjuadrons and flotillas co-operating in large numbers is recognised. was scouting for this flotilla at the time she was On captured by the British destroyer Meteor on October 18th. On September 10th the Admiralty issued the following.50 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and prevented them from meeting the same cruisers only adverse conditions of weather have fate which befell the light on August 28th. It has been alleged that the (Jphelia. were were sunk. and it would be a mistake to suppose that the North Sea had always been covered with lines of patrols. sighting the boats. was on patrol They proved to be duty when four German boats were sighted. Lennox. Although has been this made since the announcement is almost the only reference that War began to the movements of tlie Grand have taken place at Fleet.

at any rate. destroyed batteries. and Eear-Admiral Hood. On April 1:3. The greatest harmony and enthusiasm existed between the seamen of the Allied navies. or partial destruction. This squadron. the In this operation a . but the destroyers have very effectively protected the lieavier vessels engaged in the work of destroying the German defences. Hood. was continually harried by the enemy's submarines and aeroplanes. hoisted his flag in a French destroyer and led the flotilla into action off Lombartzyde.* reporting the proceedings of the flotilla. were employed. came into action at davbreak Belgian Army and otf the l>elgian coast.-rancje O O O ijuns. the skilful handling of the vessels no ship was placed out of action. and have driven off the attacking submarines. as well as Admiralty announced that on the 18th of that month made by the Allied commanders. They have time after time made the voyage across the North Sea. Horace L A. and consisted of heavy guns. and the country around Nieuport was inundated. observation being arranged from the shore and the lire was well-directed and effective Further reports of the work against the batteries and heavy guns. the further presence of the flotilla was unnecessary. a naval flotilla. In response to this appeal. * This document is given in Part IV. and when reinforcements for our Allies arrived. engaged positions that the Germans had strongly fortified. A heavy bombardment of the German by flank was maintained. The German submarines have on several occasions endeavoured to make of their presence felt during these bombardments. were used on later occasions as required. caused great loss of life amongst the enemy's troops. vessels. and the naval losses were comparatively svnall. A correspondent describing this work said : Certain ships. jtosition 51 on the Belgian obsolete war purchased at 23rd. engaged were mounted two or more miles inland. supporting the left of the requests for naval assistance were XT ' «^ enfilading the German attack.s(iuadiou of semithe three monitors which were On October the beginning of the War. when it became necessary to send his uwu ship to England for repairs. 1915. These operations have had especial value in the destruction. In this work the French Navy co-operated. of this naval flotilla assisting the Belgians in Flanders were issued in October and November. coast. . To the value of the work King Albert and the Belgian War Minister bore witness. of the submarine base that the Germans were creating at Zeebrugge. though never attacked by surface vessels. mounting a large number on the 19th of powerful lonG.AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE. however. and by their siege guns and howitzers. The movements of the German troops along the coast roads from Ostend to Nieuport were checked. the Admiralty issued the despatch of Eear-Admiral the Hon. The destruction German batteries to a radius of several miles inland has also enabled the Some of the batteries which were Allied troops to make appreciable advances. A gratifying feature of the operations also has been the fact that remarkably few casualties have been sustained by the warships. and tliis in spite of the fact that the destroyers and monitors have frequently been engaged at very close range. and returned safely to port. but owing to means of naval balloons.

As a result retreated rapidly. these must not be allowed to modify the general naval policy which was being pursued. several were made upon the English coast in the months of November. as may be assumed. to have a moral effect by creating a scare on the East coast. and the Admiralty announced that though they regretted the circumstances. with the exception of two officers and two men. but it has made its weight felt. and if it was intended. and the crew. and by acts of " frightfulness " to create an anxious feeling in the country which might interfere with the continued transfer of troops to the seat of war in Flanders and elsewhere.* This abortive raid fulfilled no military purpose. It is a feature well worth noting that the Germans have never attempted to attack the bombarding Fleet from the sea except by submarines. it altogether failed in its This visit was the first time that German ships had been object. The vessels used on both these occasions were the fastest cruisers in the German Navy. retired. On December raid 16th another German cruiser force made a similar on the Yorkshire coast. and on the Halcyon. was sunk by the explosion of mines. and favoured by the mist succeeded in making good their escape. and there were a number of deaths and injuries among the civil population. were given in the official " Navy List " for April 1915. as of all officers and men who lost their lives in action during the first seven and a half months of the War. raids In accordance with tliis policy. but on this occasion they shelled the towns of Hartlepool. shadowed by our ships. There were also casualties among the troops and in the land batteries at Hartlepool. The patrol vessels suffered some small loss. and its achievements are exceedingly creditable to officers and men alike. the This vessel reported the presence and various naval movements were made. and a squadron endeavoured to cut them off. as in the former instance. however. and January. in an Admiralty message as not of considerable military importance. Whitby and Scarborough. appeared off the coast of On the first occasion. at full speed.52 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and in its retirement the rear-most German cruiser threw out a number Submarine D 5. an enemy's squadron fired Essex on November 3rd. German to It has been a marked feature of the policy of Germany to attempt shake the confidence of the British public. December. a Coastguard gunboat. . German squadron seen in the North Sea for over two months. The German Army has not been able to obtain the least assistance from their powerful navy whilst this destruction of positions on their right wing and the disastrous loss of The fleet of warships was described life accompanying it has been proceeding. were drowned. and both there and at the other towns damage was done to buildings. of one of these. and it was no surprise to those who had studied the subject that such vessels * The names of the drowned in this vessel. The enemy was engaged by the patrol vessels. of the enemy. The Germans. running awash. At all three places there was an entire absence of panic.

: — A flotilla of destroyers. destroyers accompanied the Battle-Cruiser and Light-Cruiser Squadrons. the sternmost ship of the German line. the Derffiinger and Seydlitz. Moreover. according to reports received. and made more firmer their resolve. added that the work of rescue had been difficult owing to a thick fog. six light cruisers. Battleaction. Its only consequence in this country was strengthen the feeling that a nation such a brutal fashion must be made to pay of the who conducted warfare in tlie penalty. first sighted and attacked the enemy. Two other of the German battle-cruisers. published on March 3. were seriously damaged. They only angered our population. and shortly after one o'clock.DOGGER BANK BATTLE. though doubt exists on this point. capsized and sank. and sentenced Captain Pieper while to two years' detention in a fortress for disobedience to an order ai\d negligence. The following preliminary telegraphic report was received from the Yice-Admiral* they realised their position.Admiral Sir David Beatty. the speed. the Bli'icher. and some destroyers. A Yarmouth it which court-martial sat to investigate the facts of the loss at Wilhelmsliaven on December 23rd. patrolling about 7. but they seem to have whetted the German appetite for blood. or the day after the futile descent on Yarmouth. Numerous as the British patrolling vessels were. Commander Cleve was sentenced to one year's imprisonment. The Yorck was the first armoured cruiser lost by the Germans in the War. These German raids were foolish and unsatisfactory as warfare. and reached an area at which further pursidt was inexpedient. 53 should be able to cross the North Sea at night and turn up by daylight at any point on the East coast not further distant than approxi- mately 300 miles. A running fight ensued. On this occasion. no military result of any value could be obtained by such a raid. they could not have been in sutJicient numbers to ensure such a runaway visit being observed. for five weeks later another attempt was made of a similar character. . by whom the communication was signed. but Captain Behncke. was supposed was returning from the English coast. are given in Part IV. Nearly 400 of her crew were saved. not could it be performed without considerable to risk. which were sighted early on the morning of January 24th Ijy a British patrolling force under Vice. As soon as enemy headed for home at high and were at once pursued by the British squadron. apparently making for the English coast.30 a. whose force. * The Admiral's despatches. At the time visit the Germans lost the armoured cruiser Yorck. Their positions when sighted were approximately fourteen miles east-south-east of the Battle-Cruiser Squadron. 1915. but they were able to continue their flight.m. consisted of four battlecruisers.. The Yorck was stated by the CJermans to have struck a chain of mines blocking the entrance to Jahde Bay on the forenoon of November 4th.

000 yards slow and deliberate firing was opened. a war upon commerce in home waters was threatened. with an escort. The behaviour of the officers and men was only what was expected. The Lion. and consequently were subjected to the enemy's concentrated fire. A demonstration Avas made off Libau on August 2nd. as it appeared they at once commenced to retire to the east-south-east. the Tyne. enemy took airships over to the English coast. and the enemy were gradually being overhauled. Orders were given by signal to the destroyer flotilla to chase the enemy and to report their movements. districts. was directed to complete her destruction. Desultory actions occurred during the next few weeks. Out fire was returned by the enemy. The Pallada was torpedoed off the Gulf of Finland. steered to the north-west. but the Germans suffered by the stranding of the Magdeburg in the Gulf of Finland.\t the same time enemy submarines were observed on the starl)oard bow.000 yards. The other vessels as they drew up engaged the enemy. that during the first two months of war no Eussiau ship had been lost or damaged. The German prisoners reported that the Kolberg had been sunk by over-salvoes from our squadron. . At about 11 o'clock. In tlie other incidents. At about 18. and great credit is due to the engine-room staffs for the fine steaming of the squadron. jnore ijarticularly the Lion. and subsequently to the Princess Koyal. The death of Engineer-Captain Taylor. and a course was steered in order to avoid them. after this raid. The casualties were very slight. Subsequently the starboard engines of the Lion also developed trouble from the same cause as the port engines. causing the port engine to be stopped. Nor were the operations in the Baltic of large importance. The Headquarters Staff in Petrograd reported. however. The damage to Lion and Tiger is in neither case serious. and the Indomitable took her in tow and brought her into port. and I transferred my flag to one of the destroyers. a lucky shot damaged one of the Lion's feed tanks. and will be described in its place. and an attack by them was driven off. The Bliicher was now in a critical condition. and we began to hit at a range of 17. when the Augsburg shelled the port. The rest of the squadron were directed to attack the rear of the enemj'. we were undoubtedly deprived of a greater victory. were in action alone for some time. thanks to tlie incessant efforts of the On officers and men in baffling all the German schemes. Speed was worked up to twenty-eight or twenty-nine knots. and repairs can be completed in a short time. in which the Eussians sustained no losses. Essex. The result of the action was Bliicher sunk. and two other battle-cruisers very lieavily on fire and seriously damaged. and the Indomitable. October 11th. is deeply regretted. and visited Yarmouth. and went down with her crew. The situation developed by degrees into a stern chase. . which ship suffered more as the result. unfortunately. The German flotilla of destroyers was disposed on the starboard beam of their cruisers. to sending place yf raids by sea. which had now come up. The Lion and Tiger having drawn ahead of remainder of squadron. and other The attempts upon the fighting fleet having failed. The battle-cruisers were directed to steer south-east with a view to securing the position and cutting the enemy off if possible. on October 2nd. The presence of the enemy's submarines subsequently necessitated the action being broken off. steaming with one engine. first nine months of the War. this cruiser having to be blown up to prevent her being captured.54 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. the German submarines were successful in sinking the cruiser Pallada in similar circumstances to those in which the British cruiser Hawke was lost. The remainder of the squadron were not hit. Through the damage to the Lion's feed tank by an unfortunate chance shot. with her speed reduced. Airship ' Xo further movements during the the of importance occurred in the North Sea. whose services were invaluable.

who. the battle-cruiser Goeben and the which had been despatched to Turkish On the morning of August -4. who " approved the measures taken by him in all respects. Eear-Admiral E." His secondin-command. and evidently fearing the arrival of other British sliips. T. while the Goeben turned and fired a torpedo l)ut the Gloucester gallantly hung on until recalled. The Mediteukanean a]sd Near East. The light cruiser Gloucester. The arrival of the two cruisers precipitated Turkey's action in declaring day. This message expressed " gratitude for your autumnal season in keeping the sea among dangers Thanks to its skill and endurance. both of Navy in Mediter- ranean waters when war l>egan. war. it was ofiicially announced on August 30th. . Kelly. had assumed the supreme command in the place of Sir A. Berkeley Milne. and French vessels awaiting them in the and airiving safely in the Dardanelles on August 10th. the Austro-Hungarian Fleet was effectively The "* "'^ "" Admiral Boue de Lipeyrere. eluding the British vicinity. Soon after reaching the Dardanelles. contained during the months under review by the Franco-British In the Adriatic. two Algerian towns. whose quibbling action in regard to them was described in official papers issued by the Foreign Office on November 1st. which was returned by the Breslau. The conduct and disposition of the last-named officer in regard to the Goeben and Breslau was the subject of examination by the Admiralty. the Germans continued their flight. as a result of this investigation. A. it was announced that they had been bought by Turkey. Troubridge. and. H. There were only two vessels of the German light cruiser Breslau.GOEBEN AND The Admiral trawler flying ^lakaroft' BRESF-AU." activity in this from mines and submarines. which was made by Admirals . came up with them and opened fire. and bombarded them with slight damage. was recalled to England on September 20th for an inquiry to be held into the Fleets under the of command circumstances of the escape of the German cruisers from Messina. C. without success while engaged in searching a suspicious-looking Dutch commercial plished by the Eussian Navy in the 'Baltic The good work accomwas the subject of a message of congratulation sent by the Tsar on October 25th to Admiral von Jlssen. 55 had been attacked on the previous day colours. Captain W. they appeared off Phillippeville and Bona. the Baltic Fleet had fulfilled successfully its task of guarding the littoral of the capital and in supporting the armies on land. 1914. and left there on the evening of the following waters in the autumn of 1912. They were next reported at Messina on August 5th.

although they were the means Austrian torpedo-boat Gautsch and the The submarines of the Austrian Navy were scarcely more successful. A bombardment of Cattaro was begun in August. going down in ten minutes with the greater part of those on board her. the Curie. it was announced that he had been Under Admiral *Boue de Lapeyrere the Franco-British Fleets have preserved their control of the Adriatic. attempting to enter the harbour Eear-Admiral Senes. entirely to the advantage of the Allies. including One Austrian submarine was said to have been sunk by the Waldeck Eousseau on October 17th. . The vessel by the Austrians. They inflicted no loss on the Allied Fleets beyond damaging the battleship Jean Bart. Hedwortli Meux and Sir (leorge Callagban. French and British troops have been transported in safety from Africa.56 Sir THE NAVAL ANNUAL. of The operations in this theatre have thus been. the battle- proceeding along the Italian shores and the cruisers and along the eastern side. was torpedoed at the entrance to the Otranto Straits. and other parts of the world. and has became entangled in surface. and rendered secure the important communications and commercial interests in its waters. a junction being effected near destroyers Cattaro. and on the 12th . Certain of the islands in the Adriatic were forces.acquitted. and have been as unaffected in their strength by the war of attrition pursued by the Austrians as the Grand Fleet in the North Sea. the French armoured cruiser Leon Gambetta of destroying Austrian liner Baron 19. The only enemy ships seen were the light cruiser Zenta and two destroyers. some obstruction and had to come This took place on was captured. No. a French suljmarine. and it has been a striking fact that no merchant ship of the Allies has been captured or destroyed in the Mediterranean. on the whole. of Pola. but no losses were incurred by them among the the Allied ships. On the other hand. until. when she continued operation intermittently. which attempted flight. but this state course. after the vessel they had lost. devoid of important events. Rear-Adrairal TrouLridge was tried by court-martial on November 5th and the days following. on the morning of April 27th. Australasia. the Montenegrins co-operating in this with artillery on Mount Lovtchen. ships On August 16th a sweep up the Adriatic was undertaken with success. but the former was sunk in about fifteen minutes with the greater part of her crew. India. whose ascendancy over the Austro-Hungarian Fleet has preserved the freedom of the Mediterranean. bombarded and occupied by the Allied of affairs has been. to the was subsequently renamed the Zenta December 28th. Mines were laid early by the Austrians.

were sunk. however. These It was made clear by the losses were caused by floating mines. when long been susj^ccted. in one of which the Goeben was disabled. and the Eussian ships.BLACK SEA AND DARDANELLES. which. be dealt with in detail. two British battleships. it for a raid siuted her purpose to go to war. on which day also the Minerva appeared off Akaba. Winn. in effecting a reconnaissance. declared War was betweeu Great Britain November 5th. the Commerce Eaiding and the German Colonies. Holbrook. a move which indicated that some larger undertakiog was in contemplation. in the Eed Sea. pushed through the Straits as far as the harbour of Nagara. On December 11th. passing successfully under five rows of mines. captured. on November 21st.C. Lieutenant Sydney T. and a military force landed from India. including the Goeben and Breslau. when the Allied Fleets bombarded and destroyed the forts at tlie entrance to the Dardanelles. the Bouvet. had as hostilities began. altliough the forts were silenced. The events connected with this enterprise are still proceeding at the moment of writing. at the mouth of the Shatt-el-Arab. and shelled the forts and barracks there.. 57 aud Turkey ou Turkey Turco-German cruisers war^^ Breslau and Haraidieh had bombarded Ptussian coast towns and destroyed shipping in the Black Sea. clear proof As soon was . and one French battleship. On November 8th the town of Fao. For the accomplishment of this dangerous and difficult exploit. in spite of some further efforts of the Turks to regain it. and his second-in-command. In the Black Sea there were further engagements between the Turkish vessels. was awarded the V. and cannot. wliich has since been landed and employed in the Gallipoli peninsula. Some days before this. On March 18th a further operation in connection with the forcing of the Straits was put into execution. the British submarine B 11. with the result that the command in those waters passed into the hands of the Eussians and remained with them.S. Nothing further occurred in this theatre until February 19th. Lieutenant Norman D. was bombarded.O. at the head of the Persian Gulf. and there torpedoed the Turkish battleship Messoudieh. the D. in the process of which. therefore. occurrences of this day's work that the further prosecution of the undertaking would need the co-operation of an expeditionary force. advanced to and occupied the important town of Basra. her captain. with nearly all on board. That Germany had made great preparations in advance on British commerce. and the result of this provocation was that a Franco-British S(xuadron bombarded the Dardanelles on November 2nd. the Irresistible and Ocean.

(2) to strangle the commerce and capture the colonies of the enemy. to their The cruisers she had on different stations proceeded assigned war rendezvous. The objects in view were three-fold: (1) to ensure the safety of the trade. Von Tirpitz and his agents in this country had always denied that these ships carried their armaments in peace-time. which included the speedily given. of State insurance against war It risks now put . ^i^g Fortunately. proved most effective in preventing financial loss. and in the short space of eight months the enemy was forced to admit that the pre-arranged plan of war against commerce by raiding on raiders of their bases of supply . made afforded of the elaborate and far-reachiug arrangements she had for this object. a number of ocean liners. and certain concentrations took place. but conclusive proof to the contrary was now forthcoming. the measures which the Allies were able to take for the protection of their interests afloat reduced the depredations of raiders . as well as oversea garrisons. thus depriving the and (3) to provide safe transit for the transport of troops from the Dominions and India. off Socotra. All these objects were successfully achieved. on October 23rd. and this was into operation.. was not slow in coming. some of which had already their guns on board. but it made no serious impression \ipon the mercantile community or the public generally. of which little was revealed. and frustrated the German scheme. the fastest vessels of the German mercantile marine.. where they were met by colliers and supply ships from neutral harbours. As part of the work of the Committee of Imperial Defence a scheme had been drawn up. two days after war began. or the speculation that might have followed the fluctuations of the raiders' gains. From these harbours also. Of the deadly nature of the menace to shipping from the enemy and armed merchantmen which were at large evidence was The news of the first captures. the oceans had entirely failed. The Admiralty also. They were supplied with information as to the movements of the Allied trade by wireless messages from the German merchant ships which had been driven off the seas. corsairs taking of the City of Winchester by the Konigsberg.58 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. The British and French squadrons were at once increased. and those not already supplied with guns took them from the smaller war vessels which had no effective fighting value. left for selected localities on the trade routes. and were able to increase their potentiality for mischief by using captured vessels as scouts or decoys. Altogether some twenty commerce destroyers made their appearance in the early days of the War. as well as from German ports. Germau commercelaiding. Several of these liners were converted into raiders on the high seas.

and the Dresden. which escaped from New York on the day before American neutrality was proclaimed. began her career at Kiaochau. sank . operating in the Atlantic. including the Ijeginning of November. was engaged and sunk by a British None of these squadron oft' Juan Fernandez on jMarcli 14th. and the many thousand islands of the archipelagos. but it Australia. of the Eoyal Australian Navy. one must be regarded as a great misfortune for the British action. at the Of the other cruisers. offer an almost infinite choice of movement to the enemy's ships. is Her end a mystery. sank thirteen ships. representing a value of a little more than a million and a half sterling. Most of her captures were sailing vessels. like the Emden. destroyers. in the Cocos group. Frye. had very much success. Of the actions at sea which grew out of this attack upon The commerce. T. four. were searching for the corsairs. Navy. Captain J. in the West Indies. and after a stubborn resistance was driven ashore and burnt.END OP THE GERMAN CRUISERS. destroying the wireless by the Sydney. was pointed out at the same time that "the vast expanses of sea and ocean. which. It is essential to the success of such raiding operations that they should be supported by a strong force. to which Bear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock transferred his flag ." Of the raiders. capable of acting against the defending squadrons and obliging these to be of a certain strength. Similarly. which started on her cruise from Kiaochau just hefore war was declared. however. 59 explained the measures they had taken to hunt down the commerce Over seventy cruisers. valued at a little She was caught on November 9th at over two millions sterling. she succeeded in sinking seventeen vessels. with heavy loss. Keeling station. C. belonging to the United States. a squadron consisting of the Good Hope. These cruisers have been interned at Newport News. after a mutiny of her crew. two armoured vessels Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. A\'hen the two armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were known to be in the Pacific. of the value of a little over a million sterling and the Prinz Eitel Friedrich. not including armed merchantmen. but fully apprised of what would be Placing herself on the trade routes to China and reciuired of her. including the ban^ue William P. Glossop. The the armed merchantmen succeeded in making large hauls. the most successful was the Emden. and cruising alternately in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. only two of cruisers. eleven vessels. but she is supposed to have been destroyed by an explosion. which escaped from that battle. another light cruiser. Kronprinz Wilhelm. were destroyed in the battle off the Falklands on December 8th. also sank seventeen steamers. Island. The Karlsruhe. representing about three-quarters of a million sterling.

met on September 14tli the Carmania.Admiral Sir F. The ships were fairly matched. which lasted for an hour and three-quarters. and the Leipzig by the light cruiser Glasgow while to the light cruiser Bristol was allotted the task of destroying the transports which accompanied the squadron.60 I'roiii THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and lustre was shed * t The Admiralty statement on this action will be found in Part IV.! The Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were sunk by the two battle-cruisers Invincible and Inflexible and the armoured cruiser Carnarvon the Nilrnberg by the armoured cruiser Kent. in the It was due to the presence of the battle-cruiser Australia Western Pacific that Admiral von Spee. the action was well contested. which. of the as well as the Otranto. a German armed merchant ship. These documents arc given in Part IV. a superior force followed awaiting him. with the battleship Canopus. Here on November 1st he met Admiral Cradock's squadron off Coronel. . in whicli the two British armoured An official report cruisers were sunk after a most gallant defence. and the Carmania sustained some damage. other vessels in the Atlantic. The Cap Trafalgar. escaped. and an action ensued. in sight. and von Spee found. a British armed merchant ship. with the Momuouth. Glasgow. Doveton Sturdee. who commanded the German squadron. hitherto Chief of the War Staff. Two other actions must be mentioned.* The Falkland Islands battle. and the Otranto. The battle which Admiral Sturdee's despatches. in the Falkland Islands. This important action not only removed the only force of any material strength which Germany had in the outer seas. the enemy was sunk. C. but owing to her skilful handling by Captain Noel Grant and the clever marksmanship of her gunners victory was achieved. action was given by Captain Luce of the Glasgow. and practically ended the war against commerce. left England on November 11th with the battle-cruisers Invincible and Inflexible. German armed merchant ships destroyed. auxiliary proceeded iuto those waters to co-operate with other squadrons of the Allies in the pursuit of them. and after a brilliant duel. armoured cruiser. when including the two battlecruisers he had five armoured vessels and two light cruisers under his command. the Buflblk. light cruiser. on December 7th. cruiser. seamen who were lost with Admiral Cradock were Vice. This was the only action of its kind which occurred during the first nine months of the War. . Picking up a number of Tlie British speedily avenged. was forced to cross into South American waters. evidently the German squadron came Early next morning with the intention of attempting the capture of the islands. but deprived is fully described in . the raiders of the support necessary to the success of tlieir operations. he arrived at Port Stanley. to his great surprise.

the Dominions supplying the troops. T. convoy of the expeditionary forces and the capture of the Samoa was taken by a New Zealand force.000-ton vessel of the Hamburg- Amerika anchor line. which was accomplished without interruption. coaling depots. first The of the German armed merchant ships to be destroyed was the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. therefore. several expeditions German still and military character are engaged in their Africa. In German East Africa. which was surprised when at anchor and under repair in Zanzibar Harbour. Until these had been occupied. the range of the newer guns in the former vessel enabling her to keep out of danger. The crew of the Pegasus made a most gallant resistance. and supply establishments they contained could be made use of by the enemy. the battleship Goliath. in the of German New Guinea. the convoyed by warships. subsequently. by the light cruiser and sunk. when she was surprised at the Oro August 2Gth. after some severe fighting. and rendered useless. a 14. voyage of over 2000 miles. the seat of the Governor which the garrisons of the various islands control had concentrated. the principal town of Dar-eswireless station Salaani was shelled by the light cruisers Astra-a and Pegasus August 8th. With the exploits of the German commerce raiders. Measures were taken. the British flag This achievement involved a sea being hoisted on August 31st. War to deprive the forces In the Pacific. conquest. on route. including Nauroh. very Highflyer. where she was shelled by the Chatham. The troops from Australia at New Pommern afterwards occupied the other islands practically without opposition. the on and the gunboat Moewe being On September 20th the German cruiser Konigsberg by destroying the Pegasus. while the ships of the Japanese Navy lent valuable assistance both military Germany Navy at large German islands were seized by of their in the islands. Captain H. After a further bombardment of Dar-es-Salaam. with whose capture on September 22nd the last German wireless station in As regards the German of a conjoint naval the Pacific fell into British hands. the Konigsberg was herself driven to take shelter in the Ptufigi River. A month later. Weymouth. and refused to surrender. and. lost heavily. Buller. but off without very great success.GERMAN DISTANT POSSESSIONS. This cruiser had been operating on the South Atlantic River. Similarly. under his Island. retaliated . the wireless stations. the town of Herbertshohe. the operations Pacific connected with the capture of Germany's oversea possessions should sions of be associated. Germany. in some operations by the boats of the Goliath and destroyed. possessions in Africa. early in the benefit. 61 on the already bright renown of the British Mercantile Marine. a force from the Commonwealth of Australia captured on September 12th.

containing the long-range wireless station of the colony. continued to do his duty. would form a Koyal Naval Division an infantry division. and It Early in October. whilst chasing a the vessel German destroyer.62 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and the consequent declaration of war. Higher up the West Coast operations were undertaken by Franco-British expeditionary forces against the Cameroons. place in September. fell on attack. an urgent call for assistance led Division being hurriedly despatched to Antwerp.. but its nature has duced. A blockade of this coast was declared on German possessions re- February 26. there was a considerable surplus of men. machine guns. and the French cruiser Bruix. transport. etc. was captured some days later. was seized in the first week of the War. 1'. naval assistance has been given. with naval co-operation. principal oversea possession. after a ten weeks' November combined Anglo-Japanese forces engaged. Japan and among the came into the War of on our side on August 23rd. in Togoland. the gallant conduct of Ritchie. the ships taking part including the British cruisers Cumberland and Challenger and gunboat Dwarf. which. when the Navy mobilised for war. in spite of several wounds. where . won Other for him the V. 1915.)a3es in exterminating the German naval of effort in capture of the province Kiaochau. by a mine. to be witli made up field to the strength of complete signal hospitals. ammunition column. cyclists. a blockade was established. casualties. together Avith a marine brigade already existing. August 22nd. who. In the military operations against German South-West Africa. to the This place. Four days after the expiration of the Japanese ultimatum to Germany.C. its the other valuable assistance which she has l. to this companies. approached too close to the batteries at Tsingtau. Commander H. The onlv naval loss sustained by the Allied ships in the operations was On the destruction of the Japanese cruiser Tacachiko. the S 90. Kiaocbau. on November 28th. The seaport of Lome. and preThe landing of an expeditionary force took paratory measures taken. must be included. not been revealed. undertaken by the troops of the Union of South Africa imder General Botha. and a blockade of tlie coast was declared on April 24th. motor-cars. and sustained a few injured herself. ¥ox. with fortified naval port of Tsingtau. Antwerp operations. rendered the Tacific. the destroyer Keunet. when the enemy's forces surrendered unconditionally. and Kamina. and on September 7th it was officially announced that naval brigades had been formed of these seamen. It has stokers. not being materially been shown how. and w^ith the fall of the place the remainder of Germany's squadron in the Pacific was taken or destroyed. Germany's 7tb.

aircraft. direct help has been given to military operations to the by the despatch Continent of some squadrons of at Diisseldorf. positions Cologne. co-operated with the Belgian the fall 63 Army iu the defence of the city. until a stop was put to these futile efforts by the timely and useful victory of the Battle-Cruiser Squadron under Yice-Admiral Sir David Beatty. the Allies were faced by a in the operations at sea. In other ways than by the creation of a Royal Naval Division. in which as many as forty-eight machines co-operated. ( success. the successive destruction of the raiders.M. On Deceml)er 22nd Admiral von Tirpitz. . and in February a series of attacks. German military and Hoboken. and by taking up an extended position. resource.\i.GEUMAN CAMPAIGN AGAINST MERCHANTMEN. and was promptly replied to b}' the action in the Bight and other losses inflicted upon the enemy. which was forced to intern at Trondhjem put an end to this menace also. There remained only the war upon commerce. were delivered upon the submarine bases in the Bruges-Ostend-Zeebrugge district. by a bold forward movement. near Antwerp. Brussels. under Admiral Sir John Jellicue. the German Naval Authorities were driven to a still more desperate effort. and to hamper its action." After six months of war. The . and daring will be found in the Diary at the end of this chapter. to meet the German advance upon the northern coast of France and prevent its for nearly a week.* it will be seen that this admittedly desperate attempt to bring succour to the Antwerp gaiTison enabled Field-Marshal Sir John French. As already shown. were mainly canied out with the use of mines. Many references to the achievements and exploits in which the naval airmen have displayed their talents.SrB. delaying The move w^as criticised. but from the despatch of the General )tticer Commanding. The earliest plans to reduce the strength of the Fleet — — * This document is given iu Part IV. where a certain amount of success had been achieved. but the battle o}f the Falklands. and the eflectual prevention of reinforcements reaching the oceans shown in the case of the Berlin. or to injure the commercial activities of the Mercantile ]\Iarine. in an inter\iew which naval forces of this country had been successively failed. new situation One plan after another for reducing the tried. Friedrichshafen. Then there followed the coast raids.iNE " Blockade. having failed in their attempts to lessen the numbers of the lighting fleet. were all attacked by naval airmen with considerable skill and success. and had. this plan had little success. It was then that.

It was stated that the German seamen in U 28.64 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. by torpedoing every ship which approached any British port. in the Beichsanzcigcr. and six trawlers. was responsible for this outrage. the greater part of the country's food supply might be cut off. passengers struggling in the water but in the face of the testimony of . Many of these thirty-six vessels had been sunk in circumstances of great atrocity. on February 2. were while the number of ships using British ports had showed no actually increased diminution. jeered at the plight of the helpless . Traffic northwards around the Shetland Islands. Deputy Chief of the Admiralty Staff. 1915. in which all peaceful shipping was urgently v/arned against approaching the coasts of Great Britain owing to the German "military area. way in which the destruction of innocent non-combatants was received by the German people. including the torpedoing of the refugee ship Amiral Ganteaume. the attempt on which was but another of the many flagrant violations of International Law and Encouraged by the the laws of humanity practised by the (. in the east part of the North Sea. are hereby declared a military area. Neutral ships will also incur danger in the military area. From February 18th. but had — from 1381 in the week ending February 24th to 1519 in the week ending April 21st. is not endangered. and the accidents of naval warfare. including the entire English Channel. every hostile merchant ship in these waters will be destroyed. in view of the misuse of neutral flags ordered by the British Government on January 31st. because. proclaimed Germany's hostile merchant how. Several tentative efforts had already been made in this direction. no notice being given to the crews before the torpedoes were discharged from the submarines and in some cases the crews and . the torpedo was discharged which sank the vessel. announcement was issued by the Chief of the Admiralty Staff: The waters around Great Britain and Ireland.rermans. passengers were fired upon in endeavouring to boats. and before the expiration of the time promised. which The case of the Falaba . a warning was issued by Captain von The Belmke. and a strip of at least thirty sea miles in breadth along the coast of Holland." Two days later the following serious danger it would incur. it cannot always be avoided that attacks may involve neutral ships. and during January and February a number of One of these had similar attacks upon merchantmen were delivered. even if it is not always possible to avoid thereby dangers which threaten the crews and passengers. belonging to Great Britain. for its target the hospital ship Asturias. make their escape in was made specially heinous by the circumstance that five minutes' notice was given to the people on board to take to the boats but while they were doing so. in the Nru- was published vessels. intention of declaring a submarine war against He explained York Evenwfi Sun. The measure of success attained by the " blockade " thus threatened its first may sunk be estimated from the fact that during nine weeks only thirty-six vessels .

.uh .

.

and they were therefore placed in barracks under special restriction and were not allowed to mingle with other prisoners of war. who. although their plans were not. their crews being made marines prisoners. to this master. is Careful record When this menace to merchantmen by submarines first made its appearance. when the boats capsized and threw the people into the water. The to rescue the crew. on April 19th : — "Yesterday In regard to trawler Fermo endeavoured off. the trawler Vanilla.X." the second murder of this character committed within a week. but some of the boats themselves were destroyed. was equal to the occasion and. revealed. and women. who were crying. was "cruelly unjust to his men. kept of these events. it in command of the boat. and firing torpedoes at ships carrying non-combatants. the Admiralty a CJerman submarine sank." Later. but she was fired at This killing of All hands in the Vanilla were lost. In the first ten days of March. H. the submarines began declared on hearing of the report that to commit acts of frightfulness against fishing craft. it was clear that they had organised counter measures of an effective nature.SUBMARINE ATTACKS. and the under. German subU 8 and U 12. of course. A change of venue was necessitated. it was officially Service Cross announced that the Government could not accord to them the honourable treatment received by other prisoners of war. were run down and sunk. reappeared in the Xorth Sea. and afterwards around the Irish coast. An example was set awarded the Distinguished Other by the King. neutrals. water craft which at pursued their depredations in the English Channel. stated. two of the German submarines. not laughing. Propert. one such attack. and driven is by a torpedo. and probably owing to their failure to make any great impression on larger ships. its novelty and the fact that it was quite unexpected made it somewhat difficult The resourcefulness of the naval authorities. It fisher-folk for no military purpose should not escape attention. E. although The Admiralty granted the attacked liy gunfire and torpedoes. when ordered to stop by a submarine off the Dutch coast on February 10th. temporary rank of lieutenant. however. merchant ship captains were similarly honoured for skill and coolness in the face of submarine attack. and he was peril was one reflecting the highest credit men of that service. survivors on this point 65 Commander Schmidt.E. The loss of some F . put on full speed and steered a zig-zag course away from the boat. In view of the fact that these men had been guilty of s^'^'^attacking and sinking unarmed merchantmen. for not only was there soon apparent a falling off in the victims of the submarines. effecting an escape. of the steamship Laertes. to deal with. The spirit in which the British Mercantile IMarine met the first new upon the officers and by Captain W..

it would not be surprising another stroke should be tried to re-establish the potency of German submarines in the eyes of the people of the Fatherland. Chas. and to impress neutral Powers. there further indication of activity on the part of the German High Sea Fleet around Heligoland. and other victims. Greek. the Uulflight. and To keep the in this vessel he was lost with all his crew in March. Dutch. it welcomed nowhere more cordially than by the seamen of the Grand Fleet. may have been the partly the cause of the use of the commerce destruction. bringing forward a new scheme as soon as one failed. which was torpedoed 1st.66 of the early boats later THE NAVAL ANNUAL. on whose policy all the blame was in its laid. to show. when the actions of the British naval and shipmasters baffled the under. This attempt likewise failing if purpose." a weekly table was issued by the Admiralty showing the " British merchant and fishing vessels lost by hostile action since the outbreak of the War. submarines in work of public acquainted with the actual effect of the losses caused by the " blockade." two Norwegian ships. than the to last. off the Scilly Islands without warning on May At the end of April there was experienced something of a lull in the situation in the submarine Home " waters. Just as the attentions of the submarines were turned Allies the merchant ships of the when it was found that no so they were again impression could be made upon our war transferred to neutral ships authorities fleets.water craft." victims. N. and there were also SAvedish. Danish. Portuguese. the Belridge and Eegin. From the command of U 9 Lieutenant-Commander Otto Weddigen was transferred to U 29. were sunk. and an impression prevailed that since its blockade " had failed in purpose of cutting off new method of a desperate The progress of the War up to that time had shown how the Germans had persistently tried one plan after another to inflict injury upon us. AVhether this was significant of an in- tention to corae out and accept the challenge of liattle there was nothing will be Should a further movement of this kind be decided upon. In week of the " blockade. including at least one the first American vessel. Vessels numbered up to 30 and over were among those engaged in attacking merchantmen during March and April. each in succession being more desperate the food supply of the British Isles some character would be attempted. . the idea being evidently to embroil the neutral nations concerned with Great Britain. This table did not include the neutral which were almost as numerous as those of the Allies. Pobi]sSu>'. As this record of was some the first nine months of the War was closed. who have been so zealously carrying out their arduous and patient vigil in the northern seas.

merchant capture. Goebeii and Brexlau liombarded Bona and Phillippevllle. by London Chamber of in Commerce. ..Vllies in italics. WAli.. Bombardment of Cattaro l)y Allied ships begim. surprised and captured Austrian liner Baron Gautsch destroyed by mine. Capetown for London.. Giteisenau. Montenegrin bombardment of Cattaro Ijegun. War declared between Great Britain and Austria. four days out from Tsingtau. Austrian torpedo-boat 10 sunk by mine. Uoehi'ii and Breskm arrived Messina. Great Britain and her . Goeben and Bredau "bought" by Turkey.* (r. afterwards declared between Austria and . •2. coaled from Markomannia at Pagan Island. Emden . of * Waiships . r. ^. . Kaixer Wilhelni der Grosse sunk liy Highflyer. 23. Sir . Karlsruhe reported off La Guayra. Destroyer Kennet shelled by TsiTigtau batteries.. 12. l)utch steamer Houtman stopped by Geier in Macassar Straits. Russian Far East Squadron left Vladivostock. Danish steamship Maryland (5130 tons) sunk by German mine Chaplain of the Fleet's prayer for the Js'avy issued. i). 25. Hospital ship offered by women of Canada and accepted. H. II. Antivari bombarded by Austrian vessels.67 A DIARY OF THE NAVAL EVENTS OF THE Compile]) by :f»i4. . Sweep of Adriatic by Franco-British Fleet.John . captured Russian steamer Rjason in . mine.Japan Sea. . Hyades. Hurford. Turkish and Chilean warships in British yards purchased. . Brexden's first merchant capture. . T'wo Canadian submarines (C C 1 and C C 2) offered to Admiralty aud accepted. " Desultory fighting' in North Sea. Emden. . . Austro-Hungariau cruiser Zcnla sunk. i. Aug. State Insurance scheme for shipping extended to vessels as well as cargoes. which proceeded to Kamina wireless Three ex-lJrazilian gunboats commissioned as British monitors. (terniau cruiser Emilcn. Liner Galician.South American tiade. Attack on Dar-es-Salaam by Astrsea aud Pegasus. Scheme for supplying newspapers to the Fleet organised off' the Thanies. It). Kviiiy in Lnise sunk.shelled. Fishing-boat Tubal Caiu captured otf Iceland by Kamr WiUiehit der Grosse. War declared between Japan and Germany. and Breslait kft ifessina Glasgow and Bremen reported off South American coast. Nyanga and Kaipara captm'ed and sunk by Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. 22.. 15. station. 7.. Amphion sunk by Kuniijsbi-rifs first (ifiebrn „ fi. IS... . lield up liy Kaixer Wilhelm der Grusne. F 2 . 21.'ri(7i(''. I. Admiralty statement issued re commerce protection and .. A'f(W«. 16.. Boinbardineiit of Libau liy ^l»(/xiM)-j/.Japan. War declared between Genuany and Russia. 14. War liolmwood captured by i)n'. \\'a)shi])s of Genua]]) and her Warships of neutrals and niercha)itmen in roniau type. Submarine U 15 sunk by Birmingham.'. Bowes Castle. Action between Gloucester and Goeben and Bredim. Action between Bristol and Karhrulie.Archbishop of Canterbury.Tellicoe appointed Commander-in-Chief of British Home Fleets. .i.s- first merchant capture. 13. 17. City of Winchester. . 24. (ruebeii and Breslau arrive in Dardanelles. Mi)t)ilisation nf British Navy oumpleted. Baltic lighthouses . War declared between Great Britain and Germany. Official account of loss of Amphion issued. and Geier met and coaled Banda Sea. Scharnhorst.Vllies in heavy type. l)y Guendolen on Lake Nyasa. -Ulditional prayer for seamen issued by . 10. War declared between France aud Austria. Transport of Expeditionary Force to Contineut disclosed. J. .ome (Togolaud) seized by ('olonial forces.{. Japanese ultimatum to Germany. Armed steamer Von Wissmann .v(/<'«. dispersing.

7. ruconditiiiiial suneiider nf 'I'c liroland. Dutcli steamer (ielria leimrted stopj.atiiori destioved in Atlantic. Koln. "Wireless statioii at Kamina reiiorteil destroyed. and destruction of craft. „ . Sept. British cargo) and Coruish City captured by Karlsruhe. 25. Eetnrn hunu. New Admiralty rules for submarine mishaps and rescue work. 1. 22. Killiu and Diplomat capt\ued by Emden. . 28. military force lauded to assist in operations against Kiaochau.. y uriihcni cut cable at Fanning Island. Emden coaled from Ma rkomannia off Gulf of Martaban.'aroline Islands). 21. Highland Hope captured V)y Karlsruhe. Leipzig's first merchant capture.Q8 Aujr. Ortega's escajje from German cruiser. closed to navigation. 'Two forts at I'attaro reported destroyed. Pegasus destroyed by jro»/^. 27..?6«r(/ at Zanzibar. . Cumberland. Damaged 10. Speech by First Lord at Loudon Opera House on naval position.. Aids to navigation on East Coast removed. one with explosive machines. . 2.. capital of Cameroons. . Ki. Austrian steamer I'. s. 4. 17. T. Australian sul)mariue A E 1 lost by accident... ''.. Royal Xaval Division organised. 24. Pathfinder sunk \\il. is. . Southport captured liy Gii'r at Kusai ((. 20. Rio Iquassu captured by Karlsruhe. 14. Dwarf rammed by iVac/z^i'i/aW.. . .of Admiral :Slilne from Mediterranean announced. Liideritzbucht occupied. Friedrich Wilhelm Town (German New Guinea) occupied. liardanelles closed by 'I'urkey. Isew Zealand expedition oceui)ied Samoa. 0. F'reuch naval guns and artillery detachments landed for service on Mount Lovtchen. 27. Held suuk by E 9. Term " Grand Fleet " first used by Admiral Jellicoe. Collett's air raid on Dusseldorf. > 15ay. with naval support. Papeete liombarded by Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. THE NAVAL ANNUAL. Russian steamer I'leaborg sunk by German light cruisers in >orth Baltic. Certain Thames channels .. Return borne of Eear-Admiral E. 29. 9. Troubridge for inquiry announced.. lost oh' Portland. Clan Matheson captiu-ed by J?m(7e/i. corrected to 23rd. Bombardment of Puntailostro (Adriatic) by Allied ships. suuk in Cameroons. Action in the Heligoland Biglit. Attempt to sink Dwapf by infernal machine at Cameroons. 12.. .. Report by Mr. Trabbock captiu-ed by JF»i(/tv^ Scharnhorst and Giifixenau appeared at Apia.Millen on Australian Xavy's work in early weeks of war issued. Aerial defence of England and London assumed by Xavy. Proelamation to stop scare reports issued. Complete sweep of Xorth Sea by Grand Fleet and flotillas announced. torjiedo craft reported arrived at Kiel. . Royal Maiiiir HriKade landed at Ostend. ISIaiile r. 13.ianib captured by Karlsruhe. 11. Reported German occupation of Walfisch Bay. Tw o Jerman launches. First Lord's declaration at Liverpool.. HerbertslKihe occupied by Australian forces. Loss of three Cressys after submarine attack by V 9. 26. 3.. Skirmish between Samson's armed motor-cars and Ihlans near Doullens. 2(1.st by trrounding near Kiaocbau. Speedy sunk iiy mine. Cumberland and tenders reconnoitriug Mungo Bay. . Kronprinz Wilhehn's first merchant capture.ed by Bremen off Montevideo. Xauroh (last Pacific wireless station) captured. . iiritr^l. Liidentz Bay entered by South African Force. Bemoval of Commander Samson's aeroplane camp from Ostend to Dunkirk. after 35 days at sea. First Lord's interview with Giornale d'ltalia. 31. Lissa occupied. German auxiliary ships Jihios and Itolo sunk by French gun vessel Surprise in ( Corrisc( . Nine steamers cajituicd by Admiralty list issued of mercliant ships lost. ynnihirii arrived Honolulu to coal.Jamaica.son liner ijy r 21. ilaria (Dutch. MincS\vee])ers' Fund started. Emden shelled Madras. Ar'Kidne and torpedo „ „ 29. Bethania captured and taken to . Samoa formally taken possession of and British flapr hoisted. Spneirald and two colliers captured by Berwick.Tapanese destroyer Shirataye lo. 2S. .-.l/fd'/i. Foreign trawlers stopped using East coast ports. 15. Fisgard II. 30. Einden coaled from MiirhniKiiiiila at Simalur Island. 19. ludrani captured by Karlsruhe. Indus and Lovat. September " Navy List " (first numlter since beginning of the war) issued. liy Ituno sunk )nine. Eleonore Woermann arrived Buenos Aires with Cap Trafalgar's crew. 23. Emden's first merchant captures..t'. Oceanic lost off c<iast of Scotland. Elsinor. Stratbroy ca]itnred )iy Karhnilie. German ciiiisfr Maiiilcluini destroyed in Baltic. Indian Prince. i . Indian Exjieditionary Force landed in France. „ . Caiiitulation of Duala. „ . Cai^ Trafalgar sunk after duel with Carmania. .

Kaniasaka iiaru (Japanese) ca]itured liy Emden.erman cruisers in retreating. Good Hope. Fall of Antwerp. German steanishiii >eckar arrived Baltimore after seven weeks' wandering in the Atlantic. First Lord's message to Royal Xaval Division returned from Antweip.(aluit. Despatches for Heligoland action. Admiralty warning of mines off Irish coast. Russian Fleet off Baltchik.. 28. Russian gunboats Donets and KubanetS lost in Black Sea.. <»( t. Hurstdale captured by Karhruhe. .. . Rear-Admiral Hooil appointed " Admiral of Dover Patrol. Air raids ou Dii. Eussia rejiorted no ships lost or damaged. Cablegram received from Good Hope at Punta Arenas reporting all well ou boar(L French refugee-ship Amiial (iantcaume torpedoed without warning in English Channel. 69 oil. Nlecto De Larriuaya captured by Karlxruhe. E 3 lost off German coast. HiiiiU'ii's liaiil of six . La t'orrentina taptured by A'. S. Official announcement of Naval brigades at Antwerp. Hospital ship Ophelia captured by Meteor. it. Van Dyck captmed by Karhruhe. . Rinaldo. Brilliant. . Monmouth. Bombardment of Belgian coast begun action off iliddelkerke. G.. Giitra sunk by U 17 (first merchant ship destroyed by submarine). submarine and air work. sunk by Yarmouth near Sumatia. 8. Farn captured by Karhnihe. „ Russian mine-layer Prut sunk by Turks. Official 13. Lynrowan captured )iy Karhruhe. „ . . Canadian Contingent and escort arrived at Plymouth. . 22. WAll. IG. . Minerva shelled Akaba..steaiiieis ivporteil in iieiiililiouihiKiil of Sttainsliip upciitL-tl i. Rohilla wrecked oft Wliilby. Voyage to Knglaud of Canadian Contingent began. Venerable again in action off Belgian coast. 1. 11- 12. D 5 sunk by mine laid by <. -. Nov. Tsars message of thanks for Russian naval activity. . . account of Capmania-C«/» Trafa/ijar'duel issued.." and Rear-Admiral Duff to Fourth Battle Siiuadion. Ortega arrived at Kio. Breslau and llamldieli bombaided Theodosia and other coast towni?. British niinedayiug policy auuouiieed.. 2.' . Badger rammed German submarine. 1.-o«i>y/(i^ WUIiehn. Condor captured l>y Karlsruhe. Pallada sunk by submarine. Order exempting enemy reservists afloat from capture rescinded.NAVAL DIARY OF THK Sijit. Mersey.. Mousquet. Prince l. Pruth cajitured by Karhruhe. Japanese oc(Uj)ied . Japanese naval brigade landed al Klaoiliau. : . 17. . . Severn. .5. and Glasgow passed . Tacachiko mined. Falcon's captain killed in action oft Belgian coast. 31. (ape Coinoriu.special service. fSreiiii It tscciiteil from Cliilt-aii waters liy Alniiraute Lynch. First Lord's telegram acknowledging Japanese assistance in Pacific. I'nion captured by Karhruhe. Hawke toriiedoed by I' 9. „ 7. Certain Thames chanue's closed to traffic. 3. 18. . 1. 5. 211. Emden's capture of five more steamers. announced.sseldorf and Cologne.iO.. Emden's raid on Penang sinking of Russian cruiser Jemchug and French destroyer . and loss of Cradock with Good Hope and Monmouth. Russian otlicial report of German submarine sunk by mine in Baltic. 23. Action olf Coroiiel. and Vestal. 21). and Soiithimrt at Urisbane. Keport on naval air work issued. 29.eijiZi'. Destroyer S 116 sunk off Ems l)y E 9. Komet added to Australian Navy as Una. Austrian submarine reported sunk by VValdeck RousseauRussian mine-laying policy notified. 24. Admiral Sir Percy Scott ajipointeil foi. 2.!. . Four German destroyers smik off Dutch coast.. Glanton captured by Karhruhe. Markoinaniiid attached to Emden. published. ifauchester Connnerce mined off Tory Island.. 14.. 27.. casualties also reported between 20th and 31st from Humber. Cervantes captured by Earhiulie. between 15th and 19th. . .oui-^ of fJattenberg succeeded by Lord Fisher as First .Magellan Straits for Pacitiu. BaiiklicMs suiik by I.. Official statement instituting Distinguished Service Cross and Medal issued. Turkish squachou off Varna and Baltchik. German Si|iiadron under Prince Henry reported off Aland Islands.. Kunvjxberg located by Chatham. 30. . 19.. Attack on Japanese cruiser Chitose off Kia )ohau by German ships at Tsingtau. Dardanelles bombarded by Allied Fleet. Admiralty statement re commerce [irotection. German sailing-vessel Komet captured at Rabaul.-iptiued hy scap'aiies off Ileligulaml.. Hermes ioipc<locd in Straits of Dover. Cruiser raid on \ arinoutli attack cm Halcyon. 'Venerable in action off Belgian coast. . Geier at Honolulu for "repairs."Sea Lord. 25. Norwegian steamer Helicon stopped by Geiuian supi)ly ship Titania oft Juan Fernandez..

lo. 15. s. and Scarborough. 6.. 19. Friedrich Karl reported sunk by miue or torpedo in Baltic. „ . Austrian submarine E 12 reported to have torpedoed Jean Bart. Military force. THE NAVAL ANNUAL. . . Hamidieli damaged by mine in the BosplKuus. Carl Lody. „ .' Troubridge court-martial opened at Portland. . 13.. „ 25. Firth of Forth closed to fishing operations. „ .Tuan Fernandez for Cape Horn. S 124 sunk in collision at soutiiern entrance to Sound. 13. Aids to navigation restricted east of Selsey Bill. Buea.. Admiral Sturdee appointed afloat succeeded by Kear-Admiral H.70 Nov.» iiaitly destroyed by Chatham. Report from Glasgow of Coronel action issued.327 killed. IT 18 rammed crew rescued by Garry.Seaplane 1220 destroyed by Germans near Ostend./s6'). „ .C. Fall of Kiaochau. White Paper i. seat of German government in Canuiuous.st. Anne de Bretagne captured by Karhruhc. . 10. of B 11. iNfonitor s(|uadron resumed bombardment ott Belgian coast..lalule. Cur))ioraii interutd at Guam.i. with Berk-i-Satvet. Malachite sunk by U 21.showinu pensions and allowances to families of fighting men. Admiralty correspondence j-e Ortega published. Acquittal of Rear-Admiral Trouliridge announced. . Whitby. Bulwark's loss oiticially stated to be due to accidental ignition of ammunition. 4. and GoMath.343.. German cruiser raid on Hartlepool. 18. Primo sunk by V 21. Statement in Commons by First Lord on the naval position. of Goliath. Colchester's escape from Cieiman submarine in North Sea.. 28. Despatches of Antwerp operations issued. Libati again bombarded. and pilot and mecbauic interned. Armed merchant cruiser yavarra sunk otf Kiver Plate when chased by Orama. . Emden destroyed by Sydney. Bellevue and :M(int Agel captured by Kronprinz Wilheim. showing total of 7. First naval V.. 21. landed at Fao (Persian Gulf). 7)rfj((Zf« left I'uuta Arenas. formerly in German >'avy. Karlsruhe reported sunk off Grenada.... 17.. 0. . Letter of First Lord to Mayor of Scarborough -> naval raid. Goeben. Tiukish cruiser Eamidieh's bombardment of Tuapse.. 11. War S. 27. Admiralty list of ships found sunk at Tsingtau issued. Holbrook. Russian cruiser Askold sank German steamer at Haifa. Account of operations iu Cameroons up to December 13 issued by Cojoiual oilice. Meaxoudich toipedoed by B 11 in Dardanelles. covering troops landing. Four Turkish transports sunk by Kussiaus. Official casualty list up to date issued. King George's visit to Royal Naval Division at Crystal Palace. two airiueii Kaiser and Prince Henry removed from British " >'avy List... \*ine Branch captured li. Askold sank two 'Turkish steamers at Beyrout. 11. Tennessee s launch fired upon by Turks at Smyrna../. . Basra occupied. Order in Cciuncil re pay of Royal Naval Division. Operations at Dar-es-Salaam Commander Ritchie. Doualdsoii liner Tritonia mined otf north coast of Ireland. 15. 26. „ 20. including 4. Weymouth. earned V. . Staff. „ 21. Pilotage made compulsory at East coast estuaries mine defences extended. . King Georges visit to the Front ended. Rio Negro's reported ariival at Kiel from AVest Indies with part of Karhri'lie's crew. . Admiralty letter commending conduct of Captain Kiuneir. Militarj' area defined in >>orth tiea. . Oliver as Chief of . of the war awarded to Lieutenant N. 7. T". Niger torpedoed olf Deal. Gcier and steamer Locksun interned at Honolulu.v Leij'^i.S. Dec. of Ortega. Oceanic comls-martial begun at Devonport. 14. . Operations in Shatt-el-Arab and capture of Qurnah. F. 16. A'n/i/. Goeben damaged in action with Russian ships off Sevastopol. "War declared between Allies and (Utmnan Eni]>ire. 2:^.. D. and attempts made to block channels. 20. . occupied by marines. „ . 19. 9. Zeebrugge bombarded by British squadron. Yurck uiiuftl olf . A'ictoria. Duke of Edinburgh bombarded Sheik Seyd. . . „ . Seaplane Kiel 82 wrecked off Jutland. 12. Drendeii arrived Puuta Arenas after Falklands battle."). by Orama. . German armed merchant-cruiser JVarn)-/-a voluntarily sunk otf Brazil to avoid capture 17. Berlin interned at Trondhjem. shot at the Tower for spying. 16. Losi iif Friedrich 7u(W otficiallv announced in Petrograd. 4.C.. Bulwark destroved bv explosion. "covered liy Odin and Espiegle. Japanese torpedo-boat 33 sunk while dragging for mines in Kiaochau Bay. seaport of Buea (Cameronus) occupied by marines.. Cierman submarine reported rammed liy French destroyer in Westende Bay. „ 10. . Board of Trade table published showing state of shipping after sixteen weeks of wai-.. Air raid on Friedrichshafen and capture of Commander Briggs. .ssued . 30. 8.\dn}iral Sturdee left England with Invincible and Inflexible. German steamer Earnak interned at Antofagasta for coaling Geinian warships. . IS. made futile bombardment of Batuni. Plutou (Norwegian) and Poolestar (Dutch) mined iu North Sea. „ . Edgar class paid off and armed merchantmen substituted.. Sturdee's action otf Falklands. . 1. 12. . . Von Spee's squadron left .. Senior Ofticer for Port of London appointed.

Kaid on Ciixhaven by seven British seaplanes. '<. 1. torpedo-boat 043. . . 1. published. Hospital ship Asturias attacked by submarine (unsuccessfully) off Havre. Linda Blanche. : . Dui-ward sunk off Dutch coast by U 19. January ''Xa^'y List" shows exchange of appointments in December between ViceAdmirals Sir Cecil Buruey and Sir Lewis Bayly. American Xote on contraband presented to Great Britain. 4. Story of dummy British warships in German papers.i.. •>. former becoming second-in-command to Admii'al Jellicoe. Sir (ieuifio 1. S. . Xew Year promotions and honours gazetted.. reported arrived in England as prisoner of war. Swakopnnind occupied.stuvdce arrived at Montevidin.." Goeben reported under repair at Therapia. 24.. Porto Rico.Admiral Beatty published. Zeppelin Xo. sunk by mine in Bosphorus. Farn interned at Porto Rico. Gazelle torpedoed by sul)marine in Baltic. 10. .li. Prelinjinary telegraphic report from Vice. .M. .. TIIK WAll.. and Formidable Mink liy submarine in Channel.). Interview of Grand Atluiiial vou 'J'irpitz with Xew York . . 31. supported by siilmiarines and liffht ' cruisers."5. French submarine Curie captured at Pola and re-named Zentn. 0. Rjxiding operation at Dar-es-Salaam by Goliath and Fox reported. 2u. . Churchill published in Le Matin. formerly German. Action between Faissiau Fleet and Breslau witli Hamidleh... Reply of (ireat Britain to United States Xote on contraband. Goeben seriously damaged by mine in the Bo. Beis type.ipiinjnlcil <'(iiiiiiiamlir-iii(iik-f at 2:5. 1(3. . :U. 23. Press accounts received from South America of Falklands action. Zeppelin raid on Xorfolk. Steamers Ben Cruachan.S. Interview with Mr..Marine's visit to England. lOir. . -IX 2(). German submarine engaged in Irish Sea by Vanduara. Jan.. . Bremen reported aiTived at Wilhelmshaven.Japanese cruiser Asama reported ashore near Port Bartolome. :.. 2. reporteil safe. Loss of armed merchant vessel ViknOP. F'light-Comnianiler Hewlett. Tokomaru sunk and Icaria attacked by torpedo off Havre. Farn (captured by Karlxruhe) arrived San Juan. material.. '. ... Sailing-ships Isabel Browne.5. Interview with Count Reventlow published in Xew York Worhl and London Daihj Chronicle. First auction of prize steamers at the Baltic.. ('apt. Reported air raid on Essen. 1915. fierman air raid on Dunkirk. 27. submarine attack Oriole 'lost with all on board (21) while on a passage to Havre assumed. Dacia reported stormbound at Galveston. (iernian aeroplane reeoniioitii'il ovit slieerness. and Jacobsen sunk by Pritiz Eitel Friedi ich.. Feb. 2G. .sphorus... 7. Parly landed from Dopis at Alexaudretta. Operations on the Suez Canal Hapding'e.. Karl von Miiller..s absorbed into militaiy branch.S'"/i repiesentalivo. -'4 . annnnncing a " submarine Wockatle of luerdiaut shipping.iii . in North Sea. 2S. Bombardment of Sinope by Russian Fleet reported. . Committee formed to provide memorial to Rear-Admiral sir Christopher Cradock. '^i. . . 2. 30.. Verdict of •' Accidental Death' returned at inquest on Bulwark victims. and other vessels engaged. late of h'uuieii. G... .. F'ighting east of Kantara... 22.'all. Von Behnke's warning to neutrals and others of risks in Channel and X'orth Sea from German submarines ami warships operating against transjiort of troops and war German . Patrol boat Char sunk in Downs after collision. etc. ti. 25. British air raid on Zeebrngge. Denmark. Result of Vuirk court-martial (held December 23) announced in Oeruian Press. . . . sold in America to Mr. iu Canada. 2s. „ . German supjdy shij) (formerly a W'oermann liner) captured by Australia.. 2. torpedo-l)oat sunk by Russian submarine off Cape Moeu. . Flight-Commander Hewlett arrived in England. Admiral .. . Battle-cruiser action off Dogger Bank. I'reuch submarine Saphir reported lost in Dardanelles. Turkish transport liozeta sunk by mine in Bosphorus. Lower California. French official denial of reported submarine attack on Courbet. Despat'lies of Sydney and KimUn action. Austrian battleship Viribim L'nilii reported damaged by French torpedo. air raid on Friedrichsliafen.. 1.. to clalc Ailiiiiial January . Breitung. . En^'iiieer ottiecr.. Malaya will play her part in the decisive phases of the naval war. American sailing-ship William P. (. Kevised regulations le pensions.NAVAL DIARY OF l»co. Turkish guiiljoat. Steamship Dacia. . 19 destroyed at Libau. 19. 21. Pierre Loti.. Bombardment of Batiun by Ihedan... Letter of First Lord published informing the Times of Malaya that "H. . . Speeches on the naval position in House of Lords by Lords Crewe and Selborne. and Kilcorn sunk by I' 21 in Irish Sei. 12. and sinking of RlUcher. 14. . „ . damaged by mine. Canadian Militia Department announced building of eight submarines Cohiijue Oazi'ttc supported German submarine blockade i^lau. llic 71 Ndic. missing after t'uxhaven raid.. Frye sunk by Prim Kitel Friedrlch in Atlantic. to widows and children published in Loudon Gazette. Conclusion of French ^linister of . . so. Turkish transport mined between Siuope and Trebizond. 27. Goebeii reported damaged by mines. Rear-Admiral Bacon gazetted colonel-second-comnuindant in Royal Marines.

.3. announcing stopping of all supplies to and exports from Germany. Decision announced to segregate submarine prisoners and refuse them honours of war. Russiau naval attack on outside forts and batteries of Bosphorus.. Thordis examined at Plymouth and injuries to keel and propeller revealed. . German submarine rammed by steaiiishi]i Tlionlis off Beachy Head. Air raid by 48 machines in Bruges-dstend-Zeebrugge district. Loss of armed merchant cruiser Clan McNaughton oftieially announced.sgcs suuk by guu-ttre in Channel after plucky resistance to German submarine. American ship Evelyn mined off Borkum.. House of Commons. l)y U 36 and taken to Zeebrugge. . U 29 reported sunk with all hands.').S. British steamers Cambank and Third day of ''blockade. ileniel caiitureil liy Kusslan troops. on blockade (juestion published of " blockade. . German protest to America re treatment of submarine prisoners.. . . 22. .v Dicstau. .. Amethyst damaged .A. 1. . interrupting operations and aerial reconnaissance. Yeoward liner Aguila torpedoed and sunk off' Pembroke nine lives lost. who reached Dover in destroyer Teviot. 20. yew York . Augagneur with Paris correspomleut of United Press of America. .. . 12.. 12. Vice-Admiral Carden. Full text of <!ei'iiiaii " blockade " iiotiie riceivi.N..72 Feb... Three Tyne trawlers sunk by U 10. 9. Air raiil by 34 iiiacbines ou siibniariiie bases in Bruses-O-stentl-Zeebrugge district.. „ ... Full text of Biitish reply to U.0. neutral flag published by the Foreign Office. Askold 4. ami rauk of Lienteuaiit K. American steamer Caril> sunk by mine in North Sea. Air raid on submarines building at HolHikei). Dresden caught by Glasgow. Dutch steamer Medea stopped otf Beachy Head by U 2S and sunk after removal of crew. . 31. and rank of Lieutenant E. Russian official review of Baltic naval operations. Falaba toipedoed in St. German bombardment World's interview with Lieutenant-Connnauder Hansen. Presence of Royal Naval Division at Dardanelles otticially disclosed. and Orama near . .. 21.. Admiralty statement Issued re 'Vanduara's engagement with German submarine on .><. off Dieppe Text of German reply to U. Seizure of Dacia proclaimed valid by French Prize Court.ship and takiu tn I'. George's Channel by U 28 under Commander Schmidt 112 lives . 20.. German submarine rannned by French light ciuiser. Zeppelin L S wrecked at Tirlemont.. . with his Hag in Euryalus. Loss of armed merchant cruiser Bayano officially announced. 28. . rammed and sunk off Dover . and Zaandstroom seized 19.. 14. and a destroyer suuk.'>... . Steam. 10.Juan Fernandez Island and destroyed crew saved. 17. Interview of M. 2.- Downshire sunk in ... . . 28. with acting rank of vice-admiral. 15. in action at Dardanelles." Irish Sea. granted to Captain Bell. February . awarded to Captain Propert. crew made prisoners.. Text of two Notes to the United States dealing with the W'ilhe'mina and use of the . . Spring meeting of Institutinuof Naval Architects held Adiuh'al Lord Bristol suggested arming of niercbantnien against submarine attack.... Jleniel evacuated liy Russian troops.ie-t. 30.S. .. 26. A])ril Further air raids on Hoboken and Zeebrugge. 27..C.osphoriis. ilar. . 27. .. Zeppelin wrecked on Danish. .. Supplement to Limdna Gazette issued with Falklands and Dogger Bank despatches. 17. Prim Eitel Fiiediich arrived at Newport News. Blockade of German East Africa annonnieil ill Ijuuhin Gazette. .ship Vo. „ . Tiirkisb ^'uiilioat suuk by a mine in F. 24. of of Libau.A. German liner Macedonia escaped from Las Palnias. Lord Emniott appointed to represent the Xa\'j' in House of Lords. German steamer Holger arrived Buenos Aires with ci-ews of five victims of Kronprinz Wil/ielm and was interned. Attemjit of German liner Gdenwald to escape from San . . D. 23. 14.. of Tliordis. 13. 16. of Laertes. D. 16. joined Allied Fleet at the Dardanelles. Bomljardment of coast and coast villages by seven German battleships and 28 torpedoboats..R. (>.island of Faroe crew interned. General attack at Dardanelles on forts in Narrows by Allied Fleet Irresistible. Terms of British reply to German "blockade' i)ublished. First day of the submarine '• blockade.'' French steamer Dinorah damaged by torpedo no British victims. 8 U .X. 18. U 16. Chnrebill on the X. 1. . ." Norwegian steamer Belridge damaged by torpedo off FolkeSecond day stone no British victims. . Dacia seized by French war.. 19. Admiralty statement on sinking of Earlsrulie in West Indies in November. signed bv Captain Boy-Ed.K. 15. Escape of Laertes from Genuau siilmiariiic otf Maas liglitshij). German naval bombardment of Libau. Antwerp. 24.il liy wireless.. Folkestone-Boulogne passenger-boat attacked by German submarine (unsuccessfully). . . U 12 rammed and suuk off Firth of Foi tli by Ariel ten of the crew saved.. German account of Dresden's sinking otticially circulated by wireless.S. B(iml)ai(lim'iit (if \aUa li. Ocean. 22. Speccli liy Mv. Dutch sieaiiieis Batavier V. . THE NAVAL ANNUAL. 2. on contraband question issued. . some wounded. Bombardment of Smyrna by squadron under Admiral Peisse. incapacitated by illness. . succeeded in command of Allied Fleet at Dardanelles by Rear-Admiral de Kobeck. . 3.Juan de Porto Rico. IS. Reply of Sir Edward Grey re treatment of submarine prisoners. Unfavourable weather at Dardanelles. Kent. Second visit of King George to the Fleet (at Harwich). Bouvet. 8 10. .. : lost.avy Estimates.

Launch cif Fieuch balthship Languedoc at Bordeaux. Krye. . H. revealed by tlie First Lord. Airship raid in Essex bombs on Maldon and other places. . 17. Outpost fighting ott' Dutch coast. Landing of troops at the Dardanelles liegun.Naval diary of the war. 15.. " Note from Berlin " re Falaba disaster issued liy Berustorlf in America. . IS. S. . 7. Kussian l>ar(|ue Hermes and Britisli steamer Olivine sunk liy I' . Flotilla leader I'. 3. Harrison liner Wayfarer torpedoed ofT Scilly Islands. . . . Norwegian steamer .. Treatment of German submarine prisoners described by Dutch warship Heemskerk ordered home from Curagoa. . Trawler Vanilla toi-pedoed while fishing crew prevented from bein^ rescued by trawler Fermo Admiralty announced that careful lecord was beiiiii kept of such murders. Note to Germany suggesting payment of t45.. 19. French armoured cruiser Leon Gambetta torpedoed and sunk by Austrian submarine U 5 in Otranto Straits. King's telegram of congratulation to Admiral de Robeck and General Hamilton. 25.\ two killed. White Paper issued on laboui.. 23. U.. Rear-Admiral R. escaped from Smyrna &1 soldiers drowned. ti> lini^es liy rail „ .. ilacnamara. Tug 10. Admiralty congratulations on conduct of Dominion troojis at Dardanelles. r.. Louis near El Arish and Gaza. German claim . 8.America torpedoed otf Tonsberg. Airship raid in Suffolk bombs on Ipswich and Bury St. 22. Steamer Elfriede. of British submarine simk off Heligoland (u neon firmed). Internment of I'rinz Eitcl Friedrich at Newjjort News. 73 on their way tu North Twii suhiiiaiiiifs fimii Aiilwuii) icpi^rtcd scut Sua. Dr.A. 11..S. . Leith trawler Cruiser shelled and stuik liy submarine four killed. iuside Tchataldja lines four steamers and several sailing vessels sunk by RiLssian destroyers off Anatolian coast fire . R. . German report of High Sea Fleet's advance into English waters.Egean by Turkish torpedo-boat Dhair Hissar. : . . with interest. 29..'j. Traffic between Britain and Holland resumed after nine <lays' susjiension.. Anglo-Chilean correspondence re sinking of Dresden pulilished. Macedonia otticially reported captured by a British cruiser. April 2. British blockade of the coast of the Cameroons declared. .. lo. Japanese warships near American coast officially stated to have lieeu ordered home.C>lC. Kronprinz H'fV/ic^j/i arrived Newport News. . 4.tion of Ocrniaiiy. of Thordis. . 20. . despatch of Itear-Adniiral Hood on Belgian coast operations issued. 14.A. 2. 24. .. Russian destroyers in Black Sea Bombarded Turkish positions at Arkhave. Seven Hull trawlers sunk by C 14 three olliei' trawlers siaik three Norwegian and <me Swedish steamers sunk Jlinterne torpcilocd olf Scill. 4. Turkish troops bomliarded by French battleship St.\bbreviated cjuarterly "Navy List" issued.. . Presentation at Mansion House to Captain Bell. Turkish cruiser Medjkiivh destroyed by mine near Otulialcov. under Commander Eric Robinson.N.'il iu English C'hanuel.. Swedish steamer Folke torpedoed twenty miles off Peterhead. Dunkirk l)i>ml)arded l)y long-range naval gun near Nieuport. .. Kronprinz Wilhelm interned at Newport News. German warships reported off Belgian coast. Ilonier attempted to lam (ierniaii suliinarine off Isle of Wight. . Four Turkish steamers sunk by Russian destroyers off Anatolian coast. .. Reported night battle olf the t'oast of Norway. ... Note to (Jreat llritaiii regarchiiy eoiistrii. 6. England. Air attack by naval machines on position of German gim bombarding Dimkirk. 28. .. . . 3.. „ . (ireek steamship Hellisijontos torpedoed without warning olf North Hinder. Correspondence re seizure of Plakat at Tsingtau issued by Foreign Office.. American oil tank . . trawler Columbia and destroyer Recruit sunk by submarine German torpedo boat rammed by Carditt' trawler Mauri two German torpedo boats sunk by British destroyer division. Belgian relief steamer Ilarpulyce torpedoed ott Scilly Islands. 27. Trial of hospital ship Oplitiin liegun in London Prize Court. May 1. . Bacon's appointment to " imiiortant naval post on soutli coast of ." involving the hoisting of his Hag. Renewed Russian liombardment of outer Bosjdiorus forts. . American steamer Cushing attacked by German air bondjs Ijetween North Foreland and . as reparation for sinking of William P.S. 30. captured by Encounter. Submarine E I'l wrecked in Dardanelles and crew captured. 10. Airship raid in Newcastle district. 12. I>utch steamer Katwyck sunk off Dutch coast without warning. Passenger and mail traffic between Britain and Holland suspended. Edmunds. last German trader in Pacific. British transport Mauitou attacked in . . German expression of regret to Holland for sinking of J^atwyk..steamer Gulflight torpedoed off Scilly Isles capta'n killed and two . exchanged with Zunguldak batteries. Admiralty restrictions for yachting and pleasure cruising issued. . Russian collier Svoiono torpedoed off Kerry coast by U 23. .ssued. Bomtiardmeiit by Russian Fleet of Kara Burun.iu private shipyards and arsenals. Submarine E 15 destroyed liy picket boats of Triumph and Majestic. Miscellaneous (lesiiatclies and awards imlilishcd in Lomhiii Gazette. men drowned. . .otlia officially reported commissioned for service. Flushing.. American official report on treatment of (ierman sulnuariiie prisoners i.

The battleships Kaiser and Konig Albert. the Kaiser When the shadows of impending war were disclosed. and the ships The completion of the work on the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal was undoubtedly of immense advantage to the German Navy. There Not " for a scrap of paper " was it thought The customary spring that England would draw the sword. visit of a British enjoyments of the on the Norwegian coast and visited some being present in the Hohenzollern. was based on the peace organisation which had existed . though it was obvious that the distribution of the cruiser divisions and individual ships throughout the world. The outbreak hostilities of the AVar appears to surprise. except in the case of the Mediterranean. was inaugurated on June Ijeen miscalculation. to whicli he may have referred. concluding early in June. which Germany had reserved. at a later date. Afterwards a portion of the German Fleet cruised of the ports. and the power of transferring naval forces from sea to sea has been of great service to the Germans in the War. said. that event coinciding with the squadron. the Kaiser promptly returned. in an interview. widened and deepened. But the German cruisers were not distributed on fine performance.74 CHAPTEli The Enemy III. The Fleet then proceeded to Kiel. and were laid up to save them from capture. and the regatta week. the exchange of courtesies. far have taken the German Xavy in preparations for some degree by had At least. proved of the advantage she expected. its possible were not so advanced as those of the Army. — were scattered and useless Vaterland and some — and the big potential auxiliary cruiser others of the Hamburg-Amerika and Nordis deutscher Lloyd lines were abroad in American ports. war stations for operations against British commerce many of them followed to their ports. that the scattered state of the German cruisers was proof that no preparation for war had been made. . jSTavies. Grand Admiral von Tirpitz. 23rd and 24th. and was present when the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. had been making a cruise to West African and South American coasts but they had returned in May for the inauguration of the canal and the Their steaming had been a very edification of the foreign visitors. There no evidence to show that the right of converting merchantmen into cruisers on the high seas. manoeuvres had taken place in May. with the light cruiser Strassburg.

and at the outbreak of war the battleaud the light cruiser Breslau felt to roebeii were in the Mediter- ranean. this might also have been infant the fate of the Xavy shortly after birth. (4) If we allowed nothing . he remarked. (2) If . irremediable breach between us and England feelings as. reputation or our dignity." said Prince was not Biilow. The of the strategical ideas German Navy. a nation that is make an why I have to always repelled any impertinent attack which was likely to hurt our from whatever quarter it came. but resisted all temptations to interfere in the Boer War. as that would have dealt English self-esteem a wound that would not heal (5) If we kept . culminating in the provision of a powerful Fleet. industrial importance. This has always been the view of the authorities. "when I undertook the affairs of the Foreign Office." said tha^t the German Xavy was of protecting vast to Germany's spoken word. calm and set and neither injured England nor ran after her. This was undoubtedly be a serious danger for the CJermans. Indeed. depended on the new arm. beyond that. as witness oiir destruction of the in 1807. so caused. Ottoman Xavy well known. as expressed which underlay the creation and organisation by those responsible for both. prePrince Billow. . sent a subject of very curious interest. indulge in undue and unlimited shipbuilding and armaments. lor mau}. Danish Fleet overrated in Berlin. he said.years. by German argued that Germany's foreign policy and uses of the Fleet expressed of her position as a Continental Prince Biilow foreign relations. and (2) of giving the requisite weight object (1) Germany. that development. 75 made from cruiser ( tlie The P)alkan Wars Iiad caused a detacliinent to be High Sea Meet. were a necessary consec^uence Power of first-rate commercial and The defence of these vast interests. But "Ever the risk of an open conflict since the day. That they fled to the is Dardanelles and were trans- ferred to the Though they thereby were instrumental in bringing Turkey into the quarrel.GKRMAN FLEET STRATEGY." The commercial interests to which Prince Biilow referred were forth with some comments in a chapter of the semi-official cool. and without it German commerce might be snuffed out by Britain at any moment of her own choosing. and did not overheat our marine boiler (3) If we allowed no Power to injure our to the attacking party. created with the double commercial interests of world-wide character and growing volume. does not appear to have l)oen any part of a prearranged plan of war. and have been lost to the Fleet. in his " Imperial priuce Billow's ideas. I : have been convinced that such a conflict would never come to pass (1) If we built a fleet which could not be attacked without very grave risk we did not. because the cruisers could not return home.

in time of peace. which would be imperilled in war. the Spanish. which they could close to German trade. and declared that the Fleet. in a measure. lu 1913 the proportion of sea trade and land trade in imports and exports was as follows :— Sea. two-thirds are carried over sea " " ? Nauticus " continued with a statement of what "' it considered to be the perils that menaced Germany. Holland. and any day might " What. then.American. but no Power was regarded with such aversion {Ahneigvng) by England as Germany. such wars. It was to be feared that the United States." trade. dependent on foreign food. The Boer War. would happen to our foreign reveal a new problem. France and England had made naval wars out of commercial envy but this had come to an end when England. frugality. was a vital necessity. 25 per cent. 40 of " „ The conchisioD of Nauticus " was that German prosperity ments cus. the China-Japan." She had come to regard this ? . Imports Exports Argu- 75 per cent. . and thus the expansion of German FxjjortOther States were increasing their trade. monopoly as her right. How long would Spain. far from being a " luxury " or " sport for the Germans. through the opening of came oversea.76 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. the inconvenient growth of " as a Not only was England. ^vil]l iiiiuiy facts and tigures. and were conducted over seas. England and France were increasing their foreign possessions. in the Napoleonic Wars. invperialismus excited her opposition. fleets and colonies. Germany was successful rather because of her industry. " Nauticus thinks Germany was brought close to a decision. might supplant a part German commerce in Central and South America and England would not hesitate to allow her colonies more or less to check German competition. according to " Nauticus." " Nauti- depended in very large measure upon foreign trade. destroyed all other naval Powers. One-thirxl of the national requirements in animal products and the products of the earth came from abroad. and a relative proportion of the people were." Germany's foreign fleet was the Achilles heel of German Empire. volume of " Nauticus " for 1014. " We live in an age of rrrowimi commerce and colonial wars. the of . and the Tripoli Wars were all " In 1911. Panama Canal and their policy in Mexico. and secured " commercial monopoly for herself." confronted with German commerce but with the evolution consequence of the increase of the of the powerful (Jerman people. of which. this last and ability than of her national resources. Possible causes of hostility. Land. Although better relations had arisen German Fleet. two-thirds of which largely for food The weakness of the country was that it depended and raw material upon sea-borne supplies.

for the One object was to create a chain of coaling stations Fleet. however. This point was not clearly recognised by the Fieichstag in the old days before the 1900. . Admiral von Tirpitz consented. We need only ask the Germans who live abroad. to these questions. should be excluded. In every official German statement which has lieen made concerning the objects of naval expansion the German colonies have occupied a prominent place. The N"avy having been created to increase the prestige and secure the objects of a Weltrcicli. : 77 " Uiis<:re well-known sayings and " Bitter not tut uns eine atarke Zuliinft It Mas remarkable to read these plain statements dcutsclw Flotfe. he was to "ride in with the mailed fist" — is well remembered. (except the small of . but said that in due time he would ask for them again and he was as good as his word. it has been due to circumstances which I need not discuss more closely." two countries. published a short time before the outbreak of war. It is not only an economic and political necessity for us to bestir ourselves in the foreign service. Admiral von speaking on the second reading of the German Navy Estimates. and more recently telegraphic cables and wireless stations have linked up the foreign possessions with the home-land. We needed a concentration in home waters corresponding to the circumstances. We must." set forth officially. expressed his mind on this subject: Tirpitz. The Emperor has always held very strong views on the subject. a world-wide distribution was necessary. he said. has always been a subject of much controversy. showing poti-ntial causes of hostility Ijetvveen the quoted the Kaiser's liajf anf dcm Wafiser. and w'as provided for. which had also been refused) in the The armoured cruisers were changed into battle-cruisers now definitely intended to though originally proposed for foreign service. and under his impulsion a great deal was done to extend the influence of Germany throughout the world. the Eeichstag made it few cruisers struck When the Law of 1900 was ina condition that certain armoured to find a and other cruisers. 1914.GERMAN FOREIGN Finally. be more active with our Navy abroad. for they appeared . and it Kavy Law of was no uncommon thing out of the annual programmes. form part of the High Sea and the foreign fleet had yet to be created. and the remarkable speech which the Emperor made on the occasion of the departure of Prince Henry — telling him that if anyone interfered with Germany's good right. A great Navy must be in constant touch with the ocean and with ocean conditions. Especial importance was attached to the Ear East. troduced. If in recent years we have not achieved this in the measure we could have desired. that the political and economic advantage of the appearance of our ships abroad is in many cases not fully appreciated. intended for foreign service. They will confirm the fact to the full. cruisers amendment they were Fleet. it FLEET. distribution of the The German Fleet. The point is that the number of our ships abroad {Aualandsflotte) contemplated by the Navy Law has not yet been reached. which is intimately related Foreign discussion and cruisers. but it is also a military necessity. February 20. but. 1906. There is no doubt whatever.

sixty years ago. to extend her possessions and influence. as stated by Admiral von Tirpitz. and the squadron in the Far East was the sign of Germany's prestige and power. in the presence had no force. behind her demands ? In the light of the events of the present war. Objects The strategy which underlies. which has seen all the of China. No German officer possessing any authority has ever expressed himself on the question. fleet (Ausfallsflottc). maintenance of a local defence Fleet. From that time onward it is possible to trace the growth of ideas. In the days of Prince Adalbert. even with their limited means. she German cruisers on foreign service destroyed or interned. and the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were sent out to Kiao-chau. if. which was which should do what damage it could and then return. there for the were no plans except commerce. or has underlain. depending for any success on striking sudden and unconnected blows. German Nav3^ and use of the German Fleet is of such absorbing interest in view of the events of the War that no excuse is required for dwelling upon it. implying Germany's object to hold her place in the world. nor show of force. and the destruction of the squadron and loss of the possession were the inevitable consequence of Germany being engaged in war with the great Sea Power. This plan was superseded by larger schemes There was the scheme of a sallying expressed in the preamble of the Law of 1888 —a fleet . and the Germans themselves have never had a clear conception of the strategy by which their objects were to be organisation attained. it was asked. The actual service upon which the Fleet would be employed has always been obscure. The existing for distant armoured cruisers were meanwhile deemed suitable employment. in that part of the world. The fleet would still be a second-class fleet. originating chiefly from the colonial expansion which began in the latter years of the Chancellor- ship of Bismarck.78 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. except in the broadest sense. it might seem that the armoured cruisers. would have been of greater service at home. the character. The squadron based on that place was the most important of all Germany's naval forces on foreign stations. and to protect her commerce and industries. But naval forces have a function in peace as well as in war. with certain vague conceptions of the need of defending ocean-borne The schemes did not go beyond the creation of a secondthough in the seventies of the last century there became evident a certain desire to do more. class fleet. at least. AVhat would be the situation of Germany. and attached to it were several river gunboats for the Yang-tse. It is indeed difficult to see how the Germans could have done otherwise than station a considerable force.

they The Baltic has always been a great preoccupation for them. 79 and was thought no longer to exert any German strategy. did not hesitate to take action.l^^'j Germany. is strengthened. This new point of view has been attributed correctly to Grand Admiral von Tirpitz. But the War has Admiral Hipper's al)ortive shown that this was not the case. inferior cannot expect to be victorious over the it There has been. fleet. a serious complicamilitar}'. which was announced in the preamble of the Law of 1900. a weaker The defensive line of strategy appears to have been imposed upon -'^j^. and chiefly from the former. and his later shelling of Scarborough. as in the fronts. that in fleet naval strategy only superiority can recognised. Fleet would not be so foolish as to engage the British Fleet at a disadvantage. The superior.LINES OF in GERMAN STRATEGY. But." were entirely in conformity with tlie idea of the " sallying The next idea. The inability of the Navy to take action has driven Germany to strange courses. The strategy of attrition was conceived as offering some prospect of giving the advantage sought. of course. and Hartlepool with his squadron of battle and armoured subsequent years. and the plan of the sallying fleet has been brought into defensive have had to fight on two prominence again. instead of being weakened or endangered. and even on passenger vessels. was that of the " principle of risk. and the submarine attack on commerce. are all proofs that Germany has been driven back on in an interview. The greatest naval Power. and the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal could not enable a fleet to be in two places at once. tion for the is. From these conditions. and upcjn the resulting conceptions of strategy the modern German Navy has been created and organised. influence on the conceptions of cruisers. being challenged. attempt to boml)ard Yarmouth. Whitby. in practice. This difficulty has grown within recent years owing to the rise and pronounced regeneration of the Russian Navy. In the naval sphere. and the raids of aeroplanes and airships. The submarine campaign was instituted mainly to take part in attempts to advance the same end. but it has completely failed. The truth win. must be Germans. and her position. This may be said without attempting to forecast Fleet. we to are confronted with the fact that nothing which was expected happen has happened. stated that the the future action of the German German ." and Msikogcdanken that is notions of creating such a fleet that the greatest naval Power would not venture to cross swords with Germany because her own position would be imperilled had a really wonderful effect in — — bringing about German naval expansion. ^^^^*" Grand Admiral von Tirpitz.

and prevented from any offensive movements. one great object has been to add to the strength of the sea-going and that not only have the old coast-defence ships gone. and. built with a view to offensive operations. by the combination of the fleet with the coast fortifications. Stages of hand with the increase of the personnel. These are the lines that our preparation for war must follow. nevertheless expresses ideas in his notorious the policy which Germany and the Next War. now be useful to set forth briefly the recent steps by which German Fleet has been expanded." which correspond closely to Germany has adopted and the successes she has hoped to attain. Strong coast fortresses as a base for our fleet. and the augmentation of all kinds of in A tabular statement will best show the stages of expansion.80 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. the air-fleet. and to say something about its As everyone knows. Bernhardi General von Bernhardi. A German army on the seacoast wonld be powerless to act. He betrays He says : the soldier's faith in the value of coast We must not forget that it will not be possible for us for many years to attack on the open sea the far superior English fleet. We may only hope. and the commercial war. came into existence through the operation of a series of Navy Laws or amendments to Navy Laws. organisation. It will the classes went on hand developments in resources. For this purpose permanent works are necessary which will command the navigation and allow mines to be . Fleet. our fleet could be closely blockaded by the enemy. It has been hoped by some means to divide the British Grand and not improbably the desperate attempts which have been made to reach Calais liave been inspired by this idea. The enemy must be wearied out and exhausted by the enforcement of a blockade. bring up big but it may have been conceived guns of long range. It will be observed that the fleet. though he disavows any book. as they have been defined by law. is the recognised and necessary preliminary for this class of war. Without such a trustworthy coast fortress. to defend ourselves successfully against this our strongest opponent. '•' otticial inspira- tion or naval knowledge. the modern German Navy material character. and on which the waves of the hostile superiority can break harmlessly. and thus gradually we shall be able to challenge him to a pitched battle on the high seas. the origiual couception of her Fleet as an inferior and second-class fleet. thus to do some damage. placed. under the protection of these expedients. and by fighting against all the expedients which we shall employ for the defence of our coast our fleet. and tlie amendments to Expansion in the number of ships and vessels of all the latter. IMiues alone cannot close the navigation so effectively that the enemy cannot break through. perhaps. Sea command would be necessary possible to for its operations. will continually inflict partial losses on him. but that the . from which it can easily and at any moment take the offensive. fortifications. nor can they keep it open in such a way that we should be able to adopt the offensive under all circumstances. The two great instruments have been the Laws of 1898 and 1900. so far Naval ex- pansion. to disturb the strategic distribution of the Fleet.

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twelve being built each year. but known. laid another being intended to be laid down at the Howaldt Yard. and twenty large its cruisers. such as the Yorck. but that '• when armoured began to take cruisers ceased to be built. . such as the A^on der Tann. down in 1916. In order to bring about this arrangement. of the class to be built. Large Small Foreign Service Cruisers Large Small Material Reserve Battleships : Large Cruisers Small Cruisers . Karls- ruhe and Konigsberg were typical of their objects in the latter sphere. carrying the biggest gun. and in effect the Law. Gneisenau. and a beginning was to be made in the creation of a fifth squadron. and six were to ^ rr<^^ .. and and Bliicher. place. of course. three additional battleships were required. known as T. but also super-Dreadnoughts.. There were to be forty-one battleships these. three of them in full commission.. 81 material reserve ^vas. The establishment of destroyers was 14-4.. last completed of the class. including many pre- Dreadnoughts. and the Seydlitz. 2 1 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 Nil Nil Nil It cruisers. and The small or vessels with the light cruisers were intended partly to act as scouting Eed Sea mainly for foreign service the attack upon commerce. The operations of tlie Dresden. one being provided in 1913. as a measure uf expediency. Fleet Flagships Battleships Coast-Defeuce Ships Battle Fleet Cruisers . in in \*fil». ^ to be The submarines were seventy-two in number. Kiel. and seven destroyer flotillas had been placed commission.." they must be observed that when the Germans spoke of " large meant armoured cruisers. and a third at some is undetermined Of the two last-named nothing Fleet. by system of obsolescence.GERMAN NAVY LAWS. proposed to give Germany at any time sixty- one of the most powerful ships which could be brought into existence by a regular system of building from year to year. Before the War the High Sea Fleet consisted of four battle squadrons. which was date. absorbed iu the active formations. Dreadnoughts " their the term " large first cruisers " implied battle-cruisers...

The numerical denomination of submarines actually known goes up to about forty." The Germans began late in building vessels of this class. Antwerp. is surrounded with a cradle which pivots round its trunnions in the brackets of the gun support. a man at the breech. Under water the weapon calibre. which is said not to be watertight. was set at work. officer. gun has the base of its mounting fixed in mounted before being ready This necessarily occupies is much longer time. an establishment for by British airmen. for.'> Uvcnty-l'our submarines were kejjt in commission. It is fitted with the recoil cylinder and runniug-out springs. and submarines were built which displace from 800 to 1000 or 1200 tons. and at a large proportion of nickel to prevent in the corrosion. but rapid progress has been made. under a flag the Norddeutsrlicr AUgemeinc Zeitnng remarked. Great attention submarines. The Krupps lit to submarines guns of 2'95-in. trained laterally. editor of The for Mulor Shiji and Motor Boat. the gun with its mounting is brought up into the vertical position by the The gun body action of a spring and held there with spring catches. or the cover be closed so rapidly as this figure would indicate. service. is concealed in a deck compartment. " this department of the Navy did its work without desiring publicity. apart from one . propulsion on the surface of Gernltn submarines. Chalkley. When the cover of the compartment is opened and a bolt withdrawn. before the In thi' marines in existence. A larger the hull. near building submarines. the Germans had twenty-eight subwas heard of this branch of the German Submarines. A. and a range of 4000 miles. and there is reason to believe that some of the earlier numbers have been given to modern substitutes. and vessels of increasing power have been sent to sea. Three men serve the gun : and a man who loads. though questionable whether fire can be opened the gunner within less than a minute or two. and has to be brought up and for action. and 1'456-in. have a surface speed of 18 knots. but a number of these were of the earlier types. How far these vessels have cruised in the recent months of the War is well known. Submarines were put in hand in considerable numbers. some notes on the subject. in cacli year. which was raided over. The gun can be raised in 20 seconds and returned it is same time. and I directed to the propulsion and range of German For the am indebted to Mr. the steel containing Hoboken. as Little War. The first-named weighs 1895 lb.ll. which was located with headquarters at Kiel. spring of 1914. several which were building in Germany for foreign Powers were taken Their guns.82 l)c ])nilt THE NAA^AL ANNUAL. probably with much special material sent from Germany. The gun can be elevated to different angles and in charge. if not more. The work has gone on with great rapidity. P. In l'. Their engines.

and the type of motor which has been most commonly employed in the latest submarines is one developing 900 b. main piston scavenging pump. the two-cycle type being manufactured at the former works and the four-cycle at the latter. usually about 16 knots with the engines w^orking at full Latterly. The heat of the compressed air. but the length 950 b. and the speed attained by the boat is power. There are practically only two firms in Germany making engines for submarines. 810 mm. In each cylinder head are five valves.GERMAN SUBMARINES. astern the various valves being set in their correct position for running by turning the camshaft through an angle relative to the crankshaft. of the scavenging air and three scavenging air valves for the admission which clears out the exhaust gases from the cylinder and leaves it filled with pure air for the compression stroke. and the fuel is only injected (by means of a blast of highly compressed air) when the maximum compression pressure is almost attained. these being Krupps.p. when turning at The motor develops 900 450 r.. these being the fuel inlet valve. bore with a stroke of 340 mm. Standard machines are built by the two firms. at about 400 to 450 r. or 83 two (. A.N.p. the principle upon whieli employed.m. cause very efficient combustion of the oil. With each submarine two motors of this size are installed. so that the motor chambers and also for starting All the cylinders are is somewhat long. the to l)eing stepped so as to form the piston of the This arrangement naturally makes a somewhat is higher engine. As is these machines operate dilters from that of the petrol or paraflin motor.p. is compressed on the compression stroke. (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Niirnberg). and the cylinders are reduced. with a scavenging pump at each end and two air compressors in the centre for the supply of air for injecting the fuel into the combustion up the engines.h. Diesel engines are exclusively known. the starting air valve. in that pure air is drawn into the cylinder on the suction stroke. In the case by Krupps. but the results of these in operation are unknown.m. six-cylinder machines are adopted. The Nuremburg engine is an eight-cylinder machine. and the atomised state in which the fuel is injected. All the motors are directly reversible by means of compressed air.p. or else of the motors built moving the camshaft longitudinally.p.h. but in this case the two air compressors are at the end. who build motors both at Nuremburg and Augsburg. some motors of about '1250 b. who construct them at Kiel. carried on the same bedplate. and there is a separate scavenging pump for each w^orking cylinder arranged beneath it. however. and the M.r the very earliest craft.h. and permit of heavy and probably well cheap fuels being employed. have been constructed. G 2 .

The 20 to on the whole. and the camshaft cylinder somewhere is arranged well over the top of the ]\langanese near the centre. which is not usual in ordinary motors. a very strain had been imposed upon the system and organization. of course. before the War. the body of the piston at a pressure at about 30 to 40 inch. and now we turn to the Undoubtedly. are constructed with six or eight the crankshaft. compressed air being employed for the purpose as in the other cases. of oil per hour for the whole submarine when travelling at full speed. since it is possible to carry sufficient fuel for a range of about 3000 miles without any incursion into the storage or other spaces in the submarine.h. The man is German Navy. result is.N. owing chiefly to the high speed For instance. the oil being pumped through the hollow connecting rod to lb. very successful. to make most strenuous efforts to complete numbers and train the men. bronze is used largely in the construction of the engines. the valves of rotation and the small available space. chiefly in order to reduce the weight whilst maintaining sufficient rigidity and strength. or trained reserve. or rather less than 900 lb. and of these only one half are from the seafaring or semi-seafaring The expansion of the Fleet made it extremely important population. that of maintaining the pistons sufficiently it and with the machines in question is usual to employ oil cooling. have been now in . and men cannot be trained in a day. This low fuel consumption accounts for the high range of action of modern submarines. About seventy per cent. of the latter come into the Navy every year. per square The four-cycle Diesel motors built for German submarines at the Augsburg works of the M. great Officers require years to train. Ill both these types of iiiachiues many modifications are made from ordinary Diesel engine practice. "What ships are own Navy. The Augsburg machine has a slight advantage over the others in fuel consumption which is something under half a pound of oil per b.p. since the engines only weigh 22 tons complete. type of engine is also directly reversible. which were in a higher reduced scale than in our in order to provide for other ships. No doubt the laying up of mercantile ships in the harbours of Germany has placed large numbers of men and some officers. many of them 'belonging to the Seeivehr. 23ersonnel of the more than the machine.A. since the motors operate on the four-cycle principle. hour. are inclined to the cylinder head. unnecessary in This this case. at the disposal of the authorities. working cylinders and two vertical air compressors driven direct off" Scavenging air pumps are. One of the main difficulties encountered in is the design of the motors cool. and probably the complements of some of the ships.84 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

who are drawn from a liigher stratum of life. the officers privileged position as regards the reigning princes society." "occupy a particularly and the State and efficiently They are undoubtedly a particularly trained corps and possess very high professional and scientific attainments. a high social standard not l)eing clr. There officers. and their complements had been used to provide for the new ships of the Fleet.ss required for them. near Flensburg.GERMAN OFFICERS AND MEN. who come from Seeu-ehr. and they are. probably. indeed. Indeed. The many of them. but before the War some of the older had gone out of commission. promoted all warrant-officers. and it is probable that many of the " one-year volunteer class." There has been is no system analogous to that of our The German Navy an aristocratic service. In the last resort men can 1)6 drawn from the Landsturin for the naval service. Tlie question of the officers themselves is more difficult. as Captain von Kiihlwetter said in the Naval Annual in 1913. of tlte it is But. especially for the sea and must and be an increasing demand. At the beginning of last October the training new contingent would come into the Fleet in the ordinary course. and would like to place on record there is writer has known his conviction that met of whom it would be possible to would willingly sink merchant vessels or liners The Kaiser once exhorted the corps carrying innocent civilian lives. young But there is ordinarily no promotion from the lower deck to the quarter deck. are in the youtliful vigour necessary for submarine and air service. whole profession. See. it Promotion from the lower deck of Marine hardly possible. the exclusive character of the corps of Proijiems German officers presents a difficulty is when expansion made is required." keep it pure and free from reproach must remain the most holy duty not one of those he has that he believe In the light of what has happened. for air service." interesting to place on record this very characteristic utterance. and generally. no Naval officers approach in their qualities so near to our own as the officers of the German Navy. has been a call. " To of Naval officers to keep honour as their " most precious jewel. being. as has been said. . Probably the provision of engineer officers does not present the same difficulty. indeed. and the officers have been employed in them all the winter. Eecently was. " mates. but they were to be distinct from the Lcufnants zur at Miirwik. stated that preparations were being to institute a body Leutnants. Few of the Eeserve naval officers. commission vessels 85 is uot fully kuown. to a large extent a apart from the executive officers. cannot produce the The school young officers the required. oeimaus. and extraordinary measures must certainly be in course of organisation. are being trained for the officer corps.

One of them was building the vessel at Monfalcone. Sebenico and Cattaro have practically been blockaded. 787 tous. the and the big Austrian ships have not appeared in Apparently they have adopted the sedentary strategy of Fleet. The six destroyers of the Tatra class. are in the service. cruiser Zenta was sunk early in the War off The most notable incident in the hostilities was the action of Lieut. broke down. and have a range of 4000 miles. and no doubt progress has been made with several of the seventeen smaller boats. 4800 tons). where the building slip. the Yiribus Unitis. Little can be said concemino the navies of Gerinauy's "^ allies. 5. built at Fiume in 1900. They are evidently of the class which can navigate at something like 20 knots on the surface.86 ^^^ Austro- THE NAVAL ANNUAL. at which has been built Fiume. Fiume and Monfalcone. provided with five tubes and guns. the open. either as the result of accident or malicious damage. and Prinz Of the Dreadnoughts. Eugen have been completed. have been completed. Six of the latter were being built at the Germania yard. passed through the Strait of Otranto. and injured considerably. it has been stated that . and two of them may have reached Pola before the outbreak of war but either four or six of these powerful boats have probably joined the German Navy. Georg Bitter von Trapp. but very doubtful whether they have been begun. were to be built. and torpedoed the French armoured cruiser Leon Gambetta in the Ionian Sea. has yet joined them. Saida and Helgoland. German High Sea The torpedo remaining " in being " but not acting effectively. Pola. Of is the actual situation of these three additional cruisers nothing known. Antivari. believed that some submarines have been sent overland in sections. Admiral Haus. On the other hand. and three others were put in hand. which were to be built at Trieste. The demands further of the Army have evidently interfered with the projected expansion of the Navy which was by Count Montecuccoli and his successor. Kiel. it is much more powerful. who in submarine No. a boat of 235-500 tons. 24:6 tons. have entered the Mediterranean. ut it is uncertain whether the fourth of the class. Hun^^l^^ The Austro-Hungarian in Fleet has played an inconsiderable part the "War. each the The Austrians have in adilition ac({uired . and thoy four may have reached the Adriatic. Tegetthoff. There were six submarines of the smaller classes. Three light cruisers (Novara. Szent Istvan. said to be of 1000 tons. Three others. doubtless of the best class. 1»3' It is also rail. and eight others were ordered. issued from the shelter of the islands. German submarines.

forces. to the two cruisers to her navy was the to their service. Germany is Turkey. lost the old battleship Messoudieh by torpedo attack (B Holbrook. . Turkey's expansion was in full progress. But when war broke out the scene changed entirely. the Turks accession German professional skill Probably the destroyers. were taken over for the British Navy. she has been seen in the Black Sea. and the occupation of Constantinople became a military object of the Allies. the Porte threw in its lot with the central Powers. was reduced to the two old battleships which were bought some years ago from the Germans. Lieut. the Though. and the Xavy was in process of reorganisation under the impulsion of' Admiral Limpus and a staff of British officers. a few cruisers. in Ottoman become a very respectable force. At the outbreak of hostilities the fine battleships Osman I. or otherwise. The Turks have 11. The Turks were already under German military influence. were commanded by German officers. John Leyland. and to the year before the War. Slie has received the the Ottoman Navy. and received the names of Agincourt and Erin. on the night of May 12th. with the Breslau. Exclusive of the two German vessels. promised with the co-operation of British contractors. which were completing respectively at Elswick and Barrow. and when the Goebeu and Breslau escaped to the Dardanelles.GEHMAXVS ALLIES. which they caught outside Tola harbour. the Ottoman Navy. under the customary clauses in the contracts. Powerful ships were put in hand. and has played no useful part in the operations. The Goeben was a fine battlecruiser. another old armoured ship. 87 French submarine Curie. and the Medjidieh by mine in the Black Sea.) in the Dardanelles. one of which sank the Goliath inside the Dardanelles. probably. than the addition of of More important. command of those waters soon fell to the Eussians. V. but she was injured by touching a mine. with fear of Greece as its cause. and lieshadieh. and about eight useful destroyers. by these losses. The dockyards were to have been reorganised The other ally of name of Zenta.C.

. have been completed. The battleships Texas and Xew York. In view of is devoted to them. and. Generally. and California. the fruit. but their policy is of real importance. but later in the year Congress authorised the sale of the old ^Mississippi and Idaho to Greece." There remains the it will be useful to . and Chapter III. Of the Enemy Xavies little can be said in illustration of their development. twenty-one 5-in. the armoured cruiser California having been renamed San Diego.. The United States Navv. In 1914 the programme adopted included two battleships. In the Votes of 1913 one battleship was provided for. the programmes which were described in the Naval Annual lafet year are making halting progress. CHAPTER IV. which is building at the Xew York Xavy Yard. 1915. May 23rd. These new ships will be called the California class. the Arizona (Xo. Idaho. and organisation have borne good been made with the programme.. first to carry 14-in. and a third battleship was authorised to be built. according to tlie Xaval Secretary. to make them "available for defence against torpedo-boat destroyers irres})ecThe ships will be conveniently tive of any conditions of weather. nothing can be said prudently concerning the Italian Xavy. the Italian declaration of War against Austria-Hungary. 31. 39). mainly to Cermany. guns. The Pennsylvania was launched March. guns. there might be little to report.400 tons.88 THE NAVAL ANNUA I. concerning which show the progress and explain the policy. in order. and in tables and diagrams based on officially published authorities iu Part II. and will in all general respects be sisters of the Pennsylvania. The Allied Xavies are seen in their actions in Chapter II. and is a sister of the Pennsylvania. It is impossible to treat the Xavies of the Powers iu tiiis edition of the Nacal Annual in the manner adopted in previous volumes. of course. Battleships Xavy of the United States. twelve 14-in. chief developments being in the expansion of the flotillas. and the Oklahoma and Xevada are very far advanced. and having llie secondary armament differently grouped. thus making three for the year. tration Moreover. These are to be named ^Mississippi. except that the inquiries into adminis- and that progress has Of the lesser Xavies there is not much to record. tliough GOO tons lieavier.

. Submarines : In view of the demonstrated power of the submariae. The Gushing and some others have been launched. and the submarine. sea-keeping ships of its day. and six are in Porter.. four battleships. or. but nothing in the present war has disproved their faith in the modern Dreadnought. investigation. and two or These belong to the programmes three others have been completed. is entitled to great weight. may be that naval engagements later on will teach lessons that will change expert opinion. Hi France. the Secretary would not feel warranted in recommending a widely different programme of construction. and therefore the Board submarines. The department feels that it is upon safe ground in looking to the Board to prescribe the character of the ships to be constructed. 70 United States. appropriating generously therefor without reducing the appropriations for other craft. and Wainwright the new programme. . l']ngland. of its battleships." but " the backbone of any nav}' that can command the sea consists of the strongest sea-going." It declares." The opinion of the General Board as given in their annual report. based upon study. Two other battleships of the same class are in the new programme. No cruisers of any kind are being built for the United States The Cassin. the destroyer. and 1912. The General Board reiterates the opinion it has always held that " command of the sea can only be gained and held by vessels that can take and keep the sea in all times and in all weathers and overcome the strongest enemies that can be brought against them. Parker. I would impress upon Congress the importance of making a larger increase in the submarine craft. 31 Japan. the Mississippi Ship'' The Secretary of the Navy said in his last annual report that the policy. there being fourteen in all. the Idaho by the New York Shipbuilding Co. Navy. Six others were voted in 1913 Tucker. . they do not replace larger vessels. fitted. McDougal.BATTLESHIPS AND SUBMAKINES. but there is a large destroyer programme. They are vessels of 1050 tons and 30 knots speed. . The fact that there has been no encounter between these powerful ships does not justify the conclusion that their further construction should be discarded in favour of the smaller craft which has astonished the world by its ability to sink cruisers and other It craft. 17.and recommended auxiliaries. Duncan. giving its severest and most fatal blows before its presence is discovered. Benham. the Dreadnought. All the battleships from the Pennsylvania onward are oil-driven. . in fair proportion. Gonynghara.. Balch. while submarines will play a large part. and observation. with destroyers. Wordsworth. That our Navy has not The estimates for these were reduced to the minimum. On the subject of submarines the Naval Secretary reported as of 1911 Destroy- — — follows p . 89 and the crew of each will have a reception-room where they can welcome their friends. It is roughly built or i)uiiding for the various navies the following number of submarines This Germany. Aylwin. The large increase in submarines is most desirable. General Board were convinced that. neglectfd the construction of submarines will be seen by a comparison of our strength estimated that there arc in this craft with that of foreign navies. 51 estimate was made in July of this year (lOli). but as long as the bulk of the ablest naval officers believe the increase of the Navy should embrace. . and by the Newport News Shipbuilding Co. Jacob Jones. " other types are valuable and have their particular uses. The California will he built at the Xew York IS^'avy Yard.

A board of experienced officers had Submarine 4. have been completed. but will extend the field of operations to the air as well as on the surface of and underneath the water. He says that the Bureau is still continuing its investigations on the subject of erosion. South Carolina. was lost at Honolulu. and New ." In conse([uence. and the Secretary of the Navy supported and adverted in derisive terms to the circumstance that the three concerns which tender for armour plating tenders to a cent. is A State strong recommendation has been made for the institution of a this. The speed is 14 knots on the surface and 11 knots submerged. Erosion of §"^^- made identically the same Some of the interesting points appear in the annual report of the Chief Director firing. Aircraft have demonstrated in the present war in Europe that no military arm complete which lacks them. March 25. coast-defence type and one of sea-going type.90 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. built and aeroplanes were being and others procured from abroad. armament factory. Utah. The recent wars have demonstrated the inestimable importance of scouting. land prevent surprises of the character which have determined most military They provide the best means for discovering submarine mines. and have victories. Eight or more submarines were provided for in 1914. which was quite new. She dived and did not rise again. In the course of his report the Naval Secretary enforced the importance of aeronautics. M displace 750 tons on the surface. as well as some others. Director control was first tried in the Delaware. and systematic collection of data is being made. The H boats displace 350-400 tons and have four torpedo tubes. North Dakota. F recommended the establishment Florida. The development in the manufacture of these craft in this country needs to be stimulated. The K boats are a little larger (390-530 tons) and have half a knot more surface speed. and the day is not far distant when a modern ]Maury will chart the currents of the Aircraft on the air as that great naval officer charted the currents of the ocean. We are but in the infancy of aircraft. in addition to minor improvements in type of rifling and shell bands. director installations have been authorised for tli^ Micliigan. which are coming on rapidly. Bureau of Ordnance. and the same number appear in the new programme. Aircraft. and other trials were made at regular target practice in which the score of that ship could be compared with those of the other competing vessels. "A careful study of the scores indicates that the idea possesses value. and the success of this arm of the military service abroad will be a mighty stimulus to American manufacturers. although not to so great an extent as was claimed by some enthusiasts. Tlie L and boats. with all her complement of twenty-five officers and men. They will not replace vessels of war. 1015. seven of them to be of Submarines H 1 to 3. K 1 to 6. now become an indispensable naval adjunct. of the flying school at Pensacola. AVyoming. and CI 4.

Hampshire. affect The following on tlie is a report of the Chief of the P)ureau of : Ordnance Torpedo cutte^-s subject of torpedo net-cutters The torpedo station has developed a satisfactory net-cutter which will operate at almost any degree of obliquity with the net. It was a subject of congratulation that everything was so smartly done. but that it will have a certain percentage of success and the question arises as to whether the net is worth the sacrifice made for its use.Admiral Badger. A demonstration of the all-round efficiency was given when the orders to Mexico were issued. if possible. and war to be equipment to be put on board. the installation may be placed in pre-Dreadnoughts. There were tens of play. some percentage of failures will occur with almost any device. the work of preparation had been ended and the shins were ot destination. The Bureau has not yet purchased the torpedo nets for the Oklahoma and Nevada and subsequent battleships. and do not handling of the guns. he said called upon to do. Florida. innumerable administrative details to be attended to. supplies. When Eear. received his orders. If the to 91 It is the Dehiware. proposed to extend this authority to the Arkansas. While the value of this torpedo defence would be greatly enhanced by having a double net. the inner net must be carried so close to the skin of the ship as to render it vulnerable to the large explosive charges now used in modern torpedoes. and it is probable that the best net-cutter will have its share. This places the net in somewhat the same position that armour occupies that it will not invariably keep out all shell. Commander-in" I do not know what we will be Chief. but we are ready. provisions/ammunition. However. there is "Whatever part the United States reason to believe that Navy might it : thousands of tons of coal. — — be called upon to would be ready. the kind of net that would be most effective. and Texas.UNITED STATES NAVY. and a score of ships put in readiness. . the individual These instaUations are additional. iu addition York. and hurried to the Gulf. New experiment in the New Hampshire all proves satisfactory. already installed. The possession of a successful net-cutter again places in doubt the value of the torpedo net." Within twenty -four hours the ships were ready. and these net-cutters are being manufactured for all long-range destroyer torpedoes and for all torpedoes for the new submarines. route to their John Ley land. but almost before the country realised the purport of the orders. but has beeu experimenting with net-cutters and with nets with a view to determining.

important bearing on the general policy with regard to the defence of these Islands. A An essay. We have proved ourselves once more a martial race. the command of the high In narrow waters. By the formidable power of the torpedo. and will. The Government of the United States has addressed remonstrances to Germany. The mercantile vessels destroyed have been. Let us now consider the military situation. . The attacks on fishing-boats are contemptible. France and Eussia. Eoumania may follow. and mine-layers which the Admiralty are creating. We and our Allies have poured out blood and treasure as never before in the history of the world. By intense vigilance. Let us Itriefly review Editor. With the flotillas of various vessels. help us in other ways. invasion of this country the civilised world. The subject has an destroyers. submarines. have done their part. by desire of the volume of the Naval Annual. vast armies have been sent across the seas in safety. still holds. as Sir Percy Scott predicted. Never have Never has warfare been We have two gains of priceless value. Our Navy seas. defeat. POSTSCRTPT TO CHAPTER I. Never has such heroism been displayed. for the most part. in terms which might have been followed by a declaration of war.'AVAL ANNUAL. the underwater attack has proved a formidable danger. Italy has now come in. of limited size and speed. We must armies fought so desperately and so long. appears.92 THE >. our brave and faithful Allies. How different the conditions from those with which Pitt and the statesmen and commanders of the elder day had to deal. may be made impossible. not a man could be landed on our shores. not enervated in body or in spirit by the march of civilisation. of results so barren in victory or. America may. as au introductory chapter to the present the present position. Three months have elapsed. The Empire has been strengthened beyond measure by the loyal enthusiasm of our Dominions beyond the Sen. The loss of the Lusitania has stirred public feeliug throughout The disaster may have far-reaching effects. It is seen that armed intervention would do no good. THOUGHTS ON THE PEESEXT AND THE FUTUEE. unchallenged. and which must be continually maintained and kept up to date. which was privately printed. Battleships have Ijeen sunk.

THOUGHTS ON cuiitiuue our ettbrts. and to plight anew with the Motherland that faith which has never yet been broken or tarnished. equipment. endured for half a century. then Premier of Canada after long years of On this happy occasion these delegates assemble self-government in their several countries — years of greater progress and development than the colonies of any Empire have yet seen in the past. TIIH PRESENT AND THE FUTUIIE. still 93 secouil We have in inuch to do to make our Army efficient lor the held. which must be undertaken as a consequence of the present war." . the principles still of to the predecessors a thousand years ofl'er laws of your your subjects that safety and prosperity. It is not necessary to write of the recent changes in the Ministry. but to plight our faith anew to each other as brethren. when a word spoken in season have a telling effect. Nothing can be pleaded in excuse. such as the need for munitions and the abiding necessity of a strong army with the or to dwell colours and in reserve. demand the ablest statesmanship. At the first Colonial Sir Conference. was finely said by " held at Ottawa in 1897. under divine Providence. are still hghting with tenacity. it John Thompson. In Canada and in to the future. will We may not be far from the time from a position of responsibility would The re-arrangement of the map of P^urope. and to the Empire that stability. Let us never again disarm. Within the narrow limits of these islands it is not possible to compete in population and in natural resources with the vast territories of the Continental Powers. may be that (Germany is approaching a situation of dire difficulty in recruiting for her armies. Statesmen should Motherland of that grand Colonial Empire which we have inherited from our forefathers. The Germans nation is The honour of their deeply stained by brutality. arms. as the Australasia there is no limit to possible expansion. not to consider the prospect of separation from the Mother Country. and by methods of warfare destroyed all which have the chivalry that once distinguished It the profession of arms. amidst revolutions and changes of dynasty and systems of govern- ment in other for countries. the true for British l)e Looking aim to make our country great. II. The bonds which unite the Motherland and the Daughter-states rest on a broad foundation. and training Our soldiers have won the admiration of the enemy. We have met. Your Majesty's reign has. which claim the admiration of the world. and. on points which are obvious. Nor need the opening we of fear disruption.

as the Motherland. loyalty. Action will be prompted for mutual defence. The Dominions will be slow to move in foreign They will listen to the warnings of Lord Salisbury. if the need should arise. "All the failures that have taken place have arisen from one The British aggressive. The Irishmen were conspicuous with their green scarves in every procession.000 men. no which the experience of nations more uniformly condemns.94 Ill THE NAVAL ANNUAL. Men do not lay down their lives in Ottawa. Empire of the coming age will be powerful. M'ere kindled in the Greek Colonies by sacred fire. The people had carried into their new homes beneath the Southern Cross an undying love for the old country. over an Empu-e on which the sun never sets is to hold a place in the world which should satisfy the loftiest ambition. and none which Governments more consistently pursue. Some 20.000 men into the field. They have assured the safety of Egypt. To preside. and kept for ever burning. In battle they have displayed unflinching heroism. passed. Canada has promised us.000 more men. Bkassey. and devotion such as has never been seen in any nation or in any former age. brought from the parent state. We were eye-witnesses of those moving scenes. our — — battle for a 2s. the years that have elapsed since Inetlireii tlie Conference was held at beyond Sea have given many proofs of loyal attachment. It was no question of tariffs. They were moved by no sordid considerations Amor patriee rationc valcntior. with a courage. Australia has promised a contingent of 100. in the greatest crisis through which we have ever Dominions beyond Sea have come to our aid. There is practice . 250. the — — the Peninsula of Gallipoli. There was no fear of separation during my residence of five years five happy years in Australia. in an early age of the world.000 are already in the field. I was serving in Australia when the first contingents were despatched to South Africa. where quarrels. a voice in Imperial policy. cause — the practice of intervention in domestic quarrels. There was the same disinterested patriotism. When the reverses came iii South Africa. with one heart and one voice they responded to the call. and justly demand. but not The Governments beyond Sea will demand. in Free Trade Sydney as in Protectionist Victoria. and the Empire needed help from all her sons. They were inspired by the same feelings which. a quarter duty on corn." The policy here recommended is not ignoble. They have fought magnificently unhappily with heavy loss on And now. Nowhere could we look for more loyal demonstrations than those in Melbourne on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Canada has put 50. the same loyalty to the old flag. he said.

.PART LLST OF BRITISH 11. AND FOREIGN SHIPS. BRITISH AND FOREIGN AIRSHIPS. ENEMY AIRSHIP SHEDS.

.

(Dmp. The List following abbreviations are used throughout the Alphabetical :— a. c. l. vessel.c.d.A. Battleship.] tion. Cruiser.g. Anti-aircraft guns. 1. g. Liglit cruisM".PART LIST OF BRITISH [Ill II. d.b. Armoured cruiser. Battle-cruiser. Coast-defence ship. cr. b. FlutiUa leader. to preparing these lists. b.cr. A.v. A.v. The ships reference is A now given in the ship taldes to the plates in which diagrams of the ships appear. sub. Compoiind or steel-faced armour. .cr. Submerged torpedo tube. Armstrong guns. Despatch Gunboat. Light guns under 15 cwt M. Flut. the ships which are known have been lost are given in special type with footnotes indicating their destrucof the Allies are given from the latest official lists. Idr. s. Armoured gunboat. a.s. Machine guns. (in armour column). AND FOREIGN SHIPS.b.

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— Cruiser Almirante Lezo (ex El Baschir). . —Almirante Grau and ft.. 400 tons. tons. Three Yarrow motor gunboats. 1200 tons. 1913.. steel gunboat— Capois — la Mort.P. 6 in. 2600 I. Colombia. . muzzle-loaders and 2 small guns. Ecuador. 1500 H. has been bought. and 2 torpedo tubes. draught Barrow. b. The ISTadiezda.H. 3 1'8-in. used gunboats for the Danube built at Leghorn. The Zaragoza. armament. —Two Xew .F. and armed with 4 4-7-in. with a loss of 70 lives. the Prince's yacht. despatch vessel (715 tons). Gunand Bogota. . Cruiser Ciiba.vessels. 260 tons. Jersey. 1300 H. 200 troops.P. Blechynden boilers. built 1892. Elizabethport. launched Bordeaux. Sheikh and . of which one is Two armoured . 3 in. It is stated that the Italian cruiser Umbria.P. 18 knots. 1804. bought from Morocco.P. blown up and destroyed. 1898.H. tons. Mexico. Gun-vessel. . SHIPS BELONGING TO POWERS WHOSE NAVIES ARE OF LESSER IMPORTANCE. 450 tons 11 knots 2 6^-in. 16 knots. General Nerino and Esperanza. 2600 I. . 812 tons. 18-85 knots. 2055 tons. 16 knots . 140 tons.l.P. One torpedo-boat and two Egypt.. 2 m. 1880 tons.P. 1200 tons. 2245 tons. gun. 2 1. Q. launched displacement. —The Nile stern. completed at Barrow 1908. and Tamai. as . Coronel Bolognesi. 3500 H. q. Five torpedo-boats. Gun vessels Bravo and Morero. bow torpedo tube 2400 I. Two cruisers. 1200 I. 14 ft. and gunboat Patria. — Eleven steamers of small size. transport vessels. Fateh and Xaseh.. 1200 18 knots. armed with Two sloops— St.. Melik. Q..F. The gunboat Liberte was Gun-vessel. guns and 4 small quickfiring guns.f. 980 tons armament. Bu Igaria. Iron corvette — Dessalines. speed. to be built.H. boats. 13-9-iu. 1902 4 4-in. Torpedo transport General Guerrero. Hafir. Three 100-ton 26-knot torpedo-boats launched 1907 three smaller. Democrata. bought from — —The torpedo cruiser Almirante Simpson. Tampico and Vera Cruz. . 2 3-9-in. . cruisers..F.. Michael and 1 3-9-in.P. 17 knots. 40 ft. 128 tons also the Abu Klea. Lagrafel-d'AUest boilers. 15 knots speed.. Hayti. Chercuito . and 4 1-pr. Q. fitted to serve as transport for . 1200 tons. Metemmeh.P. 1904. 2 3 -9-^1. Cuba. Eiver gunboats. launched Leghorn.wheel gunboats Sultan. 2500 H. 1200 tons... 6 6-pr. Chili. Peru.166 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.. 22ud of December. 370 long. 2400 tons. Two small gunboats of 10 knots speed. 3200 beam.H..

of low speed. For the Danube. Venezuela. guns) and 3 torpedo-boats completed. 39 ft. built in England long. 2 4'7-in. 12 knots transports Eestaurador.. — Gunboats . ft. Santo Domingo. Oltul. Bistritza. . 1912. in . Two gunboats. Siretul. 2 small torpedo-boats. 4 in. built at Kobe. 8 14-p(lr. The four destroyers are in hand at Naples (1350-1450 tons). . Bolivar. b.F. 2 submerged torpedo tubes.). — armed with two guns. 2 M. 12 General Artigas. Stettin. 1700 tons. about 400 tons. of 2500 tons displacement and 17 to 18 knots speed. .P.f. 16 knots armament. torpedo tubes 5700 I. conning tower. Eodriguez. launched at Glasgow in 1896. 2 m. beam. 1012-13. Ferre and Palacios. 4 torpedo tubes. 27-knot destroyers. 18-6 knots. cruiser. 4 5'9-in. The 14-knot Presidente has been reconstructed.— The 1894. 23 knots. 360 tons Grivitza. 571 tons. and ten 6-pdr. 14.H. 4 12-pdr.. Eclaireur. 2 4. beam. 8 l:^-p(lr. Deck-protected cruiser. 10 in. Sara\A/ak. . launched 1898 and 1901. Destroyer. Several other gunboats. ROU mania. . Screw steamer. 1^-in. built at the Vulcan Yard. Muratha. built 1887 at Elswick 230 ft.H. and 6 coast-defence vessels of 3500 tons. Three 380-ton. 290 ft. long. 24 knots. 12^ knots and General Saurez. The shipbuilding programme includes 8 monitors of 600 tons. 45 tons. 170 vessel.. armament. 3-in.7-in. and and bought . 167 2 6-m. Isla de Cuba). and Sugrib. —Elizabeta. protected cruiser (deck 3 in. 200 tons. partially reconstructed bought from France. — Two gunboats. 1320 tons.. 500 tons. Zamora. and armed cruiser with seven Hotchkiss quick-firing guns. Miranda. 110 tons. and 3 first-class torpedo-boats. 12 knots. steel gun- 1000 tons. 5 sloops. Three modern despatch vessels 100 to 250 tons. Maxims 2 18-in. four 1*4 in. The Uruguay. 568 tons.. of 175 and 118 tons respectively. Makut-Bajakamar.000 I. 600 tons. 104 tons. launched 1877. armoured deck.. Independencia. Maha Chakrkri. 350 tons. and submarines. displacement 322 tons. Lima.P. Armoured cruiser Dupuy de Lome. . built Le Creusot. 3000 I. 90 to 100 tons.H. The gunboats Bali.k.000.. 300 tons. 32 ft.. each Siam.. long. armament. SHIPS BELONGING TO NAVIES OF LESSER IMPORTxVNCE. five 2*2 in. 4 q.P. drill ship. 25 ft. Eestauracion.. speed. quick-firing guns. ]Maresa Sucre (ex from United States.l. 1100 tons. Composite gunboat Mircea.P. Q. 1800 I.. cruiser — Gunboats: . Uruguay. 650 tons.. the gunboats Fulgurul. guns. 1769 tons. Four monitors (3 4*7-in. 190G . 274 tons. 4 destroyers.H. Alexandru eel Bun. four 4*7-in. (Krupp). purchased for £140. and renamed Ellas Agnirre. Santa Rosa. and carries seven guns. and 12 torpedo-boats for the Black Sea. one 4*7-in. . 2 6-in. 12 torpedo-boats and 8 vedettes for the Danube.. broad.

. 1895 1895 1894 1895 1898 1897 1901 1896 1896 1897 1896 1898 1897 1897 1896 1898 1898 1896 1898 1^96 1896 1897 1897 1^99 1896 1897 1897 1897 1896 1897 1900 1896 1898 1900 1897 l)-98 201-6 205-6 200 200 200 200 200 200 205-6 200 227-6 210 218 210-6 215 210-6 218 210 210 210 •. . . .. Fairfic-M . fBruizer Conflict . Earle's Co. Great Britain. . I Feet. .ft Hawthorn .. Brown & Palmer Vickers Fairfield Co. tBuUfinth. .. Laird . .. . +Cheerful . . . Brazen . I Feet liornycroft . Seal .. . 168 THE NAVAL ANNUAL BRITISH AND FOREIGN FLOTILLAS. . .. t Angler Arab f Avon . . ... . . . . . . . . . f. . . Hawthorn . ... ... . . . 1895 1S94 1895 895 1895 lrJ95 Porcupine .. . . . . Brown & . Brown & Vickers Co. . .. Thornycroft f Desperate tDove Earnest Electra . . 1 Kangaroo. Palmer . . Racehorse *Recruit .0 Leven Lively . . Dimensions. Palmer . Torpedo. Locust tMaUard .. .. Hawthorn Thornycroft .. . Thomycn. . Palmer. .Boat Destroyers. . . Co. . Co. Quail . . Roebuck Hawthorn . tAlbatross Thornycruft . . 1 Built by. .. Crane . Great Britain. Laird . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... Orwell Osprey tOstrich Otter.. .. . .. Name or Number.. Earle's Co. . llawthoiu .. Fawn Flirt. Feet. tCygnet tCynthia . .. . Zephyr Hawthorn Hawthorn Thomson Hanna . . fCoquette ... . . Opossum Ranger Suufish Surly . Panther Peterel . Brown & Co.!15 5 2 5 2 2 9-5 19 210 210 210 210-0 210-6 218 227 6 227 6 220 210-6 215 215 215 210 227-6 2'. Pa'mer. . . . Palmer . Mermaid Myrmidon . Fervent .. .. . . Vickers Brown & . . . .aird . . Laird Laird . . 1900 1896 1896 1898 19C0 1898 1897 1900 1896 1897 1899 1S95 1900 1896 1901 1897 1899 1900 1900 210-0 218 215 210 218 218 210 210-6 210 215 21-25 19-6 20-0 21-6 20-75 21-6 20-0 20-6 21-0 19-5 20-7 19-5 19-5 19-6 20-6 21-7 lO-O 22-0 22-0 21'3 19-6 20-7 20-7 20-7 19-6 22-0 21 20 20-0 20-75 20 20-0 20-0 21-7 19-6 21 25 3 8-5 7-1 5-6 5-6 6-8 5-6 5-6 5-8 8 7-2 6-8 7-2 7-2 7-2 5-8 5-3 5-6 I 7-1 I 6-8 6-8 6-8 7-1 9 8-6 B-3 5 6 6-8 5-6 5-6 6 6 6-3 7-1 8 2180 227-6 210 210 210-6 215 213-6 210 218-0 210 218-0 215 218 210 20-75 20-0 22-0 21-0 20-0 21-7 20-8 21-6 21 I 6-8 5-6 6-3 20-0 21 200 20-75 20-0 19-76 5-3 8-6 5-6 8-6 5-6 . .. White . . Spiteful . Fa-rfield Thornycruft . Vickers Laird . Express Fairy tFalcon •j-Fame . .. Palmer Laird Sprightly tStag Thornycroft . . . Lightning Hanna Palmer Palmer .. . . . Bat tBittern . . . . Hawthorn Laird . . Flying Fish tFoam Gipsy Thornycroft Fairfield Greyhound Griffon Kestrel . . Leopard . Laird .

. Schichau BniwD & . .aird . Brown A: Do. Great "Brita-in— continued. . Usk Teviot Ettrick B'oyle Yarrow. Doon Garry Kale Rother Liffey Hawthorn Yarrow. . . . aVixen Vulture Vickers ISrou 1896 1901 1897 19U0 1898 1900 1895 1900 1897 1895 1900 Whiting n & Co Palmer . . Laird . I Welland Chelmer Boyne Colne Yarrow Tbomycroft Hawthorn 'J'boruycroft . BRITISH TORPEDO-CllAFT. .. . . .aird . . Dee Jed Palmer . . Dimensions. Haw Iborn Palmer. .er '. Taku Thorn Thrasher Vigilant tVioIet Virago .. . . Yarrow .. Palmer .. Kennet JVelox \\'^aveney Parsons Hawthorn . .. . . I.. . . Tor PKDO Boat DESTltOTEl:S.. . Cu... ... I'almcT iJoxford . . . Laird . Ure Wear Palmer Palmer 1904 1903 1902 1903 1904 1904 1904 1905 1904 1905 1904 1904 1904 1904 1905 1905 1905 1905 1904 1905 . . . tSylvia Syren Palmer . Co. . Yarrow.. Palmer Tbomycroft . '. Erne Palmer Laird Arun Cherwell . Wolf Derwent JEden Exe Ribble Itchen I. Moy Ness Nith Ouse Swale White Laird Pal'i. . . . . 1896 1897 1904 1903 1904 1903 . Star Success Feet. . . Hawthorn Palmer laird .. . U98 . .\ford Laird .

J*Attack l*Baclger . Fairfield 1910 1910 1910 1910' . . J*Beaver J*Defeuder J*Druid •?[*Ferret . . ... Cammell Laird Vickers. .. Feet. . . Beardmore 1911 19il 1911 1911 1911 t*Hydra J*Jackal . J§ Foxhound jjGrasshopper . e- = OCEAX-GOIXG DtST].. . . . & Glasgow tJRenard jJSavage jJScorpion . J*PhcEuit J*Sandfly . ^f} Basilisk 1908 .. Name or Number. . . . ... ^r*Forester White . .. ArmslroBi..OTEHS. . — THE NAVAL ANNUAL.. l^Mosquito iJNautilus IJPincher . .. 1* Ariel . 1911/ 1911x I i:*Archer . 1907 1907 19U7 1907 1907 180^ 1908 1909 )S<09 250 270 £55 2711 +*Nubian l*Viking I»Zulu JAlbacore . White . Inglis .. .. Built by. ... John Brown Fairfield ^JHarpy .. Hawthuru AVhite .. Thoruycroft ^•j'aracen +•' White. 1909 1910 1910 1910 1910 1909 1910 lillO 2«4 271 266} 266 220 J jStour tJTest. 1910 1909 1909 1909 19J9 1909 1910 1910 1910 1910 1910 (Lond. •[fV'ruBader (1) +*Maori White leui y .i . J*Afridi .. Great Britain DimeDsion&.. .. Denny . i* Tigress J*Lap\viDg J* Lizard . Amazon. 191l] l?lo| 1910 1910 liinj 1910 Thoruycroft ]9Ui 1911/ 1911 1911/ 1911. . . 170 continue/I. . Thora. Swan.irtar . Thoriivtrort .. 1909 1909 1909 270 272 2*0 280 280 2»0 2*^0 2t0 §Bone1t. Yarrow 1912 t*Oak . Yarrow Parsons .. Cammell Laird c John Brown J* Acorn l*Alarm J*Brisk . 1} Racoon .. . JJEattlesnake \ Fairfield Thames Ironworks Denny Cammell Laird . Swan. . . 19Il' 1910. I*Sheldrake J*Stauncb 1* Acheron... Hawthorn Cammell Laird ... T*Nemesi8 . . Hunter 1911 1912 1911 1911 1911 1911 1911 1911 t*Fircdrakt' t*LurcLer .. J*Goshawk t*Hind J*Horuet . . . t*Cossack . .. Thornycroft l*Minsttel. . ^f*Kedpole... J*C'an eleou J*Comfct t*Goldfirich . JjScourge ijWolveriue . . I*Nereide J*Xyuiplie. . 1910 1910 1910 ) 1911 1910 1910' ^f*Rifieniau White 1l*Ruby . . Co Cammell Laird Thoruycroft Fairfield . . .. . Hawthorn .. HuEter .. . Ciinimcll Laird J'Ghurka 1[*Mobawk t*T.vcroft Palmer Hawthorn Palmer 6 ... AVhite .. Penny . t*Fury |*Hope J*Larne :*Lyra J*Martiu . J^ Beagle +}Bulld<g .

. i*Loui8 |*Lydiard. . . . 108 (2 boats). . l*Laurel l*Liberty +*Loyal J*Legion . .. . . .'«ilne . ( 1913' . 260 260 l*Ambuscade +*Ardeijt . . . . Yarrow .l 076-078 (3 boats) .. . . . | i . . . .. J*Mnrray t*Myngs J* -Miranda J*Minr.OYERS COlUd. . 92 (2 93 95.. 1913) 3) . J*Laforey . 114-117 (4 boats). 82.] 260 27 . London and ) Gla-gow Co. Yarrow t*Manly t*M enter +*Mansfield .. . . 042 (2 boats). . . . Feet. . . . 83 (2 boats) . .. . . . Fairfield . . Laird Thornycroft. J*Shark +*Spitfire J*Sparrowhawk . White Yarrow . . Ocean-going l)E*Tl. .. . Cammell Laird Thornycroft. j*Lejnida8 . •):*Ly6&nder Swan... 260 260 26u i57 27 27 26^ . Dennv Hawthorn . 171 Great Britain continued..k 1* Landrail. .| 07» 80 . boats) . .. } ( 1912} .. . +*Cbrktoplier I*C'ockatrke +*CoBtest 1* Fortune . .. . J*Lance :J* Lookout :*Lark t*Linnet . Hunter . . .. Fairfield . 107. Thornycroft boats) boats) .. First Class 025-027 (. . . . . . . . 99 (2 101 boats) boats) . . 96 (2 97 98. . . White White . . 1913 1913 1912 1913 . 033 034 041. 109-113 (5 boats). . . i*Lncifer Palmer (6) • . . +*Unity J* Victor Thornycroft . .. . John Brown . . . . . White .. Denny Thornycroft .. J*Lavtr(K. . . i*Midge +»Owl i*Parjgon J*PorpDi8e . . j*GaTUnd +*Hardy (a) +*Lynx . . ./ 1 Hawthorn Thornycroft AVhite .. . Hunter (t). .} 057. . Hunter (c). M'ArtUur Thoniyc-oft .Swan. .. (6) .'t. i*Marksman Torpedo Boats. Built by... . . . 103 (2 boats).:i . John Brown . . ... 102. . . . . +*Moorsom t* Morris . White '. Swan. J*Llewellyn J*LeDnox J*Laeites Beardmore . . . .Matchhs3 . . 1913 1912 .... 058 (2 boats)* 065-068 (4 boats) . — .3 boaU). . J*Lawford . .s Palmer j i '.. 1912] J*Aca8ta J*Achateo .. . j . . t*Meteor J*Ma6ti(r J*Li|!ht:'oot . +*.i 1912> . 89 (2 90 91. 071-07* (4 boats) . •> +*. Thornycroft. i Hawthorn — Thornycroft. — BRITISH TORPEDO CRAFT. . . 104-105 (2 boats).. Name or Xumber. 85-87 (3 88. . . 1886 1886 1886 127 5 125 125 12-5 13 14 6 Tbornycro... Yarrow 1886 125 81 (ex-Swift). .! €49-055(7 beats)... .. .. Yarrow White .

.172 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

La Plata ..— . Dimensions. FiBST Class 2 iKiats 6 boats — . Salta.. FOREIGN TORPEDO-CJJAFT. San Jua:i j Cataraarca. Argentine Republic. .. Where Built. 173 Name or Number. Yarrow .STltOTERS Corrientes Missiones Entre Rios . . Mendoza. Cordoba. . . . ) .. lli"ja. . . Jujuy . Dr.

Name or Numb. 174 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.i„» j^'^'°8 i . . . . Goyaz Gonzales Y«rrow Thoniycroft .r. i Destroters Para — . .. . 1907 19C8 . Brazil. Santa Catbaiina Parana Sergipe . 1908 1908 1908 1908 1909 1909 1909 1909 1910 1909 First Class Pedro I vo Silvado — )irn. . Where Built. . Amazouas Piahuy Matte G rosso Parahyba Rio Grande do N. Alagoas .. .

Copenhagen Copeuhagen 'I'h jrnycroft . . . . . Soloven Soulven Springeren Store n ^vair. . .. First Class — ropeuliagen Copeubageii .. . Name or Number. . Thornycroft riiomycroft Copenhagen . . Thornycroft .. .ifisken Copenhagen Thorn croft i Havre. . .. .. . . . Copenhagen Thornycroft Thornycroft . 175 Denmark. Ormen Hujen Havfimen Si)bj8rneu Pelfinen Hivhesteii . Where Built. Hvalrossen Miikrtlcn Narhvaleii N'ord Kapereii . . FOREIGN TORPEDO -CRAFT.

. & Bldg..ochi-fort . . Pique Pistolet IIavre(F.&C. Nantes Cliabii J'./ Bisson. Mousquet lyousqneton Obn?ier (1) .. & . Protet. d .1 10-3 10-3 10-3 Mehl. — THE NAVAL ANNUAL. France continued 176 Destroters—con t. .l Tculon. . 1911 19121 213 213 j Magon. etc. Nantes Nantes ) 1898 1903 1905 1907 19i9 19J0 ) 21U-6 190-3 193-7 206 9 190-3 190-3 210-6 190 3 10-3 9-7 10 -.. . Gabo'.rt . LfStin.rt . 1911 21J-6 Sous.3 10.. &. .j | Normaud. . .&C. Havre. Herbert (2). Waugini (6) Henry. Javeliue Lasnqnenet Mameluck Massue Mortier Nantes B Tdeaux Nantes Toulon liocliefort 1903 ] 909 1910 1903 . 1903 190V 1908 1900 1906 1900 1903 isrg 1901 1904 19^8 1902 1907 1903 1908 19 5 183-9 210-6 210-6 183-9 210-6 210-6 191-3 19J-3 183-9 183-9 190-3 210-6 183-9 191-3 190-3 l.. Gamier.. Tromblon Trident Voltigenr Roch fort . Reuaudin.3 10. Comm.3 10.de(3) ' ^ {^"cliefort { Norma.. Yatagan Borj-.rt .) Sape Sarbacane Spahi Stylet Rouen Rocliefjrt . . . Rocbefort . Kocbefort Rocbefort . Rocbefort . liocbef.'-3-9 300 21-9 21-8 20-11 21-8 21-8 10-3 10 3 10 3 10 3 2011 20-11 20-11 20-11 20-11 21-9 20-8 20-11 20-8 20-11 20-11 20-8 20-11 21-9 20-11 21-9 20-11 21-9 20-11 21-0 21-8 21 19-6 21-9 20-8 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10 3 190-3 183-9 183-9 210-6 183-9 210-6 lt<3-9 10.3 10... Deborter (5) ..) Nantes Poignard Rapiere Sabre Sabretache Sagaie Rccbef . Riviere. Harpon Ilussard Janissaire ' Bordeaux Lorient Itoiien.uca«. 19 6 1902 Oriflamme Pertnisanrierrier Nantes Itochefurt Rochef^. Nantes Ha\Te(F..3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10 3 Takon* Tirailleur Elbiug Bordeaux . ]. . 15^09 1909 1908 . .

FOREIGN TORPEDO-CRAFT. . Prance 177 — continued.

6th S 90 driven ashore in China. Aug. as well as some others. S117. The German . SI 18. Nov. 20th and S 124 destroyed by collision. Oct. SI 16 S 115. 23rd. In all probability four large destroyers or flotilla leaders.178 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. 17th. have been taken over. . been Of the destroyers. torpedoed. Oct. and S119 sunk by gun-fire Oct. but there is some uncertainty as to the actual number of destroyers and submarines which have sunk. . Asterisks are put to the groups in the following list from which these destroyers have disappeared. flotillas have suffered serious losses in the War. . Germany. G 187 was sunk in action. but a number of others are known to have been sunk. which were building for Argentina. Nov. 28th. 6th Taku destroyed at Tsingtau.

Tlic characteristics of the boats caunut be stated with complete accuracy. One was sunk by the Thordis. which were building for Austriahave betn destroyed in the Baltic. either to replace vessels which have gone off the list. with indication of such as are definitely known by their numbers to have been lost. Such submarines cannot be shown in the followiu"' lis^ Di>liUicemeut (Tonsi [lecd (Knots U 1-2 . near Antwerp. 179 Germany run ti'i u 'd. It netds to b«i ol>served that the Germans have evidently been giving to new and powerful submarines the numbers of some of the tarlier boats. building of boats of this class is proL-eediug Several submarines were in hand at Hoboken. The submarines are shown in classes. as also somo other subuiarines which were being constructed for other Powers in German yards. But there is the best reason for believing that a nuuiber of other boa's have been sunk and otherwise accounted for. On the other liand. and some actively in several shipyards. have probably been added to the German flotilla. 'I'liig is especially the case in regard to the newest boats. Special attention must be given to tlie list of subniiuines set forth bcluw. when the building yard was raided by airmen. Some submarines. or with the object of confusing the Allies. Hungary (probably of 500 tons).— FOREIGN TORPEDO-CKAFT.

000 5 6-pr. 1 1-pr.F. Tons 298 4 . . / . . 5m I" S3 Destroyers Fulmine — Sestri (Odero) ' Feet. Spezia. Cricne. I 5 6-pr. Guiseppe Abba Schiaffino Pilade Brouzetti Guiseppe Missori Ippolito Nievo.. FiEST Class— Aquila.F.000 3 ^" fll4-pr.Q. / I Naples (.' a ..000 5-6/ 3 3-pr. Q. See the cruiser list.900 L3. (Patiison)J Centauro .M. ( . Orfeo Odero f I n905 ) . 25 A..-32 A. .-24 O.F. Canopo Calipso . . 28 5 6-pr.250. Genoa (Ansaldo) }1909 1910. 365 6. I fl905 11906 1907 g ^^"^ Gabbiano Pegaso Perseo Prriclone . Insidioso Iiitrepido . [ Tuono ZefiBro f Naples 1 Espero Bersagliere Artigliere Granatiere .000 4 14-pdr.S. 164 (2. . Dimensions.700 2. 40 R. Genoa (Ansaldo)/ . 320 6. . .-38P. Naples I (Pattison)/ .. Scorpione Seipente.S.N. 1 1-pr. . \ (Pattison) Pattisou . Odero Ansaldo r. . . Nembo Turbine Aquilone Borea Meteoro r Naples (Pattison) 190n 1902J 330 6 . Saffo Elbing :. . . . . . .N.txj Ardente Auaace / [ Orlando (Leghorn) ' & I 1912 246 24-6 20-0 7-6 650 15.M.500 Condore Slrio. 1913 4 14-pr. Arpla . Lanciere Alpino Corazziere Poutiere Carabinieri Fucilieri .000 f NuUo { . . Elbing Sestri (Odero) Sestri( Ansaldo) j 1888 1899 1898 1905-6 1905 6 . 39 R. 180 THE NAYAL ANNUAL.. .F. Q. . . 2 3-pr. . . 2 3-pr. Cass'opea Calliope .F. . Euro Oatro . f . Ardea Albatros. . -1 Simone ( I Genoa (Odero) Bldg. 1 4-7-iD.ttison 1912 . / \ 211-5 6-6 380 6.000 5 6-pr.i .. Alcione. Or. .N. Italy. Feet. i Antonio Mosto Guiseppe Sirtori Giacinto Carinl Rosoiino Pile . . 60 200 20-4 6-4 Lampo Freccia Dardo Strale / Elbing l(Schichau) 1899 1901. Sparviero Nibbio. 1 Animoso Ascaro Francesco ( I 1913 1912 4 14-pr. 1906^ 1907 1906 1907 1907 1909 1909 17-4 7-0 3. . I GarabalJiuo Inipavido Inipetuoso Indomito . rev. 11906 1 . Sagittario 157-4 164-3 19 16-8 14-8 6-9 2 3-pr. . f Naples Climene 1 P. Q.800 Knots. 5 . . / . Q. ( .. 1905 1905 5-41 Pallade . 2 3-pr. . . . . 13 0.-12 P. Naples (Patti=on) 1!)13 I . .. & 1913 130 2. . Avvoltolo Pelllcaiio . .Q.Paltison) (1912) 15.000 35-5 29 / I 1 4-7 in.Several powerful destroyers or flotilla leaders are building. Olympia. Feet. . Irriquieto. .S.c Clio r Naples 1 .500 1 6-pr.200 147 136 2.. 4 6-pr. .F. . I 4 14-pr. Tons. 2 14-pr.. Spica. Ard. . .. Where Built.. . 33 P. .-'S.... Cigno . .{ 1905-6 7-9 2.N. .000 i( 14-7 in. i l(Pattison)/ 1904 fl906 11907 6. Name or Number. Spezia. Aiorone Astore.

Italy continued. 181 .— FOREIGN TORPEDO-CRAFT.

Pestroterj Asatsuyu Hajakase —conhl.. . Japan continued. . Name or Number. . . .. Where Built. . . .. (1) Matfiukase Shirot aye Kikutsnkl Minatsuki Nagatsuki Utsuki . . .— 182 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

.J . I Feet.. ^^Yg-. Flushing 1904 1901 Draak Sfins Scylla Jleijudert Jentjes > Flushiug .. AVolf.' Built... FOREIGN TORPEDO-CRAFT.. Vos(l9li)I First Class— YaiTow Yarrow Yarrow Yarrow Fijenoord Fijenoord Fijenoord ..) | I (Ynlcan) Scheldt Fijenoord .n .g ^ " &Fijeuoord( ^ i Ruemer Vlaiq Pieier Constant .tg^|^ jg^^ 3 ^^... . Hydra Ophir Pangrango Rludjani . . 21-22 23-24 1913| 1914 < •' ' . .I . JohanvanBrakel.. . p 1 ^ ..500 I 30 Tauter. .. .. i' G <. 1 p. I wn^^v'^n Willemsz •• \\ illem •( . Feet. £73 Sh Destroyers — (1910) Feet. Where SO. . Knots.) . . . Python Zeeslang Krokodil ] . ^.\ Fluslmig . 23Q 20-6 9 2 480 V. Netlierlands. 1 j^„. Fret (1909) .( . . Jacob Cleydljk Janssen de Haan ^'''"-" .... . Dimensions. Tons. 1905 j . 183 Name or Number. Smeroe 1900 1901 1901 1901 1904 Ifl04 130 Tangka Wajang Minotaurus.. .^j.5 .

184 THE NAVAL ANNUAL Roumania. .

185 .— FOREIGN TORPEDO-CRAFT. Russia cont'ninefl.

. Name or Xumber. Spain. Bustamente Villamil Cartagena Cartapeiia . . llKSTROTESS Teiror — Clydebauk Clydebank . . . . . Diiucusions. . ..\s? 2 i boats Cartagena . . 180 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. Andaz Osado Proserpiua . Where Built.— . . . Cadarso KinsT Ci. Cartagena Poplar Poplar . Azor Halcon . .

. ^VTiere Built. L)ii 187 •s Vgrae or Number. Turkey.FOREIGN TORPEDO-CRAFT.

United States continued. .— 188 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

. [This table remains uuchanged.)(. Great Britain.AIRSHIPS.') . . ilueb progress has been made since it was ijrepared. N. 189 BRITISH AND FOREIGN AIRSHIPS.

Austria-Hungary. Xame. .190 THE XAVAL ANNUAL.

This Table is imlilished without alteiatii>ii>.AIRSHIPS. 191 France. ilake. Astia Zodiac . Xame.

192 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. . Place. Germany. AIRSHIP SHEDS. Enemy Powers.

PLANS OP BEITISH AND FOREIGN SHIPS. C 10 10 30 to :S 60 '0 so X FE rOO FEET TO 100 Scale for Plates. THE INCH 20Q .

.

.O Plate b 2 1.

b o 5 G Plate 2. .

' Q. .Z. . Plate 3.

.. Platk 4.I o c '.

Plate 5. .

99.000 tons . 101. 21-5-21-7S knots . Colossus. Speed. 1911 Armament. o small. Plate 6. BATTLESHIPS. Completed.. Neptune. 4—3 pr. 16—4 in.900-20. See paijes 97. Hercules. 10—12 in. . Lensth. 510 ft. .. GREAT BRITAIN. 19...

10 — 12 . 1906 . 490 ft. Dreadnought. . f 500 ft.. Plate 7 i . 5 small. 1910: Vangimrd Ai-mament.250 tons Speed.. 98. Completed. 1009 10 12 in. Bellerophon.— Length. 21-6-22 knots Completed. 24 — 12 — . . — .900 tons AiTuament. 5 small.B. : Armament. 4-3 pr. 10-12 18-4 in. Dreadnought. Collingwood. Temeraire. : 17. Vanguard. Speed. 19... BATTLESHIPS. 4—3 pr.. ? rniiYn^wnrtH l" Length. 102. St. 5 small. : : [— I^ength. See pages 97.600 tons Speed.. Temeraire Superb " 490 ft.. . 21-5-221 knots in. 21-8 knots in. Vincent. Superb. 103. —The masts are differently arranged in the later ships. 16 4 in. 18. Jf. Completed. .GREAT BRITAIN. pr.

19-5 knots : Completed. 410 ft.t ft. 16. Africa.. 24—12 pr. Hindustan. 10—9-2 in.. 5 small. . See page. Hibernia.GREAT BRITAIN. 103. Lord Nelson.350 tons . lS-75-18-9 knots Completed. 16..." 96. Agamemnon. : . 190S Armaraeut. BATTLESHIPS. Length. . 12—12 12—3 pr. 10—6 in. 4—9-2 in. . 42. King Edward VII. Length. Plate 8. Dominion.. Britannia.. 4—12 in. 18-5.. . . Speed.500 tons Speed. 1905-1906 pr. Commonwealth. Zealandia. 4—12 in. 101. 2—3 pr. See pagex 96-100.. Armament.

BATTLESHIPS. 11. f'SQr i4Pr i I4P' h J:5QF ^ 75 OF . Swiftsure. 436 ft. 12—6 in. . 75 QF I 15 OF Leiigtli.19-3 knots . ..GREAT BRITAIN. 1903-1904 pr..800 tons in. 99. 405 ft. . 2—3 and small. Exmouth.. See pages 96. . 1904 pr. Speed.. Russell. Length. 4—6 and small. 98. 4—12 in.. 18-6. 10—12 pr. : 14. Completed.. 102..000 tons . Speed. Plate 9. Armament. 4—10 14—7-5 14—14 pr. See patje 10. Cornwallis.. Armament. . 19-6 knots in. Completed.3.

Armament. 178-187 10 Armament. 97. Implacable.. — 12 pr. knots . Speed. 15. *Prince of Wales. 12—6 in. Glory. See pages 100-103. 4—12 in.&They Have nc Forward Bulkheaa Length... . See pages 96.. BATTLESHIPS. . *Queen. 18—18-3 knots . 99. 2—3 and small. 6. . .GREAT BRITAIN. Length. 400 ft. Completed. 12.000 tons in... 103. Albion. pr. 4—12 12—6 in.. Speed. Vengeance. 390 ft.. Canopus. 1901-1904.nQf 6mVf In These Ships 9 /krmourTapers to2'at 30 ft FromBon.950 tons . 6—3 pr. 16—12 pr. 1899-1902 . Cimipleted. Plate 10. and small.

. 12—6 in. 2 smal).GREAT BRITAIN. Magnificent. 3£0 ft. Jupiter. Armament. 4—12 in. 6 Qf 6 V' . 99-103. Plate 11. Length. Hannibal. 16—12 pr.. . 14.900 tons : Speed. 4—3 See pages d1. Victorious. Mars. 1895-1898 pr. ... 16 -5-18 -7 knots Completed.. Illustrious. BATTLESHIPS. Caesar. Prince George.

Plate 12. .

. .13 IS 2 .J -^ = o Ex 5N[5 (U £££ £z< Plate 13.

5 small. ARMOURED CRUISERS. 490 ft. Completed.GREAT BRITAIN. Length.50 tons Armament. pr. Speed. 16—12 See pages 98.. 22-3-23-3 knots in. Defence. 6—9-2 in. Shannon. 2 small. See page's 96.. Length.600 tons . .. 1906-1907 24—3 . 102. Natal. 13. Completed. Speed.. . Wr^^~. 1908-1909 pr. . 4—7-5 . Armament.. 4—9-2 10— 7 "5 in. 97. 101. 14. loi. 22 -5-23 -5 knots in. . Plate 14.. . 3 03. 4»0 ft.5. .

22-2-23-6 knots in. 20—3 pr. Speed. Roxburgh. 10. 9S._ iSL.— . . ._ ^ Length. GREAT BRITAIN... Length. 1906 . Completed. 480 ft.3/"- i—i—-—Hh± 3 ir^ _ ir^L _ P'. 3P'.. See page" 97..'3P'- iZ^L. 1 .. 6-9-2 10—6 in. 450 ft. Black Prince. .As I ^ . Argyll. Ouke of Edinburgh.550 tons . ARMOURED CRUISERS. 2 small. -* 3/"- t-ir% SPraP^apr 3Pr — —*— — * * 3P- J'/"" if 12 Pr -•* - 3Pr. 102. Armament.850 tons 4 . Plate 15. Antrim. Completerl. 22S-23-6 knots in. Hampshire. . Speeil. 1905-19i)ti See page" 96-99. 2 small. Ai-manient. 20—3 pr. 13. Devonshire. — 7-5 6—6 in.. Carnarvon.

GREAT BRITAIN. Kent. Cornwall. Berwick. .

1901-1904 pr..^ ^ —^ S. 440 ft. Bacchante. ™ffiSuf^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^SSSSi liuiuiuijjujuu':i'iiu... Plate 17 .GREAT BRITAIN.ui'iuiiiii. Speed. : 12. . S small.n gF Length. *— \ 1- -*. Euryalus. Armament. 12—6 in. 99.000 tons .. 103. 12—12 pr. 20-8— 21-S knots : Completed. 2—9-2 in. 3—3 See pages 97. SutleJ. ARMOURED CRUISERS.

.Plate 18.

.— to Plate 19. .

226 tons in... 390 ft.. 1905-1907 in. . 1910-1911 Armament. Radetzky. 20-20-6 knots in. See page 114. Erzherzog Friedrich..433 tons . 451 ft. .. 4-9-4 12-7-5 in. i 1 75" Lengtli. .. 2 small. Speed. 20-5 knots in. 4—12 S— 9-4 20—3-9 in. Zrinyi. Erzherzog Karl. : 14. Armament. Compk-ti-d. Speed. nQpTT T^P^ ' Lengtli. Plate 20. BATTLESHIPS. 6—12 pr. See page 114. AUSTRIA. Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand. . 7 5 . 12— 2-S IG small.. 10. . Completed.

. Kaiser Karl VI. 2—9-4 5—7-6 4—5-9 in. 384 7185 tons in. See page 114. 1900 small. Completed.. 367 ft. . 22 knots in. Speed.Speed. 1906 in. Georg.. Plate 21. 20-7 knots in. 9—2-8 16 small. . t—t- Length.. 6 QF ft.. 19 See pa{/e 114. .. Length. 6151 tons . AUSTFMA.. . 2—9-4 8—5-9 in. St. Completed. . ARMOURED CRUISERS. Armament. .. Armament.

. 8 small. BATTLESHIPS. Completed. Sao Paulo. . 1909. 19. Minas Geraes. . 1910. .. Speed. 500 ft. Armament. 12—12 22—4-7 in. Lensith.281 tons . See page 110 Platk 22.BRAZIL. 21 knots in.

.o - 5 a Platk 23.

.5 5 -< i Plate 24.

2:4 CO .

J J li& ' i ItW-^^ J Lensjth. Danton. .FRANCE.M. 14. 439 ft.. 159-^ I — 10 Q^"N o Completed.. 123. Armament. BATTLESHIPS. Mirabeau. Speed. Voltaire. 1911 Armament. . 19-3 knots in. 18. in..i^:q»^ 1 l!ili!IHiliill!llilil!^:::„. Verite. 19 7-20 -7 knots C'omijleted. Len^'tli. Diderot. 124 Plate 26. See panes 121-124.. 4— 12 in.. 1907-1908 28 small. See pages 121. t B^ ' n rr*rt«. . Justice. 12—9-4 in. 47G ft. .028 tons . 10 small. 16— 12pr. Democratie. : J 3 ^ : Speed.635 tons 4 — 12 . Vergniaud. Condorcet. — 7-6 .

. Completed. . Seepage 124. 19-1 knots Completed. 1903 in. 14. 64^n ^'^"S'' . 12. 18 knots in. Patrie. 439 ft. 412 ft. BATTLESHIPS. See page 124. . . Length. 4—12 Speed.. 28 small. 1906 in. Armament. Speed. .^-^6 4'QF bE^— Q Length.. Plate 27.527 tons in. .. Armament.— FRANCE. Suffren. . 4—12 10—6-5 8—3-9 22 small.635 tons ... Republique. . . 18-64 in.

11. 1898-1900 in.. See page 122. . . Speed.108 tons . 124. Length. 14 small. 17-2 knots in.. 354 ft. 122. Plate 28. 1902 7— 5-5 . Charlemagne.7r^Jnl I ^^Y i Length...FRANCE. 18 knots . !in-i. St. in. . Completed. Armament. . 10—5-5 in. BATTLESHIPS.. 8807 tons 2 Armament. 4—12 in. 8-3-9 34 small. }|. . Henri IV. See pa{jes 121. Completed. Louis. —10-8 . 385 ft. Speed.

Armament.. 17 8 knots in. 382 ft. 24 small. Ernest Renan. 515 ft.. . . ARMOURED CRUISER. BATTLESHIP. .FRANCE. . Completed. 14 75' i |__il !2n g^^^^^^^^ —^mS5^— ^75: Length. 2o-o knots in.. .954 tons in. See page 121.-127 tons 4 . .See page 122. . Completed. . Length. Armament. 1897 30 small. Plate 29. 11. 2—12 2—10-8 8—5-5 in. —7-6 Speed. 12—64 in. 13... Carnot. Speed. 1909 .

Armament. 1-2. 124. . 6-3-9 small. . : fi5" 4 9856 tons . 225-23 knots Completed 1904-1907 16—6-4 in. 1903-1904 in. . ! '^ Length. Cond^. Completed. .— FRANCE. Jules Ferry.. Speed. 4S0 ft.MJA'" Length.351 tons .. Victor Hugo. Plate 30.. ARMOURED CRUISERS. -20 .}. 24 small. Armament. . 453 ft.6^(?r e rrrj — -.. Speeil. 4—7-6 in. 2—7-6 8-6-4 in. See pages 121. Amiral Aube. 21-21-9 knots in. Gloire. 122. —0—a^^ 0= ^—. See pages 123.. 12. Marseillaise.

Armament. 123. : Hie pages 122. . 1902-190. Armament. 12X Plate d 31. S— 64 in. 21-22-5 knots in.53 ft. Dupetit-Thouars. Completed. 3 3 QF Length. 757S tons . Sjieeii. 21-21-7 knots . 4 Completed.tl). . Guevdon..5 -3-9 in. 42G ft. ARMOURED CRUISERS. . 4—3-9 in.. 1903-1904 Sv« yage^ 122. 9367 tons : Speed. 2—7-6 8—6-4 in.. 14 small.. Dupleix. - — e 4 QF J ^ I h ^"^^ ^ Leiif. .FRANCE. 4.

Completed. . . 1901 . 1903 Armament. Completed. 440 ft. 7 knots in.F 55 QF Length. . 64 QF 6-4'QF Lengtli. Pr... 5595 tons . Jeanne d'Arc. 14—5-5 26 small.FRANCE. 21 in. . 477 ft.. 11. S— 64 12 small. . 5 3'<?F 5 5 q. Speed. 22-9 knots in.092 tons . Speed.ATE 32. Seepage 123. 2—7-6 . See page 126. Jurien de la Gravifere. Armament. ARMOURED CRUISER.

Plate d 2 33. .

Plate 34. .

3 " Platk 35. .

.•-E Plate 36.

Schlesien Schleswig-Holstein. 6 TQ. . 22-3-4 . Deutschland. 452 ft. Speed. BATTLESHIPS. Plate 37. paoei 127. Rheinland. 398 ft. Nassau. Length.. Completed. Hannover Pommern. 129. 12—11 12—6 in. 129. 1906-1008 8 small.040 tons . Armament..600 tons .See .. . ir m i r ^ 12SS2 m: f^ 6 7Qr <J 7<?/- I. 14— 6-" in. . 18-5—19-5 knots in. 1909-1910 16—3-4 in. 18. 13. Armament.. in. Completed. .GERMANY. . 20-20-7 knots in.r 6TQr Length. .. 4—11 Speed. See page" 1-28.

18—18-7 kncits : Completed.GERMANY. -20 (. Armament. 1-29. 1-28. Length. 129. Ann. .'ompleted. Wittelsbach. 4—9-4 18—6 in. Preussen. Lothringen. Hessen.011 tons . . Speed. . Set pages 128. 1904-1L06 .unent. BATTLESHIPS Braunschweig. 12-3-4 in. 12.. Speed.. 14—6-7 in. Wettln. 18—19 knots in. 398 ft.. 18—3-4 in... Plate 38. 11. . 4—11 in.997 tons .. Schwaben. Zahringen. and small. 190-2-1903 small. 394 ft. Mecklenburg. . See 2>a^es 1'27. ^m lJillii!l!ii!il!!iii!!llillliliiilil!lli!!illi!ii '^f-N_ 6 7 or 6 7QF j>40 34QF 34QF Length.

18 knots . Kaiser Karl der Grosse. 377 ft. Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. 12—3-4 Coniplete. . Kaiser Friedrich III.GERMANY.474 tons : Speed.l. ^ee page 128. 18—6 in. Kaiser Barbarossa Length.S)ipeistnic-tni-t' has lieen cut flown..\te 39.. 4—9-4 NoTK. . 10. Pl. — . Kaiser Wilhelm II. BATTLESHIPS. 1898-1901 in. Armament. in.. 20 small.

3 ^ .-T Ui Plate 40.S a P. .

.T3 IS „ • ft— Pr.ATK 41.

:'!ii^^:i!!iliii!illi!|ll!liii^^ Length. 2—9-4 in. 8759 tons . 20-3— 20-5 knots in. . Prinz Adalbert. : Completed.Speed. : 88. 12 — 34 in.. Platk 42.. 396 ft. 20 Armament. '=^ Leiifrth. ^!!iilrii!l'l!l!^|i^^!. . 7 small. 'i'-^Z ft. 4—8-2 10—6 in.. Prinz Heinrlch.. .GERMANY. . •iee path' 129.. Aniianieiit. Se/.poffe 120. 19<>2 10—3-4 in. knots Completed. 10—5-9 in..S tous : Speed. ARMOURED CRUISERS. KOZ-Uri :i : small.

..-IVIississippiV Lenglli.. 16-3 8 small.. Ainianient.000 tons in. Completed. Speed. . 4-12 &-8 8-7 in. See page IM.GREECE.. . BATTLESHIPS. . 8—7-5 in. . 24 knots . Giorgios Averoff. See pane 134. 12—3 20 small. Lemnos^AV-ldahoi. : 13. 190S in. Completed. 430 ft. 37o ft. . Speed. : Armament... Plate 43. Kilkis (f:. 4—9-2 in.. IV knots in. . Lentith. 9956 tons . ARMOURED CRUISER. 1911 in.

PLATli ii. .

.400 tons. . 14—12 pr. BATTLESHIPS. and small. 22. See page 135 Dante Alighierl. 12—12 20—4-7 in.340 tons .ITALY. Armament. Conte di Cavour. 13—12 Speed. 5(5 ft. 22 -5-23 knots 1914— Building in. Leonardo da Vinci... . Plate 15. . age 135. Completed. Length. 23-8 knots in. 4-7 4-7 4-7 11^ Length.. . 18— 4-7 in. 557 ft. . 19. Giulio Cesare. Speed. 1912 See J Armament.

136 Plate 46.'th. . 4—12 in. 42G It. Completed. 13. 2—12 in. 12. 19-5-20-2 knots ...". K>—•^ in. 1904-190. 135 ft.. 4— S in.. Regina Margherita.. Vittorio Emanuele Leii'. Completed. 1907—1909 in.. 12—3 12 small. Speed. . 22 knots . Speed. See page Via Benedetto Brin.. Sie pages Vii>. 10 small.214 tolls . Armament. 6Qf 6Qr e'gr e'tf Lenutli. .. 12—8 in. Aiiniiment.425 tons . . 12— C in.

1909 2 small. ARMOURED CRUISERS. 23 knots . 6'C. Length. 8 — 4-7 in. See page 135. Plate 47. 9645 tons iu. .r 6"Q/ .. 4—10 8—6 in.. Completed. 4—10 in.. Length..ITALY. ISS knots Armament.. 16—3 in.. . . See pages 135. . 9956 tons . Armament. 430 ft. Speed. Bon. 344 ft. Emanuele Filiberto. BATTLESHIPS. . Completed. Speed. 8—7-5 in. . 1901-1902 2—2-9 in. 136. Ammiraglio di St.. 8 small.

48. Francesco Ferruccio. Speed. . 10—3 in. Completed. 1910 small. 1901-1904 . 1—10 2—8 in... ARMOURED CRUISERS. Leugtl). Armament. Marco. 136. Completed.. 7294 tons in. 22-5 knots . 8—8 in. . 16—3 in. 8 See page 13C. 344 ft... 14—6 in. : 9832 tous . 8 small. 4—10 in... 1 1^ c">- 1 rr rv MEiiiii^^ h I 4 ^ e<?r 6Cf 6'Of Leugth. Amiament. Platf. Giuseppe Garibaldi. «S. . Giorgio. 430 ft.ITALY. See pages 135. 20 knots . . S. Speed.

1911 .. Armament. . 20-5 knots Completed.800 tons in. I Settsu. . BATTLESHIPS. Length. 500 ft. 8 small. 12—12 in. 141. — ... Completed.. 10—6 in.. 1912 Annanient. See paye 139. -^ Lenstli. Q- 19.JAPAN. .. 16 small. 8 i'7 in. Aki. — .' 20-5 knots in.8—12 pr. 2 . . See pages 140. 400 ft.420 tons Speed. 4—12 12—10 8— C in. 21. . Plate e 49. Speed. Kawachi.

420-425 ft.JAPAN. 4—12 See paje 141. 12—12 pr. 19. 1910 pr. Katori. . "6' LtMiiith. BATTLESHIPS.. .. ..350 tons in. 18-5 knots in. Satsuma... Armament. Speed.. Completed. 4—12 12—10 12—4-7 in.. . 19-5 knots Completed. y^s' . Kashima. 11 small.. . Armament. 4—12 4—10 in. 15.950-16. 450 ft.'lOOe . See page 140. ^ . Speed. Length. 12—6 in.400 tons in. 8 small. . Plate 50.

aj 00 I 2 5 I Plate 51. .

F 'e'QF 3' O Note.QF . ie. See page 139. BATTLESHIPS. 18 knots . Completed. . 12.: In F 3'0 F the "Pobieda" the Belt Ext en ::s the Full Length oF the Ship . Speed.: JAPAN. Armament. Leugtli.. 12-6 in. 18 knots in. 4—12 in.. 374 ft.674 tons in. Sagami late Peresviet. . Completed. Hizen late Retvizan. Plate 52.60. 20-3 pr. 401 ft.F 6Q^J J-^-JI \6VF . : 12. See page 141. Speed. 6'QF yp/r 3 OF •^ '"' 3 OF 6 Q.. 1901 Armament. Suo late Pobieda.. 4—10 10—6 20—12 pr.6Vr \-6VF Length. .700 tons . and small. 1902 small... .

14. Completed.... Seepage 141. . 189S : Armament. Speed. ^"' „. Shikishima. BATTLESHIPS. 5 9QF. Plate 53. 14 small. .765 tons Speed. 10.000 tons . /la'-c 6iti ^Jtio funnels.. Asahi. 141. 18— lS-3 knots in. | iF= ijajeI CO I !. See panes 139.. f=^ .a tgFL f . 16 knots in. . Tango Poltava.a 64» ^ g^B ^ /!:"|i*iiil|ilMl»%!%!w^^ a»a«ffiMia^^^i 6 V 6'P'' 6"i}f e'tff e'Qf -ira^-^-ESSS3iQ i-^ T/ie " Asahi " . 4—12 12-5-9 in. 4—12 14—6 late 20—12 pr. Armament.'f> m f=^.JAPAN. Completed. 1899-1900 . . Length. 12 small. . 400 ft. 5 9 OF ^J^-^Len"tli 367 ft. in..

11 Plate 54.1 1 f. .

9 . Ibuki. ^ : 13.. ARMOURED CRUISERS. T Length. i 12 in.620 tons . 450 ft. 1 1 r 14. small.. 12-4-7 in. 14 —4-7 . 440 ft. 1909—1911 in. 140. — . See pages IZO.. .JAPAN. 12 6 in. 8—8 in. Kurama.. . 4—12 in. Completed.750 tons Speed. 141. 21 knots Completed. Speed. t ^/i ^ V Length. .. 8 small. 19U7 Anuament. — See pages 139. Plate 55.. 22 knots Arraanieut.

22 knots in. 141. 344 ft. See page 139. Speed.s in. 7630 ton. Completed.. Length. 10—3 8 small. 1904 in. . Armament. . . Completed. See pages 140.JAPAN. 443 ft. I ^ CT: '.. The Nisshin has guns fore barbette. Nisshin.. Kasuga. .. ARMOURED CRUISERS. n 6-7 rTrr iliiiiililiiliiliilliinriimiiliilrliiiiu S£^a 3 F 3 OF . 7726 tons . Aso late Bayan. Plate 56. T 8 in. . Speed.. 22 small. 1902 .. Length. 20 knots in. S \\¥E?!r-~ cc 6^ m Ulllllilllllliiiilliiiiim iiiiiiliiiiliiiliiiiii!iiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiii6iliiiiiMliiiiiiiiii:iiiiiiiii!S 6 QF 6~0F 6CF ~o 6 X" (?F T in t 2.. . 2—8 8—6 in. Ai-mament. 1—10 2—8 14—6 in.

Tokiwa. See page 143.. 12 12 pr. 22 -1—23 knots . Plate 5^ .Speed..^ JAPAN. 141. Armament. G500 tons . 14—6 in. 23 knots . 1900 in.. 4—8 in. CRUISER. .. See pages 139. 420 ft. Speed. . Armament. Completed. ARMOURED CRUISERS.. Asama. . ^a im irTiTfflTiinTTMMIMl ||il l l l l iill l l ll i l lilllll l !H I I! l !l ! l lll ^ I lll!lliHill l llii|lli!l — Tmmi. 1899 8 small. 408 ft. S Of 6 Of 1 I 6 or S Bf Length. Soya late Varyag. 9850 tons . 12—12 pr. — . ^ — ——— — ^ f ^ ^ Length. 12—^ . Completed. 6 small.

. . Completed.. NORWAY. 2—8-2 6—6 in. 6 small. . Armament. 1902—1906 small. Armament. See page 146. Koningin Regentes. 16-5 knots Completed. Marten Tromp. 8-12 pr. Speed. De Ruyter.F h ^:y3Qr k O— 3QF C OF . 2—9-4 in. Norge. COAST DEFENCE SHIPS. NETHERLANDS. 4—6 in. . Length.. Length. 16-5 knots-. 1901 in.. Eidsvold. 10—3 in.. r- HOO^^ -lil£_ . 317 ft.. . 290 ft. Plate 58. 6Q. 5014—5211 tons Speed. COAST DEFENCE SHIPS. 4 See page H4.. 3847 tons. Hertog Hendrik.

"3

m

3<N

OM

Plate

59,

"

CI <—

IJ.

-

I

Plate

60.

;

RUSSIA.
BATTLESHIPS.
Andrei
Pervozvannyi.

Imperator Pavel.

4-7"

4.-7''

Length, 430

ft.

;

17,400 tons

;

Speed, 18 knots

Armament, 4—12

in.,

14—8

in.,

Completed, 1910—1911 12—4-7 in., 14 small.
;

See pages 14 S,

14!).

loann Zlatoust.

fl

p—r*C.u
\
,

1

5,

jms^ 'WZL
r,"

•*
i

-ji.ig::-i

6"

6'

6'

6

3

3'

3"

Length, 372

ft.

;

12,733 tons
iu.,

;

Speed, 16 knots
in.,

Armament, 4—12

4—8

12

—6

;

in., 14

—3

t'ompleted, 1910-11
in.,

;

18 small.

See page 148.

Plate

61.

RUSSIA.
BATTLESHIPS.
Slava.

\

l

iiiltlfitt^'

/o-

/

CBIi^-

—rmM ^L

Xl4El .,^ ,^i4.^i^s^is
|

-Ci.

X

"

U>
!•
•3

Ll^
'

Ij^

O

U^ O^

I.

3

3

T T T333

;

ia-'

Length, 367

ft.

;

Armament,

13,516 tons ; Speed, 18 knots ; Completed, 1905 i 12 in., 12 6 in., 34 3 in., and small.

See page 149.

Cesarevitch,

-m

Q n
©
iS)

-6^

I

:5 r-^^ :

®

Sir
1

n

I

I

^

JV
Length, 389
ft.
;

-<"

3"<if
;

12,912 tons

Speed, 19-6 knots

;

Completed, 1903
12 small.

Armament, 4—12

;

in.,

12—6

in.,

20—3

in.,

See page 148.

Plate

62.

RUSSIA.

BATTLESHIPS.

Panteleimon.

,

3'Q.F 3-QF 3-Q.F

..-_

^'^ 60.F
Length, 372
ft.
;

6 i)> e (?>
;

^'^'^
6'(?r
;

12,582 tons
in.,

;

Speed, 17 knots

Completed, 1902
14 small.

Armament, 4—12

16—6

in.,

14—

.3

in.,

See page 149.

Rostislav.

6'OF

6

Of

e
I

&-^-^
18

QF

a OF IB'O.F iB'Q'f 18
8880 tons
;

f
;

Length, 341

ft.

;

Speed, 16 knots
ui.,

Completed, 1000

;

Armament, 4—10

8—6

in.

;

16 small.

See pa(je H'J.

Platp: 63.

f

o O

"
r

0)

00
I

8.

""A

o

Platk 64

RUSSIA.
ARMOURED CRUfSERS.
Gromoboi.

^
i
i


iBcfs"
iiii
iii
i i

M

et
lli
i

t

ritgfs"

1*^45''
WTib iJli;

^
' i
i

'
!

r^T^

1

I

Iff:

|ga*|-5"

X
i!:.
l

'i.l::!!i;ii:!'

lliuii l

iil

l;i

i

!

iii

!

li

iiil.iiiiHl iiiii. iiiiilii;iii,.i
l

l

iii:!

n; i.!ml illllil
i

i l

H ii

i

!

li

i i l l

!ii! l'^

^

^f-

Length, 473

ft.

;

13,220 tons
in.,

;

Speed, 20 knots

;

Completed, 1900
11 small.

;

Armament, 4—8

22—6

in.,

20—3

in.,

See page 148.

Lengtl), 480

ft.

;

12,195 tons
in.,

;

Speed, 20 knots

;

Completed, 1807
20 small.

;

Armament, 4—8

22—6

in.,

12—3

in.,

See page 149.

Plate

65.

Completed. 1902-1904 Armament. 12—6 12--3 in. . Bogatyr.. See page 150. . ^C ^^i^^^SHU . . 23-8 knots in. 5905 tons . 23-24 knots in. 14 small. 6675 tons . . 426 ft. See pages 150. .. 151...^ 6 Length. Plate 66. 417-440 ft. Speed. 6CFi 6'or 60 F r-f ^ I —— — ? 30 F Q — e —o^ t I 6 Q. OF . Speed. 14 small. Completed. Oleg. 1901 Aniiament.— RUSSIA. 12—6 12—3 in.F ^ ' :iOF Length.

Plate 67. ' W't't'U' t . 4—3-9 12 small.Carlos V.. G0S9 tons . 15. 8— 55 in. 3S0 ft. 1898 in. . "-"^ . Jaime I. ^' Length. 8—12 20—4 6 small. 20 knots . 19-5 knots in.SPAIN.. Length... .460 tons Speed. Emperador. BATTLESHIPS. Armament. Aiiuament. See page 152. . 2—11 in. Espana completed 1913 . Alphonso XIII. ARMOURED CRUISER. 435 ft. See page 152. Building in. Espana. . . Completed. Speed..

Completed. Speed. 16-5-17-2 knots • : Armament. .. 14 small. Oscar II. Tapperheten. 2—8-2 6—5-8 in. Completed. See page 154. 4203 tons . COAST DEFENCE SHIPS. Armament.F. 2—8-2 8—6 in. J^^ in. Aeran. 3612 tons .. . 314 ft. 1902-1906 . .SWEDEN. BATTLESHIP. 287 ft. 1907 See page 154. 22Q. 14 small. Speed. Plate 68. 18 knots in.. Length.. 22 Ql Length. Manligheten.

. 22 knots . . 390 ft. 16-5 knots in. . SHIP. Completed. 6— 5'9 12 small. 8—6 iu. . Building pr. 4-11 in. Sverige. Speed. Armament. See page 154. 7. . Lengtlf.SWEDEN.100 tons . Lengtli. — 8 2 in. . 1901 . 6—12 See page 154. Armament.. ARMOURED CRUISER. . Platr 69. COAST DEFENCE Dristighelen. 285 ft. 3445 tons 2 .. Speed.

22-2 knots Armament. 3432—3800 tons . Completed. 1-2— 5-9 in. 1904 • ' in. .. : 22. . Yavuz Selim (Ex Goeben). 10— ]1 Speed. 8-4-7 in. Length.TURKEY BATTLE-CRUISER. Plate 70. 12 small. . Armament. Hamidieh. 1912 in. 2—6 .. i 1 Length.640 tons . 331—340 ft. 810 ft. Speed. See page 157. 12—3-4 in. 2S-5 knots Completed... See Plate 41 and page 136.

> 5 Cm Plate 71 .

o 9 S Platk 72... .

.Plate 73.

.< H CO LU h- co Q LU h z D o^ w' a Plate 74.

4.. 1910 . Completed.... ISS knots in. . 21-21-6 knots in..000 tons . F Utah. 10 small. 14—5 16—5 in. Speed. . Completed. Sptfl. South Carolina. .^0 ft. fee pages 158. 160. Length. 10—12 in. 160. Armament.825 tons . 510 ft. . 161. 10—12 Length.')10 ft. Armament. Michigan. BATTLESHIPS. North Dakota. Utah / Armament. . 16. Completed. Platk 75.. 21-5 knots in.000 tons 21. in. 8—12 22—3 14 small. 20. 1911 See jmgeii 153. Delaware North Dakota Florida \ I ) Length. . UNITED STATES. .. Speed. IC small. . . 1909 .

12—3 30 small.948 tons . .eQ_E Q.. 3 g. Length. only 2— 3-in. and have has two military masts in place of the towers. Sec pages 15S. Minnesota. -^>--e-— Length. New Jersey. 159. 4—12 in. 161. 14. Nebraska. . Georgia.. : 16. . Plate 76.. New Hampshire... Armament. \&p. guns at the stern.e UNITED STATES. 450 ft..000 tons . BATTLESHIPS. EQF. . 12—6 in. Kansas.F... Vermont. Completed. 18-1— lS-8 knots . Louisiana. belt instead of 9 in. New Hampshire Connecticut and Louisiana have 11 in. 1906-1907 in. 8—8 in. 8—8 in. 1906-1908 in. . Speed. \eQ.. Virginia.F. 19—19-4 knots . OF. 4—12 in. Minnesota has one mast and one tower.F.F. Connecticut.F. Armament. 12—7 in. 20—3 30 small. \GQ. See pages 158-161. Rhode Island. Completed. Speed. 435 ft.

I 4.F.| 6"q. 6-3in. j. 4—12m.M'Ui-:cGii»i<it!kiM j Length. iro See pages .UNITED STATES. . . See pages loS.G53 tons Speed.f. 6.500 tons Speed..-a loO. . Aimameut.. f 14— 6 in. . 17—17-45 knots in. 4— 13 24 small.. 6"q..Q. „„.fj .16-6in.. .18small.mirI4^/&''»a.i..i.p.. 1902-1904 12. Length 388 ft.. Armament. f .e'q. f .F. Ohio. 17-8— 18-1 knots Completed. 368 ft. Plate 77. 161. Alabama.sVf- . Completed. . 1900-1901 . I . I j. 11. rMKi\i. fc!»i":i:tifti*ei':MMiii!Vi„i:3.5G5— 11. lo9.

1906-1907 . 18—3 in. Seepages 1£9. . North Carolina.F. 30 small. See pages 158-161. I -i I 1 I I i 6 Q. Colorado. —— © . 3VF e- T^T-^r^^ 13. 6 Q.\rmanient. 4—1 16—6 22—3 in... 22—22-4 knots . Pittsburg. . 4—8 in. 502 ft. South Dakota. 1 3"q. ARMOURED CRUISERS. Washington.F. 22— 22-5 knots in. 161. 3 Q-f- 3 QF. Maryland. 14-C in. 3"o.F. in. iG'gr isvf [6"qF le-oF \6'gr 3"gF 3'iF 3'qF —e Length. Completed.680 tons Speed. Speed.f. .500 tons . 14. 3"Q.. 3 Q. Armament. West Virginia. Length.I160. San Diego (Ex California).F..UNITED STATES. . Completed. 502 ft.f..f. . i s'Jq.F. 1S06-1908 22 small. Plate 78. Tennessee. ..F.F. 6 'q. 6 Q. 3"o.

ENEMY AND NEUTRAL ORDNANCE TABLES. GERMAN ORDNANCE. .PART III.

.

Ersatz Worth and T. In previous volumes of the Naval Annucd the section devoted to armour and ordnance has dealt with many scientific and technical questions relating to the attack and defence of ships. which were to be completed in the summer of 1916.PAET III. There does not seem to be anything material to note with reference The Germans. The ordnance tables relating to these new tables are included of Krupp The anti-aircraft guns.und Maschinenfabrik (Ehrhardt). Some of these guns are also illustrated. The Germans have always been very proud of the Krupp gun. gun will form the main armament of the new battle-cruisers also. The as is available concerning the ordnance of much useful information the German and Austro- Hungarian Navies. but nothing has happened in the War to show that it is the equal of the guns to which it has been opposed. for the Eheinische INIetallwaaren. five Kaisers. which is certainly a good weapon. In the new class of battleships. Austrian guns from the 2 . and and other guns of the Ehrhardt pattern of the Diisseldorf Company. and the Dillingen armour-plate works have doubtless largely increased their output. and within recent years a great many new object is inventions and appliances have heen is described and illustrated. of which The same details are given in the Krupp and German official tables. Navies are retained. advanced to the 12-in. as also the Derfflinger battle-cruiser. or is This year nothing of the kind solely to give as intended. of Diisseldorf. gun will be mounted. the 15-in. the 11-in. tables of the ordnance of neutral Powers are also given. possible. The Krupp monopoly is apparently broken by the War. and the four Helgolands. in subsequent classes. who held to to the ship guns of the enemy navies. gun in the first Dreadnought class (Nassau). and four Konigs are so armed. but all tables and other information relative to the guns of the Allied Powers are omitted. and other companies have been producing guns for the sea and land services. but which will doubtless be commissioned much earlier. ENEMY OEDNANCE.

much faster than cement concrete. would cleave through several metres of concrete before exploding. which I was told would harden in two hours. before he was enlightened. (c) The bedding of these howitzers when in position for firing was said to be plaster of paris. to General de Guise that the rapid destruction of the attacked forts namely. : — . among other things. Pilsen. the most remarkable ordnance feature of the the Skodawerke and by Krupp.) in diameter. I reported. produced both by These were used with remarkable in the Belgium. and was two and a half months war news from German There was much talk about the 42cm. The largest gun shown Krupp table is a coast- defence 16-in. The shorter its howitzer for field use would. He plainly told me he did not believe in the existence of such a weapon. only in the Army service. It was not long. Indeed. I am certain that in Austria and Germany only a few privileged persons were in the secret. have also been used by the Germans. Major-General Sir Desmond O'Callaghan. . writing on this question in the Times. A colonel of the French garrison artillery who came to Antwerp with the Creuzot 12cm. effect in War has been the appearance in the field of 16'o-in. Pictures certainly bore this out. ever. and many others of my brother officers saw it at the " Quartier General de la Position " in Antwerp. the rapid conduct of which was on all hands attributed to them One of their shells. 50-calibre piece. Skodawerke. (11-in. [d) A full-sized illustration of the shell was exhibited in several shop windows for a few days. General de Guise showed it to me himself. which must have been thrown from a more powerful weapon than the German 28cm. and showed two driving bands and a was said that each charge cost £1950. gave the information on the subject of a gentleman in the West of England who had lived a great deal in caught by the sources. He When I reached Antwerp on August 27th. enormous weight of such a weapon for field service was manifestly so great that some doubt was felt as to the i^evertheless. and were extraordinarily heavy weapons to bring into the field. distributing the weight over the permanent way through a multiplication of axles. howitzers required (as I suppose all great guns do) railway carriages c5f special construction. after the fall of Namur. however. where I had been on duty from the 8th to the 2. but. and then confiscated by the police. War in that country. (4'7-in.) howitzers could hardly believe his eyes when he was shown the palpable proof of the existence of a weapon unknown to the French artillery officers. howitzer and other similar but smaller pieces of Austrian construction. — — . December 16th. As regards the 42cm. put an end to howany questioning on that matter. where for he was in the way of hearing a good deal of Germany. weighing 102*5 tons. the actual existence of the howitzer. A f^ rough sketcli of this shell it front steadying band. it was said. (6) The transport of the 42cm. howitzers.3rd. .) gun. in a letter printed in Truth. be lighter in proportion to size. as there was no official evidence of its being part of the enemies' armament.. A few weeks later the commander of the Fort de Wavre-Sainte-Catherine was able to send him the base of one of these large shells that had fallen on the fort its measurement showed that it was 42cm. so far as is known. (16"5-iu. ]Marchovelette and Maizeret was to be attributed to the overwhelming effects of some of the shells. howitzers.— 196 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. the information which I gathered may be summed up as follows («) They were first spoken of in connection with the seige of Liege. A said : Belgian artillery officer. of course. and then burst deep down with devastating effect. .

. mounted for high-angle fire. As their issue was a surprise to the Army. and.). by a heavy German (naval) gun (possibly a 12-in. and and only a few (it was generally said three) were ready at the factory. and they were Krupp when war broke out none them had been issued. The only othej' point to which attention shall be drawn here is the extent to which the German submarines have made use of their guns.HEAVY ORDNANCE. in fact. had saved. is another example of the manner in which the enemy has been able to use very heavy ordnance in the field. besides saving valuable time in the save. which were issued and despatched to Belgium. served entirely by Krupp's artificers. directors of that congratulated his country (and incidentially his firm) on the achievements of these howitzers. he said. and would continue to thousands of German lives. a range of 23f miles. These howitzers were undoubtedly made of Ijy 197 the firm." The bombardment of Dunkirk from a position in the rear of Dixmude. Referring to a doubt that had been expressed as to their durability. belong to a class which combines some of the powers both of the destroyer and the submarine. he said. prosecution of the War. in a speech reported in the One of the German papers. the gunners were ignorant of their use. which. They no longer depend upon the torpedo alone. firm. " There are not fortresses on earth to wear out one of our great mortars.

198 .

199 ^ .

. High-Angle Ship Gux.200 KRtPP 3-4-iN.

201 .

Gun. GU>'. EHKIIAKDT tt-l-IN. with Teleslopic Sights Mounted.202 Ehbhardt 3-46-in. WITH SHIELD. .

M^ '^•:r a 5 <B .IC ^ O 2.-^ o « 02 M >o!2. H^M ^^-g hJ7 ij J^ '^i4 i!f2'3 .

ui O — eo t> 00 (M eo i-i 1-1 (M eo (M t^ l-H 00 • * *! I-H -3 w (M * f— ^ o p o > a »— p . t> C5 IM CO c^ — o — • m irj -g cj 00 .— .204 I> lit -^ ei — C^ t— t-- (N O O i-H t-- r- — i-IC0'«»<O<N(MOTti -v oi coeooo^rri-Hi-i o I^ --I 00 o O (M IM i-i eo i-H O x K O C.^ Wo t> OD o Tt< c^ Oh t> eo r-l t^ O t~ IM <M lO t~ * CC to o •*«oor~eoiM<N(N I (M t> (M CO * <N ^ l> « t.

.

> < .206 o o o < p o h.

ag • < Q O > B C/2 .

208 .

^ ^: ^: X "o s — m i i> X i.> PH PH i-( « — p™ (M ©q ©J e<i (M r: eo -*< o ~. r.t^ so oo:rc<is<i r. o •— i) II 5>- So 00 3 n o « g -ti-ti rH -H rH Pi iq p-l i-H ©« N e^ IM W * TtH «0 O 35 X O i-l (M M CO 0» X 00 t^ — ?^ +! -M t^ xoo c-. iocs ox (MO «CO-rC:i-~t^— cqt^Tp«xxc50-+i I- -fI>CO~--<t>—<—"-H ' IN 5<l t^C<I«0 «0 iC (M •* (N W X l> Sq •* 0«0 OOiMM(XiOtOOO->tl i-t-H pHcq(N <M.coMCO eocox-*io o cow x-H — rt-fio^ooriM .t'-^: xoso cooi":~ OS — — oioxoci X " t.

210 o .

.

Length. . Table Relating to Conversion of Measures.212 THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

ATMO'PHEKIC TO English.Metkh. English to Atmospheric. I. .'.irH TO . PRESSURE. Mkti:ic to English.CONVERSION OF MEASURES.i. 213 Kv.

.

.PART STATISTICS. STATEMENTS AND PAPERS. OFFICIAL IV.

.

German announcement purKingdom a German war area. and Nelson was more than two years Toulon. carrying on the commerc3 on which the wealth. Sir November 9th the First Lord He had said : John Jellicoe and others. November 2. We the are only just beginning.) the porting to declare the waters surrounding the United . the war depend.) his speech on the Xavy Estimates. and the power of In the next twelve months the number of Government ships which will be completed for this country is double the number that will be completed for Germany. maintaining the whole trade of the country on an enormous scale in all parts of the world. our ships were " arriving safely at their destinations." Churchill explained the many high duties of Fleet in securing the highways of the seas. safeguarding the transport of great armies. and the number of cruisers three or four times as great. Mr. This part of the Naral Annual has hitherto baeu devoted mainly to the British Xavy Estimates and In this of the it Xavy Estimates includes certain of the principal Powers. War War. February 4th (V. (III. Our time will come. (IV. Edition official statements — British. operations of the War.) the Admiralty Statement instituting the North Sea as a British war area.) the First Lord's Commons.) the Order in Council of March 11th in reply. 1914 . American. I think I am on solid ground when I come here to-night and say that you may count upon the naval supremacy of this country being effectually maintained against the German power for as long as you like. 1914. Churchill delivered a significant speech at a meeting of the citizens of London that at the said in five or London Opera House on September 11th." and that.) the United States Note to the German Government thereon (VI. February loth. We must not be impatient. They " Cornwallis been speaking with was nearly off' three years off Brest. and — (ir. Eeference may be made here to certain other statements. Therefore. with inconsiderable exceptions. and (VII. In his speech at the Guildhall on referred to the high spirit of the Fleet." industries.PART IV. and enabling ether .) some official despatches on the . He six weeks of war we had " swept German commerce from the seas. and the upon the conduct Statement in the House of German which throw light They are (I. ^Ir. November 27.

to draw the attention of the House. First Royal Naval Brigade Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur K. and entered at once upon a period of field training to fit them for service abroad if required in the New Year. to some of the larger aspects of the naval situation at the present time. will be completely equipped in all respects bj' the Admiralty with field hospitals. armies to be created. cyclists. and will remain available for service afloat should any unexpected needs arise. He spoke also of the growing economic its full effect. The King has been pleased to approve the appointment of the following officers as honorary colonels of the several brigades: Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone. An aeroplane squadron from the naval wing. Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. FIRST LOED'S STATEMENT. and have been la camp since August 19th. 10th. If at any time the naval situation becomes sufficiently favourable to enable this force to be definitely released by the Admiralty for military duty. The cadres of their eight battalions have been formed from the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. 1914. Danger The British Kavy was confronted with four main perils. The eight battalions of the two Naval Brigades will each be named after an admiral. and machine guns. complete with transport.dract. Royal Marine (3rd).. Anson (8th) Royal Marine Brigade— 9th. if the House will permit me. Brigade. and thi'ough the House the attention of the country. — of Then there was the danger. and has already been employed on active service at Ostend. etc. the whole comprising the infantry of one division. 11th. will be available when required. to be called the Royal Naval Division. requiring time to exert The Eoyal Naval Division was following subject : instituted in August. The two Naval Brigades have been organised in the first instance at a strength of 3750 each. There was first the peril of being surprised at the outbreak of war before we were ready and on our war stations. and the on the is an extract from the Admiralty Statement After providing for all present and foreseeable future needs of the fleets at sea. signal companies. from the commerce escape on to the High Seas of very large numbers of fast liners of destrucof surprise tion . . Ben bow (2nd). .) I 27. am going in a few words. The three brigades were fully constituted by August 24th. — 218 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. for the organisation of which all preparations had been made before the War. and Royal Naval Reserve. The Marine Brigade. Hawke : — CoUingwood (4th).. Second Royal Naval Brigade Admiral Lord Charles Beresford. as follows First Royal Naval Brigade Drake (1st). ammunition column. has been for some time in being at a strength of 3000. Second Royal Naval Brigade Nelson (5th). — — . In the meanwhile they will be organised and trained under the Admiralty. . motor cars. A portion of these have been organised into one Marine and two Naval Brigades. November {E. there remained available a large number of men belonging to the Royal ^Marines. the Royal Fleet Reserve men and Royal Naval Reserve men forming on these as they were despatched from the ports. transport. which we had apprehended. Wilson. That was the greatest peril of all. House of Commons. Royal Fleet Reserve. Howe (6th). it wiU be handed over intact to the The Royal Naval Division Army for general service. Once the Elect was mobilised and on its war stations the greatest danger by which it could be assailed had been surmounted. 12th Battalions. Hood (7th). striagency of our blockade.

that our ships should seas on their move with freedom and with hardihood through the duties. the premiums on which it has been found possible steadily and regularly to reduce. which the House will appreciate. Yet is country. the 219 enemy. three Our estimate before the war of losses in the first two months was at least 5 per cent. There is a difference between military and naval A division of soldiers anxiety. equipped with guns for the purpose of commerce During the last two years the sittings of the Committee of Imperial Defence have been almost unbroken. until the outbreak of this war. been successfully sur- mounted. a may be destroyed without a single opportunity of its fighting strength being realised. P>ut at any moment a great ship. suffer more losses.' the very extensive measures. Our enemy have —of allowed themselves to pursue methods in regard to the scattering of mines on the highways of peaceful commerce that. even the unscrupulous and indiscriminate mining of the open seas. it is necessary for the supply of materials. raanues. we had been confronted with a great excursion on to our trade routes of large numbers of armed the purpose of commerce or I destruction. for the present. and are being taken. is one the limits of which can now be discerned. before our means menace had been liners for fully developed. or a man on it board having a chance to strike necessary for the safety of this its vital blow in self-defence. is am glad to say that the percentage only 1*9. yet T think the danger from mining. to a division or an Fourthly. of the war. That danger has. and we have been concerned almost exclusively with the study of the problems of a deetruction. The third great danger was due to mines. army. lUit I am glad to tell the House that. and no one can pretend that anxiety must not . of our Mercantile Marine. great European War. we should not have thought would be practised by any civilised Power. and [ pointed out the great danger which of dealing with such a have always. we should run if. and the risks have been fully covered under a system of insurance which was brought into force. ^hich have been taken. introduces entirely The submarine The old freedom of movement which belongs to the stronger Power is affected and restricted in narrow waters by the development of this new and formidable arm. before our cruisers were on their stations. and which can be and is being farther restricted and controlled by the measures. and a war unit.FIRST lord's statement. cannot be annihilated by a cavalry patrol. there was the danger from submarines. at the outset. although we have suffered losses. — of sui- novel conditions into naval warfare. And the risks and difficulties which we have had to face from that cause cannot be underrated. on behalf of the Admiralty. and may. equal in war power. no doubt.

000. target to attack. or 97 per cent. whereas out of 5. for the cause of the Allies everything that possibly be requu-ed. I do not include among them wltat some people would perhaps wish oversea invasion. to reflect that our than that of our enemies. of the whole.000 the War. the deficiencies in essential commodities necessary for the waging of war far as is already beginning to show^ see itself clearly marked. The German Army depends primarily on its military material.122. in virtue of sea-power. it. and able to produce results on a so power in submarines that the only reason large scale in regard to them.000 tons of British shipping. But that advantage will no longer.500. of course. Sea. Gradually that advantage will as time passes. Trade in ^^^' The President of the Board of Trade published some remarkable upon the relative condition of British and German trade since Out of 20.220 always be present THE NAVAL ANNUAL. German tonnage only 549. change sides. and. is much greater why we are not is however. have to be ran. from all of for. be wholly theirs. on is needed to procure the most abundant flow of munitions of war which can the other hand. It is satisfactory. that we seldom are afforded any Those are the four dangers. as we can discern.000 tons remain plying or unaccounted and of those plying it is estimated that only ten ships are at present carrying on German commerce on the sea. The enormous supplies of all kinds of explosives and of all kinds of scientific apparatus directed to warlike purposes which they have prepared in times of peace gave them then. llisks. 20. although that those to include as a fifth is — the danger of of danger for an enterprise full who might attempt continues to develop in The economic pressure upon Germany a healthy and satisfactory manner. On the average very nearly 100 ships per day of over 300 tons burden arrive and leave the ports of the United Kingdom. but we are applying special restrictions to certain vital commodities required for military purposes by the German and Austro-Huugarian Empires.000 over the world. and we are not only carrying on our own business effectively. figures tons are plying. We are able to draw. and give them to-day. any discontent in regard to the the restriction which is being placed on the enemy's supplies. Control and COxMmerce Protection. to tlie minds of those who have the responsibility for their direction. The great number of troops which we have had to move to and fro I no reason at all for protection of British commerce or . in our enemy's military organisation. an advantage most marked in both theatres of War.

as proportion of loss know but. fast vessels. our boats enormous before superiority in gun-power.greater — in this important arm than . Thc of submarines have been equal. and. fosses^. which. of course.itish Expansion. Com. If that moment was not used. If our enemies did not it. am the including the Breslau in this calculation — — practically a quarter of is their modern light cruiser strength.to the (lermans than to ourselves. six. I the circumstances and all am bound to say that I think we have had a very fair share of the luck.^^ course. These have been joined since War broke out by a number of lost. 221 acrcss the world and their is convoying have involved serious and although one's eye fixed on the mischances which have all occurred in this War.shown their torpedo-boat destroyers. The modern light cruisers which have been built from the year 1903 onwards by Great Britain and Germany. I and Germany has this But there again the number vessels of which we have disposed was three or four times as great as that of our opponents. But the most important class of minor vessels is that of fast modern light cruisers. cruisers Of the class we have lost. knowing as I do the incidents which have occurred. freely risks . to a condition of for four greater equality with their own. and we disposed of thirty-six. we have of necessity to expose them more frequently and more openly to possible attacks. or one-eighteenth The Germans have lost. by a process of attrition. or have got shut up and I of the number. of the enemy's vessels have been destroyed. attack on the high seas on the outbreak of war or just before we must presume that it was because they did not consider themselves strong enough to do so because then would have been the moment . Naval I " Attrition " axd Bi. are a most important factor in the course of the War. it could only be because they were counting upon reducing the when British Fleet. is should like to consider losses of how that process of attrition far as w^e working. With regard to have . so new cruisers greater than those which our opponents have greater that our strength to-day — beyond vastly all comparison. "We have been at war months. the has been much greater . while eight or ten older armoured lost two. of us. of course. which are of good speed. At the outset of the War the Germans disposed of twenty-five of these vessels. of greatest advantage.FIRST LORD'S STATEMENT. Since the War begun we have lost two out of our thirty-six. was not unknown the War. because number of submarines in constant we have more than double the employment. Xo loss has been experienced by think. the despatch of an Army to the Continent might have been prevented or delayed.

and see how far our arguments of peace time I relate to the actual facts which are now disclosed. and a complete system was out in every detail. every British subject. I can say. is may say that.222 it THE NAVAL ANNUAL. The relative strength in Dreadnoughts lias been so often discussed in this" and German Dreadnoughts. over. which we had always kept before ourselves. which is a Greek ship which has presumably been taken ACCELEKATED Additions to the British Fleet. House before the War that it may be interesting to review it at the present time. and it is the duty of every Englishman. by the patriotism and energy of the workmen doing. of course. the Kronprinz. fact in secrecy and of ships Although. I to am giving no information which not readily accessible anybody who studied the published returns of peace times. because we have au enormous delivery of cruisers rapidly approaching completion. I cannot tell the number which have joined the Flag since the declaration of War. XeW CONSTnUCTION. the Salamis. I can indicate the reinforcement now and the end of Germany can receive add to these 1915. — it which both countries will receive between The maximum reinforcement which is not possible by an}" human agency to numbers in the period — is three ships on the figures I have given — the Liitzow. The prospects for the future are even more satisfactory. and very elaborate reports were furnished. Two years ago I set up a Committee of the Admiralty to go into the whole question of the acceleration of diately after the outbreak of of deliveries could be new construction war so that the greatest possible immenumber worked made in the shortest possible time. In carrying out this system we have been aided in all the yards. and every friend of our country to do his utmost to wrap that mystery. however. that the relative strength of the Fleet it is : substantially greater now than was at the outbreak of the War and. the conu-ades of their fellow citizens . and Germany could have had. to It is a matter of great importance keep secret the number of vessels which at any one moment are available with the Flag of the Commander-in-Chief. I cannot say how many — — — — ships have joined the Fleet since. secondly. and the possible cruisers British which the enemy can get from all sources during the next twelve months cannot exceed half of those on which we can count. When the War broke out we mobilised thirty-one Dreadnoughts and Lord Nelsons. and have. who so liave strained their physical strength to the utmost. in fact. and I presume did have if twenty-one Dreadnoughts l^attleships her latest ships were ready and battle-cruisers so we were just a little under the GO per cent. firstly. by made themselves. at the outset of the was War.

arrangements are made for their reception and the distribution. The whole pcrsonnd of the Navy consists of a most intelligent class of skilled workmen and mechanicians. the Queen Elizabeth. They have studied fully the conditions of the War. the Eoyal Sovereign. the Iiamillics. and it is no exaggeration to say that we could afford to lose a super-Dreadnought every month for twelve months without any loss occurring to the enemy and yet be in approximately as good — a position of superiority as I we were at the declaration of the "\^'ar. of the greatest power of any vessels that have ever been constructed in naval history. and the . They prove far. forecast so far as we may judge attrition are not unsatisfactory to us tear. and I have every reason to believe peace. the Barham. they are discharging their duties inspires those the utmost confidence. of course.— FIRST LORD'S STATEMENT. if friends like to send additional comforts. and the zeal and enthusiasm with which have been a long time in civil life. the "VVarspite. have thought it right to offer these few remarks of a general ar<! character to the House because despondent views prejudicial to . the Eevenge. exemplary. and any crime there is The conduct arises mainly among men who and who have not fully remembered the excellent precepts of theii' naval training. though. that the arrangements are thoroughly satisfactory. the results so it. the Valiant. nor is any by wear and The refits of the Fleet ond flotillas are Health conduct ggg^mg^ being regularly conducted. and they follow with the closest interest the heroic struggles of our soldiers in the field. the Benbow. ])uring this period between the beginning of the War and the end of 1915 — while the Germans will be receiving the following ships : an accession of three ships we shall receive the Agincourt and the Erin. that we acquired from Chile fifteen ships in all. the Tiger. who lead them with Confidence I in the Navy. The health of the sailors is nearly twice as good as in time of Six hundred thousand pounds has been spent by the Admiralty on warm clothing. acquired from Turkey. so far as any policy there concerned. the Emperor of India. All these ships are. The sailors have received with the warm is gratitude separation allowance which Navy had of the Fleet always hitherto been completely denied. the liesolution. tliat. hope that these lie facts will be of comfort to nervous people during the months that of attrition is before us. renamed the Canada. and the Malaya and the Almirante Latorre. 223 who are figlitiug iu tlio trenches at the front. In the Grand Fleet the conduct of the men is almost perfect. of course.

with reserves of ammunition and torpedoes up and above the regular standard. or alarm. declaration of war we were able to count upon a Fleet of sufficient superiority for all our needs w^ith a good margin for safety in vital matters. by the House of Commons for the Eoyal Navy. with full all fuel and oil. 15. Febkuaey {Extract. with a large surplus of reserved adequate establishments for numbers of trained officers and men and trained men. as we were in the days of the Napoleonic wars. The Eussian Navy is developing in strength the French Navy has complete command of the Mediterranean. and ought not to be tolerated by persons in the responsible position of Members There is of Parliament while they are in any public situation. and perhaps not at any very distant date. and the Japanese to give effect to the wishes Xavy the purposes of the State and the Empire. with an immense I programme of new construction rapidly maturing to reinforce the Fleet and replace casualties. confidence in the power of the There is every reason for complete and have powerful Allies on the seas. 1915. fully mobilised. no such On the difficulties or labours have confronted the Admiralty. supplied and equipped with every requirement down to the smallest detail that to could be foreseen.) Suffici- Thanks five years to the generous provision made so readily for the last ency of the'Fleet. We . placed on its war stations. absolutely no reason whatever for nervousness anxiety. FIRST LORD'S SPEECH ON THE NAVY ESTIMATES. drawing our supplies from wherever we needed them. the purposes for which we were fighting were achieved. and transporting our troops wherever we required them. kinds. and with a prearranged system for accelerating that satisfactory new construction which has been found to ^ield results. with training new men. the public interest. with complete systems of all ratings. and the utmost cordiality characterises the working of the Admiralties of the four we were single-handed. n. and countries. and even surprising . Navy has effective command if of the Pacific.224 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. But even — to continue this process with a strength which would grow stronger with each month the War continued until. in the end. we should have no reason to despair of our capacity no doubt we should suffer discomfort and privation and loss — but we should have no reason to despair of our capacity to go on indefinitely. with ample supplies of with adequate reserves of stores of of transport and supply.

the on account of entertained to — gloomy prophecies and views which were we have found it possible to convert the Eoyal Sovereign all a completely oil fuel basis. for We were able man man. were found to have the possibility of usefulness in them. We were able to keej) our training . 225 would draw the attention of the House in illustration to only First of all. The to price of oil to-day is addressed the House on this topic. than our actual consumption. members three particular points. If hon. and particularly during the latter years. and which has become a considerable and formidable body. as fit told the House we should be sea. so that this ship equally with the will enjoy the great advantages of liquid fuel for Queen Elizabeth war purposes. but hesitated to decide upon. No more widespread delusion existed Reserves than that although we might build ships we could never find men to man that them. Most pessimistic prophecies were made as to the supply of oil. able t>. which is already making a name for itself.NAVY ESTIMATES STATEMENT. every ship in the a Navy to send to We were able to man number of old ships which we did not intend to send to sea. in addition. l)ut which. Then as to manning. an enormous number several score of armed to — — merchantmen which had been taken up and have played an important part in our arrangements for the control of traffic and trade. powerful new \essels which no provision had been made. in the last five or six years. will run their eye along the series of figures for Vote 9. In some quarters of this country the idea was fostered mobilisation took place. ammunition. after being repaired and refitted. Indeed. difficulty On the other hand. of oil to be consumed by the Fleet in war proved to be much larger I British tages. Sir. we were able man. which never existed three years ago. when manned to to but when mobilisation did take place. Manning. but no difficulty has been found in practice The estimates which we had formed of the quantity in that regard. ships could not be sent fully sea 1 . We were able to provide all the men that were necessary for the lloyal Naval Air Service. Ammunition and Oil. but in time of war we thank God it has been made. whatever in buying practically any (quantity of substantially below Xo single oil ship has been interfered with on passage to this country. what it was when I last we have found it possible do what we all along wished to do. oil. there has been no oil. Then. We were able to l)uilding for foreign nations. little credit for such expenditure. they will In time of peace one gets see an enormous increase in the Vote.

so as to prepare a continual supply of vessels al. . which have now reached a respectable total. and have turned on comparatively small points respecting them. The House of Commons and as as a whole has a right to claim the Navy as its . the German Army was not more ready for an offensive war on a gigantic scale than was the The credit of this is due to the British Fleet for national defence. The victory off the Falklands terminated the first phase of the Naval War by effecting a decisive clearance of the German flag from the oceans of The blocking in of the enemy's merchantmen at the very the world. and the consequent frustration of his whole plans for the destruction of our commerce. We to take a have never been a military nation. House. though now we are going hand in that. which. and in later years unchallengeable majorities. to supply the nucleus of instructors and trained men to form the cadres of the battalions of the Eoyal Naval Division. in themselves. and over and which are coming on in such great that we were able. very brim. but still outset. has always by overwhelming. We have always relied for our safety on it is naval power. such disputes as we have had from time to time defence. without injury to any of these important interests.226 scliools full to the THE NAVAL ANNUAL. supported the Government and the Minister in every demand made for naval Indeed. and in that respect this not true to say we entered on war unprepared. Fruitful results of Since November two considerable events have happened — the naval action. The Navy Eeady. On the contrary. child the and now after six unchanging object of its care and solicitude months of war.)Ove drafts for the new numbers. and very soon as an element in the forces which we can use overseas. we have years. discussed at enormous length what percentages of Dread- nought superiority would be available in particular months in future and we have argued whether the Lord Nelsons should l)e counted as Dreadnoughts or not. irrespective of party interests. For instance. the reduction of his base at Tsingtau. have only been concerned with the margin of superiority. and I shall venture to enlarge upon them and hang the thread of my argument upon tliem. and which have developed an efficiency which enables them to be counted on immediately as a factor in the defence of this country. and the recent successful cruiser Both of these events are satisfactory more are they satisfactory in their consequences and significance. action near the Dogger Bank. victory off the Falkland Islands. with new dangers and new difficulties coming into view. we have every right to feel content with the results of our labour.

— . German cruisers — — nineteen vessels have been sunk by the enemy. the Admiralty must be fully prepared for that possiljility. would have been astounded. vre should not have believed and that our losses would be so it for a moment..871 British merchant ships were captured or sunk by the enemy. 559 in 1808. rather a bleak prospect to the German cruisers. since Parliament rose on the average about 8000 British vessels have been continuously on the sea. 519 ships were sunk or captured that year after Trafalgar in 1807. down 227 the expulsion of his ships from the China Sea by Japan. . and only four uf these vessels have been sunk by above-water craft. the latter by an Australian were steps along the path to the goal finally reached when Admiral von Spec's powerful squadron. if have been achieved after only a few months of we had been told Ijefore the War that such a would be so soon achieved. 571 is. 10. Q 2 . after a brief interval. small. which began in 1793 and ended. months of the War. The truth by the enemy to harass the trade routes. Our total losses on the high seas in tire first six 500 ships a year. the hunting and the Emden. Even after the decisive battle of Trafalgar. men of the Eevolutionary Comfiau^e^^ and Napoleonic AVars. Commerce Pkotection. Only small destroyed on December 8th by Sir Doveton Sturdee. During these two great wars. when we had the undisputed command of the sea so far as it can be tactically and strategically attained. That is a very remarkable result war. There have been 4465 arrivals at and 3600 sailings from the ports of the United Kingdom. was brought to action and of the Konigsberg cruiser. including losses by mines and losses in vessels scuttled by submarines — our the whole of that period are only sixty-three. . I'esult I to am sure. During the last three months that is to say. we must always be on the look-out for another attempt Although the oceans offer and the experience of their consorts is not encouraging. 469 in 1809. Certainly the great sailors of the past. NAVY ESTIMATES STATEMENT. including all ships other than trawlers engaged in mine-sweeping —including all ships. having been unsuccessfully though gallantly engaged off Coronel. the and in 1810. passing to and fro on their lawful occasions. Only two and two armed merchantmen remain at larse of all their formidable preparations for the attack on our trade routes. 619. the loss of British ships went on at a rate of In 1806. and we shall be able to meet any new cff'ort with advantages and resoiu-ces incomparably superior to those which were at our disposal at the beginning of the War. and these vessels are at present in hiding. in 1814. Of course.

Coaling. a man who has stepped into the place when the emergency came. the like of which has not been Transport Department.000. that steam and telegraphs liave enormously increased. Canada. and supplies are vital and constant needs. Possession up to the present. unsleeping. is dominated and decided by the influence of Sir Jolm Jellicoe's Fleet lost to view amid the of almost insuperable difficulty to the — northern mists. organised. . Graeme Thomson one of the discoveries War. of the — previously witnessed. China. so smoothly and unfailingly has this vast business. there as circumstances required. and. silent. across moved here and possible notice. been carried through. these arrangements lies very largely with the head of the Admiralty j\Ir. Zealand.. South from every fortress . often at the shortest with constant changes of plan. Credit is due to the Admiralty organisation by to our outlying squadrons and which they have been directed. that we have several times been compelled to remind the soldiers I whom Me serve. any accident or loss of life. preserved by patience and seamanship in all its strength and efficiency. we at war. unchallenged. communications. at • home and abroad. New and under the Crown. and are now think it right to remind the House. Tbanspokt of Numbers Trooi's. Indeed. including Belgian wounded. the am going to give House a figure many is uncertain factors which has no military significance because so are comprised within the total. .. who has formed. and presided over performances and transactions the like of which were never contemplated by any State in history.000 men without. the thoroughness and efficiency of superior seapower. ..228 is THE NAVAL ANNUAL. as compared with sailing days. oceans threatened by the enemy's cruisers and across channels haunted by submarines. It must never be forgotten that the situation on every sea. The command of the sea which we have thus enjoyed has not only enabled our trade to be carried on practically without interruption or serious disturliance. but we have been able to I move freely about the world very large numbers of troops . The credit for Africa. approximately 1. to and fro from India and Egypt. that. including Belgian and French troops. and once the upper hand has been lost they hecome operations weaker navy. after all. even the most remote. but which an absolutely definite figure so far as the work of the Admiralty Transport Department is concerned. including wounded brought back from the front. as yet. "We have now moved by sea. from Australia.

about one-fifth of the P>ritish Mercantile Marine is correct. temporary suspension of coaling in South Wales. of importance at the present time first. When complamts are made that we have taken too many transports or armed too many auxiliary cruisers. within a short interval. and colliers may.000 or £16. movements the it follows that during periods of normal Fleet necessarily turned reserves of coal are often and over slowly.000. 1 must mention that fact. and exten- sive naval this being any moment necessitate After two such coalings there must still at may be sufficient coal available for unforeseen contingencies. been fixed the Transport Department have no choice but to supply them. must make assurance doubly sure. with all the Fleet steaming at once continuously for days together — having always to be ready for that. 229 We are at war with the second Naval Power in tlie world. and. required to keep the Fleet in being has to be not supplies. including delays in bringing further supplies through storm or foggy weather. reserves " What are called the " afloat at the various bases used by the Fleet the — the great mobile reserves of fuel and stores maintained — are those which are fixed by and approved by the Board of Admiralty after conWhen those amounts have sufficient colliers War Staff" sultation with the Commander-in-Chief. pits or other local causes. The statement that the Admiralty have on charter. on which £15. with a maximum rapidity. We are not like tlie Germans. remain at the bases for considerable pei'iods. through damage to docks. the supply. Everything. enable It all is necessary that there should be to the Fleet units at a particular base to coal simultaneously.NAVY ESTIMATES STATEMENT. bridges.000. With that we discharge two duties. or made use of too many colliers or supply ships. and will not be available for some time.v Ckciseks. railways. and it follows. The life of the State depends upon it. therefore. Supplies for the pieet. Eosyth is not finished. AVe cannot possibly run fTny risk of having the Fleet rendered or through the immobile. above all. in consequence. the transport of reinforcements and supply of the Army in the Field.000 has been spent. It must be remembered in regard both — . fuelling. fuel to — — only carried but kept afloat in ships. approximately. the Fleet that we have no dockyard or naval port at our backs. including the return of wounded. having always to be ready for We a great emergency. AuxiMAi. or hostile operations leading to the closing of particular areas of water. and that the Ixases we are using during the War have no facilities for coaling from the shore. and replenishing with ammunition of the Fleets second. living in a great naval port at Wilhelmshaven. stores. twice over movements put to the at high speed test. .

Gradually. ports a military necessity. it "should be remembered that we are ^^^PP^yi'^o across the sea. only vastly more complex in organisation and equipment. including. That is indeed only to be size of the Fleet and the general scale of the military colliers operations both grow continually. is The retention of a large number of troop transbe. System tran"x)rt Witli regard to the Army. an Army almost as large as the Grand Army of Napoleon. noticing the rise in freights. In either case ships may and have frequently been.000 or it may be 40.230 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. l)ut after the of the expected as the Admiialty have actually increased. them. I am afraid that I cannot hold out any hope of any immediate reduction were at all ventilated in the tonnage required by the xVdmiralty. required at an hour's notice for urgent seivice which . and I warn the House most solemnly against allowing grounds of commercial advantage or financial economy to place any hampering restriction or impediment upon these most difficult and momentous operations. number of full is The retention of a large and ammunition ships in attendance on the Fleet . rough and ready although their demands often are. higher economy in some respects may be possible. until we tell him. by what route or to what ports. Careful and prudent administration does not stop at the outbreak of Everything in our power will be done to enforce it and avoid war. how we shall move notice. in the teeth of the enemy's opposition. it is imperative for the safety and the reinforcement of our Armies and the conduct We have at the present moment a powerful and flexible of the War.000 men. since the 1st January the requirements Admiralty. Supplying the Army. colliers and supply most stringent scrutiny and consultation with the admirals afloat. . a naval necessity. ships. We shall therefore welcome the advice of business men on points where they can help us. at what hour the Secretary of State for War will ask the Admiralty It may be at very short to move 20. as we get more and more control of the situation. indeed. and. it was found not possible to make any appreciable reduction. Plans are frequently changed on purpose at the very of our soldiers last moment . and they must be served fully at the cost of all other considerations. extravagance. but military and naval requirements must be paramount. . ships taken by the particularly. I directed the Fourth Sea Lord hold an inquiry into the whole use of merchant. transports. He does not know. machinery which can move whole Armies with celerity wherever it is desired in a manner never before contemplated or dreamt of. ago. We are also preparing I do not know on what day nr other Armies still larger in number. before these matters More than to a month in public.

and when w"e had to lace and accept risks with which we did not trouble the public. opened the way to other operations of great interest it enabled a much stricter control and more constant outlook to be purposes . even at a cost of their speed. that every ship or vessel in port at the moment was taken. the relief and advantage of which will only be fully appreciated by those who have full knowledge of all that has taken place. The number of ships taken up on the outbreak of war was so enormous. NAVY ESTIMATES STATEMENT. Convoy "Work. hours' steam of our shores there was concentrated a hostile fleet which many have argued in former times was little inferior to our and when there was hardly a Eegular soldier left at home and before the Territorial Force and the New Armies had attained their present high efficiency and power there were times when our Naval resources. and the need so urgent. — limit. guarded and landed at different points. but felt what was going forward. considerable as they are. Australian convoy of sixty ships was crossing the Pacific. or when the regular flow of large Indian convoys of forty and carried fifty ships sailing in company was at its height. been greatly diminished now by the abatement of distant convoy work and by the clearance of the enemy's flag from the seas There were times when. might be vital to the success of our operations. . will get over that fact. the great and oceans. Discrimination. and when. however excellent in may be. which had to be watched for and waited for in superior force in six or seven different parts of the world at once. and no amount of business management. waters. . for instance. and when there was a powerful German cruiser squadron still at large in the Pacific or the Atlantic. all the time. when there were half-a-dozen minor expeditions being by the Navy. was crossing the Atlantic. and it almost entirely freed the outer That was a memorable event. afloat for the Fleet . within a few supplied after landing . I have said that the strain in the early months of the War has The greatest tension. 231 Coal must be ready and troopships must be ready for the men. with its protecting squadrons. or the great Canadian convoy of forty ships. was therefore impossible. l)y those who not only knew. . both ways.. It set free a large force of cruisers it and battleships for all . . the requirements were so varied. save in isolated instances. But the victory at the Falkland Islands swept all these difficulties out of existence. and will only be fully appreciated maintained in Home seas of danger. and when we had to use old battleships to give strength t(j cruiser squadrons. were drawn out to their utmost own . and which no one would willingly seek an opportunity to share. .

because the enemy. and. Now we have the 15-in. I it think is at once important and encouraging. and particularly of gun armament. Although the German shell is a most formidable instrument of destruction. The Navy. without depending too much upon First it. It was said by the opposite school of naval force that a smaller gun fires faster and has a higher velocity. and 13^-in. 13-in. the theories of design. But this combat between the finest ships in both navies is of immense significance and value in the light which it throws upon rival systems of design and armament. Every thing that we have learnt. the bursting. of all vindicates. and as theirs. that perhaps our officers were too diffident in regard to their own professional skill in gunnery. It is the first waters infested their submarines test we have ever it had. gun. But there is a feeling. The range of the British guns was found to exceed that of the German. gun we had large numbers of ships armed with the 13 '5. There is another remarkable feature of this action to which I I should like to draw the attention of the House.y wounded the Bliicher. guns we built the guns. the greater destructive power and Krupp is the master gunmaker of the world and it was very right and proper to take such a possibility into consideration. smashing power of the heavier British projectile is decidedly this is the great thing — our shooting is at least as good greater. always identified with Lord Fisher. of our ships. made good their escape into and mines. after the combat of January 24th. ]:). Superior THE NAVAL ANNUAL. mean the steaming all All the vessels engaged in this action exceeded . therefore. and is vastly more powerful and destructive. so far as it goes. their I gunner^! "^^^^ action come to the battle-cruiser action on the Dogger Bank. after abandoning consort. big — — — — Fine Steaming. Then While the Germans were building 11-in. however. while always working very hard no one except themselves knows how hard they have worked in these years have credited the Germans with a sort of super-efficiency in gunnery. The 13*5-in.— 232 DocGEi. lUxK Action— BitiTisii Guns. gun is unequalled by any weapon yet brought on the scene. coming into line. gun. was not fought out. and this gun in quality equals the 13-r»-in. with which the five Queen Elizabeths and the five Eoyal Sovereigns are all armed. Now. and. Before they advanced to the 12-in. guns. and we have always been prepared for some surprises in their system of control and accuracy of fire. and upon relative gunnery efficiency. so far shows that we need not at all doubt the wisdom of our policy or the excellence of our material.

that they thought only of just as our men thought only of pursuit. When. Take the case of the Kent at the Falklands. we — — shall hope to bring into the line a preponderance. and has been running ever since. which will not be to four. The Kent is an old vessel. of sound principle in design and strategy. tluit means. It is my duty in this House to speak for the Navy. Can of the excellence of British machinery. not only in quality. that they accepted with- or hesitation their inferiority. of sterling workmen and faithful workmanship and careful clerks and accountants and skilful engineers. have been destroyed. prudent to engage. by which the Grand Fleet if need be. of the Fleet . The great merit of Admiral Sir D. and pains. or of I'efits is maintained from month to month. six wonder if the House Here is a squadron but is far away from its of war. and they drove the Kent 35 knots and caught the Xiirnberg and sank her. taking officers and hardy tars. their previous records without excn^ptinn. I 233 and the public appreciate what dockyards and which. and that they had taken any other view they would. Beatty's action is that it shows us and the world that there is at present no reason to assume that. we cannot give a very good account of ourselves. and the truth is that it is sound as a bell all it will be through. unquestionably. Therefore we may consider .NAVY ESTIMATES STATEMENT. five but in numbers. That is the cruel which no falsehood and many have been issued no endeavour to sink by official communiques vessels they could not stay to sink in war. of the glorious industry of the engine-room branch. I do not care where or how it may be tested found good and fit and keen and honest. the great Fleets draw out for general battle. and can. during stantly at sea. It will be found to be the product of good management and organisation. fact. The Kent was designed to go 23^ knots.which does not live in harljour. gun for gun. She was launched thirteen years ago. that they were wise if in the view they took. be main- tained from year to year in a state of ceaseless vigilance without exhaustion. trial mouths has been is con- All of a sudden the greatest and they all excel all you conceive a more remarkable proof the admirable system of repairs and demanded of previous peace-time records. would have obscured. ^^"'^• They put a pressure and a strain on the engines much greater than is allowed in time of peace. and man for man. if ever. but will be some- thing considerably greater than that. ship for ship. It shows that at five to four in represen- tative ships — because the quality of the ships on it e'ither side is a very fair representation of the relative qualities of the lines of battle — the Germans do not think out doubt flight. The The Kent had to catch a ship which went considerably over 24^ knots. their engines.

of course. in sea fighting. satisfactory event. by mine and submarine must frequently be placed on the same footing as heavy casualties on land. No British naval prisoners of war have been taken in fighting at sea by the Germans. although small compared with the sacrifices of the Army. especially submarines. create But mines and subentirely marines. Dogger Bank as an important and. and to hear the talk in some quarters one would suppose that the loss of a ship by mine or submarine necessarily involved a criminal offence for which somebody should be brought to book. a much larger proportion of the German forces engaged. an equal number. shutting their eyes they are not a very numerous class to all that has been modern naval war. Courjs-Maetial. and when they had the opportunity they had not the inclination. such as may at any moment occur in It is for these 234 this extra losses the preliminaries of a great sea battle. though they do not enjoin. We have lost. and our ancestors had never known at any other period of our history. We are urged where a ship is lost in action. and seek to dwell — unduly upon it. . the lives of about 5500 officers and men. which is. In old wars the capture or destruction of ships was nearly always accompanied by an act of surrender which was a proper and very necessary subject for investigation by court-martial. gained.— THE NAVAL ANNUAL. The losses of the Navy. have been heavy. 82 officers and 934 men prisoners of war. presenting to naval officers problems of incomparable hazard and difficulty. and we have killed. important of the reasons of test and trial that we must regard this action Naval losses. We have also taken. In these circumstances a court-martial would frequently Losses be inappropriate in our judgment. but the when ships are lost or circumstances and conditions of modern naval warfare are entirely different from all previous experience. margin as an additional insurance against unexpected by mine and submarine. Conditions of There are those who. mainly by submarine. When they had the inclination they had not the opportunity. I think I may say. to hold a court-martial in every case No doubt the precedents both in peace and war favour. For the loss of these precious British lives we have lived through six months of this war safely and even prosperously. such as we have never known. the holding of a court-martial captured. look only at that which has been lost. They cannot be treated as presumably involving a dereliction of duty or a lack of professional ability. conditions novel. and often even harmful. mainly by gun-fire. We have established for the time being a command of the sea such as w^e had never expected. The Admiralty have lately given careful consideration to this question.

the cruiser and battle squadrons. and mistakes will certainly be made from time to time. especially officers of high rank. but should be concentrated on for the Nothing could be worse naval new Navy tasks and or the new difficulties. on behalf of the Board of Admiralty. The enemy .NAVY ESTIMATES STATEMENT. . the speed and skill of 235 modern operations. Losses have to be incurred in war. When a a clear case of misconduct or failure in duty can be presumed. is continually endeavouring to strike. or is fostered by the newspapers. make the actual holding of courts-martial very difficult and inconvenient. losses. have been patrolling and steaming through the North Sea. it is When technical or special matters are raised which desirable to elucidate with a view to precautions being taken to prevent similar accidents in the future. Thirdly. courts of inquiry have been and will be assembled. and the continuous of naval demands on the attention of the Admiralty and on the services officers. martial. Admiralty than for Reasons public attention or naval attention to be riveted on half a dozen holding causes celehres which would give opportunities for most courtsr . or the removal without trial of officers who have forfeited the confidence of the Board. Sir How do you suppose the battle-cruiser squadron of David Beatty was where it was when the action of January 24th ? took place How many times is it supposed that the squadrons of the Grand Fleet. Our Navy keeps the sea our ships are in constant movement valuable ships run risks every day. I must respectfully claim. an absolute discretionary power with regard to holding courts-martial or courts of inquiry. would even if they are cruel losses. acrimonious and controversial discussions. court-martial may be necessary. being done which tends to I make would especially deprecate anything officers. play for safety and avoid responsibility for positive action. the numl)er of ships whose we movements have to be . and even leave our Navy cowering in its harbours. or given countenance to in this House. for their confidence and support during the war in this respect. or the publication of particular information on particular incidents. even then I say you will have started on a path which. always exposed to risk by mine and torpedo before at last they reaped their reward ? If any mood or tendency of public opinion arises. and from time to time accidents are inevitable. on behalf of the Board. which makes too much of if it may be said that they are in some respects avoidable losses. whether afloat or at the Admiralty. I ask the House. instead of ruling the seas. about which you perfectly certain may be two opinions would always remain at the close. pressed to its logical conclusion. When target I think of the great scale of our operations. Energy ought not to be consumed in investigations and discussions of incidents beyond recall. the enormous expose. but in all these matters.

the reply which we shall make will not. even at the outset.236 arranged for. of merchant ships by submarine agency is a wholly novel and unprecedented departure. and legitimate. other hand. but The Eome contain no provision for the punishment first when the offender appeared it was found that Losses. it is and how great the care and vigilance exercised by the admirals afloat and by the Admiralty Staff. of THE NAVAL ANNQAL. when the enemy must be expected make Goveru- his greatest effort to ' produce an impression. like i . that a good defence and a good reply cannot be made. be covered by resort on the part of ship- surance of ippirig- owners to the j^Q^ one-fifth Government insurance scheme. at sight. There are good reasons for believing that the economic pressure which the Navy exerts is beginning to be felt in Germany. We have to some extent restricted their imports of useful commodities. It is a state of things which no one had ever contemplated before this war. German Submarine Warfare. protected by the bulwark of international instruments which she has and defied. much to our detriment. satisfactory arrangements could be made to deal with him. The tasks which lie before us are anxious and grave. marvellous how few have been our losses. ' '' . they take the precautions which are proper and that the losses will be confined within we expect manageto able limits. and it will certainly be regarded by those wlio study this war in history. to be the object of a kind of warfare which has never before been practised by a civilised State. have respected. the novel conditions to winch I have referred. If our traders put to sea and act in the spirit of tlie gallant captain of the if merchant ship Laertes. statutes of ancient of parricides. Economic Pressure. AVe are. and it appears to me. But it must not be supposed. of Germany cannot be allowed adopt a system open piracy and murder open piracy and murder utterly repudiated — or what has always hitherto been called on the high seas — while remaining herself and which we. be to wholly ineffective. it now appears. and which would have been universally reprobated and repudiated before the war. no doubt. perhaps. because the attack is extra- ordinary. The scuttling and sinking without search or parley. will be incurred regularly. as praiseworthy in the highest degree. ment in- ^jj losses can. — of that I give full warning — but we believe that no vital injury can be done. of course. the rates of which are On the of what they were at the outbreak of war.

But . encourage us to proving inconvenient. neutral ships from trading direct with We have not prevented ports. 111. Governments will promptly be time of applying the or in made which full force of will have the effect for the first naval pressure to the enemy. of the allied nations. or how soon what way the next great developments of the struggle will declare themselves. manganese. NOV. yet the new dangers and perplexities will continuously. We shall. we have not attempted to stop imports of food. tell We or cannot what lies before us. as far as the British Xavy is cerned. will not will be the main and unfailing reserve paralyse be. we can already say. that although no doubt come upon us brain. ria the North of Ireland. redouble our efforts to is German So Press.— ADMIKALTV STATEMENT. which are needed for the efficient production of war materials and for carrying scale. week the Germans have scattered mines indis- criminately in the open sea. time has come when the enjoyment of these immunities by a which has. 237 copper. ultimately by itself decide the issue of the War. it so. But con- this. on modern war on a great The tone of the German Chancellor's recent remarks.THE NORTH SEA WAR AREA. will of progressively the fighting energies all our antagonists. rubber. and the evidences of hatred and anger against this country which are so apparent in the believe that this restriction course. of make far. on the main trade route from America to Liverpool. NORTH SEA WAU AliEA. and antimony. German "We have allowed German exports in neutral ships to pass unchallenged. Tlie White Star Liner Olympic escaped disaster by pure good luck. For during the months that are to come the British Navy and the sea power which it exerts will increasingly dominate the general situation. Peaceful merchant ships have already been blown up with loss of life by this agency. if need even in default of other favourable forces. what the state of Europe and the world will be at its close. however. nickel. I think. Durinir the last 2ni). placed herself outside obligations of all international declaration on the part of the Allied A further must be reconsidered. as a The State matter of deliberate policy. petrol. and anxiety will make its abode in ouidanger and anxiety which now are advancing upon us l>e more serious or more embarrassing than those through which we have already successfully made our way. and will.

so far as Great Britain is concerned. but from November onwards the Admiralty announce that all ships passing a line drawn from the northern point of the Hebrides through the Faroe Islands to Iceland. to the safety of peaceful commerce on the high feel it seas.5th neutral countries and to vessels on the sea. but any routes the commerce of all countries will be able to reach is destination in safety. up the East Coast of England to Earn Island. g^|j kinds. The North therefore give notice that the whole of the North Sea must be Within this area merchant shipping of considered a military area. and reconnaissance conducted hj trawlers. whence a safe route will. Denmark. the Admiralty necessary to adopt exceptional measures appropriate to this They war is being waged. All merchant and fishing vessels of novel conditions under which every description are hereby warned of the dangers they encounter by entering this area except in strict accordance with Admiralty directions. and from warships searching vigilantly by night and day for suspicious craft. and Holland. German laid warnings given by British cruisers. having regard to the great interests entrusted to the British Navy. if possible. In these circumstances. . By strict adherence to these concerned.238 for the THE NAVAL ANNUAL. military area. fishing craft. and neutral German naval warfare. Ships of all countries wishing to trade to and from Norway. and to the maintenance within the limits of tlie international law of trade between neutral countries. There they will be given sailing directions which will pass them safely. Mine-laying under a neutral flag. Every effort will be made to convey this warning to . The converse its applies to vessels outward bound. They have been laid by some merchant vessel flying a neutral flag. keeping as near the coast as possible. be given to Lindesnaes Lighthouse. hospital vessels. and while profiting to the full by the immunity enjoyed by neutral merchant ships has wantonly and recklessly endangered the lives of all who travel on the sea. traders of all countries. which under has come along the trade route as if for the purpose of peaceful fla^^^^*'^**^ commerce. so far as Great Britain straying even for a few miles from the course thus indicated may be followed by fatal consequences. regardless of whether they are friend or foe. and all other vessels will be exposed to the gravest dangers from mines which it has been necessary to lay. do so at their own peril. are advised to come. by the English Channel and the Straits of Dover. the Baltic. if inward bound. are the ordinary features of ships. These mines cannot have been laid by any German ship of war. civilian or military in character. other British and neutral merchant and passenger vessels would have been destroyed. Erom this point they should turn north or south according to their destination.

of the Lusitania on May 7th. including the entire English Channel. The German so-called " hlocladc " arising the British Isles. is not in peril. arguing that since the beginning of the War Great Britain had carried on a a mercantile war against supplies Germany "in " way that defies all the principles of international law. their becoming victims of attack directed against enemy ships cannot always be avoided. Grand Admiral During January including the as von Tirpitz.—WAR AREA. ivhich a irar area round it from the proclamation of culminated in the destruction last. On December 22nd. 1915. in which peaceful shipping Great Britain later the was urgently warned against approaching owing the to the coasts of the serious danger woidd incur. in the eastern area of the North Sea. beginning February 18. The following u-as the operative part of declares all the waters surroimding Great Britain and Ireland. and will therein act against the shipping of the enemy. and the contingencies of naval warfare. she will endeavour to destroy every •if it enemy merchant ship that is found in this area of war. and in a strip of at least 30 sea miles in width along the Netherlands coasts. therefore. in an interviciv ivhich appeared in the Neio York "Evening Sun. in view of the misuse of neutral flags ordered by the British Government. trusting attention to Neutrals crews is are. an area of war. Two days announcement was " Memorandtcm Germany hereby — issued. GERMAN DECLARATION.: GERMAN STATEMENT. 239 IV. warned against further enand passengers and wares to such ships." Since the shutting off of food has come to a point when Germany no longer has . On February 2nd em announcemade in the official " Eeiehsanzeiger. had its origin in Decetnher when had become clear to the commerce hy cruisers German naval chiefs that the attach upon had failed." signed by Admired von Admiredty it Pohl. Eor this purpose. then Chief of the Staff. hospital ship Asturias." threatened a submarine war against England. in so far as they are recognisable. for though the German Naval forces have instructions to avoid violence to neutral ships. At the same time it is especially noted that shipping north of the Shetland Islands. Their it is also called to the fact that advisable for their ships avoid entering this area. even be not always possible to avert the peril which threatens persons and cargoes. and received by the German papers ment ivas Grand Admired' s threat. and February fulfilling the attacks were made upon vjerc severed vessels. [To this instruction a long statement was prefixed.

the transit of wares for peaceful purposes in Germany. international law. In the /'elation to the foregoing declaration of the German Government. issued on * In relation to this statement.] " j^n these measures have the obvious purpose through the illegal ' national law. through starvation. question of whether The German Government has it in vain called the attention of the neutral Powers to the fact that it must face the can any longer persevere in its hitlierto strict if observance of the rules of the London Declaration to Great Britain should continue in the same course. hindered. . and the neutral Powers continue acquiesce in these violations of neutrality to the detriment of * Germany. by embargoes. All we had done was to capture German merchantmen on the high seas. not only to life strike at German and military strength. as we had He added that the time had come when the enjoyment of this a right to do. it has become necessary to bring England to terms by the exercise of force.: . Gerard. the American Ambassador at Berlin. United States Secretary of State instructed Mr. Churchill said in the House of Commons. In certain directions they have also aided British tlie sea. UNITED STATES DECLAEATION. . that we had not prevented neutral ships trading direct with German ports we had allowed German exports in neutral ships to pass unchallenged. her people. obviously under the pressure of England. Mr. She is in a position where her life depends on her putting into effect the only means she has of saving herself. the following effect — to p'rcsent to the German Government its a Note to The Government of the United States having had attention directed to the proclamation of the German Admiralty. drive the entire population The neutral Powers have generally acquiesced in the steps taken by tlie British Government. although British delegates had recognised its conclusions as valid in inter- :Mi&Tepre- sentatiou of British action. immunity by a State which had placed herself outside all international obligations . and were also accused of abolishing the distinction between absolute and relative contraband. Especially they have not succeeded in inducing the British Government to restore tlie German individuals and property seized in violation of to Germany destruction. February 15th. . 240 sufficient food to feed THE NAVAL ANNUAL. but also at the economic of Germany of finally." the Declaration of It London in its was said that we had renounced most important particulars. . measures which are irreconcilable with the freedom of export and transit in that they have. paralysation of legitimate neutral methods. We ' . must be reconsidered." V. had wrongfully put certain articles on the contraband list.

will be destroyed. and takes this occasion remind the Imperial Government very respectfully that the R . in view of the misuse of neutral flags. not necessarv to remind the German Government P/actice that the sole right of a belligerent dealing with neutral vessels on and search ^'^<l^"'^'lthe high seas is limited to visit and search. said to have been ordered by the British Government on January 31st. tliat 241 the waters surrouuding Great Britain and Ireland. and the contingencies of maritime warfare. it may not be possilde always to exempt neutral vessels from attacks intended to strike it enemy ships. Government of Germany in Possible suspicion that enemy ships are using a neutral flag improperly can create no just presumption that all ships traversing the prescribed area are subject to the same suspicion.AMERICAN REPLY TO GERMANY. are to be considered as comprised within the seat of war. it feels to be its duty to call the attention of the Imperial German Government. although il may not always be possible to save the crews and passengers . with sincere respect and most friendly sentiments. unless a blockade is proclaimed and effectively maintained. issued This Government has carefully noted the explanatory statement by the Imperial Government at the same time with the proclamation of the to German Admiralty. but very candidly and earnestly. and that neutral vessels expose themselves to danger within this zone of war. in carrying out the policy foreshadowed by the Admiralty's proclamation. of course. in the circumstances — to request the Imperial German Government might arise to consider before action is taken the critical situation in respect of the relations between tins country and Germany which were German naval forces. including the whole of the English Channel. that all enemy merchant vessels found in tliose waters on and from the 18th inst. which this Government does not understand to be proposed in this case. determine exactly these questions that this Government understands the right to visit and search to liave been It is to recognised. to the very serious possibilities of the course of action apparently contemplated under that proclamation. February -itb. The Government its of the United States views these it possibilities with such grave concern that feels it to be its privilege— indeed. To declare or exercise the right to attack or destroy any vessel entering the prescrilied area of the high seas without first certainly determining its belligerent nationality and the contraband character of its cargo act so would be an is unprecedented in naval warfare that this Government reluctant to believe that the Imperial this case contemplates it. duty. It is. to destroy any merchant vessel of the United States or to cause the death of American citizens. because.

any steps which might be necessary to safeguard American lives and property. it regards itself free in the present instance to take. which would be very hard indeed to reconcile with the friendly relations sisting now so happily sub- between the two Governments. which accepted principles of international law do not justify and . though their vessels may traverse the sea area delimited to take in the proclamation of the It is German Admiralty. in view of these considerations. presumption that the war should act upon the United States is not being used in good faith. of the Governmeut rnited States is open to none of the criticisms have for unneutral action to which the (ierman Government believes that the Governments open . but has. which it urges with the greatest respect. therefore. takeu in all such matters a position in a proper which warrants it in holding these Governments responsible way for any untoward effects on American shipping. Imperial Government that added for the information of the representations have been made to his Britannic Majesty's Govern- ment in respect of the unwarranted use of the American flag for the protection of British ships. the Imperial German of the Government can readily appreciate that the Government United States would be constrained to hold the Imperial Govern- ment and to a strict accountability for such acts of their naval authorities. expresses its confident hope and expectation that the Imperial German Government can and will give an assurance to American citizens that their vessels will not be molested by the naval forces of Germany. and to secure to American citizens the full enjoyment of their acknowledged rights on the high seas. The Government of the United States. . it would be difficult for the Government of the United States to view the act in any other light than an If commanders of German vessels of flag of the indefensible violation of neutral rights. the position indicated in this Note.242 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. on the contrary. with a clear conscience and upon accepted principles. otherwise than by visit and search. and no circumstance occur that might even cloud the intercourse between the two (Jovernments. and with the sincere purpose of making sure that no misunderstanding may arise. If such a deplorable situation should arise. and should destroy on the high seas American vessels or the lives of American citizens. of certain other neutral nations laid themselves Government of the United States has not consented to or acquiesced in any measure which may have been taken by other belligerent nations in the present war which operates to restrain that the neutral trade. that.

" 1st. 11th day of March. to order and I.: . in association with her Allies. or goods to British or allied ships . And And whereas such attBmpts on the part of the enemy give His whereas His Majesty has therefore decided to adopt further Majesty an unquestionable right of retaliation measures in order to prevent commodities of any kind from reaching or leaving Germany. though such measures will be enforced without life. OhDKH IX COUN'CTL. risk to neutral ships or to neutral or non-combatant and in strict observance of the dictates of humanity . . goods on board any such vessel must be discharged in a British port and placed in the Goods so discharged. in violation of the usages of war. the said Order neutrals are warned against entrusting crews. THE BRITISH DECLARATION. in which all merchant vessels will be destroyed irrespective of the safety of the lives of passengers and crew. being contraband of war. by and with the advice of it is His Privy Council. 1915. 1915. and in which neutral shipping will be exposed to similar danger in view of the uncerand allied tainties of naval warfare And whereas in a memorandum accompanying . shall. Asquith Commons on March Gazette. purport to declare the waters Kingdom a military area. And in whereas the Allies of His Majesty are associated with steps Him of the announced is for restricting further the commerce Germany His Majesty therefore pleased. upon such terms as the R '1 . — Whereas the German Clovernment has issued surrounding the United British certain Orders which. passengers. hereby ordered as follows : No merchant vessel which sailed from her port of departure after March 1. not custody of the JMarshal of the Prize Court. German port. if not requisitioned for the use of His Majesty. shall be allowed to proceed on her voyage to any Unless the vessel receives a pass enabling her neutral or allied port to be to proceed to some named in the pass. and imhlished as a to ijrerent supplement to lie to the " hf/ London It explains the measw'es directed taken Great Britain. — BRITISH REPLY TO GERMANY. 243 YI. be restored by order of the Court. The follounng Order in Council was foreshculowed in a speech in the House of luj Mr. commodities of any linilfrnin reaching or leaving Germany.

British port Marshal of the Prize Court. No merchant 1. to the person entitled thereto. The proceeds to be just. or IV. to the person entitled thereto. if His Majesty. of this Order. or which are enemy III. Provided also that nothing herein shall prevent the release of neutral property laden at such enemy port on the application of the proper Officer of the Crown. be restored by order of the Court. may in the circumstances deem to be just. All goods laden at sucli port must be discharged in a British or allied port. March property. unless they are contraband of war. unless it be shown that the goods had become neutral property before the issue of this Order. upon such terms may in the circumstances deem to be just. and. 1915. Goods so discharged in a British port shall be placed in if the custody of the Marshal of the Prize Court. except on the application of the proper officer of the Crown. shall be allowed to proceed on her voyage with any goods on board laden at sucli port. shall be detained or sold under the direction of the Prize Court. not requisi- tioned for the use of His Majesty. may be required to discharge Goods so discharged in a shall be placed in the custody of the if such goods in a British or allied port. having on board goods which are enemy origin or are enemy property. Provided that this Article shall not apply in any case falling within Articles II.244 Court THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and. deem to Provided that no proceeds of the sale of such goods shall be paid out of Court until the conclusion of peace. Every merchant ship which sailed from her port of departure after 1. and. be paid into Court and dealt in the circumstances The proceeds of goods so sold shall with in such manner as the Court may be just. of goods so sold shall be paid into Court and dealt with in such manner as the Court may in the circumstances deem Provided that no proceeds of the sale of such goods shall be paid out of Court until the conclusion of peace except on the application . vessel which sailed from any German port after March 1915. Every merchant vessel which sailed from a port other than a of German port after March 1. on her way to a port other than a German port. allied may be required to discharge such goods in a British or port. IV. not requisitioned for the use of His Majesty. II. 1915. Any goods so discharged in a British port shall be not requisitioned for the use of as placed in the custody of the Marshal of the Prize Court. the Court shall. shall be detained or sold under the direction of the Prize Court. carrying goods with an enemy destination.

(1) Any the proceeds of such goods. Nothing in this Order shall prevent the relaxation of the provisions of this Order in respect of the merchant vessels of any country which declares that no commerce intended for or originating in Germany or belonging to German subjects shall enjoy the protection of its flag. 1914. may forthwith issue a writ in the Prize Court against the proper Officer of the Crown and apply for an order that the goods should be restored to him.. Invincible. Xothing in this Order shall be deemed to of any vessel or goods to capture or condemnation independently of this Order. and Commodgre Eoger J. Commodore (T). reporting the engagement off Heligoland on Friday. claim in respect in in in. unless it be shown that the goods of this Order. be liable to condemnation. Admiraltv. I liave the honour to report that on Thursday. had become neutral property before the issue neutral property of Orticer of the Provided also that nothing herein shall prevent the release of enemy origin on tlie application of the proper Crown. Lion. Keyes.BRITISH REPLY TO GERMANY. or to have any any goods (not being contraband of war) placed the custody of the Marshal of the Prize Court under this Order. 1914. Commodore (S). be followed mnfatis mutandis in and procedure of the Prize Court shall. W. or for such other order as the circumstances of the case (2) may require. The practice applicable. October 21. XL A merchant vessel which has cleared from a British or allied port. or which has been allowed to pass having an ostensible destination to a neutral port.Admiral Arthur H. Pear.S. October 21st : H. Commodore Peginald Y. 5 a. VII. published in the London Gazette. 1st September. Christian. of the proper (Officer of the 245 Crown. person claiming to be interested of. VIII. if and proceeds to an enemy port. The following were the despatches received from Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty.M.m. I proceeded with the First^Battle-Cruiser Squadron and First Light^X'ruiser Squadron in company to rendezvous with the Rear-Admiral. Heligoland P>ight Action. 2Tth August. affect the liability VII. or that their proceeds should be paid to him. . captured on any subsequent voyage. or Y. at. OFFICIAL DESPATCHES AND PEPOETS OX THE OPERATIONS. shall. Tyrwhitt. August 28th. so far as any proceedings consefor a neutral port quential upon this Order.

and Queen Mary v\'as again attacked by a submarine.m. various signals having been received indicating that th(^ Commodore (T) and Commodore (S) were both in need of assistance.m. Lion fired two salvos at her. the Squadron passed through the pre-arranged rendezvous. Lowestoft was also unsuccessfully attacked.. Shortly after 11 a.m. I altered course.m. and a further signal informing me that he was being hard pressed and asking for assistance. I received a signal from the Commodore (T). David Beatty. The Captain (D). At same time the Light Cruiser Squadron was observed to be engaging an enemy ship ahead. and swept northwards in accordance Mith the Commander-inChief's orders. At 12.m.m.15 p. steaming S. At 8. provided our stroke was sufficiently rapid. The flotillas had advanced only ten miles since 8 a. sighted and engaged a two-funnelled cruiser ahead.42 the enemy tiu-ned to N.m. I considered that we were powerful enough to deal with any sortie except by a battle squadron.E. sighted the and Third Flotilla retiring to the westward. who was herself steaming at twenty-eight knots.56 p. and she disappeared into the mist. and at 1. and the smoothness of the sea made their detection comparatively easy. the retirement having been well executed and all destroyers accounted for.E. intercepting various signals. At 4 a. The Rear-Admiral. At 7.m. The battle-cruisers co\^ered the retirement until nightfall. Lion opened tire with two turrets. the squadron was attacked by tliree submarines. Oiu* liigh speed. The four attached destroj^ers were sent to pick up survivors. and we chased at twenty-seven knots. The battle-cruisers turned north and circled to port to complete the destruction of the vessel first engaged. seven officers and .35 p.m. Fearless and First Flotilla were sighted retiring west. ready to support as necessary.30 p. and at 12. but found none. At 11 a.40 p. burning furiously and in a sinking condition. and worked up to full speed. She was sighted again at 1.seventy-nine men.m. Invincible. By 6 p. but I deeply regret that they subsequently reported that they searched the area.m. after receiving two salvos. The attack was avoided by the use of the helm.30 p. The attack was frustrated by rapid manoeu^'^ing.m. I then steered N. Our destroyers had reported the presence of floating mines to the eastward.m. which was unlikely to come out in time.. to sounds of firing ahead. I had not lost sight of the risk of submarines.45 p. At 12. At 12. which contained no information on which I could act.m. and at 12.10 a. First Flotilla. From the foregoing the situation appeared to me critical.m. engaging a cruiser of the Kolberg class on our port bow. This was presumably in the vicinity of their pre-airanged rendezvous. she sank.S. so at 11. . the battle-cruisers turned to the northward. and I accordingly ordered a withdrawal.. and these had not yet rejoined. also signalled that he was in need of help. No Aretluisa further incident occurred.E. 28tli August.. and the four destroyers were ordered to attack them. I steered to cut her off from Heligoland. and were only about twenty-five miles from two enemy bases on their flank and rear respectively.m. survivors from Mainz. the battle-cruisers turned to E. informing me that the flotilla was in action with the enemy. It was also essential that the squadrons should remain concentrated. opened fire. with colours still flying. which took effect.E. I ordered the Light Cruiser Squadron to support the Torpedo Flotillas. I remained about the vicinity.. In view of the mist and that she was steering at high speed at right angles to Lion. the Lion's firing was very creditable.25 p.mi possible sortie in force from the enemy's base. however.) As the reports indicated the presence of many enemy ships one a large cruiser ^I considered that his force might not be strong enough to deal with the situation sufficiently rapidly. the Battle-Cruiser Squadron and Light Cruiser Squadron supporting. Commodore Goodenough had detached two of his light cruisers to assist some destroyers earlier in the day. (They rejoined at 2. o. with New Zealand and four destroyers having joined my flag. the movements of the flotillas commenced as previously arranged. spread the light cruisers.30 a.37 p. It was evident that to be of any value the support must be overwhelming and carried out at the highest speed — — possible.216 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. especially in view of the mist to the south-east. Later I received a signal from the Commodore (T) stating that he was being attacked by a large cruiser. inade submarine attack difficult. Vice-Admiral. and I considered it inadvisable to pursue her. I detached Liverpool to Rosyth with German prisoners. From this time until 11 a.m. At 1. They appeared to have her beat..

OFFICIAL DESPATCHES

AND REPORTS.

247

H.M.S. EuBYALUS, 28th September, 1914. have the honour to report that, in accordance with your orders, a reconnaissance in force was carried out in the Heligoland Bight on August 28th, with the object of attacking the enemy's light cruisers and destroyers. The forces under my orders (viz., tlie Cruiser Force under Rear-Admiral H. H. Campbell, C.V.O., Euryalus, Amethyst, First and Third Destroyer Flotillas and the submarines) took up the positions assigned to them on the evening of the 27th August, and, in accordance with directions given, proceeded during the night to approach the Heligoland Bight. The cruiser Force, under Rear-Admiral Campbell, with Euryalus (my flagship) and Amethyst, was stationed to intercept any enemy vessels chased to tlie westward. At 4.30 p.m. on the 28th August, these cruisers, having proceeded to the eastward, fell in with Lurcher and three other destroyers, and tho \\t>unded and prisoners in these vessels were transferred in boats to Bacchante and Cressy, which left for the Nore. Amethyst took Laurel in tow, and at This latter is referred 9.30 p.m. Hogue was detached to take Arethusa in tow. to in Commodore R. Y. Tyrwhitfs report, and I quite concur in his remarks as to the skill and rapidity with which this was done in the dark with no lights
I

permissible.
in command of the Destroyer and his report is enclosed herewith. His attack was delivered with great skill and gallantrj^, and he was most ably seconded by Captain William F. Blunt, in Fearless, and the officers in command of the destroyers, who handled their vessels in a naanner worthy of the best traditions of the British Navy. Commodore Roger .J. B. Keyes, in Lurcher, had on August 27th escorted some submarines into positions allotted to them in the immediate vicinity of the enemy's coast. On the morning of the 28th August, in company with Firedrake, he searched the area to the southward of the battle-cruisers for the enemy's submarines, and subsequently, having been detached, was present at the sinking of the German cruiser Mainz, when he gallantly proceeded alongside her and rescued 220 of her crew, many of whom were wounded. Subsequently he escorted Laurel and Liberty out of action, and kept them company till Rear-Admiral Campbell's cruisers were sighted.

Commodore Reginald Y. Tyrwhitt was

Flotillas,

A. H. Christian, Rear-Admiral. [Submarine Officers Lieutenant -Commander Ernest W. Leir and LieutenantComniander Cecil P. Talbot were specially mentioned. The bravery and resource of the officers in command of submarines since the war commenced were reported worthy of the highest commendation.]

H.M.S. Lowestoft, 26th September, 1914. have the honour to report that at 5 a.m. on Thursday, 27th August, in accordance with orders received from their Lordships, I sailed in Arethusa, in company with the First and Third Flotillas, except Hornet, Tigress, Hydra, and Loyal, to carry out the pre-arranged operations. H.M.S. Fearless joined
I

the

flotillas

At

at sea that afternoon. 6.53 a.m. on Friday, 28th August,
of the

an enemy's destroyer was

sighted,

and was chased by the 4th Division
cour.se

Third Flotilla. From 7.20 to 7. .57 a.m. Arethusa and the Third Flotilla were engaged with numerous destroyers and torpedo-boats which were making for Heligoland
;

was

altered to port to cut

them

off.

with four and two funnels respectively, were sighted on the port bow at 7.57 a.m., the nearest of which was engaged. Arethusa received a heavy fire from both cruisers and several destroyers until 8.15 a.m., when the foiu--funnelled cruiser transferred her fire to Fearless. Close action was continued with the two-funnelled cruiser on converging courses until 8.2-5 a.m., when a (i-in. projectile from Arethusa wrecked the fore bridge of the enemy, who at once turned away in the direction of Heligoland, which was sighted slightly on the starboard bow at about the same time. All ships were at once ordered to turn to the westward, and shortly afterwards speed was reduced to twenty knots. During this action Arethusa had been hit many times, and was considerably damaged only one 6-in. gun remained in action, all other guns and torpedo tulses having been temporarily disabled. Lieutenant Eric W. P. Westmacott (Signal Officer) was killed at my side during this action. I cannot refrain from adding that he carried out his duties calmly and col!ected]j% and was of the greatest assistance to me. A fire occurred opposite No. 2 gun port side, caused by a shell exploding some ammunition, resulting in a terrific blaze for a short period and leaving
cruisers,
;

Two

248
tlie

THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

deck burning. This was very promptly dealt with and extinguished ))y Chief Petty Officer Frederick W. Wrench, O.N. 158630. The flotillas were reformed in divisions and proceeded at twenty knots. It was now noticed that Arethusa"s speed had been reduced. Fearless reported that the 3rd and 5th Divisions of the First Flotilla had sunk the German Commodore's destroyer and that two boats' crews belonging to Defender had been left behind, as our destroyers had been fired upon by a German cruiser during their act of mercy in saving tlie survivors of the German destroyer. At 10 a.m., hearing that Commodore (S) in Lurcher and Firedrake were being chased by light cruisers, I proceeded to his assistance with Fearless and the First Flotilla vuitil 10.37 a.m., when, having received no news and being in the vicinity of Heligoland, I ordered the ships in company to turn to the westward. All guns except two 4-in. were again in working order, and the upper deck supply of ammunition was replenished. At 10.55 a.m. a four-funnelled German cruiser was sighted, and opened a very heavy fire at about 11 o'clock. Our position being somewhat critical, I ordered Fearless to attack, and the First Flotilla to attack with torpedoes, which they proceeded to do with great spirit. The cruiser at once turned away, disappeared in the haze, and evaded the attack. About ten minutes later the same cruiser appeared on our starboard quarter. Opened fire on her with both G-in. guns Fearless also engaged her, and one division of destroyers attacked her with torpedoes without success. The state of affairs and our position was then reported to the Admiral Commanding Battle-Cruiser Squadron. We received a very severe and almost accurate fire from this cruiser salvo after salvo was falling between 10 and 30 yards short, but not a single shell struck two torpedoes were also fired at us, being well directed, but short. The cruiser was badly damaged by Arethusa's 6-in. gvms and a splendidly directed fire from Fearless, and she shortly afterwards turned away in the direction of Heligoland. Proceeded, and foiu- minutes later sighted the three-funnelled cruiser Mainz. She endured a heavy fire from Arethusa and Fearless and many destroyers. After an action of approximately twenty-five minutes she was seen to be sinking by the head, her engines stojaped, besides being on fire. At this moment the Light Cruiser Squadron appeared, and they very speedily reduced the Mainz to a condition which must have been indescribable. I then We then exchanged recalled Fearless and the destroyers, and ordered cease fire. broadsides with a large four-funnelled cruiser on the starboard quarter at long range, without visible effect. The Battle-Cruiser Squadron now arrived, and I pointed out this cruiser to the Admiral Commanding, and was shortly afterwards informed by him that the cruiser in question had been sunk and another set on fire. The weather during the day was fine, sea calm, but visibility poor, not more than tliree miles at any time when the various actions were taking place, and was such that ranging and spotting were rendered difficult. I then proceeded with fourteen destroyers of the Third Flotilla, and nine of the First Flotilla. Arethusa's speed was about six knots until 7 p.m., when it was impossible to proceed any further, and fires were dra^vn in all boilers except two, and assistance called for. At 9.30 p.m. Captain Wilmot S. Nicholson, of the Hogue, took my ship in tow in a most seamanlike manner, and, observing that the night was pitch dark and the only lights showing were two small hand lanterns, I consider his action was one which deserves special notice from their Lordships. I would also specially recommend Lieutenant-Commander Arthvir P. N. Thorowgood, of Arethusa, for the able manner he prepared the ship for being towed in the dark. H.M. ship vinder my command was then towed to the Nore, arriving at Steam was then available for slow speed, and the 5 p.m. on the 29th August. .ship was able to proceed to Chatham under her own steam. I beg again to call attention to the services rendered by Captain M'. F. Blunt, of H.M.S. Fearless, and the commanding officers of the destroyers of the First and Third Flotillas, whose gallant attacks on the German cruisers at critical moments undoubtedly saved Arethusa from more severe punishment and possiljle capture. I cannot adequately express my satisfaction and pride at the spirit and ardour of my officers and ship's company, who carried out their orders with the greatest alacritj^^aander the most trying conditions, especially in view of
; ;
;

OFFICIAL DESPATCHES

AND REPORTS.

249

the fact that the ship, newly built, had not been forty-eight hours out of the R. Y. Tyrvvhitt, Commodore (T.) dockyard before she was in action. [A number of officers and various ratings were mentioned by the Commodore]

H.M.S. Maidstone, 17th October, 1914. In compliance with their Lordships' directions, I have the honour to report as follows upon the services performed by submarines since the commencement
of hostilities
:

Three hours after the outbreak of war, Submarines

E

6 (Lieutenant-Com-

and E 8 (Lieutenant -Commander Francis H. H. Goodhart), proceeded unaccompanied to carry out a reconnaissance in the Heligoland Bight. These two vessels returned with useful information, and had the privilege of being the pioneers on a service which is attended by some

mander

Cecil

P.

Talbot)

risk.

During the transportation of the Expeditionary Force the Lurcher and Firedrake and all the submarines of the Eighth Submarine Flotilla occupied positions from which they could have attacked the High Sea Fleet, had it emerged to dispute the passage of our transports. This patrol was maintained day and night A^ithout relief, until the personnel of our Army had been transported and all chance of effective interference had disappeared. These submarines have since been incessantly employed on the enemy's coast in the Heligoland Bight and elsewhere, and have obtained miich valuable information regarding the composition and movement of his patrols. They have occupied his waters and reconnoitred liis anchorages, and, wliile so engaged, have been sulijected to skilful and well executed anti-submarine tactics hunted for hom-s at a time ))y torpedo craft and attacked by gunfire and torjjedoes. At midnight on the 26th August I embarked in the Lurcher, and, in company with Firedrake and Submarines D 2, D 8, E 4, E 5, E 6, E 7, E 8 and E 9 of the Eighth Submarine Flotilla, proceeded to take part in the operations in the Heligoland Bight arranged for August 28th. The destroyers scouted for the submarines until nightfall on the 27th, when the latter proceeded independently to take vip various positions from which they could co-operate with the Destroyer Flotillas on the following morning. At daylight on the 28th August the Lurcher and Firedrake searched the area through which the battle-cruisers were to advance for hostile submarines, and then proceeded towards Heligoland in the wake of Submarines E 6, E 7 and E 8, which were exposing themselves with the object of inducing the enemy to chase them to the westward. On approaching Heligoland, the visibilitj'^, which had been very good to seaward, reduced to 5000 to 6000 yards, and this added considerably to the anxieties and responsibilities of the commanding officers of submarines, -who handled their vessels with coolne.ss and judgment in an area which was necessarily occupied by friends as well as foes. Low' visibility and calm sea are the most unfavourable conditions under which submarines can ojaerate, and no opportunity occurred of closing with the enemy's cruisers to within torpedo range. Lieutenant -Commander Ernest W. Leir, commanding Submarine E 4. witnessed the sinking of the German torpedo-boat destroyer V 187 tlu-ough his periscope, and observing a cruiser of the Stettin class close and open fire on the British destroyers which had lowered their boats to pick up the survivors, he proceeded to attack the cruiser, but she altered course before he could get within ranaie. After covering the retirement of our destroyers, which had had to abandon their boats, he retvirned to the latter and embarked a lieutenant and nine men of Defender, who had been left behind. The boats also contained two officers and eight men of V 187, who were unwounded, and eighteen men who were badly wounded. As lie could not embark the latter. Lieutenant -Commander Leir left one of the officers and six unwounded men to navigate the British boats to Heligoland. Before leaving he saw that they were provided with water, biscuit, and a compass. One German officer and two men were made prisoners of war. Lieutenant -Commander Leir's action in remaining on the surface in the vicinity of the enemy, and in a visibility which would have placed his vessel within easy gun range of an enemy appearing out of the mist, was altogether admirable. This enterprising and gallant officer took part in the reconnaissance which supplied the information on which these operations were based, and I beg to submit his name and that of Lieutenant-Commander Talbot, the

officer of E 6, who exercised patience, judgment, and skill in a dangerous position, for the favourable consideration of their Lordships.

commanding

250

THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

On the 13th September, E 9 (Lieutenant-Commander Max K. Horton) torpedoed and sank the German light cruiser Hela six miles south of Heligoland. A number of destroyers were evidently called to the scene after E 9 had delivered lier attack, and these hunted her for several hours. On September 14th, in accordance with his orders, Lieutenant-Commander Horton examined the outer anchorage of Heligoland, a service attended by considerable risk. On the 25th September, Submarine E 6 (Lieutenant-Commander C. P. Talbot), while diving, fouled the moorings of a mine laid by the enemy. On rising to the surface she weighed the mine and sinker the former was securely fixed between the hydroplane and its guard fortunately, however, the horns of the mine were pointed outboard. The weight of the sinker made it a difficult and dangerous matter to lift the mine clear without exploding it. After half an
; ;

work this was effected by Lieutenant Frederick A. P. WilliamsFreeman and Able Seaman Ernest Randall Cremer, Official Number 214235, and the released mine descended to its original depth. On the 6th October, E 9 (Lieutenant-Commander Max K. Horton), when patrolling off the Ems, torpedoed and sank the enemy's destroyer S 126.* The enemy's torpedo craft pursue tactics which, in connection with their shallow draught, make them exceedingly difficult to attack with torpedo, and Lieutenant -Commander Horton's success was the result of much patient and skilful zeal. He is a most enterprising submarine officer, and I beg to submit
hour's patient

name for favourable consideration. Lieutenant Charles M. S. Chapman, second in command of E 9, is also deserving of credit. Against an enemy who.se capital vessels have never, and light crui.sers have seldom, enierged from their fortified harbours, opportunities of delivering submarine attacks have necessarily been few, and on one occasion only, prior to the 13th September, has one of our submarines been within torpedo range of a cruiser during daylight hours. During the exceptionally heavy westerly gales which prevailed between September 14th and 21st, the position of the submarines on a lee shore, within a few miles of the enemy's coast, was an unpleasant one. The short steep seas which accompany westerly gales in the Heligoland Biglit made it difficult to keep the conning tower hatches open. There was no rest to he obtained, and, even when cruising at a depth of 60ft., the submarines were rolling considerably, and pumping i.e., vertically moving about 20ft. I submit that it was creditable to the commanding officers that they should have maintained their stations under such conditions. Service in the Heligoland Bight is keenly sought after by the commanding officers of the Eighth Submarine Flotilla, and they have all shown daring and enterprise in the execution of their duties. These officers have unanimously expressed to me their admiration of the cool and gallant behaviour of the officers and men under their command. They are, however, of the opinion that it is impossible to single out individuals when all have performed their duties so admirably, and in this I concur. The following submarines have been in contact with the enemy during these operations D 1 (Lieutenant-Commander Archibald D. Cochrane) D 2 (Lieutenant-Commander Ai-thur G. Jameson) D 3 (Ijieutenant-Commander Edward C. Boyle) D 5 (I>ieutenant-Commander Godfrey Herliert) E 4 (Lieutenant-Commander Ernest W. Leir) E 5 (Lieutenant-Commander Charles S. Benning) E 6 (Lievitenant-Commander Cecil P. Talbot) E 7 (LieutenantCommander Ferdinand E. B. Feilmann) E 9 (Lieutenant-Commander Max K. Horton). Roger Keyes, Commodore (S.)
his
:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Action off Cokonel.

The

foUo'sving official statement

was issued November

6tli

:-

The Admiralty have now received trustwoithy information about tlie action on the Chilian coast. During Sunday, November 1st, the Good Hope, Monmouth, and Glasgow came up with the Scliarnhorst, Gneisenau, Leipzig and Dresden. Both squadrons were steaming south in a strong wind and considerable sea. The German squadron declined action until sunset, when Early the light gave it an important advantage. The action lasted an hour. in the action both the Good Hope and Monmouth took fire, but fought on
until nearly dark,
*

when a

serious
tlie

explosion occurred in the
uumher

Good Hope and
was correctly

[riveu as

In the trial of the case of S 116.

Ophelia, the

of this sunken destroyer

OFFICIAL DESPATCHES

AND

REPORTS.

251

she foundered. The Monmouth hauled off at dark, makmg water badly, and She was accompanied by the Glasgow, who ai)peared unable to steam away. had meanwhile during the whole action fought the licipzig and Dresden. On the enemy again approaching the wounded Monmouth, the Glasgow, who was The enemy then also imder fire from one of tlie armoured cruisers, drew off. attacked tlie Monmouth again, with what result is not definitely known. The Glasgow is not extensively damaged, and has very few casualties. Neither the Otranto nor the Canopus was engaged. Reports received by the Foreign Office from Valparaiso state that a belligerent warship is ashore on the Chilian coast, and it is possible that this may prove to be the Monmouth. Energetic measures are being taken on this assumption to rescue any survivors. The action appears to the Admiralty to have been most gallantly contested, but in the absence of the Canopus, the enemy's preponderance was considerable.

The following Admiralty statement embodies a report from Capt. John Luce, H.M.S. Glasgow
:

summary

of a

Coronel 9 a.m. on November 1st to rejoin Good Hope (flagship), at rendezvous. At 2 p.m. flagship signalled that apparently from tireless calls there was an enemy ship to northward. Orders Good were given for squadron to spread N.E. by E. in the following order Hope, Monmouth, Otranto, Glasgo\\', speed to Ije worked up to fifteen knots. 4.20 p.m., saw smoke proved to be enemy ships, one small cruiser and two armoured cruisers. Glasgow reported to Admiral, ships in sight were warned, and all concentrated on Good Hope. At 5 p.m. Good Hope was sighted. 5.47 p.m., squadron formed in line ahead in following order Good Hope, Monmouth, Glasgow, Otranto. Enemy, who had turned south, were now in single line ahead twelve miles off, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau leading. H.18 p.m., speed ordered to seventeen knots, and flagship signalled Canopus "' I am going to attack enemy now."' Enemy were now 1.5,000 yards away and maintained this range, at the same time jamming wireless signals. By this time sun was setting immediately behind us from enemy position, and while it remained above horizon we had advantage in light, bvit range too great. 6.5.5 p.m., sunset and visibility conditions altered, our ships being silhouetted 7.3 p.m., against afterglow, and failing light made enemy difficult to see. enemy opened fire 12,000 yards, followed in quick succession by Good Hope, Monmouth, Glasgow. Two squadrons were now converging, and each ship engaged opposite number in the line. Growing darkness and heavy spray of head sea made firing difficult, particularly from main deck guns of Good Hope and Monmouth. Enemy firing salvos got range quickly, and their third salvo caused fire to break out on fore part of both ships, which were constantly on fire till 7.45 p.m. 7.50 p.m., immense explosion occurred in Good Hope amidsliips, flames reacliing 200 ft. high. Total destruction must have followed. It was now quite dark. Both sides continued firing at flashes of opposing guns. Monmouth was badly down liy the bow and turned away to get stem to sea, signalling to Glasgow to that effect.

Glasgow

left

Monmouth, and Otranto

:

:

:

:

" Enemy following us," l)ut 8.30 p.m., Glasgow signalled to Monmouth received no reply. Under rising moon enemy's ships were now seen approaching, and as Glasgow could rt^nder Monmouth no assistance .she proceeded at full speed to avoid destruction. 8. .50 p.m., lost sight of enemy. 9.20 p.m., observed seventy-five flashes of fire, which was, no doubt, final attack on Monmouth. Nothing could have been more admirable than conduct of officers and men throughout. Though it was most trying to receive great volume of fire there was without chance of returning it adequately, all kept perfectly cool no wild firing, and discipline was the same as at battle practice. When target ceased to be visible, gunlayers spontaneously ceased fire. The serious reverse sustained has entirely failed to impair the spirit of officers and ship's company, and it is our unanimous wish to meet the enemy again as soon as possible.
:

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Operations round Antwerp.

The following despatch
General A. Paris
:

to the Secretary of the

Field-Marshal Sir John French covered a despatch from

Admiralty from Major-

In forwarding this report to the Ai-my Council at the request of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I have to state that, from a comprehensive

252
review of
skill

THE NAVAL ANNUAL.

all the circumstances, the force of Marines and Naval Brigades which assisted in the defence of Antwerp was handled by General Paris with great and boldness. Although the results did not include the actual saving of the fortress, the action of the force under General Paris certainly delayed the enemy for a considerable time, and assisted the Belgian Army to bo withdra-wai in a condition to enable it to reorganise and refit and regain its \'alue as a fighting force. The destruction of war material and aminunition wliich, but for the intervention of this force, would have proved of great value to the enemy was thus able to be carried ovit. The assistance which the

Belgian Army has rendered tliroughout the subsequent course of the operations on the canal and the Yser River has been a valuable asset to the Allied cause, and such help must be regarded as an outcome of the intervention of General Paris's force. I am further of opinion that the moral effect produced on the minds ^of the Belgian Army by this necessarily desperate attempt to bring thein succour before it was too late has been of great value to their use and efhciency as a fighting force. J. D. P. French, Field-Marshal, Commanding-in-Chief.

From Major-General A.

Paris,

C.B.,

Commanding Eoyal Naval
:

Division, to the Secretary of the Admiralty

October 31, 1914. Regarding the operations round Antwerp from October 3rd to 9th I have the honour to report as follow s The Brigade (2200 all ranks) reached Antwerp during the night of October 3rd-4th, and early on the 4th occupied, with the 7th Belgian Regiment, the trenches facing Lierre, with advanced post on the River Netho, relieving some exhausted Belgian troops. The outer forts on this front had already fallen, and bonabardment of the trenches was in progress. This increased in violence during the night and early morning of October 5th, when the advanced posts were driven and the enemy effected a crossing of the river, whicli was not under fire from the trenches. About mid-day the 7th Belgian Regiment was forced to retire, thus exposing my right flank. A vigorous counter-attack, gallantly led by Colonel Tierchon, 2nd Chasseurs, assisted by our aeroplanes, restored the position late in the afternoon. Unfortunately, an attempt made by the Btlgian troops during the night (October 5th-6th) to drive the enemy across the river failed, and resulted in the evacuation of practically the whole of the Belgian trenches. The few troops now capable of another counter-attack were unable to make any impression, and the position of the Marine Brigade became untenable. The bombardment, too, was very violent, but the retirement of the Brigade was well carried out, and soon after midday (October 6th) an intermediate position, Avhich had been hastily prepared,
:

m

was occupied. The tw-o Naval Brigades reached Antwerp during the night October 5th-6th. The 1st Brigade moved out in the afternoon of 5th to assist the withdrawal to the main second line of defence. The retirement was carried out during the night October 6th-7th without opposition, and the Naval Division occupied the intervals between the forts on the second line of defence. The bombardment of the towTi, forts, and trenches began at midnight, October 7th-Sth, and continued with increasing intensity until the evacuation of the fortress. As the water supply had been cut, no attempt could be made to subdue the flames, and soon one hundred houses were burning. Fortunately, there was no wind, or the whole town and bridges must have been destroyed. During the day
could not hold the the Naval Division was an immediate retirement under cover of darkness was necessary. General De Guise, the Belgian Commander, was in complete agreement. He was most chivalrous and gallant, insisting on giving orders that the roads and bridges were to be cleared for the passage of the British troops. The retirement began about 7.30 p.m and was carried out under very difficult conditions. The enemy were reported in force (a division plus a reserve brigade) on our immediate line of retreat, rendering necessary a detour of fifteen miles to the north. All the roads were crowded with Belgian troops, refugees, herds of cattlf, and all kinds of vehicles, making inter-communication a practical impossibility. Partly for these reasons, partly on account of fatigue, and partly from at present unexplained causes, large numbers of the 1st Naval Brigade Ijecame detached, and, I regret to say, are either prisoners or interned in Holland. Marching all night (October 8th to 9th), one battalion of 1st Brigade, the 2nd Brigade, and Royal Marine Brigade, less one battalion.

(October 8th)

it

appeared evident that the Belgian

Army
if

forts any longer. to avoid disaster

About

5.30 p.m. I considered that

,

:

OFFICIAL DESPATCHES

AND REPORTS.

253

entrained at St. Gilles Waes and effected their retreat without further incident. The battahon (Royal Marine Brigade) rearguard of the whole force also entrained late in the afternoon, together with many hundreds of refugees, but at Morbeke the line was cut, the engine derailed, and the enemy opened fire. There was considerable confusion. It was dark, and the agitation of the However, the battahon behaved refugees made it difficult to pass any orders. admirably, and succeeded in fighting its way through, but with a loss in missing of moi'e than half its number. They then marched another ten miles to Selzaate and entrained there. Colonel Seely and Colonel Bridges were not part of my command, but they rendered most skilful and helpful services during the evacuation. The casualties are approximately 1st Naval Brigade and 2nd Naval Brigade, 5 killed, 64 wounded, 2040 missing Royal Marine Brigade, 23 killed, 103 wounded, 388 missing. A. Parts, Major-General.
:

Battle of the Doogeii Bank.

A despatch
Bliicher

from

A'ice- Admiral

Sir

David Beatty reporting the

victory in the North Sea in January,

was sunk, was issued

when the German battle-cruiser on March 3rd, in the London Gazette

H.M.S. Princess Royal, 2nd February, 191.^. have the honour to report that at daybreak on the 24th January, 1915, the Lion, Captain Alfred E. M. Chatfollowing vessels were patrolling in company field, C.V.O., flying my flag Princess Royal, Captain Osmond de B. Brock Tiger, Captain Henry B. Pelly, M.V.O. New Zealand, Captain Lionel Halsey, C.M.G., Aide-de-Camp, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral Sir Archibald Moore, K.C.B C.V.O. and Indomitable, Captain Francis W. Kennedy. The light cruisers Southampton, flying the broad pennant of Commodore William E. Goodenough, M.V.O. Nottingham, Captain Charles B. Miller Birmingham, Captain Arthur A. ^M. Duff and Lowestoft, Captain Theobald W, B. Kennedy, were disposed on my port beam. Commodore (T) Reginald Y. Tyrwliitt, C.B., iii Arethusa; Aurora, Captain Wilmot S. Nicholson Undaunted, Captain Francis G. St, John, M.V.O. Arethusa and the Destroyer Flotillas were ahead. At 7.25 a.m. the flash of guns was observed S.S.E. Shortly afterwards a report reached me from Aurora that she was engaged with enemy's ships. I immediately altered course to S.S.E., mcreased to 22 knots, and ordered the light cruisers and flotillas to chase S.S.E. to get in touch and report movements of enemy. This order was acted upon with great promptitude indeed, my wishes had already been forestalled by the respective senior officers, and reports almost immediately followed from Southampton, Arethusa, and Aurora as to the position and composition of the enemy, wMch consisted of three battle- cruisers and Bliicher, six light cruisers, and a number of destroyers, steering N.W. The enemy had altered course to S.E. From now onwards the light cruisers maintained touch with the enemy, and kept me fully informed as to their movements. The battle-cruisers worked up to full speed, steering to the southward. The wind at the time was N.E., light, with extreme visibility. At 7.30 a.m. the enemy were sighted on the port bow steaming fast, steering approximately
I
;

;

;

;

,

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

S.E., distant fourteen miles. Owing to the prompt reports received we had attained our position on the quarter of the enemy, and so altered course to S.E. parallel to them, and settled down to a long stern chase, gradually increasing our speed until we reached 28'5 knots. Great credit is due to the engineer staffs of New Zealand and Indomitable— these ships greatly exceeded their normal speed. At 8.52 a.m., as we had closed to within 20,000 yards of the rear ship, the battle-cruisers manoeuvred to keep on a line of bearing so that guns would bear, and Lion fired a single shot, which fell short. The enemy at this time were in smgle line ahead, with light cruisers ahead and a large number of destroyers on their starboard beam. Single shots were fired at intervals to teat the range, and at 9.9 a.m. the

The enemy's destroyers emitted vast columns of smoke to screen their battlecruisers. which had dropped considerably astern of enemy's line.m.35 a. The battle -cruisers.m. the range of the leading ship being 17. H.264 Lion made her THE NAVAL ANNUAL.4 a. who was second in oiu? line. Captain the Hon.000 yards. . Lion was engaging No.m. Vice-Admiral. At 2 p. which was accomplished by 5 p. steering north with a heavy list. and I personally observed the wash of a periscope. in connection with the Admiral's recommendations.] .W. on coming into range. and at 3.48 a. the Bliicher. I immediately turned to port. Princess Royal shifted to the third ship in the line.. that Bliicher had been sunk and that the enemy battlecruisers had continued their course to the eastward in a considerably damaged condition. 4. David Beattv. tliis ship being hit by several salvos. on the rear ship. The excellent steaming of the ships engaged in the operation was a conspicuous feature. the fourth in their already showed signs of having suffered severely from gun-fire their leading ship and No.N.35 a.38 p. under cover of this. handling this division with conspicuous ability. He also informed me that a Zeppelin and a seaplane had endeavoured to drop bombs on the vessels which went to the rescue of the survivors of — Bliicher. The greatest credit is due to the captains of Indomitable and Lion for the seamanlike manner in which the Lion was taken in tow under ditflcult circumstances.N.m. I proceeded at vitmost speed to rejoin the squadron. the situation was as follows :— Bliicher. His Majesty's ship Attack. Lion and Tiger opened fire on them. fire at 9. fire first hit on the Bliicher. 3 were also on fire. in placing his vessel alongside the Lion. 9. shifting my flag to her at about 11.. Our . and. I called the Attack alongside. and opened fire on her. at 9. and apparently in a defeated condition. The Tiger opened at 9. two points on our starboard bow. on fire. hauled out to port.14 a. enabling them to observe and keep tovich.. and. New Zealand No.500 yards. when Captain Brock acquainted me of what had occurred since the Lion fell out of the line namely. which had dropped somewhat astern. the Meteor and M Division passed ahead of us. I attach an appendix giving the names of various officers and men who specially distinguished themselves. [Sir David Beatty "mentioned " twelve officers and thirty-one petty officers and men and a long list was also published of honours conferred by the King . therefore.W. 1.W.S. flotilla cruisers and destroyers had gradually dropped from a position broad on our beam to our port quarter. I directed Lion to shape course N. were ordered to form a line of bearing N. New Zealand was within range of Bliicher. About original course. 1.3 a.m.m. No. At 11. inflicting considerable damage on her.20 a.m. thereby increasing their distance from our line. At 11.m. and met them at noon retiring N. enal)led the transfer of flag to be made in the shortest possible time. Where all did well it is ditflcult to single out officers and men for special mention. The light cruisers maintained an excellent position on the port quarter of the enemy's line. I boarded and hoisted my flag in Princess Royal at about 12. at 18.m.m. and proceed at their utmost speed.20 a. and as Lion and Tiger were the only ships hit by the enemy. ojDened fire on Bliicher.m.m.O. the latter now appeared to have altered covirse to the northward to increase their distance. I closed Lion. The good seamanship of Lieutenant-Commander Cyril Callaghan. 3 in the Une. D. I ordered Indomitable to take her in tow. the majority of these I mention belong to those ships. Their destroyers then showed evident signs of an attempt to attack. submarines were reported on the starboard bow. 4 in the line.m. The enemy returned our Princess Royal. or attack any vessel that might fall out of the line.45 a. Princess Royal No. I consequently ordered Indomitable to attack enemy breaking northward. At 10. while the Tiger. and certainly the rear ships hauled out on the port quarter of their leader.20 p. 4. the Lion shifted to No. and caused them to retire and resume their line. at their No. Meade. so as not to foul our range with their smoke but the enemy's destroyers tlu-eatening attack. and received a report that her starboard engine was giving trouble owing to priming. 3. fired first at their No. when interfered with by smoke. an injury to the Lion being rejiorted as incapable of immediate repair. At 10. and subsequently the Princess Royal.

reporting the action off the Sir F. 255 Falkland Islands. the signal for a general cha. December 8th At 8 a. The enemy at once hoisted their colours and turned away. A few minutes later the two cruisers altered com-se to port. December I 8. : station on shore A four-funnel : and two-funnel man-of-war in sight from Sapper Hill. The Glasgow was ordered to keep two miles from the Invincible. flag. Invincible.m. on Tuesday. and that the smoke reported at 8.15 a. dE. At 9. Fanshawe and Macedonia. and await orders. on Monday. the squadron less the Bristol weighed.m.— — AND — OFFICIAL DESPATCHES REPORTS.45 a. Captain Jolm D. At 8.m. in Port Stanley . and proceeded out of harbour in the follo%\ing order Carnarvon. at anchor as look-out ship Kent (guard ship). F. with guns trained on the wireless station. and the Inflexible was stationed on the starboard quarter of the flagship.m.20 a. who opened fire at them across the low land at a range of 11. that the first two ships were eight miles off. hull down.30 a. The Glasgow weighed and proceeded at 9. as though to close the Kent at the entrance to the harbour. steering northwards. EUerton Kent. Stoddart. 19th December. with a bright sun. M. . . Flag .. to enable the other cruisers to get into station. with orders to join the Kent and observe the enemy's movements. Skipwith Cornwall. flying the flag of Rear-Admiral Arcliibald P.m. against a German squadron off the Falkland Islands. 1914. Allen Glasgow. Beamish Inflexible.m. Glasgow. 1914. Captain Richard . .20 a. On passing Cape Pembroke Light the five ships of the enemy appeared clearly in sight to the south-east. in Port Stanley. The ^Macedonia was ordered to weigh anchor on the imier side of the other shijDS. — my F. and a general signal was made to raise steam for full speed. Captain Bertram S.m. Evans arrived at Port Stanley. Cornwall. at anchor in Port William . Captain Jolm Luce Bristol.20 a. Speed was eased to 20 knots — : — — at 11.000 yards. The squadron. At 9.se was made.m. the sea was calm. Commander-in-Chief. Sturdee.m. Grant. at 10. 1914 : Invincible at Sea. the signal station reported a further column of smoke in sight to the southward. Captain Basil H. .m. the two leading ships of the enemy (Gneisenau and Niirnberg). Inflexible. reported at 8. flying Captain Percy T. Flag Captaiii Harry L. At this time the positions of the various ships of the squadron were as follows Macedonia. The following despatch was received from Vice-Adiniral G. At this time the masts and smoke of the enemy were visible from the upper bridge of the Invincible at a range of approximately 17. The Kent was at once ordered to weigh. (a) Peeluunary Movements.45 a.20 a. PMUimore Carnarvon. came witliin range of the Canopus. 1914.000 yards across the low land to the south of Port William. The battle -cruisers quickly passed ahead of the Carnarvon and overtook the Kent. Carnarvon. a clear sky. slaips Invincible. the Kent passed down the harbour and took up a station at the entrance. Captain Heathcoat S. in Port WiUiam . At 10. and at 8.40 a. as the enemy at once altered course and increased speed to join their consorts. H. The visibility was at its maximum.50 a.M. December 7. The Canopus. but about this time it seems that the Invincible and Inflexible were seen over the land. . consisting of H. Bristol. in Port AVilliam . Tuesday. Dovetoii Sturdee. At 8. Coaling was commenced at once in order that the ships should be ready to resume the search for the enemy's squadron the next evening. C. Vice-Admiral. and a light breeze from the north-west. Falkland Islands. have the honour to forward a report on the action which took place on 8th December. At this time the enemy's funnels and bridges showed just above the horizon. December 8th. D. the signal station reported another column of smoke in sight to the southward.m. : — . Captain W. Falkland Islands. a signal was received from the signal : . and Cornwall.m. Invincible and Inflexible.47 a. appeared to be the smoke of two ships about twenty miles off. in Port William .

m. in accordance with my instructions. Glasgow.20 p.17 p. surviving officers and men were all ordered on deck and told to provide themselves with hammocks and any articles that could support them in the water. Shortly afterwards speed was eased to 24 knots. The Gneisenau passed on the far side of her late flagship. and it would appear that the turn was dictated by a desire to bring her starboard guns into action. and her fire slackened perceptibly the Gneisenau was badly hit by the Inflexible. besides the subsidiary one dealing with the tlireatened landing. and one shell had shot away her third funnel .8 p.55 p. she disappeared. and continued to fire from time to time with a single gun.m. bringing them into line ahead. and increased until at p. and .55 p. The enemy then (2. by the time the ammuThe nition was expended.m. with the Niirnberg and Dresden to the south-west. and I decided. At 4.15 p. effect of this was quickly seen. The range was about 13. and Cornwall.m.m. to turn into line ahead to port and open fire at 2. and at this time the flag flying at her fore truck was apparently hauled down. . and the battle -cruisers were ordered to turn together. many were drowned within sight of the boats and sliip.40 p.27 a. the tlu-ee ships closed in on the Gneisenau. whose flag remained flying to the last. range of 10. continued flying. the forward funnel was knocked over and remained restmg against the second funnel. She was evidently in serious straits.m. tlirough which could be seen a dull red glow of flame.. both by boats and . .m. fire of the battle -cruisers was directed on the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau.30 p.m.500 to 15. one of the Gneisenau"s shells struck the Invincible this was her last effective effort. Gneisenau heeled over very suddenly. with steam pouring from her escape pipes and smoke from shell and fires rising everywhere. At 12. and at 4.20 p.53 p.45 p. the Cease fire " was made. for the list increased very rapidly until she lay on her beam ends. they turned about seven points to port in succession into line ahead.m. I^^ The Inflexible opened fire at 12.30 p.m. showing the men gathered on her decks and then walking on her side as she lay for a minute on her beam ends before this caused the .m.47 p. When the ship capsized and sank there were probably some 200 unwounded smndvors in the water. some (iOO men had been killed and wounded.m. the Scharnhorst. probably colliers or transports. 2 -n-ith the Invincible leading. the Scharnhorst led round about ten points to starboard just previously her fire had slackened perceptibty. At 5.m. but the flag at the peak At 6 p. but not seriously. . and also escaping steam at times a shell would cause a large hole to appear in her side. The enemy were still maintaining their distance.000 yards at the right-hand The deliberate fire from a light cruiser. The Scharnhorst caught fire forward. The action finally developed into tliree separate encounters.m.m. the signal to " open fire and engage the enemy " was made. Bristol was therefore directed to take the Macedonia under his orders and destroy transports." but before it was hoisted the Gneisenau opened fire again. she (the Leipzig) turned aA\ay. At 5. At 3.m. she turned towards the flagship with a heavy list to starboard. F^ The The and opened fire at 1. suddenly listed heavily to port.25 p. Information was received from the Bristol at 11.450 yards. some guns were not firing.. About this time I ordered the signal " Cease fire.256 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and when a shell fell close alongside her at 1.4 p. from her fore turret at the right-hand sliip of the enemy. ' sinking.500 yards at the final turn. These light cruisers were at once followed by the Kent. The effect of the fire on the Scharnhorst became more and more apparent in consequence of smoke from fires.m. who was droppmg astern. Evc-ry effort was made to save life as quickly as possible. until at 2. At 5. it had reached 16. became too threatening. the battle -cruisers again opened fire enemy at 2.m.m.10 p. a light cruiser a few minutes later the Invincible opened fire at the same ship. At 5. when at 1. and witliin a minute it became clear that she was a doomed ship . to attack with the two battle-cruisers and the Glasgow. At 5. with the Scharnhorst leading.) turned away about ten points to starboard. at 12.m. and her fire slackened very much.30 p. {b) Action with the Armoured Cruisers. a second chase ensued. that tlu-ee enemy The ships had appeared off Port Pleasant.50 p.m. but owing to the shock of the cold water. and continued a determiiied but ineffectual effort to fight the two battle -cruisers. . and appeared stopped. The prisoners of war from the Gneisenau report that.

the Cornwall opened fire also on the Leipzig. and every preparation was made to save life. but only seven survived. At 3. T. In accordance with my instructions.once went in chase of these ships to overtake them. the Leipzig was on fire fore and aft. The Glasgow drew well ahead of the Cornwall and Kent.36 p. However.m. During this time the Dresden was able to and get out of sight.27 a. at Colombo. and great credit is due to the engineer officers of all the ships. Twelve men were rescued.m.S. and twelve wounded.m. and closed to 3300 yards as the colours were still observed to be flying in the Niirnberg. C. were present . shots were exchanged with the Leipzig at 12. The Glasgow's object was to endeavour to outrange the Leipzig with her G-in.35 p. the Glasgow. p. . and the visibility was much reduced further.. mostly caused by one During the time the tliree cruisers shell.M. The Kent had four killed At about 1 . The Glasgow was the only cruiser with sufficient speed to have had any chance of success. Sydney. and the Cornwall and Glasgow ceased fire. and Cornwall at the Carnarvon. 1914. the nearest cruiser to her. AND REPORTS. effected her escape owing to her superior speed. contained John C. His Majesty's Australian ship Melbourne. the enemy's light cruisers turned to starthe Dresden was leading.OFFICIAL DESPATCHES . Fire was finally stopped five minutes later on the colours being hauled down. but only a proportion could be rescued. the Kent opened fire again. the Dresden. Kent. report was received at 11.m.000 yards.m. The Kent also ceased firing.m. the Cornwall ordered the Kent to engage the Niirnberg. guns.m. the sky was overcast and cloudy. The Bristol was ordered to take the Macedonia under liis orders and destroy the transports. D. Seven The Leipzig turned over on her port side and disappeared at 9 p. have the honour to report that whilst on escort duty with the convoy under the charge of Captain Silver. Sydney :— November I 15. away unobserved. The Niirnberg sank at 7. Sturdee. and thus cause her to alter course and give the Cornwall and Kent a chance of coming into action. Owing to the excellent and strenuous efforts of the engine-room department.17 p m. officers and eleven men were saved.m. {d) Action with the Enemy's Transports. and. reporting Emden by the Australian ship H. . several of which exceeded their normal full speed.. (c) Action with the Light Cruisers.17 p.A. she was fully employed in engaging the Leipzig for over an hour before either the Cornwall or Kent could come up and get within range. and the Niirnberg and Leipzig board to escape followed on each quarter. The Invincible alone rescued 108 men. The weather changed after 4 p. At 4. as she sank. fourteen of whom were found to be dead after being brought on board these men were buried at sea the following day with full military honours. At 6. the Niirnberg was on fire forward and ceased firing. F. the following despatch from Captain the capture of the German cruiser December 31st.. A supplement to the London Gazette. when the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau turned to port to engage the Invincible and Inflexible. 257 from the ships lifebuoys were tlirowii and ropes lowered.27 p. Glossop. a group of men were waving a German ensign attached to a staff.m. who was beyond her consorts. had appeared off Port Pleasant. whose speed was insufficient . thus assisting the Dresden to get increase her distance . . from His Majesty's ship Bristol that three ships of the enemy. S . both ships were sunk after the removal of the crew.. A The Emden. I have pleasvire in reporting that the officers and men under my orders carried out their duties with admirable efficiency and coolness. steamships Baden and Saniba Isabel. and. at 3 p. closed the battle-cruisers. the Kent was able to get within range of the Niirnberg at 5 p. At 7. probably transports or colliers.m. His Majesty's sliip Macedonia reports that only two ships. were engaged with the Niirnberg and Leipzig.

to return their doctor and assistants. fire was opened. with two belts to each.15 a. I borrowed a doctor and two assistants. and one intact. he agreed that if I received his officers and men and all wounded. Although I had guns on this merchant ship at odd times during the actiqn.m. in this ship. and I saw that she was making for the beach on North Keeling Island.10. and one officer.m. on Monday. on November 11th. This I had to do.). and at 9. firing a gun across her bows.35. by rescuing another sailor (6. They left o'clock. At 9. I pursued and overtook her at 12. she firing the first shot. The German officers on board gave me to understand that the captain would never surrender. I received the last from her at 5 p. a doctor. and as she was making off fast.m. . died ashore the previous day. had seized and provisioned a 70-ton schooner (the Ayesha). I then left the Emden and returned and picked up the Buresk's two boats.m. What signal ? No signal books. you surrender ? " and received • a reply in Morse.m. one English steward. I gave her two more broadsides. November 9th. I lay on and off all night. I was ordered to raise steam for full speed at 7 a. she still On arriving again off th"? Emden by '' signal. who had been in the water all daJ^ and sent in one boat to the Emden. the previous night at The wireless station was entirely destroyed. and therefore.m. ceasing at 4. Darkness came on before this could be accomplished. one cable cut. The ship unfortunately was sinking. and would be amenable to the ship's discipline. and lastly the third funnel. for whom two boats I inquired I was towing from Buresk.. then had to go round to the lee side to pick up twenty more men who had managed to get ashore from the ship. as I was desirous to find out the condition of cables and On the passage over I was again delayed wireless station at Direction Island. and in view of the large number of prisoners and wounded. one warrant officer. manned by her own prize crew from the Buresk. etc... at 6. so I took all on board. and a German prize crew of three officers. consisting of three officers and forty men. where she grounded at 11. and twelve men. Her fire was very accurate and rapid to begin with. to find that the Emden's party. " Have you received my signal ? " to neither of which did I get an answer. embarked the — . a cutter's crew having to land with stretchers to bring the wounded round to embarking point.m. one launch and two cutters." I then made in Morse.20 a. having four maxims. but seemed to slacken very quickly. A German officer.. and hoisting International Code Signal . I sent an officer on board to see the captain. to stop.). and by the time I was again ready and approaching Direction Island it was too late for the night. and the seas alongside very heavy. passing men swimming in the water. The ship in the meantime ran over to Direction Island..30 a. with eighteen Chinese crew. a captured British collier.m. and found her to be the steamship Buresk. " then as for such time as they remained in the Sydney they would cause no interference with ship or fittings. a wireless message from Cocos was heard reporting that a foreign warship was off the entrance. coming out towards me at a great rate. International Code.m. sighted land ahead and almost immediately the smoke of a ship. one damaged. and proceeded thither.40 a.258 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. I returned rescuing two sailors (5 p.30 p. all casualties occuiTing in this ship almost immediately. the foremost funnel of her went was badly on fire aft then the second funnel went. and she First.m. as she showed white flags and hauled down her ensign by sending a man aloft. and proceeded as fast as possible to the Emden's assistance. resuming operations at 5 a. which proved to be his Imperial German Majesty's ship Emden. and stating I would return to their assistance next morning. I sent an armed boat. I kept my distance as much as possible to obtain the advantage of iny guns.. one Norwegian cook. the Kingston knocked out and damaged to prevent repairing. which she did." a most difficult operation. I had not fired. and left her. The conditions on board the Emden were indescribable.m. I left and returned to Emden. " Will had her colours up at mainmast head. I worked up to 20 knots. secondly the foremast. and was back again at 10 a.30 p. November 10th. send cables. fired four shells into her. I again fired at her at 4.. "Do you surrender ? '" and subsequently. though very reluctantty.m. and the ship again stood off and on all night. and communicated with Direction Island at 8 a. and the absolute impossibility of leaving them where they were. to pursue a merchant ship which had come up during the action. I therefore set to work at once to tranship them the ship being on weather side of island. and lack of accommodation.

1914. Early on the morning of October 18th. A. and ^liddlekirke to draw the fire and endeavour to silence the guns. the light cruiser Foresight. Tlie following despatch was L. gallantly leading liis inen. Humber. Hon. while more and more heavy guns were gradually mounted among the sand dunes that fringe the coast. November have the honour to report the proceedings of the coast of Belgium. between October 17th and November 11. and proceeded AND REPORTS. arrived and anchored off Nieuport Pier.sea of the enemy's troops. from captains statement. 4.S. and several torpedo-boat destroyers. 259 for Colombo by 10. 4 wounded. I have great pleasure in stating that the behaviour of the ship's company was excellent in every waj^. T. Wise fell. and this commenced the naval operations on the coast. the ship being nothing but a hospital of a most painful description. and leading the French flotilla into action off Lomljartzyde. and that a battery was The flotilla at once proceeded up past Westende in action at Westende Bains. The damage to the Sydney's hull and fittings was surprisingly small . The Amazon.35 a. The Scouts therefore returned to England. my A During the first week the enemy's troops were endeavoui'ing to push forward along the coast roads. Office of Rear Admiral. and with such a large proportion of young hands and people under training. 3 officers and 53 men were wounded. It soon became evident that more and heavier guns were required in the flotilla. The presence of the ships on the coast soon caused alterations in the enemy's plans. sloops and gunboats arrived to carry on the operations. chiefly from slirapnel shell from the fleld guns of the enemy. 9 warrant officers. As the heavier guns of the enemy came into play it was inevitable that the my my my . On October 18th. Operations commenced during the night of October 17th. Horace ofif the 19U: — I received from Kear-Admiral the Hood. of whom. and Lieutenant E. flying flag. machine-guns from the Severn were landed at Nieuport. 4 . . Coast Patrol Action. reporting the proceedings of the flotilla coast of Belgium between October 17 and November 9. Glossop. November : . flying flag.M. and on October 30th I had the honour of hoisting flag in the Intrepide. and a large accumulation of transport existed within teach of the naval guns. Captain. I can only approximately state the killed at 7 officers and 108 men. The engines worked magnificently. In the Emden. it is all the more gratifying.m. and to prevent anj' movement by . The flotilla was organised to prevent the movement of large bodies of German troops along the coast roads from Ostend to Nieuport. and higher results than trials were obtained. wliich continued for more than three weeks without intermission. Wednesday. information was received that German infantry were advancing on \Yestende village. and Mersey. . less and less of their troops were seen. I had on board 1 1 officers. and 191 men . Total casualties in the Sydney Killed. 1 severely wounded. Five French torpedo-boat destroyers were placed under orders by Admiral Favereau. was badly holed on the waterline. The greatest harmony and enthusiasm existed between the Allied flotillas. and of this number 1 officer and 3 men have since died of wounds. to assist in the defence. 3 severely wounded (since dead). brisk shrapnel fire was opened from the shore. which was immediately replied to.OFFICIAL DESPATCHES remainder of wounded. and during these early days most of the vessels suffered casualties. slightly wounded. The engine and boiler rooms and funnels escaped entirely. Venerable and several older cruisers. accompanied by the monitors Severn. S. 11th. and was sent to England for repairs. flotilla acting off the 9th. John C. when the Attentive. and I cannot speak too higiily of the medical staf? and arrangements on subsequent trip. to svipport the left flank of the Belgian Army. while H. Dover Patrol. in all about ten hits seem to have been made.

The work of the squadron was much facilitated by the efforts of Colonel Bridges. turret and several shots on the waterline of the Mersey. ceased. were specially mentioned by the Rear-Admiral. and to him. that the operations were developing into a trench warfare. the death of the Commanding Officer and eight men. Enemy submarines were seen and torpedoes were fired. the most important being the disablement of the ()-in. Dover [A number of officers Patrol.260 THE NAVAL ANNUAL. and the disablement of sixteen others in the Falcon. and during the latter part of the operations the work of the torpedo craft was chiefly confined to the protection of the larger ships. Rear-Admiral. and that the work of the flotilla had. attached to the Belgian Headquarters.] . The arrival of Allied reinforcements and the inundation of the country surrounding Nieuport rendered the fiu-ther presence of the ships unnecessary. . I am greatly indebted for liis constant and unfailing support. It gradually became apparent that the rush of the enemy along the coast had been checked. and a against submarine attack number of casualties caused in the Brilliant and Rinaldo. for the moment. Horace Hood. casualties of the flotilla increased. which vessel came vmder a heavy fire when guarding the Venerable the Wildfire and Vestal were badly holed.

15 . . 148 Portugal. 13 Belgian neutrality. 86. 137-140 Japan. 118 British. 157 Turkey.— —— — —— — — 261 INDEX. 192 Naval Ordnance Tables. 173 Additional ships. 120 Torpedo China flotilla. 141-145 Netherlands. Ships belonging 121 Colombia Ships belonging to. 120 China. 156. 166 166 ChileShips belonging to. 225 Auxiliary vessels. 112 Sufficiency of the Fleet. 243-245 British British Navj' Admiralty Statement instituting North Sea as War area. 5 British Imperial expansion. 166 Considerations on the Causes and the Conduct of the Present War. 237. 159 United States. 218 Special service vessels. 118. 189-192 British and Foreigo Ships. 158. 224 Grand Fleet. 121 Denmark. 174 British and Foreign Airships. end of Pa rt II. 238 Geruian mines laid under a neutral flag. 129-135 Greece. 7-11 sea-power. 149 Russia. 122-128 Germany. 154. 29 Airships and Aeroplanes. 118 Austria-Hungary Airships belonging to. 223 new construction. Plans of. 232 Torpedo flotilla. 117 State of the Navy. 21 Motor Boat Reserve. 237.. Argentine. 229 Estimates. 98-167 Army war. 11 in the field. 168-172 to. 1 j I B. 27 Auxiliary Cruisers. 114 Torpedo flotilla. 122 France. 155 Sweden. Lists of. 189 Ammunition and Oil. 203 Ships belonging to. British and Foreign Torpedo Flotillas. 49 Mobilisation. 119 Torpedo flotilla. 160-164 Australian Navy. Brazil Allied armies' unpreparedness for Ships belonging to. Lists of Accelerated 222. 117 Brazil. 114 Austria-Hungary. 173 Armoured Ships. 168-188 in British Declaration and Order Council. 86 Submarines. 190 Airship sheds. 225 Royal Naval Division. 116. 238 Argentine Eepublic Ships belonging to. 146-147 Norway. 116. Bulgaria Ships belonging Torpedo Flotilla. 150-153 Spain. 98-167 Chile. and Foreign Ships. 27 Naval Reserves. 174 to. 136 Italy. 179 Torpedo Flotilla. 224 Superiority of guns and gunnery.

17 Cruising Ships. Naval events War. .. Ecuador- - Ships belonging to. The. 78 Ottoman Naval forces. Misrepresentation action. 147 Norway. 80-85 Germanj-'s Allies. 159 United States.. 86 Personnel of the German Navy. 120 China. 175. 16 Austro-Hungarian Nav}'. 176 166 G. 75 Distribution of the German Fleet. First Cruisers. 157 Turkey. 192 Ordnance Tables. 136 Submarines. 188 Torpedo flotilla. 179 See Enemj. 127. 148 Portugal. 123-128 Submarines. 3 Enemy Navies. 224 Naval "attrition" and British expansion. 149 Russia. 77 Terms of peace. . 15 Navy Estimates compared. 140 Commerce Japan. 179 E.— — — — —— — 262 INDEX. Diary of the German Declaration 239-240 of the of War of area. D. 218-224 Confidence in the Navy. 144 Netherlands. 165 Merchant Cruisers. 3 Main causes of the hostile sentiment in Germany.Navies Greece Ships belonging to. 179 Torpedo flotilla.." 75-77 Creation and Organisation of the German Navy. 153 Spain 155 Convoy work. 2 Organisation for war. Ships belonging to. Lists of Argentine. 139. 224 Sweden. 240 British 69-75 Defence forces of the Dominions. 179 Torpedo flotilla. 86 Comments on the object of the German Navy by Prince Billow and " Nauticus. 84 See World War Austria-Hungary. 223. 74 German naval policy. 113 GermanyAirships belonging to. . 227 Navj' Greece. Denmark Ordnance Tables. 119 Chile. 152. 136 Italy. 132-134 . 165 French Navy Airships belonging to. 128 Germany. Considerations on the Causes and the Conduct of the Present War Causes of the War. 191 Cuba Ships belonging to. 6 Navy and the War. 121 Denmark. 117 Brazil. 115 German Naval Expansion. 204 Ships belonging to. 231 Government insurance ping. . 221 Sufficiency of the Fleet. 178. 135 Lord's Merchant Speech on the Estimates. 189 122 Airship sheds. 86 Objects of the German Navy. 125 Ships belonging to. 236 of ship- First Lord's Statement. 129-135 Submarines. 122 France. 177 Torpedo flotilla. 164. 224-237 protection. 166 166 EgyptShips belonging to.

207 Ships belonging to. R. Ordnance Germany.. Lists Argentine. 167 167 167 to. 186 Thoughts on the Present Future. 182 Torpedo flotilla. 205 Ships belonging to. 209 Ships belonging to. 166 Torpedo flotilla. 181 Torpedo flotilla. 149 Submarines. 183 0. 153 S. 208 Ships belonging to. 148 Submarines. 208 Swedish Naval. 214 Spanish Naval. 188 Italian Naval. 137-140 Submarines. H. 147 Submarines. 92-94 Torpedo-boat flotillas. 206 Italy- Airships belonging to. 191 Ships belonging to. Official Submarines. 196. 186 Sweden Naval Ordnance Tables. 213. 183 Norway Naval Ordnance Tables. 154. 190 Ships belonging to. 195 Particulars of new guns and shells. 141-145 Submarines. 150-153 Torpedo flotilla. 217-260 Ships belonging Spain to. Santo Domingo Ships belonging to. 212 Danish Naval. Mexico Ships belonging to. 183 Torpedo flotilla. 166 Roumania Ships belonging to. 263 Tables Ordnance 166 (Eremy and Neutral) German Naval. of Ordnance Tables. 184. Sarawak Ships belonging to. 202 Bethlehem Steel Co. 190 Krupp guns. 156. 211 Bofors guns. 183 Airships belonging to. 189 and Torpedo flotilla. 182 M. 157 Submarices. 173 and of the . Netherlands Torpedo Russia flotilla. 185 Volunteer Fleet. 197 Torpedo flotilla. 186 Ordnance Tables (Enemy Neutral) Austrian Naval. 185 Torpedo flotilla. 181 Ships belonging to. 205 Ehrhardt guns. 180 Japan Airships belonging to.—— — — — — — ——— — —— — — — INDEX. Airships belonging 190 155 Naval Ordnance Tables. 245-260 Official Statements on the Conduct of the War. 204 Dutch Naval. Hayti Ships belonging to. 207 Relating to Conversion Measures. 195-197 Larger naval guns adopted. 182 Peru Ships belonging Portugal to. 209 United States Naval. 167 N. 146. 189 Norway Naval. 206 Ships belonging to. 210 P. Siam Despatches and Reports on the Operations of the War. 184 Naval Ordnance Tables.

55 Admiralty's reports of the losses through submarines. 52 raids on the East Battleships and submarines. 27 German naval Coast. 18 British and Austrian declaration of war. 158. 181 Japan." 63 . 54 Allied Fleets in the Adriatic. 184 Russia. 179 Greece. 178 Italy. 187. World War. 48 190 Commerce raiding and the German Colonies. 57 Torpedo flotilla. 21 Preparations for w^ar. 240-242 United States Navy. 55 Allied Navies' actions. 30 Premier and the causes of the General Board's opinion of the Navy. 60 Failure of the war of attrition. 183 Norway. 182 Netherlands.— — — — 264 Torpedo-boat flotillas. 188 Torpedo flotilla. 188 Uruguay Ships belonging to. 168-172 British Dominions. 210 Note to German Government on declaration of war area. 185 Spain. 183 Portugal. 186 Airship raids on the East Coast. 184. 89 Naval Secretary's annual report. 49 Submarine " blockade. 167 War. 187. 160-165 Submarines. 178. Lists of Austria-Hungary. 175-177 Germany. 18 Actions of the Goeben and Breslau in the Mediterranean. The. 46-48 King's Message. 35 Opening Incidents. 159 Declaration of war between Great Britain and Turkey. 90. The. 89 Programme of new construction. British submarine successes. 23 U. etc. 43 Fleet's preparedness for war. 22 German strategy. 29 Falkland Islands battle. 174 Chile. 186 Turkey. 88 Efliciency demonstrated. 182 Roumania. 57-62 Naval Forces. 188 Bombardment of the German the Belgian coast. 172 Brazil. 88-91 Aircraft. 37-42 China. 19 Spirit of the officers and men of the Grand Fleet. 173 British. 53 Dominions' ready response. 91 German submarine attacks. 88 Progress and policy. 51 British declaration of war. 86 Ships belonging to. 67-73 of the Diplomatic rupture. 36 German submarine " blockade." 63-66 Heligoland Bight action. 167 W. 44- 46 Sweden. 26 Mine danger and the Admiralty's instructions. 187 Diary of the Naval events War. 25 off Army TurkeyAirships belonging Airship sheds. 192 to. Venezuela Ships belonging to. 187 United States. 180. 90 Dogger Bank battle.. 174 INDEX. 181. United States Naval Ordnance Tables. 88-91 Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance. 174 France. 33 Mine-laying under neutral flag. 91 Ships belonging to.

^ .Advcrtiscmenfs. BARR AND STROUD LIMITED GLASGOW.

Classes. mcludmg Works. OPENSHAW. OPENSHAW WORKS. Telegraphic Address : " Whitworth. Dumbarton. Armour Plates. London.. County of Durham. Gates. Ocean ger). Newcastle-upon-Tyne. ELS WICK.ELSWICK WORKS. Propeller Shafts. and THE ARMSTRONG YARD. NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. ELSWICK. for Ice Breakers. Works. MANCHESTER. and Stampings.E. WHITWORTH & CO. Erith. Scotswood. High Speed Steel &c. Lemington Cranes. Airships. Derwenthaugh Works. Vanadium Steels. Engines Aircraft. WALKER-ON-TYNE. Dock Works. LTD. Kent. GREAT GEORGE : ST. Openshaw." LONDON OFFICE : 8. Forgmgs. Hydraulic descriptions." S. and Accessories Oil Tankers. MANCHESTER. SIR W. Tools. Darlington. Train Ferry. ELSWICK." . Warships of all (In connection with N. LONDON.. Telegraphic Address " Zigzag. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. STEEL WORKS. ELSWICK SHIPYARD.W. County of Capstans. County Durham. ELSWICK. and Tungsten &c. WALKER SHIPYARD. Hydraulic Hoists. G. Alexandria. Liners (Cargo and Passen- Seaplanes. &c. ELSWICK.. Work Northumberland. Aeroplanes. LIST ORDNANCE. Material. WALKERON-TYNE. yl di 'ertiscm cuts ARMSTRONG. of all of ENGINE WORKS. Railway). County of and Electric Northumberland. Armstrong Works. A VIA TION DEPARTMENT. Nickel. Pari. Forgings. MANCHESTER WORKS :-ASHTON ROAD. WESTMINSTER. Machine Submarmes. Chrome. HEAD OFFICES:. Ridsdale Swing Bridges. All OF DEPARTMENTS: Military Naval and War NAVAL AND MILITARY AMMUNITION WORKS. Telegraphic Address : " Elswick. Castings. Steel Drills.

iAiiia„/i.. t'u/'jnffitiie. C^l'ieer/ -^/cotet (jieet'. ntir/ /'oi JiKcniy ot/ie'ii /rrr'// I'ti //e ^oyal „. x//ej^>oi/e'-i. -^/'Ja^^/e a^ ate cyCt'qJt Wiadiieii- '^^idt'. OOO c/loiiie Uotaei. Hie rolfff /biinar/p /er'ny 2//0. >ifcci/y.Ad-'trtiscments.jeiJi. 'l"!l!il"""'II'l|l'l "'Tll"l""it"i !"7'!ir'irT'''i''''''il'!l!l!l'l!!!!!l!!lllll'|H|lil!!!|llll!i!l!i''[l|||||i!!n'!i!TT'ii'rii!'i!^^ VICKERS Contribution to the British Naval Fleet.ieio. fia^ve ffett jrf/i/>/f(f//<i //iPif . f'/r/jtrr //rf iiKir/i r iiei 1/ • r/eai.i. /\^0 C/ni/id^cf^/^/f'i/it'/ij./i.i. OOO /o/i./.iSP. Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli^^ . c/(t.</ fYAri (l^. ctr/f/ irr/ff/tnf/- f)00.i. «/?(-/ f ff-r /i rrrt f S^i'liX'eei .i/r..i. r/rt)ii.i. a iff/ -Sj-eio/t (mte.. -S'/r iihi'ViA./ir/i..

" Also first=class HIGH SPEED OCEAN STEAMERS of the Largest Size and Power. Builders of WARSHIPS of the Greatest Dimensions and Power. BATTLESHIPS.M. DESTROYERS H. S.S "AUSTRALIA. -AND- ^jG THE SANCTUARY.A. WESTMINSTER. TORPEDO-BOATS. Atlas Works. Sheffield ^^ ^J>^ LONDON OFFICE: 8.W . T^|. CRUISERS.A dverfisements cj^l^^ ^^ Shipbuilders "f/J '^/> and Marine Engineers. PASSENQER AND CARGO STEAMERS.

A Super-Dreadnought in one of the Company's private Graving Docks. S.W. Central Buildings. Engineers. Shipbuilders.Advertisanents. SHEFFIELD.. CAMMELL LAIRD & CO. 3. Westminster. Steel Makers. . London Office : BIRKENHEAD. LTD.

WORKS BASINGSTOKE. Propellers. ENGINEERS AND SHIPBUILDERS. Gunboats. Tugs. Shallow-draught Vessels of Types. Boilermakers.000. THORNYCROFT LIMITED. Layers.. Marine Motors. and Cargo Yachts. 35 KNOTS SPEED. SET OF TURBINES ERECTED IN THE SHOP. CO. Passenger Vessels. GRAVING DOCK LONG. SOUTHAMPTON. S.. REGISTERED OFFICE: CAXTON HOUSE. and Shiprepairers. Motor Launches. WESTMINSTER. MARINE MOTOR DEPARTMENT. Fitted).. SHIPBUILDING ENGINEERING WORKS. THE WALLSEND SLIPWAY & ENGINEERING Engineers. Stationary Motors (Lighting and Pumping). 540 FT. . Woolston. MineTorpedo Craft. : Caxton House.P. Builders of all classes MACHINERY INSTALLATIONS for of WARSHIPS for H. Cruisers. Marine Repairs. LTD. . Oil Fuel Gear (the Thornycroft System — over I.W. Adverliseine/ifs JOHN I. Government..Going Destroyers. and & CO.W. Patent Boilers. and Internal Combustion Machinery. WESTMINSTER.B. Ocean . NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. all and Sizes Reciprocating Turbines.000 Castings. T. Dry Docking Facilities.M. 2.H. S. Head Offices and Works : WALLSEND-ON-TYNE.*!. DESTROYER OF 1000 TONS.

STEEL CASTINGS AND FORCINGS of Every Description. together with Gun Charges.5-lNOH. ALEXANDER M.E. : Major A. M.C. Colonial Offices. Armour-Piercing. PROJECTILES IN FORGED STEEL. late R. (Director). also by Ammunition and Communication Tubes. SHEFFIELD. Laurence Pountney P. . E. England. B. AFTER PERFORATING ARMOUR-PLATES OF THE LATEST TYPE. CLERKE. HADFIELD'S "HECLON" CAPPED ARMOUR-PIERCING PROJECTILES. shell fire The Supreme Material for "ERA" STEEL COMBINES HIGH RESISTANCE WITH GREAT TOUGHNESS. World for PROJECTILES Contractors to the British Admiralty & War other Office. and all Armoured Parts exposed to also for Gun Shields for Naval and Land Service. Ordnance Dept. Sole Makers of HADFIELD'S PATENT which has been adopted by the other Powers. B. M. Conning and Director Towers.000.inst. "ERA" STEEL Admiralty and British War Office.C. (Director). LONDON. and High Explosive Shell Filled and Fused. Telegrams : "HECLA.. 14-INCH Managing Directors Sir : ROBERT HADFIELD. ALL THE PROJECTILES WERE FITTED WITH THE JACK PATENT CAP.E. AND 1S-INCH CALIBRES. The United States. Sheffield. .A. Either Common. 13. JACK. FROM 12 INCHES TO 15 INCHES IN THICKNESS." Telephone No. Hecla Works. Hill. : M.E. : 2 City.C.inst. CAST STEEL AND CAST IRON Of all Types and Calibres up to 16-inch. Empty. Supt. London Office : Norfolk House.lnst. or Shrapnel. . : 1050 Sheffield.-'/ //: 'rrIt semen ts HADFIELDS LTD^ Works area 110 : acres. and Foreign Governments. Japanese. H. The Largest Manufacturing Capacity in the Workman employed : About 6. BROWN. London." Telephone No. Telegrams "REQUISITION.C.

LIMITED.. A di 'crtisemcnts Th NAVAL ANNUAL All communications con- cerning for the Advertisements 1916 issue of The Naval Annual should the be addressed to Publishers. S. . CLOWES & SONS. WM.W. Haymarket. 31. London.

: . A dverfisetnoits 8 S THE covenTRY ORDMAtlCe WORKS LIMIieO H ARMAMeiiTS Works COVENTRY SCOTSTOUN (near Glasgow). WESTMINSTER. S.W . : CENTRAL BUILDINGS.) London 3. CLIFFE "Range: BOSTON Office (Lines.

27 tons. ..: Advertisements. London Office FENCHURCH STREET. FORCINGS. FOREIGN NAVAL DEPARTMENTS. Ltd Telegrams: "FORGE. :: :: Alfred Graham & Company. Mercantile Vessels. Installations for Battleships. Naval Telephones . ANDREW'S WORKS. 10 feet diam. . CROFTON PARK. Weight. DARLINGTON. Steel & Iron Telephone: No. HOLLOW FORGED STEEL DRUM. GRAHAM'S Patent Loud Speaking. DARLINGTON FORGE DARLINGTON. 9 feet 6 inches long. Destroyers. STEEL CASTINGS. ADOPTED BY HIS MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT. AND THE LEADING STEAMSHIP COMPANIES. Co. Etc. 70. LONDON.E. 2610. Yachts. S. Cruisers. ST.

-wM^mm ' p Brassey's Naval Annual Tech B 1915 Physic J Applied Serials Sci. DO NOT REMOVE POCKET CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS PLEASE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .

^6 T-'nfA .

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