Melissa Lai, 2008 BEW, 696410671

Using Storybooks to Enhance Motivation of EFL Learners.
1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose Storybooks are readily available in first language environments and are often used as a tool for educators. Evidence showed that home literacy experience would enhance the learner’s print knowledge and young children’s development of the language skills (Levy, Gong, Hessels, Evans, & Jared, 2006) However, EFL young learners have little opportunities to read English storybooks at home or in the classroom. How to enhance learners’ intrinsic motivation in the artificial environment is an issue great concern in Taiwan. The nature of the storybook is interesting, imaginative, and could provide various illustrations or pictures as visual aids for learners. Therefore, it is helpful to use storybooks as a supplementary material in the classroom environment. 1.2 Research question The study examined whether the use of storybooks in the classroom environment will enhance intrinsic motivation of ESL learners. Therefore, the research question is as follow: Will storybooks integrated into the English curriculum affect students’ motivation towards English learning? 2. Literature review 2.1 Storybook and L2 reading The format of the storybook is text along with a large amount of pictures. Those visual aids in storybooks could enhance learner comprehension and motivation. Besides, the storybook is authentic and interesting. Evidence suggests that reading storybooks at home and in preschool is important for young children’s development of the foundational skills required for the eventual mastery of decoding and comprehension (Levy at al., 2004). Moreover, Grabe and Stroller (2002) stated that reading storybooks could enhance leaner emergent reading and enhance vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, and comprehension abilities of learners. Using previewing techniques such as previewing a text and providing readers appropriate background knowledge before reading would facilitate reading comprehension of learners (Grabe, & Stroller, 2002). Therefore, the study adopted a facilitating reading procedure to enhance learner comprehension and motivation.

Wu (2002) has showed that a predictable learning environment. And The English teaching experience of the teacher is 8 years. Moreover. It has been given great importance by several researchers (Brown. the question “I think that reading storybooks in class is interesting and stimulating” intended to measure their attitude toward English reading. and evaluation that emphasized self-improvement and attributed success or failure to controllable variables were effective ways to enhance young learners’ self-perceptions of L2 competence. Dickinson. 3. The participants had an average age of 12 years. The purpose of the study is to compare student’s attitude toward English learning after the instruction of storybooks.Melissa Lai. The motivation questionnaire contains 11 questions about the learner’s attitude toward English learning and reading. And the question “I found that it is easy to understand text in English through storybooks” was designed to examine the effect of storybooks instruction. . 3.2 Instruments The study examined whether learner motivation would be enhanced by storybooks teaching and therefore. After the implement of storybooks instruction. necessary instructional support. Method The design of the study is a comparison design with the instrument of storybooks as the independent variable and learner intrinsic motivation as dependent variable. analyzed the data quantitatively. 2008 BEW. Therefore. moderately challenging tasks. All measures were made on 5-point Linkert scales. 1995). They have learned English for three years and have taken some reading courses but never had storybook teaching. 696410671 2. 50% were female. For example.1 Participants Twenty-four sixth grade EFL learners in Changhua elementary school engaged in the study. 1990. an interview with the teacher and a motivation questioner were used to collect data. 1994. 3. intrinsic motivation of learners could be enhanced by appropriately designed classroom environments or activities. and 50% were male.2 Intrinsic motivation L2 intrinsic motivation involves enjoyment of learning a second or foreign language for its own sake without any external coercion or pressure.

the teacher asked the learners to look at the cover of the book and guess what happened in the story. 2003) and The Mixed-up Chameleon (Carle. showing a picture. There were four parts to the lesson: 1. The teacher introduced two or three vocabulary words that are important for them to understand the story and explained it in their native language. They could adapt or rearrange the ending according to their own imagination and draw it on the worksheet.3. 1984). they read the books with the teacher for short period of time only. The following week.4 Data collection and analysis Added the scores of 5-point Linkert scales questionnaire. an interview with the course teacher was administered to survey learners’ motivation and attitude during the class time. When reading. Moreover. The books were chosen for the interesting content and readability that was most appropriate for the students. the data analysis included the computation of descriptive statistics (means.1 Pretest The motivation questionnaire was administered to students by the classroom teacher before the storybook instruction courses. the teacher introduced the book by asking some questions. The books contain about 100 words.3. 2008 BEW.2 Instrument Students received 25 minutes of reading instruction a week for three weeks. Also. the students practiced writing the sentence pattern in the worksheets.3. Vocabulary. The storybooks for the lessons are commercial available books. The teacher did story telling and asked the students to read with her. 4. Moreover. Since the storybooks are viewed as supplementary materials. Dirty Bertie (Roberts. 3. the learners read chorally by themselves. Wrap up activities.3 Posttest One week after the reading courses. standard deviation and . In order to activate background knowledge of learners. the teacher varied with different tone and gestures to help understanding.3 Procedure 3. the participants filled the motivation questionnaire again. 2.Melissa Lai. or stating facts about the topic. The students were told that there were no right or wrong answers to the questions. 696410671 3. 3. The teacher asked questions to check comprehension and some open-ended questions to encourage them to express their ideals. Reading the story. 3. The purpose of the study is to motivate the learners and encourage them to do extensive reading after class time. Introduction. 3.

13625 8. Deviati on t df Sig. scored within the 3355 point range. Descriptive Statistics of Survey N survey1 survey2 Valid N (listwise) 24 24 24 Minimum 11. 63% (fifteen) of students had positive attitude. Table 1 showed that the mean of motivation survey 2(M=34. That is.09031 1. Results The purpose of the study is to investigate “Whether storybooks integrated into the English curriculum affect students’ motivation towards English learning?” On the pre survey.00 Mean 33. she observed that learners showed great change in their . Paired Samples Test of questionnaire scores Mea n Pair 1 survey1 survey2 1. the t test results did not show significant differences (p=. students who had a score of 33-55 were considered to have a positive attitude towards mathematics.484 23 .Melissa Lai.95) is larger than motivation survey 1(M=33.151 6. Nevertheless. scored within the 33-55 point range. There were 9% learners changed their attitude from negative to positive. Paired sample t test was used to analyze the pre. According to the teacher.69112 Std.00 11.00 50. Table1.60778 3. Table2.151). therefore. The scores of motivation questionnaire were calculated.4167 34. 696410671 frequencies) to compile the information about learner motivation. the mean score was 33.and post-survey scores. Discussion Findings from pre and post attitude surveys did not show learners motivation toward English learning were significantly enhanced.00 Maximum 47. while on the post survey. Deviation 9.33264 5.03905 . the mean of post survey was improved after instruction of storybooks. 54% (thirteen) of the students had positive attitude.9583 Std.41). the use of storybooks in the English curriculum has some effect on students’ attitudes towards English.54 167 Paired Differences Std. (2-tailed) 1. In the pre survey. To provide further support for the hypothesis. 95% Confidence Error Interval of the Mean Difference Lower Upper 5. paired-sample t test was calculated on the scores of learner intrinsic motivation. Nevertheless. 2008 BEW.

. 2008 BEW. The instruction of storybooks not only provided a predictable learning environment but some instructional support. (2002). 696410671 attitude toward learning. moderately challenging tasks. using of storybooks has some advantages in English learning. Therefore. Due to the time limitation. In the words of Wu (2002).Melissa Lai. a predictable learning environment. The teacher reported that perception of learner motivation is greatly improved. K. 56(2). I. Four good reasons to use literature in primary school. References Ghosn. Learners showed more interest compared to other reading activities or other English activities in the class. The weakness of the study is the small sample size and short period of instruction time which would affect the result of the study. from the perspective of the teacher. Therefore. necessary instructional support were effective ways to enhance young learners’ self-perceptions of L2 competence. ELT Journal. their motivation was improved. she saw a great difference on learner attitude. 172-179. the participants only had three weeks instruction which is really short that may not has significant effect on learner motivation. In the perspective of the teacher.

E. 552-559. 41-61. DeBaryshe. Accelerating language development through picture book reading.. W. Appendix Interview Question 1. & Jared.. 63-93. Falco. (2006). D. Story construction from a picture book: An assessment activity for young learners. S.. & Stoller. Whitehurst. UK: Longman. C. 501-517. did all the students pay attention to it? How . G. A. Y. Teaching and researching reading.. Valdez-Menchaca. Journal of Educational Psychology... 93. D. et al. (2008). M. (1988). System. Wu. Levy. & Paris. 696410671 Grabe. C. When listening or reading the stories.. E. Many languages. Hessels S. 313-335.... Gong.. 2008 BEW. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. X. Humphreys. 31(4). Evans M. B. 11(1). L. System. Developmental Psychology. M. (1996). F.Melissa Lai. L. J. Z. J. G. Van Kraayenoord. J. & Spratt. F. G.. B. (2003). Understanding print: Early reading development and the contributions of home literacy experiences. many motivations: A study of Hong Kong students' motivation to learn different target languages.. 24(4). (2002). 36(2). Fischel. Lonigan. Intrinsic motivation and young language learners: The impact of the classroom environment. C.

696410671 many of them? 2. 2008 BEW. Did students actively involve in the activities related to stories? Actively raised their hands to answer the question or not? 3.Melissa Lai. Did the content interest the students? Were they eager to finish reading the storybooks? 4. Did they actively participate in the activities related to storybooks than other activities in normal class activities? Intrinsic Motivation Questionnaire Name ___________ Grade__________ Class _________ .

□ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 3. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 5. I would like to read some English books. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 9. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree . □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 7. Things I read in English class are always meaningful to me. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 4. I feel it is easy to understand the articles taught in the class. I always ask my teacher or others for English words because I want to know more about the story.I learned something through storybooks. I think that reading storybooks in class is interesting and stimulating. I feel sad when I can not understand the content of the storybooks. I found that it is easy to understand text in English through storybooks. I enjoy reading articles with my classmates. I am proud of myself when I can read some English by myself. articles or story books after class time. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 8. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 2. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 11. I have much fun in reading storybooks than other tasks. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 6.Melissa Lai. □ strongly agree □ agree □ disagree □ strongly disagree 10. 2008 BEW. 696410671 1.

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