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**compressor gas dynamics
**

M.N. Srinivas

a

, Chandramouli Padmanabhan

b,

*

a

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

b

Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

Received 22 February 2001; received in revised form 22 November 2001; accepted 30 November 2001

Abstract

In this paper a computationally eﬃcient steady state model for a typical refrigeration reciprocating compressor is

proposed. The plenum cavity is modelled using the acoustic plane wave theory, while the compression process is

modelled as a one-dimensional gas dynamics equation. Valve dynamic models, based on a single vibration mode

approximation, are coupled with the gas dynamics equation and acoustic plenum models. The steady-state solution of

the resultant coupled non-linear equations are posed as a boundary value problem and solved using Warner’s algo-

rithm. The Warner’s algorithm applied to compressor simulation is shown to be computationally more eﬃcient as

compared to conventional techniques such as shooting methods. Comparisons are based on the number of iterations

and time taken for convergence. Eﬀect of operating conditions on the overall compressor performance is also investi-

gated. # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Refrigerant; Gas; Compression; Reciprocating compressor a` ; Modelling; Design

Compresseur frigoriﬁque : mode` le eﬃcace pour e´ tudier la

dynamique des gaz

Mots cle´s : Frigorige´ ne ; Gaz ; Compression ; Compresseur a` piston ; Mode´ lisation ; Conception

1. Introduction

Reciprocating compressors are widely used in food

processing, chemical and air conditioning/refrigeration

industries. They are favored for variable-speed operations

in refrigeration industries as compared to rotary vane and

semi-hermetic compressors [1]. Modelling of the recipro-

cating system and its simulation is of immense impor-

tance as it provides an insight into the energy used

during the compression process, compressor eﬃciency

and inﬂuence of various design parameters on the com-

pressor performance. The steady-state simulations are

used in fault diagnosis [2] wherein the simulated pres-

sure proﬁle is compared with the experimental one.

Discrepancies reveal problems such as leakage and slug-

ging. Steady state indicator diagram has been used to

analyze the importance of phenomena such as valve lift,

valve stiﬀness and leakage on compressor performance [3].

The mass ﬂow rate that occurs through the valves into

the suction and discharge plenums leads to gas pulsa-

0140-7007/01/$20.00 # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

PI I : S0140- 7007( 01) 00109- 8

International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092

www.elsevier.com/locate/ijrefrig

* Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +44-235-0509.

E-mail address: mouli@iitm.ac.in (C. Padmanabhan).

tions due to the ﬁnite volume associated with the ple-

nums. These pulsations have been identiﬁed as a major

source of noise radiation from reciprocating com-

pressors. In order to predict and hence reduce the noise

generated, a good understanding of the parameters that

control the source of pressure pulsations is required [4].

Soedel et al. have done extensive work in the modelling

of the plenum gas pulsations in the case of single and

multi-cylinder compressors [5,6]. Their formulation

couples the compressor gas dynamics with that of the

plenum by using an impedance approach. Benson and

Ucer [7] modelled the compressor-pipe interactions

using a modiﬁed homentropic theory by the method of

characteristics. Dufour et al. [8] have used experimental

steady-state pressure proﬁle in the simulation of the

transient(start-up and shut-down) and steady-state

dynamics of compressor housing and analyzed the

vibration of the whole unit.

Related modelling eﬀorts include those of Popovic et

al. [9] who modelled the positive displacement recipro-

cating compressor using a semi-empirical method which

is based on thermodynamic principles and a large data

base. It needs data on pressure, temperature, mass ﬂow

rates, at the compressor inlet and the outlet and power

input. The model took into account the energy transac-

tions that occur between compressor and its surround-

ings. McGovern et al. [10] analyzed the compressor

performance using exergy method where an energy

approach is undertaken. The non-idealities are char-

acterized as exergy destruction rates as losses to friction,

irreversible heat transfer, ﬂuid throttling and irreversible

ﬂuid mixing.

Almost all of the prior investigators of reciprocating

compressor gas dynamics have carried out their simula-

tions using numerical integration of the non-linear cou-

pled structural gas dynamics equations [4–7,11]. They

viewed the problem as an initial value problem, and per-

formed simulations which always included the transient

solutions. This had the following disadvantages:

these simulations need to be performed until

steady state conditions are attained and is a time

consuming process;

the initial conditions for the compressor para-

meters were chosen such that the solution con-

verges to steady-state [6]. The problem of

choosing initial conditions becomes a major issue

as the number of model parameters increase. For

instance, this approach will not work well for

the case of multi-cylinder simulations. In such

cases, convergence is achieved only with rea-

sonable guesses of steady-state values.

Recently, Srinivas and Padmanabhan [12] demon-

strated the computational eﬀectiveness of Warner’s

algorithm [13] in compressor plenum acoustics simula-

tions. In the present work, the focus is on developing a

computationally eﬃcient tool for modelling the dynam-

ics of the compression process in a single cylinder com-

pressor with one suction and discharge valve.

Temperature eﬀects are not incorporated in the present

model. However, other non-idealities, as identiﬁed by

Woollatt [3], have been introduced in the present model.

This leads to a non-linear boundary value problem, and

Warner’s algorithm [13] is incorporated to obtain the

steady-state solution directly. Since this procedure cir-

cumvents the need to calculate the transient solutions it

is computationally superior. The computational eﬃ-

ciency of this approach is demonstrated by comparing

the time for convergence and number of iterations with

Nomenclature

A

d

, A

s

Cross sectional area of the valve, m

2

A

sv

, A

dv

Suction ﬂow area, m

2

c Velocity of sound, m/s

C

ds

, C

dd

Coeﬃcient to account for non-ide-

ality

F

pd

, F

ps

Spring pre-loads, N

k

d

, k

s

Valve spring constants, N/mm

l Length of the plenum, mm

m

c

Cylinder gas mass, kg

m

d

, m

s

Valve mass, kg

n Polytropic gas constant

m

.

in

Mass ﬂow in the cylinder, kg/s

m

.

out

Mass ﬂow out the cylinder, kg/s

P

c

Cylinder pressure, Pa

P

suc

, P

dis

Plenum pressures, Pa

P

1

Plenum pressure just outside the

valves, Pa

Q

1

Mass ﬂow rate, kg/s

S

1

Cross sectional area of the plenum,

m

2

S

2

Cross sectional of the anechoic ter-

mination pipelines, m

2

t Time, s

V

c

Cylinder volume, m

3

V

str

Volume swept by the piston, m

3

V

cle

Clearance volume, m

3

x

d

, x

s

Valve displacement, m

x

max

d

, x

max

s

Maximum valve displacement, m

x

.

d

, x

.

s

Valve velocity, m/s

Z(o) Impedance, Pas/m

Greek letters

a

c

Cylinder gas density, kg/m

3

a

s

, a

d

Density of plenum gas, kg/m

3

t Time period (2¬/o

c

), s

o

c

Compressor running frequency, rad/s

1084 M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092

traditional techniques. Important parameters aﬀecting

the compression process are studied for a variety of

operating conditions.

2. The mathematical model

As shown in Fig. 1, the system that is considered is

the reciprocating air compressor cylinder, with spring

type suction and discharge valves. The plenums are of

ﬁnite volume. We consider a very long coiled tube being

connected to the plenums (not shown in Fig. 1), so that

we can assume that this arrangement approximates an

anechoic or non-reﬂecting termination. The piston has

reciprocating action through the crank shaft arrange-

ment and no leakage is assumed. A clearance volume of

10% of the stroke volume is assumed.

We are not interested in capturing the pressure varia-

tion of the compressor cylinder spatially, rather, only

the average pressure as the reciprocation takes place.

This facilitates the use of the overall mass balance

equation in the contracting volume of the system as a

whole.

m

c

¼ a

c

V

c

ð1Þ

dm

c

dt

¼ m

.

in

À m

.

out

ð2Þ

V

c

¼ V

cle

þ

V

str

2

1 À cos o

c

t ð Þ

È É

ð3Þ

Assuming the gas to be polytropic one gets:

P

c

a

n

c

¼ constant ð4Þ

Eqs. (1) and (4) in Eq. (2) yields:

dP

c

dt

¼ À

nP

c

V

c

dV

c

dt

þ

nP

c

a

c

V

c

m

.

in

À m

.

out

ð Þ ð5Þ

where m

.

in

, and m

.

out

, the mass ﬂow rates through the

suction and the discharge valves, are functions of cylin-

der pressure P

c

, valve motions x

s

and x

d

, and plenum

pressures P

dis

and P

suc

. Due to the non-ideality of the

valve, it does not shut down instantaneously as soon as

an unfavorable pressure diﬀerence is created. It takes

some time for it to get decelerated from its original

motion, turn the direction and shut the opening. We

need to account for this leakage of gas and its eﬀect on

cylinder pressure P

c

for a real simulation. Including

these eﬀects makes the mass ﬂows in the valves take the

following forms based on the ﬂow past oriﬁces [14]:

m

.

in

¼

C

ds

a

s

A

sv

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 P

suc

ÀP

c

ð Þ

a

s

q

for P

suc

>P

c

and x

s

>0

ÀC

ds

a

c

A

sv

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 P

c

ÀP

suc

ð Þ

a

c

q

for P

c

>P

suc

and x

s

>0

8

<

:

ð6Þ

m

.

out

¼

C

dd

a

c

A

dv

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 P

c

ÀP

dis

ð Þ

a

c

q

for P

c

>P

dis

and x

d

>0

ÀC

dd

a

d

A

dv

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 P

dis

ÀP

c

ð Þ

a

d

q

for P

dis

>P

c

and x

d

>0

8

<

:

ð7Þ

Here A

sv

and A

dv

are the ﬂow areas through which

the suction and the discharge take place from the cylin-

der respectively, and are given by 2¬x

s

r

v

and 2¬x

d

r

v

,

where x

s

and x

d

are the suction and discharge valve

displacements from the closed position.

Valve dynamics have been modelled by many authors

[14–16]. The frame of reference is from the static equili-

brium position (closed position) such that, the valves do

not have any negative displacements. A maximum dis-

placement restriction is placed so as to make the equa-

tions emulate the real system. Considering the forces

acting on the valve(s), the modelling equation for the

Fig. 1. Schematic of single cylinder reciprocating compressor.

M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1085

discharge and suction valves become, on using a single

vibration mode approximation [5]:

m

d

d

2

x

d

dt

2

þ k

d

x

d

¼ C

fd

A

d

P

c

À P

dis

ð Þ þ F

pd

. for x

d

> 0 and x

d

- x

max

d

ð8Þ

m

s

d

2

x

s

dt

2

þ k

s

x

s

¼ C

fs

A

s

P

suc

À P

c

ð Þ þ F

ps

. for x

s

> 0 and x

s

- x

max

s

ð9Þ

where F

pd

and F

ps

are pre-loads acting on the valves.

Preload accounts for the compression of the spring

valves at its closed state so as to avoid any leaks. Since

the pre-loads have a negligible eﬀect usually, they were

neglected in the calculations. The values of C

fd

and C

fs

can be obtained from [16]. These co-eﬃcient account for

the loss of the energy due to the oriﬁce ﬂow.

3. Simulation

As one can observe, Eqs. (5), (8) and (9) form a cou-

pled system of non-linear equations which need to be

solved simultaneously over one cycle time of the crank-

shaft during which the piston completes one backward

and one forward stroke. Eqs. (8) and (9) being of second

order, makes the actual number of ordinary diﬀerential

equations, (ODEs) with the introduction of two vari-

ables (x

.

s

and x

.

d

), to be solved as ﬁve. The aim of this

work is to obtain the steady-state variation of these

variables for a given mechanical conﬁguration (the size

of the cylinder, operating frequency o, volume of the

plenums, mass, diameter of the valve openings, spring

constant of the suction and the discharge valves) of the

compressor, operating conditions and the properties of

the ﬂuid used (P

const

suc

. P

const

dis

, a

s

). This is achieved using

a computationally eﬃcient technique (Warner’s algo-

rithm [13]) for solving boundary value problems (BVP).

In this method the initial value problem is converted to

a two-point BVP with periodic boundary conditions.

The steady state solution is characterized by the follow-

ing boundary conditions:

P

c

t ¼ t

0

ð Þ ¼ P

c

t ¼ t

0

þ t ð Þ

x

s

t ¼ t

0

ð Þ ¼ x

s

t ¼ t

0

þ t ð Þ

x

d

t ¼ t

0

ð Þ ¼ x

d

t ¼ t

0

þ t ð Þ

x

.

s

t ¼ t

0

ð Þ ¼ x

.

s

t ¼ t

0

þ t ð Þ

x

.

d

t ¼ t

0

ð Þ ¼ x

.

d

t ¼ t

0

þ t ð Þ

9

>

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

>

;

ð10Þ

where t is the time period for one crankshaft rotation.

Calculations are triggered with some initial conditions

at t=0 for the ﬁve variables involved. The above system

of Eqs. (5), (8) and (9) are integrated for one period of

rotation of the crankshaft using the Runge–Kutta

method of order 7. After time t=t we get a set of 5

values corresponding to the ﬁnal state. If the initial

conditions correspond to the steady-state, all the ﬁve

variables involved will have the same value at t=t as at

t=0. Usually this will not happen and the value

obtained at t is taken as the initial conditions for the

next iteration. In the conventional method, the above

steps are repeated until the steady state is reached.

The origin of time is when the piston is at the top

most position. Because we operate the compressor

between P

suc

and P

dis

, which may diﬀer by a very high

magnitude, we can expect that both the suction and the

discharge valves not to be open simultaneously. We

assume that at the beginning of the cycle, x

s

(t=0)=0

and x

.

s

(t=0)=0. This brings down the number of

steady-state initial unknown values to three. (x

d

(t=0),

x

.

d

(t=0) and P

c

(t=0)).

4. The Warner’s algorithm

This algorithm gives the initial values for the next

iteration using n+1 sets of guesses and the miss-dis-

tances where n is the number of variables, by solving a

matrix equation which reads as:

x

T

0 ð Þ ¼ b

T

1. q

T

x

1

0 ð Þ

À Á

1. q

T

x

2

0 ð Þ

À Á

.

.

.

1. q

T

x

n

0 ð Þ ð Þ

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

À1

x

1

0 ð Þ

È É

T

x

2

0 ð Þ

È É

T

.

.

.

x

nþ1

0 ð Þ

È É

T

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

ð11Þ

where x

n

(0) represents the nth guess of initial conditions

matrix for the next iteration, b is the n+1 dimensional

column vector, b

T

={1,0, . . .,0}. q(x

n

(0)) is the miss-dis-

tances vector for the nth guess vector of the initial

values. Since the solution is periodic the vector q is given

by, q(x

n

(0))=x

n

(t)-x

n

(0).

The number of variables being three, simulations are

carried out for four diﬀerent sets of initial guess values

and the miss-distances are calculated. Through the

Warner’s algorithm, the initial value vector for the next

iteration is calculated and the corresponding vector q is

obtained. The error for each set is:

e

k

¼ q

T

x

k

0 ð Þ

À Á

q x

k

0 ð Þ

À Á

. k ¼ 1. 2. . . . . n þ 1. ð12Þ

The set having the maximum error (e

k

) is replaced

with the new set found from the algorithm. The

iterations are carried out until the e

k

for the newly

guessed values becomes less the tolerance speciﬁed for

convergence.

1086 M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092

5. Eﬀect of plenum volumes

The ﬁniteness in the volume of the suction and dis-

charge plenums aﬀects the P

suc

and P

dis

as seen by the

cylinder, due to non-linear mass ﬂow. As the mass ﬂow

occurs, the plenum pressure just above the valves ﬂuc-

tuates. These variations are propagated to the other side

of the plenum at the speed of sound and are called the

acoustic back pressure eﬀect. This problem has been

addressed adequately by workers on acoustics. The

pressures keep varying throughout the piston cycle time.

Therefore, steady-state also requires these variations in

the plenum pressures to repeat themselves after every

cycle. The variations depends on the mass ﬂow rate

variations throughout the cycle time. These pulsations

can be modelled in two ways, using ﬁnite element ana-

lysis of the plenum volumes, or using the plane wave

acoustic theory [17] to obtain the impedance assuming

an anechoic termination. The latter method has been

applied extensively by Soedel et al. [4,18]. Soedel and

Singh [18] characterized the coupling between com-

pressors in a multi-cylinder case by deﬁning transfer

impedances in a distributed parameter model. Soedel

and his co-workers [19,6], used a lumped parameter

model to simulate the pulsations. Chen [20] developed a

graphical method for the calculations of the pressure

pulsations in the piping. From plane wave acoustic the-

ory the acoustic impedance at the discharge/suction

valve may be given as:

Z o ð Þ ¼

P

1

Q

1

¼

ac

S

1

g

c

S

1

S

2

coskl þ jsinkl

coskl þ j

S

1

S

2

sinkl

ð13Þ

where P

1

is the plenum pressure at the valve position

and Q

1

is the volume velocity (or ﬂow rate) exiting the

valve. A harmonic analysis of volume velocity (Q

1

)

yields,

Q

1

¼

X

M

n¼0

B

n

cos n± À [

n

ð Þ ð14Þ

Substituting the above expression into Eq. (13), one

gets the plenum pressure at the valves (P

1

) as:

P

1

± ð Þ À P

fixed

þ

X

M

n¼1

B

n

Z

no

c

ð Þcos n± À [

n

þ c no

c

ð Þ ½

ð15Þ

The above equations are applicable for both the suc-

tion and discharge plenums. The acoustic back pressure

is included in the simulation by assuming initially that

the plenum pressures do not change with time. The

steady-state initial conditions for the system variables

are calculated using Warner’s algorithm for a given ple-

num pressure variation. From the mass-ﬂow rate varia-

tions at the calculated steady-state conditions, the

Fourier coeﬃcients (B

n

and c

n

) are calculated. Using

these coeﬃcients the plenum pressure (for both suction

and discharge) variations are calculated using Eq. (15).

Now, the new steady state condition is calculated with

the new plenum pressure variations. The above proce-

dure is repeated until the variations converge to the tol-

erance provided. The computational procedure followed

is shown in Fig. 2.

6. Results and discussions

6.1. System considered

The considered compressor system had the following

speciﬁcations:

o

c

¼ 314 rad¡s r

s

¼ 10.75 mm

m

d

¼ m

s

¼ 0.0162 kg n ¼ 1.12

k

s

¼ k

d

¼ 3.64754 N¡mm stroke ¼ 45.97 mm

r

d

¼ 15.75 mm

a

s

¼ 5.6 kg¡m

3

bore ¼ 66.68 mm

The suction and discharge plenums have the follow-

ing speciﬁcations: Anechoic pipe diameter=15 mm;

Plenum diameter=150 mm; Velocity of sound(c)=150

m/s; Length of the plenum (l)=70 mm.

The numerical simulation was performed with 500

time steps over one cycle of piston motion. Validation is

done by calculating independently the total mass ﬂow

per cycle through the suction and discharge valve from

mass ﬂow rate data. Excellent agreement is obtained as

shown in the Table 1.

6.2. Degree of convergence

The convergence of the given compressor calculations

using Warner’s algorithm is shown in Fig. 3. The error

involved with each new prediction is brought down expo-

nentially which showcases the eﬀectiveness in the use of

Warner’s algorithm in such boundary value problems.

Even with the worst guesses (amounting to an error of the

order of 10

8

%), the algorithm assures convergence as

early as in the sixth iteration for a tolerance of 10

À6

.

Table 2 compares the number of iterations required by

the conventional ‘shooting methods’, and the ‘Warner’s

algorithm’ for various pressure ratios. Given in brackets

is the time taken (in seconds) for convergence of itera-

tions. For almost all the cases, Warner’s algorithm dis-

plays good convergence. It can be observed that the

number of iterations required increases as the pressure

M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1087

ratio decreases. The ﬁgures correspond to the number of

iterations to obtain the steady-state solutions, given the

suction and discharge plenum pulsations.

6.3. Parameter studies

In order to discuss the various phases that a com-

pressor undergoes during its steady-state, let us take the

case of an operating pressure ratio of 1:5. The steady-

state cylinder pressure variation is shown in the Fig. 4.

We note that the initial cylinder pressure is almost equal

to the discharge pressure. We can expect this, because

the volume variation is taken such that the slope of the

proﬁle gradually approaches zero at the t=t. Therefore,

there is not much compression that takes place in the

last part of t=t. The compressed gas has enough time

to be vented out through the discharge valve.

As the piston moves from its top position, P

c

follows

the perfect polytropic gas law as the mass content is

constant. One could note that P

c

comes down with a

high slope, corresponding to the high rate of volume

variation. Once P

c

-P

suc

, the suction valve opens. With

the slope of P

c

being high, the suction valve opens up

with a high velocity, thus making the compressor

experience a high mass ﬂow rate (Fig. 5). The initial rate

of increase of x

s

in Fig. 5 indicates this. As P

c

increases

the driving force for the suction ﬂow reduces. Thus the

valve starts closing even though there is some driving

force for the ﬂow to take place because of the potential

energy of the compressed spring. Consequently, this

decreases the ﬂow into the cylinder. The valve does not

shut fully as can be clearly seen from the suction valve

velocity proﬁle in Fig. 6. During this closing phase of

the valve, there exists no back ﬂow. The volume of the

cylinder still increasing, the pressure of the cylinder falls.

Again the valve opens and allows the ﬂow to take place.

This occurs when t is approximately

t

2

. This time the

valve closure is accompanied with some leakage.

Table 1

Validation of mass ﬂow calculations, integrated over one cycle,

from simulation (in kg)

Pressure ratio Suction ﬂow Discharge ﬂow % Error

1:2 23.3115 22.9669 1.478

1:4 11.2715 11.1632 0.961

1:5 16.1335 15.3992 4.55

1:6 11.7862 11.1897 5.06

1:7 8.9069 8.7477 1.786

1:9 4.6304 4.6438 0.289

Fig. 3. Convergence rate of iterations using proposed technique.

Fig. 2. The ﬂowchart for the algorithm.

Table 2

Comparison of computational eﬀort between conventional and

proposed simulation methods. Shown is the number of itera-

tions for convergence with time taken in seconds in parenthesis

Pressure ratio Conventional method Warner’s method

1:2 Diverges 12 (5)

1:4 54 (10) 10 (4)

1:5 30 (7) 7 (3)

1:6 20 (5) 5 (2)

1:8 12 (4) 5 (2)

1088 M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092

Then the system undergoes a pure compression phase.

The discharge valve opens up, once a favorable pressure

drop is created. The rate at which the compression

occurs being very high, the discharge valve opens up

with a jerk allowing the gas to go out at a high rate (see

Fig. 7). This jerk almost brings down the P

c

to P

dis

leading to the oscillation in the P

c

proﬁle. The jerk gives

the discharge valve a great displacement as shown in

Fig. 7. Once the mass gets vented out, the spring

restoring force starts to close the valve, even though

there exists a favorable pressure drop. It takes some

time for the pressure diﬀerence to decelerate the high

valve velocity, and make it turn its direction as seen in

Fig. 6. Meantime, the pressure builds up and again the

valve sees a jerk. This continues until t=t. This ﬂutter-

ing of the discharge valve is more prominent for the low

pressure ratio cases. The velocity proﬁle clearly depicts

this phenomena.

The steady-state values of several parameters, such as

peak pressure reached in the cylinder, the net amount of

air being compressed in the cylinder including the losses

due to back-ﬂow and the back-pressure, were found to

depend heavily on the operating pressure ratio. For the

simulation, the average discharge pressure was kept

constant at 2.826 MPa and the suction pressure was

changed.

6.3.1. The maximum and minimum pressure reached

The steady-state cylinder pressure proﬁles for various

operating ratios are shown in Fig. 8. It can be observed

that the magnitude of the peak value decreases as the

pressure ratio increases. The low pressure ratio case

exhibits a higher value of peak pressure because of the

higher amount of the gas being compressed in each

cycle. Also, the position at which the peak value occurs

moves towards the minimum volume position and the

Fig. 5. Suction valve motion and ﬂow rate into the cylinder for

a pressure ratio 1:5.

Fig. 6. Suction and discharge valve velocity for a pressure ratio

of 1:5. Fig. 4. Variation of cylinder pressure for a pressure ratio of 1:5.

Fig. 7. Discharge valve motion and ﬂow rate out of the cylin-

der for a pressure ratio of 1:5.

M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1089

steady state initial pressure of the cylinder decreases, as

the ratio increases.

6.3.2. Motion and mass ﬂow rates of valves

6.3.2.1. The discharge valve. The mass ﬂow rate past the

discharge valve at steady-state for two operating pres-

sure ratios, as simulated by the application of Warner’s

algorithm is shown in Fig. 9. It can be seen that the

valve ﬂutters more for the lower pressure ratio, due to

high ﬂow rates. As the pressure ratio increases, the

amount of time for which the valve is open decreases.

6.3.2.2. The suction valve. Mass ﬂow rates m

.

s

for two

operating pressure ratios are shown in Fig. 10. The

conspicuous peaks observed can be attributed to the

presence of local maxima in the pressure proﬁle. The

valve is being accelerated as it closes and the duration

over which the valve is open increases as the pressure

ratio increases.

The valve displacement follows the mass ﬂow rate

trend for both suction and discharge valves.

The conﬁguration of the suction and discharge ple-

nums volumes were found to play an important role in

the steady-state working of a compressor. The deviation

associated with not including the ﬁniteness in the plenum

volumes and the associated pressure pulsations in the

simulation is shown in Fig. 11. Percentage deviation in

Fig. 11 is calculated as:

Deviation ¼

P

withp.v

c

À P

without

c

P

withpv

c

ð16Þ

Not including the eﬀect of the ﬁnite volume of the

plenums can give an error of almost 4% for lower pres-

sure ratios, although only around 0.2% error is

observed for higher pressure ratios. In the discharge

plenum, frequency corresponding to the 12th harmonic

Fig. 9. Mass ﬂow through discharge valve for pressure ratios

of 1:2 and 1:7.

Fig. 8. P

c

for diﬀerent pressure ratios.

Fig. 10. Mass ﬂow through suction valve for pressure ratios of

1:2 and 1:7.

Fig. 11. Percentage deviation in cylinder pressure calculation

on neglecting the acoustic back pressure eﬀect.

1090 M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092

of the working frequency of the compressor (o

c

) is

observed to be prominent (see Fig. 12). This is found to

be the same for all pressure ratios. The resonating fre-

quency is found to be only dependent on the conﬁgura-

tion of the plenums. Also shown in the same ﬁgure, the

suction plenum pressure pulsations about their mean

values. The dominant frequency of the ﬂuctuations is

observed to be the second harmonic of o

c

.

7. Conclusions

Major parameters that aﬀect a compressor system

were identiﬁed and modelled accordingly. The coupled

set of non-linear equation is solved at steady state using

Warner’s algorithm. This was demonstrated to be com-

putationally more eﬃcient as compared to the conven-

tional modelling and simulation techniques. Performance

of the suggested approach was demonstrated by compar-

ing the number of iterations and time for convergence.

Drastic reduction could be observed in the number of

iterations. Steady state predictions were carried out for

various values of the ratios of operating pressures.

Future work will focus on extending the analysis to

multi-cylinder compressors system and including heat

eﬀects.

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Fig. 12. Discharge and suction plenum pulsations.

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1092 M.N. Srinivas, C. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092

xmax :d : s xd . The model took into account the energy transactions that occur between compressor and its surroundings. m3 Clearance volume. Benson and Ucer [7] modelled the compressor-pipe interactions using a modiﬁed homentropic theory by the method of characteristics. have been introduced in the present model. s Compressor running frequency. In order to predict and hence reduce the noise generated. Soedel et al. a good understanding of the parameters that control the source of pressure pulsations is required [4]. m/s Coeﬃcient to account for non-ideality Spring pre-loads. It needs data on pressure. [9] who modelled the positive displacement reciprocating compressor using a semi-empirical method which is based on thermodynamic principles and a large data base. m2 Suction ﬂow area. Srinivas and Padmanabhan [12] demonstrated the computational eﬀectiveness of Warner’s algorithm [13] in compressor plenum acoustics simulations. Cdd Fpd. m/s Impedance. ks l mc md. Since this procedure circumvents the need to calculate the transient solutions it is computationally superior. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 Nomenclature Ad. xs Z(!) Greek letters c s. N/mm Length of the plenum. and Warner’s algorithm [13] is incorporated to obtain the steady-state solution directly. Temperature eﬀects are not incorporated in the present model. m2 Velocity of sound.N. m3 Volume swept by the piston. In such cases. m Maximum valve displacement. Fps kd. The non-idealities are characterized as exergy destruction rates as losses to friction. kg/s Mass ﬂow out the cylinder. at the compressor inlet and the outlet and power input. mass ﬂow rates. Srinivas. kg Valve mass. They viewed the problem as an initial value problem. m3 Valve displacement. These pulsations have been identiﬁed as a major source of noise radiation from reciprocating compressors. kg/s Cross sectional area of the plenum. However. kg/m3 Density of plenum gas. xs xmax . rad/s tions due to the ﬁnite volume associated with the plenums. C. Adv c Cds. In the present work. This had the following disadvantages: these simulations need to be performed until steady state conditions are attained and is a time consuming process. have done extensive work in the modelling of the plenum gas pulsations in the case of single and multi-cylinder compressors [5. Their formulation couples the compressor gas dynamics with that of the plenum by using an impedance approach. Pa Plenum pressures. other non-idealities. [8] have used experimental . McGovern et al.1084 M. and performed simulations which always included the transient solutions. Related modelling eﬀorts include those of Popovic et al.6]. Pa Mass ﬂow rate.11]. The problem of choosing initial conditions becomes a major issue as the number of model parameters increase. the focus is on developing a computationally eﬃcient tool for modelling the dynamics of the compression process in a single cylinder compressor with one suction and discharge valve. as identiﬁed by Woollatt [3]. s Cylinder volume. For instance. the initial conditions for the compressor parameters were chosen such that the solution converges to steady-state [6]. this approach will not work well for the case of multi-cylinder simulations. [10] analyzed the compressor performance using exergy method where an energy approach is undertaken. temperature. Pas/m steady-state pressure proﬁle in the simulation of the transient(start-up and shut-down) and steady-state dynamics of compressor housing and analyzed the vibration of the whole unit. irreversible heat transfer. m2 Time. ms n : min : mout Pc Psuc. Recently. kg/m3 Time period (2/!c). This leads to a non-linear boundary value problem. As Asv. Dufour et al. m Valve velocity. ﬂuid throttling and irreversible ﬂuid mixing. d !c Cross sectional area of the valve. mm Cylinder gas mass. N Valve spring constants. kg Polytropic gas constant Mass ﬂow in the cylinder. m2 Cross sectional of the anechoic termination pipelines. convergence is achieved only with reasonable guesses of steady-state values. Pa Plenum pressure just outside the valves. Pdis P1 Q1 S1 S2 t Vc Vstr Vcle xd. kg/s Cylinder pressure. Almost all of the prior investigators of reciprocating compressor gas dynamics have carried out their simulations using numerical integration of the non-linear coupled structural gas dynamics equations [4–7. The computational eﬃciency of this approach is demonstrated by comparing the time for convergence and number of iterations with Cylinder gas density.

1. where xs and xd are the suction and discharge valve displacements from the closed position. Schematic of single cylinder reciprocating compressor. (1) and (4) in Eq. with spring type suction and discharge valves.N. Important parameters aﬀecting the compression process are studied for a variety of operating conditions. It takes some time for it to get decelerated from its original motion. The frame of reference is from the static equilibrium position (closed position) such that. rather. This facilitates the use of the overall mass balance equation in the contracting volume of the system as a whole. the system that is considered is the reciprocating air compressor cylinder. A clearance volume of 10% of the stroke volume is assumed. it does not shut down instantaneously as soon as an unfavorable pressure diﬀerence is created. and are given by 2xsrv and 2xdrv. 1). the mass ﬂow rates through the suction and the discharge valves. We are not interested in capturing the pressure variation of the compressor cylinder spatially. and plenum pressures Pdis and Psuc. only the average pressure as the reciprocation takes place. Considering the forces acting on the valve(s). We consider a very long coiled tube being connected to the plenums (not shown in Fig. Including these eﬀects makes the mass ﬂows in the valves take the following forms based on the ﬂow past oriﬁces [14]: : min ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 < Cds s Asv 2ðPsuc ÀPc Þ for Psuc >Pc and xs >0 s qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2ðPc ÀPsuc Þ : ÀC A for Pc >Psuc and xs >0 ds c sv c : mout ð6Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 < Cdd c Adv 2ðPc ÀPdis Þ for Pc >Pdis and xd >0 c qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2ðPdis ÀPc Þ : ÀC A for Pdis >Pc and xd >0 dd d dv d ð7Þ Assuming the gas to be polytropic one gets: Pc ¼ constant n c Eqs. the modelling equation for the Fig. Srinivas. A maximum displacement restriction is placed so as to make the equations emulate the real system. the valves do not have any negative displacements. . Due to the non-ideality of the valve. We need to account for this leakage of gas and its eﬀect on cylinder pressure Pc for a real simulation.M. dPc nPc dVc nPc : : ¼À þ ðmin À mout Þ dt Vc dt c Vc ð5Þ 2. 1. mc ¼ c Vc dmc : : ¼ min À mout dt Vc ¼ Vcle þ É Vstr È 1 À cosð!c tÞ 2 ð1Þ ð2Þ ð3Þ : : where min . valve motions xs and xd. The plenums are of ﬁnite volume. are functions of cylinder pressure Pc. (2) yields: ð4Þ Here Asv and Adv are the ﬂow areas through which the suction and the discharge take place from the cylinder respectively. and mout . C. The mathematical model As shown in Fig. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1085 traditional techniques. Valve dynamics have been modelled by many authors [14–16]. turn the direction and shut the opening. The piston has reciprocating action through the crank shaft arrangement and no leakage is assumed. so that we can assume that this arrangement approximates an anechoic or non-reﬂecting termination.

The steady state solution is characterized by the following boundary conditions: 9 Pc ðt ¼ t0 Þ ¼ Pc ðt ¼ t0 þ Þ > > > xs ðt ¼ t0 Þ ¼ xs ðt ¼ t0 þ Þ > = 0 0 ð10Þ xd ðt ¼ t Þ ¼ xd ðt ¼ t þ Þ > : : xs ðt ¼ t0 Þ ¼ xs ðt ¼ t0 þ Þ > > > . The number of variables being three. . Eqs. operating conditions and the properties of the ﬂuid used (Pconst . Srinivas. method of order 7. The aim of this work is to obtain the steady-state variation of these variables for a given mechanical conﬁguration (the size of the cylinder. In the conventional method. q ðx ð0ÞÞ x ð0Þ 2 ð11Þ where xn(0) represents the nth guess of initial conditions matrix for the next iteration. . Through the Warner’s algorithm.N. which may diﬀer by a very high magnitude. The above system of Eqs. The origin of time is when the piston is at the top most position. spring constant of the suction and the discharge valves) of the compressor. Since the pre-loads have a negligible eﬀect usually. . Preload accounts for the compression of the spring valves at its closed state so as to avoid any leaks.1086 M. for xs dt2 > 0 and xs < xmax s ð9Þ ð8Þ where Fpd and Fps are pre-loads acting on the valves. q(xn(0))=xn()-xn(0). simulations are carried out for four diﬀerent sets of initial guess values and the miss-distances are calculated. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 discharge and suction valves become. qT Àx1 ð0ÞÁ 6 1. . Eqs. Usually this will not happen and the value obtained at is taken as the initial conditions for the next iteration. If the initial conditions correspond to the steady-state. xs(t=0)=0 : and xs (t=0)=0. : xd (t=0) and Pc(t=0)). Simulation As one can observe. mass. (8) and (9) are integrated for one period of rotation of the crankshaft using the Runge–Kutta This algorithm gives the initial values for the next iteration using n+1 sets of guesses and the miss-distances where n is the number of variables. the initial value vector for the next iteration is calculated and the corresponding vector q is obtained.0}. for xd dt2 > 0 and xd < xmax d ms d2 xs þ ks xs ¼ Cfs As ðPsuc À Pc Þ þ Fps . (5). In this method the initial value problem is converted to a two-point BVP with periodic boundary conditions. 2.0. s). we can expect that both the suction and the discharge valves not to be open simultaneously. The error for each set is: À Á À Á ek ¼ qT xk ð0Þ q xk ð0Þ . operating frequency !. they were neglected in the calculations. The iterations are carried out until the ek for the newly guessed values becomes less the tolerance speciﬁed for convergence. . makes the actual number of ordinary diﬀerential equations. This brings down the number of steady-state initial unknown values to three. Since the solution is periodic the vector q is given by. (5). This is achieved using suc dis a computationally eﬃcient technique (Warner’s algorithm [13]) for solving boundary value problems (BVP). the above steps are repeated until the steady state is reached. k ¼ 1. bT={1. (xd(t=0). (8) and (9) being of second order. Because we operate the compressor between Psuc and Pdis. C. b is the n+1 dimensional column vector. Calculations are triggered with some initial conditions at t=0 for the ﬁve variables involved. After time t= we get a set of 5 values corresponding to the ﬁnal state. . The Warner’s algorithm 3. qT x2 ð0Þ 7 6 Èx2 ð0ÞÉT 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6: 7 T T6 : 7 6 x ð0Þ ¼ b 6 7 7 6: 7 6: 7 6 7 4: 5 4: 5 È nþ1 ÉT T n 1. (ODEs) with the introduction of two vari: : ables (xs and xd ). q(xn(0)) is the miss-distances vector for the nth guess vector of the initial values. diameter of the valve openings.. 4. (8) and (9) form a coupled system of non-linear equations which need to be solved simultaneously over one cycle time of the crankshaft during which the piston completes one backward and one forward stroke. by solving a matrix equation which reads as: À Á 3À1 2 È 1 ÉT 3 x ð0Þ 1. The values of Cfd and Cfs can be obtained from [16]. . on using a single vibration mode approximation [5]: md d2 xd þ kd xd ¼ Cfd Ad ðPc À Pdis Þ þ Fpd . We assume that at the beginning of the cycle. n þ 1: ð12Þ The set having the maximum error (ek) is replaced with the new set found from the algorithm. : : xd ðt ¼ t0 Þ ¼ xd ðt ¼ t0 þ Þ where is the time period for one crankshaft rotation. to be solved as ﬁve. volume of the plenums. These co-eﬃcient account for the loss of the energy due to the oriﬁce ﬂow. . Pconst . all the ﬁve variables involved will have the same value at t= as at t=0.

Degree of convergence ð14Þ Substituting the above expression into Eq. steady-state also requires these variations in the plenum pressures to repeat themselves after every cycle. the Fourier coeﬃcients (Bn and n) are calculated. Srinivas. Now. A harmonic analysis of volume velocity (Q1) yields. The above procedure is repeated until the variations converge to the tolerance provided. Eﬀect of plenum volumes The ﬁniteness in the volume of the suction and discharge plenums aﬀects the Psuc and Pdis as seen by the cylinder. Length of the plenum (l)=70 mm. (15). 2. Results and discussions 6. The latter method has been applied extensively by Soedel et al. Validation is done by calculating independently the total mass ﬂow per cycle through the suction and discharge valve from mass ﬂow rate data. Therefore. due to non-linear mass ﬂow.M. The numerical simulation was performed with 500 time steps over one cycle of piston motion. one gets the plenum pressure at the valves (P1) as: P1 ðÞ À Pfixed þ M X Bn Zðn!c Þcos½n À n¼1 n þ ðn!c Þ ð15Þ The above equations are applicable for both the suction and discharge plenums. It can be observed that the number of iterations required increases as the pressure . C. These pulsations can be modelled in two ways. Using these coeﬃcients the plenum pressure (for both suction and discharge) variations are calculated using Eq. the algorithm assures convergence as early as in the sixth iteration for a tolerance of 10À6. Soedel and Singh [18] characterized the coupling between compressors in a multi-cylinder case by deﬁning transfer impedances in a distributed parameter model.18]. the new steady state condition is calculated with the new plenum pressure variations. This problem has been addressed adequately by workers on acoustics. The computational procedure followed is shown in Fig. M X Q1 ¼ Bn cosðn À n¼0 nÞ The suction and discharge plenums have the following speciﬁcations: Anechoic pipe diameter=15 mm. The acoustic back pressure is included in the simulation by assuming initially that the plenum pressures do not change with time. 6.1. As the mass ﬂow occurs. (13). Excellent agreement is obtained as shown in the Table 1. The error involved with each new prediction is brought down exponentially which showcases the eﬀectiveness in the use of Warner’s algorithm in such boundary value problems. Soedel and his co-workers [19.N. These variations are propagated to the other side of the plenum at the speed of sound and are called the acoustic back pressure eﬀect. The steady-state initial conditions for the system variables The convergence of the given compressor calculations using Warner’s algorithm is shown in Fig. or using the plane wave acoustic theory [17] to obtain the impedance assuming an anechoic termination. Even with the worst guesses (amounting to an error of the order of 108%). The variations depends on the mass ﬂow rate variations throughout the cycle time.2. System considered The considered compressor system had the following speciﬁcations: !c ¼ 314 rad=s md ¼ ms ¼ 0:0162 kg ks ¼ kd ¼ 3:64754 N=mm rd ¼ 15:75 mm s ¼ 5:6 kg=m3 bore ¼ 66:68 mm rs ¼ 10:75 mm n ¼ 1:12 stroke ¼ 45:97 mm Zð!Þ ¼ S P1 c S1 coskl þ jsinkl 2 ¼ Q1 S1 gc coskl þ j S1 sinkl S 2 ð13Þ where P1 is the plenum pressure at the valve position and Q1 is the volume velocity (or ﬂow rate) exiting the valve. the plenum pressure just above the valves ﬂuctuates. Velocity of sound(c)=150 m/s. using ﬁnite element analysis of the plenum volumes. [4. and the ‘Warner’s algorithm’ for various pressure ratios. From plane wave acoustic theory the acoustic impedance at the discharge/suction valve may be given as: are calculated using Warner’s algorithm for a given plenum pressure variation. 6. Table 2 compares the number of iterations required by the conventional ‘shooting methods’. The pressures keep varying throughout the piston cycle time. From the mass-ﬂow rate variations at the calculated steady-state conditions. Given in brackets is the time taken (in seconds) for convergence of iterations. Chen [20] developed a graphical method for the calculations of the pressure pulsations in the piping. Warner’s algorithm displays good convergence. For almost all the cases. 3. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1087 5. Plenum diameter=150 mm.6]. used a lumped parameter model to simulate the pulsations.

5).55 5. The ﬁgures correspond to the number of iterations to obtain the steady-state solutions. The valve does not shut fully as can be clearly seen from the suction valve velocity proﬁle in Fig. Once Pc < Psuc.06 1.6438 % Error 1.1088 M. One could note that Pc comes down with a high slope. there exists no back ﬂow. this decreases the ﬂow into the cylinder. We can expect this.786 0. 4.7477 4. 6. With the slope of Pc being high. The ﬂowchart for the algorithm. Shown is the number of iterations for convergence with time taken in seconds in parenthesis Pressure ratio 1:2 1:4 1:5 1:6 1:8 Conventional method Diverges 54 (10) 30 (7) 20 (5) 12 (4) Warner’s method 12 (5) 10 (4) 7 (3) 5 (2) 5 (2) . Consequently. Pc follows the perfect polytropic gas law as the mass content is constant. 3.7862 8.6304 Discharge ﬂow 22.289 Table 2 Comparison of computational eﬀort between conventional and proposed simulation methods.478 0. Again the valve opens and allows the ﬂow to take place. The compressed gas has enough time to be vented out through the discharge valve. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 Fig.961 4. The initial rate of increase of xs in Fig. there is not much compression that takes place in the last part of t=. This time the valve closure is accompanied with some leakage.N. corresponding to the high rate of volume variation. Parameter studies In order to discuss the various phases that a compressor undergoes during its steady-state. integrated over one cycle. the pressure of the cylinder falls. 5 indicates this. 6. Therefore. We note that the initial cylinder pressure is almost equal to the discharge pressure. the suction valve opens up with a high velocity. As Pc increases the driving force for the suction ﬂow reduces.9669 11.9069 4.1335 11. Fig. because the volume variation is taken such that the slope of the proﬁle gradually approaches zero at the t=. let us take the case of an operating pressure ratio of 1:5. from simulation (in kg) Pressure ratio 1:2 1:4 1:5 1:6 1:7 1:9 Suction ﬂow 23. Srinivas. the suction valve opens.3. This occurs when t is approximately 2.1897 8. Table 1 Validation of mass ﬂow calculations. The steadystate cylinder pressure variation is shown in the Fig. C. ratio decreases. As the piston moves from its top position.3115 11.1632 15. The volume of the cylinder still increasing. 2. given the suction and discharge plenum pulsations. Convergence rate of iterations using proposed technique.2715 16.3992 11. thus making the compressor experience a high mass ﬂow rate (Fig. During this closing phase of the valve. Thus the valve starts closing even though there is some driving force for the ﬂow to take place because of the potential energy of the compressed spring.

7). This jerk almost brings down the Pc to Pdis leading to the oscillation in the Pc proﬁle.826 MPa and the suction pressure was changed. and make it turn its direction as seen in Fig. 7. The maximum and minimum pressure reached The steady-state cylinder pressure proﬁles for various operating ratios are shown in Fig. 6. 4. The velocity proﬁle clearly depicts this phenomena. The steady-state values of several parameters. The low pressure ratio case exhibits a higher value of peak pressure because of the higher amount of the gas being compressed in each cycle. Meantime. the net amount of air being compressed in the cylinder including the losses due to back-ﬂow and the back-pressure. the average discharge pressure was kept constant at 2. Srinivas. Once the mass gets vented out.1. It takes some time for the pressure diﬀerence to decelerate the high valve velocity.N. such as peak pressure reached in the cylinder. The discharge valve opens up. 5. Discharge valve motion and ﬂow rate out of the cylinder for a pressure ratio of 1:5. The rate at which the compression occurs being very high.M. the spring restoring force starts to close the valve. This ﬂuttering of the discharge valve is more prominent for the low pressure ratio cases. 6. Also. Suction and discharge valve velocity for a pressure ratio of 1:5. This continues until t=. the position at which the peak value occurs moves towards the minimum volume position and the Fig. Variation of cylinder pressure for a pressure ratio of 1:5. Fig. 8. Fig. The jerk gives the discharge valve a great displacement as shown in Fig. It can be observed that the magnitude of the peak value decreases as the pressure ratio increases. the discharge valve opens up with a jerk allowing the gas to go out at a high rate (see Fig.3. Fig. For the simulation. 7. once a favorable pressure drop is created. . Suction valve motion and ﬂow rate into the cylinder for a pressure ratio 1:5. C. even though there exists a favorable pressure drop. 6. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1089 Then the system undergoes a pure compression phase. were found to depend heavily on the operating pressure ratio. the pressure builds up and again the valve sees a jerk.

Percentage deviation in Fig. The discharge valve. It can be seen that the valve ﬂutters more for the lower pressure ratio.1.2. Mass ﬂow rates ms for two operating pressure ratios are shown in Fig. C. 11. Pc for diﬀerent pressure ratios. Fig. The conﬁguration of the suction and discharge plenums volumes were found to play an important role in the steady-state working of a compressor. Motion and mass ﬂow rates of valves 6. 8. the amount of time for which the valve is open decreases. 10. Fig. Mass ﬂow through suction valve for pressure ratios of 1:2 and 1:7. although only around 0. Mass ﬂow through discharge valve for pressure ratios of 1:2 and 1:7. Fig. due to high ﬂow rates. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 steady state initial pressure of the cylinder decreases. as the ratio increases. Percentage deviation in cylinder pressure calculation on neglecting the acoustic back pressure eﬀect. 6.2. 10.3. The conspicuous peaks observed can be attributed to the presence of local maxima in the pressure proﬁle. The valve is being accelerated as it closes and the duration over which the valve is open increases as the pressure ratio increases.2% error is observed for higher pressure ratios.2. The mass ﬂow rate past the discharge valve at steady-state for two operating pressure ratios. 9.3. The deviation associated with not including the ﬁniteness in the plenum volumes and the associated pressure pulsations in the simulation is shown in Fig. as simulated by the application of Warner’s algorithm is shown in Fig. Srinivas. 9. . : 6. The valve displacement follows the mass ﬂow rate trend for both suction and discharge valves. 11 is calculated as: Deviation ¼ Pwithp:v À Pwithout c c Pwithpv c ð16Þ Not including the eﬀect of the ﬁnite volume of the plenums can give an error of almost 4% for lower pressure ratios. 11. frequency corresponding to the 12th harmonic Fig.2. In the discharge plenum. The suction valve.3.1090 M. As the pressure ratio increases.N.

In: Proceedings International Compressor Engineering Conference. A semi-empirical method for modeling a reciprocating compressor in refrigeration systems.115:371–6. References [1] Tassou SA. Steady state predictions were carried out for various values of the ratios of operating pressures. Aoshima M. Gas pulsations as a factor aﬀecting operation of automatic valves in reciprocating compressors. The resonating frequency is found to be only dependent on the conﬁguration of the plenums. Pressure pulsations in pipe systems with multiple reciprocating air compressors and receivers.15(1):34–47. Soedel W. Discharge and suction plenum pulsations. This was demonstrated to be computationally more eﬃcient as compared to the conventional modelling and simulation techniques. in: Proceedings of Purdue Compressor Technology Conference. Lalanne M. Der Hagopian J. Dynamic behavior of valves with pneumatic chambers for reciprocating compressors. An exergy method for compressor performance analysis. ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 1993. p. [4] Elson JP. [6] Soedel W. [14] Brablik J. Quantitative diagnostics for reciprocating compressors. [5] Singh R. Soedel W. [7] Benson RS. On warner’s algorithm for the solution of boundary-value problems for ordinary diﬀerential equations. Ucer AS. Steady state modeling of reciprocating compressor plenum acoustics using warner’s algorithm. 1972. Smalley AJ. Qureshi TQ. On helmholtz resonator eﬀects in the discharge systems in the discharge system of a two-cylinder compressor. PhD thesis. Time domain approach to gas pulsation modelling. 121–129. p.M.101(2):367–82. [10] McGovern JA. 188–95. [2] Gerlach CR.N. Shapiro HN. Factors aﬀecting reciprocating compressor performance. The dominant frequency of the ﬂuctuations is observed to be the second harmonic of !c.20(1):37–46. Srinivas. [11] Kim HJ.181(1):23–41. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 1976. Padilla Navas E. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 1091 Fig. Hydrocarbon Processing 1993:57–64. of the working frequency of the compressor (!c) is observed to be prominent (see Fig. [9] Popovic P. [13] Mataus´ ek MR. 1975.30:263–77. ASHRAE Transactions 1995. Harte S. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Technical sessions of Madras-India Regional chapter of Acoustical Society of America. This is found to be the same for all pressure ratios. 373–84. p. Future work will focus on extending the analysis to multi-cylinder compressors system and including heat eﬀects. 12. 12). Journal of Sound and Vibration 1974. 2000. Simulation of the interaction of compressor valves with acoustic back pressures in long discharge lines. C. Conclusions Major parameters that aﬀect a compressor system were identiﬁed and modelled accordingly. In: International Gas Research Conference. [12] Srinivas MN. . 1989. Transient and steady state dynamic behavior of single cylinder compressors: prediction and experiments. Modeling of multicylinder compressor discharge systems. Kurohashi M. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1973. The coupled set of non-linear equation is solved at steady state using Warner’s algorithm. Performance of the suggested approach was demonstrated by comparing the number of iterations and time for convergence. [15] Kato M. 7. Also shown in the same ﬁgure. Comparative performance evaluation of positive displacement compressors in variablespeed refrigeration applications. Day AR. 1994. Purdue University.21(1):29–41.18(6):421–33. International Journal of Refrigeration 1998. 235–40. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1973. International Journal of Refrigeration 1995. Padmanabhan C. p. [8] Dufour R. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1995. [3] Woollatt D. 34(2):211–20. Kotalik BD. the suction plenum pressure pulsations about their mean values. Drastic reduction could be observed in the number of iterations.

Soedel W. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1979. p.N. Padmanabhan / International Journal of Refrigeration 25 (2002) 1083–1092 [19] Singh R. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1967. Mathematical modeling of multicylinder compressor discharge systems interactions. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1979.63(1):125–43. Srinivas. 1980. Interpretation of gas oscillations in multicylinder ﬂuid machinery manifolds by using lumped parameter descriptions. University of Tokyo. Technical Report 344. [20] Chen YN. 1958.1092 M. Fundamentals of acoustic silencers. Flow forces and the tilting of spring loaded ¨ valve plates. C. 5(2):215–56. 185–97. Calculation of gas vibrations due to simultaneous excitations in reciprocating compressor piping systems with allowance for frictional eﬀect and temperature change in the ﬂow. Toyama M. [16] Boswirth L. [18] Singh R.64(3):387–402. In: Proceedings of the Purdue compressor conference. Soedel W. Aeronautical Research Institute. [17] Igarishi J. .

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