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Journal of Food Engineering 66 (2005) 395399 www.elsevier.


Thermophysical properties of Thai seedless guava juice as aected by temperature and concentration
Rosnah Shamsudin *, Ibrahim O. Mohamed, Nor Khalillah Mohd Yaman
Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia Received 10 November 2003; accepted 4 April 2004

Abstract The thermophysical properties of guava (Psidium guajava L.) juice of the Thai seedless variety at medium maturity as aected by temperature and concentration were studied. The thermophysical properties were determined at concentrations between 10 and 40 Brix and temperatures between 30 and 80 C. The apparent viscosity (l) and density (q) decreased with increase in temperature, while the specic heat capacity (Cps ) increased as temperature increased. However, the thermal conductivity (k) was not inuenced by temperature. The apparent viscosity (l), and density (q) increased as concentration increased. 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Guava juice; Apparent viscosity; Flow behaviour index; Density; Thermal conductivity; Specic heat capacity

1. Introduction Tropical fruit juices have recently become important due to the overall increase in natural fruit juice consumption as an alternative to the traditional caeinecontaining beverages (Jagtiani, Chan, & Sakai, 1998). Guava, Psidium guajava L. is a member of the large Myrtaceae or Myrtle family, believed to originate in Central America and the southern part of Mexico (Somogyi, Barrett, & Hui, 1996). Guavas are the only edible fruits of this family. In the processing line, the fruit is either canned or converted into juice or puree, or used for producing jam and guava paste. India is the major world producer of guava (Jagtiani et al., 1998). In Malaysia, Perak state is the largest area for guava plantation (Kwee & Chong, 1990). According to Brasil, Maia, and Figueiredo (1995), guava does not show problems of a physical or biochemical nature in relation to texture, shape or pulp browning during processing. Modeling, optimization and automation of food processes in general, is dicult due to the complexity of

Corresponding author. Tel.: +60-3-89466354; fax: +60-389466364. E-mail address: (R. Shamsudin). 0260-8774/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.04.007

the raw materials and products involved, which aect thermophysical properties (Telis-Romero, Telis, Gabas, & Yamashita, 1998). In addition, some foods exhibit substantial changes with temperature and water content during processing (Telis-Romero et al., 1998). In the food industry, knowledge of the physical properties of food is fundamental in analyzing the unit operations. They inuence the treatment received during the processing and good indicators of other properties and qualities of food. These benet the producer, industry and the consumer (Ramos & Ibarz, 1998). Many of the methods in use today for the analysis of foods are procedures based on a system introduced initially by two German scientists (Henneberg & Stohman, 1938) for the analysis of animal feedstus and described as the Proximate Analysis of Foods. This scheme of analysis involves the estimation of the main components of a food such as moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude ber and mineral element. All nutrients were grouped according to their chemical nature. Low molecular weight solutes in foods cause a thermodynamic change in the freezing point of the liquid. That is, rather than freezing at 0 C, many liquid foods freeze at lower temperatures, depending on the concentration and type of the dissolved solids. The higher the level of dissolved solids, the greater the extent of the


R. Shamsudin et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 66 (2005) 395399

Nomenclature Cps mw mp mF mc ma Cpw Cpp specic heat capacity, kJ/kg K mass fraction of water mass fraction of protein mass fraction of fat mass fraction of carbohydrate mass fraction of ash specic heat of water, kJ/kg K specic heat of protein, kJ/kg K CpF Cpc Cpa k Greek q l specic heat of fat, kJ/kg K specic heat of carbohydrate, kJ/kg K specic heat of ash, kJ/kg K thermal conductivity, W/m C density, kg/m3 apparent viscosity, mPa s

freezing-point depression and the lower the freezing point. The initial freezing point of juice can be determined from the graph of temperature versus time. Several techniques including steady and non steady state methods have been used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of food systems (Ali, Ramaswamy, & Awuah, 2002). The line heat source thermal conductivity probe is recommended for most food applications because it is simple, fast, convenience, low cost and suitable for small sample sizes (Sweat, 1995). Mohsenin (1980) discusses many methods to determine the specic heat. Recently however, the dierential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is recommended for measuring specic heat. It is well suited because it is easy to scan a wide range of temperatures. Its disadvantages are that it is an expensive, comparative device, dicult to obtain homogenous samples and cantankerous device (Sweat, 1995). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and concentration on thermophysical properties of guava juice from 10 to 40 Brix and temperatures from 30 to 80 C. Also the physicochemical characterization of guava juice such as proximate analysis, pH, sugar content, water activity and freezing point was determined.

aration of dierent concentration was achieved by dilution with distilled demineralized water. 2.2. Proximate analysis Guava juice with concentration of 10 Brix was used in the proximate analysis. The analysis included protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture and ber. Water content was measured using an oven method and the Soxhlet method was used for fat content. Determination of ber in guava juice was based on the method by Lees (1968) and Meloan and Pomeranz (1978). The Kjeldahl method was used for protein determination. For ash content, the sample was rst dried in an oven at 100 C before being transferred to a mue furnace at 550 C until a white or light gray ash resulted. Three replications of all of these determinations were carried out. 2.3. Freezing point Freezing point of guava juice was determined by freezing the sample using an air blast freezer model FT36-C. The temperature inside the sample was measured using thermocouple sensor probe type HOBO TMC6-HC. Thermocouple sensor probe was located at the center of the beaker. 2.4. Physico-chemical properties The samples of guava juices were characterized by the following physico-chemical determinations: soluble solids concentration (Atago refractometer), pH (CyberScan pH meter), water activity meter, aw (Decagon Pawkit) and sugar content by high performance liquid chromatography (TASCO, US). All the experiment was measured at room temperature. Three replications of all of these determinations were carried out. 2.5. Viscosity Viscosity and shear rate of the guava juice was determined using a rotational viscometer RT 20 (Haake,

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sample preparation Guava juice with seven dierent concentrations was prepared from Thai seedless variety at medium maturity. The concentrations used were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 Brix. The guavas were rst washed using tap water. Then the fruit was peeled and cut into small pieces before being put the juice extractor. The extractor used was a Green Power Juice Extractor (Model GPE1503 Gold). The extracted juice was ltered twice to remove the remaining pulp and other impurities. Since the pure juice was very dilute, it was concentrated using a SB4 freeze dryer, to obtain concentrated juice. Prep-

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Germany). The Sample was placed in a cylindrical metal container and the spindle (ZIN 40 DIN) was inserted into the sample. Measurements were taken from 30 to 80 C at 10 C intervals. The concentration of guava juice varied from 15 to 40 Brix at 5 Brix intervals. Viscosity at a single shear rate value is presented to show the inuence of temperature and concentration on viscosity. 2.6. Density The density was determined using a pycnometer for temperature from 30 to 80 C at 10 C intervals and concentration of guava juice from 10 to 40 Brix at 5 Brix intervals. The temperature was controlled by a thermostatic water bath (Memmert). The density was calculated according to the equation of Earle (1985). 2.7. Thermal conductivity Thermal conductivity was determined using a thermal properties analyzer type KD2, manufactured by Decagon Devices Incorporation. It was operating based on the line heat source method and the values were obtained directly from the digital readout. 2.8. Specic heat capacity Specic heat capacity was determined from proximate analysis using the expression proposed by Heldman and Lund (1992): Cps mw Cpw mp Cpp mF CpF mc Cpc ma Cpa : 1

Table 2 Results for physico-chemical properties of guava juice (10 Brix) Property Freezing point (C) pH Water activity Glucose (%) Fructose (%) Sucrose (%) Experimental value (30 C) )1.07 0.02 4.15 0.13 1.00 0.05 1.38 0.15 1.66 0.11 0.74 0.01

From the cooling curve, the initial freezing point of guava juice at 10 Brix was )1.07 C. The pH of guava juice at 10 Brix was 4.15. From the literature review, pH range for white-eshed varieties guava juice is from 4.0 to 5.0 (Mowlah & Itoo, 1983). Table 2 shows that the water activity of guava juice is 1 at 10 Brix. The value of water activity may range from 0 to 1, but for fruits and vegetables, the values typically range from 0.97 to 1. At 10 Brix, the water activity value is maximum because it was due to high moisture content (92.9%) in the juice. The result shown in Table 2 seems to indicate that the monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) are the dominant carbohydrate compared to the disaccharide (sucrose). 3.2. Eect of temperature and concentration on apparent viscosity Table 3 shows the changes in apparent viscosity of guava juice with concentration at a shear rate 10 s1 and temperature 50 C. It is seen that the apparent viscosity of guava juice increased with increase in concentration. The apparent viscosity increase as total soluble solids increased has also been reported by Vitali and Rao (1982) (guava puree), Zainal, Abdul Rahman, Ari, Saari, and Asbi (2000) (pink guava juice) and Hernandez, Chen, Johnson, and Carter (1995) (orange juice). Table 4 shows the changes in apparent viscosity of guava juice with temperature at a shear rate of 10 s1 and concentration of 30 Brix. It is seen that the apparent viscosity of guava juice decreased with increase in temperature. This decrease in apparent viscosity with increase in temperature has also been reported for orange juice by Hernandez et al. (1995), guava puree by Vitali and Rao (1982), pink guava juice by Zainal et al.
Table 3 Apparent viscosity at shear rate 10.0 s1 and temperature 50 C Concentration (Brix) 15 20 25 30 35 40 Apparent viscosity (mPa s) 11.89 1.52 15.68 1.06 34.04 1.31 79.84 1.75 129.4 1.60 297.1 1.79

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Proximate analysis, freezing point and physicochemical properties The results of the proximate analysis, freezing point and physico-chemical properties of guava juice are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. From Table 1, it is shown that the experimental values for the proximate analysis of Thai seedless guava juice. It is clear that the solid content of the guava juice consist predominantly from carbohydrate (63%).
Table 1 Results for proximate analysis of guava juice (10 Brix) Property (in %) Moisture content Ash Protein Fiber Fat Carbohydrate Experimental value 92.9 0.15 0.74 0.01 0.80 0.02 0.81 0.02 0.28 0.01 4.47 0.01


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1250 1200

Table 4 Apparent viscosity at shear rate 10.0 s1 and concentration 30 Brix Temperature 30.2 40.5 51.1 60.5 70.1 80 Apparent viscosity (mPa s)


Density (kg/m 3 )

158.4 1.35 80.46 1.95 69.01 1.95 45.36 2.03 36.39 1.99 21.94 1.9

1150 1100 1050 1000 950

15Brix 20Brix 25Brix 30Brix 35Brix 40Brix

(2000) and claried cherry juice by Giner, Ibarz, Garza, and Xhian-Quan (1996). 3.3. Eect of temperature and concentration on density Figs. 1 and 2 shows an increase in density with an increase in concentration of guava juice and with a decrease in temperature. The values of density that have been obtained for guava juice are comparable with values obtained by Ramos and Ibarz (1998) for claried peach juice and orange juice and values obtained by Zainal et al. (2000) for pink guava. The experimental values obtained can be well tted with the same equation proposed by Ramos and Ibarz (1998). 3.4. Eect of temperature and concentration on thermal conductivity The experimental results obtained for the thermal conductivity of guava juice at several concentrations
1200 1180 1160 1140










Temperature (C)
Fig. 2. Eect of temperature on density at dierent concentration.

and temperatures are shown in Table 5. The results also show that thermal conductivity of guava juice was not obviously aected by temperature for the temperature range used. However, the thermal conductivity decreased with increase in concentration. According to Zainal et al. (2000), the thermal conductivity decreased slightly as did that for tomato juice. The thermal conductivity of a food product is a function of water content and structure (Heldman & Lund, 1992). 3.5. Eect of temperature and concentration on specic heat The relationship between specic heat capacity and temperature can be presented as a straight line where the specic heat increased with increasing temperature (Fig. 3). The relationship can be expressed as Cps 3:96 0:00054T J=kg C1 at 10 Brix:

Density (kg/m3 )

1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

30C 40C 50C 60C 70C 80C

The standard error for the intercept is (0.004) and for the slope is (0.00007). Similar results were also reported for pink guava (Zainal et al., 2000) and orange juice (Telis-Romero et al., 1998).

4. Conclusions
Concentration (Brix)

Fig. 1. Eect of concentration on density at dierent temperatures.

It was found that the apparent viscosity (l), density (q), specic heat capacity (Cps ) were signicantly tem-

Table 5 Experimental values for thermal conductivity at dierent concentration and temperature for guava juice T (C) C (Brix) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Thermal conductivity (W/m C) 30 40 50 60 70 80 0.56 0.56 0.60 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.56 0.48 0.46 0.61 0.70 0.78 0.54 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.52 0.54 0.49 0.41 0.52 0.56 0.57 0.56 0.51 0.51 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.61 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.52 0.54 0.55 0.48 0.49 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.49

R. Shamsudin et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 66 (2005) 395399

S = 0.00292770 r = 0.96832966



4.00 3.99 3.98 3.98 3.97 3.97 25.0







Fig. 3. Specic heat at dierent temperature for guava juice at 10 Brix.

perature dependent, while thermal conductivity was not aected by temperature for the range of temperature used in this study.

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Specific Heat, Cp (kJ/kg C)