h.ilst treating m.y pa.tients, I fmd that many of them expect me to give them medicine or herbs.

I always say 10 Ihem "You don.'t need medicine. you need exercise." Exercises are the best way to recuperate from illness. To begin with they are a little sceptical of my advise. but after a week they are pleased 10 come back and leU me how good they fell last week. They can control and live with their pain more easily than before. From thai lime. they stan 10 realise the exercises can bring up their energy. and so begin 10 practise Qigong every day. I am sure that nobody wants 10 take all the different types of medicines all their life. No matter how good or effective the medicine. it still does not belong to your body. is not created by your body. You need your own energy 10 balance your body. The more energy you have. the less suffering you will have. If you need to rely on medicine, lhen you

W

are sruck with iL Even if il works this time, the next time the same problem comes back. you will Reed even more medicine. FmaUy your 'handbag' will be full of medicine bottles. We are human. not 'medicine men'! Step by step you should reduce the amount of medicine. and lei your body become normal and heallhy. Qigong can help you build up your resistance to fight against a1J kinds of illnesses. Maybe one day QigoRg will be the only solution for those 'incurable diseases', no maner if it is HJV. cancer or heart disease.

The Front Cover
Michael Tse performing:

Jade Pillar Gong

The last issue of Qi Magazine (7) displayed Yang Zhendou. great-grandson of Yang Luchan, founder of Yang Style Taiji Quan. We would like to apologize for omitting his name from last issue.

Qi Magalinc
I

Contents
Editorial
by MidJad Tst

Q! News
Whats going on in Hong Kong. China and the UK

Talkback
Your questions, comments and views

An Interesting Day
Hard qigong is a strength exercise, It won't damage your joints or your spine because it develops strength from the inside. But how do you test your standard of hard qigong? by Darryl Tam

Ncar and Far
People often say that Wing Chun is a martial an skill that is confined. to shon distances. We discus whether this is true and moreover whether it is important, by Danitl Potm

Barchand and Weapons: The Conncction
When youleam a marital an. weapons training is the last thing that you learn. The aUlhor argues t.hat traditionally everything that comes before weapons training is just preparing you for when you get to the weapons. by Pt'" NtTllOn

Acupoint Massotherapy for Acute Lumbar Sprain
You can strain the muscles in your lower back quite easily. A combination of massage and acupuncture knowledge can be an effective cure if you know what to do. by Zhang GIIO'"

Qi Magazine 2

Issue 8
April- May 1993

Jade
Jade has a lot of symbolic significance in Chinese culture. Strongest is it.s association with immortality. by Gtn Gossling

The Sacred Arts of Tibet
Tibet has a long history and many sacred arts that frequently combine aspects from those of its 'big' neighbours, China and India. by Palllint BfUlDntll

Dayan Gong
Lesson 7 up to 'Tum The Body'

Scientific Studies on Meditation - Part 2
Can science be used to help understand meditarion! Cenainly we can measure its effects with science. by Amy ThanRUJalla

Healing Energy and Chi Kung
It is frequently said that there are two types of physical culture in China- the External Arts which develop the bone, muscle and tendon , improving the strength of the practitioner. and the Internal Ans which go just for health.

try P(ltT

YOImg

Four Positive Energies
At a high level. manial arts can often be reduced 10 a handful of techniques. In Taiji Chuan people often talk of Peng. Liu, Chi, On. These four energies cover most of Taiji Chuan. by Michael Tse

A Profile of Zhong Youngsheng, Q!gong Therapist
A day in the life of a ~gong Therapist can be intresting: healing people and keeping your own body strong. Zhong Youngshen is a Qigong Therapist in Beijing. by Lin Yida

Qi ~hg3JillC

J

QiNews
Chen development:
In December, Michael Tse returned to
Hong Kong and China to meet his teachers. His Chen Taiji teacher taught him some more advanced levels of pushing hands.
" ~ Whilst talking to a Hard Qigong student, we found that Hard Qigong is good not only for withstanding physical blows but also for: snoring! Much to the relief of his wife. This is because it clears the Chong Channel. and helps you breath more easily! 11"7"7'7.

ome
Hong Kong - Foshan.

...

Yip Chun, travelled to Foshan (Fatshan) 10 teach Wing Chun. He was invited by Prof lee Min g - Chi n g of Foshan University. This is interesting. as Foshan is where Wing Chun first developed before spreading out to Hong Kong and the rest of the world. Left Michael T e. (centre] Yip Own. (right] Prof Lee Mill ··Ching Chun's family has its roots in Foshan, During China's cultural revolution. it was forbidden to practice Wing Chun. because il made it too difficult for the police to arrest people (and there were a 101 of arrests during the cultural revolution). Although they live in Hong Kong now. Yip

Radio Horoscope
Chinese new year gave the listeners of Piccadilly Gold radio the opportunity consult out' the Chinese horoscope. and see what their sign has in store for them in the coming year. Michael Tse answered questions from the audience during James Stannage phone-in show. About 70% to 80% of the his answers connected strongly with the callers situation.

As a result. Fatshan has lost a lot of it's knowledge of Wing Chun, and like the rest of the world has 10 look to Hong Kong and Yip Chun in particular. for knowledge about the original Wing Chun,

Tse Qigong Centre UK PO Box 59 Altrincham WA15 8FS 0845 838 2285 +44161 9294485 tse@qimagazine.com
Master Yip Chun teaching at Foshan University
Qi Magazine

5

How important is it to understand the movements as I learn the form (i.e. what the movements are 'doing' on a physical. level)? Is it more important to just learnthe form without too much thought and let the deeper understanding come later?

YOII

S. Askey. Hebden Bridge. It is very important to learn the movements clearly and understand them. Each movement has it's own meaning. dealing with both the mind and the body otherwise YOII would just be moving your arms and legs. this is 1101 Qtgong, jusl physical movement. When we practise we should 1I0t think too much, we should just concentrate on the hands and the movement. This will enable us to forget everything else. a bil like meditation. we reach a sima/ion where 'heaven and man' become one level. The Qi will be strong, but of course this lakes some time. The only thing yo« need to do is keep practising The benefits will come naturally.
M.T.

not 100 strong, then YOII can stop. But th« more meditation do the more your body can become balanced, and maybe YOII will reach a higher level. When you open the mouth wide and breath in you don't actually lake in milch air. II is better to close the mouth so 1"01 the lips form a small hole. then YOII Slick in the air. This "'ay )'011 can make the Qi go down 10 the Dantien. and breath longer and so take in more air. Swallowing saliva during meditation is not the same (IS swallowing Qi, In Hard Qlgong sl\'allowing Qi Is like eating something and swallowing it down 10 the Dannen, SOII'e sometimes call it "eating Qr or" eating air This movement is strong, II is ·Telllg". 811t swallowing saliva during meditation isgentle and soft. so it is "YinN.
M.T.

After Hard Qigong practice how long should one meditate? When we swallow Qi can we open the mouth wider so that we can take in more air. and when we do swallow Qi is it the same as swallowing saliva to the Dantien? G. Smith. Huddesfield.

During Hard Qigong we do a lot ofl'ery intense breathing techniques. Meditation helps to calm down the Qi and brings us back to a natural, normal slate. So when YOIl meditate, as SOOIl as you feel the body is calm and relaxed,

Firstly I would like to thank those of yOI/ 11"110 have written letters 10 me in response to Darryl Tam's article 01/ the Chinese lnternal Arts festival. Their comments are very valuable and will help our 'Qi Maga:ine' move Oil into /993. Their opinions (and some corrections) help us to realise that looking at things from differen: points of riel\' brings us 10 differem conclusions. I have heard/rom many people and from my OWII students (those that attended and those 11'110 gOl'e demonstrations) that the event was I'ery successful. Straight away I rang SiJlI Peter Young to congratulate him and hoped that he could keep promoting this kind 0/'[estiva! such as the Taiji Festive! organised by Linda Chase-Breda. as they help 10 introduce more people 10 the internal arts. I believe that Darryl Tam's article was written from his point of view. Al lire end he just felt that he would hove liked more information as this would help our Chinese arts

Qi Magazine
I.

(and culture) to improve to their best. / know that Darryl has not studied any Hsing-I, 8agua or Taiji. His background is in Qigong and Wing Chun. So J think he looked at things from this point of view which is probably different to those who have been around and studied these areas. While producing this magazine I really appreciate all the response and feed back that we receive such as letters, questions and articles. This all helps to develop the knowledge further. Personally I like articles that have different points of view. not just positive and good hut different. Different views help to balance things and so used constructively will make things develop.

you born with it? Your life and the process of acquiring your skill sounds incredibly interesting. Have you wrinen any books on the subject or thought of writing one? Happy New Year and best wishes. S. Goodall. Kent.
Thank you for your very nice letter. I am glad you enjoyed my demonstration in Leicester Square. Qigong is a very valuable part o/the Chinese cultur« and has a very long history. The transmission of Qi is just one part of Qlgong practice. The ability 10 do this can be taught but it also depends on whether your parents gave )'ou this potential. So it takes a lillie of both. I am currently writing a book which should be published early in /994..

M.T.

MT

Dear Michael, I was very interested in and impressed by your demonstration of Dayan Qigong at the New Year festivities in Leicester Square. London. recently. Your demonstration of transmitting your Qi energy was particularly fascinating. Can this ability be taught or were

If you have any letters questions or cements, send them to: The Editor
Qi Magazine PO Box 116

Manchester M20 9YN.

1St

~

...
....
®

-'

(. \.

lse Qigong Centre UK

POBox 59

.Altrincham WA15 8FS

0845 838 2285 +44161 9294485

tse@qimagazine.com

Qi Magazin.e 7

An Interesting Day
I have taken a lot of exams in my time - but none quite like this!
any. things were the same: waking up and thinking "What's life got in tore for me today?". the hock of remembering and diving out of bed in order to get ready. the nervou glances at the clock to see the time licking past, the recurring thought of "If only I'd done a lillie bit more work", and the reluctant conclu ion: "It's too late to worry about it now!", but still the butterflies twitch and flutter. In the exam room and again familiar ight: (he nervou greeting and limp mile .the nervou chit-chat. conferring and comparing. and (he bad ill timed jokes aimed at diverting the attention to anything but the immediate future. The examiner enters and a vale of tension and ilenee blankets the room. He pauses, looks around and then smiles and says "Relax! Take it easy!". His advice is genuine. warm and friendly. but no one seems to be listening. The exam begins and one by one

M

we are called forward to take rhe te I. Those left behind mile and igh to them elve . not seeming to reali e that the odd of them being ne 'I ha e ju I increased. This exam actually came in three part. The first part 10 ee if au had

picked up \ hill ha been taught and the econd and third part 10 ee if ou had done our homework. The ubject being te led? Hard Qigong! All the test I have d ne in the past have been to te 1 my academic abilitie . all that i e cept my dri ing

Not a punishment but "testing the dsntien"!
Qi Mag:u.im:

test, but to compare a driving test to a Hard Qigong Test would be like comparing an elephant to a mouse (well I suppose they both have four legs.) The first level of the Heavenly River Monastery Hard Qigong was the exact topic of the testThe first level is just to prepare the body for the more intensive later levels, and accordingly the demands of the test reflected this, However all of us had seen the pictures of sledgehammers smashing slabs on heads, or across the stomach whilst lying on a bed of blades, and no one even wanted to think about the rather large looking truck. So understandably everyone was a 'little' nervous. The first part of the test was a simple performance of the basic eighteen rnovemerus. We all expected this and even the third part a simple strength test. to be not too much of a problem. But it seemed no one knew what the second part of the lest held in store for us. All we had as a clues were the words on the notice board "Dantien Test". Everyone got through the first pan okay. So then came the second pan. Who would be first? Yes yougues cd it! Your truly! "Da rry I swallow Qi!" came the order. When you are expecting the worst and someone gives you orne good advice. naturally you take it. Needless to say I began to swallow as much Qi as 1 could. The sound someone makes when they swallow Qi is at the best of times rather strange but this lime I really didn't care what I sounded like. In moments I had run out of time, and before I could gather my thoughts I am being thumped in the stomach just below my navel (this is where the Dannen is). AI the time I remember looking around and thinking this is not so bad. but then the blow began gelling stronger and stronger and I had concentrate on keeping a solid stance so as not to f.111over! Then the dull

Withstanding a jump from a table 'vas an optional extra! BUI proved to be no problem.
thuds stopped and I let out a sigh of relief. Just as a smile began 10 develop ... "Lie down!" .1 looked around to see my teacher standing on a chair pointing a finger in front of it at where I should lie. I looked at the others for some moral support. But they looked as if they didn't know whether to laugh or cry .. So I just lay down and looked at my feet They say that when in a lire threatening situation your life flashes by in front of your eye. well mine didn't, With no more time to think two feel landed on my stomach and bounced off. "Is thai it I thought?" and luckily it was (for now any way). To be honest it was nothing. Relief washed over my body and 1 jumped up smiling at the others who but a few minutes earlier had offered me no suppon. I wouldn't say that revenge was mine but I did get to jump on every single one of them! Seriously though having done
Qi \1agazine 9

the training withstanding the jump had been 0 easy that I didn't give it a second thought, PUlling my best foot forwards I jumped on them one by one. At. the end everyone had passed. In the excitement it was suggested that we should try the table next and no one objected .. in fact they were all eager to test themselves further! Lying on the ground looking up at someone standing three feet above you who is about to jump on you should provoke some sort of reaction, but everyone seemed 10 know that this was also no problem, and il wasn't, Having passed the test, I prepare myself for the wonders of the next level and tried to imagine what the next lest has in store. Needless to say most of my thoughts revolved around the events of the day and I just had to tell someone. So I picked up the phone and called my big brother "I bet I've had a more interesting day than you"
lsaid •... _

Darryl Tam

Northern Leg, Southern Fist: Is Wing Chun just a short distance fighting art?

M

any people. especially in the martial arts press, like to categorise different skills into those Ihat are suitable for short range fighting. and those that are suitable for long range fighting, They consider long range fighting to consist of big hand movement. and jumping kicks, and short runge fighting to consist of short strikes. locks and possibly throws. Wing Chun, with its direct hand novements, short kicks and use of the elbow, is considered by many to be I style suitable for short range ighting. However, Wing Chun 1150 contains a kick with a fully rxtended leg and finger mikes with a

fully extended arm. As uming you remain upright without leaning about, these techniques are the longest you could phy ically achieve with your body. The analysis of style into different di tances I think is rni leading. I don't doubt that techniques have a distance that is most appropriate for their application: naturally. your legs are longer than your arms. and your fingers h've a longer reach than you elbow. I don't think this is wrong. I just think il misses the point. Much of Wing Chun trammg con i ts of ticking hands practice. Slicking hands deals with a lot of
Qi Magannc

different thing. According to my teacher' teacher, Yip Chun, ticking hands develops positioning. energy, sensiuvny and hand technique. Although ticking hand does not focus on kicking, punching, locking or throwing. in different degree these activitie form part of actual ticking hands practice. Unlike a 101 of people think, ticking hand i not a fonn of kung-fu wrestling. although sometimes sticking hand can degrade into wrestling. Nor i ticking hands a fonn of paring where you are trying to beat your opponent down. although if you gel carried away you may lose some control and strike your

JO

opponent a little too hard. Sticking hands deals with what happens immediately before your opponent tries to punch you. kick you. lock you down or throw you. Through sticking hands you learn how your position and your opponent's position affect one another. You also learn how to use your energy internally. From your position and the energy you become aware of what techniques are open to you and what techniques are available to your opponent. The more you practice. the less your opponents should surprise you with what they do. You should be able to understand and anticipate how the situation changes. Because of the emphasis on understanding change. sticking hands concentrates on the area that lies between 'long range lighting' and 'short range fighting'. What is the most interesting part of a fight: is it the long range or the short range'? I would say that the long range is not very interesting. since me and my opponent(s) arc too far away to hit each other. Conversely. when I am very close 10 myopponent. things happen very quickly and if I am in a poor position already then it is of len 100 late to change it. Therefore I would also say that the short range i not very interesting either. When two people fight. the fight is often over very quickly. If we assume that you are closing in on me from a slight distance. then what I would consider to be importanl is the lime during which we come together. when one of us intends 10 perform some technique. when long range changes to short range. When you grab me with the intention of locking my ann. when you pull my wrist with the intention of drawing me onto a strike. when you step forward with the intention of

punching me. when you reach out with the intention of strangling me. when you push me to make me lose my balance so that you can follow up with a throw. this is the time when the energy changes the most. and when the outcome of the fight is determined, This is the time covered by sticking hands. Wing Chun philosophy says that you should look for the centre. Most people interpret this in terms of the 'centre line theory'. Of ~ourse centre line theory is very important. but it only addre ses one aspect of fighting. Every thing has a centre. In terms of distancing and range. the centre is the critical point at which you and your

many ways of playing sticking hands. When you watch people practising sticking hands. sometimes they will be standing far apart with their hands stretched out. just meeting. Other times they will be very close to each other and almost seem to be wrestling. However. most of the time they will have both hands engaged and be standing slightly apart. When both hands are touching. your and your opponent are at a distance that is neither completely safe nor completely dangerous. It is at this distance that you have the widest scope to play and learn the most. Although this is how sticking hands is most often played, the other ways are

Tan Sail locks the opponents arm
opponent become a threat to one another. Where this centre is and how you should catch it can be learned through sticking hands. Since sticking hands i so important. you .hould try to get the most out of it as possible. There are
Qi .\lagalin,II

also useful. and should be played as well in order to develop different skill.

OOllie/

POOH

(continued

next issue)

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Barehand and Weapons:
The

Con ec on
po s. ures O.f .. l ..Taiji and their applications reveal movements which not only resemble those found in weapons fonns but some are in fact the same, e.g.: Step Up To Make Seven Stars Step Back To Ride The Tiger Fan Through The Back Strike With Both Fists Kick With The Heel to name but a few, but which came first? Whi.lst barehanded training traditionally comes before weapons it is my belief that barehanded evolved out of weapons fonns/drill. You can see an example of this in Aikido where barehanded movements generally simulate the offensive and defensive actions of the sword and therefore in this case clearly weapons came before barehand. My theory is that in pugilistic times when weapons proficiency was essential for survival. masters of the
Qi Magazine 12

a

study of the barehanded

"lW1enyou analyse and digest the barehanded fonns of Taiji. a .naturalability with weapons develops. "

martial arts devised barehanded training methods for their up and coming warriors thai laid the foundations for future weapons skills. It would be counter productive for them 10 leach unarmed skills that differ from those necessary when using weapons to repulse attackers. The group or clan depended on the weapons skills of their warriors 10 defend life and properly, and the sooner the trainee acqu ired these skills Ihe more secure they became. Therefore these initial barehanded forms would include fundamental stances, postures and techniques that when practised over a period of time subtly transmiued the ingredients necessary for their transition from unarmed to armed proficiency. An example of their interrelationship is seen in the application of 'Pushing Hands' where the skills of Listening. Leading. Sticking and Neutralising develop. Just as you would use these techniques to overcome an attacker with a fist, so do you apply the same

The following tips are designed to help those who have reached the stage of weapons training:
J 2 3 Continue practising the barehanded forms. Analyse every intricate wrist and finger movement. Learn and refine "Chan Si lin" (Silk Reeling Energy, also known as the "Twining Force" of Chen Taiji}. LeI the head be the steering wheel. Seek the spheres. Practising too slowly col/apses the spheres. Imagine the weapon is an extension of your arm. Master the footwork of the barehanded forms as the weapon's power starts in your feel.

4 5 6 7

when faced with an assailant anned with a spear. staff. sword or knife. The ancient training methods discussed above survive today through the original Taiji forms and by diligently practising these forms you will experience this natural and ubtle way of developing weapons skill. What becomes apparent after a short period of time is that the two compliment each other e.g.: the more you practise with weapons the better the barehanded techniques become. Alternatively continued practice of barehanded forms leads to more compact movements which strengthens the foundation, also, by applying the techniques of visualisation (imagining you are holding a weapon) your skill with the actual weapon increases. The unique training programmes devised by the old pugilistic masters stand today as a testament to their ingenuity and makes you appreciate what enlightened people they must have been .•

Peter Newlon
Qi M:JI!:lzinC' I'

for acute lutnharsprain
acute lumbar sprain which causes serious pains is a common condition. It happens when people do a sudden movement, especially whilst bearing a heavy burden, that over-contracts or over-stretches the muscles. Even sneezing can sometimes cause it to occure.
The reason. according to the theory of Chinese traditional medicine. is the blockage of xuemai (vessels in which blood and vital energy circulate). I have, over the years, successfully cured patients of their acute lumbar spine by massaging acupoints along certain channels of the body. Many of my patients who had been helped by the arms when they first came to my clinic could walk on their own after my first treatment. The following are the methods I apply:

assot era y
knuckles (Fig 3).

e point

II. For muscle sprains on the lower
back I) Rub and pluck he most painful point with the thumb. A k the patient to cough 3-5 time while manipulating in order to clear up the channels. 2) Press the most painful point on the

A

n

I. Manipulation for general cases
1) Let the patient stand and hold his

(her) injured part with one hand. pluck (like plucking the bead of an abacus) and rub acupoints yaotuidian on the back of the hand of the patient's uninjured side with thumb and index finger (Fig 1). During the proce s. ask the patient to rum his (her) wai t gently to see which movement is most painful. Then he ( he) continues to do that painful movement for 1-2 minutes until the pain disappears or relieves (Fig 2). 2) Ask the patient to lie on stomach. pluck and press on acupoints kunlun. chengshan • yinmen and chengfu, each for half a minute. and then forcefully on acupoints jianjing and down the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang (4.5 em off and on both sides of the spinal column) for 3-5 times. Rub and pluck the spinal column with mainly the second

Fig.2

Qi Mag.azine J4

waist with one hand and pull first the shoulder of the unaffected side (Fig 4) and then the leg of the injured side upward with the other hand, each for 2-4 times. 3) With the patieru Iying on their back. hold his (her) lower leg with one hand. bend it at knee and push it downward, each leg for 5·7 times. Then rotate it inward and outward 5·7 times for each leg. Hold both legs together and repeat the process for 10 times.
]11. For supraspinal and interspinal Iigamenl sprains In addition to methods mentioned

above, apply alternately rubbing, plucking and rolling on the area along the spinal column with the second knuckles. Besides, pressing and plucking with elbow on the vertebral body. or pulling shoulder of the unaffected side up until a crack is heard are recomrnended according to the patient's condition (Fig
4). IV. For lumbosacral joint problems

FigJ.

FigA.

Points To Remember

Rolling. rubbing and pulling (he shoulder of the uninjured side up (Fig 4) should be added. apart from the general methods. As for injuries of tendons and dislocations of lumbosacral JOints, apply methods of pulling the shoulder of the unaffected side up (Fig 4) and sideways (Fig 5) as well as lugging both legs backward (Fig 6). In cases of sacra-iliac

Chengfu

Yaotuidian

Qi Mag.uinc
15

Fig.S.
joint injuries or sprains sustained when stretching backwards. press and rub when streching backwards. press and rub the area with the base of both palms (one on lOP of the other) or pull the legs up alternately. The purpose of these manipulations is to promote and activate the flow of blood and energy. remove blood stasis. reduce swelling and relieve pain. At the start of massaging. operate gently to relax the muscles on the whole back before applying more pressure on the painful area to repair the injured tendons and reposit the joint.
Points to remember I. Detailed inquiries of the process of

injury and careful physical check should be conducted and the possibilities of fracture. osteoma, tumor and bone tuberculoses must be excluded before manipulation: 2. The diagnosis must be precise, otherwise serious consequences would occur or the problem would become chronic due to improper manipulation.

3. The force applied should be according to the physical condition and the age of the patient. Generally speaking, operate gently on the aged and the weak and forcefully on the strong and the young. But in any case. pressure should be increased gradually and sudden and vigorous force must be avoided during manipulation. 4. Those who gel injured within 1·3 days will normally recover after 2-3 treatments bUI it takes more time for old problems. Tell the patient to rest for 1-2 minutes after each treatment before getting up slowly with the unaffected side up. A couple of days rest after recovery and the wearing of a wide belt for 3·5 days are recommended. Hot compress must be avoided right after injury

Fig.6

by Zhang Guolu
This article first appeared in the magazine "China Sport.".
Qi MaglUinc 16

The author is a masseur at the Clinic of Physical Culture and Sports Commission of Beijing.

JADE
ade or Yu as it is known in Chinese. refers to several kinds of hard stone and at least two kinds of minerals. In China a good quality piece of jade is worth more than an equal weight of diamonds or gold. It's value is judged by the quality of it's variegation, it's colour (it varies from white to green) and it's hardness. The Chinese began using jade before records began. The first archeological discoveries date from the sixth millenium B.C.E but it was first singled out for particular attention by the Liangzhu communities near Lake Taihu between 5300 and 4000 B.C.E. By the time of the Zhou dynasty (1066-221 B.C.E) it was well established in court protocol and documents state that "green discs worship heaven. yeJtow discs honour earth." The reputation of jade was further enhanced by Confucius who equated jade with virtue and insisted that its qualities of purity and hardness expressed the virtues of a man of noble character. Infact this theme is so impressed on Chinese culture that most of the pictograms from the "jade" radical (word stem) have meaning connected with nobility, beauty and preciousness. It is in this sense that we should understand those areas of the body that are associated ,

J

with jade: the spine (jade pillar). the occipital bone at the rear of the skull (jade occipital), the genitals (jade gate and jade stem). Jade is often associated with immortality. Jade is said to enmerge as a liquid from the side of a mountain and then harden over a period of ten thousand years. If it is mixed with certain herbs then it liquifies to form an elixir of life. It is perhaps for this reason that white jade is associated with Hsi Wang Mu, of the Kunlun moutains. One of the favourite subjects of Chinese artists has been the feast of the immortals by the jade pond (Yao Chi) in the palace gardens of Hsi Wang Mu. Jade is also associated with immorality through its use in funeral rites. Most people will be familiar with the fabulous archeological discovery of Ma Wang Tui in Hunan in 1972. where a tomb from 202 B.C.E. was discovered containing bodies completely encased in jade as well as an enormous wealth of painting and mythology. The total
Qi M.agaziM 17

encasement of bodies is an extreme case but it was common practise to place jade in the orifices of a body and a disc, pi, over the heart. This practise was connected with the taoists belief that a person's spirit was made of two parts - p'o (which kept the body alive) and the hun (the conscious mind). They leave the body via the Baihui 'after death and part company, unless for some reason such as revenge they possess another body. Usually though the hun goes off in search of the abodes of the blessed; a journey so long and dangerous that it is almost certain 10 fail unless it is from high rank or has lead an exemplary life. Sometime it is persuaded to remain with the body '10 die a second death rather than risk the hazardous journey. The p'o meanwhile remains with the body for three years or longer if there is enough jade, before either becoming a malevolent spirit (which is likely if relatives have been stingy with funeral arrangements). or travelling to the Yellow Springs (a kind of purgatory).

.

Glen vosslmg

~.

The Sacred Arts of Tibet

To the west of China, often shrouded in mystery, is Tibet. 11has a long history and many sacred arts.

ecently, while on a visit to London. I went to the Royal Academy of arts in Piccadilly to view an exhibition of the The Sacred Arts of Tibet. In a magnificent setting. there were displayed statues and figurines of some of the Arhats (saints). Bodhisattvas (those who are dedicated to the uplifting and healing of others until. all are enlightened). mystics. and mythical kings. At the far end of the gallery. monks from the Namgyal Monastic University in Dharamsala. India. were working on a sand mandala. This was the second. the first having been ritualistically dismantled and poured into the river Thames. Mandalas are circular pictures, which may be painted, created in flowers, (a little like traditional

R

well-dressing in England), or they may be made of coloured rice, stones or sand. It is also possible to create them in the mind. in very deep states of meditation. In the sand mandalas. the coloured sand is ground to a fine powder. and each grain is charged with a blessing through the ritual process, and so each mandala collects an enormous amount of spirituality, which is passed on 1.0 all those who see it, very much as the insight of a great artist is passed on thought his paintings .. First of all. the monks mark out and draw the architectural outlines. using a compass, ruler and pen with white ink. on a.dark background. The coloured sand is then fed through a small metal funnel. which is tapped by another funnel to discharge a fine
Qi M3guinc
18

stream of sand. They begin at the centre and work outwards, using the correct amounts of sand in the correct order and colour. For centuries the monks have made mandalas from the theories, techniques and patterns handed down from teacher to pupil (direct transmission), and then in the 11th century. it was brought from India to Tibet. and in the 18th century. the 7th Dalal Lama introduced it to the Namgyal Monasl.ery where it has continued to this day. The mandala represents the sacred habitation or palace of a particular deity •. a little after the manner in which the saints are represented in church windows. The deity represents the highest attainment of particular aspects of being. For instance,

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Shri Kalachakra Mandala

..., l~~c;i.S:·<I"\m~"ll ~....~~S"l~~~
~.i-.IINMiIiIIiII'_"""'~ ............,_ ...,.... ~,tJ~L.-...~

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__
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...'tIoI.IIIII .........

Manjusri for learning and wisdom. Chenrezig for compassion and healing. Tara for the female aspects of compassion and Kalachara. the wheel of time. The mandala in the picture showing Kalachara represents how things come into being and then pass away. In Tibetan traditions of Buddhism. mandalas are created for initiation rituals. when the teacher gives the pupil permission to meditate on and follow the teachings of a certain deity in order to produce the same attributes. This is known as direct transmission of. the teachings. or empowerment. Both the mandala and the deity

who lives in it are recognised as representatives of aspects of the fully enlightened mind. and that this reaches out and blesses all and everything that comes into its environments. The concept is that the seed of enlightenment and awareness are nourished by meditating on a mandala. and that the illusions of the world are seen for what they are, giving freedom from desire and attachment. They are created in the spirit of the awareness of nonpermanance. and non-attachment to the results of one's efforts. In this spirit. the second mandala will be ritualistically dismantled. and poured into the Thames. Mandalas are
Qi Magaz.ine

obtainable from:- The Manjusri Institute, Conishead Priory. Ulverston, Cumbria. Telephone 0229 54029. Further information on the culture of Tibet from - Tibet Foundation, 43 New Oxford Steet, London WC IA IBH. Telephone 071 3790634. Visit and Lectures form His Holiness The Dalai Lama 8-10 May 1993. Creation of sand mandala by monks from Phenda Ling Monastery Nepal 8-11 May 1993. Wembley Arena. Information from - Office of Tibet. Linburn House. 342 Kilburn High Road. London NW6 2Ql. Telephone 071 3288422 .•
by Pauline Brownell

19

~w~
I
[L®~~®llil (l
28. Press Downwards
This movement appeared in the last issue as part iv of Wind Hand Round Head and Ears

29 Drop up
I. II.

iii.

Tum both palms over Shift your weight forwards onto the left leg Raise the right hand and lower the left hand.
10

This movement has the same affect as movement 28. except that il transfers Qi from the left lung right lung and opens the Qihui points.

the

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30 Recover Qi
When the right hand points up and the left hand down. perform the following three movements at the same time: i. Close the finger tips of the right hand (i.e. all finger tips touch each other. Drop the right hand straight down so that the fingers lightly 'hit' the Quepen point. ii, Stand on your toes and shift your weight to the back (right) leg. Drop down and back onto the right foot. iii. Quickly raise up the left hand so the palm faces the forehead from a distance of about a foot. This movement requires some co-ordination. All three parts should start and finish at the same time. Qi will transmit from the left Laogong point to the Sky- Eye. At the same time the right fingers stimulate the right Quepen point which connects to the stomach. The jerking movement, as the weight drops onto the right foot, releases negative Qi through the legs.

31. Scoop the Moon
i. From the Quepen point. the right hand extends back and up. Open the palm and fingers to collect Qi from the sky. ii. Scoop the hand down and forwards so that it passes in front of the left leg. Meanwhile bend forwards, but keep your weight on the right leg and the left leg straight iii Finally our hand should cup your head with the right hand facing the Sky-eye and the left hand facing the right Tong zi liao point.

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With the Laogong point facing the Sky-eye and Tong zi liao point. the Qi will cross over the head and help to open the sky eye and. balance the head.

32 Tum the Body
i. Keeping your hands and upper body in the same relative position. tum on the heels (beginning with the left heel and then the right heel) so thai you tum through 180 degrees. As you tum, transfer your weight form the right leg to the left leg. You upper body should remain unchanged, but your legs swap roles Ii. Having turned. move the left hand back to the left hip. touching the Hegue and Huan Tiao Points. iii. Then raise your body up and forwards. shifting your weight onto the right leg which should be bend at the knee.

By bending down and keeping your weight on the right leg and turning. you stimulate the Hui Yin point to help open it. Touching the Hegue to the Huan Tiao point releases Qi to this area. which connects to the gall bladder. Qi will move from the Dantien to the head.

Qi Magazine

22

Setentltle St dies On Meditation
Qigong Meditation Part 2
has been scientifically proven that meditation results in a regulation of the cerebral cortex and brain activity. An ECG of a person in a normal everyday state shows many high frequency brain waves with poor rhythmic patterns Meditation produces low - frequency positive waves which are synchronic and three limes higher than a non-meditating person. It is at this low-frequency brain wave, which are called 'Alpha Brain waves' that the body goes to work to heal itself and the body's immune system is enhanced. Alpha brain waves, which are slower than the 'Beta Brain waves' of everyday. ordinary activities. are said to be at the centre of human brain waves spectrum. This may account for the feeling of "Centredness" experienced during meditation. Interestingly. scientists have also discovered thai the frequency of the Alpha brain wave, which is 10 cycles per second. is exactly the same as the frequency of the electro-magnetic energy circling the earth! So meditation allows us to harmonise with nature and the planet and we experience oneness with the
t

I

YIN:
Right Brain Activity Meditation Stillness Creativity Inner potential Spirituality ALPHA Brain Waves

YANG:
Left Brain Activity Movement Activity logical Thinking Materialism BETABrain Waves

In terms of Yin and Yang we can apply the above model
universe. In terms of Qigong, we can understand that the study of Qi is not limited to the Qi in our bodies. Energy is without boundaries: It is everywhere. So Qigong is a very profound study and one that will gain ground the more science moves into the field of studying energy.

Amy Thanawalla

Qi Magazine

Healing Energy
There are two types of physical cultures in China the Extemal Arts which develop the bones, muscles, tendons and overall exterior physique of the prsctitioner; and the Intemal Arts

And T

Chi Kung
depo it it elf among the 8 Extra-ordinary Meridian . These serve as the main reservoirs of Chi from which the upply of Chi-now to all the 4 main Meridian Sy terns. co ering not only the lymph vascular network. the variou internal organs. the skeletal-muscular system. the entire acupoint system but also the central and peripheral nervous network. When the reservoir of Chi deposit is of an acceptable quality and quantity to atiate the functional requirement of all 4 Meridian Systems while continuing to maintain a state of harmonious balance
Qi Magazlne

he Internal Arts focu upon the development of Chi (Qi) ~ the Vital Intrinsic Life Force which is responsible for the well being of all our mental. physiological and spiritual growths. When the Subtle Energy Systems both within and outside one's physical body are suitably activated and balanced in accordance to the specific needs of that individual to effectuate an appropriate level of energy fusion between Shian Tian Chi (the pre-natal Chi which is yin in nature) and Hou Tian Chi (the post-natal Chi which is Yang by nature), a source of enriched Chi materialises into being and

between the various requirements of Energy Dynamic. the owner of such a condition can confidently be assured to enjoy an exi tence of good health, Whenever one uffer from injurie or iIIne s through accident infections or degenerative conditions. it can be certain all the associated organs. meridians and Chi points will also be affected through partial or complete shon circuiting of the Energy-systems. To put it plainly. no mortal being can survive without healthy living cell • and no human being can su tain life without an adequate and consistent supply of healthy Chi!

--'

Practising Tai Chi in the snow
One of the main reasons that most injuries never quite attain full recovery is due to the fact that the energy circuit to the affected part has never been properly reconnected, Without the implementation of such an operation in the correct sequences. no amount of physical exercise nor mental discipline can effectuate a permanent recovery of the injury! My own personal experiences on Chi Kung Healing Energy Therapy indicates many positive encouraging. results in the treatment of decalcifying arthritic joints. reopening fused vertebrae that has had a history of complication. elimination of chronic . pains. reconnecting Chi Meridians to wasted tissues. extraction of infectious virus from diseased organs to bring about a check on the pace of deterioration and. in the case of the seriously sick. strengthening their constitution through Healing Energy transfusion by which a speedier phase of recuperation can be facilitated. Other conditions which have responded equally well include: glandular fever. hernia. ME (myalgic encephalomyelitis). colic, slipped disc. lumbago. ankylosing spondylitis. epilepsy. irritable bowel syndrome. acute depression. synovitis. epiphysitis. tinnitus. scoliosis. aneurysm. frozen shoulder. migraine. MS and all manner of sport's injuries such as tom tendons. sprains. contusions and joint dislocation .etc. So what is Chi Kung? The term Chi Kung literally means the science of Intrinsic Energy. It is the most ancient form of Energy Cultivation study in China. Its theory of Energy Alchemy and the balancing of Chi within the physiological structure of the human body provides the main foundation of all Chinese medicine which includes Moxibustion. Acupuncture. Herbal and Tuna (an advanced branch of Shiatsu massage). There are many Chi Kung systems in existence ranging from the more commonly available types which at best can be regarded
Qi Maguine

as a form of elementary preventative medicine to the far more advanced, for more surgically precise and effective but traditionally still remains a closely guarded. study of Special Chi Kung with the emphasis on healing. enlightenment and the harmonisation of the various strata of the Subtle Energy Systems thai include not only that of the physical body but also the energy dimensions of the higher frequency, such as those of the ethereal, emotional. mental. spiritual and the Higher Self - a state of achievement the Taoists refer to as the' attainment of Tao (ultimate reality) and which the Buddhists call the rebirth into Buddha hood. Other Chi Kung Systems include those associated with the study of Internal Martial Arts such as Tai Chi, Chuan. Hsing-I Chuan, Pa Kau Chang and Lui Hop Pa _ Fa (the Six Harmonies and Eight Methods) which at its purest classical form encompasses all the essence of Tai Chi Chuan, Hsing-I Chuan, Pa Kau

..~

Chang Chi Kung and much more. In addition, there are Chi Kung systems associated with the academic followers of Confucius and Lao Tze (author of the Tao Te Ching), Seminal Chi Kung that derives its energy from the refinement of sexual hormones. Buddhist Chi Kung such as Yi Gin Ching (Sinew Changing Classic). ShU Soei Ching (Brain Marrow Cleansing Classics) and Chanmi Kung (The secret method of the Zen School), and from the Tibetan tradition. the Mih Tzong Xing Kung (Spiritual Enlightenment Chi Kung).

Peter Young

Teaching in the un: Taji Fe ti al. 1992

1St

-

o

Tse Qigong Centre UK PO Box 59
Altrincham WA15 8FS

0845 838 2285 +44161 9294485 tse@qimagazine.com
Oi Magazine
26

Chen Taiji

CHI

eft
SOUTH

PENG

---II
EAST

-

::J" WEST
-- JIll -NORTH
ON

LIU

our ositive Energies
you practise Tayj' you have to know the 'Four Positive Energies: it doesn ~ matter If it is Chen. Yang. Wu. Sun. Woo etc. The 'Four Energies' are: Pengo Liu • Chi. On,

If

Many people are sometimes confused by these energies (here 'energy' is not the same as 'Qi') and do nOI k.now how to apply them. Understanding these energies can come through practising Pushing Hands. All the energies follow the principals of Yin & Yang and the Bagua.

Oi

lI'l~g~zine

21

Chen Chifei:

on of Chen Faka

I. Peng: 'Opening: During Pushing Hands you might feel that your opponent's energy is very strong. First you should relax, he will find that you feel 'empty'. Now you should transfer your energy from your legs and waist spiralling back to him 50 that you cause him to lose his balance. 2. Liu: 'Pulling.' In the same situation as above. you feel that your opponents energy is strong, you can defeat him by spiralling you energy 50 that it comes back towards your centre. To do this you need. to work on developing your waist and legs.

3. Chi: 'Stick on and push forwards: In this context Chi is not the same as 'Qi energy'. When you are close to your opponents centre (chest or abdomen). step into his centre and push forwards. 50 you will make him lose his balance. Again you need to work on your legs and waist to perfonn this well. 4. On: 'Press down.' Pressing down is not the same as just pushing down. You should follow your opponents energy and give the same energy as he offers. Thus enabling you to control him. When we practise Chen Taiji we
Qi Mapzine
28

have the 'Six Sealing and Four Closing' these cover the Pengo Liu. Chi and On. These energies are soft on the outside but strong on the inside and usc the opponents energy. In some situations we will also use them together with the breathing techniques: 'Hum' and 'Har', lf your application of the four positive energies is good then you can control any opponent You might push him and he turns to the left. so you respond by pressing him and he might tum up. It all depends on your level of Taiji because there are no fixed responses. •

Michael Tse

Qigong Therapist

tis a small room. with an area of no more than 12 square metres. inside a single story house in the Xiang'erh Hutong of Beijing's Dongcheng District. Here you do nOi smell the flavour of medicines of drugs peculiar to hospitals and clinics. nor do you see any medical apparatuses around. If not for the seven or eight patients sitting there wailing to see the white-robed doctor. you would hardly .believe that you are in a clinic. During my visit here one day. I met one of the patients •. an elderly woman surnamed Feng who looked very pale and emaciated. Formerly a geological engineer. she had been engaged in field surveys over the years and as a result contracted serious rheumatism a" decade ago. A sudden fit of fever had left her with a

I

nagging pain in her back and stiff joints and muscular atrophy in her legs. As her condition went from bad to worse. she had to walk with the help of crutches and her weight was gradually reduced from 75 to 43 kilograms. Having failed to get effective trearmem from many hospitals. she had now come to Dr. Zhong Yongsheng for help. After feeling Feng's pulses and examining her X-ray film. Dr Zhong told me that the old woman's problem was due to an invasion of wind - cold pathogen - a disease called "stagnation syndrome of Qi and blood" in Chinese medicine. He had Feng lie down in bed. Ihen held his breath for a while before using his right palm to inject waiqi (out "owing energy) into two acupuncture points on his patients left ankle 'and elbow. Three minutes
Qi Mag.uine 29

later, Feng said she was beginning to feel blood coursing through her long-benumbed left ann. At the doctor's bidding, I lay my hand on Ihe patient's left shoulder to have a feel of the warmth there. Dr. Zhong then went on treating a dozen or more acupoints on Feng's body until she declared she fe.lt comfortably warmth all over as if she had received a mild electric shock. Allhispoinl. the doctor, who was sweating profusely from exertion. asked his patient to relax as he massaged joints in various parts of her body.' Twenty minutes later. he told her 1.0 try and stretch her legs .. Miraculous.ly. she was able 10 reach out her atrophied legs over a good range. AI the end of Ihe 'seance', Dr Zhong assured Feng thai after a ten day course of treatment, she would be able 10 walk without Ihe crutches. His assurance brought a faint smile to the patient's glum face. A Qigong therapist has 10 go through many years of hard craining in the arts of wushu and Qigong before he can give treatment 10 ailing persons. He has 10 build up a strong physique, be able 10 collect his energy in the lower Dannen region below the navel. and using some special methods acquired througb training. transmit il to the finger tips or palms before injecting il into selected acupolnts on the patient's body or direcdy into Ihe affected internal organs. Moreover, a Qigong therapist must possess rich theoretical knowledge about Chinese and Western medicine as well as considerable clinical experience. and must know how to protect himself from any harmful effects th.U may occur to him when he gives treatment at the expense of his own energy. At the age of 35 and with a stu.rdy frame 1.85 metres tall, Zhong Yongshen has all the qualifications of a Qigong therapist,

A native of Beijing, Zhong took a fancy to medicine in early boyhood and learnt to collect medical herbs when he attended primary school. At 15 he started to leam Taijiquan under a master. Later he took up other forms of boxing including Shaolinquan, Wuxingquan and Nanquan. He also studied Yijinjing (limbering exercise for the tendons). an ancient form of Qigong for health keeping. from Chang Weizhen. a noted Acupoint Qigong therapist, and laid a good foundation for hi future career as a Qigong practitioner. At 25 Zhong Yongsheng entered a vocational school where 'he spent three years making a systematic tudy of the theories of Chinese medicine. Meanwhile he acquired a working knowledge of We uern medicine through his own efforts. In 1985. after graduating from the vocational school. Zhong spent half a year on clinical practi e in the southern citie of Guanzhou and Shenzhen. Under the guidance of Chang Weizhen he ucce fully treated a number of difficult cases with acupoint Qigong therapy. Upon returning to Beijing. Zhong pa sed a strict examination given by the health authoritie and secured a license to become the younge t slate authorised Qigong therapist in the city. Since then he ha received patients not only from all over China but also from all over the United States. Japan. Singapore. Argentina. Hong Kong. Macao and other countries and region throughout the world. One of the most difficult cases he treated was Chakeru, a government functionary from the Mongolian gra lands. A man in his early 50 . he had been suffering from heart disease for many years and. failing to get effective treatment in hi locality. came to Beijing for help. Hi case was diagnosed by several big hospitals as rnirtral stenosis an
Qi MlIj;lUine

incompetence. which doctor said could only be cured by surgery. Chaketu, however. refused to have an operation because it was too risky. At last he turned to Zhong Yongsheng. When Chaketu came to Zhong's clinic. he had to be helped along by his family and was so weak that he spoke in a faint voice. After a month's treatment by Dr Zhong. he showed a remarkable improvement and was trong enough to climb five of six stairs in one breath. On returning home. he wrote to Zhong: "I went to seek your help when I had lost all hope of cure. It's your miraculous treatment that has aved my life. I have persisted in doing the Qigong exercise you pre cribed. My heart is basically all right and my ECG is normal. and I can work full time now." Qigong i a brilliant gem in the treasure house of traditional Chinese medicine. In the Yellow Emperor's Cannon Of Internal Medicine. the earlie t extant work on Chinese medicine. Daoyin. an early form of Qigong. wa Ii ted a an effective mean of health keeping and curative treatment. Explaining to me why Qigong can cure disease Dr. Zhong said. "According to Chinese medicine there are two kinds of Qi in the body: Prenatal Qi that exi ts in the kidneys and Po tnatal Qi that come from the air breathed in by the lungs and from the water and food transformed by the pleen and stomach. These two kinds of Qi combine to form Genuine Qi. which is the dynamic force behind all vital functions. "Traditional Chinese medicine also hold that there are 14 major Jingluo channels in the human body. with some 360 acupoints di tributed along them. These channels are a system of connected passages through which Qi and blood circulate to nouri h the internal organs. with the acupoints acting as transfer posts."

30

Any obstruction in the circulation of Qi and blood will result in the invasion of exogenous pathogenic factors and pathologic changes in the place where the obstruction has occurred. Such an abnormal condition finds expression in the related acupoints. During treatment. the therapist uses his fingers or palm to release Waiqi for stimulating those acupoints or to inject it directly into the affected internal organs so as to unblock the Jingluo channels bring about a balance between Yin and Yang, improving the functions of the internal organs and restoring health. "Preliminary tests with modem scientific apparatuses have indicated that the out flowing Qi released by a Qigong therapist consists of such substances as infrared rays. electric currents. magnetic forces. microwaves and infrasonic sound waves, all producing physiological effects on the various bodily systems. Qigong therapy is therefore. nothing mysterious: only il was not recognised by many people in the past." Apart from persisting in daily exercise to further improve his healing skills. Dr Zhong has compiled a set of health keeping exercise which he passes on 10 his patients as a subsidiary means of treatment. Righi now. he applies himself to the study of the possibility of using acupoint Qigong therapy to combat the No. I killer that endangers the existence of mankind -- coronary heart disease .. His achievements have aroused so much attention among the medical circles .•

(A painting by Wen Zhengming see editorial page)

Chatting in the Deep Mountain

For most of his life Wen Zhengming lived in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, a centre of scholarship. As a young man he studied writing, calligraphy and painting. With his teacher Shen Zhou and two others he became one of the 'four great painters of the Ming Dynasty'. He excelled in painting landscapes, figures. orchids. bamboo and rock. Wether painted in dark. green or ink and wash. they all demonstrate superb skill and fine craftsmanship. Today, many of his masterpieces still exist, and Challing in the Deep Mounrai» is one of them. It depicts a midsummer mountain scene. The towering peak, steep cliff, tall graceful pine. luxuriant cypress, leaping waterfall and gurgling stream are all considered into a vertical, long narrow scroll. Over the stream is a small bridge. Along the winding mountain path are pavilions, thatched huts and houses. In the distance. temples and monasteries shrouded by pines. cypresses and floating clouds are faintly visible. imparting a sense of mystery. There are altogether three characters in the picture: a page-boy with a zither crossing the bridge: two scholars sitting in the shade on a flat slope beside the pool. One is holding the scroll as the other unfolds it. They seem to be reading poems inscribed on it or to be appreciating a work of calligraphy or a painting ..The figures are small, but viewers can recognise their identity even at a glance. In the left-hand comer of the upper pan is inscribed a poem:

"Birds sing amid the verdant Chinese parasols, Grass in the deep valley sends forth its fragrance, We chat under the shade of trees To our hearts' content: In Chang'an carts and carriages send up a dust, Who can appreciate the coolness of spring In this empty mountain?"
This reveals the artist's haired of officialdom. his attachment to nature and his escape from worldly affairs. The whole painting reflects the thoughts and interests of many scholars of the time. This painting. a representative work of Wen's ink and wash landscapes, he did in his old age. his now in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
tl.it.: Chinese Literature. Beijing. 1992)

Lin Yida

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31

Semi ar-~!i.. With if
Michael Tse

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