Capital: Ankara Largest City: Istanbul Official Language: Turkish Demonym: Turkish Government: Parliamentary Republic Founder: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk President: Abdullah Gul Prime Minister: Recep Tayyip Erdogan Speaker of the Parliament: Cemil Cicek President of the Constitutional Court: Hasim Kilic Legislature: Grand National Assembly Succession: To the Ottoman Empire Treaty of Lausanne: July 24, 1923 Declaration of Republic: October 29, 1923 Area: 783,562 km (37th) Population: (2011 estimates) 78,785,548 (18th) Currency: Turkish Lira

known officially as the Republic of Turkey is a Eurasian country located 97% in Asia (mostly in theAnatolian peninsula) and 3% in East Thrace in Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries:Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan(the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. TheMediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west;

and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between East Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. geostrategic importance.

Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant


Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The vast majority of the population areMuslims.[13] The country's official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languagesare spoken by Kurds and Zazas, who comprise 18% of the population.

Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, i.e. "Land of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert.[15] Several small beyliks and theSeljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organizations such as the Turkic Council, Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of Islamic Cooperationand the Economic Cooperation Organization. Given its strategic location, large economy and military strength, Turkey is a major regional power.

The name of Turkey, Türkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two components: theethnonym Türk and the abstract suffix ±iye meaning "owner", "land of" or "related to" (derived from the Arabic suffix ±iyya, which is similar to the Greek and Latin suffixes ±ia). The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). Tu±kin has been attested as early as 177 BCE as a name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia. The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia (c. 1369).[17] The Greek cognate of this name, Tourkia, was originally used by the Byzantines to describe medieval Hungary[18][19][20] (as the Hungarians and Turks have ancestral links) but they later began using this name to define the Seljuk-controlled parts of Anatolia in the centuries that followed the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.

The history of Turkey refers to the history of the country now called Turkey. Although the lands have an ancient history, Turkic migration to the country is relatively new. The Turks, a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family started moving from their original homelands to the modern Turkey in the 11th century. After the Turkic Seljuq Empire defeated forces of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, the process was accelerated and the country
[1] was referred to as 'Turchia' in the Europe as early as the 12th century. The Seljuq dynasty controlled Turkey until the

country was invaded by theMongols following the Battle of Kosedag. During the years when the country was under Mongol rule, some small Turkish states were born. One of these states was the Ottoman beylik which quickly controlled Western Anatolia and conquered much of Rumelia. After finally conquering Istanbul, the Ottoman state would become a large empire, called the Turkish Empire in Europe. Next, the Empire expanded toEastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Europe and North Africa. Although the Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th century; it did not fully reach the technological advance in military capabilities of the Western powers in the 19th century. Nevertheless, Turkey managed to maintain independence though some of its territories were ceded to its neighbours and some small countries gained independence from it. FollowingWorld War I in which Turkey was defeated, most of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace was occupied by the Allied powers including the capital cityIstanbul. In order to resist the occupation, a cadre of young military officers formed a government in Ankara. The elected leader of the Ankara Government, Mustafa Kemal organized a successful war of independence against the Allied powers. After the liberation of Anatolia and theEastern Thrace, the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 with capital city Ankara. Turkic migration Before the Turkic settlement, the local population of Anatolia had reached an estimated level of 12 to 14 million people during the late Roman Period.

The migration of Turks to the country of modern Turkey occurred during the

main Turkic migration across most of Central Asiaand into Europe and the Middle East which was between the 6th and 11th centuries. Mainly Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire arrived Turkey in the eleventh century. The Seljuks proceeded to gradually conquer the Anatolian part of the Byzantine Empire. In the following centuries, the local population began to be assimilated into the Turkish people. More Turkic migrants began to intermingle with the local inhabitants over years, thus the Turkish-speaking population was bolstered. Seljuq Dynasty The House of Seljuk was a branch of the K n k O uz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the O uz confederacy[5] in the 10th century. In the 11th century, the Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became a new homeland of O uz Turkic tribes following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a separate branch of the largerSeljuk Empire Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Mongol Rule In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols in the Battle of Kosedag, and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm became a vassal of the Mongols. This caused the Seljuks to lose its power. Hulegu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan founded the Ilkhanate in the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate State ruled Anatolia by Mongol military governors. Last Seljuk sultan died in 1308. The Mongol invasion of Transoxiana, Iran, Azerbaijan and Anatolia caused Turkomens to move to Western Anatolia. [7] The Turkomens founded some Anatolian principalities (beyliks) under the Mongol dominion in Turkey.[8] The most powerful beyliks were the Karamano lu (or theKaramanid) and

and to

some Turkish principalities (beyliks), mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia which were vassals of or at war with

the Germiyan in the central area. Along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched Karesi, Saruhan, Ayd no lu, Mente e and Teke principalities. The Candaro lu (also called sfendiyaro lu) controlled the Black Sea region round Kastamonu and Sinop.[9] The Beylik of Ottoman Dynasty was situated in the northwest of Anatolia, around Sö üt, and it was a small and insignificant state at that time. The Ottoman beylik would, however, evolve into the Ottoman Empire over the next 200 years, expanding throughout the Balkans, Anatolia.[ Ottoman Dynasty The Ottoman beylik's first capital was located in Bursa in 1326. Edirne which was conquered in 1361 [11]was the next capital city. After largely expanding to Europe and Anatolia, in 1453, the Ottomans nearly completed the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople during the reign of Mehmed II. This city has become the capital city of the Empire following Edirne. The Ottoman Empire would continue to expand into the Eastern Anatolia, Central Europe, the Caucasus, North and East Africa, the islands in the Mediterranean, Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, and the Arabian peninsula in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central
[12] Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In addition, the Ottomans

were often at war with Persia over territorial disputes. At sea, the empire contended with the Holy Leagues, composed of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John, for control of the Mediterranean. In the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman navy frequently confrontedPortuguese fleets in order to defend its traditional monopoly over the maritime trade routes betweenEast Asia and Western Europe; these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. The Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 marked the beginning of the Ottoman decline; some territories were lost by the treaty: Austria received all of Hungary and Transylvania except the Banat; Venice obtained most of Dalmatia along with the Morea (the Peloponnesus peninsula in southern Greece); Poland recovered Podolia.

Throughout the 19th and early

20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire continued losing its territories, including Greece, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the Balkans in the 1912±1913 Balkan Wars. Faced with territorial losses on all sides the Ottoman Empire forged an alliance with Germany who supported it with troops and equipment. The Ottoman Empire joined the World War I on the side of the Central Powers, after granting two German warships as refugees. On October 30, 1918, the Armistice of Mudros was signed, followed by the imposition of Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920 by Allied Powers, which was never ratified. The Treaty of Sèvres would break up the Ottoman Empire and force large concessions on territories of the Empire in favour of Greece, Italy, Britain and France. Republic era The occupation of some parts of the country by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement. the Treaty of Sèvres.
[14] [12]

Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander who had distinguished

himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were expelled. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey and subsequently introduced many radical

reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[12] According to the Law on

the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. These included the controversialpresidential election of Abdullah Gül. Turkey joined NATO in 1952. As of 2004.6% of the votes and could defend its majority in parliament. military and economic support. 1945. continues today. [50] The . 1980 and 1997.[48] and the government's proposal to lift the headscarf ban in universities. Turkey invaded the Republic of Cyprus in 1974. 1971. the AKP received 46. Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. the PKK began an insurgency against the Turkish [19] government. Abdullah Gül was elected as president on August 28. becoming a bulwark The single-party period was followed by multiparty democracy after 1945. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II but entered on the side of the Allies on February 23. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. [15] Difficulties faced byGreece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion. The Turkish democracy was interrupted by In 1984. which was annulled by the Constitutional Court. leading to a fine and a near ban of the ruling party. [18] [17] [16] After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean War. with 34% of the suffrage. [44] Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers which make up the government. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece. by a popular parliament round of votes.[ GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits. while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament. whose conservative AK party won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections. and resulted in large-scale U. and the High Court of Appeals for all others. The president is elected for a fiveyear term by direct elections. Recep Tayyip Erdo an. and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution.Family Names. The President of the Republic is the head of state and has a largely ceremonial role. In 2007. Following a decade ofintercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the Greek military coup of July 1974. the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934. TheCouncil of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases. organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001. ministers with parliament membership are common in Turkish politics. prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. 2007.000 lives. the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability.S. there were 50 registered political parties in the country. Since the liberalization of the Turkish economy during the 1980s. [47] Although the ministers do not have to be members of the parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. succeeding Ahmet Necdet Sezer.[49] Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933. Turkey is the only country that recognises the TRNC military coups d'état in1960. The current prime minister is the former mayor of stanbul. who in the past had been involved with Islamist parties. In the 2007 general elections. which has claimed over 40. [45] The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the head of the party having the most seats in parliament. a series of events regarding state secularism and the role of the judiciary in the legislature has occurred. as a ceremonial gesture and in 1945 became a charter member of the United Nations. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923. [43] Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. overthrowing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as a dictator. the conflict.

but he/she must be over 40 years old and hold a bachelor's degree. whereas Ankara and zmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). There is no organization. The prime minister is Recep Tayyip Erdo an.S. Other issues such as Kurdish rights. The threshold is set to be reduced.[1] Executive power rests with the president. ThePresident of Turkey is the head of state who holds a largely ceremonial role but with substantial reserve powers. a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to future membership of the EU.[53][54] Human rights in Turkey have been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. and of a multi-party system. particularly the right to life and freedom from torture. in the 2007 elections only three parties formally entered the parliament (compared to two in 2002). The prime minister is appointed by the President and approved through a vote of confidence (güvenoyu) in the Parliament. Independent candidates may run." Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic. whose conservative Justice and Development Party won a majority of parliamentary seats in the 2011 general elections. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. person. To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation. The members are elected for a four-year term by mitigated proportional representation with an election threshold of 10%. or ban their existence altogether. or institution which can interfere in the running of the courts. The ministers don't have to be members of Parliament (an example is Kemal Dervi ). The current president Abdullah Gül was elected by Parliament on 28 August 2007. State Department spokesman.Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist. Between 1998 and 2008 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 1. women's rights and press freedom have also attracted controversy. The president does not have to be a member of parliament. Judicial branch The freedom and independence of the Judicial System is protected within the constitution. only parties winning at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament. To be represented in Parliament.600 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations. and the executive and legislative structures must . A president is elected every five years on the principle ofuniversal suffrage according to the current constitution. Executive branch The function of head of state is performed by the president (Cumhurba kan ). representing 81 provinces. Its current constitution was adopted on 7 November 1982after the Turkish constitutional referendum. Philip Crowley. A U. and to be elected. Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers.[55] The Turkish Journalists Association says that 58 of the country's journalists have been imprisoned. [51][52] There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey( stanbul is divided into three electoral districts. they must only win 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running. said that the United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey. the prime minister (Ba bakan) and the Council of Ministers (Bakanlar Kurulu) (Cabinet Erdo an III).[2] The current Speaker of the Parliament is Cemil Çiçek. Legislative branch Legislative power is invested in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi). whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government. [50] Because of this threshold.

Sadullah Ergin is the natural head of the Council according to the current constitution. jurisprudence. justices of the peace take the case. the laws. Turkish courts have no jury system. decrees having the force of law (decretloi). have his/her powers restricted. Turkey also accepts as legally binding any decisions on international agreements. Except with their own consent. The courts. the retirement age restrictions do apply. When a case is closed to the public. Say tay (Court of Accounts) is the court which examines the incomes and expenses of the administrative bodies and which acts in the name of parliament. the court has to declare the reason. which are independent in discharging their duties. judges render decisions after establishing the facts in each case based on evidence presented by lawyers and prosecutors.obey the courts' decisions. no judge or prosecutor can be dismissed. However. The Judicial system is highly structured. expert reports. Of particular importance are:       . must explain each ruling on the basis of the provisions of the Constitution. etc. Turkey adopted a new national "Judicial Networking System" (UYAP). The High Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (HSYK) is the principal body charged with responsibility for ensuring judicial integrity. Any conviction in a criminal case can be taken to a court of Appeals for judicial review. The child courts have their own structure. For minor civil complaints and offenses. in which case a special task force of justice experts and senior judges is formed. The Military Court of Cassation (Askeri Yarg tay) and The Military High Court of Administration (or the Supreme Military Administrative Court) (Askeri Yüksek dare Mahkemesi) are the highest bodies to which appeals of decisions of military courts are to be made. and their personal convictions.) will be accessible via the Internet. Turkey accepts the European Court of Human Rights' decisions as a higher court decision. Anayasa Mahkemesi examines the constitutionality of laws. Dan tay is the highest of administrative courts. Three-judge courts of first instance have jurisdiction over major civil suits and serious crimes. Judge and prosecution structures are secured by the constitution. All courts are open to the public. changes of parliamentary by-laws and several other acts of the parliament. The court decisions and documents (case info. This court has a single judge. A judge can be audited for misconduct only with the Ministry of Justice's permission. or be forced to retire. Political principles of importance in Turkey The Turkish Constitution and most mainstream political parties are built on the following principles:    Kemalism Laicism Modernization Conservatism Neo-liberalism Islamism Pan-Turkism Socialism Communism Other political ideas have also influenced Turkish politics and modern history. Minister of justice. It has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and petty crimes. and determines professional judges acceptance and court assignments. with penalties ranging from small fines to brief prison sentences. There are several supreme courts with different subjects: Yarg tay acts as the supreme court of judiciary tribunals (criminal and civil justice).

MHP took third place with 14. the Turkish populace is not uniformly averse to coups. stating that "the Turkish Armed Forcesmaintain their sound determination to carry out their duties stemming from laws to protect the unchangeable characteristics of the Republic of Turkey. professional middleclass. who has a past record of involvement in Islamist political movements and banned Islamist parties such as the Welfare Party. many welcome the ejection of governments they perceive as unconstitutional. Their loyalty to this determination is absolute. most notable of which is CHP. the military enjoys a high degree of . tends to identify itself with the "tradition" of DP. and in reaction to the politics of Abdullah Gül. and minority groups such as Alevis andKurds. that Islamism ran counter to the secular nature of the Turkish Republic. [11] Paradoxically. [4][5] European Union officials welcomed the AK Party's sweeping victory. The independents (whose majority are the leftist pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party candidates) won 28 seats. the importance which state officials attach to these principles and their posts can be seen in their response to breaches of protocol in official ceremonies. The leftist parties. with a stableelectorate. the army issued a statement of its interests. Indeed. and to the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Factor of the military Since Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the modern secular Republic of Turkey in 1923. giving the party 71 seats.[9][10] Members of the military must also comply with the traditions of secularism. the military has both been an important force in Turkey¶s continuous Westernization but at the same time also represents an obstacle for Turkey¶s desire to join the EU. It said that the army is a party to "arguments" regarding secularism.33%. albeit decreased in the past decades. It executed coups d'état in 1960. in 1971. it maneuvered the removal of an Islamic-oriented prime minister. and in 1980. the official state ideology. via the National Security Council. Anarchism These principles are the continuum around which various ± and often rapidly changing ± political parties and groups have campaigned (and sometimes fought)." [8] Contrary to outsider expectations. Independent candidates are not subject to the 10% threshold constraint placed on political parties. The TAF still maintains an important degree of influence over Turkish politics and the decision making process regarding issues related to Turkish national security. it assumed power for several periods in the latter half of the 20th century. [7] On 27 April 2007. Most recently. The Army's statement ended with a clear warning that the Turkish Armed Forces stood ready to intervene if the secular nature of the Turkish Constitution is compromised. Political parties and elections Since 1950. Even the ruling AK Party. The military has had a record of intervening in politics. in 1997. have been charged with ³lack of discipline´."[6] The AK Party nonetheless lacks the two-thirds majority in parliament necessary to push through legislation. the DHP. parliamentary politics has been dominated by conservative parties.64%. although its core cadres root from the Islamist current. which translating to control of 110 seats. coastal regions. in advance of the 4 November 2007 presidential election. The AK Party won 46. CHP received 20. On a superficial level. according to the US Commission on International Religious Freedom report in 2008.Necmettin Erbakan. members who performed prayers or had wives who wore the headscarf.76% of the vote giving them 341 parliamentary seats. draw much of their support from big cities. At the same time. describing it as "a mandate for the reforms it wants Turkey to complete during its membership talks. the Turkish military has perceived itself as the guardian of Atatürkçülük. The DTP is the successor to the previous proKurdish party.

with continuous opinion polls suggesting that the military is the state institution that the Turkish people trust the most. Turkey's influence has grown in the Middle East based on the strategic depth doctrine. although the E. an alleged clandestine. before the talks could begin. also called Neo-Ottomanism Europe European Union The Turkish application to join the European Economic Community (now the European Union) as an associate member in 1959 soon resulted in associate membership in 1963. [12] Over a hundred people. the former commanders of the navy and air force were released). Historically. the Middle East and the Caucasus. such policies have placed heavy emphasis on Turkey's relationship with the Western world. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union.popular legitimacy. with Turkey seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans. [14] [13] organization with ties to members of the country's military The group is accused ofterrorism in Turkey. The application was rejected. The post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations. some of them retired. did say that Turkish membership could occur at some point in the future. including former commanders of the Turkish navy and air force (three days later. including several generals. as the EU said Turkey had to make significant reforms. However. and has taken many ± and sometimes controversial ± reform packages through the Parliament aimed at gradually harmonizing Turkey with EU standards. a general and two colonels.C. however. based on the Western-inspired reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Austria was the seat of the House of Habsburgand Notes . FOREIGN RELATIONS Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are the Turkish government's policies in its external relations with the international community. particularly in the field of human rights.[15] [16] On 22 February 2010 more than 40 officers arrested and then were formally charged with attempting to overthrow the government with respect to alleged "Sledgehammer" plot . Turkey has formally started accession negotiations with the EU and these will be based on the acquis communautaire. Theaccession talks did not follow immediately. Since October 2005. with full membership being acknowledged as the final goal. ultra-nationalist and security forces. problems in foreign policy such as the Cyprus conflict and the internal political turbulence from the 1970s until the early 1980s forced Turkey to delay applying for full membership of the European Community until 1987. Turkey's current administration has identified EU membership as its top priority. The European Union confirmed Turkey's status as candidate for membership at the European Council's Helsinki Summit in 1999. Formal Country Relations Began Austria See Austrian±Turkish relations From the middle ages until the twentieth century today's Austria and Turkey were thecore regions within much larger empires. have been detained or questioned since July 2008 with respect to Ergenekon. An EU-Turkey Customs Union came into effect on 1 January 1996. although it crucially stopped short of lifting restrictions in areas such as agriculture. Under the AK Party government. as well as its historical goal of EU membership. They include four admirals. especially in relation to the United States. allowing goods to travel between Turkey and the EU member stateswithout customs restrictions.

[12] See also Turks in Finland Turkey's Ministry of Foreign Affairs about political.[3][4]   14 October Turkey has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate±general in Antwerp.[10] See also Turks in Denmark Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Turkey Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Denmark Denmark 1756 [8] Finland 1920-05-20 See Finnish±Turkish relations   Turkey recognized the independence of Finland on 21 February 1918. In 1758. The Habsburg and Ottoman states were both large multi-ethnic conglomerations sustained by conquest. Bodrum and Izmir.  Belgium Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Belarus See Belgian±Turkish relations  Belgium has an embassy in Ankara. Finland has an embassy in Ankara and an honorary consulate general in Istanbul and other honorary consulates in Belek. France has an embassy in Ankara. a consulate±general in Istanbul and two consulates in Antalya and zmir.      Today. economical and commercial relations with Finland  Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland about relations with Turkey [11] France See French±Turkish relations Turkey has an embassy in Paris and consulates general in Lyon.Turkey was ruled by the House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman Dynasty). These rival empires waged frequent wars against each other over control of much Central Europe and the Balkans.    Turkey has an embassy in Helsinki.[5][6][7] See also Turks in Belgium See Denmark±Turkey relations  The relations date back 250 years and actually started in the field of trade in 18thcentury. Turkey has an embassy in Minsk.[9] Turkey has an embassy in Copenhagen. an Agreement of Friendship and Trade was signed by the Sultan Osman III and the King Frederick V. Belarus 1992-05-25 See Belarusian±Turkish relations  Turkey was the first country to recognize Belarus on 16 December 1991 after the declaration of its independence on 25 August 1991. . Marseille andStrasbourg. On 14 October 1756.    Belarus has an embassy in Ankara. Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Denmark has an embassy in Ankara and an honorary consulate in Istanbul. Denmark has appointed an extraordinary representative to the Ottoman Empire.

Germany suffered an acute labor shortage after World War II and. Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority. a consulate zmirand 3 honorary consulates in * Turkey has an embassy in Rome and a general consulate in Milan. a general consulate in Istanbul. However.Germany See German±Turkish relations Based on good Turkish-German relations from the 19th century onwards.   Turkey is represented in Malta through its embassy in Valletta. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Malta Poland See Polish±Turkish relations    Poland has an embassy in Ankara.[15] Turkey has an embassy in Dublin.[16] See also Turks in Ireland Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ireland Italy 1856 See Italian±Turkish relations  Italy has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Rome. Holy See 1868 See Holy See ± Turkey relations   The Holy See has a nunciature in Ankara. the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) officially invited Turkish workers to Germany to fill in this void. Hungary See Hungarian±Turkish relations    Hungary has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate±general in Istanbul. Germany promoted a Turkish immigration to Germany.[18] Turkey has an embassy in Warsaw. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland Portugal See Portuguese±Turkish relations Turkey's 161 years of political relations with Portugal date back to the Ottoman period when .[17]   Italian embassy in Ankara Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Italy Malta See Maltese±Turkish relations  Malta is represented in Turkey through accrediting a Maltese Ambassador resident inValletta to Turkey and through its consulate general in Istanbul. Today. Most Turks in Germany trace their ancestry to Central and EasternAnatolia. and a general consulate in Istanbul.[14] Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary Ireland See Ireland ± Turkey relations     Ireland has an embassy in Ankara. in 1961. The German authorities named these people Gastarbeiter (German forguest workers). particularly to work in the factories that helped fuel Germany's economic miracle.[13] Turkey has an embassy in Budapest. large scale didn't occur until the 20th century.

 Sweden's Green Party has criticized France and Germany's opposition to Turkey's membership. A resident embassy was established in 1957. This led to Turkey¶s military intervention under the Treaty of Guarantee. Turkish Cypriot leader.[30] Britain and Turkey are both members of the G20.[27] Turkey and the United Kingdom maintain strong bilateral relations. leading to a separation of the two communities. In 1963 violence erupted on the island following attempts to amend constitutional safeguards for Turkish Cypriots. Portugal has an embassy in Ankara.  Spain Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Portugal [19] Turkey has an See Spanish±Turkish relations Spain has an embassy in Ankara. Both countries are full members of NATO. embassy in Lisbon. Turkey has an embassy in Madrid. which will take over the rotating presidency of the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in July. The two sides reached the first high level agreement following a meeting . 2009.Viscount de Seixal was appointed as an envoy to Istanbul. A UN Peacekeeping Force (UNFICYP) was dispatched to the island in March 1964.[29] ThePresident of Turkey Kenan Evren paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in July 1988. and Britain supports the accession of Turkey to the European Union. the Parliament of Sweden refused to call 1915 events asgenocide. Rauf Denktas and Greek Cypriot leader Glafcos Clerides reached an agreement in Vienna on 2 August 1975 for the "exchange of populations" under the auspices of the UN and this agreement was implemented by the mediation of the UN peace-keeping force. Turkey and the United Kingdom as a partnership state between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. the military Junta then ruling Greece staged a coup d'état in Cyprus which was aimed at materializing Enosis-Union with Greece. supports Turkey's European Unionmembership. On 15 July 1974.[29]HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Turkey in October 1971. Diplomatic relations ceased during World War I and were re-established in the Republican period in 1926. and in May 2008.[20]  Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Spain Sweden See Swedish±Turkish relations  Sweden.[25] See also Turks in Sweden Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Sweden Turkish embassies in Sweden Swedish embassy in Ankara [21][22] United Kingdom See Turkey ± United Kingdom relations Both countries currently maintain relations via the British Embassy in Ankara[26] and the Turkish Embassy in London.[23][24]      In 12 June 2008.through an armed takeover of the island. Cyprus The Republic of Cyprus was established by the 1959±60 Agreements between Greece.[28] The President of Turkey Cevdet Sunay paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1967.

demarcation of the continental shelf."[31] A comprehensive peace plan negotiated with the full support of the international community was submitted to simultaneous but separate referenda in the North and South of Cyprus on 24 April 2004. [ . and thus far. Acting in conformity with its statement during the EU's Brussels summit of 17 December 2004. adoption and implementation of the protocol would not in any way constitute recognition of the government of the Republic of Cyprus (which Turkey calls the Greek Cypriot Administration. The length of territorial waters. This four article agreement envisaged the establishment of a bicommunal federal republic on the island. These disputes remain unresolved mainly because of a lack of common understanding between the two sides regarding the "existence" and "methods of solution" of the problems. air space disputes. Turkey refers to the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the "Greek Cypriot Administration" and its presidents as "Greek Cypriot leaders. but overwhelmingly (3/4) rejected by the Greek Cypriots. Simultaneously. was signed by exchange of letter between Turkey. Greece notes that the only dispute in the Aegean is the continental shelf issue and claims that it can only be resolved by jurisprudence. which is recognised only by Turkey. Turkey continues to recognize the TRNC at the expense of the Cypriot government in the south. [33] Turkey announced its support for the 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus. GCA [Cyprus]. Rejecting the existence of other disputes. militarization of the Eastern Aegean Islands in breach of international agreements. although a simple majority was needed). in the north of the island Turkish Cypriots established on 15 November 1983 the defacto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkey issued a statement to the effect that the signature. which extends the 1963 Ankara Agreement to all members of the European Union (including Cyprus). Turkey claims. were not ceded to Greece by international agreements and the absence of an agreement defining maritime borders with Greece in the Aegean are the major disputes between the two countries.between Denktas and Makarios on 12 February 1977. with the Republic of Cyprus blocking eight chapters due to Turkey's refusal to open its ports to Greek Cypriot shipping. The plan was accepted by the Turkish Cypriots (but not by 2/3. all emanating from the Aegean Sea. Turkish EU relations which would otherwise progress along their natural course suffer a number of problems" Greece Aegean disputes constitute one of the main reasons for the fluctuating course of Turkish-Greek relations. This in turn has led to tension with Turkey's own EU membership aspirations. the Turkish government states that "as a result of the policies pursued by the EU member. determination of maritime search and rescue zones. The conflict has had wider ramifications in the EU-NATO relationship. the EU term presidency and the EU Commission. with Turkey ± a NATO member ± blocking Cyprus from participating in EU-NATO meetings. particularly after the internationally-recognized south was admitted to the Union in 2004. The protocol. the Greek Cypriots rejected the solution with a µNo¶ vote of 76%. the status of certain Aegean islets which. Republic of Cyprus represented by Greek Cypriots acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004. [32] Turkey's position is that its ports will only be opened when the EU upholds its promise to end the economic isolation of the Turkish Cypriots. the Turkish Embassy in (north) Nicosia is the only official diplomatic mission in the TRNC. The issue of recognition became a thorn in Turkey's candidacy for European Union membership.) [34] In its 2007 annual handbook. While the Turkish Cypriots voted in favor of the Annan Plan by casting 67% of their votes. and reducing the scope of talks only those to operations on which the EU and NATO are acting together. There is a series of interconnected problems between Turkey and Greece. However. before commencing accession talks with the EU. Turkey signed the additional protocol to the Ankara Agreement on 29 July 2005.

most recently in 1996. and NATO intervention subsided the conflict. which are important for Turkey as they are the country's gateway to continental Europe. However.[39] See also Turks in Bulgaria.Turkey's stated view is that the Aegean Sea is a common sea and that no sovereignty rights should be claimed over the open seas and international airspaces in the Aegean Sea. and the Multinational Peace Force Southeast Europe (MPFSEE)/Southeastern Europe Brigade (SEEBRIG). 2 general consulates in Istanbul and Edirne and a chancellery in Bursa. Turkey has participated in NATO operations and peacekeeping missions. which would lead to the preservation of peace and stability in the region. economic and political ties with the Balkan states. as well as the EU-led police mission ³Proxima´ in the Republic of Macedonia. Turkey also plays a role in regional economic initiatives as well as the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe initiated by the EU and the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI).S. The tensions came to the brink of war on a number of occasions. Only U. Since August 1999. Balkans Turkey has close historical. contributing to the KFOR and the UN police mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).[35] Turkey has an embassy in Tirana.[37] Bulgaria See Bulgarian±Turkish relations  Bulgaria has an embassy in Ankara. the Greek insistence of viewing the whole of the Aegean as a Greek Sea and its incessant disregard of Turkish rights and interests complicate the solution of these disputes. Turkey is also contributing to the EUFOR-ALTHEA. Turkey attaches importance to the creation of an atmosphere of mutual understanding and peaceful co-habitation through closer ties with the Balkan countries. start in 1990s formally.[36] Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs describes relations between Turkey and Albania as "excellent". In February 1999. Turkey and Greece have conducted a series of "Confidence Building Measures" to improve relations concerning these matters. Bulgarian embassies in Turkey Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria Notes See Bosnia Herzegovina±Turkish relations Between relation Bosnians and Turkey. Aegean dispute Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. Greece See Greco-Turkish relations.[38]    Bosnia Turkey has an embassy in Sofia and 2 general consulates in Plovdiv and Burgas. Formal Country Relations Began Albania See Albanian±Turkish relations    Albania has an embassy in Ankara and a general consulate in Istanbul. For the reconstruction efforts Turkey is part of launching the Southeastern European Cooperation Process (SEECP). relations between Greek officials and Abdullah Öcalan(holding a . when Greek and Turkish warships faced each other close to the disputed Imia-Kardak rocks. cultural.

Macedonia and Turkey have very close and friendly relations. ³Turkey desires to maintain and improve its relations with Serbia the most. However. and many others. ³Although we do not have a common border. like co-production in . Macedonia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate±general in Istanbul. ³We are thinking of taking some initiatives in the defense industry together. Turkey became one of the first countries to announce officially aboutrecognition of sovereign Kosovo. Kosovo See Kosovan±Turkish relations On 17 February 2008. There are 20. Gönül stated that. we see Serbia as a neighbour.[44] Turkey has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Constan a.´ Turkey or Serbia. the Imia/Kardak issue sprang up again on a smaller scale in 2004.000 Turksliving in Kosovo. Kenya. particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999.[40] The population of Kosovars [clarification needed] living in Turkey is said to be much more than those living in Kosovo.´ utanovac confirmed that. Moldova See Moldovan±Turkish relations     Romania Moldova has an embassy in Ankara.[43] Turkey has an embassy in Chi in u.000 Turks who live in Moldova. where Öcalan was captured by agents of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization(M T) caused crisis in relations between the two countries for a period of time. ³There are a lot of things to do in this field. among all the other Balkan states. but relations have since improved. See also Turks of Romania Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Romania Serbia See Serbian±Turkish relations Turkish Defense Minister Vecdi Gönül and Serbian Defense Minister Dragan utanovac met in Ankara on 12 May 2009 to sign a defence cooperation agreement. The decision comes in accordance with the reciprocity principle common in diplomatic relations.[42] Also Turkish is one of the official regional languages of Kosovo. Macedonia See Macedonian±Turkish relations Due to historical and cultural mutualities and human bonds.Greek Cypriot passport) and the role of the Greek Embassy in Nairobi. [45] and. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Moldova See Romanian±Turkish relations     Romania has an embassy in Ankara and two consulates-general in Istanbul and zmir. There are around 11.[41][unreliable source?] Kosovo is the home country of Mehmet Akif Ersoy. Turkey turned its coordination office in Pristina into an embassy after a cabinet decision to open a mission in Kosovo. when Kosovo announced that it was planning to open one of its first foreign missions in Ankara.´ and. while Turkey has an embassy in Skopje and a consulate-general inBitola. writer of the Turkish National Anthem.

Turkey became the bulwark of NATO's southeastern flank.´ reciprocal visit to Turkey in June Ukraine Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical. but both countries are key strategic partners in the Transcaucasian region. directly bordering Warsaw Pact countries and risking nuclear war on its soil during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Although Turkey supported the United States in the NATO-led peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan. This includes the Nagorno-Karabakh problem.´ but. since 1954. geographic. Turkish Prime Minister Erdo an flew to Sochi. and Turkey supported the initiatives of the U. During the Gulf War of 1990. it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil. This led to a cooling in relations between the U. Turkey participated with the United States during the Korean War of the early 1950s. forces. there was strong domestic opposition to the Iraq War.S. Russia is somewhat skeptical of Turkey's admission in to the European Union and hasrecognized the Armenian Genocide which has the potential of damaging its relations with Turkey.[52] Turkey is a full member of NATO and Ukraine is a candidate. United States Friendship between Turkey and the United States dates to the late 19th century.´ Putin responded that. ³As for difficult problems from the past ± and the Karabakh problem is among such issues ± a compromise should be found by the participants in the conflict. Russia. in the region.´ Whilst on the subject of energy security Erdo an stated that. the Turkish Armed Forcescontributed to the coalition forces.[51] Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul.S. ³Russia and Turkey seek for such problems to be resolved and will facilitate this in every way. As part of the cooperative effort to further improve Turkish economic and military self-reliance. the Cyprus problem. though still committed to its close relations with Washington.Russia Following immediately after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Following its membership in 1952. the United States has loaned and granted Turkey more than $12. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine. In the post Cold War environment. We have agreed today to immediately start work to prolong this agreement. Other states which help reach a compromise in this aspect can play a role of mediators and guarantors to implement the signed agreements.[53] Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq. when Turkey was part of the Ottoman Empire. for a 16 May 2009 ³working visit´ withRussian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin at which he stated. and cultural contact. the Middle East dispute. ³The agreement on gas supplies through the so-called Western route signed in 1986 is expiring in 2012. although disagreements regarding the border dispute over the Caucasus and support of each other's lifelong historical adversaries both linger. and the agreement of 12 July 1947 which implemented theTruman Doctrine. Turkey has hosted the Incirlik Air Base. a major operations base of the United States Air Force.5 billion in economic aid and more than $14 billion in military assistance. relations between the two nations dramatically and strongly improved. ³Turkey and Russia have responsibilities in the region.S.[50] Turkey has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate general in Odessa. and was officially sealed by a treaty in 1830. The close relationship between the modern Republic of Turkey and the United States began with the Second Cairo Conference on 4±6 December 1943.S. Also both countries are BLACKSEAFOR and BSECmembers. A government motion to allow U. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's border failed to reach the necessary majority. Turkey became a more independent actor. providing active military support to the U. and Turkey and fears of a permanent rift due to the situation in Iraq. We have to take steps for the peace and well being of the region. in which an estimated [47][48] Putin made a .

Armenia suspended the ratification process due to preconditions set forth by Turkey. socially and culturally.3 billion. to clamp down on [56] insurgent training camps in northern Iraq. . In the wake of the 2007 murder of Armenian intellectual Hrant Dink by a Turkish terrorist. during and after the Nagorno Karabagh War. In 2005. Azerbaijan. The subsequent diplomatic thaw saw Turkish [63] President Abdullah Gül become the first ever Turkish leader to visit Armenia and the announcement of a provisional roadmap for normalising diplomatic ties. the Turkish Parliament voted in [57] favour of allowing the Turkish Armed Forces to take military action against the PKK terrorists based in northern Iraq.S. the two countries indicated their joint intent to upgrade bilateral economic relations by launching an Economic Partnership Commission. In 2002. and the EU). Turkish exports to the U. and Armenia¶s controversial decision to re-commission the dangerously outdated Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant just 16 km from Turkey¶s border. including the U. due to its energy resources and pipeline corridors. and there are currently no formal diplomatic relations between the two modern states.37. the OSCE and the Council of Europe." stating that the people responsible for the leaks will "be crushed under these claims. economically. Issues came to a head in 1993 when Turkey sided with its Turkic ally Azerbaijan over the Nagarno-Karabakh War by closing its borders with Armenia and were exacerbated by subsequent pipeline and infrastructure projects that bypassed Armenia.S. relations on 10 October 2009. and the ensuing scandal in which his killer was pictured while holding up a Turkish flag. will be finished and will disappear. flanked by smiling government employees. The government develops policies in this region taking into account its strategic importance. He rejects the allegations of having "eight secret accounts in Swiss banks. [65] [64] It was announced that Turkey and Armenia agreed to establish diplomatic However those diplomatic efforts to normalise the relations have faltered." South Caucasus The former Soviet republics in the South Caucasus (Armenia.9 billion. and the filterings of advisors who pull conspiracy theories off the web or are lost in neo-Ottoman Islamist fantasies".S.[59] Diplomats state that "he relies on his charisma. Bush stated that he did not believe it's in Turkey's interests to send troops into Iraq. U. [62] tens of thousands of Turkish citizens marched throughout the country in protest. but failed to establish formal diplomatic relations. and that his MPs and Ministers feel "fearful of Erdogan's wrath". without much success. and Turkey have had a Joint Economic Commission and a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement for several years. [60] Erdogan responded strongly to the claims. Erdo an was described by US diplomats as having "little understanding of politics beyond Ankara" and as surrounding himself with an "iron ring of sycophantic (but contemptuous) advisors". and collaborates with its South Caucus neighbours in the BSEC. response. Turkey recognised the state of Armenia soon after its 1991 independence. He is said to be "isolated". President George W.S. against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations. and potential border disputes between the two states. Armenia Armenia-Turkey relations have long been strained by a number of historical-political issues including Turkish dispute of the Armenian Genocide during World War I. totaled $4.S. and Georgia) are important for Turkey politically. exports to Turkey totaled $5. and U.[58] In The U.000 people lost their lives. According to leaked diplomatic cables. Turkey's active and openly bias towards Azerbaijan before. [54][55] This led the Turkish government to put pressure on the U. threatening a lawsuit. instincts. On 17 October 2007. Recriminations over the terrorist actions of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) in the 1970s and 80s.S.

Baghdad and Damascus with intense suspicion. also forming regional alliance. which were regarded by the Turkish revolutionaries as the source of the backwardness that had caused the Ottoman Empire to collapse. technology.´ and ³the new Turkish model ± trying to mix greater democracy and Islam together ± is now the subject of curiosity and not a little envy. The Baghdad Pact. and joint combat operations and peacekeeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces. Georgia Turkey has a close partnership relations with Georgia. The resolution of these problems is essential for the preservation of peace and stability in the area. Although Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established a secular. finance. Turkey shifted increasingly towards the West. especially since the AKP came to power. modern country he never formed alliances with Western countries. as well as the arts and sciences. Turkey has shown a readiness to be a negotiator for the Abkhazian conflict. In this period. which he believed would foster educational and scientific progress.´ ³But there¶s been a thaw. Both countries have embassies and consulate generals in each other's capitals. practices and traditions of the Middle East. based on the principles of positivist and rationalist Enlightenment. as evidenced in aligned political affairs. 2005) BBC correspondent Chris Morris claims that ³Turkey¶s secular democracy. Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire. its application for EU membership and its close relationship with the United States have long been regarded in Tehran. Turkey views the Abkhazian and South Ossetian conflicts as a potential danger to peace and stability in the entire region. academics. Turkish citizens can use the Batumi Airport in Georgia.´ Egypt Egypt and Turkey are bound by strong religious and historical ties.Azerbaijan Azerbaijan-Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as "one nation with two states" due to a common culture and history. Middle East and North Africa Mustafa Kemal Atatürk created a radical shift in Turkish domestic and foreign policy by instituting a strong tradition of secular democracy. Islamists look at the secular state which buried the caliphate and think µbetrayal¶. mutual cooperation in the areas of trade. For five centuries. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence. the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the "most important bilateral partnership" in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijan foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships. and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. without a visa or passport. while culturally and ideologically distancing itself from the conservative mindset. which is run by Turkey's Tepe-Akfen-Vie consortium (TAV). the sharing of government and military intelligence. rather he strengthen relationship with Middle Eastern and Asian countries by forming Treaty of Saadabad. and Arab nationalists still haven¶t forgotten that Turks are their former colonial rulers. diaspora. with the seat of the Caliphate in Istanbul and the seat of culture in Cairo. In The New Turkey (Granta Books. Atatürk was an admirer of Enlightenment in many ways and made numerous reforms to modernize Turkey. commerce. preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of theCaspian Sea. Today. Turkey established diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1925 at the level of Charge d¶ Affaires and upgraded its mission in Cairo to Ambassadorial level in 1948. Balkan Pact. Both countries have signed a free trade . [67][68] All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the NagornoKarabakh War. which had its roots in the West.

Yitzhak Ben-Zvi and Moshe Shertok had all studied in the leading Turkish schools of Istanbul in their youth. such as the new Imam Khomeini International Airport in Tehran. and the EU). A natural gas deal between Egypt and Turkey²the largest joint Egyptian-Turkish project to date.html</ref> The founders of the State of Israel and prominent Israeli politicians such as David Ben-Gurion.[82] Later. [57] On 22 February 2008. [73] Iran and Turkey also have very close economic relations.uib. in which an estimated 37.000 people lost their lives. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's border failed to reach the necessary majority in 2003. a period of coldness in bilateral relations existed following the 1979 Iranian Revolution due to the conflicting ideologies of secular Turkey and theocratic Iran. Iran Turkish-Iranian relations have essentially been peaceful since 1923. it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil. on 28 March 1949. February 1993 and also. The nobility class of the Khazar Turks converted to Judaism at some point between the last decades of the 8th and the early decades of the 9th centuries AD. Volume 25.S. namely Galatasaray Lisesi and Istanbul University. On 16 April of 2008. No. against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations.: Turkish construction companies have undertaken important projects in Iran. [78] Turkey's armed forces stepped up their offensive against Kurdish terrorists in northern Iraq on 27 February 2008 [79] amid rising diplomatic tensions between Baghdad and Ankara. the economic and political relations between the two countries have significantly improved in the recent years. [80] The Turkish military pulled out of northern Iraq on 29 Turkish troops fired artillery shells into northern Iraq on 5 March 2008. February 2008. and promoting stability in Iraq and Central Asia. in the 14th±16th centuries.[74][75] while Iran is a major natural gas supplier of Turkey. http://www. Turkey and Egypt are among the leading countries of both the Middle East and Mediterranean regions. the Turkish Armed Forces launched a ground operation in northern Iraq against the PKK terrorists in a move described as the first significant Turkish ground offensive into Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003. before Israel was admitted to the United Nations on 11 May 1949. Israel and Palestinian territories Turkey was the first country with a Muslim majority to formally recognize the State of Israel. Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean. the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II invited the Sephardic Jews fleeing . ³The Palestinian Question in Turkish Foreign Policy from the 1950s to the 1990s´.[77] The ground offensive was preceded by air strikes of the Turkish Air Force against the PKK camps in northern Iraq. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.[54] The United States' reluctance to threaten the relative stability of northern Iraq by launching operations against the PKK led the Turkish Parliament to authorise a cross border military operation in 2007. A primary concern for Turkey was an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq. Today. However. and militant groups in Turkey. Iraq Facing strong domestic opposition in Turkey. estimated to cost $4 billion²is being implemented.agreement in December 2005.S. There are an estimated 12 to 21 million Turkic speakers in Iran (the Iranian Azeris and Turkmens) who mostly live in the northern regions of the country. Turkey receives a significant number of Iranian tourists every year. including the U. and are often said to be key in middle-east peace. Egypt and Turkey signed a memorandum of understanding to improve and further military relations and cooperation between the two countries. [72] [56] Ankara has long suspected Iran's support for Islamist organizations Nevertheless. which began on 16 December 2007.smi. The history of the Jewish-Turkish relations dates back to the medieval Khazar Empire. Both countries have strongly advocated Iraqi territorial integrity since the beginning of the 2003 Iraqi invasion. a government motion to allow U. Both countries are part of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and both were once members of the CENTO alliance. Iran and Turkey cooperate in a wide variety of fields that range from fighting terrorism and drug trafficking.

mass opinion in Turkey is generally sympathetic towards the Palestinians.[89] In the beginning of 2006. a visit paid by Khaled Meshal. the Israeli Foreign Ministry characterized its relations with Turkey as "perfect". [83] A Turkish diplomat. particularly in the Berlin Congress of 1878. frustrated that he had not been given enough time to reply to Israeli President Shimon Peres. The later record of warm relations dates to the 19th century. Selahattin Ulkumen.[page needed] Benny Morris provides an account of how Mossad operatives based in Turkey infiltrated into Iraq and orchestrated a number of Iraqi Kurdish uprisings to weaken the Iraqi government. It has been reported that the Israeli Mossad played a major role in the capture of the PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan in 1999. Some have suggested that this was only a public relations stunt to show the Islamic world that Turkey was on their side because Turkey had been silent in major issues important to Arabs and the Islamic community such as the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Lebanon crisis. stating Israel knew "very well how to kill".the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions to settle in the Ottoman Empire. theRepublic of Turkey again served as a safe haven for the European Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazi-perpetrated Holocaust. [88] In 2000. in February 2006. Turkey has strong cultural and linguistic ties with the predominantly Turkic nations of Central Asia since Turks originated in Central Asia themselves. Israel and Turkey signed a Free Trade Agreement. Another diplomat. namely Afghanistan and Tajikistan. The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) has formed an alliance of trade between Turkey and the Central Asian states. after the Soviet Union. Israeli diplomats went so far as to compare this visit to a possible official visit of Abdullah Öcalan (the imprisoned PKK leader) to Israel. Turkey also provides its large air space (something Israel lacks) to the jets of the Israeli Air Force for training purposes. changed this status. is honoured as one of the Righteous Among The Nations for his work in rescuing Jews from Nazi officials on the island of Rhodes. when the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. himself of Jewish origin. New tensions arose in Turkish-Israeli relations during the Israel's attack on Gaza in 2008±2009. Relations suffered a further blow when during the World Economic Forum in Davos at 29 January 2009. Turkish-Israeli relations entered a "cooling down" process. [91] Although at political and military levels the two nations enjoy a close relationship. Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. gas and oil to Israel. by issuing them Turkish visas and later arranging for their transport to Turkish territory. leader of the newly elected Hamas. Prime Minister Erdogan walked out of the forum in protest. Turkey is even working on developing solid relations with the other nations of the region. but Turkish authorities immediately denounced this comparison as "irresponsible and erroneous". After Khaled Meshal paid an official visit to Russia. supported the Ottoman Empire in numerous disputes.[87] The Israeli and Turkish navies have conducted joint exercises. for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel. Economic and political relations are developing rapidly. Turkey has participated in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since its inception in 2001 and is responsible for maintaining security . Necdet Kent. establishing diplomatic contacts whilst the Turkish War of Independence was still being waged. particularly the area around the Konya Air Base in central Anatolia. electricity. and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel is accorded very high priority by the governments of both countries. However. During the 1930s and 1940s. Military. strategic. Erdogan harshly criticised the President. referring to its military operations as a "crime against humanity". There is a plan to build a massive pipeline from Turkey to supply water. Afghanistan was the second country to recognize the Republic of Turkey. Turkey's Prime MinisterRecep Tayyip Erdogan became among the most outspoken critics of Israel's conduct in the war. and are likely to grow even more quickly with Turkey's recent elimination of visa requirements for citizens of the Central Asian Turkic republics.[84][85][86]In the book Israel's Secret Wars. which share concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East. also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities. Afghanistan Afghanistan±Turkey relations have always been warm due to strong ethnic and historical links between the two modern states.

in a speech at theInternational Atatürk-Alatoo University (IAAU). and were being represented in the Commonwealth of Independent States through you.[106] Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Almaty and a branch office in Astana.around Kabul. These relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs. in a speech to the Jogorku Kenesh. Kazakhstan Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December 1991. ³We have determined that we have a joint will with regard to our bilateral relations and multilateral relations.[110] It is estimated that some 400±500 Kyrgyzstan traders engage in "shuttle trade".[110] There is academic exchange between the two countries as well. Turkey¶s relations with Tajikistan are considered within the framework of relations with other Central Asian republics but developed more slowly due to Tajikistan¶s internal war between 1992 and 1997. It is estimated that some 30% of all imported goods sold at Bishkek's Dordoy Bazaarcome from Turkey. that.´ [109] He also laid the foundation stone for the new Turkish Embassy in Bishkek. on the same day Kazakhstan declared its independence. ³Kyrgyzstan is our ancestral homeland. Republic is in Turkic Council. ³You are being represented in Europe through us. With their knowledge of Kyrgyz and Uzbek languages. We have felt at home in our ancestral homeland while we have been in Kyrgyzstan. Turkey provides support for a number of universities in Kyrgyzstan. health and agriculture in the province of Vardak. Kyrgyz . The Turkish Embassy in Dushanbe was opened in 4 August 1992 and the Tajik Embassy in Ankara was opened in 16 October 1995. while many scholars from Kyrgyzstan are attracted to the opportunities to teach in Turkey. that. regularly traveling to Turkey to purchase goods for sale in their (or others') shops in Kyrgzstan's markets. Afghan President Hamid Karzai visited Ankara on 4 April 2002 and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo an made a reciprocal visit to Kabul a short time later.´[107][108] Gül subsequently announced.[111] Turkey has an embassy in Buenos Aires. During this period the Turkish embassy in Dushanbe was the only diplomatic mission which remained open and the visit of Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel was the only high level visit to Tajikistan. providing training for the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police and has undertaken a number of reconstruction projects in the fields of education. [112] [110] Also. with Gül stating. many Kyrgyzstan traders sometimes manage to do their purchasing in Turkey without having to learn the Turkish language. We share the conviction that we attach great importance to the stability of Afghanistan in particular and that we should provide all sorts of assistance regarding this issue. Kyrgyzstan Turkish President Abdullah Gül made a 26±28 June official visit to Bishkek where he met with Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiev andPrime Minister Igor Chudinov to discuss bilateral relations. Tajikistan Turkey recognized the independence of Tajikistan on 16 December 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992.´ and added. and many Istanbul merchant's familiarity with Russian. Americas Argentina   Argentina has an embassy in Ankara. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 2 March 1992. Turkey is one of Kyrgyzstan's major trade partners. I believe that this is important.

however as of April 2009 both countries have discussed the desire for expanding a bilateral framework for possible cooperation in tourism. [113] Barbadian and Turkish economic trade are not very significant. Atatürk College and Atatürk monument. Barbados and Turkey formally established joint diplomatic relations on 20 September 1972. Both countries are full members of the World In Santiago. Brazil Brazil has an embassy in Ankara. On the issue of Cyprus.[123] . Mexico Mexico has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey's staunch support for fellow NATO member United Kingdom during the Falklands War and recognition of the "Armenian Genocide" by the Argentine parliament due to strong Armenian ethnic lobbying has soured relations between the two countries. [120] [118] [117] [114][116] Turkey has an embassy in Brasília. Canada Canada has an embassy in Ankara.[123] The Turkish embassy in Chile is the first embassy of Turkey [123][124] opened in Latin America. use this as an opportunity to defend the rights of the Turkish minority. Barbados Turkey has a non-resident ambassador in Caracas. China See Chinese±Turkish relations Turkey recognized the PRC on 5 August 1971. The PRC has an embassy Notes The Pablo Neruda square in Turkey was inaugurated in 2007.[119] Chile Chile was the first country in Latin America which recognized Turkey with the Friendship Treaty. Trade Organization (WTO). Venezuela.[114][115] The diplomatic representative of Turkey.[126] Both countries are full members of the OECD. Bangladesh at multilateral organisations such as the UN. there can be found the Turkish Republic [121][122] Square. on 30 January 1926. The trade volume between the two countries have grown as did Bangladeshi exports and has been in Bangladesh's favour throughout their economic relationship. Turkey has an embassy in Ottawa. Asia Formal Country Relations Began Bangladesh Relations have been excellent since Turkey recognised Bangladesh soon after independence. The Barbadian Government does not have foreign accreditation for Turkey. Turkey pursues One-China policy and recognizes the PRC as the sole legal representative of China. In addition Turkey includes a Chile Square in Ankara inaugurated on 18 September 1970 that contains the Bernardo O'Higgins Monument. They also supported the creation of the Developing 8 Countries with six other nations with large Muslim populations.[125] Turkey has an embassy in Mexico City. Bangladesh was one of the only six countries to support the Turkish invasion of Cyprus during a UN vote on the matter. The recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Canadian parliament has soured relations between the two countries. Nihat Akyol and his Barbadian counterpart the Minister of Foreign Affairs revealed that they could "provide support to each other" and that they should not view each other as "competitors".

Japan 1924 See Japanese±Turkish relations     Malaysia 1964 Japan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul. and a consulate±general in Istanbul. though at certain times cold.[129] Turkey has an embassy in Tokyo. Pakistan See Pakistani±Turkish relations ³One Nation ± Two States´ is the phrase that best describes the relations between Turkey and Pakistan. Both are members of the ECO. Malaysia has an embassy in Ankara. The two nations have been in contact with each other since the early times of the Ottoman Empire. . as well as the IsraeliPalestinian conflict. [131] [132] Turkey has an embassy in Ulan Bator. is one of the only countries in the world which fully and consistently supports Turkish positions on many issues. Pakistan. [133] Relations between Pakistan and Turkey are exemplary. Turkey's relations with India have always been generally friendly and stable.inAnkara.000 Turks living in Japan. strategic and military cooperation. Turkey and India work closely with each other to fight cultural terrorism in the Middle East. India was also one of many countries to recognize the newlyindependent Turkey and send political aid to combat the subsequent poverty and benefit the war effort. such asCyprus and Armenia. and South Asia. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan See Malaysian±Turkish relations    Turkey has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Central. [128] This relationship began in the 16th century when the Muslim sultan of Java requested help from the Ottoman Turkish Caliph to resist the Portuguese colonization attempts in the region. commercial. [134] Both nations Both countries maintain extensive cultural.[130] There are 10. Indonesia See Indonesian±Turkish relations Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara.[136][137] Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has called Pakistan his second home. Pakistan. [138] Pakistan and Turkey are close allies and support each other on a number of issues including the Kashmir dispute and Cyprus. [127] Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta. India See Indian±Turkish relations Despite its close supportive bond with its geopolitical rival. which was replied with a large contingent of ships and soldiers whose efforts to help their Muslim brothers mark to this day the close relationship between Indonesia and Turkey. Turkey has an embassy in Beijing and 2 consulates±general in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Malaysia Mongolia See Mongolian±Turkish relations   Mongolia has an embassy in Ankara. in turn. [135] have a deep bond of brotherhood as Turks have always loved the Pakistanis and Pakistanis have always loved Turks. and citizen's attitudes towards one another are warm.

Turkey was the sixth country to open an embassy in Ethiopia. as well as visited Turkish-owned textiles factories in Ethiopia.      Both consulates were closed following the upgrading of relations to ambassadorial level in October 1992. Turkey has an embassy in Canberra since 1967 and two consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney. Pakistan has an embassy in Ankara.[141] Ethiopia Ethiopia has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Addis Ababa since 1925. Governor-General of New Zealand Sir Anand Satyanand visited Turkey for the annual . The first encounter of Turkey and Australia was on the battlefields of Çanakkale. admiration and friendship. Vietnam See Turkish±Vietnamese relations    Africa There has been a revival in Turkey¶s relation with Africa after 1998. which met with the Prime Minister. [143] the Minister of Trade and Industry Girma Biru. The recent Turkey-Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey¶s keen interest in developing relations with Africa. Today the relations between the two countries are described as excellent.[139] Vietnam has an embassy in Ankara. both politically and economically. New Zealand The relationship between Turkey and New Zealand is excellent. both countries regard each other's relations as more important and close to those with Greece and India. Initially this revival came as a passive attempt. expressed the hope that Turkey could share its experience and provide assistance to ongoing efforts to Pacific Australia Diplomatic relations between the two countries established in 1967. Turkey sent a trade delegation to Ethiopia. Sialkot and Faisalabad. rehabilitate and extend its railway system. who attended the discussion. This has created a bond of mutual respect. South Africa has an embassy in Ankara.Despite Pakistan's friendly ties to Greece. but at the same time. a consulate-general in Istanbul and a consulate in Çanakkale. but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. a gentlemanly war. [142] Turkey has an embassy in Hanoi. and Turkey's ties to India.[144] South Africa  Diplomatic relations were established at consular level in 1991 and consulates-general were opened in Istanbul and Johannesburgrespectively. Turkey has an embassy in Islamabad. a Consulate-General in Istanbul and an honorary consulate in Izmir whereas. See also Turks in South Africa Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with South Africa [147] A senior official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Turkey has an embassy in Pretoria. Peshawar. the scene was that of a fierce one. and the President of the Oromia Region Abadula Gemeda. Australia has an embassy inAnkara since 1968. a Consulate-General inKarachi and honorary consulates in Lahore. with great mutual respect based on the ANZAC traditions forged in the Battle of Gallipoli. and should be seen as a turning point. [140] Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Vietnam In December 2008.

Customs Union agreement in 1995. and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana.[66] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base. controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria. stabilization force and the UN-authorized. but the Republic of Cyprus and the international community regard it as an illegal occupation force. Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation. Armed Forces. Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor. and the Netherlands. with a combined strength of just over a million uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.[62] The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO.S. the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. dependent on education and job location. Israel. to fifteen months. [67] [64] [15] [63] Turkey is considered to be the Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and In 1998. Italy. warships andassault rifles.commemoration of Anzac Day on 25 April 2009 stating that his country was ³Turkey¶s traditional ally. Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005.[150] the [Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|OIC]] (1969). helicopters. and its presence has also been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions. the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict. Military The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army. although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime.U. does not offer a civilian alternative to military service. Turkey maintains 36. strongest military power of the Middle East region besides Israel. The Gendarmerieand the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime. NATO-commanded International In 2006. 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance. fighter jets. In 1992. having been an associate member since 1963. Turkey announced a program of modernization worth US$160 billion over a twenty year period in various projects including tanks. [63][71] [70] [68] Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to Turkey has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U. Germany. Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950. This understanding owes its existence mostly to the peace building words of Atatürk.[152] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). their presence is supported and approved by the de facto local government.´ and the Gallipoli battles commemorated.[72] . A NATO headquarters is located in zmir. during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions. including peacekeeping missions in Somalia and formerYugoslavia.´ He also wished Turkey luck with its EU accession bid and waited on the successful outcome for prospective trade opportunities. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).S. and Iran. [151] [148] theOSCE (1973). the Navy and the Air Force. Iraq.[149] the OECD (1961). and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War.000 troops in northern Cyprus. ³are the first example of friendship created on the battlefield. Turkey is also an associate member of the Western European Union since 1992 and signed the E. and many other countries. submarines. International organizations Turkey is a founding member of the UN (1945). Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001. together with Belgium. after the U.

Istanbul. zmir (4 million).The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the president and is responsible to the prime minister. of which 756.764 km (9. the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament. Bursa (3 million) and Adana (2 million).820 km2 (3. The Council of Ministers is responsible to parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country.175 sq mi) in Europe (Thrace). bordering the Black Sea.000 inhabitants. between Greece and Syria. estimated 75.000. densely settled coastal regions. 19 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants. Provinces with the largest populations are Istanbul (13 million). [74] The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital Istanbul is the financial. It is also known as Asia Minor.208 sq mi) are in Asia and 23. Turkey extends more than 1. However. populations less than 100.592 sq mi). betweenBulgaria and Georgia. water: 9. An [62] The actual commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General I k Ko aner since August 30.562 km2 (302. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes.613.535 sq mi).792 sq mi). Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) is a large.600 km (994 mi) from west to east but generally less than 800 km (497 mi) from north to south.816 km2 (292. for a total of 923 districts. Kocaeli (capital: zmit) andSakarya (capital: Adapazar ).535 sq mi).562 km2 (302. The term Anatolia is most frequently used in specific reference to the large. Only two provinces have GEOGRAPHY Turkey is situated in Anatolia and the Balkans. [75] In all. Total land area is about 783. Continent Region Coordinat es Area Ranked 37th Europe±Asia Southern Europe±Western Asia 39°00 N 35°00 E 2 . The Anatolian part of Turkey accounts for 97% of the country's area. Thrace is separated from the Asian portion of Turkey by the Bosporus (Turkish: stanbul Bo az ). The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes. Ankara (5 million). and the Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Bo az ). 2010. the Sea of Marmara(Turkish: Marmara Denizi). The European portion of Turkey. however. Administrative divisions The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. roughly rectangular peninsula situated bridge like between Europe and Asia.760 km2 (297.372. Each province is divided into districts. they do not represent an administrative structure. encompasses 3% of the total area but is home to more than 10% of the total population. Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals. and 20 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500. which is rimmed by hills and mountains that in many places limit access to the fertile.5% of Turkey's population live in urban centers. The geographic coordinates of the country lie at: 39°00 N35°00 E [1] The area of Turkey is 783. Asiatic Turkey or the Anatolian Plateau. has a population of 11. economic and cultural heart of the country. exceptions to this custom are the provinces of Hatay(capital: Antakya). and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. semiarid central plateau. land: 770. known as Thrace (Turkish: Trakya). the largest city of Europe and Turkey. also called the central district.

Its demarcated land frontiers were settled by treaty early in the twentieth century and have since remained stable. Georgia 252 km (157 mi).200 km (4. Iraq3 52 km.Iraq 331 km (206 mi).648 km Armenia 268 km. [2] The boundary with Iran was confirmed by the Kasr-i Sirin treaty in 1638.Greece 206 km. had been part of the Ottoman Empire up to 1918.9 mi) in the Aegean Sea. Despite Armenia's loss of territory as a result of the treaty. which had been organized as League of Nations mandates under the .535 sq mi) 98% land 2 % water Borders Total land borders: 2.81 sq mi 2 2 External boundaries Land boundaries: 2. 12 nmi (22. Azerbaijan 9 km. Azerbaijan. as a legal successor to the Armenian SSR. Nakhchivan(Azerbaijan) 9 km (6 mi). Coastline: 7. 13. Syria 822 km Highest point Lowest point Longest river Largest lake Mount Agr (Ararat) 5. most members of the sizable Greek-speaking community of western Turkey were forced to resettle in Greece. and Georgia.562 km (302.2 km.350 km Van 3. Turkey ceded all its claims to these two countries. declared its loyalty to the Treaty of Kars and all agreements inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government after its independence. According to the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne. Georgia 252 km. Under the agreement. has formed Turkey's borders with the independent countries of Armenia.627 km (1.Bulgaria 240 km. while the majority of the Turkish-speaking residents of Thrace who were not forced out during the Balkan wars were removed to Turkey.474 mi) Maritime claims:exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR territorial sea: 6 nmi (11. The boundary with Iraq was confirmed by the Treaty of Angora (Ankara) in 1926.449. Iran 499 km.137 m Mediterranean Sea 0m K z l rmak 1. Since 1991 the more than 500 km (311 mi) boundary with the former Soviet Union. 6. which was defined in the 1921 Treaty of Moscow (1921)and Treaty of Kars. The boundary with Bulgaria was confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. Iran 499 km (310 mi). The boundary with Greece was confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.8 mi) in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea Surrounded by water on three sides and protected by high mountains along its eastern border.783.632 mi) border countries: Greece 206 km (128 mi). the country generally has well-defined natural borders. Armenia. Iraq and Syria.1 km. Turkey's two southern neighbors. Bulgaria240 km (149 mi). Syria 822 km (511 mi).Armenia 268 km (167 mi).755 km (1. which resolved persistent boundary and territorial claims involving areas in Thrace and provided for a population exchange (see: War of Independence).

1984).. Since achieving independence in 1946. volcanic and sedimentary rocks. 2006). faulting and uplifting. and the East Anatolian Fault Zone.). and Indiancontinental plates began to collide with the Eurasian plate. Ustaomer and Robertson. As a result of the Treaty of Lausanne. However. The earliest geological history of Turkey is poorly understood. 1975). is thought to have been geologically similar to the Western Pacific region today (e. .g. The Eurasian margin.6 million years) folding. now preserved in the Pontides (the Pontic Mountains along the Black Seacoast). This process is still at work today as the African Plate converges with the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate escapes towards the west and southwest along strike-slip faults. floored by oceanic lithosphere existed in-between the supercontinents of Gondwana and Laurasia (which lay to the south and north respectively. 2000). As a result.dolerite and chert (e. basalt. [citation needed] During the Cenozoic (Tertiary about 65 to 1. respectively. were folded. 1997). Turkey geologically is part of the great Alpine belt that extends from theAtlantic Ocean to the Himalaya Mountains. Turkey can be thought of as a collage of different pieces (possibly terranes) of ancient continental and oceanic lithosphere stuck together by younger igneous. These blocks form a very complex mixture or mélange of rocks that include mainly serpentinite. Bergougnan. Robertson & Dixon. African. accompanied by volcanic activity and intrusion of igneous rocks was related to major continental collision between the larger Arabian and Eurasian plates (e. Volcanic arcs (see volcanic arc) and backarc basins (see back-arc basin) formed and were emplaced onto Eurasia as ophiolites (see ophiolite) as they collided with microcontinents (literally relatively small plates of continental lithosphere. Except for a relatively small portion of its territory along the Syrian border that is a continuation of the Arabian Platform. Bozkurt et al. Robertson & Dixon. Rice et al. the former Ottoman Sanjak (province) of Alexandretta (present-day Hatay Province) was ceded to Syria. (more than 540 million years old. partly because of the problem of reconstructing how the region has been tectonically assembled by plate motions. 2006). Syria has harbored a lingering resentment over the loss of the province and its principal towns of Antakya and skenderun (formerly Antioch and Alexandretta). as the Arabian. These microcontinents had been pulled away from the Gondwanan continent further south. Turkey is therefore made up from several different prehistorical microcontinents. e.) During the Mesozoic era (about 250 to 65 million years ago) a large ocean (Tethys Ocean). This issue has continued to be an irritant in SyrianTurkish relations. Geology Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of a wide variety of tectonic processes that have shaped Anatolia over millions of years and continue today as evidenced by frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions.C.g. many of the rocks exposed in Turkey were formed long before this process began. which forms the present day plate boundary of Eurasia near the Black Sea coast.6 million B. the parliament voted to unite with Turkey.g. Turkey and Britain agreed the boundary in the Treaty of Angora (Ankara).governing responsibility of Britain and France. which forms part of the boundary of the North Arabian Plate in the southeast. This large oceanic plate was consumed at subduction zones (see subduction zone). These are the North Anatolian Fault Zone.. This belt was formed during the Tertiary Period (about 65 million to 1.[citation needed] However.g. in June 1939 the people of Hatay had formed a new independent State and immediately after. Turkey's boundary with Syria has not been accepted by Syria. Turkey lies on one of the world's seismically most active regions. faulted and tectonically mixed with huge blocks of crystalline basement rocks of the oceanic lithosphere. Turkey contains outcrops of Precambrian rocks. At the subduction trenches the sedimentary rock layers that were deposited within the prehistoric Tethys Ocean buckled.

flora and fauna. respectively. the Black Sea coast historically has been isolated from Anatolia. which reaches its highest point along the borders with Armenia. ch. form an almost unbroken wall separating the coast from the interior. the average and median altitude of the country is 1. intensely cultivated deltas. 4 side regions and 3 inner regions were named according to their neighborhood to the four seas surrounding Turkey and positions in Anatolia. held in Ankara between 6±21 June 1941.128 meters. and Iran. location. The Samsun area. rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges. transportation. with elevations of 1. flat or gently sloping land is rare and largely confined to the deltas of the K z l River. The interior is divided into three regions: Central Anatolia. The most earthquake-prone part of Turkey is an arc-shaped region stretching from the general vicinity of Kocaeli to the area north of Lake Van on the border with Armenia and Georgia. mainly around Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) andKonya Ovasi (Konya Basin). east of it are . Access inland from the coast is limited to a few narrow valleys because mountain ridges. the coastal plains of Antalya and The 1st Geography Congress. Turkey's terrain is structurally complex. and the valley floors of the Gediz River and the Büyükmenderes River. Because of these natural conditions. topography and so on. soils. Distinct contrasts between the interior and periphery of Turkey are manifested in its landform regions. divided Turkey into seven regions after long discussions and work. broken. the Marmara region. and vegetation. covered by recent deposits and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain. Regions According to worldofturkey. The periphery is divided into the Black Sea region. elevated basins. The terrain's ruggedness is accentuated in the eastern part of the country.Present-day earthquakes range from barely perceptible tremors to major movements measuring five or higher on the open-ended Richter scale. Earthquakes of moderate intensity often continue with sporadic aftershocks over periods of several days or even weeks. Moderately sloping terrain is limited almost entirely outside Thrace to the hills of the Arabian Platform along the border with Syria. Turkey's highest peak.500 meters.332 and 1. the narrow coastal strip widens at several places into fertile. Turkey's most severe earthquake in the twentieth century occurred in Erzincan on the night of December 28±29. In Asiatic Turkey.000 deaths. and the Mediterranean region. and to a few narrow coastal strips along the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea coasts. The higher slopes facing northwest tend to be densely forested. A central massif composed of uplifted blocks and downfolded troughs.000 meters in the east in Kaçkar Mountains. Running from Zonguldak in the west to Rize in the east.525 to 1. the Aegean region. climate. where the two mountain ranges converge into a lofty region with a median elevation of more than 1. These geographical regions were separated according to their climate. and therefore is of limited agricultural value (see Agriculture. Black Sea Region The Black Sea region has a steep. those cutting back through the Pontic Mountains (Do u Karadeniz Da lar ). agricultural diversities. At the end. close to the midpoint. A few larger rivers. Azerbaijan. and mountainous. True lowland is confined to the Ergene Plain in Thrace. and some interior high plains in Anatolia. is a major tobacco-growing region. More than 80% of the land surface is rough. human habitat. Mount Ararat (A r Da ) ² 5. 3).000 to 4. have tributaries that flow in broad.800 meters in the west and 3.137 meters high ² is situated near the point where the boundaries of the four countries meet. 1939. is wedged between two folded mountain ranges that converge in the east. Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia. extending along rivers that discharge into the Aegean Sea or the Sea of Marmara.[citation needed] Nearly 85% of the land is at an elevation of at least 450 meters. it devastated most of the city and caused an estimated 160.

500 meters.numerous citrus groves. The Dardanelles Strait. especially the Zonguldak area. Marmara Region The European portion of Turkey consists mainly of rolling plateau country well suited to agriculture. Miletus. is approximately forty kilometers long and increases in width toward the south. with elevations rarely exceeding 1. The broad. It is a favourite spot among scuba divers for the richness of its underwater fauna and is becoming increasingly popular due to its vicinity to Istanbul. and farther east the Rize region has numerous tea plantations. The seaside town of Ayval k and numerous towns in the provinces of Bal kesir. and the Plains of Troy (historically known as the Troad. There are two suspension bridges over the Bosphorus. rivers have not cut valleys to the sea in the western part of the region. which links the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. coves. is a center of coal mining and heavy industry. Didim. East of Adana. dry summers. zmir and Ayd n are particularly famous for their olive oil and related products. wet winters and hot. damp climate of the Black Sea coast makes commercial farming profitable. Densely populated. Bodrum. including mountain slopes wherever they are not too steep. Lengthy. In general. troughlike valleys and basins characterize the mountains.000 meters south of Rize. and nearly landlocked bays. In the west. the Dardanelles has fewer settlements along its shores. consist largely of reclaimed flood lands. but they rise in an easterly direction to heights greater than 3. zmir. Turkey's fifth most populous city. East of Samsun.5 kilometers in width but narrows in places to less than 1000 meters. Bergama. the extensive plains around Adana (Cicillian plains orTurkish: Çukurova). this area includes the cities of Istanbul and Edirne. The southern slopes²facing the Anatolian Plateau²are mostly unwooded. which links the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea. The largest city in the Aegean Region of Turkey is zmir. Foça. is about twenty-five kilometers long and averages 1. Ku adas . much of the coastal plain has limestone features such as collapsed caverns and sinkholes. Historically. Olive and olive oil production is particularly important for the economy of the region. The most important valleys are the Kocaeli Valley. such as soap and cosmetics. both its Asian and European banks rise steeply from the water and form a succession of cliffs. with mild. movement inland from the western Mediterranean coast was difficult. the mountains tend to be low. Mediterranean Region Toward the east. Marmaris. the area around Trabzon is world-renowned for the production of hazelnuts. It receives about 520 millimeters of rainfall annually. as well as its second largest port after Istanbul. The Saros Bay is located near the Gallipoli peninsula and is famous for its clean beaches. Sardis. Aegean Region Located on the western side of Anatolia. Rivers flow from the mountains toward the Black Sea. Ayval k. the Bursa Ovasi (Bursa Basin). but the northern slopes contain dense growths of both deciduous and evergreen trees. the Aegean region has a fertile soil and a typically Mediterranean climate. All cultivable areas. The North Anatolian Mountains in the north are an interrupted chain of folded highlands that generally parallel the Black Sea coast. The region also has many important centers of tourism which are known both for their historic monuments and for the beauty of their beaches. The Bosphorus. Unlike the Bosphorus. are sown or used as pasture. cultivated valley lowlands contain about half of the country's richest farmlands. the Taurus . Most of the shores are densely wooded and are marked by numerous small towns and villages. such as Assos. Between Adana and Antalya. Datça a nd Fethiye. The western part of the Black Sea region. which is also the country's third largest city and a major manufacturing center.Çe me. The mild. Ephesus.) The valley lowlands around Bursa is densely populated.

Wooded areas are confined to the northwest and northeast of the plateau. Paralleling the Mediterranean coast. various fruits. Antalya. northwest of Adana. In general. . where the Pontus and Taurus mountain ranges converge. semiarid highlands of Anatolia are considered the heartland of the country. others.137 meters the highest point in Turkey. However.200 meters from west to east. The headwaters of three major rivers arise in the Anti-Taurus: the east-flowing Aras. the Mediterranean coast has few major cities. Important irrigated crops include barley. The region varies in elevation from 600 to 1. the Central Anatolian occupies the area between the two zones of the folded mountains. Most of the basins take their names from cities or towns located at their rims. cotton. and the average elevation of its peaks exceeds 3. frequent dust storms blow a fine yellow powder across the plateau. For instance. The plateau-like.546 meters. Mount Ararat. and tobacco.000 meters. although it has numerous farming villages. is situated in the mountains at an elevation of 1. with wheat being the principal crop. Frequently interspersed throughout the folded mountains. at 5. Several small streams that empty into the Black Sea or landlocked Lake Van also originate in these mountains. and Mersin. Many of the Anti-Taurus peaks apparently are recently extinct volcanoes. is located in the Anti-Taurus. and greater precipitation than are found on the Anatolian Plateau. During the summers. the south-flowing Euphrates. sugar beets. stock losses also can be high. the plateau experiences extreme heat. Other than Adana. a more severe climate. the Taurus Mountains (Turkish:Toros Da lar ) are Turkey's second chain of folded mountains. with almost no rainfall in summer and cold weather with heavy snow in winter. The range rises just inland from the coast and trends generally in an easterly direction until it reaches the Arabian Platform. In years of low rainfall. The two largest basins on the plateau are the Konya Ovasi and the basin occupied by the large salt lake. the semiarid center of the plateau receives an average yearly precipitation of only 300 millimeters. Locusts occasionally ravage the eastern area in April and May. Some are no more than a widening of a stream valley. Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia Regions Eastern Anatolia. Where a lake has formed within the basin. where it arcs around the northern side of the platform. the water body is usually saline as a result of the internal drainage²the water has no outlet to the sea. Both basins are characterized by inland drainage. are well-defined basins. leading to severe reductions in crop yields for both rain-fed and irrigated agriculture. is rugged country with higher elevations.Mountains rise sharply from the coast to high elevations. actual rainfall from year to year is irregular and occasionally may be less than 200 millimeters. Tuz Gölü. which pours into the Caspian Sea. The Taurus Mountains are more rugged and less dissected by rivers than the Pontus Mountains and historically have served as a barrier to human movement inland from the Mediterranean coast except where there are mountain passes such as the historic Cilician Gates (Gülek Pass). corn. are large basins of inland drainage or are the result of limestone erosion. and the south-flowing Tigris. to judge from extensive lava flows. Turkey's largest lake. such as the Konya Ovasi. Central Anatolia Region Stretching inland from the Aegean coastal plain. Lake Van. There also is extensive grazing throughout the plateau. grapes. roses. opium poppies. which eventually joins the Euphrates in Iraq before emptying into the Persian Gulf. extending east to the point where the two ranges converge. The region is known as the AntiTaurus. Overgrazing has contributed to soil erosion on the plateau. Rain-fed cultivation is widespread. Irrigated agriculture is restricted to the areas surrounding rivers and wherever sufficient underground water is available. Central Anatolia receives little annual rainfall. and also situated on the Anatolian Plateau. which the Turks call ova .

International agreements Air Pollution. Biodiversity. Ship Pollution. Environmental Modification ECONOMY: The economy of Turkey is largely developed. transport. concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic.740 km (1993 est. In recent years. particularly in urban areas. The main basin is the Mus Valley.4-magnitude earthquake struck northwestern Turkey. Environment Current issues Water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents. but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol. banking. the area is known for severe winters with heavy snowfalls. killing more than 17. Nuclear Test Ban. textiles.137 m Natural hazards Very severe earthquakes. a 7. west of Lake Van. Desertification. The few valleys and plains in these mountains tend to be fertile and to support diverse agriculture.) Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Ararat 5. and communications. On August 17. Wetlands signed. consumer electronics and home appliances. Hazardous Wastes.In addition to its rugged mountains. motor vehicles. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products. air pollution. construction materials. ships and other transportation equipment. 1999. Turkey had a rapidly growing private sector. but the inauguration of major new irrigation projects in the 1980s has led to greater agricultural diversity and development.000 and injuring 44. Endangered Species. from about 800 meters in the north to about 500 meters in the south. Antarctic Treaty. Southeast Anatolia is south of the Anti-Taurus Mountains. Land use Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 4% permanent pastures: 16% forests and woodland: 26% other: 22% (1993 est. Ozone Layer Protection.) Irrigated land: 36.000. occur along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van. deforestation. Narrow valleys also lie at the foot of the lofty peaks along river corridors. yet the state still plays a major role in industry. . Traditionally. especially in northern Turkey. It is a region of rolling hills and a broad plateau surface that extends into Syria. Elevations decrease gradually. wheat and barley were the main crops of the region.

copper.5. boron).8%.1%. ECO. paper Ease of Doing Business Rank External Exports Export goods Main export partners Imports $185.116 trillion[2] (2010) GDP growth 8. OECD. metal manufactures.464[3] (PPP) (2010) agriculture: 9.7%.2 million Turks work abroad Labour force agriculture: 29.99%[4] (March 2011) ) Gini index 41 (2008) $10. Italy 5. textiles. transport equipment .6%.electronics. industry: 25.399[3] (Nominal) (2010) $13. autos.5%.8%[5] (2005) by occupation Unemploym 10.5%[6] (June 2010) ent Main industries textiles. lumber.) note: about 1.8%. industry: 24.9% (2010) GDP per capita GDP by sector Inflation (CPI 3.petroleum.Currency Fiscal year Trade organisation s Turkish lira (TRY)[1] calendar year G-20 major economies.) $113. steel.chromate.3 million (2009 est. tourism mining (coal.9%. France 6. U. services: 45. BSEC Statistics GDP $1.93 billion (2010) [8] 65th [7] apparel.) Labour force 25. EU Customs Union. 64.7% (2009 est.4%. constructi on. Iraq 5% (2009 est.K. food processing.49 billion (2010)[8] Germany 9. WTO.

Import goods machinery.[17][18][19] The World Bank classifies Turkey as an upper-middle income country in terms of the country's per capita GDP in 2007.02 per manhour in 2010.(T&C Assessment) Outlook: Positive[10]  Ba2 Outlook: Positive  BB+ Outlook: Positive Foreign reserves US$92. Since December 31.170 billion (March 2011)[11 Fitch:[10] Moody's:[10] Macro-economic trends Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP [2] and 17th largest Nominal GDP. . France 5% (2009 est.3 billion (2009) $180. U. 6. transport equipment Main import Russia 14%. Turkey's financial capital.1%.) Credit rating  BB+ (Domestic) BB (Foreign) BBB. The CIA classifies Turkey as a developed country.[13] Turkey is often classified as anewly industrialized country by economists and political scientists.4%.S.[14][15][16] while Merrill Lynch. chemicals. ranking 4th in the world behind Moscow (50 billionaires). China9%. [19] According to a survey by Forbes magazine.[12] The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961) and one of the G-20 major economies(1999).5% of GDP (2009 est. Mean graduate pay was $10. semi-finished goods. New York City(60 billionaires) and London (32 billionaires).6 billion (2009) Standard & Poor's:[9] $205 billion (31 December 2009 est. fuels. had a total of 28 billionaires as of March 2010 (down from 35 in 2008). the World Bank and The Economist magazine describe Turkey as an emerging market economy.) partners FDI stock Gross external debt Public finances Public debt Revenues Expenses 48.) $145. Germany 10%.) $274 billion (31 December 2009 est. 1995. Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union.Istanbul. Italy 5.

2 billion Turkish liras ($15 billion) in the first half of 2009. Turkey is one of the few countries that upgraded it's rating with two notches. Turkey is dismantling the incentive system. home appliances and housing. but these traditions are expected to change with the EU accession process. According to the 1990 Census. tea and apple. The country's large agricultural sector accounted for 29. and the tenth largest producer of lemon. As a result.2%. So the government has not had to divert public money into rescuing banks. 19 hydraulic power plants. such as the Southeastern Anatolia Project (G. 13 times higher than a year earlier. That is also because. green pepper. The Economist points out that: [18] Yet in many ways Turkey has weathered the credit crunch better than other emerging economies. The agricultural output has been growing at a respectable rate."[26] Many old agricultural attitudes remain widespread. Turkey's farmers have been fairly fragmented.P promises a very prosperous future for the southeastern agriculture. lentil and pistacchio. The government has also initiated many planned projects. the sixth largest producer oftobacco. the production of durable consumer goods increased by 7. Main economic sectors Agricultural sector As of March 2007. The advent of the G. Fertiliser and pesticide subsidies have been curtailed and remaining price supports have been gradually converted to floor prices. the fourth largest producer of onion and olive. the eighth largest producer of almond.5% of the employment in 2009. rye and grapefruit. the second largest producer of watermelon.[24] The credit rating agency Fitch upgraded Turkey¶s sovereign rating two notches to BB+. the third largest producer of tomato. apricot. unlike many Western banks. the Turkish economy has been affected by the global financial crisis with its Finance Ministry reporting that Turkey's budget deficit swelled to 23.[28] . fig. not a single Turkish bank has gone under. cucumber and chickpea.Effect of the Global Financial Crisis Like many economies.[22] The Turkish Stock Market and credit rating agencies have responded positively.[25] Turkey has been self-sufficient in food production since the 1980s. Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnut. the Turkish Government introduced various economic stimulus measures to reduce the impact of the financial crisis such as temporary tax cuts on automobiles.[25]Historically.[21] Nevertheless. in the period December 2008 . the ninth largest producer of wheat. "85% of agricultural holdings were under 10 hectares and 57% of these were fragmented into four or more non-contiguous plots.[27] The program includes 22 dams. and the irrigation of 1. Partly thanks to tough regulation.A. cherry. since the 1980s. agriculture has been in a state of decline in comparison to the total economy. However. despite a decrease in automotive production. According to The Economist. eggplant.[28] The total installed capacity of power plants is 7476 MW and projected annual energy production reaches 27 billion kWh.A. the fifth largest producer of sugar beet.P project). Share prices in Turkey nearly doubled over the course of 2009. the seventh largest producer of cotton and barley. International credit rating agency Moody's upgraded Turkey's rating with a notch.82 million hectares of land. In 2009. they have few toxic assets and limited mortgage exposure.[23] On 8 January 2010.December 2009 the Turkish stockmarket rose the most in the world after Argentina's stockmarket. quinceand pomegranate.[28] The total cost of the project is estimated at $32 billion.

6% after competing with Morocco and Tunisia.98 billion in 2006.944. [32] Another Turkish electronics brand. Otokar. Annual exports reached $832 million in 2009.The livestock industry.987 motor vehicles in 2006. and the later years of the decade saw stagnation.[35] ranking as the 7th largest automotive producer in Europe.211. the United Kingdom (1.[37][38] The automotive industry is an important part of the economy since the late 1960s.024. Russia (1.819. wool. more than $10.260). South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships.388). the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases.594). [43][44] Turkey will build new military/intelligence satellites including a 0. in digital devices from 3% to 15%. and in white goods from 3% to 18%. and eggs. behind Germany (5. USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts.67 billion of which (76. showed little improvement in productivity.673 tons of fish andaquaculture.435). EU market share of Turkish companies in consumer electronicshas increased significantly following the Customs Union agreement signed between the EU and Turkey: in color TVs from 5% in 1995 to more than 50% in 2005.110 motor vehicles. in 2007 Turkish shipyards ranked 4th in the world (behind China. Fishing is another important part of the economy. However. Motor vehicles and automotive products Turkey has a large and growing automotive industry. which produced 1. TAI. On July 11 2002.000.France (3. Shipbuilding Turkey is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations. and Havelsan are major manufacturers.648. Industrial sector Consumer electronics and home appliances Turkey's Vestel Electronics is the largest TV producer in Europe. accounting for 21% of all TV sets manufactured and sold on the continent in 2007. ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and above Italy) and the 15th largest producer in the world.[36] In 2008 Turkey produced 1. contributed to more than of the value of agricultural output. Roketsan. [33] And now after changing in the climate the China leads with share rises to 46% and in some cases China is more than 50% in several clothing categories and Turkey is the second supplier to Europe with a market share of 12. was Europe's third largest TV producer in 2005.174. [30] By January 2005. Vestel and its rival Turkish electronics and white goods brand BEKO [31] accounted for more than half of all TV sets manufactured in Europe.33%) were made to the EU member states. Spain (2.614).[42] MKEK. Profilo-Telra. respectively. milk. compared to the initial years of the Republic. including meat.147. exporting over $22. in 2005 Turkish fisheries harvested 545.358) andItaly (1. Arms industry Turkey has many modern armament manufacturers. Turkey became a Level 3 partner of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development program.770. TAI builds various aircrafts such as F-16 Block 50+ for the TuAF. and also 4th in the world (behind Italy.000 worth of motor vehicles and components in 2008. Textiles and clothing Turkish companies made clothing exports worth $13. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers.508. livestock products.8m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-1) for use by the Turkish Armed Forces and a 2m resolution reconnaissance . Aselsan. Fnss. The companies that operate in the sector are mainly located in the Marmara Region.

Trabzon. ACV-300. In 2006 the country had a roadway network of 426. ranking behind those of China. long distance telephony and Internet access. which ranked 15th in the world during the same year.987 km of [[Limited-access road|expressways]. and is still ongoing. and revenue earning service began on March 13. including the seven international airports in Istanbul. the Turkish merchant marine included 1199 ships (604 registered at home).[51] while there were 65. is completed. and includes the Marmaray tunnel which will enter service in 2012 and establish the first direct railway connection between Europe and Anatolia. most competitive and dynamic construction/contracting industries in the world. T-155 F rt na.000 operational main line telephones in Turkey. which has a length of 245 km and a projected travel time of 65 minutes. 7. T-129 ATAK.694 mi) of natural gas pipelines and 3. . FNSS Pars. 2009. The Eski ehir-Istanbul section of the line is scheduled to be completed by 2009.502.259 mi) of petroleum pipelines spanned the country's territory. the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines. Service sector Transport As of 2009. there were 102 airports (90 with paved runways and 12 with unpaved runways) in Turkey. Milas-Bodrum andAntalya. which has a length of 533 km fromIstanbul (Turkey's largest metropolis) via Eski ehir toAnkara (the capital) is under construction and will reduce the travelling time from 6±7 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes.[51] The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The Ankara-Eski ehir section of the line.[51] As of 2010.[51] In 2008. Bayraktar Mini UAV. Construction and contracting sector The Turkish construction and contracting industry is one of the leading. Aselsan zci UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle). [51] The remote areas of the country are reached by a domestic satellite system. while the number [51] of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly. 2007. which made the Turkish construction/contracting industry the world's 2nd largest. including 2. zmir. TOROS artillery rocket system. In 2009 a total of 33 Turkish construction/contracting companies were selected for the Top International Contractors List prepared by the Engineering News-Record. which ranked 18th in the world. Milgem stealth warship. including 1.[51] There were also 21 heliports in the country during the same year. UMTAS.satellite (Project Göktürk-2) for use by the Turkish National Intelligence Organization.697 km in 2008.[51] Turkey's coastline has 1.133 km of electrified track.951 km. ASELPOD.555 kilometres (4. Additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers. Communications As of 2008.[51] The rail network was 8.000 registered cell phones in the country.636 kilometres (2. The first line. ranking 7th in the world.200 km of navigable waterways. J-600T missile.824. Trials began on April 23. Dalaman. using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay. there were 17. Roketsan Cirit. Private sector companies operate in mobile telephony. Otokar Cobra and Akrep. Panter Howitzer. Other important products are M TÜP Altay. ranking 13th in the world. is facilitating communication between urban centers. [51] The telecommunications liberalisation process started in 2004 after the creation of the Telecommunication Authority.Ankara.

Financial sector The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankas ) was founded in 1930. Romania. Park Yat r m Bankas (owned by Karamehmet). where the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank (established as the Bank. [57] Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s. and reorganized to its current structure at the beginning of 1986. andAlternatif Bank (owned by Do an. there were 24. Originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange (Dersaadet Tahvilat Borsas ) in 1866. who contributed $21. Resorts in provinces such as Antalya and Mu la (which are located on the Turkish Riviera) have become very popular among tourists.961.Osmanî-i ahane in 1863)[56] and the Ottoman Stock Exchange (1866) were located. were 2. These were Kentbank (owned by Süzer). Turkey has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans.9 billion to Turkey's Over the years. establishing a private sector bank in Turkey wasn't easy and was subject to strict government controls and regulations. there Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors in Turkey.The main line international telephone service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiberoptic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy. [54] [53] [52] In 2005. when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Turkey was valued at $161. Until 1991. the number of visitors rose to 30.[58] The Istanbul Gold Exchange was also established in 1995. revenues. who contributed $18. Bulgaria.[57] In 1995.2 billion to Turkey's revenues. there were 16 AM. On 10 October 1991 (ten days before the general elections of 20 October 1991) the ANAP government of Prime MinisterMesut Y lmaz gave special permissions to five prominent businessmen (who had close links to the government) to establish their own small-scale private banks. Tourism sector [51] while as of 2009. and 6 shortwave radio stations in the country. Bank Ekspres (owned by Betil).929. the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to its current building in the Istinye quarter. Toprakbank (owned by Toprak).Italy and Spain. the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) is the sole securities market of Turkey.000 internet users in Turkey. It also has the obligation to provide for the monetary requirements of the state agricultural and commercial enterprises. 11 of the 100 best hotels of the world are located in Turkey. 107 FM. According to travel agencies TUI AG and Thomas Cook.000.000 in 2005 by the World Bank. and Russia. It possesses the sole right to issue notes. and 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and [51] Eutelsat systems. during the DYP government of Prime Minister Tansu Çiller. As of 2001. which ranked 15th in the world.483.501 visitors to the country. and later reorganized as the Bank. which ranked 27th in the world.192.Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Istanbul was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire. competing with Greece. there were 12 Intelsat satellite earth stations.124.537. Greece. Israel. there were 24. [51] In 2002. who introduced drastic changes to the banking laws and .Osmanî in 1856. All foreign exchange transfers are exclusively handled by the central bank.000internet hosts in the country. $679 per tourist.[55] During the 19th and early 20th centuries. as a privileged joint-stock company. [51] As of 2008.) They were followed by other small-scale private banks established between 1994 and 1995. with an average expenditure of In 2008.

5 billion invested. Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit had to call the renowned economist Kemal Dervi to tidy up the economy and especially the weak banking system so that a similar economic crisis would not happen again. at about $100 million. retail. strong and stable growth. .A. to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. the DSP government of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit had to face two major economic crises that were caused mostly by the weak and loosely regulated banking sector. which was pegged to the U. As a result. dollar prior to the crisis of 2001. the "NewTurkish lira". in 2007 Turkey succeeded in attracting $21. there were 72 banks in Turkey. which practice an Islamic banking. the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency. with more than $1. and lost an important amount of its value. the Turkish banking sector is among the strongest and most expansive in East Europe. the growing trade deficit. Fiscal deficit is benefiting (though in a small amount) from large industrial privatizations. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland. in 1999 and 2001.) The economy grew at an average rate of 7. the Middle East and Central Asia. on January 1. the stability fostered by the start of Turkey¶s EU accession negotiations. are also present in the country. becoming an internationally exchangeable currency once again (in line with the inflation that dropped to single-digit figures since 2003. the New Turkish lira was renamed once again as the "Turkish lira". During the past decade since 2001. and structural changes in the banking. 2005.8% between 2002 and 2005. This financial breakdown reduced the number of banks to 31. life insurance was exempted from this requirement. the Turkish lira has also gained a considerable amount of value and maintained its stability. 1929. There are also numerous international banks. and the devastating zmit earthquake of 17 August 1999. Isbank (Türkiye Bankas ) and Akbank.[63] On January 1. The five big state-owned banks were restructured in 2001. . but also opened many loopholes in the system. [61] In 1954.(National Reinsurance Corporation) which was founded on February 26. Housing Bank (Yap Kredi Bankas ). most of which were owned by construction companies that used them as financial assets for siphoning money into their other operations. At present. The insurance market is officially regulated through the Ministry of Commerce. A number of Arabian trading banks. and 46% in Turkey¶s Black Sea neighbours. 32% has been invested in Russia.9 billion in FDI and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years.S. had to be floated. primarily in the natural resources and construction sector.[62] A series of large privatizations. with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. In 1998. Political involvement was minimized and loaning policies were changed. Government regulations passed in 1929 required all insurance companies to reinsure 30% of each policy with the Millî Reasürans T. which made it very easy to establish a bank in Turkey. After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI). Bulgaria andRomania. and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to the rise in foreign investment. The Turkish lira. External trade and investment Turkey is a very large source of foreign direct investment in central and eastern Europe and theCIS. which have branches in Turkey. 2009.[60]More than 34% of the assets in the Turkish banking sector are concentrated in the Agricultural Bank (Ziraat Bankas ). Banking came under stress beginning in October 2008 as Turkish banking authorities warned state-run banks against the pullback of loans from the larger financial sectors. [citation needed] In recent years.regulations.

will help Turkey to reach a higher degree of self-sufficiency in energy production. The Blue Stream. signed in 1995. The exports reached $115. the second longest oil pipeline in the world. mostly due to the rising demand for energy resources like natural gas and crude oil. particularly off theBlack Sea coast [citation needed] of northern Anatolia. uranium. Share of mid and high technology products has increased from 5% in 1980 to 14% in 1990 and 43% in 2005. was inaugurated on May 10. borate. is linked to the Iran-Turkey pipeline. as well as the three industrial groups. Tekfen. and Üçgen n aat. i eCam Group and Vestel Group. perlite. but the level of production isn't large enough to make the country self-sufficient. which was commissioned on May 21. other natural resources include coal. Gama. [65] [5] Turkey targets exports of $200 billion in 2013. pyrites (sulfur). limestone. barite. InErzurum. 2001. gold. 2005. 2006.321 kilometres (1. The Tabriz±Ankara pipeline is a 2. the recent discovery of new oil and natural gas fields in the country. as well as in Eastern Thrace.[citation needed] Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the [ European Union. and delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. chromium. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. However. such as Enka. Share of natural gas decreased from 74% in 1980 to 30% in 1990 and 12% in 2005.442 mi) for petroleum products. In the future. 2005. andgeothermal power. [66] the United States. emery. hydropower. to increase industrial production for exports. the Gulf of skenderun and in the provinces of theSoutheastern Anatolia Region near the borders with Syria and Iraq. the South Caucasus Pipeline.[68] The pipeline network in Turkey included 1. 2. . pumice.Russia and Japan.738 kilometres (1. The pipeline delivers crude oil from the Caspian Sea basin to the port of Ceyhan on Turkey's Mediterranean coast.1 billion. is operational since November 17. iron ore.080 mi) for crude oil. while benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country. Around 60 different minerals are currently produced in Turkey. which makes Turkey a net importer of both oil and gas.The construction and contracting companies have been significant players.celestine (strontium). magnesite.577 kilometres (1. marble.3 billion in 2007. According to the CIA World Factbook. and a total trade of at least $450 There has been a considerable shift in exports in the last two decades. these two pipelines will be among the main supply routes for the planned Nabucco Pipeline from Turkey to Europe. but imports rose to $162. which accounted for 59% of exports and 52% of imports in 2005. a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline. copper.601 mi) long natural gas pipeline. Petroleum and natural gas Turkey is an oil and natural gas producer. mercury. feldspar. arable land. from where it is distributed with oil tankers to the world's markets. The main trading partners are the European Union. Anadolu Efes Group. Natural resources Minerals Turkey is the tenth ranked producer of minerals in the world in terms of diversity. The richest mineral deposits in the country are boron salts and Turkey¶s reserves amount to 72% of the world¶s total. The planned Nabucco Pipeline will also pass from Turkey and provide the European Union member states with natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin. and 708 kilometres (440 mi) for natural gas in 1999. which runs from Tabriz in northwestern Iran to Ankara in Turkey. The pipeline was commissioned on July 26. antimony. clay. billion.

The most pressing needs are for water treatment plants. and became the Ministry of Environment and Forestry) Turkey began to make significant progress addressing some of its most pressing environmental problems.6 million. Turkey's first nuclear power plants are expected to be built in Mersin's Akkuyu district on the Mediterranean coast. waste water treatment facilities. and inK rklareli's neada district on the Black Sea coast. in Sinop's nceburun district on the Black Sea coast. the country's population was 73. Regional disparities The country's wealth is mainly concentrated in the northwest and west. 2003. the population is increasing by 1.3 years for women. Life expectancy stands at 71.[107] nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. According to the 2009 estimate. the population was 13.1 years for men and 75. Energy security Turkey is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme. solid waste management and conservation of biodiversity.[72] The most dramatic improvements were significant reductions of air pollution in Istanbul and Ankara.Nuclear energy To cover the increasing energy needs of its population and ensure the continued raising of its living standard.927 inhabitants.4% . This has caused uneasy feelings among Turkey's neighbours because they are ideal for producing weapons-grade plutonium. but plans were repeatedly canceled even after bids were made by interested manufacturers because of high costs and safety concerns. Nuclear power proposals were presented as early as in the 1960s [citation needed] . Turkey has always chosen Candu nuclear reactors because they burn natural uranium which is cheap and available locally and because they can be refueled online.2 years for the populace as a whole. People within the 15±64 age group constitute 67% of the total population. [108] [109] In 1927.803. 1991 (which later merged with the Ministry of Forestry on May 1. and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest. Turkey plans several nuclearpower plants. DEMOGRAPHICS The last official census was in 2000 and recorded a total country population of 67.5% each year. which has four key topics: enhancing energy security. supporting sustainable energy development.7 million people in 2010.[ Environment With the establishment of the Turkish Environment Ministry on August 9. Geothermal energy Turkey has the fifth highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal power in the world. the 0±14 age group corresponds to 26%. with an overall average of 73. [106] According to the Address-Based Birth Recording System of Turkey. Turkey has an average population density of 92 people per km . The literacy rate is 96% for men and 80. when the first official census was recorded in the Republic of Turkey. convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles. while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 7%.[110] Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. while the east and southeast suffer from lower economic production and higher levels of unemployment.

They are estimeted at 70±75% by the CIA[1] and at 76. Arabs. therefore.4 million). the majority of the Turkish population are ofTurkish ethnicity.[10] [125][126][127] There are about 120.[132] The Orthodox Church has beenheadquartered in Istanbul since the 4th century AD.3 million). included. Urbanization According to 2010 estimate metropolitan areas in Turkey with the largest populations are stanbul (13. Reliable figures for the linguistic breakdown of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[113] According to CIA the Turkish language is spoken by 70±75% of people and the Kurdish language by approximately 18% of people. Only two provinces have populations less than 100.2% of Turkey's population. the Armenians.[118] In all. Hamshenis. including an estimated 80. Bursa (1. because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity.[114] Minorities of West European origin include the Levantines (or Levanter.000 Turks coming from Greece. Ankara (4. according to the CIA World Factbook. [123][124] Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey. Minorities other than the three officially recognized ones do not have any special group privileges.9 million).000 Orthodox (of them 3.5 million Greeks moving from Turkey and some 500.0 million). while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey. the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. Adana (1.6 million). Laz.0% by a survey of Milliyetin 2007. mostly of French.000 people of different Christian denominations. Religion Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion.[111] The low figures for women are mainly due to the traditional customs of the Arabs and Kurds who live in the southeastern provinces of the country. R oma and the three officially recognized minorities (per the Treaty of Lausanne). Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week. a distinct ethnic group concentrated mainly in the southeastern provinces of the country. Albanians. Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available. Other major ethnic groups include the Abkhazians. Gaziantep (1. [129] 35.[121] A public television channel. it exceeds 99% if secular people of Muslim background are Research firms suggest the actual Muslim figure is around 98%.000 Oriental Orthodox. Assyrians.1%.000 inhabitants.000±4. There are about 26.[133] . Georgians. the vast majority of whom are Sephardi. a bilateral accord of population exchange between Greece and Turkey took effect in the 1920s.1 million). [2] The Kurds. was opened in early 2009. However.e.for women. [citation needed][120] The public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in the local languages and dialects of Arabic.[128] or 97%. 1923. Circassians.000 being Greeks)[129] and smaller numbers [131] of Protestants.000. are the largest nonTurkic ethnicity.[130] 5. Language Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. Greeks and Jews. with close to 1. 18 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants.4 million). and 21 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500.000 Roman Catholics. i. Today there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey.Pomaks (Bulgarians). Genoese and Venetian descent) who have been present in the country (particularly in Istanbul[115] and zmir[116]) since the medieval period.0 million) and Antalya (1. Bosniaks. [112] Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". with an overall average of 88.5% of the population live in urban centers. the Turkish Constitution provides forfreedom of religion and conscience.000 people who are Jewish. TRT 6. Christians represent less than 0. estimated at about 18% of the population according to the CIA[1] and at 15. [117] [113] An estimated 70. zmir(3. Bosnian. Konya (1.7% according to a survey by [2] the Milliyet daily newspaper. Signed on January 30. which airs programs of Kurdish-language most of the time.

particularly after the Tanzimat period. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state. [144][145][146][147] The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is [10] the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (religious). zmir.Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western cultureand traditions.[150] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persianand Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. the effect of both Turkish folk and European literary traditions became increasingly felt.000 registered mosques and employing local and provincial imams. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized. such as museums. 82% were identified as Sunni Hanafi.[citation According to Aksiyon magazine. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.[137] [citation needed] Though there are no exact figures on the Muslim sects. [143] Turkey was founded upon a strict secular constitution which forbids the influence of any religion. Anatolian. which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash .2%).[140] There are also some Sufipractitioners. being exiled toConstantinople. A r and Ayd n. thus contributing to a blend of Turkic. the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. such as the fact that the wearing of the Hijab is banned in universities and public or government buildings as some view it as a symbol of Islam ± though there have been efforts to lift the ban. Manisa.7% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (fully devout).7% were Alevi. Mu la. There are sensitive issues. according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007: 52.The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey has roots in Bahá'u'lláh's. for example. Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts. the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts. it interprets the Hanafi school of law. and they live in Istanbul. which were a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. Kars.1% Sunni Shafi'i. by the Ottoman authorities. [138][139] Though academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to needed] Alevi community is sometimes classified within Twelver Shi'a Islam. 20 million. which was officially espoused by theOttoman Empire. and 0. 9.9% defined themselves as"someone with no religious conviction" (atheist). 9. CULTURE Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the O uz Turkic. 34. Bahá'ís cannot register with the government officially probably 10 [135] [134] but there are to 20 [136] thousand Bahá'ís. current-day Istanbul.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (non-believer/agnostic).3 % defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (believer). During the first years of the republic. 2. the number of Shiite Twelvers (excluding Alevis) is 3 million (4. including Islam. theatres. though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire. and 5.[141] The highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs(Turkish: Diyanet leri Ba kanl ). opera houses and architecture. and around a hundred Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies in Turkey. Çorum.[142] The role of religion has been controversial debate over the years since the formation of Islamist parties. I d r. Ankara. and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 80.[148][149] As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion. Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences. an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. according to a 2006 survey.

K. the FIA World Touring Car Championship. both male and female. takes place above the Golden Horn in Istanbul. and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings likeDolmabahçe and Ç ra an Palaces are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers. Naim Süleymano lu and Halil Mutlu have achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won three gold medals in three Olympics. an air racing competition. Women's volleyball teams. with many European. many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture. theGP2 Series and the Le Mans Series.[162] Other important annual motorsports events which are held at the Istanbul Park racing circuit include the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey.[157] International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular. Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles. [152] Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries. paragliding and other extreme sports are becoming more popular every year. Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup. all of them representing different traditions.[161]and the Turkish Grand Prix was included to the Formula One racing calendar in 2005. Vak fbank Güne Sigorta andFenerbahçe Ac badem. as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. finished second in the Saporta Cup of 1993. Sports The most popular sport in Turkey is football. with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions. and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague andSuproleague in 2000 and 2001. Turkey hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001 and the finals of the 2010 FIBA World Championship. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. In 2000. while the Turkish leg of the Red Bull Air Race World Series. are to be found throughout the country. the annual K rkp naroiled wrestling tournament since 1361. From time to time Istanbul andAntalya also host the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racingchampionship.Fenerbahçe and Be ikta .and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk.[158] Weightlifting has been a successful Turkish sport. Surfing. won the Korac Cup in 1996.[159] World and Olympic[160] championship titles. have broken numerous world records and won several European. . winning second place on both occasions. World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team. 70% of Turkish citizens never read books. snowboarding. skateboarding. [156] Edirne has hosted The traditional Turkish national sport has been ya l güre (oiled wrestling) since Ottoman times. Mimar Sinan is widely regarded as the greatest architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. while Efes Pilsen S. Since the 18th century.[155] Turkish basketball players such as Mehmet Okur andHidayet Türko lu have also been successful in the NBA. The Rally of Turkey was included to the FIA World Rally Championship calendar in 2003. Motorsports are also popular in Turkey. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey. Two years later the Turkish national team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South Korea. while the ükrü Saraco lu Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final. have won numerous European championship titles and medals. namely Eczac ba . Turkish weightlifters. [151] According to Konda public opinion researchers. The Atatürk Olympic Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final. while in 2008 the national team reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Euro 2008 competition. [154] Turkey's top teams include Galatasaray.

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