REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

Capital: Ankara Largest City: Istanbul Official Language: Turkish Demonym: Turkish Government: Parliamentary Republic Founder: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk President: Abdullah Gul Prime Minister: Recep Tayyip Erdogan Speaker of the Parliament: Cemil Cicek President of the Constitutional Court: Hasim Kilic Legislature: Grand National Assembly Succession: To the Ottoman Empire Treaty of Lausanne: July 24, 1923 Declaration of Republic: October 29, 1923 Area: 783,562 km (37th) Population: (2011 estimates) 78,785,548 (18th) Currency: Turkish Lira
2

known officially as the Republic of Turkey is a Eurasian country located 97% in Asia (mostly in theAnatolian peninsula) and 3% in East Thrace in Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries:Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan(the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. TheMediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west;

and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between East Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. geostrategic importance.
[10]

Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant

[11][12]

Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The vast majority of the population areMuslims.[13] The country's official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languagesare spoken by Kurds and Zazas, who comprise 18% of the population.
[14]

Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, i.e. "Land of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert.[15] Several small beyliks and theSeljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organizations such as the Turkic Council, Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of Islamic Cooperationand the Economic Cooperation Organization. Given its strategic location, large economy and military strength, Turkey is a major regional power.

ETYMOLOGY:
The name of Turkey, Türkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two components: theethnonym Türk and the abstract suffix ±iye meaning "owner", "land of" or "related to" (derived from the Arabic suffix ±iyya, which is similar to the Greek and Latin suffixes ±ia). The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). Tu±kin has been attested as early as 177 BCE as a name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia. The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia (c. 1369).[17] The Greek cognate of this name, Tourkia, was originally used by the Byzantines to describe medieval Hungary[18][19][20] (as the Hungarians and Turks have ancestral links) but they later began using this name to define the Seljuk-controlled parts of Anatolia in the centuries that followed the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.

HISTORY:
The history of Turkey refers to the history of the country now called Turkey. Although the lands have an ancient history, Turkic migration to the country is relatively new. The Turks, a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family started moving from their original homelands to the modern Turkey in the 11th century. After the Turkic Seljuq Empire defeated forces of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, the process was accelerated and the country
[1] was referred to as 'Turchia' in the Europe as early as the 12th century. The Seljuq dynasty controlled Turkey until the

country was invaded by theMongols following the Battle of Kosedag. During the years when the country was under Mongol rule, some small Turkish states were born. One of these states was the Ottoman beylik which quickly controlled Western Anatolia and conquered much of Rumelia. After finally conquering Istanbul, the Ottoman state would become a large empire, called the Turkish Empire in Europe. Next, the Empire expanded toEastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Europe and North Africa. Although the Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th century; it did not fully reach the technological advance in military capabilities of the Western powers in the 19th century. Nevertheless, Turkey managed to maintain independence though some of its territories were ceded to its neighbours and some small countries gained independence from it. FollowingWorld War I in which Turkey was defeated, most of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace was occupied by the Allied powers including the capital cityIstanbul. In order to resist the occupation, a cadre of young military officers formed a government in Ankara. The elected leader of the Ankara Government, Mustafa Kemal organized a successful war of independence against the Allied powers. After the liberation of Anatolia and theEastern Thrace, the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 with capital city Ankara. Turkic migration Before the Turkic settlement, the local population of Anatolia had reached an estimated level of 12 to 14 million people during the late Roman Period.
[2][3][4]

The migration of Turks to the country of modern Turkey occurred during the

main Turkic migration across most of Central Asiaand into Europe and the Middle East which was between the 6th and 11th centuries. Mainly Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire arrived Turkey in the eleventh century. The Seljuks proceeded to gradually conquer the Anatolian part of the Byzantine Empire. In the following centuries, the local population began to be assimilated into the Turkish people. More Turkic migrants began to intermingle with the local inhabitants over years, thus the Turkish-speaking population was bolstered. Seljuq Dynasty The House of Seljuk was a branch of the K n k O uz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the O uz confederacy[5] in the 10th century. In the 11th century, the Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became a new homeland of O uz Turkic tribes following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a separate branch of the largerSeljuk Empire Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Mongol Rule In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols in the Battle of Kosedag, and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm became a vassal of the Mongols. This caused the Seljuks to lose its power. Hulegu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan founded the Ilkhanate in the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate State ruled Anatolia by Mongol military governors. Last Seljuk sultan died in 1308. The Mongol invasion of Transoxiana, Iran, Azerbaijan and Anatolia caused Turkomens to move to Western Anatolia. [7] The Turkomens founded some Anatolian principalities (beyliks) under the Mongol dominion in Turkey.[8] The most powerful beyliks were the Karamano lu (or theKaramanid) and
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and to

some Turkish principalities (beyliks), mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia which were vassals of or at war with

the Germiyan in the central area. Along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched Karesi, Saruhan, Ayd no lu, Mente e and Teke principalities. The Candaro lu (also called sfendiyaro lu) controlled the Black Sea region round Kastamonu and Sinop.[9] The Beylik of Ottoman Dynasty was situated in the northwest of Anatolia, around Sö üt, and it was a small and insignificant state at that time. The Ottoman beylik would, however, evolve into the Ottoman Empire over the next 200 years, expanding throughout the Balkans, Anatolia.[ Ottoman Dynasty The Ottoman beylik's first capital was located in Bursa in 1326. Edirne which was conquered in 1361 [11]was the next capital city. After largely expanding to Europe and Anatolia, in 1453, the Ottomans nearly completed the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople during the reign of Mehmed II. This city has become the capital city of the Empire following Edirne. The Ottoman Empire would continue to expand into the Eastern Anatolia, Central Europe, the Caucasus, North and East Africa, the islands in the Mediterranean, Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, and the Arabian peninsula in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central
[12] Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In addition, the Ottomans

were often at war with Persia over territorial disputes. At sea, the empire contended with the Holy Leagues, composed of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John, for control of the Mediterranean. In the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman navy frequently confrontedPortuguese fleets in order to defend its traditional monopoly over the maritime trade routes betweenEast Asia and Western Europe; these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. The Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 marked the beginning of the Ottoman decline; some territories were lost by the treaty: Austria received all of Hungary and Transylvania except the Banat; Venice obtained most of Dalmatia along with the Morea (the Peloponnesus peninsula in southern Greece); Poland recovered Podolia.
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Throughout the 19th and early

20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire continued losing its territories, including Greece, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the Balkans in the 1912±1913 Balkan Wars. Faced with territorial losses on all sides the Ottoman Empire forged an alliance with Germany who supported it with troops and equipment. The Ottoman Empire joined the World War I on the side of the Central Powers, after granting two German warships as refugees. On October 30, 1918, the Armistice of Mudros was signed, followed by the imposition of Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920 by Allied Powers, which was never ratified. The Treaty of Sèvres would break up the Ottoman Empire and force large concessions on territories of the Empire in favour of Greece, Italy, Britain and France. Republic era The occupation of some parts of the country by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement. the Treaty of Sèvres.
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Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander who had distinguished

himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were expelled. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.
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Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey and subsequently introduced many radical

reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[12] According to the Law on

against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Turkey is the only country that recognises the TRNC military coups d'état in1960. In 2007. by a popular parliament round of votes. which has claimed over 40. Turkey joined NATO in 1952. [15] Difficulties faced byGreece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion. and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. As of 2004. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II but entered on the side of the Allies on February 23. [50] The . as a ceremonial gesture and in 1945 became a charter member of the United Nations. leading to a fine and a near ban of the ruling party. there were 50 registered political parties in the country. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923.Family Names. and resulted in large-scale U. The president is elected for a fiveyear term by direct elections. the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934. and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. [45] The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the head of the party having the most seats in parliament. continues today. with 34% of the suffrage. 2007. prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. 1945. ministers with parliament membership are common in Turkish politics. who in the past had been involved with Islamist parties. The current prime minister is the former mayor of stanbul. [43] Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country.S. the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.[ GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. becoming a bulwark The single-party period was followed by multiparty democracy after 1945.[49] Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933. overthrowing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as a dictator. The President of the Republic is the head of state and has a largely ceremonial role. succeeding Ahmet Necdet Sezer. 1971. and the High Court of Appeals for all others. [47] Although the ministers do not have to be members of the parliament. whose conservative AK party won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections.000 lives. [18] [17] [16] After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean War. which was annulled by the Constitutional Court. military and economic support. In the 2007 general elections.[48] and the government's proposal to lift the headscarf ban in universities.6% of the votes and could defend its majority in parliament. Abdullah Gül was elected as president on August 28. Turkey invaded the Republic of Cyprus in 1974. Recep Tayyip Erdo an. the AKP received 46. [44] Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers which make up the government. the conflict. the PKK began an insurgency against the Turkish [19] government. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece. Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits. while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. TheCouncil of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases. Since the liberalization of the Turkish economy during the 1980s. a series of events regarding state secularism and the role of the judiciary in the legislature has occurred. The Turkish democracy was interrupted by In 1984. These included the controversialpresidential election of Abdullah Gül. 1980 and 1997. organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001. Following a decade ofintercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the Greek military coup of July 1974.

The current president Abdullah Gül was elected by Parliament on 28 August 2007. The members are elected for a four-year term by mitigated proportional representation with an election threshold of 10%. [51][52] There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey( stanbul is divided into three electoral districts. Judicial branch The freedom and independence of the Judicial System is protected within the constitution. particularly the right to life and freedom from torture. A president is elected every five years on the principle ofuniversal suffrage according to the current constitution. The prime minister is appointed by the President and approved through a vote of confidence (güvenoyu) in the Parliament.[55] The Turkish Journalists Association says that 58 of the country's journalists have been imprisoned. women's rights and press freedom have also attracted controversy. ThePresident of Turkey is the head of state who holds a largely ceremonial role but with substantial reserve powers. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. To be represented in Parliament. State Department spokesman. representing 81 provinces. or ban their existence altogether. but he/she must be over 40 years old and hold a bachelor's degree.S. The president does not have to be a member of parliament. and the executive and legislative structures must . There is no organization. To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation. The prime minister is Recep Tayyip Erdo an. Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to future membership of the EU. A U.600 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations. a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election." Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic. The ministers don't have to be members of Parliament (an example is Kemal Dervi ). Independent candidates may run. person.[2] The current Speaker of the Parliament is Cemil Çiçek. The threshold is set to be reduced.Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist. [50] Because of this threshold. Legislative branch Legislative power is invested in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi). in the 2007 elections only three parties formally entered the parliament (compared to two in 2002). Between 1998 and 2008 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 1. whose conservative Justice and Development Party won a majority of parliamentary seats in the 2011 general elections.[53][54] Human rights in Turkey have been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. or institution which can interfere in the running of the courts. only parties winning at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament. Philip Crowley. Its current constitution was adopted on 7 November 1982after the Turkish constitutional referendum. Executive branch The function of head of state is performed by the president (Cumhurba kan ). the prime minister (Ba bakan) and the Council of Ministers (Bakanlar Kurulu) (Cabinet Erdo an III). whereas Ankara and zmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government. Other issues such as Kurdish rights. and to be elected.[1] Executive power rests with the president. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. said that the United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. they must only win 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running. Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. and of a multi-party system.

When a case is closed to the public. Dan tay is the highest of administrative courts. Political principles of importance in Turkey The Turkish Constitution and most mainstream political parties are built on the following principles:    Kemalism Laicism Modernization Conservatism Neo-liberalism Islamism Pan-Turkism Socialism Communism Other political ideas have also influenced Turkish politics and modern history. Turkish courts have no jury system. The Judicial system is highly structured. However. the laws. There are several supreme courts with different subjects: Yarg tay acts as the supreme court of judiciary tribunals (criminal and civil justice). decrees having the force of law (decretloi).) will be accessible via the Internet. expert reports. jurisprudence. All courts are open to the public.obey the courts' decisions. etc. Turkey accepts the European Court of Human Rights' decisions as a higher court decision. Sadullah Ergin is the natural head of the Council according to the current constitution. and their personal convictions. Except with their own consent. Turkey adopted a new national "Judicial Networking System" (UYAP). The courts. have his/her powers restricted. Anayasa Mahkemesi examines the constitutionality of laws. It has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and petty crimes. with penalties ranging from small fines to brief prison sentences. the court has to declare the reason. The Military Court of Cassation (Askeri Yarg tay) and The Military High Court of Administration (or the Supreme Military Administrative Court) (Askeri Yüksek dare Mahkemesi) are the highest bodies to which appeals of decisions of military courts are to be made. the retirement age restrictions do apply. This court has a single judge. or be forced to retire. changes of parliamentary by-laws and several other acts of the parliament. no judge or prosecutor can be dismissed. Turkey also accepts as legally binding any decisions on international agreements. Three-judge courts of first instance have jurisdiction over major civil suits and serious crimes. Say tay (Court of Accounts) is the court which examines the incomes and expenses of the administrative bodies and which acts in the name of parliament. Judge and prosecution structures are secured by the constitution. must explain each ruling on the basis of the provisions of the Constitution. justices of the peace take the case. The court decisions and documents (case info. Minister of justice. Of particular importance are:       . The High Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (HSYK) is the principal body charged with responsibility for ensuring judicial integrity. and determines professional judges acceptance and court assignments. in which case a special task force of justice experts and senior judges is formed. which are independent in discharging their duties. For minor civil complaints and offenses. Any conviction in a criminal case can be taken to a court of Appeals for judicial review. A judge can be audited for misconduct only with the Ministry of Justice's permission. judges render decisions after establishing the facts in each case based on evidence presented by lawyers and prosecutors. The child courts have their own structure.

the military enjoys a high degree of . At the same time. The TAF still maintains an important degree of influence over Turkish politics and the decision making process regarding issues related to Turkish national security. which translating to control of 110 seats. have been charged with ³lack of discipline´. the military has both been an important force in Turkey¶s continuous Westernization but at the same time also represents an obstacle for Turkey¶s desire to join the EU. in advance of the 4 November 2007 presidential election. The Army's statement ended with a clear warning that the Turkish Armed Forces stood ready to intervene if the secular nature of the Turkish Constitution is compromised. Political parties and elections Since 1950. members who performed prayers or had wives who wore the headscarf. albeit decreased in the past decades. in 1971. it maneuvered the removal of an Islamic-oriented prime minister. and to the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The independents (whose majority are the leftist pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party candidates) won 28 seats. and minority groups such as Alevis andKurds. and in 1980. CHP received 20. the official state ideology. Most recently."[6] The AK Party nonetheless lacks the two-thirds majority in parliament necessary to push through legislation. with a stableelectorate. It executed coups d'état in 1960. The AK Party won 46. stating that "the Turkish Armed Forcesmaintain their sound determination to carry out their duties stemming from laws to protect the unchangeable characteristics of the Republic of Turkey. although its core cadres root from the Islamist current. It said that the army is a party to "arguments" regarding secularism. and in reaction to the politics of Abdullah Gül. most notable of which is CHP. The leftist parties. that Islamism ran counter to the secular nature of the Turkish Republic. Indeed. giving the party 71 seats.33%.Necmettin Erbakan." [8] Contrary to outsider expectations. parliamentary politics has been dominated by conservative parties. coastal regions. professional middleclass. Independent candidates are not subject to the 10% threshold constraint placed on political parties. tends to identify itself with the "tradition" of DP. Anarchism These principles are the continuum around which various ± and often rapidly changing ± political parties and groups have campaigned (and sometimes fought). the importance which state officials attach to these principles and their posts can be seen in their response to breaches of protocol in official ceremonies. Even the ruling AK Party. [11] Paradoxically. according to the US Commission on International Religious Freedom report in 2008. the DHP. the army issued a statement of its interests. Their loyalty to this determination is absolute. who has a past record of involvement in Islamist political movements and banned Islamist parties such as the Welfare Party. via the National Security Council. The DTP is the successor to the previous proKurdish party. draw much of their support from big cities.MHP took third place with 14. [4][5] European Union officials welcomed the AK Party's sweeping victory. it assumed power for several periods in the latter half of the 20th century.64%. The military has had a record of intervening in politics. On a superficial level. Factor of the military Since Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the modern secular Republic of Turkey in 1923.[9][10] Members of the military must also comply with the traditions of secularism. describing it as "a mandate for the reforms it wants Turkey to complete during its membership talks. the Turkish populace is not uniformly averse to coups. many welcome the ejection of governments they perceive as unconstitutional. in 1997. [7] On 27 April 2007.76% of the vote giving them 341 parliamentary seats. the Turkish military has perceived itself as the guardian of Atatürkçülük.

such policies have placed heavy emphasis on Turkey's relationship with the Western world. Turkey's influence has grown in the Middle East based on the strategic depth doctrine. some of them retired. have been detained or questioned since July 2008 with respect to Ergenekon. Under the AK Party government. The application was rejected. although the E.[15] [16] On 22 February 2010 more than 40 officers arrested and then were formally charged with attempting to overthrow the government with respect to alleged "Sledgehammer" plot . An EU-Turkey Customs Union came into effect on 1 January 1996. and has taken many ± and sometimes controversial ± reform packages through the Parliament aimed at gradually harmonizing Turkey with EU standards. problems in foreign policy such as the Cyprus conflict and the internal political turbulence from the 1970s until the early 1980s forced Turkey to delay applying for full membership of the European Community until 1987. with continuous opinion polls suggesting that the military is the state institution that the Turkish people trust the most. FOREIGN RELATIONS Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are the Turkish government's policies in its external relations with the international community. an alleged clandestine. with full membership being acknowledged as the final goal. allowing goods to travel between Turkey and the EU member stateswithout customs restrictions. Formal Country Relations Began Austria See Austrian±Turkish relations From the middle ages until the twentieth century today's Austria and Turkey were thecore regions within much larger empires. [12] Over a hundred people. including former commanders of the Turkish navy and air force (three days later. Since October 2005. However. The European Union confirmed Turkey's status as candidate for membership at the European Council's Helsinki Summit in 1999. including several generals. with Turkey seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans. ultra-nationalist and security forces. The post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union. particularly in the field of human rights. before the talks could begin. based on the Western-inspired reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. as well as its historical goal of EU membership. Turkey's current administration has identified EU membership as its top priority. the former commanders of the navy and air force were released). Historically. [14] [13] organization with ties to members of the country's military The group is accused ofterrorism in Turkey. Austria was the seat of the House of Habsburgand Notes . the Middle East and the Caucasus.C. especially in relation to the United States. as the EU said Turkey had to make significant reforms.popular legitimacy. although it crucially stopped short of lifting restrictions in areas such as agriculture. also called Neo-Ottomanism Europe European Union The Turkish application to join the European Economic Community (now the European Union) as an associate member in 1959 soon resulted in associate membership in 1963. however. They include four admirals. a general and two colonels. Turkey has formally started accession negotiations with the EU and these will be based on the acquis communautaire. Theaccession talks did not follow immediately. did say that Turkish membership could occur at some point in the future.

On 14 October 1756.      Today.Turkey was ruled by the House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman Dynasty). Finland has an embassy in Ankara and an honorary consulate general in Istanbul and other honorary consulates in Belek. Belarus 1992-05-25 See Belarusian±Turkish relations  Turkey was the first country to recognize Belarus on 16 December 1991 after the declaration of its independence on 25 August 1991.[3][4]   14 October Turkey has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate±general in Antwerp.  Belgium Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Belarus See Belgian±Turkish relations  Belgium has an embassy in Ankara. Bodrum and Izmir. The Habsburg and Ottoman states were both large multi-ethnic conglomerations sustained by conquest. Denmark has an embassy in Ankara and an honorary consulate in Istanbul.    Belarus has an embassy in Ankara. These rival empires waged frequent wars against each other over control of much Central Europe and the Balkans.[9] Turkey has an embassy in Copenhagen.[10] See also Turks in Denmark Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Turkey Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Denmark Denmark 1756 [8] Finland 1920-05-20 See Finnish±Turkish relations   Turkey recognized the independence of Finland on 21 February 1918. a consulate±general in Istanbul and two consulates in Antalya and zmir. In 1758. . an Agreement of Friendship and Trade was signed by the Sultan Osman III and the King Frederick V.    Turkey has an embassy in Helsinki.[5][6][7] See also Turks in Belgium See Denmark±Turkey relations  The relations date back 250 years and actually started in the field of trade in 18thcentury. economical and commercial relations with Finland  Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland about relations with Turkey [11] France See French±Turkish relations Turkey has an embassy in Paris and consulates general in Lyon. Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).[12] See also Turks in Finland Turkey's Ministry of Foreign Affairs about political. Turkey has an embassy in Minsk. Denmark has appointed an extraordinary representative to the Ottoman Empire. Marseille andStrasbourg. France has an embassy in Ankara.

[17]   Italian embassy in Ankara Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Italy Malta See Maltese±Turkish relations  Malta is represented in Turkey through accrediting a Maltese Ambassador resident inValletta to Turkey and through its consulate general in Istanbul. Holy See 1868 See Holy See ± Turkey relations   The Holy See has a nunciature in Ankara. Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority. Most Turks in Germany trace their ancestry to Central and EasternAnatolia. a general consulate in Istanbul. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Malta Poland See Polish±Turkish relations    Poland has an embassy in Ankara. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland Portugal See Portuguese±Turkish relations Turkey's 161 years of political relations with Portugal date back to the Ottoman period when .   Turkey is represented in Malta through its embassy in Valletta.[15] Turkey has an embassy in Dublin. particularly to work in the factories that helped fuel Germany's economic miracle. The German authorities named these people Gastarbeiter (German forguest workers). the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) officially invited Turkish workers to Germany to fill in this void. and a general consulate in Istanbul.[14] Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary Ireland See Ireland ± Turkey relations     Ireland has an embassy in Ankara. However. Germany promoted a Turkish immigration to Germany. Germany suffered an acute labor shortage after World War II and. Today.[16] See also Turks in Ireland Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ireland Italy 1856 See Italian±Turkish relations  Italy has an embassy in Ankara.Germany See German±Turkish relations Based on good Turkish-German relations from the 19th century onwards. Turkey has an embassy in Rome. Hungary See Hungarian±Turkish relations    Hungary has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate±general in Istanbul.[13] Turkey has an embassy in Budapest.[18] Turkey has an embassy in Warsaw. in 1961. large scale didn't occur until the 20th century. a consulate zmirand 3 honorary consulates in * Turkey has an embassy in Rome and a general consulate in Milan.

Turkey and the United Kingdom as a partnership state between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. A resident embassy was established in 1957. which will take over the rotating presidency of the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in July. This led to Turkey¶s military intervention under the Treaty of Guarantee.[28] The President of Turkey Cevdet Sunay paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1967.through an armed takeover of the island. Rauf Denktas and Greek Cypriot leader Glafcos Clerides reached an agreement in Vienna on 2 August 1975 for the "exchange of populations" under the auspices of the UN and this agreement was implemented by the mediation of the UN peace-keeping force. the military Junta then ruling Greece staged a coup d'état in Cyprus which was aimed at materializing Enosis-Union with Greece. Turkey has an embassy in Madrid. On 15 July 1974. Both countries are full members of NATO.[30] Britain and Turkey are both members of the G20. and Britain supports the accession of Turkey to the European Union.[25] See also Turks in Sweden Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Sweden Turkish embassies in Sweden Swedish embassy in Ankara [21][22] United Kingdom See Turkey ± United Kingdom relations Both countries currently maintain relations via the British Embassy in Ankara[26] and the Turkish Embassy in London. the Parliament of Sweden refused to call 1915 events asgenocide.[20]  Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Spain Sweden See Swedish±Turkish relations  Sweden. leading to a separation of the two communities. 2009. Diplomatic relations ceased during World War I and were re-established in the Republican period in 1926. Cyprus The Republic of Cyprus was established by the 1959±60 Agreements between Greece.[29] ThePresident of Turkey Kenan Evren paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in July 1988. The two sides reached the first high level agreement following a meeting .  Spain Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Portugal [19] Turkey has an See Spanish±Turkish relations Spain has an embassy in Ankara.[27] Turkey and the United Kingdom maintain strong bilateral relations.[29]HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Turkey in October 1971.Viscount de Seixal was appointed as an envoy to Istanbul.[23][24]      In 12 June 2008. A UN Peacekeeping Force (UNFICYP) was dispatched to the island in March 1964. supports Turkey's European Unionmembership. Portugal has an embassy in Ankara.  Sweden's Green Party has criticized France and Germany's opposition to Turkey's membership. In 1963 violence erupted on the island following attempts to amend constitutional safeguards for Turkish Cypriots. Turkish Cypriot leader. and in May 2008. embassy in Lisbon.

air space disputes. before commencing accession talks with the EU. although a simple majority was needed).between Denktas and Makarios on 12 February 1977. in the north of the island Turkish Cypriots established on 15 November 1983 the defacto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish EU relations which would otherwise progress along their natural course suffer a number of problems" Greece Aegean disputes constitute one of the main reasons for the fluctuating course of Turkish-Greek relations. This four article agreement envisaged the establishment of a bicommunal federal republic on the island. [32] Turkey's position is that its ports will only be opened when the EU upholds its promise to end the economic isolation of the Turkish Cypriots. was signed by exchange of letter between Turkey. and reducing the scope of talks only those to operations on which the EU and NATO are acting together. the Turkish Embassy in (north) Nicosia is the only official diplomatic mission in the TRNC. particularly after the internationally-recognized south was admitted to the Union in 2004. There is a series of interconnected problems between Turkey and Greece. which is recognised only by Turkey. Rejecting the existence of other disputes. the EU term presidency and the EU Commission. adoption and implementation of the protocol would not in any way constitute recognition of the government of the Republic of Cyprus (which Turkey calls the Greek Cypriot Administration. but overwhelmingly (3/4) rejected by the Greek Cypriots. GCA [Cyprus].) [34] In its 2007 annual handbook. The length of territorial waters. The issue of recognition became a thorn in Turkey's candidacy for European Union membership. demarcation of the continental shelf. These disputes remain unresolved mainly because of a lack of common understanding between the two sides regarding the "existence" and "methods of solution" of the problems. all emanating from the Aegean Sea. the Greek Cypriots rejected the solution with a µNo¶ vote of 76%. The conflict has had wider ramifications in the EU-NATO relationship. Turkey claims. the Turkish government states that "as a result of the policies pursued by the EU member. The plan was accepted by the Turkish Cypriots (but not by 2/3. Acting in conformity with its statement during the EU's Brussels summit of 17 December 2004. and thus far. were not ceded to Greece by international agreements and the absence of an agreement defining maritime borders with Greece in the Aegean are the major disputes between the two countries. While the Turkish Cypriots voted in favor of the Annan Plan by casting 67% of their votes. However. Turkey signed the additional protocol to the Ankara Agreement on 29 July 2005. the status of certain Aegean islets which. which extends the 1963 Ankara Agreement to all members of the European Union (including Cyprus). Turkey continues to recognize the TRNC at the expense of the Cypriot government in the south. [33] Turkey announced its support for the 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus. Republic of Cyprus represented by Greek Cypriots acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004. with the Republic of Cyprus blocking eight chapters due to Turkey's refusal to open its ports to Greek Cypriot shipping. The protocol. Turkey refers to the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the "Greek Cypriot Administration" and its presidents as "Greek Cypriot leaders. Turkey issued a statement to the effect that the signature. This in turn has led to tension with Turkey's own EU membership aspirations. militarization of the Eastern Aegean Islands in breach of international agreements. Greece notes that the only dispute in the Aegean is the continental shelf issue and claims that it can only be resolved by jurisprudence. [ ."[31] A comprehensive peace plan negotiated with the full support of the international community was submitted to simultaneous but separate referenda in the North and South of Cyprus on 24 April 2004. Simultaneously. with Turkey ± a NATO member ± blocking Cyprus from participating in EU-NATO meetings. determination of maritime search and rescue zones.

Turkey's stated view is that the Aegean Sea is a common sea and that no sovereignty rights should be claimed over the open seas and international airspaces in the Aegean Sea. Formal Country Relations Began Albania See Albanian±Turkish relations    Albania has an embassy in Ankara and a general consulate in Istanbul. contributing to the KFOR and the UN police mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Turkey also plays a role in regional economic initiatives as well as the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe initiated by the EU and the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI). and the Multinational Peace Force Southeast Europe (MPFSEE)/Southeastern Europe Brigade (SEEBRIG).[36] Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs describes relations between Turkey and Albania as "excellent". In February 1999. Turkey attaches importance to the creation of an atmosphere of mutual understanding and peaceful co-habitation through closer ties with the Balkan countries.S. Since August 1999. cultural. Turkey is also contributing to the EUFOR-ALTHEA. Only U. 2 general consulates in Istanbul and Edirne and a chancellery in Bursa.[35] Turkey has an embassy in Tirana. start in 1990s formally. which would lead to the preservation of peace and stability in the region. when Greek and Turkish warships faced each other close to the disputed Imia-Kardak rocks. Balkans Turkey has close historical. Bulgarian embassies in Turkey Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria Notes See Bosnia Herzegovina±Turkish relations Between relation Bosnians and Turkey.[39] See also Turks in Bulgaria.[38]    Bosnia Turkey has an embassy in Sofia and 2 general consulates in Plovdiv and Burgas. relations between Greek officials and Abdullah Öcalan(holding a . and NATO intervention subsided the conflict. Turkey and Greece have conducted a series of "Confidence Building Measures" to improve relations concerning these matters. The tensions came to the brink of war on a number of occasions. which are important for Turkey as they are the country's gateway to continental Europe.[37] Bulgaria See Bulgarian±Turkish relations  Bulgaria has an embassy in Ankara. the Greek insistence of viewing the whole of the Aegean as a Greek Sea and its incessant disregard of Turkish rights and interests complicate the solution of these disputes. Turkey has participated in NATO operations and peacekeeping missions. Aegean dispute Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. However. For the reconstruction efforts Turkey is part of launching the Southeastern European Cooperation Process (SEECP). Greece See Greco-Turkish relations. economic and political ties with the Balkan states. as well as the EU-led police mission ³Proxima´ in the Republic of Macedonia. most recently in 1996.

[43] Turkey has an embassy in Chi in u. Turkey became one of the first countries to announce officially aboutrecognition of sovereign Kosovo.000 Turks who live in Moldova. ³Although we do not have a common border.´ utanovac confirmed that.´ and. writer of the Turkish National Anthem. Moldova See Moldovan±Turkish relations     Romania Moldova has an embassy in Ankara.[44] Turkey has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Constan a. the Imia/Kardak issue sprang up again on a smaller scale in 2004. Kenya. among all the other Balkan states. Macedonia See Macedonian±Turkish relations Due to historical and cultural mutualities and human bonds. ³Turkey desires to maintain and improve its relations with Serbia the most. There are around 11. The decision comes in accordance with the reciprocity principle common in diplomatic relations. However. like co-production in . There are 20. and many others. [45] and. ³There are a lot of things to do in this field.[40] The population of Kosovars [clarification needed] living in Turkey is said to be much more than those living in Kosovo.[41][unreliable source?] Kosovo is the home country of Mehmet Akif Ersoy.´ Turkey or Serbia. See also Turks of Romania Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Romania Serbia See Serbian±Turkish relations Turkish Defense Minister Vecdi Gönül and Serbian Defense Minister Dragan utanovac met in Ankara on 12 May 2009 to sign a defence cooperation agreement. Kosovo See Kosovan±Turkish relations On 17 February 2008. Turkey turned its coordination office in Pristina into an embassy after a cabinet decision to open a mission in Kosovo. Macedonia and Turkey have very close and friendly relations. particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999.[42] Also Turkish is one of the official regional languages of Kosovo.000 Turksliving in Kosovo. while Turkey has an embassy in Skopje and a consulate-general inBitola. Gönül stated that.Greek Cypriot passport) and the role of the Greek Embassy in Nairobi. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Moldova See Romanian±Turkish relations     Romania has an embassy in Ankara and two consulates-general in Istanbul and zmir. ³We are thinking of taking some initiatives in the defense industry together. we see Serbia as a neighbour. Macedonia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate±general in Istanbul. when Kosovo announced that it was planning to open one of its first foreign missions in Ankara. where Öcalan was captured by agents of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization(M T) caused crisis in relations between the two countries for a period of time. but relations have since improved.

S. We have to take steps for the peace and well being of the region.´ Putin responded that. it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil. the Turkish Armed Forcescontributed to the coalition forces. As part of the cooperative effort to further improve Turkish economic and military self-reliance.Russia Following immediately after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.´ reciprocal visit to Turkey in June Ukraine Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical. United States Friendship between Turkey and the United States dates to the late 19th century. the Cyprus problem. the Middle East dispute. forces. but both countries are key strategic partners in the Transcaucasian region. The close relationship between the modern Republic of Turkey and the United States began with the Second Cairo Conference on 4±6 December 1943. and Turkey supported the initiatives of the U. Following its membership in 1952. We have agreed today to immediately start work to prolong this agreement. although disagreements regarding the border dispute over the Caucasus and support of each other's lifelong historical adversaries both linger. A government motion to allow U. Turkey has hosted the Incirlik Air Base. though still committed to its close relations with Washington. and cultural contact. ³Russia and Turkey seek for such problems to be resolved and will facilitate this in every way. and the agreement of 12 July 1947 which implemented theTruman Doctrine.[52] Turkey is a full member of NATO and Ukraine is a candidate. when Turkey was part of the Ottoman Empire. Russia. Other states which help reach a compromise in this aspect can play a role of mediators and guarantors to implement the signed agreements. since 1954. Russia is somewhat skeptical of Turkey's admission in to the European Union and hasrecognized the Armenian Genocide which has the potential of damaging its relations with Turkey.´ but. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's border failed to reach the necessary majority.[51] Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. This led to a cooling in relations between the U. providing active military support to the U. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine.5 billion in economic aid and more than $14 billion in military assistance. In the post Cold War environment. directly bordering Warsaw Pact countries and risking nuclear war on its soil during the Cuban Missile Crisis.[53] Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq.´ Whilst on the subject of energy security Erdo an stated that.S. there was strong domestic opposition to the Iraq War. Turkey participated with the United States during the Korean War of the early 1950s. ³As for difficult problems from the past ± and the Karabakh problem is among such issues ± a compromise should be found by the participants in the conflict. During the Gulf War of 1990. in the region.[50] Turkey has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate general in Odessa. Turkey became the bulwark of NATO's southeastern flank. Turkey became a more independent actor. and was officially sealed by a treaty in 1830. and Turkey and fears of a permanent rift due to the situation in Iraq. a major operations base of the United States Air Force.S. the United States has loaned and granted Turkey more than $12. Turkish Prime Minister Erdo an flew to Sochi. ³The agreement on gas supplies through the so-called Western route signed in 1986 is expiring in 2012. ³Turkey and Russia have responsibilities in the region. relations between the two nations dramatically and strongly improved.S. Also both countries are BLACKSEAFOR and BSECmembers. for a 16 May 2009 ³working visit´ withRussian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin at which he stated. This includes the Nagorno-Karabakh problem. geographic. in which an estimated [47][48] Putin made a . Although Turkey supported the United States in the NATO-led peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan.

[54][55] This led the Turkish government to put pressure on the U.000 people lost their lives. He rejects the allegations of having "eight secret accounts in Swiss banks. and Armenia¶s controversial decision to re-commission the dangerously outdated Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant just 16 km from Turkey¶s border.S.[59] Diplomats state that "he relies on his charisma. due to its energy resources and pipeline corridors. the OSCE and the Council of Europe. [62] tens of thousands of Turkish citizens marched throughout the country in protest. and U. response. President George W. Turkey's active and openly bias towards Azerbaijan before. flanked by smiling government employees. In 2002. Armenia Armenia-Turkey relations have long been strained by a number of historical-political issues including Turkish dispute of the Armenian Genocide during World War I. and the ensuing scandal in which his killer was pictured while holding up a Turkish flag. the Turkish Parliament voted in [57] favour of allowing the Turkish Armed Forces to take military action against the PKK terrorists based in northern Iraq. instincts. relations on 10 October 2009. The government develops policies in this region taking into account its strategic importance. and potential border disputes between the two states. Recriminations over the terrorist actions of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) in the 1970s and 80s. He is said to be "isolated".S. . and that his MPs and Ministers feel "fearful of Erdogan's wrath". Erdo an was described by US diplomats as having "little understanding of politics beyond Ankara" and as surrounding himself with an "iron ring of sycophantic (but contemptuous) advisors". Issues came to a head in 1993 when Turkey sided with its Turkic ally Azerbaijan over the Nagarno-Karabakh War by closing its borders with Armenia and were exacerbated by subsequent pipeline and infrastructure projects that bypassed Armenia." South Caucasus The former Soviet republics in the South Caucasus (Armenia. In the wake of the 2007 murder of Armenian intellectual Hrant Dink by a Turkish terrorist. to clamp down on [56] insurgent training camps in northern Iraq.S. and the EU).[58] In The U.S.S. Turkey recognised the state of Armenia soon after its 1991 independence. and Turkey have had a Joint Economic Commission and a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement for several years. but failed to establish formal diplomatic relations. Armenia suspended the ratification process due to preconditions set forth by Turkey.S. during and after the Nagorno Karabagh War. without much success. the two countries indicated their joint intent to upgrade bilateral economic relations by launching an Economic Partnership Commission.9 billion. totaled $4. [65] [64] It was announced that Turkey and Armenia agreed to establish diplomatic However those diplomatic efforts to normalise the relations have faltered. Turkish exports to the U. economically. and there are currently no formal diplomatic relations between the two modern states.3 billion. Bush stated that he did not believe it's in Turkey's interests to send troops into Iraq. On 17 October 2007. and the filterings of advisors who pull conspiracy theories off the web or are lost in neo-Ottoman Islamist fantasies". Azerbaijan. According to leaked diplomatic cables. socially and culturally. against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations. will be finished and will disappear. exports to Turkey totaled $5. including the U." stating that the people responsible for the leaks will "be crushed under these claims. threatening a lawsuit. In 2005. and collaborates with its South Caucus neighbours in the BSEC.37. [60] Erdogan responded strongly to the claims. and Georgia) are important for Turkey politically. U. The subsequent diplomatic thaw saw Turkish [63] President Abdullah Gül become the first ever Turkish leader to visit Armenia and the announcement of a provisional roadmap for normalising diplomatic ties.

Both countries have signed a free trade . while culturally and ideologically distancing itself from the conservative mindset. technology. which is run by Turkey's Tepe-Akfen-Vie consortium (TAV). Turkey shifted increasingly towards the West. and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. Balkan Pact. In The New Turkey (Granta Books. also forming regional alliance. as evidenced in aligned political affairs. The Baghdad Pact. Atatürk was an admirer of Enlightenment in many ways and made numerous reforms to modernize Turkey. Turkish citizens can use the Batumi Airport in Georgia. based on the principles of positivist and rationalist Enlightenment. Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire. which were regarded by the Turkish revolutionaries as the source of the backwardness that had caused the Ottoman Empire to collapse. which he believed would foster educational and scientific progress. Baghdad and Damascus with intense suspicion. academics. without a visa or passport. the sharing of government and military intelligence. and Arab nationalists still haven¶t forgotten that Turks are their former colonial rulers. the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the "most important bilateral partnership" in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijan foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships. Middle East and North Africa Mustafa Kemal Atatürk created a radical shift in Turkish domestic and foreign policy by instituting a strong tradition of secular democracy. especially since the AKP came to power. modern country he never formed alliances with Western countries. and joint combat operations and peacekeeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces. Both countries have embassies and consulate generals in each other's capitals. For five centuries. diaspora. Although Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established a secular.Azerbaijan Azerbaijan-Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as "one nation with two states" due to a common culture and history. preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of theCaspian Sea. In this period. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence. rather he strengthen relationship with Middle Eastern and Asian countries by forming Treaty of Saadabad.´ ³But there¶s been a thaw. [67][68] All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the NagornoKarabakh War. Today.´ Egypt Egypt and Turkey are bound by strong religious and historical ties. Turkey has shown a readiness to be a negotiator for the Abkhazian conflict. 2005) BBC correspondent Chris Morris claims that ³Turkey¶s secular democracy. The resolution of these problems is essential for the preservation of peace and stability in the area. Turkey established diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1925 at the level of Charge d¶ Affaires and upgraded its mission in Cairo to Ambassadorial level in 1948. as well as the arts and sciences. its application for EU membership and its close relationship with the United States have long been regarded in Tehran. mutual cooperation in the areas of trade. practices and traditions of the Middle East. which had its roots in the West. Turkey views the Abkhazian and South Ossetian conflicts as a potential danger to peace and stability in the entire region. Islamists look at the secular state which buried the caliphate and think µbetrayal¶. with the seat of the Caliphate in Istanbul and the seat of culture in Cairo. commerce. finance. Georgia Turkey has a close partnership relations with Georgia.´ and ³the new Turkish model ± trying to mix greater democracy and Islam together ± is now the subject of curiosity and not a little envy.

namely Galatasaray Lisesi and Istanbul University. However. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.[54] The United States' reluctance to threaten the relative stability of northern Iraq by launching operations against the PKK led the Turkish Parliament to authorise a cross border military operation in 2007. [73] Iran and Turkey also have very close economic relations. and promoting stability in Iraq and Central Asia.[77] The ground offensive was preceded by air strikes of the Turkish Air Force against the PKK camps in northern Iraq. Egypt and Turkey signed a memorandum of understanding to improve and further military relations and cooperation between the two countries. Iran and Turkey cooperate in a wide variety of fields that range from fighting terrorism and drug trafficking. [78] Turkey's armed forces stepped up their offensive against Kurdish terrorists in northern Iraq on 27 February 2008 [79] amid rising diplomatic tensions between Baghdad and Ankara. The history of the Jewish-Turkish relations dates back to the medieval Khazar Empire. Turkish construction companies have undertaken important projects in Iran. [72] [56] Ankara has long suspected Iran's support for Islamist organizations Nevertheless. Today. on 28 March 1949. [57] On 22 February 2008. Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean. A primary concern for Turkey was an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq.agreement in December 2005.no/pao/hawas. the economic and political relations between the two countries have significantly improved in the recent years.: 1. and the EU). troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's border failed to reach the necessary majority in 2003. before Israel was admitted to the United Nations on 11 May 1949.[82] Later. Iran Turkish-Iranian relations have essentially been peaceful since 1923. Yitzhak Ben-Zvi and Moshe Shertok had all studied in the leading Turkish schools of Istanbul in their youth. Turkey and Egypt are among the leading countries of both the Middle East and Mediterranean regions. A natural gas deal between Egypt and Turkey²the largest joint Egyptian-Turkish project to date. in which an estimated 37.S. [80] The Turkish military pulled out of northern Iraq on 29 Turkish troops fired artillery shells into northern Iraq on 5 March 2008. On 16 April of 2008. which began on 16 December 2007. and militant groups in Turkey. the Turkish Armed Forces launched a ground operation in northern Iraq against the PKK terrorists in a move described as the first significant Turkish ground offensive into Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003. http://www. February 2008.smi. against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations. a government motion to allow U.000 people lost their lives. estimated to cost $4 billion²is being implemented. Iraq Facing strong domestic opposition in Turkey.html</ref> The founders of the State of Israel and prominent Israeli politicians such as David Ben-Gurion. such as the new Imam Khomeini International Airport in Tehran. including the U. The nobility class of the Khazar Turks converted to Judaism at some point between the last decades of the 8th and the early decades of the 9th centuries AD. and are often said to be key in middle-east peace. Israel and Palestinian territories Turkey was the first country with a Muslim majority to formally recognize the State of Israel. a period of coldness in bilateral relations existed following the 1979 Iranian Revolution due to the conflicting ideologies of secular Turkey and theocratic Iran. it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil.[74][75] while Iran is a major natural gas supplier of Turkey. Volume 25.uib. February 1993 and also. ³The Palestinian Question in Turkish Foreign Policy from the 1950s to the 1990s´. in the 14th±16th centuries. the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II invited the Sephardic Jews fleeing .S. There are an estimated 12 to 21 million Turkic speakers in Iran (the Iranian Azeris and Turkmens) who mostly live in the northern regions of the country. Turkey receives a significant number of Iranian tourists every year. Both countries are part of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and both were once members of the CENTO alliance. Both countries have strongly advocated Iraqi territorial integrity since the beginning of the 2003 Iraqi invasion. No.

Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. himself of Jewish origin. The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) has formed an alliance of trade between Turkey and the Central Asian states. Afghanistan was the second country to recognize the Republic of Turkey. Turkey has participated in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since its inception in 2001 and is responsible for maintaining security . which share concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East.[84][85][86]In the book Israel's Secret Wars. particularly in the Berlin Congress of 1878. Israel and Turkey signed a Free Trade Agreement. There is a plan to build a massive pipeline from Turkey to supply water. Relations suffered a further blow when during the World Economic Forum in Davos at 29 January 2009. Turkish-Israeli relations entered a "cooling down" process. frustrated that he had not been given enough time to reply to Israeli President Shimon Peres. changed this status. Some have suggested that this was only a public relations stunt to show the Islamic world that Turkey was on their side because Turkey had been silent in major issues important to Arabs and the Islamic community such as the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Lebanon crisis. New tensions arose in Turkish-Israeli relations during the Israel's attack on Gaza in 2008±2009. Turkey is even working on developing solid relations with the other nations of the region. after the Soviet Union. electricity.the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions to settle in the Ottoman Empire. Erdogan harshly criticised the President. Turkey also provides its large air space (something Israel lacks) to the jets of the Israeli Air Force for training purposes. leader of the newly elected Hamas. However. Turkey's Prime MinisterRecep Tayyip Erdogan became among the most outspoken critics of Israel's conduct in the war. particularly the area around the Konya Air Base in central Anatolia.[page needed] Benny Morris provides an account of how Mossad operatives based in Turkey infiltrated into Iraq and orchestrated a number of Iraqi Kurdish uprisings to weaken the Iraqi government. gas and oil to Israel.[87] The Israeli and Turkish navies have conducted joint exercises. Military. a visit paid by Khaled Meshal. Economic and political relations are developing rapidly. also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities. when the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. establishing diplomatic contacts whilst the Turkish War of Independence was still being waged. strategic.[89] In the beginning of 2006. the Israeli Foreign Ministry characterized its relations with Turkey as "perfect". mass opinion in Turkey is generally sympathetic towards the Palestinians. and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel is accorded very high priority by the governments of both countries. [91] Although at political and military levels the two nations enjoy a close relationship. by issuing them Turkish visas and later arranging for their transport to Turkish territory. Israeli diplomats went so far as to compare this visit to a possible official visit of Abdullah Öcalan (the imprisoned PKK leader) to Israel. During the 1930s and 1940s. in February 2006. Prime Minister Erdogan walked out of the forum in protest. and are likely to grow even more quickly with Turkey's recent elimination of visa requirements for citizens of the Central Asian Turkic republics. stating Israel knew "very well how to kill". It has been reported that the Israeli Mossad played a major role in the capture of the PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan in 1999. [83] A Turkish diplomat. Necdet Kent. supported the Ottoman Empire in numerous disputes. but Turkish authorities immediately denounced this comparison as "irresponsible and erroneous". referring to its military operations as a "crime against humanity". Turkey has strong cultural and linguistic ties with the predominantly Turkic nations of Central Asia since Turks originated in Central Asia themselves. The later record of warm relations dates to the 19th century. theRepublic of Turkey again served as a safe haven for the European Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazi-perpetrated Holocaust. After Khaled Meshal paid an official visit to Russia. for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel. is honoured as one of the Righteous Among The Nations for his work in rescuing Jews from Nazi officials on the island of Rhodes. Another diplomat. Selahattin Ulkumen. [88] In 2000. Afghanistan Afghanistan±Turkey relations have always been warm due to strong ethnic and historical links between the two modern states. namely Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

The Turkish Embassy in Dushanbe was opened in 4 August 1992 and the Tajik Embassy in Ankara was opened in 16 October 1995. and many Istanbul merchant's familiarity with Russian. Afghan President Hamid Karzai visited Ankara on 4 April 2002 and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo an made a reciprocal visit to Kabul a short time later. ³We have determined that we have a joint will with regard to our bilateral relations and multilateral relations. Americas Argentina   Argentina has an embassy in Ankara. many Kyrgyzstan traders sometimes manage to do their purchasing in Turkey without having to learn the Turkish language.´[107][108] Gül subsequently announced. Kyrgyz . We share the conviction that we attach great importance to the stability of Afghanistan in particular and that we should provide all sorts of assistance regarding this issue. regularly traveling to Turkey to purchase goods for sale in their (or others') shops in Kyrgzstan's markets. Kazakhstan Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December 1991. in a speech at theInternational Atatürk-Alatoo University (IAAU).[110] There is academic exchange between the two countries as well. with Gül stating. and were being represented in the Commonwealth of Independent States through you. ³Kyrgyzstan is our ancestral homeland.[106] Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. that. Turkey is one of Kyrgyzstan's major trade partners. on the same day Kazakhstan declared its independence. in a speech to the Jogorku Kenesh.´ and added. We have felt at home in our ancestral homeland while we have been in Kyrgyzstan. providing training for the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police and has undertaken a number of reconstruction projects in the fields of education. Tajikistan Turkey recognized the independence of Tajikistan on 16 December 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992. while many scholars from Kyrgyzstan are attracted to the opportunities to teach in Turkey. These relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs. Turkey provides support for a number of universities in Kyrgyzstan. During this period the Turkish embassy in Dushanbe was the only diplomatic mission which remained open and the visit of Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel was the only high level visit to Tajikistan. health and agriculture in the province of Vardak. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 2 March 1992. I believe that this is important.[111] Turkey has an embassy in Buenos Aires.around Kabul. Republic is in Turkic Council. ³You are being represented in Europe through us. [112] [110] Also. It is estimated that some 30% of all imported goods sold at Bishkek's Dordoy Bazaarcome from Turkey.´ [109] He also laid the foundation stone for the new Turkish Embassy in Bishkek. that. Turkey has an embassy in Almaty and a branch office in Astana. With their knowledge of Kyrgyz and Uzbek languages. Turkey¶s relations with Tajikistan are considered within the framework of relations with other Central Asian republics but developed more slowly due to Tajikistan¶s internal war between 1992 and 1997. Kyrgyzstan Turkish President Abdullah Gül made a 26±28 June official visit to Bishkek where he met with Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiev andPrime Minister Igor Chudinov to discuss bilateral relations.[110] It is estimated that some 400±500 Kyrgyzstan traders engage in "shuttle trade".

[119] Chile Chile was the first country in Latin America which recognized Turkey with the Friendship Treaty. The Barbadian Government does not have foreign accreditation for Turkey. [113] Barbadian and Turkish economic trade are not very significant. Trade Organization (WTO). on 30 January 1926. China See Chinese±Turkish relations Turkey recognized the PRC on 5 August 1971. The PRC has an embassy Notes The Pablo Neruda square in Turkey was inaugurated in 2007. Canada Canada has an embassy in Ankara.[123] The Turkish embassy in Chile is the first embassy of Turkey [123][124] opened in Latin America. Turkey has an embassy in Ottawa. Bangladesh was one of the only six countries to support the Turkish invasion of Cyprus during a UN vote on the matter. Both countries are full members of the World In Santiago. Atatürk College and Atatürk monument. Bangladesh at multilateral organisations such as the UN. They also supported the creation of the Developing 8 Countries with six other nations with large Muslim populations. Mexico Mexico has an embassy in Ankara. The recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Canadian parliament has soured relations between the two countries. On the issue of Cyprus. Nihat Akyol and his Barbadian counterpart the Minister of Foreign Affairs revealed that they could "provide support to each other" and that they should not view each other as "competitors". Turkey pursues One-China policy and recognizes the PRC as the sole legal representative of China. Venezuela. The trade volume between the two countries have grown as did Bangladeshi exports and has been in Bangladesh's favour throughout their economic relationship.[114][115] The diplomatic representative of Turkey.[126] Both countries are full members of the OECD. Asia Formal Country Relations Began Bangladesh Relations have been excellent since Turkey recognised Bangladesh soon after independence. there can be found the Turkish Republic [121][122] Square. Brazil Brazil has an embassy in Ankara. however as of April 2009 both countries have discussed the desire for expanding a bilateral framework for possible cooperation in tourism. [120] [118] [117] [114][116] Turkey has an embassy in Brasília. Barbados Turkey has a non-resident ambassador in Caracas.[123] . Barbados and Turkey formally established joint diplomatic relations on 20 September 1972. use this as an opportunity to defend the rights of the Turkish minority. Turkey's staunch support for fellow NATO member United Kingdom during the Falklands War and recognition of the "Armenian Genocide" by the Argentine parliament due to strong Armenian ethnic lobbying has soured relations between the two countries. In addition Turkey includes a Chile Square in Ankara inaugurated on 18 September 1970 that contains the Bernardo O'Higgins Monument.[125] Turkey has an embassy in Mexico City.

Pakistan. [131] [132] Turkey has an embassy in Ulan Bator. Turkey has an embassy in Beijing and 2 consulates±general in Hong Kong and Shanghai. such asCyprus and Armenia. Japan 1924 See Japanese±Turkish relations     Malaysia 1964 Japan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.[136][137] Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has called Pakistan his second home. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Malaysia Mongolia See Mongolian±Turkish relations   Mongolia has an embassy in Ankara. as well as the IsraeliPalestinian conflict. is one of the only countries in the world which fully and consistently supports Turkish positions on many issues. . strategic and military cooperation. Both are members of the ECO. in turn.[129] Turkey has an embassy in Tokyo. [138] Pakistan and Turkey are close allies and support each other on a number of issues including the Kashmir dispute and Cyprus.[130] There are 10.000 Turks living in Japan. and South Asia. [135] have a deep bond of brotherhood as Turks have always loved the Pakistanis and Pakistanis have always loved Turks. and citizen's attitudes towards one another are warm. [127] Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta. India See Indian±Turkish relations Despite its close supportive bond with its geopolitical rival. Pakistan. India was also one of many countries to recognize the newlyindependent Turkey and send political aid to combat the subsequent poverty and benefit the war effort. which was replied with a large contingent of ships and soldiers whose efforts to help their Muslim brothers mark to this day the close relationship between Indonesia and Turkey. The two nations have been in contact with each other since the early times of the Ottoman Empire. [134] Both nations Both countries maintain extensive cultural. [133] Relations between Pakistan and Turkey are exemplary. commercial.inAnkara. [128] This relationship began in the 16th century when the Muslim sultan of Java requested help from the Ottoman Turkish Caliph to resist the Portuguese colonization attempts in the region. though at certain times cold. Central. Pakistan See Pakistani±Turkish relations ³One Nation ± Two States´ is the phrase that best describes the relations between Turkey and Pakistan. Turkey and India work closely with each other to fight cultural terrorism in the Middle East. and a consulate±general in Istanbul. Indonesia See Indonesian±Turkish relations Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey's relations with India have always been generally friendly and stable. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan See Malaysian±Turkish relations    Turkey has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia has an embassy in Ankara.

and should be seen as a turning point. a Consulate-General inKarachi and honorary consulates in Lahore. and Turkey's ties to India. Vietnam See Turkish±Vietnamese relations    Africa There has been a revival in Turkey¶s relation with Africa after 1998. both countries regard each other's relations as more important and close to those with Greece and India. and the President of the Oromia Region Abadula Gemeda. Turkey has an embassy in Canberra since 1967 and two consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney.[141] Ethiopia Ethiopia has an embassy in Ankara. with great mutual respect based on the ANZAC traditions forged in the Battle of Gallipoli.      Both consulates were closed following the upgrading of relations to ambassadorial level in October 1992. as well as visited Turkish-owned textiles factories in Ethiopia. New Zealand The relationship between Turkey and New Zealand is excellent. Pakistan has an embassy in Ankara. The recent Turkey-Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey¶s keen interest in developing relations with Africa. both politically and economically. [142] Turkey has an embassy in Hanoi. expressed the hope that Turkey could share its experience and provide assistance to ongoing efforts to Pacific Australia Diplomatic relations between the two countries established in 1967. Australia has an embassy inAnkara since 1968. See also Turks in South Africa Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with South Africa [147] A senior official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Turkey has an embassy in Addis Ababa since 1925. but at the same time. rehabilitate and extend its railway system. Governor-General of New Zealand Sir Anand Satyanand visited Turkey for the annual . Peshawar. who attended the discussion.[139] Vietnam has an embassy in Ankara. a gentlemanly war. admiration and friendship. Turkey has an embassy in Islamabad. This has created a bond of mutual respect. Turkey was the sixth country to open an embassy in Ethiopia. a Consulate-General in Istanbul and an honorary consulate in Izmir whereas.[144] South Africa  Diplomatic relations were established at consular level in 1991 and consulates-general were opened in Istanbul and Johannesburgrespectively. which met with the Prime Minister.Despite Pakistan's friendly ties to Greece. [143] the Minister of Trade and Industry Girma Biru. a consulate-general in Istanbul and a consulate in Çanakkale. but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. Turkey has an embassy in Pretoria. Initially this revival came as a passive attempt. The first encounter of Turkey and Australia was on the battlefields of Çanakkale. Turkey sent a trade delegation to Ethiopia. Today the relations between the two countries are described as excellent. South Africa has an embassy in Ankara. Sialkot and Faisalabad. the scene was that of a fierce one. [140] Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Vietnam In December 2008.

and many other countries. their presence is supported and approved by the de facto local government. Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor. Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005. after the U. although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime. Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. helicopters. Customs Union agreement in 1995. the Navy and the Air Force. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance. and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). including peacekeeping missions in Somalia and formerYugoslavia. This understanding owes its existence mostly to the peace building words of Atatürk. but the Republic of Cyprus and the international community regard it as an illegal occupation force. International organizations Turkey is a founding member of the UN (1945). and the Netherlands. [151] [148] theOSCE (1973). Germany. fighter jets. Italy. during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.[150] the [Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|OIC]] (1969). 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force. Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950. to fifteen months.[152] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). and Iran.[62] The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO.U. strongest military power of the Middle East region besides Israel. Turkey maintains 36.[149] the OECD (1961). the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana. stabilization force and the UN-authorized. Military The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army.´ and the Gallipoli battles commemorated.commemoration of Anzac Day on 25 April 2009 stating that his country was ³Turkey¶s traditional ally. The Gendarmerieand the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime.[66] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base. the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict. NATO-commanded International In 2006. together with Belgium. Israel. with a combined strength of just over a million uniformed personnel serving in its five branches. [67] [64] [15] [63] Turkey is considered to be the Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and In 1998.000 troops in northern Cyprus. Turkey is also an associate member of the Western European Union since 1992 and signed the E. controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria. does not offer a civilian alternative to military service. warships andassault rifles. Iraq. submarines.[72] .S. dependent on education and job location. Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation. ³are the first example of friendship created on the battlefield.S. Armed Forces. In 1992. [63][71] [70] [68] Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to Turkey has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U. and its presence has also been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions. A NATO headquarters is located in zmir. Turkey announced a program of modernization worth US$160 billion over a twenty year period in various projects including tanks.´ He also wished Turkey luck with its EU accession bid and waited on the successful outcome for prospective trade opportunities. Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001. having been an associate member since 1963.

764 km (9. [74] The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital Istanbul is the financial.592 sq mi). An [62] The actual commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General I k Ko aner since August 30. Administrative divisions The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. zmir (4 million). they do not represent an administrative structure. Kocaeli (capital: zmit) andSakarya (capital: Adapazar ). Continent Region Coordinat es Area Ranked 37th Europe±Asia Southern Europe±Western Asia 39°00 N 35°00 E 2 .792 sq mi).The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the president and is responsible to the prime minister. water: 9. the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament. has a population of 11.372. Total land area is about 783. roughly rectangular peninsula situated bridge like between Europe and Asia. It is also known as Asia Minor. The Council of Ministers is responsible to parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. the largest city of Europe and Turkey. Asiatic Turkey or the Anatolian Plateau.760 km2 (297. The Anatolian part of Turkey accounts for 97% of the country's area. The term Anatolia is most frequently used in specific reference to the large. known as Thrace (Turkish: Trakya). Bursa (3 million) and Adana (2 million). for a total of 923 districts. densely settled coastal regions. Turkey extends more than 1. the Sea of Marmara(Turkish: Marmara Denizi). estimated 75. populations less than 100.816 km2 (292. Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) is a large. and the Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Bo az ). Istanbul.000.535 sq mi). Ankara (5 million). and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. bordering the Black Sea. which is rimmed by hills and mountains that in many places limit access to the fertile. Each province is divided into districts. betweenBulgaria and Georgia. of which 756. [75] In all. 2010. The European portion of Turkey. between Greece and Syria. The geographic coordinates of the country lie at: 39°00 N35°00 E [1] The area of Turkey is 783. and 20 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500. encompasses 3% of the total area but is home to more than 10% of the total population. semiarid central plateau. exceptions to this custom are the provinces of Hatay(capital: Antakya).175 sq mi) in Europe (Thrace).000 inhabitants. also called the central district.5% of Turkey's population live in urban centers. land: 770.535 sq mi). economic and cultural heart of the country. However.613. Provinces with the largest populations are Istanbul (13 million). Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals. The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes.820 km2 (3. 19 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants. however. Thrace is separated from the Asian portion of Turkey by the Bosporus (Turkish: stanbul Bo az ). Only two provinces have GEOGRAPHY Turkey is situated in Anatolia and the Balkans.562 km2 (302.600 km (994 mi) from west to east but generally less than 800 km (497 mi) from north to south.208 sq mi) are in Asia and 23.562 km2 (302.

Armenia 268 km (167 mi). [2] The boundary with Iran was confirmed by the Kasr-i Sirin treaty in 1638. as a legal successor to the Armenian SSR.Bulgaria 240 km. Iran 499 km (310 mi). The boundary with Iraq was confirmed by the Treaty of Angora (Ankara) in 1926. Azerbaijan 9 km.Greece 206 km. Its demarcated land frontiers were settled by treaty early in the twentieth century and have since remained stable.627 km (1.9 mi) in the Aegean Sea. Turkey's two southern neighbors. Syria 822 km (511 mi).137 m Mediterranean Sea 0m K z l rmak 1. had been part of the Ottoman Empire up to 1918. which resolved persistent boundary and territorial claims involving areas in Thrace and provided for a population exchange (see: War of Independence). Iraq and Syria. Syria 822 km Highest point Lowest point Longest river Largest lake Mount Agr (Ararat) 5. the country generally has well-defined natural borders. which had been organized as League of Nations mandates under the . while the majority of the Turkish-speaking residents of Thrace who were not forced out during the Balkan wars were removed to Turkey.755 km (1. Iran 499 km. Since 1991 the more than 500 km (311 mi) boundary with the former Soviet Union. Armenia.81 sq mi 2 2 External boundaries Land boundaries: 2. Iraq3 52 km. Nakhchivan(Azerbaijan) 9 km (6 mi). has formed Turkey's borders with the independent countries of Armenia. Turkey ceded all its claims to these two countries. 6. Azerbaijan.535 sq mi) 98% land 2 % water Borders Total land borders: 2.648 km Armenia 268 km. declared its loyalty to the Treaty of Kars and all agreements inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government after its independence. and Georgia. 13. Bulgaria240 km (149 mi).8 mi) in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea Surrounded by water on three sides and protected by high mountains along its eastern border. Under the agreement.350 km Van 3.1 km. 12 nmi (22.2 km. Despite Armenia's loss of territory as a result of the treaty. Georgia 252 km.449. most members of the sizable Greek-speaking community of western Turkey were forced to resettle in Greece.783.200 km (4. According to the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne. The boundary with Bulgaria was confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.Iraq 331 km (206 mi).632 mi) border countries: Greece 206 km (128 mi).562 km (302. which was defined in the 1921 Treaty of Moscow (1921)and Treaty of Kars. Georgia 252 km (157 mi). The boundary with Greece was confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.474 mi) Maritime claims:exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR territorial sea: 6 nmi (11. Coastline: 7.

the parliament voted to unite with Turkey. is thought to have been geologically similar to the Western Pacific region today (e. Syria has harbored a lingering resentment over the loss of the province and its principal towns of Antakya and skenderun (formerly Antioch and Alexandretta). Turkey contains outcrops of Precambrian rocks. now preserved in the Pontides (the Pontic Mountains along the Black Seacoast). e.governing responsibility of Britain and France. This issue has continued to be an irritant in SyrianTurkish relations. Geology Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of a wide variety of tectonic processes that have shaped Anatolia over millions of years and continue today as evidenced by frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. (more than 540 million years old. and Indiancontinental plates began to collide with the Eurasian plate.).6 million B. Except for a relatively small portion of its territory along the Syrian border that is a continuation of the Arabian Platform. respectively. African. Turkey geologically is part of the great Alpine belt that extends from theAtlantic Ocean to the Himalaya Mountains. This large oceanic plate was consumed at subduction zones (see subduction zone). which forms part of the boundary of the North Arabian Plate in the southeast. the former Ottoman Sanjak (province) of Alexandretta (present-day Hatay Province) was ceded to Syria. This process is still at work today as the African Plate converges with the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate escapes towards the west and southwest along strike-slip faults. faulted and tectonically mixed with huge blocks of crystalline basement rocks of the oceanic lithosphere. 2006). as the Arabian. These are the North Anatolian Fault Zone. which forms the present day plate boundary of Eurasia near the Black Sea coast. Turkey's boundary with Syria has not been accepted by Syria.) During the Mesozoic era (about 250 to 65 million years ago) a large ocean (Tethys Ocean). 1997). and the East Anatolian Fault Zone. As a result.g. 1975).C.g. many of the rocks exposed in Turkey were formed long before this process began. Volcanic arcs (see volcanic arc) and backarc basins (see back-arc basin) formed and were emplaced onto Eurasia as ophiolites (see ophiolite) as they collided with microcontinents (literally relatively small plates of continental lithosphere. This belt was formed during the Tertiary Period (about 65 million to 1. Bozkurt et al. 2006). Robertson & Dixon.. The earliest geological history of Turkey is poorly understood. volcanic and sedimentary rocks. 1984). Bergougnan. These blocks form a very complex mixture or mélange of rocks that include mainly serpentinite. As a result of the Treaty of Lausanne. . [citation needed] During the Cenozoic (Tertiary about 65 to 1. faulting and uplifting. basalt. Ustaomer and Robertson. Turkey is therefore made up from several different prehistorical microcontinents. floored by oceanic lithosphere existed in-between the supercontinents of Gondwana and Laurasia (which lay to the south and north respectively.. Robertson & Dixon.dolerite and chert (e. accompanied by volcanic activity and intrusion of igneous rocks was related to major continental collision between the larger Arabian and Eurasian plates (e. Turkey lies on one of the world's seismically most active regions.6 million years) folding. Turkey and Britain agreed the boundary in the Treaty of Angora (Ankara). in June 1939 the people of Hatay had formed a new independent State and immediately after.g. partly because of the problem of reconstructing how the region has been tectonically assembled by plate motions. These microcontinents had been pulled away from the Gondwanan continent further south. Since achieving independence in 1946. Rice et al. Turkey can be thought of as a collage of different pieces (possibly terranes) of ancient continental and oceanic lithosphere stuck together by younger igneous.g. The Eurasian margin. At the subduction trenches the sedimentary rock layers that were deposited within the prehistoric Tethys Ocean buckled. 2000). However. were folded.[citation needed] However.

These geographical regions were separated according to their climate. 3). Distinct contrasts between the interior and periphery of Turkey are manifested in its landform regions. and Iran. The Samsun area. A few larger rivers. The periphery is divided into the Black Sea region. Turkey's highest peak. Turkey's most severe earthquake in the twentieth century occurred in Erzincan on the night of December 28±29. topography and so on.000 deaths. which reaches its highest point along the borders with Armenia.000 to 4. and vegetation. At the end. extending along rivers that discharge into the Aegean Sea or the Sea of Marmara. the Marmara region. More than 80% of the land surface is rough. and the Mediterranean region. Earthquakes of moderate intensity often continue with sporadic aftershocks over periods of several days or even weeks. In Asiatic Turkey. intensely cultivated deltas. location. held in Ankara between 6±21 June 1941. agricultural diversities.Present-day earthquakes range from barely perceptible tremors to major movements measuring five or higher on the open-ended Richter scale. Because of these natural conditions. mainly around Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) andKonya Ovasi (Konya Basin). the narrow coastal strip widens at several places into fertile. Mount Ararat (A r Da ) ² 5. The most earthquake-prone part of Turkey is an arc-shaped region stretching from the general vicinity of Kocaeli to the area north of Lake Van on the border with Armenia and Georgia. the coastal plains of Antalya and Adana.332 and 1.137 meters high ² is situated near the point where the boundaries of the four countries meet.800 meters in the west and 3. human habitat. broken. rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges. Turkey's terrain is structurally complex. The higher slopes facing northwest tend to be densely forested. and the valley floors of the Gediz River and the Büyükmenderes River.[citation needed] Nearly 85% of the land is at an elevation of at least 450 meters. where the two mountain ranges converge into a lofty region with a median elevation of more than 1. Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia.525 to 1. Azerbaijan. flora and fauna. Access inland from the coast is limited to a few narrow valleys because mountain ridges. and to a few narrow coastal strips along the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea coasts. close to the midpoint. and therefore is of limited agricultural value (see Agriculture. is a major tobacco-growing region. divided Turkey into seven regions after long discussions and work. the average and median altitude of the country is 1. A central massif composed of uplifted blocks and downfolded troughs. transportation. form an almost unbroken wall separating the coast from the interior. is wedged between two folded mountain ranges that converge in the east. the Black Sea coast historically has been isolated from Anatolia. True lowland is confined to the Ergene Plain in Thrace. and mountainous. Moderately sloping terrain is limited almost entirely outside Thrace to the hills of the Arabian Platform along the border with Syria.000 meters in the east in Kaçkar Mountains. Regions According to worldofturkey. east of it are .128 meters. respectively. ch. 1939. Black Sea Region The Black Sea region has a steep. elevated basins. and some interior high plains in Anatolia. climate. soils. it devastated most of the city and caused an estimated 160. flat or gently sloping land is rare and largely confined to the deltas of the K z l River. have tributaries that flow in broad. 4 side regions and 3 inner regions were named according to their neighborhood to the four seas surrounding Turkey and positions in Anatolia. the Aegean region. Running from Zonguldak in the west to Rize in the east. with elevations of 1.com The 1st Geography Congress. those cutting back through the Pontic Mountains (Do u Karadeniz Da lar ). The interior is divided into three regions: Central Anatolia. covered by recent deposits and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain. The terrain's ruggedness is accentuated in the eastern part of the country.500 meters.

The southern slopes²facing the Anatolian Plateau²are mostly unwooded. The western part of the Black Sea region. Sardis. The most important valleys are the Kocaeli Valley. The Dardanelles Strait. Miletus. the Bursa Ovasi (Bursa Basin). both its Asian and European banks rise steeply from the water and form a succession of cliffs. Turkey's fifth most populous city. consist largely of reclaimed flood lands. There are two suspension bridges over the Bosphorus. Didim. such as soap and cosmetics. The seaside town of Ayval k and numerous towns in the provinces of Bal kesir. the area around Trabzon is world-renowned for the production of hazelnuts. Unlike the Bosphorus. All cultivable areas. which links the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea. The largest city in the Aegean Region of Turkey is zmir. East of Adana. Rivers flow from the mountains toward the Black Sea. which is also the country's third largest city and a major manufacturing center. but the northern slopes contain dense growths of both deciduous and evergreen trees.Çe me. much of the coastal plain has limestone features such as collapsed caverns and sinkholes. the extensive plains around Adana (Cicillian plains orTurkish: Çukurova). Lengthy. The North Anatolian Mountains in the north are an interrupted chain of folded highlands that generally parallel the Black Sea coast.numerous citrus groves. the Dardanelles has fewer settlements along its shores. and farther east the Rize region has numerous tea plantations. with mild. Between Adana and Antalya. It receives about 520 millimeters of rainfall annually. and the Plains of Troy (historically known as the Troad. rivers have not cut valleys to the sea in the western part of the region. In general. coves. The Saros Bay is located near the Gallipoli peninsula and is famous for its clean beaches. The Bosphorus. Ephesus. zmir and Ayd n are particularly famous for their olive oil and related products. damp climate of the Black Sea coast makes commercial farming profitable. as well as its second largest port after Istanbul. the Aegean region has a fertile soil and a typically Mediterranean climate. Historically. Olive and olive oil production is particularly important for the economy of the region. The mild. Datça a nd Fethiye. East of Samsun. Aegean Region Located on the western side of Anatolia. movement inland from the western Mediterranean coast was difficult. the mountains tend to be low. Bodrum. cultivated valley lowlands contain about half of the country's richest farmlands. Bergama. In the west. Marmara Region The European portion of Turkey consists mainly of rolling plateau country well suited to agriculture. The broad. this area includes the cities of Istanbul and Edirne. is approximately forty kilometers long and increases in width toward the south. zmir. It is a favourite spot among scuba divers for the richness of its underwater fauna and is becoming increasingly popular due to its vicinity to Istanbul. Mediterranean Region Toward the east.000 meters south of Rize. troughlike valleys and basins characterize the mountains. dry summers. The region also has many important centers of tourism which are known both for their historic monuments and for the beauty of their beaches. Densely populated. are sown or used as pasture. including mountain slopes wherever they are not too steep. wet winters and hot.500 meters. and nearly landlocked bays. which links the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. is a center of coal mining and heavy industry. the Taurus . Ayval k. Foça. such as Assos. is about twenty-five kilometers long and averages 1. Ku adas . with elevations rarely exceeding 1.) The valley lowlands around Bursa is densely populated.5 kilometers in width but narrows in places to less than 1000 meters. especially the Zonguldak area. Marmaris. but they rise in an easterly direction to heights greater than 3. Most of the shores are densely wooded and are marked by numerous small towns and villages.

In general. stock losses also can be high. and the south-flowing Tigris. and also situated on the Anatolian Plateau. are well-defined basins. Both basins are characterized by inland drainage. with almost no rainfall in summer and cold weather with heavy snow in winter. the semiarid center of the plateau receives an average yearly precipitation of only 300 millimeters. and greater precipitation than are found on the Anatolian Plateau. Most of the basins take their names from cities or towns located at their rims. Locusts occasionally ravage the eastern area in April and May. Irrigated agriculture is restricted to the areas surrounding rivers and wherever sufficient underground water is available. various fruits. the water body is usually saline as a result of the internal drainage²the water has no outlet to the sea. The region is known as the AntiTaurus.000 meters. Turkey's largest lake. grapes. leading to severe reductions in crop yields for both rain-fed and irrigated agriculture. cotton. is rugged country with higher elevations. and Mersin. although it has numerous farming villages. Paralleling the Mediterranean coast. the Taurus Mountains (Turkish:Toros Da lar ) are Turkey's second chain of folded mountains. actual rainfall from year to year is irregular and occasionally may be less than 200 millimeters. roses. Wooded areas are confined to the northwest and northeast of the plateau. frequent dust storms blow a fine yellow powder across the plateau.137 meters the highest point in Turkey. are large basins of inland drainage or are the result of limestone erosion. Some are no more than a widening of a stream valley. the Mediterranean coast has few major cities. with wheat being the principal crop. others. the plateau experiences extreme heat.546 meters. to judge from extensive lava flows. which pours into the Caspian Sea. opium poppies. semiarid highlands of Anatolia are considered the heartland of the country. The Taurus Mountains are more rugged and less dissected by rivers than the Pontus Mountains and historically have served as a barrier to human movement inland from the Mediterranean coast except where there are mountain passes such as the historic Cilician Gates (Gülek Pass). extending east to the point where the two ranges converge. which the Turks call ova . such as the Konya Ovasi. Many of the Anti-Taurus peaks apparently are recently extinct volcanoes. Central Anatolia Region Stretching inland from the Aegean coastal plain. where it arcs around the northern side of the platform. The headwaters of three major rivers arise in the Anti-Taurus: the east-flowing Aras. Several small streams that empty into the Black Sea or landlocked Lake Van also originate in these mountains. sugar beets. Other than Adana. is located in the Anti-Taurus. The region varies in elevation from 600 to 1. at 5. However. northwest of Adana. There also is extensive grazing throughout the plateau. which eventually joins the Euphrates in Iraq before emptying into the Persian Gulf. . The two largest basins on the plateau are the Konya Ovasi and the basin occupied by the large salt lake. The range rises just inland from the coast and trends generally in an easterly direction until it reaches the Arabian Platform. the Central Anatolian occupies the area between the two zones of the folded mountains. is situated in the mountains at an elevation of 1. Important irrigated crops include barley. Where a lake has formed within the basin. where the Pontus and Taurus mountain ranges converge. corn. Mount Ararat.200 meters from west to east. For instance. The plateau-like. Overgrazing has contributed to soil erosion on the plateau. During the summers. Central Anatolia receives little annual rainfall. Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia Regions Eastern Anatolia. a more severe climate. In years of low rainfall.Mountains rise sharply from the coast to high elevations. and tobacco. Antalya. Tuz Gölü. the south-flowing Euphrates. Frequently interspersed throughout the folded mountains. Lake Van. and the average elevation of its peaks exceeds 3. Rain-fed cultivation is widespread.

Turkey had a rapidly growing private sector. International agreements Air Pollution. banking. Antarctic Treaty.4-magnitude earthquake struck northwestern Turkey. On August 17. especially in northern Turkey. Environment Current issues Water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents. particularly in urban areas. motor vehicles. construction materials. 1999. Narrow valleys also lie at the foot of the lofty peaks along river corridors.) Irrigated land: 36. textiles.In addition to its rugged mountains. It is a region of rolling hills and a broad plateau surface that extends into Syria. Environmental Modification ECONOMY: The economy of Turkey is largely developed. Biodiversity. deforestation. Southeast Anatolia is south of the Anti-Taurus Mountains. Ozone Layer Protection. Elevations decrease gradually. transport. Desertification. killing more than 17. the area is known for severe winters with heavy snowfalls. Land use Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 4% permanent pastures: 16% forests and woodland: 26% other: 22% (1993 est. but the inauguration of major new irrigation projects in the 1980s has led to greater agricultural diversity and development. and communications.) Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Ararat 5.740 km (1993 est.137 m Natural hazards Very severe earthquakes. occur along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van. Wetlands signed. a 7.000 and injuring 44. but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol. Endangered Species. In recent years. from about 800 meters in the north to about 500 meters in the south. Ship Pollution. air pollution. Traditionally. Nuclear Test Ban.000. Hazardous Wastes. yet the state still plays a major role in industry. ships and other transportation equipment. consumer electronics and home appliances. . concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic. west of Lake Van. The main basin is the Mus Valley. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products. The few valleys and plains in these mountains tend to be fertile and to support diverse agriculture. wheat and barley were the main crops of the region.

5.7%.8%[5] (2005) by occupation Unemploym 10. transport equipment . ECO. boron). autos.) note: about 1. steel.petroleum.) $113.99%[4] (March 2011) ) Gini index 41 (2008) $10.7% (2009 est. Italy 5.Currency Fiscal year Trade organisation s Turkish lira (TRY)[1] calendar year G-20 major economies. tourism mining (coal.399[3] (Nominal) (2010) $13. Iraq 5% (2009 est.6%.8%. constructi on.49 billion (2010)[8] Germany 9. foodstuffs. lumber. OECD.464[3] (PPP) (2010) agriculture: 9. paper Ease of Doing Business Rank External Exports Export goods Main export partners Imports $185.5%[6] (June 2010) ent Main industries textiles. food processing.2 million Turks work abroad Labour force agriculture: 29. copper.K. BSEC Statistics GDP $1.) Labour force 25. U.93 billion (2010) [8] 65th [7] apparel.5%.chromate. WTO.9% (2010) GDP per capita GDP by sector Inflation (CPI 3. metal manufactures.9%.116 trillion[2] (2010) GDP growth 8. textiles.4%. services: 45.3 million (2009 est.services: 64. industry: 24. EU Customs Union.electronics. France 6. industry: 25.1%.8%.

.Import goods machinery.5% of GDP (2009 est. transport equipment Main import Russia 14%. Germany 10%.) Credit rating  BB+ (Domestic) BB (Foreign) BBB. Turkey's financial capital.[17][18][19] The World Bank classifies Turkey as an upper-middle income country in terms of the country's per capita GDP in 2007. The CIA classifies Turkey as a developed country. U.4%. chemicals.) $145.Istanbul.) partners FDI stock Gross external debt Public finances Public debt Revenues Expenses 48. ranking 4th in the world behind Moscow (50 billionaires).1%. semi-finished goods.02 per manhour in 2010.3 billion (2009) $180. France 5% (2009 est. 6.S. Since December 31. Mean graduate pay was $10.) $274 billion (31 December 2009 est. Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. [19] According to a survey by Forbes magazine. fuels. Italy 5. had a total of 28 billionaires as of March 2010 (down from 35 in 2008). 1995.170 billion (March 2011)[11 Fitch:[10] Moody's:[10] Macro-economic trends Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP [2] and 17th largest Nominal GDP. the World Bank and The Economist magazine describe Turkey as an emerging market economy.(T&C Assessment) Outlook: Positive[10]  Ba2 Outlook: Positive  BB+ Outlook: Positive Foreign reserves US$92.6 billion (2009) Standard & Poor's:[9] $205 billion (31 December 2009 est.[12] The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961) and one of the G-20 major economies(1999).[14][15][16] while Merrill Lynch. New York City(60 billionaires) and London (32 billionaires). China9%.[13] Turkey is often classified as anewly industrialized country by economists and political scientists.

rye and grapefruit. quinceand pomegranate. The agricultural output has been growing at a respectable rate. and the tenth largest producer of lemon.[24] The credit rating agency Fitch upgraded Turkey¶s sovereign rating two notches to BB+.2%. Partly thanks to tough regulation.5% of the employment in 2009.[28] The total cost of the project is estimated at $32 billion. but these traditions are expected to change with the EU accession process. Turkey's farmers have been fairly fragmented.[27] The program includes 22 dams.A. In 2009.[23] On 8 January 2010.December 2009 the Turkish stockmarket rose the most in the world after Argentina's stockmarket. the eighth largest producer of almond. the Turkish economy has been affected by the global financial crisis with its Finance Ministry reporting that Turkey's budget deficit swelled to 23. 13 times higher than a year earlier. home appliances and housing.Effect of the Global Financial Crisis Like many economies.P project). That is also because. According to the 1990 Census."[26] Many old agricultural attitudes remain widespread.[28] The total installed capacity of power plants is 7476 MW and projected annual energy production reaches 27 billion kWh. The Economist points out that: [18] Yet in many ways Turkey has weathered the credit crunch better than other emerging economies. such as the Southeastern Anatolia Project (G. agriculture has been in a state of decline in comparison to the total economy. cucumber and chickpea. and the irrigation of 1. cherry.[28] . eggplant. apricot. "85% of agricultural holdings were under 10 hectares and 57% of these were fragmented into four or more non-contiguous plots. The country's large agricultural sector accounted for 29. So the government has not had to divert public money into rescuing banks. 19 hydraulic power plants. the fifth largest producer of sugar beet. According to The Economist. However. in the period December 2008 . the seventh largest producer of cotton and barley.2 billion Turkish liras ($15 billion) in the first half of 2009. the fourth largest producer of onion and olive. As a result. The advent of the G.[21] Nevertheless. since the 1980s. Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnut. the production of durable consumer goods increased by 7. Fertiliser and pesticide subsidies have been curtailed and remaining price supports have been gradually converted to floor prices. fig. not a single Turkish bank has gone under.A. The government has also initiated many planned projects.P promises a very prosperous future for the southeastern agriculture. despite a decrease in automotive production. tea and apple. Turkey is one of the few countries that upgraded it's rating with two notches. the second largest producer of watermelon. Share prices in Turkey nearly doubled over the course of 2009. Main economic sectors Agricultural sector As of March 2007.82 million hectares of land. the sixth largest producer oftobacco. they have few toxic assets and limited mortgage exposure. green pepper. lentil and pistacchio. International credit rating agency Moody's upgraded Turkey's rating with a notch. Turkey is dismantling the incentive system.[25] Turkey has been self-sufficient in food production since the 1980s.[25]Historically. the ninth largest producer of wheat.[22] The Turkish Stock Market and credit rating agencies have responded positively. unlike many Western banks. the third largest producer of tomato. the Turkish Government introduced various economic stimulus measures to reduce the impact of the financial crisis such as temporary tax cuts on automobiles.

000 worth of motor vehicles and components in 2008. Turkey became a Level 3 partner of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development program. respectively.[36] In 2008 Turkey produced 1. Profilo-Telra.673 tons of fish andaquaculture. TAI builds various aircrafts such as F-16 Block 50+ for the TuAF.987 motor vehicles in 2006. Spain (2. in 2005 Turkish fisheries harvested 545.France (3.[35] ranking as the 7th largest automotive producer in Europe.388).[37][38] The automotive industry is an important part of the economy since the late 1960s.33%) were made to the EU member states. Shipbuilding Turkey is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations.174. However. On July 11 2002. TAI. Fishing is another important part of the economy. livestock products.000. the United Kingdom (1. [43][44] Turkey will build new military/intelligence satellites including a 0. including meat. the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases. and also 4th in the world (behind Italy. EU market share of Turkish companies in consumer electronicshas increased significantly following the Customs Union agreement signed between the EU and Turkey: in color TVs from 5% in 1995 to more than 50% in 2005. [30] By January 2005. and eggs.770. Otokar. contributed to more than of the value of agricultural output. accounting for 21% of all TV sets manufactured and sold on the continent in 2007.The livestock industry.024. Aselsan. Arms industry Turkey has many modern armament manufacturers. in digital devices from 3% to 15%. and Havelsan are major manufacturers.819.147. and in white goods from 3% to 18%. Fnss. was Europe's third largest TV producer in 2005. Vestel and its rival Turkish electronics and white goods brand BEKO [31] accounted for more than half of all TV sets manufactured in Europe. which produced 1.67 billion of which (76. showed little improvement in productivity. [33] And now after changing in the climate the China leads with share rises to 46% and in some cases China is more than 50% in several clothing categories and Turkey is the second supplier to Europe with a market share of 12. Russia (1.260). ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and above Italy) and the 15th largest producer in the world. compared to the initial years of the Republic. [32] Another Turkish electronics brand.435).110 motor vehicles.648.614).358) andItaly (1. milk. more than $10.944. wool. exporting over $22. and the later years of the decade saw stagnation.508. USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts. The companies that operate in the sector are mainly located in the Marmara Region. behind Germany (5.[42] MKEK.98 billion in 2006. Roketsan.6% after competing with Morocco and Tunisia. Textiles and clothing Turkish companies made clothing exports worth $13. Annual exports reached $832 million in 2009. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers.211. Motor vehicles and automotive products Turkey has a large and growing automotive industry. Industrial sector Consumer electronics and home appliances Turkey's Vestel Electronics is the largest TV producer in Europe.594). in 2007 Turkish shipyards ranked 4th in the world (behind China.8m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-1) for use by the Turkish Armed Forces and a 2m resolution reconnaissance . South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships.

the Turkish merchant marine included 1199 ships (604 registered at home). T-155 F rt na.502. while the number [51] of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly. . Milgem stealth warship. ACV-300. which has a length of 533 km fromIstanbul (Turkey's largest metropolis) via Eski ehir toAnkara (the capital) is under construction and will reduce the travelling time from 6±7 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes. including 1. In 2009 a total of 33 Turkish construction/contracting companies were selected for the Top International Contractors List prepared by the Engineering News-Record. there were 102 airports (90 with paved runways and 12 with unpaved runways) in Turkey. Other important products are M TÜP Altay. T-129 ATAK.555 kilometres (4. Communications As of 2008. zmir.[51] The rail network was 8. and is still ongoing. [51] The remote areas of the country are reached by a domestic satellite system.636 kilometres (2. long distance telephony and Internet access. Private sector companies operate in mobile telephony. The first line. Aselsan zci UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle). 2007. The Ankara-Eski ehir section of the line. Trials began on April 23. including the seven international airports in Istanbul. ranking behind those of China. which ranked 15th in the world during the same year.000 registered cell phones in the country. there were 17.[51] while there were 65. most competitive and dynamic construction/contracting industries in the world. Dalaman.951 km. is facilitating communication between urban centers.[51] The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003.000 operational main line telephones in Turkey.694 mi) of natural gas pipelines and 3. [51] The telecommunications liberalisation process started in 2004 after the creation of the Telecommunication Authority.[51] Turkey's coastline has 1. 7. is completed. ranking 13th in the world. TOROS artillery rocket system.133 km of electrified track.[51] In 2008. the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines.Ankara. ASELPOD.824. and revenue earning service began on March 13. In 2006 the country had a roadway network of 426. J-600T missile. which ranked 18th in the world.[51] There were also 21 heliports in the country during the same year.[51] As of 2010. using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay. The Eski ehir-Istanbul section of the line is scheduled to be completed by 2009.satellite (Project Göktürk-2) for use by the Turkish National Intelligence Organization.259 mi) of petroleum pipelines spanned the country's territory. which made the Turkish construction/contracting industry the world's 2nd largest. ranking 7th in the world. Construction and contracting sector The Turkish construction and contracting industry is one of the leading. FNSS Pars.697 km in 2008. which has a length of 245 km and a projected travel time of 65 minutes. UMTAS.987 km of [[Limited-access road|expressways]. and includes the Marmaray tunnel which will enter service in 2012 and establish the first direct railway connection between Europe and Anatolia. Roketsan Cirit. Milas-Bodrum andAntalya. Otokar Cobra and Akrep. Additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers.200 km of navigable waterways. 2009. including 2. Bayraktar Mini UAV. Panter Howitzer. Service sector Transport As of 2009. Trabzon.

Israel. The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Turkey was valued at $161.929.The main line international telephone service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiberoptic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy. Originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange (Dersaadet Tahvilat Borsas ) in 1866. there were 24. there were 24.Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Istanbul was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire. Bank Ekspres (owned by Betil).) They were followed by other small-scale private banks established between 1994 and 1995. Turkey has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans. and 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and [51] Eutelsat systems. 11 of the 100 best hotels of the world are located in Turkey.000internet hosts in the country. These were Kentbank (owned by Süzer). andAlternatif Bank (owned by Do an.Italy and Spain. Park Yat r m Bankas (owned by Karamehmet). Toprakbank (owned by Toprak). Bulgaria. which ranked 15th in the world. and reorganized to its current structure at the beginning of 1986. All foreign exchange transfers are exclusively handled by the central bank. Financial sector The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankas ) was founded in 1930.[55] During the 19th and early 20th centuries.[57] In 1995. there were 12 Intelsat satellite earth stations. were 2.2 billion to Turkey's revenues. According to travel agencies TUI AG and Thomas Cook. As of 2001. as a privileged joint-stock company. during the DYP government of Prime Minister Tansu Çiller.124.Osmanî in 1856.[58] The Istanbul Gold Exchange was also established in 1995. On 10 October 1991 (ten days before the general elections of 20 October 1991) the ANAP government of Prime MinisterMesut Y lmaz gave special permissions to five prominent businessmen (who had close links to the government) to establish their own small-scale private banks. Tourism sector [51] while as of 2009. there Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors in Turkey.537. [51] As of 2008. and Russia.961. Greece. and later reorganized as the Bank. Romania. and 6 shortwave radio stations in the country.Osmanî-i ahane in 1863)[56] and the Ottoman Stock Exchange (1866) were located.9 billion to Turkey's Over the years. revenues. where the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank (established as the Bank. It possesses the sole right to issue notes. when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. who introduced drastic changes to the banking laws and . Resorts in provinces such as Antalya and Mu la (which are located on the Turkish Riviera) have become very popular among tourists. [57] Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s.483. with an average expenditure of In 2008. establishing a private sector bank in Turkey wasn't easy and was subject to strict government controls and regulations. It also has the obligation to provide for the monetary requirements of the state agricultural and commercial enterprises. 107 FM. who contributed $21. the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) is the sole securities market of Turkey. [54] [53] [52] In 2005.000 internet users in Turkey. there were 16 AM. which ranked 27th in the world. the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to its current building in the Istinye quarter. the number of visitors rose to 30. [51] In 2002. who contributed $18.000.501 visitors to the country.000 in 2005 by the World Bank.192. Until 1991. $679 per tourist. competing with Greece.

The insurance market is officially regulated through the Ministry of Commerce. and 46% in Turkey¶s Black Sea neighbours. Isbank (Türkiye Bankas ) and Akbank. there were 72 banks in Turkey. to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. most of which were owned by construction companies that used them as financial assets for siphoning money into their other operations. life insurance was exempted from this requirement. Fiscal deficit is benefiting (though in a small amount) from large industrial privatizations. becoming an internationally exchangeable currency once again (in line with the inflation that dropped to single-digit figures since 2003. 32% has been invested in Russia. [citation needed] In recent years.[60]More than 34% of the assets in the Turkish banking sector are concentrated in the Agricultural Bank (Ziraat Bankas ). Banking came under stress beginning in October 2008 as Turkish banking authorities warned state-run banks against the pullback of loans from the larger financial sectors. with more than $1. 2005.) The economy grew at an average rate of 7. Housing Bank (Yap Kredi Bankas ). the stability fostered by the start of Turkey¶s EU accession negotiations. which have branches in Turkey. The five big state-owned banks were restructured in 2001. The Turkish lira.9 billion in FDI and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years. which was pegged to the U. primarily in the natural resources and construction sector. . with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. This financial breakdown reduced the number of banks to 31. strong and stable growth. Bulgaria andRomania. Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit had to call the renowned economist Kemal Dervi to tidy up the economy and especially the weak banking system so that a similar economic crisis would not happen again.S. had to be floated. are also present in the country. and structural changes in the banking. in 1999 and 2001. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland. the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency.(National Reinsurance Corporation) which was founded on February 26. During the past decade since 2001. the growing trade deficit. retail. which made it very easy to establish a bank in Turkey. the Turkish lira has also gained a considerable amount of value and maintained its stability. and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to the rise in foreign investment. External trade and investment Turkey is a very large source of foreign direct investment in central and eastern Europe and theCIS. Political involvement was minimized and loaning policies were changed. in 2007 Turkey succeeded in attracting $21. [61] In 1954.A. and the devastating zmit earthquake of 17 August 1999. 1929. the DSP government of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit had to face two major economic crises that were caused mostly by the weak and loosely regulated banking sector. At present. the Middle East and Central Asia. the "NewTurkish lira". the Turkish banking sector is among the strongest and most expansive in East Europe.[63] On January 1. 2009. but also opened many loopholes in the system. As a result. at about $100 million.[62] A series of large privatizations.regulations. Government regulations passed in 1929 required all insurance companies to reinsure 30% of each policy with the Millî Reasürans T.5 billion invested. on January 1. the New Turkish lira was renamed once again as the "Turkish lira". which practice an Islamic banking.8% between 2002 and 2005. After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI). There are also numerous international banks. and lost an important amount of its value. A number of Arabian trading banks. dollar prior to the crisis of 2001. In 1998. .

The Tabriz±Ankara pipeline is a 2. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. The pipeline was commissioned on July 26. and 708 kilometres (440 mi) for natural gas in 1999. [65] [5] Turkey targets exports of $200 billion in 2013.738 kilometres (1. iron ore. [66] the United States. is linked to the Iran-Turkey pipeline. the second longest oil pipeline in the world. will help Turkey to reach a higher degree of self-sufficiency in energy production. According to the CIA World Factbook. The main trading partners are the European Union. In the future. Tekfen. perlite.[68] The pipeline network in Turkey included 1. The exports reached $115. which makes Turkey a net importer of both oil and gas.The construction and contracting companies have been significant players. and Üçgen n aat. other natural resources include coal. arable land. was inaugurated on May 10. Natural resources Minerals Turkey is the tenth ranked producer of minerals in the world in terms of diversity. which accounted for 59% of exports and 52% of imports in 2005. mostly due to the rising demand for energy resources like natural gas and crude oil. Around 60 different minerals are currently produced in Turkey. uranium. mercury.442 mi) for petroleum products. such as Enka. The planned Nabucco Pipeline will also pass from Turkey and provide the European Union member states with natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin. feldspar. Share of mid and high technology products has increased from 5% in 1980 to 14% in 1990 and 43% in 2005. 2001. chromium. the recent discovery of new oil and natural gas fields in the country. which was commissioned on May 21. . magnesite. but imports rose to $162. but the level of production isn't large enough to make the country self-sufficient. clay. marble.080 mi) for crude oil. to increase industrial production for exports. signed in 1995. 2005. i eCam Group and Vestel Group.[citation needed] Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the [ European Union.577 kilometres (1. hydropower.601 mi) long natural gas pipeline. particularly off theBlack Sea coast [citation needed] of northern Anatolia. a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline. copper.Russia and Japan. antimony. the South Caucasus Pipeline. gold. barite. pyrites (sulfur). The richest mineral deposits in the country are boron salts and Turkey¶s reserves amount to 72% of the world¶s total. Share of natural gas decreased from 74% in 1980 to 30% in 1990 and 12% in 2005. billion. 2. pumice. is operational since November 17. Anadolu Efes Group.3 billion in 2007. as well as the three industrial groups. However. Petroleum and natural gas Turkey is an oil and natural gas producer. borate. limestone. 2006.celestine (strontium). andgeothermal power. emery. as well as in Eastern Thrace. while benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country. the Gulf of skenderun and in the provinces of theSoutheastern Anatolia Region near the borders with Syria and Iraq.321 kilometres (1. The pipeline delivers crude oil from the Caspian Sea basin to the port of Ceyhan on Turkey's Mediterranean coast. from where it is distributed with oil tankers to the world's markets. Gama. 2005. which runs from Tabriz in northwestern Iran to Ankara in Turkey.1 billion. InErzurum. these two pipelines will be among the main supply routes for the planned Nabucco Pipeline from Turkey to Europe. The Blue Stream. and a total trade of at least $450 There has been a considerable shift in exports in the last two decades. and delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey.

solid waste management and conservation of biodiversity.803. The literacy rate is 96% for men and 80. Turkey has an average population density of 92 people per km . the country's population was 73. with an overall average of 73. Turkey's first nuclear power plants are expected to be built in Mersin's Akkuyu district on the Mediterranean coast. 1991 (which later merged with the Ministry of Forestry on May 1. Life expectancy stands at 71.6 million.[ Environment With the establishment of the Turkish Environment Ministry on August 9. DEMOGRAPHICS The last official census was in 2000 and recorded a total country population of 67. and became the Ministry of Environment and Forestry) Turkey began to make significant progress addressing some of its most pressing environmental problems.2 years for the populace as a whole. Nuclear power proposals were presented as early as in the 1960s [citation needed] . Energy security Turkey is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme. This has caused uneasy feelings among Turkey's neighbours because they are ideal for producing weapons-grade plutonium. Geothermal energy Turkey has the fifth highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal power in the world. which has four key topics: enhancing energy security. Turkey has always chosen Candu nuclear reactors because they burn natural uranium which is cheap and available locally and because they can be refueled online.1 years for men and 75.7 million people in 2010. [106] According to the Address-Based Birth Recording System of Turkey.[72] The most dramatic improvements were significant reductions of air pollution in Istanbul and Ankara. convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles. when the first official census was recorded in the Republic of Turkey. while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 7%. the population is increasing by 1. People within the 15±64 age group constitute 67% of the total population.4% .927 inhabitants. [108] [109] In 1927. and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.[107] nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. but plans were repeatedly canceled even after bids were made by interested manufacturers because of high costs and safety concerns. supporting sustainable energy development.3 years for women. According to the 2009 estimate.5% each year. the 0±14 age group corresponds to 26%. in Sinop's nceburun district on the Black Sea coast.Nuclear energy To cover the increasing energy needs of its population and ensure the continued raising of its living standard.[110] Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. Regional disparities The country's wealth is mainly concentrated in the northwest and west. waste water treatment facilities. and inK rklareli's neada district on the Black Sea coast. Turkey plans several nuclearpower plants. the population was 13. 2003. while the east and southeast suffer from lower economic production and higher levels of unemployment. The most pressing needs are for water treatment plants.

Albanians. with close to 1. are the largest nonTurkic ethnicity. Ankara (4. Only two provinces have populations less than 100.2% of Turkey's population. There are about 26. with an overall average of 88.000±4. the majority of the Turkish population are ofTurkish ethnicity. mostly of French. including an estimated 80. Hamshenis. the Turkish Constitution provides forfreedom of religion and conscience.[130] 5. Konya (1. zmir(3.[10] [125][126][127] There are about 120. Laz. Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available. Reliable figures for the linguistic breakdown of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above. estimated at about 18% of the population according to the CIA[1] and at 15. Signed on January 30. Gaziantep (1. They are estimeted at 70±75% by the CIA[1] and at 76. was opened in early 2009. which airs programs of Kurdish-language most of the time. However.3 million). Today there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey.1%. i.000 people who are Jewish. Language Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. TRT 6.000 people of different Christian denominations. Circassians.000 Roman Catholics. [129] 35.Pomaks (Bulgarians). it exceeds 99% if secular people of Muslim background are Research firms suggest the actual Muslim figure is around 98%.[114] Minorities of West European origin include the Levantines (or Levanter. therefore.1 million).5% of the population live in urban centers. Bursa (1. Urbanization According to 2010 estimate metropolitan areas in Turkey with the largest populations are stanbul (13. [2] The Kurds.4 million).000 being Greeks)[129] and smaller numbers [131] of Protestants. according to the CIA World Factbook. Religion Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion.[128] or 97%. Bosnian. [112] Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". R oma and the three officially recognized minorities (per the Treaty of Lausanne).000 Orthodox (of them 3. Genoese and Venetian descent) who have been present in the country (particularly in Istanbul[115] and zmir[116]) since the medieval period.0 million). [123][124] Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey. [citation needed][120] The public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in the local languages and dialects of Arabic. Georgians. Greeks and Jews.000.7% according to a survey by [2] the Milliyet daily newspaper. Other major ethnic groups include the Abkhazians. the Armenians. Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week. because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity.[111] The low figures for women are mainly due to the traditional customs of the Arabs and Kurds who live in the southeastern provinces of the country. while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey. [117] [113] An estimated 70.[113] According to CIA the Turkish language is spoken by 70±75% of people and the Kurdish language by approximately 18% of people.e.6 million). Minorities other than the three officially recognized ones do not have any special group privileges. Assyrians.[132] The Orthodox Church has beenheadquartered in Istanbul since the 4th century AD. a bilateral accord of population exchange between Greece and Turkey took effect in the 1920s. and 21 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500.0 million) and Antalya (1.[118] In all. 1923.0% by a survey of Milliyetin 2007.5 million Greeks moving from Turkey and some 500.for women. the vast majority of whom are Sephardi. the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition.000 Oriental Orthodox. Bosniaks.[133] . Adana (1. 18 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants.9 million).000 Turks coming from Greece. included. Christians represent less than 0.000 inhabitants. a distinct ethnic group concentrated mainly in the southeastern provinces of the country.[121] A public television channel.4 million). Arabs.

9% defined themselves as"someone with no religious conviction" (atheist). Manisa. Ankara.[137] [citation needed] Though there are no exact figures on the Muslim sects. the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts. it interprets the Hanafi school of law. and 5. such as the fact that the wearing of the Hijab is banned in universities and public or government buildings as some view it as a symbol of Islam ± though there have been efforts to lift the ban. Çorum. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state. which was officially espoused by theOttoman Empire. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. the number of Shiite Twelvers (excluding Alevis) is 3 million (4.000 registered mosques and employing local and provincial imams. and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 80. 2. in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash . current-day Istanbul. opera houses and architecture.7% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (fully devout).[148][149] As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion.The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey has roots in Bahá'u'lláh's. by the Ottoman authorities. while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. and 0.[150] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persianand Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. [143] Turkey was founded upon a strict secular constitution which forbids the influence of any religion. thus contributing to a blend of Turkic. Mu la. theatres. according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007: 52. I d r. There are sensitive issues. and they live in Istanbul. Bahá'ís cannot register with the government officially probably 10 [135] [134] but there are to 20 [136] thousand Bahá'ís.[140] There are also some Sufipractitioners. 20 million.[citation According to Aksiyon magazine. according to a 2006 survey. 34.[142] The role of religion has been controversial debate over the years since the formation of Islamist parties.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (religious).2%). such as museums. which were a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe. Anatolian. During the first years of the republic. the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. [138][139] Though academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to needed] Alevi community is sometimes classified within Twelver Shi'a Islam. 9. for example. 82% were identified as Sunni Hanafi. the effect of both Turkish folk and European literary traditions became increasingly felt. and around a hundred Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies in Turkey. which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (non-believer/agnostic). 9.[141] The highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs(Turkish: Diyanet leri Ba kanl ). including Islam.Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western cultureand traditions. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized.7% were Alevi. [144][145][146][147] The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is [10] the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam. Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences. particularly after the Tanzimat period. an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. A r and Ayd n. though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire.3 % defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (believer). zmir. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West. Kars. Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.1% Sunni Shafi'i. CULTURE Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the O uz Turkic. being exiled toConstantinople.

skateboarding. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey. [152] Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries. all of them representing different traditions. In 2000. Turkish weightlifters. Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup. an air racing competition. are to be found throughout the country. snowboarding. World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team. theGP2 Series and the Le Mans Series. have broken numerous world records and won several European.[157] International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular. Women's volleyball teams. paragliding and other extreme sports are becoming more popular every year. Two years later the Turkish national team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South Korea. Motorsports are also popular in Turkey. with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions. [154] Turkey's top teams include Galatasaray. 70% of Turkish citizens never read books. as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles. [151] According to Konda public opinion researchers. while the ükrü Saraco lu Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final.and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk. while the Turkish leg of the Red Bull Air Race World Series.[161]and the Turkish Grand Prix was included to the Formula One racing calendar in 2005. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. . and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings likeDolmabahçe and Ç ra an Palaces are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers. finished second in the Saporta Cup of 1993. Since the 18th century. Vak fbank Güne Sigorta andFenerbahçe Ac badem.[158] Weightlifting has been a successful Turkish sport. both male and female. The Atatürk Olympic Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final. Turkey hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001 and the finals of the 2010 FIBA World Championship. while in 2008 the national team reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Euro 2008 competition. won the Korac Cup in 1996. From time to time Istanbul andAntalya also host the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racingchampionship. while Efes Pilsen S. Surfing.[155] Turkish basketball players such as Mehmet Okur andHidayet Türko lu have also been successful in the NBA. Naim Süleymano lu and Halil Mutlu have achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won three gold medals in three Olympics.Fenerbahçe and Be ikta . have won numerous European championship titles and medals. with many European. Mimar Sinan is widely regarded as the greatest architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture.[162] Other important annual motorsports events which are held at the Istanbul Park racing circuit include the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey. takes place above the Golden Horn in Istanbul. the FIA World Touring Car Championship.K. namely Eczac ba . and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague andSuproleague in 2000 and 2001. winning second place on both occasions. the annual K rkp naroiled wrestling tournament since 1361. winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture.[159] World and Olympic[160] championship titles. The Rally of Turkey was included to the FIA World Rally Championship calendar in 2003. [156] Edirne has hosted The traditional Turkish national sport has been ya l güre (oiled wrestling) since Ottoman times. Sports The most popular sport in Turkey is football.