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Eurobuild in Steel

Case Studies - Residential Buildings


Case study : Modular Construction, the OpenHouse system, Sweden

The aim of the OpenHouse Production is to provide Better housing for more people at a lower cost with an industrialized building process and is a cost-effective way to build apartments with 3D- modules. The system provides an industrialised building process


Annestad in Malm, Sweden, is a very large development as to Swedish standards. A total of 1500 apartments will be built during a period of four years. The development is divided into medium sized 2 1/2 to 5 storey blocks. The project will be completed in 2006. The development uses the OpenHouse system for framing and modules. The size of the apartments varies from one room plus kitchen to four rooms plus kitchen. Faade materials used in this project have been a combination of bricks, boards, insulated render and wood. Modules are positioned in an off-set configuration to create a variable faade line. The development is a combination of rental apartments and tenant-ownership apartments. The rental cost of an apartment is approximately 110 per m/year. Fully equipped modules in light gauge steel have been used and complemented at site with

roofs and facades. Initially the prefabrication rate was 40% but this will be increased by integrating facades in the modules and by using separate roof modules. The modules use light gauge steel framing; light gauge steel profiles in combination with mineral wool and gypsum boards. Exterior walls have slotted light gauge steel studs, mineral wool and gypsum boards, providing a good thermal performance of the walls. The roof and floor of the module use light gauge steel beams, mineral wool, gypsum board and trapezoidal steel sheets. The module carries its own weight. The OpenHouse system provides an industrialised building process and has been used in several projects. Presently a large number of small apartments for students are being planned for the Stockholm-Uppsala area.

Case study : Modular Construction, the OpenHouse system, Sweden

Application Benefits: Adaptability by both flexibility and generality Sustainability by recycling and reuse of material, low use of materials, a generous life cycle and adaptation to local environmental conditions Risk minimizing by industrialization, construction and planning principles dry

Project Team: Client: Architect: Main Contractor: Supplier of Modules: Hyreshem Malm /OpenHouse Production Landskronagruppen /OpenHouse Production OpenHouse Production OpenHouse Production

Good quality is provided by secure performance, dry construction, excellent dismounting properties, good occupational health and safety conditions Can be used up to eight floors with cladding and roof of the clients choice The largest modular housing project in Europe currently.

The faades are adapted to local conditions Construction Details: The modules are arranged in a framing system with steel columns. The weight of overlying modules is taken in SHS columns with space 3,9 m. Each module rests on six columns. The inner measurements of the modules are 3,6 m by up to 11 m. The modules can cantilever 1,7 m from the exterior frame column. Typical weight of a module is 5 to 8 tonnes. The modules are constructed to transmit the horizontal loads to stabilising elements e.g. staircases using steel or concrete. The system has a possibility to build up to eight or ten storey buildings. The modules are almost fully equipped as delivered from the production plant. At site

only some additional work is performed; connections of installations, completion of flooring and completion of insulation and boarding between modules. As for the previous buildings also facades, roofs and balconies have been constructed at site. The more recent buildings have prefabricated roof elements, and the goal is to integrate faades in the modules.


Case study : Admiral's Quay, Southampton

Admirals Quay in Southampton is a harbour-front project consisting of eight apartment buildings, seven of which are in composite construction with light steel separating walls. Excellent acoustic performance was confirmed by on-site tests.


A new model for city living is where home, work and play are just a short distance apart. Admirals Quay by developer Wilson Bowden exemplifies this notion by new additions to Southamptons waterfront to a consistent style , designed by architects Broadway Malyan. Composite construction was chosen for the structure in order that floor spans could accommodate communal facilities, car parking and retail outlets at ground floor, and all floors could be partitioned to suit a range of apartment layouts. Eight buildings are planned for this prestige waterfront site at Ocean Village, the first completed buildings being a metro supermarket and two apartment buildings. This 80 million redevelopment project is well underway and is currently one of the largest city centre residential projects in the UK. Eventually, 400 apartments will be created, each with private balconies and terraces. Seven of the eight buildings of 5 to 9 storeys height are constructed using steel frames, and comprise 500 tonnes of structural steel and over 50,000 m2 total floor area. The ground

floor provides for retail outlets by using approximately double the storey height of the residential levels, which is typically 3.15 m. Typically, five apartments of 80 to 140 m2 floor area are arranged in a cluster around a central steel core, containing a lift and access stairs. Excellent acoustic insulation of the composite floor was achieved, which was over 10 dB better than required by Part E of the Building Regulations. The faade materials were chosen to emphasise the nautical feel, being a mixture of cedar wood, white insulated render and brickwork. Full height glazing provides for panoramic views. The cantilever steel balconies are attached directly to the supporting steel structure, which also included an isolating layer to minimise cold bridging. This project emphasises the wide range of faade treatments that is possible using steel construction.

Case study : Admiral's Quay, Southampton

Construction Benefits:

Project Team: Developer: Architects: Structural Engineer: Steel Fabricator: Decking Suppliers: Wilson Bowden City Homes Broadway Malyan Robert West Consulting Robinson, Midland Steel Structures, Bone Steel, Carnaby Structures SMD, Ward, PMF

Freedom of internal partitioning by use of UC sections as composite beams Excellent acoustic performance Edge beams permit full height glazing Steel balconies attached to edge beams Retail outlets at ground floor Speed of construction

Courtyard view showing the 7 storey apartments and their balconies

Construction Details: The steel frame of the building is designed using composite construction. Universal Column (UC) sections are chosen for all beams in order to minimise their depth in spans of 6 to 9 m. The composite slab used holorib-type decking and is generally 170 mm deep, to meet the current UK Building Regulations requirements for acoustic separation of the residential units. A battened floor and suspended ceiling provide the required acoustic insulation, which was confirmed by on-site tests (see table). Separating walls use light steel frames and the external walls were masonry cavity walls, or insulated render onto brickwork, or cedar wood boarding. The cladding is supported by the structure at alternate floor levels. The column grid is governed by the ground floor car-parking layouts, and as such, is not always on the building perimeter, resulting in 1.2m cantilever beams supporting the cladding.

Generally the centre bays have columns at 7.8 m centres in both directions, with the smaller edge bays having bays at 7.8 m x 3.9 m. The edge beams were also designed to be of minimum depth to provide full height glazing and walkthrough balconies and terraces. The cantilever steel balconies are attached to stubs or brackets which in-turn are directly connected to the edge beams, that are torsionally restrained by the composite slab. An isolating layer was introduced to minimise cold bridging of the extended steelwork.


Case study : Ashorne Hill, Leamington Spa

Terrapin and Corus Living Solutions team up to manufacture and construct a new wing of the Ashorne Hill Management College using the Prospex modular system and Corus Celestia metallic cladding.


The Ashorne Hall Management College near Leamington Spa required high quality accommodation for its residential courses, and turned to Terrapin for the design and construction to meet the tight window available for construction. The building also had to be designed to complement the existing Grade II listed Mansion House, and a recently finished extension to the main building. The Terrapin Prospex system has been widely used in hotels and sheltered housing, and this project gave the opportunity to work with Corus Living Solutions who manufactured, fitted out and supplied the 27 modular bedrooms and single plant room for this two storey residential building. The modules are 3.8 m 6.3 m external plan dimensions, which included a generous bathroom with bath, shower and toilet. The modules are arranged either side of a 1.2 m wide central corridor with a large staircase module at one end. Service connections were made in a vertical riser between pairs of modules. Large steel cassette panels were manufactured in a metallic grey colour from Corus Colors Celestia range. These rain screen panels were pre-fabricated in sizes to match the

window pattern and are supported on vertical rails attached to the modules. The client wished to use this metallic finish to blend in with the traditional grey slate of the main building. The windows were recessed from the outer face of the cladding to create a bold vertical shadow-line. The roof comprises a V shape with internal guttering using down-pipes located in the service zone between pairs of modules. It is clad with composite panels manufactured by Kingspan, which were installed rapidly to create a water-tight envelope. The construction period took only 5 months from start of site and importantly, the 28 modules were installed in only 3 days to create a weather-tight enclosure. The building was designed to high standards of energy efficiency and comfort and to higher standard acoustic insulation to meet the 2003 UK Building Regulations.

Case study : Ashorne Hill, Leamington Spa

Application Benefits:

Project Team: Client: Architects: Contractor: Modular Supplier: Cladding Supplier: Ashorne Hall Management College Osborn Bennett Practice Terrapin by Design Corus Living Solutions Superclad

Speed of installation Good acoustic performance Cassette cladding installed as lightweight panels Light weight reduces foundations costs Ease of servicing between the modules

Modules ready for transport to site Construction Details: The room-sized modules is based on the Terrapin Prospex system and uses 100 mm 1.6 mm C sections for the walls and 150 mm 1.6 mm C sections for the floor joists. The walls comprise fire resistant plasterboard and large Fermacell panels internally. On the external walls, closed cell insulation is directly fixed to moisture resistant plasterboard, and the modules are protected to provide resistance to rain penetration during transport and temporarily on-site. The floors comprise 19 mm plasterboard panels below 22 mm chipboard with polystyrene blocks on mineral wool placed between the floor joists for acoustic insulation. OSB board provides the top covering which supports installation loads. The total depth of the floor and the ceiling is 450 mm. The construction process first involved accurately levelling the concrete strop foundations, and then the corridor cassette floor was placed on cast-in brackets. The ground floor modules were then supported by the cassette floor. The modules were guided into place by a chamfered pin attached to the brackets. The process was repeated by attaching the first floor corridor cassette to the

Large colour-coated panels



lower modules. This also provided water-proofing in the temporary condition. The whole process of installation of a module took less than an hour. The 3.83 m wide 10 m long stair modules were supplied as open-topped and the flight of stairs was supported by a cross-beam constructed as part of the top of the module. The floor of the upper module formed the stair landing. The modules were later clad by attaching vertical steel rails in Corus Colorcoat Merlin Grey through the external insulation fixed to the modules. The steel cassette panels of up to 2.3 m length and 1 m width were manufactured by Supaclad in the Celestia colour, Orion. The panels were attached by nylon pins to the rails to form a rain screen with hidden fixings.


Case study : Social collective residential building, Evreux * Steel construction industry provides a wide range of material and systems that can be mixed together based on various degrees of pre-fabrication in factory. Combined with the advantages of a steel framed structure this new way of construction will provide fast track erection, flexibility in use and sustainability.


This building is promoted by the Social Housing Agency and Public Development and Construction Service of Eure (OPAC de l'Eure) in cooperation with France's Ministry of Town Planning and Housing. Architect team Dubosk & Landowski are involved in the promotion of steel intensive use in building from many years and has proposed an innovative design concept for this 51 rental residential housing plus a district library. The design process has been completely rethinked using intensive steel dry construction approach. The use of concrete is limited to a minimum for basements and ground floor. Steel construction provide efficient material to allows for dry construction, factory made
Developer: Architect: Design Office: Contractor: Application Benefits Fast track construction Intensive use of steel components Sustainability approach Lightweight construction and limited foundation work

products with efficient productivity and quality, improved job site organisation and fast track logistic. The project consists of five four storey adjoined buildings, with 51 social housing flats ranging from 56 m to 106 m, two to five rooms plus a 328 m district library on two levels. The upper flats are two level duplex with terraces and large openings to the outdoor. 22 covered parking are part of the building? This project remains at human scale and participate to the urban renovation approach let by the city of Evreux Normandy. .

OPAC de l'Eure Dubosc & Landowski Bohic Quille Reconfiguration and refurbishing approach Flexib ility of space organisation Good acoustic insulation Easily disassembled Aesthetic and urban quality

Case study : Social collective residential building, Evreux *

Mixing of material steel Intermediate platform showing wide open space for flexible frame and wooden arrangement of partitions intensive use of steel elements circulation and posts

Construction Details Frame: The entire structural frame is made with hot rolled steel sections. Bracings are made with flat cross bar system and integrated in partition wall for vertical bracings and in the slab's depth for horizontal bracing. This structural frame can be seen from many points of the building, both outdoor and indoor showing the radical new approach of design. The envelope is a mix of wooden panels and steel sheethings giving an architectural contrast in colours and texture. Roof's envelope is made from arched steel sheeting. Slabs are dry mixed system called PCIS "Plancher Composite Interactif Sec" from ARCELOR made from a relevant combination of profiled deep steel sheethings for the structural aspect, mineral wool for sound and thermal insulation, plywood panels and a floating screed for circulation. Ceilings are made with two plasterboards panels. The structural beams are integrated in the slab's depth gaining thickness from the level to level height. All those materials are widely available on the market. The can be handled and erected by a well skilled workers team in a fast track construction process. Slab's performance: The slab is 32 cm thick, weight daN/m and can span up to 6 meters for a live load of 150 daN/m

plus distributed load of 100 daN:m (partition and finishing's). Fire resistance is 30' with two 13 mm plasterboards for the ceilings. Thermal and acoustic performances are better than required one, allowing for a quality label in France "EDF-Innov'elec" Concrete is used on limited area, mainly in the basement and ground floor. The lightweight of the slabs, combined with the structural frame has deeply reduced the gross weight of the building allowing for limited ground foundation. This was convenient for the construction site of poor bearing load. This building has been erected in less than 9 months. Large parts of the elements were produced in factory allowing for precise work, quality delivery, economical and fast track erection process. This construction process is competitive on the housing market in France. Final cost is less than 775 Euro/m. The steel frame cost share is less than 20 %. This building meets all the criteria for an economical and sustainable construction. Flexibility and recycling are keywords


Case study : La Fenetre, Den Haag

A novel construction system was used to create a 16 storey apartment building in the city centre of Den Haag, Netherlands. The steel super-structure is supported on inclined tubular egs and the l building is designed to be transparent.


An exciting steel structure, called La Fenetre forms a landmark at a busy road inter-section in The Hague (Den Haag) close to Rotterdam. Its 16 storeys of apartments are supported on a myriad of inclined tubular legs. It uses a novel structural system called INFRA+, which is based on a series of I beams at 0.6 to 0.9 m spacing, in which a concrete slab is pre-cast around the bottom flange of the beam. The coverage of the inverted pre-cast slab is 2.4 m, which is suitable for transportation and installation. The inverted slab is typically 70 mm thick and is exposed on its underside. Services are located on the slab and also provide for underfloor heating and cooling. The floor ing attached to the top flange spans between the beams, and may use a gypsum screed placed on floor boarding or shallow decking. The construction system may also be used for offices and hospitals where there is a need for

under-floor distribution of services. In this building, water pipes were also embedded in the slab to provide heating, and the inverted slab is able to radiate heat or coolth to the space. The faade is fully glazed and with its 20 m long tubular legs, the building appears to be transparent. The structure is braced internally and also consists of strategically located tubular members. Fire tests have been carried out at TNO in Delft to justify 120 minutes fire resistance of the otherwise unprotected steel beams due to the thermal insulation provided by the inverted slab. Excellent acoustic insulation was also achieved. Constructed started in early 2004 and was completed in late 2005.

Case study : La Fenetre, Den Haag

Application Benefits: Stability provided by inclined tubular columns Transparent faade with minimal floor zone Exposed concrete slab with embedded water pipes Fire resistance of 120 minutes Under-floor services distribution Excellent acoustic insulation

Project Team: Client: Architect: Superstructure Project Engineers Flooring Contractor: Sevices contractor

Latei projectontwikkeling Architectenbureau Uytenhaak Oostingh Staalbouw Adams PreFab Limburg BV Heijmans

Under-floor servicing in INFRA+

Building during construction

Construction Details In the INFRA+ system, a variety of steel beams may be used depending on their span and loading. Although the top flange of the beam is not laterally restrained, torsional restraint is provided by the sla b cast around the bottom flange. A typical beam span : depth ratio is 20, and so a 450 mm deep I beam can span up to 9 m. The form of construction is illustrated for the La Fenetre project in the above figure. Services can be passed through elongated openings formed in the web of the beams, and a floor of minimum depth of 600 mm is created. The inverted concrete slab is designed to support its own weight and loads from services, and is typically 70 mm thick. The floor comprises a gypsum screed poured on floor boarding or shallow (20 mm) decking and is 60-80 mm thick. The structure is designed to support the imposed floor loading of up to 3 kN/m2 . The INFRA+ precast floor panels may be supported by perimeter steel beams placed below the floor panels. The slab is cast 100

mm short of the edge of the beams. The supporting beams align with internal separating walls. Heating/cooling pipes may also be cast into the sla b, depending on the application, and radiate into the space below. In La Fenetre, the inclined tubular legs are located below column positions on a 6 m 9 m grid and are brought down to 8 discrete positions at ground level to optimise on the foundation requirements. Fire protection costs are minimised by the thermal insulation provided by the inverted slab, and the use of tubular members with high massivity. The tubular columns provide for stability of the building together with internal tubular bracing.


Case study : Lillie Road, Fulham The Peabody Trust chose light steel framing for this 6 storey social housing development in Fulham, London, because of their experience on other projects, and the requirements for quality and reliability, and speed of construction.


Mixed light steel framing and modular construction was selected for The Peabody Trusts housing project at Lillie Road, Fulham, because it satisfied the clients requirements for speed of construction, improved quality and reliability by off-site manufacture. Specialist constructor, The Forge Company, and consulting engineer, Michael Barclay Partnership, conceived a mixed panel and modular structure in which all the components were pre-fabricated using light steel C sections. The project consists of 65 apartments, each of approximately 50 m2 , constructed in three blocks, the largest of which is 6 storeys high. It is on the site of a former school, and for this inner city locality, minimum disruption due to the construction operation was an important client criterion in the choice of methods of construction. The construction period was reduced to 68 weeks, a saving of 16 weeks on blockwork or concrete construction. Bathrooms were pre-fabricated as modules,

which were fully fitted out before delivery to site. The blocks all have a semi-basement car park in Slimflor construction. Some exposed or expressed steel elements were used, but the majority of the structure was pre-fabricated using light steel wall and floor panels. This high level of pre-fabrication allowed the building to be constructed rapidly, and safely, by using the floors as working platforms. All partners in the project operated under the new PPC 2000 agreement, which encourages open book and non-adversarial relationships. A high level of thermal and acoustic insulation was provided in the building fabric to meet Parts E and L of the revised Building Regulations (2002). Architects, Feilden Clegg Bradley, also continued the theme of pre-fabrication by choosing a lightweight stack-bonded terracotta tiling system as a rain-screen faade. A sedum roof on the lower blocks reinforces the green landscape.

Case study : Lillie Road, Fulham

Application Benefits Modular bathrooms are fully fitted out Entirely panel and modular construction speeds up construction Robustness for multi-storey application High level of thermal and acoustic insulation provided Less disruption to the urban locality Lightweight cladding

Project Team Client: Architect Structural Engineer Constructor Light Steel Framing Design of bathroom pods The Peabody Trust Feilden Clegg Bradley Michael Barclay Partnership Walter Llewellyn Forge Llewellyn Ltd (now The Forge Company) MTech

Courtyard View

Pre-fabricated bathrooms and braced walls

Construction Details
The 6-storey building courtyard now is made from pre-fabricated light steel panels, floor cassettes and bathroom modules, all using standard light steel C sections. The wall panels resist vertical and horizontal loads applied to the building, making this building the tallest in the UK using light steel framing as the loadbearing structure. Robustness issues are important for this height of structure, and various accidental loading scenarios were also examined, involving removal of whole panels, and the analysis showed that the structure was stable and robust to extreme events. Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) members were introduced as expressed steelwork on the end faades, and also in the balconies. They were installed along with the light steel framing panels. The bathroom modules were also designed to be structural so that their walls and floors contribute to the resistance to loads. The floor elements used 200 mm deep C sections, and

the wall elements used 100 mm deep C sections in 1.2 mm to 2.4 mm thickness, depending on the loads applied. Floors were pre-assembled as cassettes. Cross-walls were braced by cross-flats for stability. The separating floors and walls achieve an airborne sound reduction of over 63 dB, by use of mineral wool and sound resistant plasterboard. Resilient bars support two layers of plasterboard ceiling. The external walls achieve a U value of 0.2 W/m2o C for excellent energy efficiency by placing mineral wool between the studs and also external to the wall.


Case study : Social housing in Reims * Steel construction industry provides products that can be mixed with other materials to provide efficient building construction. The performance of a steel framed structure allows for wide open space that can be flexible and reconfigurable for client requirements and future changes in use. Steel also provide quality factory made elements with fast track erection on site. These two arguments deal with flexibility in use and sustainability.


The Residence Jeanne de Champagne building is a 6 storeys, 18 apartments building for social housing with a commercial level at ground floor. Floors 5 and 6 are more luxurious apartments for private owners. A car park with 26 places is provided in the basement. The building construction uses the PRISM system base on a steel frame and steel roof. The commercial level requires a wide-open space without any columns and a steel portal frame achieve this within the floor dept above. Steel beams are integrated in the slabs to create a shallow floor construction.

Due to urban requirements, the street site facades are precast concrete panels which are point-connected to the frame work. The back faade is made of concrete blocks supported on the slabs edge and steel sheeting. Render gives a continuous appearance on the facade Slabs are composite steel sheetings and concrete. The supporting beams are imbedded in the concrete thickness to allow for thin element and extra penthouse level at top floor. The partitioning use light steel framing and plasterboard panels. The roof is made from curved steel sheeting. The thermally efficient envelope system and electric heating meets the high VIVRELEC label in France

Developer: Architect: Design Office: Contractor: Application Benefits : Fast track construction Intensive use of steel components Speed of construction On site storage of materials Basement car park

OPAC de Reims Henry Dumont Ingebat and CTICM Bton SILVEX Highly energy efficient Long span commercial area at ground level Environmental benefits Easily disassembled Low building cost (896/m excl tax)

Case study : Social housing in Reims *

Back faade made with steel sheeting and stucco

Intermediate platform showing wide open space for flexible arrangement of partitions intensive use of steel elements

Construction Details Frame: The entire structural frame is made with hot rolled steel sections. Bracings are made with flat cross bar system and integrated in partition wall for vertical bracings and in the slab's depth for horizontal bracing. Shallow slabs are provided in a composite steel concrete structural behaviour that has been optimised for long span and fire resistance. Beams are embedded in concrete. The structural frame and slabs provide wide open platform to allow site stock during erection of the building. This is a major advantage when in congestionned urban area where space is limited. The envelope is a mix concrete panel at street faade and steel sheeting at back faade giving an architectural contrast in colours and texture. Roof's envelope is made from arched steel sheeting. This building has been designed to allow for efficient thermal performances, both on envelope with limited thermal bridges and for the heat production and distribution. The entire building frame is thermally protected with an external thermal protection envelope made of prefabricated concrete panels, weather protection sheet and air ventilation, mineral wool and plasterboards.

The thermal design shows that the performance related to the thermal looses throw the envelope of the building fitted with light steel gauge element and external thermal insulation is reached at UBt = 0.803 W/m.K less than the required reference value of UBt-ref = 0.868 W/m.K. Gain is 8%. The same gain can be observed on energy consumption needed to run the building. C = 277908 kWh equiv Oil with the reference set to 317 102 kWh equiv Oil. The gain is now 12%. This performance can be upgraded with very few materials, mainly extra mineral wool. As standards will require more and more thermal performances in the next decade, steel as light material can comply with these new requirement s with few efforts. All those materials are dry mixed system that allows for safe and fast track work on site. Erection period has been limited to a minimum. They are widely available on the market.

Rudolstdter Stahlhaus

Case study : Rudolstdter Stahlhaus *

Modern architecture is characterized by transparent structures. With steel it is possible to realize such requirements also for residential buildings. The intension of the development of the Rudolstdter Stahlhaus is to bring architectural principles into the rather conservative individual residential building sector in Germany.

Rudolstdter Stahlhaus
Residential buildings made of steel by Rudolstdter Stahlbau GmbH, Germany

Residential building in Weinheim (Germany) Architect: Ulrike Schmitt, Weinheim, Steel Construction: Rudolstdter Stahlbau

Building Technology The characteristic feature of this Steel House consists of the separation between construction and cladding. The architect can use the separated parts of the building to solve different demands from the client. A good example is the possibility of large spans inside the house. The architect can create big rooms without any single support. In this case you have also the possibility to use steel for architectural elements. Whether steel is visibly used outside or inside, it always has the special charm to emphasize the function of special design for modern architecture. The outside structure is connected to the beams inside the house with a special thermal separation connection which is developed by Rudolstdter Stahlbau

GmbH in a common research project with Technical University of Darmstadt and FOSTA. The walls inside the house do not have any supporting function. Because of this, the wall construction can be optimized for their initial function to insulate the building. This means that it is possible to use different materials which are very good for the realisation of low energy houses. For example sandwich panels as they up to now are only common for industrial buildings. Even the combination of loam walls and a structure made of steel was realized by Rudolstdter Stahlbau. They have used loam plan stones for the walls outside and inside the building. Here the well known properties of loam as building

Case study : Rudolstdter Stahlhaus * material were used for modern and healthy living. Because of the steel structure the architect has the possibility to optimise the thermal behaviour for floors and the roof. An essential property of the steel house system is the optimal adaptability on different requirements. It is possible to vary the cladding outside the building, to create a new ground plan or to realize a new energy concept during the use of the building. A very important advantage of the residential steel building is the fact that you use a standard construction which has the advantage of creating an individual building but keeping the costs at low level. This is made possible through the application of most modern CADtechnology from the first draft phase up to the pre-fabrication in the works. Because of this it is possible to realize an architectural design without reflecting in increased costs. The price of the steel
Application Benefits

house is not higher than that of a massive house with comparable equipment. The low weight of the steel structure includes further advantages. If the ground conditions of the site are bad, it is possible to build the steel structure with a simple foundation. A high quality dimension is achieved through pre-fabrication in the workshop apart from building site. The construction time can be held extremely short. Periods of 6 to 8 weeks are possible from the ground-breaking procedure up to the completion of the building. The consequent separation of the structure and the (non-supporting) walls offer further new ideas for residential buildings with steel structure. In a common research project between the Bauhaus University Weimar and Rudolstdter Stahlbau GmbH a static calculation model with the suitable construction details for economical steel houses in earthquake regions were developed. . Use of sandwich panels for insulation is possible Construction with the best thermal behaviour for floors can be chosen Flexibility of the ground plan Recyclability of the building New application in earthquake regions

Separation between construction and cladding Walls do not have any supporting function Large spans inside the house High quality of construction Short construction time

Impressions from the residential building Wohnhaus in Keilbach (Germany) Architect Martin Cleffmann - schaudt architekten, Konstanz, Steel Construction: Rudolstdter Stahlbau


Case study : Smart House, Rotterdam * A novel steel-intensive construction system has been developed for residential buildings, small offices and health centres. It is based on a tubular structure and pre-fabricated light steel floors and walls.


Architect Robert Winkel has developed a new form of open building system called SMART HOUSE, based on Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) as beams and Square Hollow Sections (SHS) as columns. The RHS beams support a light steel floor cassette that is prefabricated using light steel C sections, and there are no downstand beams. It is based on IFD or Industrial Flexible Demountable technology, which is promoted by the Dutch Government. An innovative hidden connection detail is used to connect the RHS beams to the SHS columns, so that the beams can be visually exposed for architectural effect. The light steel wall panels are attached between the SHS columns to produce a wall of minimum width. Any type of faade material may be attached to the outside, and one or two layers of plasterboard are required internally, depending on the fire resistance required.

A demonstration building was constructed in the suburbs of Rotterdam using this technology. The developer, BAM wished to demonstrate the flexible configuration for a mixed office-house. All services are located in a central core and the open usable space is placed around it. A high level of glazing can be provided. The building is clad in a mixture of board materials. The demonstration building is 3 storeys high, but can be extended up to 5 storeys, depending on fire resistance and stability requirements. It can be used for many applications, such as residential or commercial and health buildings. Spans are based on a 5.4 m grid, but in principle the system can be extended in span range. The structure is installed as a dry construction process and is very fast and efficient, and can be assembled and dismantled easily.

Case study : Smart House, Rotterdam *

Application Benefits Flexible space use Exposed steel structure Shallow floors and walls Adaptable to future uses Fast construction process Good acoustic insulation Easily disassembled Project Team Developer: Architect: Contractor: BAM MEI Architects BAM

Hidden connection detail in RHS beams

Central service core in Smart House

Construction Details
The floor beams use 200 100 RHS sections which have a span capability of 5.4 m, which is the preferred grid for residential buildings and small offices in the Netherlands. The columns are 100 100 SHS. The hidden connection uses a single bolt placed from above, so that the beams and columns can be exposed (see Figure). The steel thickness of the tubular members can be increased depending on the loading and building he ight, without changing their external dimensions. The pre-fabricated floor cassette consists of 200 mm deep C sections in pairs at 400 mm centres that also span up to 5.4 m. The cassette is manufactured in 2.7 widths for ease of transportation, and is suspended from the top of the RHS beams. Two layers of fire resistant plasterboard are placed below the joists and a resilient floor covering provides the necessary acoustic insulation. The overall floor depth is 300 mm. The span range can be increased by using deeper RHS members and floor joists without affecting the basic system. Services are concentrated in a central core at ground and first floor. The walls are insulated and externally weather-proofed, so that any

type of faade material may be used. In the demonstration project, marine grade painted plywood was used on the walls with metallic cladding for the roof. The stairs were also prefabricated in steel. Stability is provided by X-bracing in the walls, which can be strategically placed to avoid windows. Walls may be fully glazed if required. All floors and walls can be removed easily to adapt to future uses. The service core houses the bathrooms, kitchen and major equipment and services from which the electrics, data comms and pipes are distributed. The structure can be easily dismantled and reused.