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Infrastructure Division Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Better Learning Environments
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. INTRODUCTION PLANNING
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Introduction Departmental Planning Process Space and Area Ecologically Sustainable Development Relationships Accommodation Economy Technology Security and Safety Image and Aesthetics Construction Energy Planning Process Acoustics
3 3 6 6 6 8 9 10 11 12 12 12 13
SUBSTRUCTURE, SUPERSTRUCTURE, FINISHES & FITTINGS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 Introduction Substructure Superstructure Roof External Walls External Windows External Doors Ceiling Heights Internal Walls Internal Screens and Borrowed Light Internal Doors Finishes 3.12.1 Wall Finishes 3.12.2 Floor Finishes 3.12.3 Ceiling Finishes 3.12.4 Paint Acoustics 3.13.1 General 3.13.2 Sound Insulation BETWEEN Spaces 3.13.3 Acoustic Performance WITHIN Spaces 3.13.4 External Noise Control 3.13.5 Rain Noise
15 15 16 16 18 19 21 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 26 27 28 28 28 31 32 33
4.1 4.2 Introduction Sanitary Fixtures 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 WC Suites
34 34 34 34
Building Quality Standards Handbook
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Table of Contents
4.2.3 Urinals 4.2.4 Basins 4.2.5 General Purpose Sinks 4.2.6 General Purpose Tubs and Troughs 4.2.7 Showers 4.2.8 Cleaners Sinks 4.2.9 Boiling Water Units 4.2.10 Drinking Troughs 4.2.11 Ablution Troughs 4.2.12 Floor Waste Gullies (FWG) 4.2.13 Tundishes 4.2.14 Clay and Ablution Troughs 4.2.15 Potting Troughs 4.2.16 Laboratory Sinks 4.2.17 Safety Sprays 4.2.18 Fume Cupboards 4.2.19 Photographic Troughs 4.2.20 Frame Baths 4.2.21 Drip Trough and Racks 4.2.22 Hand Driers 4.2.23 Facilities for Disabled Sanitary Plumbing 4.3.1 Pipe Work 4.3.2 Trade Waste Application 4.3.3 Treatment Apparatus 4.3.4 Trade Waste Operation Documentation Water Supply 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings 4.4.3 Tapware 4.4.4 Hot Water Units 4.4.5 Other Issues Gas Services 4.5.1 General 4.5.2 Tariffs 4.5.3 Meters 4.5.4 Relocatable Buildings 4.5.5 Pipe Work 4.5.6 Emergency Isolation Valves 4.5.7 Outlets 4.5.8 Gas Booster Space Heating 4.6.1 General 4.6.2 Centralised Plant versus Individual Units 4.6.3 Primary Schools 4.6.4 Secondary Colleges 4.6.5 Heating System Controls 4.6.6 Plant Rooms Ventilation 4.7.1 General 4.7.2 Natural Ventilation 4.7.3 Toilet and Change Room Exhaust System 4.7.4 Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Systems 4.7.5 Kiln Exhaust Systems 4.7.6 Exhaust Fans 4.7.7 Ceiling Fans
34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 41 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 52
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1 General 5.2 Fire Hydrants 5.2 Compressed Air 126.96.36.199 Airconditioning – Room and Packaged Plant Fire Protection 188.8.131.52 LP Gas Storage 5.3 Pipe Work.1 Pipe Work.11.5 Lightning Protection Centralised Energy Systems Storage 52 52 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 65 66 67 68 69 70 70 70 5.1 Design 4. EXTERNAL SERVICES 5.4.5 5.12 4.11. Valves and Fittings 184.108.40.206 Building Quality Standards Handbook iii October 2008 .6.1 General 220.127.116.11 Distribution Switchboards 4.10.2 Evaporative Cooling 4.3 Main Switchboard 4.8.6 Maintenance Log Books Electrical Lighting and Power 4.2 Pipe Work and Structures 5.3 Smoke and Fire Doors 18.104.22.168.6.7 Artificial Lighting Special Services 4.1 General Power 5.4 Smoke Detectors and Sound Alarms 4.10.3 Other Issues External Sewer Drainage 5.2.10 4.3 5.2 Backflow Prevention 5.4 Dust Extraction System 4.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Table of Contents 22.214.171.124 Cooling 4.4 Other Issues External Gas 126.96.36.199. Valves and Fittings 5.11.2 Supply 188.8.131.52 Introduction External Stormwater Drainage 5.4 Gas Booster External Fire Protection 5.3.2 Fire Hose Reels and Extinguishers 184.108.40.206 Other Issues External Water Supply 5.6 5.3 Irrigation Systems 5.5 Wiring 4.1 Fire Hydrants 4.5.1 General 4.8 4.11.4 5.2 Security and Access Lighting 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 76 5.1 5.4 Other Issues External Electric Light and Power 5.9.1 Natural Gas Meters 5.11 220.127.116.11 Emergency Signs and Lighting 4.6 Power and Special Connections 4.10.9 4.10.1 Pipe Work and Structures 5.1 Fume Cupboards 4.10.3 Pipe Work 5.3 Reticulated Gas Services 4.10.
6.10.7 Fibre-Optic Backbone Cabling 6.5 Introduction ICT Architecture Budget Minimum Requirements Consultation and Communications Standards 6.3 Underground Services 77 6.3 Waste Disposal 7.1 Telecommunications Carrier Connection 6.1 General 6.10 6. Footpaths and Hard courts 18.104.22.168 System Expandability 6.15 22.214.171.124 Introduction Roads.6.1 ACA Accredited Industry Registrars 6.5 VoIP Intruder Detection System Public Address System Clock-Bell Services Library Automation Services As-built Documentation Customer Acceptance Cabling Provider Rules Licence 6.11 6.18 6.9.3 Multi-campus Situations 6.1 Conduits Between Multi-campus Sites Active Equipment External Communication 6.2 Handsets 6.1 Analogue Telephone Systems 6.8 6.8 Copper Backbone Cabling Conduit Between Buildings 6.9 6.1 Vehicle Access Roads 7.17.6 Recommended Horizontal Cabling Quantities 6.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Table of Contents 5.17.4 Pedestrian Paths 7.1 New School Designs 126.96.36.199.2.14 188.8.131.52.7.19 184.108.40.206.12 6.4 220.127.116.11 6.5 Cabling Options 6.6 6.3 Telstra TCS BDSL 6.3 CD (Campus Distributor) and BD (Building Distributor) Cabinets or Areas 6. SITE WORKS 7.16 6.2 Location of Communications Room 6.13 18.104.22.168 6.5 Hard courts and Paved Areas 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 Building Quality Standards Handbook iv October 2008 .4 Horizontal Communication Cables within Buildings 6.2 6.1 7.1 6.2 Communications Standards Cabling for Communication Services 6.2 Registration Card Example Classroom Layout Typical Cabinet Layouts 78 78 78 79 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 84 85 85 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 6.2 Parking Areas 7.6. COMMUNICATION SERVICES 22.214.171.124 Telstra TCS GWIP 6.17 6.4 TCS Equipment Dimensions Voice Services 6.
7.1 Sports Playing Field 7.1 Existing Site Conditions 8.3 General Grassed Area 7.3 Existing Conditions Impacting on Building Design 8.1 Seating 7.5 Shade Areas Covered Ways Improvements (new schools) 7.3 Hazardous Materials and Conditions Asbestos Copper-Chrome-Arsenate (CCA) Treated Timber 116 116 116 117 APPENDIX 1 BUILDING ELEMENTS APPENDIX 2 TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS & STANDARD DRAWINGS APPENDIX 3 POSTCODE AREAS Within NatHERS ZONES Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations 118 135 161 163 Building Quality Standards Handbook v October 2008 .4 Access and Servicing 8.2 Irrigation Systems 7.3 126.96.36.199.8 Playground Equipment Fencing Landscaping 188.8.131.52 Particular Plants 104 105 105 105 105 105 106 106 107 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 109 8.2 Climatic Conditions 8.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Table of Contents 184.108.40.206 9.2 9.4 7.6 7.8.1 8.5.7 7. SPECIAL FACTORS 8. WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY 9.3 Introduction Process Common Special Factors 220.127.116.11 General Hints 7.3 Flagpole 7.5 7.4 Garden Beds 7.1 9.3.4 External Signage Planting Guidelines 7.2 Litter Bins 18.104.22.168.5 Multi-Storey or Higher than Normal Buildings Items Not Generally Considered ‘Special Factors’ 113 113 113 113 113 114 114 114 115 115 8.2 8.
gov. For projects of over $50 million (over $5 million in regional areas) only. without compromise. the VIPP encourages contractors to consider Victorian suppliers and content options where these deliver the best value for money. It has been developed to provide a consistent approach to the development of school facilities across Victoria. implementation. such tenderers as determined by the procurement team) are required to submit a VIPP implementation plan that identifies how companies intend to meet the targets contained in their VIPP statements. educational rationale. For regional Victoria. materials and building practices detailed are not exhaustive.au/edulibrary/public/assetman/bf/BFoverviewpolicyprocess. An alternative material or building practice should only be considered if it provides. the policy applies to expenditure of $1 million or more ($3 million in metropolitan areas) and ensures that bidders for Government work genuinely attempt to maximise local content. The VIPP aims to boost local employment and business growth by expanding market opportunities for Victorian companies.eduweb. Those not covered in this document. outlining the rationale underscoring facilities provision. Progression through the first three stages is based on project applications meeting the five assessment criteria listed in the policy document (refer http://www.pdf). Further to the requirements of the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. schools. The policy guides investment in Victorian school facilities and infrastructure to ensure that expenditure generates significant gains in educational achievement. feasibility study. Through procurement and industry assistance activities. contact the Department of State and Regional Development on 13 22 15. principal consultants and builders – indeed. short-listed tenderers (or. The sections in this Handbook are arranged according to the standard elements of a building project. It aims to provide facilities planners with the hindsight and experience accrued in completing projects to required standards and budget. While the Handbook describes the standard elements of a building project.vic. and evaluation. The State Government’s “Building Futures” policy was launched in July 2006. Bidders are required to submit a VIPP statement outlining: ► the level of local content. For further information regarding the VIPP. should be assessed in relation to those included. and ► possible skills and technology transfer generated by the project. all who participate in the development of capital works and maintenance projects. INTRODUCTION The Building Quality Standards Handbook (BQSH) sets the minimum quality criteria for all Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) projects. ► the number of new jobs created. A Planning section is also included at the beginning of the document.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Introduction 1. users of the Handbook should also be aware of the Victorian Industry Participation Policy (VIPP). a more cost-effective solution. where there is no short-listing. and facilities planners are encouraged to exercise their creativity within available budgets and the minimum benchmarks outlined. including new construction and refurbishment. prioritisation and approval. however. Reference should be made to the elements described in Appendix 1. Building Quality Standards Handbook 1 October 2008 . The Handbook is used by the Department’s regional offices and program manager. it is not prescriptive in its approach. The “Building Futures” framework incorporates six stages: project identification. Similarly.
gbcaus.sustainability.education.au/www/html/630-greenbuilding-council-of-australia. Further to the DEECD’s own School Infrastructure website (http://www. Building Quality Standards Handbook 2 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Introduction Under Section 2. every effort has been made to ensure that it complies with the Building Code of Australia (BCA) and applicable Australian Standards. schematic design.edu.seav. An electronic version of the Handbook is available on the Infrastructure Division website under Key Documents (https://www.vic.vic.au/management/infrastructure/environment. [NB: Principal consultants and project architects will be notified when the guidelines are released.eduweb.com.au. masterplanning. These guidelines will establish a common language and methodology for incorporating ESD into the design of Victorian schools.htm) as well as the Environmental Issues webpage: http://www. users of this Handbook are advised to consult the Sustainability Victoria website: http://www.gov.htm). This Handbook is a guide only and all work is to be undertaken in accordance with relevant building and safety regulations. In particular.au/management/infrastructure/default.org/) and associated Building Commission weblink (http://www. and will be linked to the Green Star – Education Tool developed by the Green Building Council Australia. the Department’s capital planning process is briefly outlined to cover such items as selecting an architect. building practitioners and users of this Handbook are advised to consult the Department’s soon-to-be-finalised Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) Guidelines. The Building Quality Standards Handbook is updated regularly to reflect change and promote the latest best practice. This version revises the October 2003 edition.asp.gov. The Guidelines will also establish performance measures for energy and water usage as well as waste disposal.vic. Section 8 – Special Factors details the circumstances giving rise to budget increases in an otherwise standard building project. A Note on Ecologically Sustainable Design (ESD) In matters related to ecologically sustainable planning and energy management.vic. users are also referred to the Department’s Emergency & Security Management website (http://www.htm.sofweb.au/emerg/) for advice in relation to security and crime-preventative design strategies.buildingcommission.education.vic. They will place ESD outcomes for DEECD projects within a context of national best-practice.gov.au/infrastru/key/key.) In addition to the Green Building Council Australia (http://www. In particular.gov. Section 6 – Communication Services has been substantially amended by the Department’s Information Technology Division (ITD).2. and design development. codes and standards.
materials and construction practice shall comply with the latest version of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards. demographic data. energy efficiency and low maintenance requirements. etc). (5) implementation. (3) feasibility study.education. It is essential that the resulting facilities address both today and tomorrow’s educational programs as well as flexibility. Nominated schools attend regional office meetings and receive information detailing requirements. Workplace health and safety (especially in relation to hazardous materials and asbestos) are also crucial considerations. schools are highlighted for inclusion in the Departmental planning process through the “Building Futures” program.1 PLANNING Introduction Planning for new school facilities involves a range of inputs including Departmental facility schedules. All design.vic. (4) prioritisation and approval. Nomination to stage one results from a school’s involvement in regional planning activities such as provision planning (consideration of enrolment trends. (Note: nomination to enter stage one of the “Building Futures” process does not represent a commitment to future capital funding. Schools enter the “Building Futures” process by being nominated through their Departmental regional office. (2) educational rationale.au/buildingfutures/. Building Futures Firstly. local knowledge and community aspirations. 2. and the capacity of schools to effectively meet contemporary teaching and learning needs. school regeneration. a school upgrade plan forms the basis of facilities improvement and requires consideration of the following. an identification of need via “School Accountability and Improvement Framework” performance data. Building Quality Standards Handbook 3 October 2008 . 2.2 Departmental Planning Process Whether a new school is being built or existing facilities modernised. information received from principals and Regional Facilities Managers regarding current building conditions.gov.) Detailed guidance and support materials pertaining to “Building Futures” is available at www. new school requirements. and (6) evaluation. This incorporates six stages: (1) project identification. Project identification focuses on need and the degree of urgency of nominated schools to address facility issues impacting on student outcomes. design imagination.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning 2. The first four of these stages are integral to the planning process. The Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations 1989 require the design of laboratories to be in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2982 – Laboratory Construction.
including area analysis and proposed stages of development where appropriate. ► preparation of the final masterplan. design development and the completion of tender documentation. ► an indication of the relationships that should exist between various facilities to support the operation of the school. in conjunction with the Department’s project facilitator. Developing a Masterplan Solution The architect will then proceed to masterplanning. Building Quality Standards Handbook 4 October 2008 . ► a determination of the facilities mix (within current space entitlements) which accommodates the school’s educational specification and ensures that facilities provided will enable CSF II and VCE requirements to be met.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning The Educational Rationale The educational rationale is produced by the school and. the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) and the Government’s goals and targets. and identify improved learning outcomes. Selecting an Architect A school council. and ► review by the Department’s Infrastructure Division and Program Manager through a Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP). the components of which include: ► conceptual plans setting out basic ideas and project solutions. and ► provide the architect with a Department-approved project brief and budget. ► an outline of the individual school’s educational philosophy and curriculum program in relation to the Department’s Curriculum Standards Framework II (CSF II). the architect will develop a design solution. taking into consideration existing facilities and cost effectiveness. their completion and approval facilitates detailed planning in the lead up to eventual construction. ► enter into a School Council Consultant Agreement with the nominated architect following endorsement by the Infrastructure Division. While masterplans permit schools and the Department to identify priorities in relation to new construction and modernisation projects. will: ► nominate one of three architects provided by the Department from its Principal Consultants’ Register to develop project documentation. Matters to address include: ► an indication of how the proposal will support the Government’s goals and targets. from this. and ► an indication of the requirements of the school’s e-learning plan. The various stages in this preparation include schematic design. ► a range of masterplan options. ► a preferred option.
Design development further details the proposed solution. the architect must ensure the removal of all PCBs throughout the entire site. including synthetic mineral fibres (SMFs). architectural design. including Cost Plan C. the proposed relationship between buildings on site. and have received reports detailing the location of any of these within the school. services and engineering design. the architect prepares all the necessary project tender documentation. service easements and landscaping concepts. The schematic design is then reviewed by the Department’s Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP) before proceeding to the next stage: design development. a life-cycle cost analysis. cost plan summaries and comparison with an approved budget. and axonometric sketches. All schools have been subject to an audit of asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). and pedestrian and staff vehicular access. including Cost Plan B. including Cost Plans C and D to enable the project to be considered for inclusion in the Department’s capital works budget submission. The schematic design includes: ► the facilities brief for the identified stage. The design development. the architect will then prepare a design development report. not just those buildings included in the construction project. Once endorsed. ► security recommendations provided by the Department’s Emergency and Security Management Unit. A special factor to be considered relates to the presence of hazardous materials within school buildings. and ► local government and utilities compliances. ► statements of efficiency with respect to energy usage. elevations and sections of buildings as well as documentation supportive of the design proposed.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning Schematic Design The architect prepares a schematic design for the identified stage from the approved masterplan. Architects will need to ensure that tender documentation identifies the removal of all known hazardous materials within areas where upgrade is to occur. is submitted to PREP to ensure that project plans meet building quality standards. the design and Cost Plan C form the basis of the Department’s budget submission for that project. ► plans. Tender Documentation Having completed both schematic design and design development to the satisfaction of the Department. It also includes a schedule of materials and finishes. building surveyor’s report. including identification. and the preparation of Cost Plan C. The asbestos audit often identifies the presence of other hazardous materials. justification and costing of any special factors associated with project implementation. Building Quality Standards Handbook 5 October 2008 . As part of a major capital project. including Cost Plan C. the required facilities mix and budget. rectification of issues identified at the schematic design PREP meeting. Design Development Following PREP endorsement.
They place ESD outcomes for DEECD projects within a context of national best-practice.org/) and associated Building Commission weblink (http://www. School councils should be encouraged to develop a reuse and recycling strategy. A range of issues need to be considered in achieving this.asp. 2.gbcaus. including Building Quality Standards Handbook .au/infrastru/key/key.eduweb.vic. These schedules are used when planning a new school or when upgrading existing schools. such as: ► the relationship between activities and their compatibility and flexibility.3 Space and Area Space and area entitlements for school facilities are broadly defined within schedules set out in the Key Documents section of the Infrastructure Division website (https://www. student grouping and teaching/learning methods.vic. and are linked to the Green Star – Education Tool developed by the Green Building Council of Australia.au). junior/middle/senior school organisation general purpose/specialist facilities departments/faculties indoor and outdoor learning spaces. spaces can be arranged and modified to suit the particular profile of a school.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning 2.buildingcommission. These establish a common language and methodology for incorporating ESD into the design of Victorian schools. including : : : : : : : : separation of noisy and quiet areas position of multi-purpose/physical education facilities to oval.).gov. 6 October 2008 ► the relationship between subsections of the school.sustainability. The schedules detail a standard but they also offer flexibility within budgets provided.au/www/html/630-greenbuilding-council-of-australia. etc. paper.gov.) can be stored before their removal to the school’s central recycling area. practitioners and consultants are advised to consult Sustainability Victoria (http://www. The Guidelines also establish performance measures for energy and water usage as well as waste disposal.4 Ecologically Sustainable Development In matters related to ecologically sustainable planning and energy management.5 Relationships Successful space planning pursues an efficient combination of teacher resources and organisation. Given the adequate accommodation of core curriculum needs and student numbers. Designs should consider providing an area in each block where recyclable materials (glass.com.seav. hard court and car park position of administration to car park and main school entry central location of toilet blocks. 2. building practitioners and users of this Handbook are advised to consult the Department’s soon-to-be-released Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) Guidelines. In addition to the Green Building Council of Australia (http://www.htm).
including : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : buildings and open space slope and contours services signposting pedestrian and vehicle movement deliveries efficient removal of recyclables and waste emergency access dental van provision (if required). Building Quality Standards Handbook 7 October 2008 . : Site planning for wind filtration and ventilation Consider the use of double doors as airlocks and placing entry/exit doors in buildings on the east side to minimise infiltration in winter and summer. including : Orientation A prime consideration should be the placing of all buildings with their long axis in the east/west direction in order to maximise north facing facades and minimise east/west facing facades (this must be addressed in the Masterplan and Schematic Design reports).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning ► the relationship between buildings and the site. the avoidance of waste and reuse/recycling of unavoidable waste. window design should incorporate adequate shading (refer to Section 3. Consideration should be given to prevailing weather and seasonal climate to limit the entry of such conditions as hot northerly winds. including ► the relationship between design and materials efficiency.6 – External Windows). and ► the relationship between the school and the environment. Ventilation openings should be onto areas that are as dust free as possible. student and visitor access community use out of hours pedestrian access out of hours car park access out of hours. To further reduce the problem of overheating in summer. When planning for single sided or cross natural ventilation for use in summer. including ► the relationship between the school and its community. including ► the relationship between design and energy efficiency. vegetation flood levels soil conditions climate/microclimate (design should be compact to minimise external travel in areas of high exposure) neighbouring properties solar access capture and use of rainwater. consider openings on the south face or from shaded/sheltered areas to avail of the cooler air.
Consider reducing the area of windows to a point where they can still perform the functions of providing daylight. All skylights and clerestory windows should be shaded from direct summer sun. Provide doors to isolate two-storey spaces (such as stairs) from heated/cooled spaces. : Daylight The layout of buildings should not preclude the use of daylight.6 Accommodation Accommodation provided should comply with facility schedules and available budgets. : Landscaping Deciduous trees to the north (or evergreens set back a distance twice their height). and shaded from the sun from September to April (Terms 1 and 4). : Overshadowing Ensure that the north facade of a proposed building is not overshadowed by other buildings to the north by setting it back (south) at a distance that is twice the height of the obstruction. The maintenance costs of deciduous trees should be considered. planners should consider the following matters. Ensure the proposed building does not overshadow any existing building to the south by placing buildings twice their height north of any existing building. however. should be carefully considered so as to limit overheating or glare. Building Quality Standards Handbook 8 October 2008 . where possible. In achieving this.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning : Surface area of buildings Consider reducing the external surface area of buildings by joining spaces together. It should be noted. and evergreens to the east and west can block summer morning and evening sun if external blinds are not provided. view and connection to the outside. that daylight suitable for desk work will only penetrate about three metres into a building via the windows. 2. Zoning must be addressed in the Masterplan report. Zoned areas possess a thermal advantage over open plan inasmuch as heating and cooling systems need only operate in areas that are occupied. These considerations must be addressed in the Masterplan report. The use of daylight (and minimisation of artificial lighting) must be addressed in the Schematic Design report. : Zoning Provide doors or airlocks to separate areas that are heated/cooled from areas that are not heated/cooled. The size and orientation of skylights and clerestory windows. Consider the use of shaded skylights or clerestories to provide additional daylight. however. from winter and summer winds. : Shelter Outside areas should be sheltered.
particularly those that require mechanical services grouping of buildings to minimise circulation requirements keeping of circulation space within scheduled allowances placement of structures on site in close proximity to services use of cost-effective structural solutions to site constraints. ► robust and durable materials and finishes. The sharing of storage between spaces may also enable the creation of larger. ► be at least to standards specified in AS 1428 for disabled access and AS 2890 for disabled car parking. the Occupational Health and Safety (Manual Handling) Regulations and Occupational Health and Safety (Prevention of Falls) Regulations must be taken into consideration. Flexibility should be a key factor in design solutions. External areas should reflect the activities of adjoining buildings. This is particularly so for primary schools. When designing storage areas. buildings are positioned in close proximity to services and site access points 9 October 2008 ► location on site so that Building Quality Standards Handbook . Storage spaces should be directly accessible from activity spaces.7 Economy Building and site development should incorporate both economic and cost-effective construction as well as operational and maintenance considerations. This is particularly important in designing archive storage areas where preference should be given to small size archive boxes. more useful spaces. ► be on a single level. ► structure. 2. Factors include: ► appropriate internal volumes that reflect purpose and the scale of user. The provision of display boards and display spaces is particularly important in primary schools. Access and egress should: ► be easily defined and located. Equipment and fittings should be located in a manner that ensures safe use and circulation. Buildings need to offer schools flexible options for daily use as well as an opportunity for simple refurbishment or remodelling as future needs change. Options to consider include activity areas grouped or separated with operable walls (or other moveable partitioning) as well as the use of light and mobile furniture.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning The scale of buildings and fittings should take into account the main user. and ► enable disabled access to all facilities. including the : : : : : : : : : provision of regular building shapes provision of simple roof forms that promote effective drainage consideration of two storey buildings only when site constraints make single storey buildings less cost effective grouping of areas.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning
site conditions (including soil, rock, vegetation and contours) are considered, with buildings situated to minimise cost penalties associated with slope or rock and to maximise the use of features such as existing vegetation;
► consideration of a landscaping component in the total design strategy; ► planning to allow for the potential staging of works and in such a way that the duplication or
redundancy of facilities and services provided in earlier stages is avoided;
► siting relocatables with consideration for their integration among other facilities and/or
► siting relocatables with their windows facing north and south; ► planning of consecutive stages (of new secondary colleges) adjacent to one another for ease
of access (i.e. less external travel) and the minimisation of open spaces which require landscaping but may form construction areas in future stages;
► keeping toilet allocations for new primary schools to no more than two blocks, thereby
facilitating an efficient use of area;
► designing for waste minimisation by taking into account standard material sizes, specifying
prefabricated products and using modular components (these measures can help reduce the amount of waste generated during the building phase and thereby reduce purchasing, handling and disposal costs); and
► designing for operational waste efficiency (i.e. those wastes generated once the facility is in
use) and providing space/facilities to address the proper collection and disposal of food waste, beverage containers, paper, cardboard and other packaging materials, etc.
School buildings should, where possible and appropriate, promote the use of modern materials and facilitate the use of current and future technology. Among the things to consider:
► cabling must be installed with a view to future flexibility (Refer to Section 6 – Communication Services); ► cabling and equipment must reflect current standards but have the capacity for change or
expansion in future services;
► services should promote ease of connection and disconnection; ► loose furniture may be preferable to built-in furniture; ► design should consider the use of solar energy where appropriate and cost effective; ► design should consider solar hot-water (schools are currently eligible for Victorian
Government grants that help reduce the cost of solar hot-water installation);
► control technology should be included where centralised heating and domestic hot-water
plant are specified;
► timers/sensors should be installed where artificial lighting is used;
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Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning
► heating controls should allow zoning, individual control and auto shutdown; ► sustainable products should be used where both appropriate and cost-effective, including
those materials and products made with recycled content and recyclable at end-o-life (this needs to be addressed in the Design Development report); and
► design must consider the suitability of solar hot-water where cost effective (this must be
addressed in the Design Development report).
Security and Safety
Schools must provide a safe and secure environment for students and staff. In achieving this, designers will comply with the Building Code of Australia but, in doing so, may consider:
► logical street access directing visitors to administration facilities and permitting the
supervision of entries;
► designing in a manner and with a provision of finishes that discourage wilful damage; ► avoiding nooks and crannies; ► providing night lighting/sensors at access points; ► lighting to cover after hours usage; ► compartmentalising facilities for out-of-hours use; ► fitment design ensuring smooth corners and appropriate location ► ventilation; ► window placements and glass, ensuring compliance with the Building Code of Australia and
avoiding the placement of operable windows in traffic areas;
► minimising roof access; ► on-site traffic management; ► avoiding differences of level across the site; ► providing non slip surfaces in internal and external circulation areas; ► asthma and allergy minimisation; ► well placed external PA speakers; ► stretcher access to first-aid locations; ► design which promotes good supervision of all areas by teachers; ► safe access to toilets during classroom hours, lunch and recess times, and out-of-hours; and ► safe access to car parks out-of-hours.
Building Quality Standards Handbook
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning
Useful security hints and practical advice can be obtained from the DEECD’s Emergency & Security Management website (http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/emerg/). A brochure titled Fire and Arson Prevention can be downloaded from: http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/facility/docResearch/keyDocs.htm
2.10 Image and Aesthetics
Design should take into account the role of the school in its community. Features should include:
► an obvious point of entry and address; ► appropriate scale to suit users; ► avoidance of extreme architectural features as solutions; ► sign posting and organisation to promote ease of access and movement within; ► appropriate use of colour schemes; and ► acknowledgement of surrounds and community.
Planning needs to allow for a staged implementation of works within a single project. Stages should reflect available funding as well as the need to enable schools to continue operating without undue disruption to the learning environment. Service provision in the initial stage should provide for total development requirements.
2.12 Energy Planning Process
Energy should be considered at the masterplanning stage or before. It should not be left until the schematic design stage or later. Energy planning should involve all parties associated with the development of a school. It is not just an electrical or mechanical issue. If school design is good, an assumed dependence on components such as airconditioning is not automatic. Beware of standard solutions. Energy Engineer It is recommended that an energy engineer be engaged as part of the design team to provide specialised energy advice and design assessments. Energy Audit Undertake an energy audit of existing premises, if appropriate, to establish existing energy use patterns which can then be addressed in new design. Sustainability Victoria (http://www.seav.sustainability.vic.gov.au) offers advice and assistance, and can be contacted on tel:
Building Quality Standards Handbook
For outsourced maintenance. some degree of energy performance outcome should be built into the contract.vic.13 Acoustics Designers should ensure that the acoustic performance of the building is satisfactory by considering the following issues: ► sound insulation between spaces. Testing and commissioning should include the handover of accurate and detailed building and systems records and operations directions. Equipment should be selected with a low energy rating sufficient to perform the task required. Maintenance Strategy School councils should be provided with a ten-year maintenance strategy for all plant and equipment. and Building Quality Standards Handbook 13 October 2008 .gov. It should also demonstrate how maintenance will be provided.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning 1300 363 744. Such documentation should not only set out details of the installation and its energy-efficient operation but clearly record all design assumptions and capacities in order to facilitate future modifications and building adjustment. (The energy audit must be addressed in the Masterplan report. Where appropriate. Testing and Commissioning Energy efficient equipment should be specified.au. testing and commissioning should confirm this performance. and email: advice@seav.) Energy Design Process Incorporate into the existing design process the following steps: hold a project meeting with all stakeholders to agree to goals. Computer Modelling Consider using computer modelling to determine the effectiveness of or the adjustments necessary to daylight and natural ventilation systems. treat mechanical and electrical design and building fabric design as one exercise. explaining any required actions. A meeting should be held with school staff. 2. The maintenance strategy should include a fine tuning of plant to the building’s actual occupancy and operation. budgets. review energy performance whenever cost plan is reviewed. Office Equipment Office equipment can consume up to 10% of the total energy used in a building. and energy and financial measurement methods. fax: (03) 9655 3255. the consultant and the mechanical and electrical contractors to “hand over” the maintenance documents and “walk through” the project.
Problems that have been encountered in schools include sound transmission through dividing walls. sound transmission via corridors. ► the surface treatments of walls. internal room acoustics. Building Quality Standards Handbook 14 October 2008 . floors and ceilings.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 2 – Planning ► room acoustics within spaces. rain noise and noise from plumbing fixtures and services. ► the treatment of air ducts that connect spaces.13. sound transmission through ducts. and ► noise generation within the space. Recommendations to overcome these issues are discussed in Section 3. These issues can be addressed by considering: ► the construction of internal walls that divide spaces.
however. schools. and any materials not covered in this document should be considered in relation to those included.Substructure. The purpose of this section is to provide school communities and consultants with the benefit of that experience so that demonstrated examples of best practice can be incorporated into new projects. testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards. as well as from the feedback supplied by end users – the schools themselves. the suitability of excavated material for engineered and/or bulk fill. site investigations should be carried out. It is recommended. including: ► land surveys to determine slopes and above ground site features. FINISHES & FITTINGS Introduction 3. SUBSTRUCTURE. Superstructure. sub-surface conditions. it may be appropriate to raise the substructure to minimise rock excavation. that specified fittings and equipment be sourced. Finishes and Fittings 3. workmanship. The DEECD has developed a considerable body of experience from a range of projects that have been delivered and subsequently evaluated. The materials and building practices listed are not exhaustive. Building Quality Standards Handbook 15 October 2008 . SUPERSTRUCTURE. where possible. it is recommended that a concrete slab solution be utilised. Prior to the commencement of design work. durability and value for money. 3. Wherever possible. All design. sourced from local authorities. In certain circumstances (and depending on the results of geotechnical investigations). and ► an examination of past construction records in the area. the DEECD helps architects and school planning committees select from a variety of building systems consistent with good architectural and engineering practice.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . Consideration should be given to floor and services levels in relation to possible rock. etc. The following material is arranged according to the standard cost elements of a building project and generally provides details for minimum acceptable standards. ► borehole and geotechnical investigations to determine. and the most appropriate substructure. as best as possible.1 In choosing a design solution for new schools and refurbishment projects. This will allow informed decisions to be made with respect to the stability or otherwise of founding material. estimates of any rock excavation. It should be noted that rock excavation is both expensive and time consuming. from Australian suppliers in order to assure replacement parts and facilitate maintenance. materials. These comments do not apply to modular relocatable buildings or unenclosed covered walkways.2 Substructure The type of structure best employed is dependent on site conditions.
Guttering below 2400mm above ground level in trafficable areas will require fixing of a standard in excess of normal manufacturer’s requirements. Roofing material is to be surface fixed steel sheeting. All roofing must be of continuous sheets wherever possible. Sub-floor ventilation should also be minimised but still comply with the Building Code of Australia in order to further minimise heat loss. 3. with roof guttering outside the line of external walls (i. Consideration should be given to the effects of galvanic corrosion when selecting roofing materials. The structural system should be simple and columns (or points of load) should be located to external wall lines. Consideration will be given to natural finish steel sheeting where it matches existing materials or must conform with local government requirements or where the principal consultant provides acceptable evidence to support the material choice.5 level. the 600mm to 1000mm perimeter edge should be provided with insulation.4 Roof Simple roof forms are required. Finishes and Fittings Floor Insulation Floors should be insulated. The insulation of timber floors needs to be addressed in the Schematic Design report. Timber floors to physical education spaces should not be insulated. but timber floors to multi-purpose spaces in primary schools should be insulated. To conform to the roofing. The use of clip-fixed decking should be minimised. The structure needs to address future flexibility requirements as well as the need to provide cover and allow construction to continue over the winter period.5. 3. Market conditions may also influence the final choice of structure since there will be times when it is more cost effective to select either timber or metal framing.e. Each individual application will be assessed on its merits.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . The design must incorporate a provision enabling any water overflow to escape outside the building. Insulation for timber floors can be provided in the form of CFC-free polystyrene boards or foil batts suitable for exterior use and fixed between joists. no box gutters). Provide an air space between the floor boards and the insulation. Other materials may be used in special circumstances.Substructure. guttering should be pre-painted steel on galv-alume substrate. Although concrete floors have an inherent insulation value of about R1. Building Quality Standards Handbook 16 October 2008 . Consideration must be given to market place longevity when selecting materials. Timber floors should be insulated to an equivalent R1. Superstructure.3 Superstructure The structural system chosen should reflect the building plan and substructure adopted. The sheeting shall be pre-painted steel on galvalume substrate. with a minimum slope of three degrees. All exposed steel columns (and handrails) should be galvanised and not be painted. Guttering and downpipes are to be robust and securely fixed.
wherever possible.e.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . & cooling) R3. Benalla R4 (if heating & cooling) R3 (if heating only) NatHERS Zones 21 & 22 i.5 (if heating only) The insulation of walls and roofing must be addressed in the Schematic Design report. and guttering is not available in sufficiently heavy gauge to resist damage. It is recommended that the height of guttering from paving or garden areas be a minimum of 2400mm. ► decrease the batten spacing to a maximum of 1000mm for metal deck roofing and 600mm for corrugated roofing. standard downpipes in these areas should be appropriately sleeved to a height of 1800mm. To reduce damage caused by intruders walking on the roof: ► use the thickest available roof sheeting (approximately 0.e. Mildura Recommended R value R4 (if heating & cooling) NatHERS Zone 20 i. and ► increase the roof pitch. This will help reduce summer overheating. Downpipes in heavily trafficked areas are required to be of a more robust quality to a minimum height from ground level of 1800mm. Consideration should also be given during the planning stage to design solutions which pre-empt or minimise damage to roofing and guttering at low points in the building structure. in more extreme cases. Alternatively. Melbourne R3 (if heating & cooling) R2. Stronger fixing will not preclude damage. in protected areas away from heavy student traffic. ► use the preferred sheeting profile of metal deck roofing (stronger than corrugated roofing). Finishes and Fittings Consideration should also be given to locating downpipes. Building Quality Standards Handbook 17 October 2008 .Substructure.6 mm). Ballarat R4 (if heating. Roof Colour Roofs are to be light in colour if appropriate for the surrounding environment.e. This will require the use of materials such as sewer quality PVC pipe or. The colour of the roof must be addressed in the Schematic Design report. Damage Prevention Damage generally occurs to guttering during after hours when vandals either swing from it or use it to access the roof.e. Insulation Provide roof/ceiling insulation according to the table below (postcode areas for NatHERS zones are supplied in Appendix 3): NatHERS Zone 27 i.5 (if heating only) NatHERS Zones 24 & 25 i. Superstructure. galvanised steel water pipe.
corridors and vestibules.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . in general. Externally. External painting should be minimised and restricted to secure areas. These should be designed to provide a passive solar benefit. Walls must be capable of being easily cleaned and repaired if damaged. for instance.Substructure. It is beneficial to the spread of light and reduction of unwanted heat transfer if skylights are sealed with an acrylic/prismatic diffuser. provide clear sections of roofing or skylights. Skylights in heated areas shall be of the non-ventilated type. their area should be approximately 8% of the floor area served. Superstructure. Where skylights are used. Other alternatives such as full height lightweight cladding may be considered in certain circumstances. Lighting controls should also be provided so that lights can be switched off. Shade all skylights which illuminate occupied areas.5 External Walls External wall cladding should be chosen from a select range of environmentally friendly materials designed to provide: ► long term durability. Masonry could be continued to the bottom of the eaves. External walls should be of masonry. ► low maintenance costs. these should be shaded from direct summer sun and fitted with a light diffuser at ceiling level. Roof Ventilation Consider roof ventilation above the level of ceiling insulation for summer cooling. Any solution recommended by the principal consultant must be cost effective (but not to the extent that future maintenance is compromised) and agreed to by the Department’s Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP) before implementation. Selection of appropriate surface finishes must proceed with a knowledge of the activities to be conducted in the area. however lightweight cladding is an acceptable alternative. 3. South facing clerestory windows are preferable to skylights. ► an appropriate level of insulation for acoustic and thermal purposes. provided they are externally shaded. All skylights should be fitted with safety grills. pre-coated surfaces should be used. Building Quality Standards Handbook 18 October 2008 . low traffic areas and areas of low visual impact. and to a minimum height above ground level of at least 2100mm (door head height). ► aesthetic appeal. For unheated areas such as toilets. changing rooms. Finishes and Fittings Skylights Where skylights are installed to facilitate the entry of daylight. and ► value for money.
high level glass should be avoided). low maintenance and maximum user safety. Minimum glass thickness is dependent on location as specified in AS 1288.e. Mildura Recommended R value R2 (if heating & cooling) NatHERS Zone 20 i. Windows should be of commercial quality.5 (if heating only) NatHERS Zones 24 & 25 i. The principal consultant must qualify the situation when higher window quality is required. Glazing must conform to relevant regulations and Australian Standard.6 External Windows The selection of windows should focus on standard designs and availability. playground and vandal-prone areas must possess a level of impact resistance (if not protected). Care must be taken to ensure that the structural stability of the window meets appropriate wind loading and impact resistance levels. (Postcode areas of all NatHERS zones are supplied in Appendix 3. and all must be properly weatherproofed and provided with protection from climatic influences. aluminium framed and with sashes either sliding or double hung.e. Direct sunlight should not be permitted to penetrate windows during summer and shoulder seasons. Operable louvres or awning windows to clerestories also promote good cross ventilation. Enhanced solutions (including thickness. Superstructure. Building Quality Standards Handbook 19 October 2008 .) NatHERS Zone 27 i. wherever possible. Finishes and Fittings Insulation External wall insulation should be provided as described in the table below. The materials in high traffic. highlight awning windows are acceptable where security can be maintained. Otherwise. standard construction techniques. While awning windows are not permitted at ground-level traffic areas. The provision of flyscreens is acceptable in food preparation areas only.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . and heat gain and loss. the use of frameless sliding or louvre windows is not permitted. the use of high performance glazing should be considered.5 (if heating & cooling) R1. 3. double glazing and tinting) may be appropriate to reduce noise. These should be operated by a remote winder that secures the windows when shut. provide natural lighting from two opposite sides of an activity area. especially along the west facade. and should. All double hung windows must have spring balances of an appropriate design.e. Melbourne R1.and west-facing windows are necessarily incorporated. they should be treated as external walls. Avoid matt colours and heavily textured surfaces. Where east.e. & cooling) R2 (if heating only) Wall Colour and Texture Consideration should be given to the light colouring of external walls to reflect heat.e. Ballarat R2 (if heating. Where internal walls face onto breezeways that are open at both ends. sun glare. Benalla R2 (if heating & cooling) R2 (if heating only) NatHERS Zones 21 & 22 i. Design consideration should be given to providing adequate (preferably cross flow) ventilation.Substructure. Consideration must be given to cleaning costs (i.
2” of the Building Code of Australia. view. consider movable external blinds to totally cover the window. the aim is to achieve a balance of daylight. They are of no passive solar heating or daylighting benefit. particularly in areas where queuing or heavy traffic occurs. Domestic quality is unacceptable. A figure of 10% of the floor area is suggested as a useful starting point for sizing. that type is to be carried throughout the design of the entire school. Minimise east and west facing glass. vertical shading is effective. Ensure that window sills are located at least 750mm above floor level. On east.and west-facing windows.Substructure. Bearing this in mind: North Windows: Size north facing windows at 20% of the floor area they serve so that they benefit daylighting and passive solar heating. Window frames are to be light coloured if they are to be positioned in direct sunlight. Once a window type is chosen. (The shading of windows must be addressed in the Schematic Design report. and the amount of east. Superstructure. If windows are larger than this. Finishes and Fittings Full height glazing is to be avoided wherever possible.) Sealing of Windows Provide windows with weather seals.and west-facing glass is minimised (this must be addressed in the Masterplan report). Sizing of Windows Windows should be oriented so that the majority face north and south. South Windows: East and West Windows: Note: In accordance with “F4. ideally 1200mm for thermal efficiency. and make the maximum size of glass 5% percent of floor area they serve. Size south facing windows to minimise heat loss in winter while ensuring that they provide adequate daylight to rooms all year round.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . Extend the shading device one metre past each end of the window. Shading of Windows Shade north facing windows with appropriate eaves or a fixed shading device comprising a vertical shading angle of at least 56 degrees measured from the window sill. heat gain and heat loss. In their sizing. the aggregate light transmitting area should not be less than 10% of a room’s floor area. Building Quality Standards Handbook 20 October 2008 . Window sizing should subscribe to the minimum requirements of the relevant Australian Standard. Most hardware for aluminium windows must be of commercial standard. or fixed vertical fins or egg crate shades.
► be able to cope with heavy and constant usage.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . ► provide air locks to main entrances accessing heated areas. ► include fittings such as door handles in primary schools that are appropriate for small children. and ► if a required exit. ► locating doors in sheltered locations. ► be sufficiently robust to provide appropriate security to the building. ► if in areas prone to vandalism or to high levels of student usage. be of standard dimensions (of no more than 2100mm height) consistent with the Building Code of Australia. ► be properly weatherproofed and protected from climatic influences. ► be fire rated or smoke sealed as required by the Building Code of Australia. Failure to external doors is largely attributable to hinge stress. ► providing all external doors with door stops or steel handrails on the hinge side. Such damage can be minimised by: ► locating doors adjacent to walls to provide a definite door stop. ► if an aluminium door. ► be at least half glazed with safety glass for two-way vision in trafficable areas. it must be a single-action opening door. with pivot hinges.7 External Doors External doors should possess the following qualities: ► in general. Damage also occurs when doors are pushed against the action of door closers. ► be fitted with weather seals to the bottoms and edges. ► have locks keyed to a master-key system. ► be provided with metal framing. The over extension of doors by wind or students will damage components such as frames and hinges. they are not to be lever type door furniture.Substructure. ► be either solid core timber with three hinges per door or be aluminium with appropriately heavy sections and fixing to prevent long term sagging. Building Quality Standards Handbook 21 October 2008 . openable from the inside as required by the Building Code of Australia. ► be provided with mat wells at all entrances. ► provide a level of access appropriate to the purpose of the space for which they are used. ► be provided with restrainers to prevent impact to adjoining surfaces. Finishes and Fittings 3. it must have a commercial section with a solid bottom panel. and to the jambs of double doors. ► have any door fixings to lightweight metal provided with backing plates for support. Superstructure.
The incorporation of thermal mass (concrete slabs and masonry walls) must be addressed in the Schematic Design report.Substructure. 3.4 metres from finished floor level.0 4.0 General-Purpose Classroom Multi-Purpose Room (150m²) Physical Education Space – Primary School (298m²) Physical Education Space/Gymnasium – Primary and Secondary Schools (688m²) * General purpose classrooms should have a minimum average ceiling height of 2.g. Metal or timber framing is acceptable.7 (across room average)* 4. Superstructure. Finishes and Fittings ► constructing aluminium doors with pivot type hinges complete with floor springs and concealed head closers. no external doors to general purpose classrooms). Building Quality Standards Handbook 22 October 2008 . Additional framing/noggings will be required at lining material junctions and for joinery as well as in some high traffic areas.8 Ceiling Heights Area Springing Height (m) 2. as measured to the underside of fan blades.9 Internal Walls The type and suitability of internal wall framing is dependent on the height and materials to be fitted to the walls.4 (min) – 2. The minimum height of ceiling fans. Internal masonry brick and concrete block walls should be promoted to reduce overheating in schools located in NatHERS Zone 27 (e.7 metres to allow for the inclusion of ceiling fans and the penetration of natural light. 3. shall be 2. The colour of internal walls must be addressed in the Schematic Design report.g. Colour Light colours should be applied to internal walls to maximise daylight benefit.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 .0** 6. Thermal Mass Concrete slabs and masonry walls are effective in keeping down summer temperatures. the added cost of providing a 6-metre rather than a 4-metre high roof shall be funded from sources other than DEECD (including extra foundation and structure costs). ** If the physical education facility is to be extended in the future. Mildura – refer to Appendix 3 – Postcode Areas within NatHERS Zones). and ► minimising the number of external doors (e.
Moveable internal screens can serve a variety of purposes and should be capable of quick and safe removal or relocation to facilitate alternative area use. Where internal glazing is to be used.12.Substructure. and should generally offer appropriate acoustic separation when in place. Where such screens are to be frequently utilised. Internal glazing should only be installed in a vertical plane. Where operable walls are to be used between classrooms.12 Finishes 3.11 Internal Doors Internal doors should have the same qualities as external doors (refer Section 3. Fixed screens should also be carefully selected to provide space separation without compromising light quality. offering flexibility to provide eight general purpose classrooms. Finishes and Fittings 3. Internal doors need not necessarily be metal framed. thereby preventing the rise of heated air to an upper level. similar criteria to external glazing should be employed. This avoids costly premiums for the cleaning of inclined glass. they should be of a type that minimises the impact of any reduction in natural or borrowed light except where light exclusion or reduction is the objective. 23 Building Quality Standards Handbook October 2008 . and may also have loose-pin hinges. especially on doors that open onto stairwells. They may serve display and space dividing purposes.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . Doors are also required to separate one level from another. consideration must be given to their acoustic qualities. For a standard new primary school of 451+ children. Finishes must be assessed to ensure they do not create problems related to toxicity and become an occupational health and safety hazard. 3. materials and equipment relevant to individual spaces. Zoning Internal doors should be provided to separate heated from non-heated spaces on the same level.7 – External Doors) except that there is no requirement for weatherproofing.10 Internal Screens and Borrowed Light Internal screens can enhance the flexible use of spaces in a school and enable a range of teaching and learning strategies to be employed. the maximum number of operable walls provided between classrooms is four. 3. Superstructure.1 Wall Finishes Selection of appropriate surface finishes must proceed with the knowledge of the activities. Consider door seals to improve the separation. Wall finishes must be of a standard type. and should facilitate supervision of the separated space where required. easily cleaned and repaired if damaged. processes.
2 Floor Finishes Floors. corridors. steps/stairs. they must be able to cope with uses unintended in the design (i. as with other finishes in a school. drama and technology spaces. For higher noise generating areas such as music. classrooms Low traffic/low use areas Student toilet and shower/change areas Suggested Wall Materials • 13mm MDF or Villaboard to 1200mm high • 13mm plasterboard above • 13mm plasterboard • Masonry to ceiling height • Villaboard on timber framing Naturally some exceptions exist.g. The materials must be stain and graffiti resistant. are subject to very high levels of wear and tear and sometimes to instances of inappropriate use. 3. The following additional factors should be considered: ► slippage – where water. stainless steel or a material to match the benchtops. including a high degree of impact resistance. Minimum provision is outlined in the following table: Area High traffic areas/high use areas e. rather than plasterboard). Superstructure. ► sound – acoustic compatibility with background and activity noise levels. be of a standard commercial grade/type enabling areas to be repaired or replaced economically. In general. Where splashbacks are of a material to match the benchtops. compressed sheeting to dado height in corridors and some classrooms. including its Spread-of-Flame and Smoke-Developed Indices. All grouting in toilets should be sealed. may occur. however. There are an enormous number of proprietary-type floor finishes available to suit both wet and dry activities in schools. Finishes and Fittings Selected materials must also possess suitable wear and tear characteristics. and must meet the Building Code of Australia requirements for safety. they should be coved. sawdust. consideration must be given to sound attenuation between areas. etc.12. The following sections provide a base standard for the provision of floor coverings to a majority of the floor area in a school.e. The use of other proprietary-type floor finishes may be acceptable provided Building Quality Standards Handbook 24 October 2008 . such as finishes to gymnasium walls. Splashbacks are generally a minimum 300mm high and shall be tiles. grease.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . must be justified to the satisfaction of the Department’s Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP). This section of the document confines itself to those standard finishes which are commonly used in school situations.Substructure. oil. and ► comfort – thermal and tactile comfort in relation to the usage of the room. Exceptions. In certain instances. and have low maintenance characteristics. Consideration should also be given to the low Spread-of-Flame Index and Smoke-Developed Index as well as acoustic properties in accordance with the Building Code of Australia. floor finishes should provide high durability.
Ongoing maintenance costs are another important consideration. Superstructure. the underlying floor should have a moisture-proof upper surface. The ACCS licensee’s instructions for underlay should be followed (AS 4288 will apply). the moisture content of a concrete slab). The minimum standard for flooring in areas of a school are summarised in the following table: Area Carpet GPC-SC GPC-PS Art 2D-SC/PS Art 3D Graphics Music .g. Finishes and Fittings cost and performance criteria equivalent to the following examples can be met. use carpets which are graded “Contract Extra Heavy Duty” by the Australian Carpet Classification Scheme (ACCS).Substructure.SC/PS Drama Info Tech Home Eco Fabrics Science Technology Library Phys Ed Multi Purpose Seminar Lecture Staff Admin Staff Work Canteen Change Shower First Aid Student Centre Toilet Circulation Suggested Type of Material (Minimum Standard) Vinyl/Linoleum Timber Epoxy Finishes (Design) (Cushioned) (Wet Areas) Carpet For schools.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . Building Quality Standards Handbook 25 October 2008 . The selection of carpet should take into account the properties of the underlying base or flooring (e. Spread-of-Flame and Smoke-Developed Indices are to be used as required by the Building Code of Australia. Where carpets are to be installed in areas subject to wetting. ACCS licensees give a warranty with their carpets. this warranty is subject to proper installation and maintenance (AS 2454 and AS 2455 will apply).
The suppliers’ instructions for underlay should be followed (AS 4288 will apply). the important distinction is that they can be “wet and dry” cleaned. For heterogeneous products.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . The flooring material must be in sheet form and fully heat welded on installation (AS 1884 will apply). and access must be made available for future installations. Finishes and Fittings Some carpets are “flocked” or “melded” products. The timber floor may be provided over either concrete slab or timber framed on concrete footings. the nominated colours and patterns shall permeate at least 0. The ACCS still applies. the nominated colours and patterns shall permeate this thickness. For homogeneous products. shower/change facilities or certain specialist areas. all grouting must be sealed and impervious to moisture. These flooring materials must be stain resistant (this can be due to the clear upper surface treatment).12. drama facilities). Epoxy Finishes These finishes are generally restricted to use in toilets. Multi-purpose/physical education facilities can be provided with alternative finishes such as cushioned vinyl. Where this cleaning method is claimed for a carpet.Substructure. Building Quality Standards Handbook 26 October 2008 . not painted. and the above standards apply. Epoxy finishes should be applied by trowel on application. Timber Timber floors for internal activities are restricted to gymnasium areas in secondary colleges (and. While these products are also referred to as hairy vinyl flooring. in certain circumstances.7mm of this thickness. Where tiles are employed in wet areas. Regular resealing must be undertaken to avert potential health hazards. Importantly. they must be able to be “wet and dry” cleaned (in turn they must be waterproof and weldable).3 Ceiling Finishes Ceiling finishes should be selected to provide an appropriate acoustic value for a room according to its proposed usage and to ensure adequate light reflection. Sufficient space should be allowed for services. Gymnasia can be provided with a sprung timber floor only where competition sport is to be played under a joint-use agreement and the capital and maintenance cost of the floor is shared. Vinyl/Linoleum All linoleum and vinyl flooring must be a genuine low maintenance product. The material shall be at least 2mm thick. Some vinyl flooring materials are “flocked” or “melded” products. 3. with a clear upper surface treatment incorporated during manufacture and guaranteed for at least five years. and be a minimum of 6mm thick. Superstructure. it should comply with the requirements for vinyl flooring as well.
and full gloss acrylic should be used for external walls. moisture. 177 Salmon Street.g. Flat and low gloss finishes best mask surface imperfections. Light colours maximise the reflection of light and tend to make rooms seem larger. and metal work.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . solvent-based enamels are preferred for metal surfaces and those subject to wear and tear (e. particularly on exterior timber.4 Paint The cost of paint is only a fraction of the cost associated with the time and effort involved. condensation.3 – Acoustic Performance WITHIN Spaces). 3207. telephone (03) 9248 4901 or (03) 9248 4903. For more detailed information. cupboards. Solvent-based paints remain sound under this test. Schools should seek to use products that have been approved under the Australian Paint Approval Scheme (APAS). solvent-based paints should not be applied over latex types.13. Semi gloss (satin) is a compromise between masking defects in a surface and providing a serviceable. However. the minimum standard finish is 10mm plasterboard fixed to metal or timber framing. In general terms. Consideration must be given to acoustic treatment in rooms such as music/drama and technology. but should be limited to areas not subject to wear and tear or moisture. Glossy finishes are preferred for surfaces subject to wear and tear.7 (refer also to Section 3. Superstructure. contact the APAS. although a latex undercoat may be necessary in more arduous situations. As appropriate in most areas. such as ceilings. but they are apt to show marks. doors). Smooth colour transitions from room to room are important in achieving colour harmony. Port Melbourne. This may vary from exposed perforated insulation paper to proprietary-type ceiling tile systems and strawboard panels. or frequent cleaning.Substructure. Darker colours are more serviceable in high wear locations such as skirting boards. For details. finish. Latex paints can usually be applied over existing solvent-based paints. particularly when the same colour is used on all walls. refer to the APAS “Guide to Specifications” and Standards Australia “The Painting of Buildings”. or mineral fibre acoustic tiles with a minimum NRC rating of 0. The completed finish will look deeper in colour than a small sample. The performance of paint may also vary significantly from one product to another. Sovent-based semi gloss enamel can also be used on internal walls. Otherwise. 3. facsimile (03) 9646 5165. latex (water-based) paints are usually favoured. Finishes and Fittings Provision should be made for ceiling baffles to minimise sound transmission between rooms. door. readily cleaned. Building Quality Standards Handbook 27 October 2008 . Latex paint finishes are usually identified simply since they can be removed by a swab soaked in methylated spirits. notably architraves. dirt retention. Low sheen acrylic (latex) can be used on internal walls.12.
) then the following measures should be considered in the following order: ► install sound insulation blanket in wall cavity. music. (a) Activity. N-1” (SEPP N-1) which regulates noise emission in metropolitan Melbourne. It is determined by measurements in accordance with Australian Standard 1276-1979 “Methods for determination of sound transmission class and noise isolation class of building partitions”.16 – Acoustics. Superstructure. If greater sound insulation between spaces is required (such as in drama. sound insulation requirements and FSTC ratings: Activity Sound Insulation Requirements Applicable FSTC* Rating Current GPC wall construction Equivalent to stage voice. It is recommended that these levels be achieved. ► “State Environment Protection Policy (Control of Noise From Commerce. Standard timber stud framing with 13mm plasterboard on both sides (current GPC construction) gives a rating of about 35 FSTC.13 Acoustics 3.2 Sound Insulation BETWEEN Spaces The following tables provide advice in relation to satisfactory sound insulation between spaces.Substructure. Table 1.1 General The acoustic design of a project is discussed in general terms in Section 2. Finishes and Fittings 3. Section 1 provides recommendations for design sound levels in education buildings. Current practice shows that this is acceptable in most cases. Industry and Trade) No. Building Quality Standards Handbook 28 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . 3. Statutory regulations and standards include: ► “Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulations Statutory Rule No.13. etc. Within this Standard.13. expected conversation Range of noise voice/noise levels (machinery) Conversation/raised voices Stage voice/shouting Equivalent to shouting (instruments) * Normal to no privacy requirements Normal privacy Confidential privacy – minimal distractions Better than confidential privacy Better than confidential privacy FSTC 30-40 FSTC 35 FSTC 40 FSTC 45 FSTC 50 FSTC 55 FSTC is the Field Sound Transmission Class. 196/1992” which specifies allowable noise levels in the workplace. ► Australian Standards AS 2107-1987 “Acoustics – Recommended Design Sound Levels and Reverberation Times for Building Interiors”.
(b) Recommended wall construction types to achieve FSTC ratings shown in (a): Wall System¹ Plasterboard sheets required BELOW all ceilings Inside Outside 1 x 13 mm 1 x 13mm Plasterboard sheets required ABOVE mineral fibre ceiling Inside Not required Outside Plasterboard sheets required ABOVE plasterboard ceiling Inside Not required Outside FSTC Rating Current GPC wall construction giving FSTC 35-40 FSTC 35 FSTC 40 100 x 50 timber studs from slab to ceiling tile 100 x 50 timber studs from slab to ceiling tile² 100 x 50 timber studs from slab to slab or structure above² 100 x 50 timber studs extending from slab to slab or structure above² Staggered 100 x 50 timber studs slab to slab. Finishes and Fittings ► take wall full height to underside of roof.Substructure. These can be rock-wool of minimum density 38kg/m³. each supporting a separate plasterboard sheet² 1 x 16mm 2 x 13mm 1 x 16mm 2 x 13mm Not required 1 x 13mm Not required Not required FSTC 45 2 x 16mm 2 x 16mm 1 x 16mm 1 x 16 mm Not Required FSTC 50 2 x 13mm 2 x 13mm 1 x 13mm 1 x 13mm 1 x 13mm FSTC 55 2 x 13mm 2 x 13mm 1 x 13mm 1 x 13mm 1 x 13mm 1 x 13mm ¹ ² In relation to steel frame wall systems as opposed to timber studs. Staggered studs ensure inner and outer plasterb’d sheets are not connected² Two separate 100 x 50 timber studs extending from slab to slab. refer to the manufacturers’ design guides for fire and acoustic requirements (e. The following table gives examples of FSTC ratings achieved by various forms of construction. Building Quality Standards Handbook 29 October 2008 . Superstructure. ► increase thickness and number of plasterboard sheets. CSR Gyprock specifications).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . To achieve FSTC ratings of 35 and above. stud cavities must contain sound absorptive blankets.g. and ► install staggered separate studs. fibreglass of minimum density 10kg/m³ or polyester of minimum density of 7kg/m³.
The lining should consist of a 25mm thickness. they shall be suitably sealed.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . Typically. The total length of this acoustic lining must not be less than 5 metres. return-air grilles in doors or walls are not recommended. preferably in the materials preparation room.12. partitions may not need to extend from floor to slab above. For special acoustically rated rooms. partitions must extend from floor slab through the ceiling to the slab above. Recommendations for the above ceiling construction are provided in the table in Section 3.2(b). consider locating technology spaces as far away as possible from other teaching spaces.Substructure. For Doors All classrooms should be provided with solid core doors with or without glazing. Finishes and Fittings (c) Special considerations for sound insulation between design and activity spaces in technology areas: The following issues need to be considered when planning the design space and activity space in technology spaces: ► when masterplanning. and ► utilise sound absorptive treatments in noisy activity areas. Where ducts penetrate walls either above or below the ceiling. ► locate noisy equipment as far away as possible from the design area. For Ducts Ducting requires treatment such as: ► Supply-air ductwork A supply duct that connects two adjacent areas must have acoustically lined or acoustic flexible ducting between the supply duct and the air registers to each room. If a ceiling tile is used and a rating greater than FSTC 35 is required. (d) Additional considerations in achieving sound insulation between spaces: For Ceilings If a continuous plasterboard ceiling is used. ► avoid connecting doors between spaces. Building Quality Standards Handbook 30 October 2008 . return-air paths should utilise transfer ducts in ceilings as detailed above. ► minimise the area of shared wall and ceiling. return air should utilise transfer ducts in ceilings as detailed in the section on ducting. Superstructure. Typically. ► Return-air path Openings through walls above ceilings for return-air must be fitted with acoustically treated transfer ducts. These could consist of internally lined bends with one metre sections of lined duct on each side.
in the materials preparation room). These regulations require equipment to be selected to achieve the required noise levels if practical. 1000 and 2000Hz. However. or (b) the C-weighted peak hold sound pressure level reading of 140 DB(C) measured in decibels referenced to 20 micropascals at an employee’s ear position. measures such as engineering and administrative noise-controls should be considered and. Finishes and Fittings For specialist areas such as music rooms. 10/2004 define “exposure standard” as: (a) the 8 hour equivalent continuous sound pressure level of 85dB(A) measured in Aweighted decibels referenced to 20 micropascals at an employee’s ear position. Noise regulations also contain requirements for the selection of plant and equipment in terms of noise emission. design will not generally affect these internally generated peak levels. 3. This relates to sound absorbent qualities within spaces. If this is exceeded. ceilings. Building Quality Standards Handbook 31 October 2008 .13. This is the average of the absorption coefficient measured at 250. technology rooms or drama studios. For Penetrations All penetrations through walls must be carefully sealed using a mastic or silicone sealant. In music rooms and other noisy areas. Sound Absorptive Finishes in Rooms The following table gives advice on the construction types for various building elements associated with achieving satisfactory sound control. doors.1:1998 “Acoustics – Determination of sound absorption coefficient and impedance in impedance tubes – Method using standing wave ratio”. but school administration should be aware of the circumstance. ceiling baffles. the wall must be carefully installed and usually subject to a rigid acoustic performance specification. To help reduce this impact. Superstructure. noisy equipment should be placed where the noise can be minimised (for example. In an open space. ducts. acoustic seals or proprietary acoustic doors should be considered. In a technology space. The absorption coefficient is measured in accordance with AS 1045-1988 “Acoustics – Measurements of sound absorption in a reverberant room” or AS/NZS 1935. The acoustic performance of various surface finishes is given in terms of the Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC). the maximum level may be exceeded when noisier items of equipment are operated. if practicable. penetrations must all be considered if operable wall performance is to be realised. The acoustic performance of surrounding walls.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . For Operable Walls In practice. 500. implemented before hearing protection is adopted as a long-term solution.3 Acoustic Performance WITHIN Spaces Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulations 2004 Statutory Rule No. the best performance likely with an operable wall is FSTC 30-35 (Normal Voice Privacy). To achieve this. the design recommendations noted below can help reduce the average level.Substructure. it is most unlikely that these levels will be exceeded.
70. Issues that may arise include whether music practice room walls should be parallel or at a slight angle. sound absorptive treatment should be applied to ceiling and wall surfaces.70. 5. Sound absorptive treatment. Acoustic ceiling tiles.Substructure. Superstructure. 6. Floors. sound absorbent floor coverings often cannot be used. Typically the ceilings should be selected to provide an NRC value of no less than 0. 3. industrial areas. Panels should be selected to provide an NRC value of no less than 0. then additional acoustic design features should be considered. an air gap can be inserted between these acoustic treatments and the backing surface behind (i.7. gymnasium and art/craft areas. or if sound absorbent panels should be specially designed and located within these rooms. 4. Special acoustic consideration. 2. These would focus on the external wall and could require the Building Quality Standards Handbook 32 October 2008 . the wall or roof). Modified pin boards are cane-ite panels covered with fabric and set 25mm off wall by timber ladder frame which should achieve a NRC of about 0.13. In technology. Options to consider are: • • mesh and perforated sisalation with factory fixed sound absorptive blanket behind perforated metal with sound absorptive blanket behind. For improved performance.g. railways. Woven back and hair felt underlay are generally required. Interlocking tiles (e.4 External Noise Control If a school is located close to roads. etc. Carpet and underlay. Rubberised floors are a good answer but cost approximately $60/m² (1997) and are not acid resistant. For these areas. If a situation requires special acoustic considerations. use modified pinboards¹ or acoustic panels² As per GPC unless special consideration required5 Special sound absorptive treatment to all walls6 Ceilings Plasterboard or acoustic ceiling tiles³ Floors Carpet and underlay4 Drama/Music As per GPC unless special consideration required5 Acoustic ceiling tiles or sound absorptive treatment to ceiling6 As per GPC unless special consideration required5 A separate space for noisy equipment used in Tech classes (the Materials Prep Room is recommended) Technology Some inboard area Acoustic ceiling tiles or sound absorptive treatment to ceiling6 Sound absorptive treatment to ceiling As per GPC unless special consideration required5 Specialised but more expensive floors are available7 Vinyl with cushioned backing is better than timber Vinyl Physical Education and MultiPurpose Art/Craft Special sound absorptive treatment to all walls6 above three metres from floor As per GPC unless special consideration required5 Notes: 1. Suitable acoustic ceilings are mineral fibre tile ceilings and metal pan ceiling systems. Typically these consists of semi rigid slabs of high density glass wall which are fabric faced or wrapped and can be used as pin boards. The carpet and underlay should be selected to provide a NRC value of no less than 0. an acoustic consultant should be employed.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . 7. Acoustic panels. Finishes and Fittings Area Type GPC Wall Construction Full width pin board on rear wall. For slightly improved performance. Gerflor) are acid resistant but cost considerably more. 3.e.50.
If external levels exceed 50dB(A). The table shows the standard constructions and estimated noise ratings that would be experienced in a typical classroom. but for special areas (e. To achieve an estimated level of rain noise heard inside classroom of dB(A)50 To achieve an estimated level of rain noise heard inside classroom of dB(A)45 (lower and better) Construction recommended Roof/ceiling with mineral tiled ceiling Metal deck 75mm thermal insulation Air space of 300-400mm Mineral fibre ceiling system Roof/ceiling with plasterboard ceiling Metal deck 75mm thermal insulation Air space of 300-400mm 13mm plasterboard ceiling Construction details Building Quality Standards Handbook 33 October 2008 . noise levels are estimated for two standard constructions. Assuming rainfall of 25mm/hour. drama) specialist advice should be sought. data from the Bureau of Meteorology indicates that this will occur on average five minutes every month.13. These levels should be satisfactory for most spaces. openable windows should not be allowed and specialist acoustic advice should be sought.5 Rain Noise The effects of rain should be considered in noise sensitive areas. Finishes and Fittings installation of double glazed window systems.g. 3.Substructure. For guidance.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 3 . Superstructure.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 - Internal Services
When designing any given service, the designer is required to make use of the most cost effective materials and installation techniques available, commensurate with appropriate levels of service and durability, and in accordance with the philosophy outlined in this handbook. All design, materials, workmanship, testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards. Where classes, types, etc. are referred to, they are in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard.
Fixtures shall be of the same model and manufacture throughout a school. Fixtures for later stages shall match the first stage. Where alternative types are to be considered, they shall only be selected if the fixture selection is more cost effective for the particular application. All vitreous china fixtures shall be white unless directed otherwise by the Principal Consultant. Technical Data Sheets for plumbing fixtures in secondary college facilities related to science, home economics and technology (trade) are contained in Appendix 2. In accordance with the Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulation 1989, the design of laboratories shall be in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2982 – Laboratory Design & Construction.
WC Suites Floor mounted vitreous china pan with concealed in-wall cistern with anti-vandal fixing accessories, or compliant cistern-less systems with anti-vandal fixing accessories. Similarly, floor mounted vitreous china pan with concealed in-wall cistern with antivandal fixing accessories, or compliant cistern-less systems with anti-vandal fixing accessories.
Urinals Slab type 304 Stainless Steel, 1.2mm thick for 3 metre maximum length, 1.6mm thick for lengths exceeding 3 metre, grated platform type. Concealed in-wall cisterns with anti-vandal fixing accessories, or compliant cistern-less systems with antivandal fixing accessories. Automatic flushing is recommended in primary schools while ventilation and flooring also need to be considered in the control of odours. 34
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Wall-mounted vitreous china with wall mounted exposed cistern or as for student areas if more than two stalls are required.
Basins Wall-mounted vitreous china (nominally 500mm x 400mm, with a 140mm minimum depth) with two soap holders and integral tapholes to suit specified tapware OR an installed bench with a flat-rim inset basin. Stainless steel troughs can also be employed in student toilet areas. Self-rimming vanity basin, vitreous china (nominally 500mm x 400mm, with a 140mm minimum depth) with two soap holders and integral tapholes to suit specified tapware.
Although wall hung basins are not recommended, where used, they should be fixed over the top of a tiled backing. Manufacturer’s options for stronger support brackets should be identified. In accordance with AS/NZS 3500 Part 4.2 Hot Water Supply Systems – Acceptable Solutions, the delivery temperature of water for personal hygiene purposes (primarily bathroom taps) is legally required to be 45ºC for primary schools and secondary colleges.
General Purpose Sinks
Employ a flat rim 0.9mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel sink. Bowl size to be nominally 380mm x 330mm, with a 150mm minimum depth. Number of bowls, location of bowl(s) and overall length of sink is to suit the particular application. Sinks are to have integral tapholes to suit specified tapware.
General Purpose Tubs and Troughs
Employ satin finish 304 Stainless Steel tubs and troughs to suit particular requirement.
Employ conventional shower sets to suit particular requirement, with taps located clear of discharge from rose outlet. Shower roses shall be AAA rated unless flow restrictor valves are fitted to the taps supplying the shower. Consider the use of push button on/off shower controls. In accordance with AS/NZS 3500 Part 4.2 Hot Water Supply Systems – Acceptable Solutions, the delivery temperature of water for personal hygiene purposes (primarily bathroom taps) is legally required to be 45ºC for primary schools and secondary colleges.
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Cleaner sinks should be provided in a dedicated space that is appropriately designed in terms of floor and wall finishes as well as ventilation. Any storage within this space must be in accordance with relevant Australian standards and legislation. Sinks should be wall-mounted vitreous china, with a chrome-plated hinged bucket grate. Bowl size to be nominally 500mm x 400mm, with a 150mm minimum depth.
Boiling Water Units
Employ a wall-mounted or under-bench type as appropriate, with capacity to suit particular application and featuring a time clock device for energy efficiency. Boiling water units shall have a five litre maximum capacity. Boiling water units are for hot drinks and deliver water at 95°C. Underbench domestic hot water units for personal hygiene in schools must now deliver water at a maximum of 45°C (refer AS/NZS 3500.4.2:1997). For additional information, refer to Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria’s “Infosheet – Energy Saving Measure – Water Heating”.
4.2.10 Drinking Troughs Wall-mounted or floor-mounted 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough with rear upstand skirt to conceal pipe work, and holed for drinking taps. Trough dimensions nominally 300mm wide x 150mm deep, with taps at nominal 450mm centres. Tapware shall be lever spring-action drinking cocks with mouthguard and 100mm long flanged horizontal extension to tap. Consideration should be given in the design process to locating taps and troughs in a manner which minimises damage or vandalism.
4.2.11 Ablution Troughs For general purpose, wall-mounted or floor-mounted 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough with rear upstand skirt to conceal pipe work, and holed for cold only (or hot and cold as appropriate) spray taps/outlets. Trough dimensions nominally 300mm wide x 150mm deep, with taps/tap sets at nominal 450mm centres for primary schools and 600mm centres for secondary colleges.
For some applications, flat rim troughs may be appropriate. In some environments, 316 Acid Resistant Stainless Steel may be required with waste to discharge to an acid neutralising tank or solvent/oil interceptor tank. Hand washing at these troughs is not recommended as soap discharges can affect performance of treatment apparatus.
4.2.12 Floor Waste Gullies (FWG) Floor waste gullies shall be 100mm in diameter and chrome-plated for all toilet blocks with external access. Floors should be graded towards them. Floor waste gullies shall be provided in other areas where floor wash down is required or as required by regulations.
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4.2.13 Tundishes Cone shaped and of a size to suit application, fabricated from 0.8mm thick copper sheet, and chromeplated where exposed except in plant rooms and similar.
4.2.14 Clay and Ablution Troughs Special purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough with special purpose tapware and waste outlets. Refer to Clay and Ablution Trough Technical Data Sheet – Appendix 2.
4.2.15 Potting Troughs Special purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough. Waste to discharge to a silt pit. Refer to Potting Trough Technical Data Sheet – Appendix 2.
4.2.16 Laboratory Sinks Flat rim 1.2mm thick satin finish 316 Acid Resistant Stainless Steel. Bowl size to suit particular application. Laboratory type tapware may be bench mounted or sink mounted to suit particular application. Waste to discharge to an acid neutralising tank. Refer to Secondary College Science
Room – Plumbing Fixtures – Technical Data Sheet – Appendix 2.
4.2.17 Safety Sprays Wall-mounted with aerated chrome-plated eye wash outlet, trigger operated and with a nominal 1800mm length of hose.
4.2.18 Fume Cupboards Refer to Section 4.11.1 Fume Cupboard for services requirements. Refer to Secondary College Science Room – Plumbing Fixtures – Technical Data Sheet – Appendix 2.
4.2.19 Photographic Troughs Special purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 316 Acid Resistant Stainless Steel or PVC trough, with special purpose tapware. Waste to discharge to a mixing tank. Refer to Photographic Trough
Technical Data Sheet – Appendix 2.
4.2.20 Frame Baths Special purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 316 Acid Resistant Stainless Steel sink, with special purpose tapware. Waste treatment to suit particular application. Refer to Frame Bath Technical Data Sheet
– Appendix 2.
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4.2.21 Drip Trough and Racks Special purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough, with special purpose tapware. Refer to Drip Trough and Rack Technical Data Sheet – Appendix 2.
4.2.22 Hand Driers The hand drier in toilets shall be a direct-wired push-button type with a preset timer for at least 45 seconds running. It shall be suitable for 240 Volt, 50 Hz supply and rated at not more than 2kW with an air flow of not less than 150m3/h through a fixed (non swivel) nozzle. The noise rating shall be less than 65dB(A) at 1 metre. Assemblies shall be complete with concealed mounting hardware to suit the wall type. Proximity sensors for the drier may be considered, provided such a system is vandal-proof.
4.2.23 Facilities for Disabled All facilities to be in accordance with AS 1428.1.
Pipe work shall comply with AS 3500.2 2003 and the following additional requirements:
► preferred pipe work material is PVC unless noted otherwise; ► all pipe work shall be concealed if possible; ► traps for wastes on fixtures requiring treatment apparatus shall be of polypropylene or
stainless steel as appropriate; and
► exposed external pipe work shall be of copper alloy (70/30 brass).
Trade Waste Application
A trade waste application (including trade waste plan and a trade waste treatment apparatus drawing, as appropriate) is to be prepared and lodged with the relevant authority on behalf of the school.
The following treatment apparatus is to be considered if other provisions are not made:
► acid neutralising tanks– refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; ► wet feed neutralising tanks for electroplating process equipment – refer Appendix 2 for
Building Quality Standards Handbook
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 - Internal Services
► wet feed neutralising tanks and PVC dosing tanks – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; ► plaster interceptor tanks; ► settling tanks – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; ► grease interceptors – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; ► solvent/oil interceptor tanks – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; ► silt traps – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; ► mixing tanks – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; and ► straining traps – refer Appendix 2 for standard detail.
Trade Waste Operation Documentation
Provide the school council with a “monitoring and maintenance of trade waste” manual to ensure that the operation remains effective. Supply the school with a record of its trade waste application and plans.
The supply of water is governed by relevant Australian Standards as well as regulations and by-laws exercised through local water authorities. The principal consultant will nominate which fixtures are “cold only” and which are “hot and cold”. In primary schools, hot water is generally supplied to the following areas:
► staff and administration areas; ► student showers; ► canteen; ► art room; and ► disabled toilets.
In secondary colleges, hot water is generally supplied to all areas except student toilets.
Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings
Pipe work, valves and fittings shall comply with AS 3500. All pipe work in above-ground inaccessible spaces shall be copper tube “Type B” (insulated) in accordance with AS 1432 2004. Consider the use of flow restrictors and pressure reducing valves in a combined water and energy management system in order to reduce pipe sizes and headworks fees. 39
Building Quality Standards Handbook
2:1997. and include: ► gas storage units. Tapware for laboratories and other special-use areas shall be of a design suitable for the proposed use. Refer also to Section 4. Hot water systems must operate independently of space heating systems. ► staff sinks – 6 litres/minute (exceptions are the main staff room and canteen at a permitted 9 litres/minute). water flow rates are set at: ► basins – 4 litres/minute (an exception is the sick bay [if the basin is its only tap outlet] at a permitted 6 litres/minute). its location. all new hot water installations. Tapware for later stages shall match the first stage. Cold water handles shall be coded “blue” and hot water handles coded “red”. Hot water units should be carefully sized and selected to match the anticipated demand for hot water. Under the Department’s Schools Water Efficiency Program (SWEP). and should be avoided. In selecting the most appropriate hot water supply. ► continuous-flow gas or electric water heaters. A range of different systems may be appropriate. at the outlet of sanitary fixtures used primarily for personal hygiene. home economics and science preparation rooms at a permitted 9 litres/minute). These matters must be addressed in the Design Development report.4.2 – Sanitary Fixtures. usage and the activity therein. the following should be considered: Building Quality Standards Handbook 40 October 2008 . The oversizing of units will create excessive year-round energy waste and expense. In both primary schools and secondary colleges. shall deliver hot water not exceeding 45°C.4. and ► solar hot water units.4. depending on the application.Internal Services 4.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . ► classroom sinks – 6 litres/minute (exceptions are sick bays.3 Tapware Tapware shall generally be satin chrome finish with anti-vandal star pattern design handles. Hot water shall be stored at a minimum of 60°C to inhibit the growth of legionella bacteria. These must be designed in accordance with AS 3500 Part 4 and AS/NZS 3500. The design and selection of the most appropriate hot water service supply will depend on the nature of the space. Cold water handles/taps shall be fixed on the right-hand side of fixture and hot water handles/taps fixed on the left-hand side. All tapware shall be of the same model and manufacture throughout a school. 4. and ► wash troughs – 9 litres/minute (exceptions are cleaners troughs at a permitted 12 litres/minute).4 Hot Water Units Hot water units shall be provided as required.
Building Quality Standards Handbook 41 October 2008 . ► electronic taps for canteen wash basins.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . ► The use of timer units should not be considered for gas systems since they are usually impractical. See Section 4. etc. ► provision of backflow prevention devices to protect other areas from any hazard areas. ► chrome plating on all exposed pipe work. weekends.) ► Pressure equalising systems such as “Platypus” may be applicable in some large schools but they are not generally cost effective in systems using decentralised hot water to reduce hot water usage.4. ► provision of mixing valves where domestic hot water is supplied to personal hygiene outlets from storage water heaters. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) should not be used at any site where natural gas is available. ► Any timer controls should be centralised and connect back to a master multi-channel site clock. ► All units shall be energy efficient and gas units shall have a 5 Star Rating Energy Label or better (and preferably electronic ignition). ► The use of solar hot water units (with a gas or electric boost) should be considered in areas of suitable climate. These units should also be considered in other applications. Consider timers for shut down on holidays. The selection of an energy-efficient domestic hot-water heater or the selection of solar hot-water must be addressed in the Design Development report. ► Natural gas domestic hot water units are to be used if natural gas is available on the site. ► The use of timer units for high efficiency boiling hot water units are not cost effective given the good insulative properties of modern units and low out-of-hours electricity costs. rarely cost effective.5 Other Issues The design of the water supply system shall address the following issues as appropriate: ► isolation of areas/fixtures by suitable valving to permit maintenance. and often unreliable. Consideration for electric underbench heating could be given if excessive gas pipe runs are involved.9 if boiling water units serve sinks.2. (Schools are currently eligible for Victorian Government rebates on the purchase of a solar hot water heater. 4. ► provision of master control valve systems to demonstration benches. night time and curriculum days.g.Internal Services ► Local storage units should be used for areas generating prolonged usage such as shower- change areas and science rooms. ► The storage capacity of water heaters shall be minimised as far as possible. ► Continuous-flow electric water units should be considered in areas where short-term low quantity usage is required (e. staff tearooms) and no natural gas (only LPG) is available.
4. ► LPG should not be used at any site where there is natural gas. ► local gas-heating appliances (ducted/space) shall be high-efficiency condensing units.5. Building Quality Standards Handbook 42 October 2008 . ► appliance thermostats shall be locked off from user alteration. as well as branch take offs for future additions.5. however. For upgrades.5. 4. Completed installation shall be in accordance with AS 5601/Gas Installation Code AG 601–1995 and the local supply authority. and ► fitting of all showers with low flow heads. ► gas appliances should be sealed combustion units. In the selection of the most appropriate gas appliances. ► no atmospheric burners or pilot lights should be permitted. ► units shall operate by simple on/off control or by time duration. assess existing tariffs to ensure that they are the most advantageous to the school. is not a high priority.2 Tariffs For new projects. and ► small space heating to offices or sick bays should utilise electric wall-mounted radiant panels unless central hydronic heating is available.Internal Services ► provision of simple pressure-limiting devices to reduce overall water consumption. This.3 Meters Consider providing gas sub-meters to high energy-use areas and/or equipment (such as trade blocks but not kilns) in order to obtain energy-use profiles. 4.5. 4.5 4. detail the tariffs proposed to ensure that they are the most advantageous to the school.1 Gas Services General Gas services shall be natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. ► central plant shall have modulating heat output in response to changing load requirements. consider a natural gas reticulation system to relocatable buildings described in the initial design.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . the following should be considered: ► gas appliances should have electronic ignition.4 Relocatable Buildings Where mains gas is provided to the site.
► high efficiency condensing ducted gas space heating (in conjunction with ducted cooling). depending on the application. All pipe work is to be concealed from view in normally occupied areas. ► reverse cycle airconditioning.5. The most appropriate heating system for a particular application will depend on the nature of the space to be heated and the activity therein. Building Quality Standards Handbook 43 October 2008 . 4.6.5 Pipe Work All above-ground permanent pipe work shall be “Type B” copper tube to AS 1432.5.1 Space Heating General Energy Design Process A design process is to be undertaken which includes: ► a project meeting with all stakeholders and agreement to goals. Allow 10% spare capacity in pipe work sizing. 4. Provide isolation valves at each floor-level take-off.7 Outlets Provide fixed turret type outlets for laboratory bench top use. electrical and building fabric design as the one exercise.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . consider positioning the reticulation system in common services trenches with stormwater lines. A range of different systems may be appropriate. Ensure adequate permanent ventilation to enclosed pipe risers. and ► treatment of mechanical. Provide protection from mechanical damage where exposed. allow for natural gas in pipe work design. All joints are to be brazed where practical.6 4. 4. Where LPG is to be used and natural gas is likely to be available within five years. Provide the demonstrator’s bench with an isolation valve to restrict gas supply to student outlets. locate carefully and ensure that adequate acoustic measures are provided to meet acceptable ambient and internal noise criteria. 4.5. Where required. 4. Locate valves generally adjacent emergency exits within that room.Internal Services If gas is to be provided to relocatable buildings.6 Emergency Isolation Valves Provide clearly labelled and accessible isolation valves within each room served with a general purpose fuel gas outlet.5. These include: ► power-flue console heater. Provide isolation valves and connect to each gas appliance.8 Gas Booster Gas booster devices are to be avoided where possible.
► minimisation of areas of east-facing and west-facing glass (less than 5% of floor area each). ► zoning of areas so that heated areas are grouped and isolated from non cooled areas by means of doors. and ► doors shall be located. ► insulation of roof (both reflective and bulk). Such heaters must comply with AS 5601/Gas Installation Code AG 601 and be mounted at least 2500mm above floor level and have a clearance from the ceiling of at least 1000mm.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . Insulation shall be made from a material that has a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF). Items to be considered include: ► orientation of building blocks. Electric fan heaters should also be avoided (heat shifter fans may be considered in transferring heat to small areas such as offices adjacent to heated rooms. heated areas should be separated from the outside by air locks. with their longer axis set out in an east/west direction. Energy Targets No heating system should be installed until an energy target has been established and the performance of the proposed heating system compared against that target. If possible. System selection should take into account required amenity levels and employ a life-cycle process (over 15 years) to determine the most appropriate system based on total ownership costs. ► external shading of east-facing. and ► gas radiant heaters (where ceiling height and government regulations permit). Spaces that have high ceilings and high infiltration are suited to gas radiant heating. Slab heating is neither economic nor recommended. Building Quality Standards Handbook 44 October 2008 . walls and floors (if timber). and revised if necessary. including associated infrastructure costs related to electric sub-mains and gas supplies. tube). on the eastern side of the building to avoid cold southerly winds (as well as hot northerly winds). envisaged usage requirements (climatic demands and hours of operation) and the ability of a particular system to be controlled in such a way as to match its operation time to actual occupancy requirements. and ► energy costs on the basis of likely tariff rates. ► electrical radiant heaters (panel. west-facing and north-facing windows. Fabric and Services No heating system shall be designed or installed until due consideration has been given to a satisfactory reduction of the heating load. Life cycle analysis of systems that meet the amenity criteria should address: ► capital costs. if possible. Selection of a suitable system should be based on its ability to provide heating in an appropriate and adequate manner.Internal Services ► ground source heat pump. ► maintenance costs related to the realistic life of the system and its components. ► hydronic heating (hot water radiators).
and ► do not use LPG when natural gas is available on site. The need for personal heating devices should be avoided by good design. Plant and Equipment All plant is to be energy efficient and have a 5 Star Rating Energy Label or better if a star rating is available. Out-of-hours use should be separately heated. Spot radiant heaters are to be installed. Passive Solar Heating of Non Heated Spaces Spaces not provided with fossil fuel heating (e. Fuel Source As a general rule: ► use natural gas in preference to LPG and electricity. Ensure that gas fired heating plants emit NO× at a rate no greater than 200mg/kWh of delivered energy.g. High efficiency condensing boilers should be used. Ensure that centralised plant is capable of operating only when required to deliver heat. ► use natural gas in preference to LPG for the heating of relocatables. if required. Daylighting and Heating No heating system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to reducing the internal heat load of electric lighting by maximising the use of daylight from shaded windows or skylights. Ceiling fans operated slowly in conjunction with heaters help reduce energy consumption and should be installed so that the minimum height of the fan blades is 2.4 metres above finished floor level. but only as a last option. Ceiling Fans and Heating No heating system shall be designed or installed unless high efficiency ceiling fans have been installed. or inefficient when operating at low capacity. inside air should not be used for combustion. Ensure that plant is not over sized and hence more expensive than need be. storerooms and corridors) should be heated with passive solar energy. If possible. Gas fired plant shall not produce unacceptable nitrous oxide (NO×) pollution.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . toilets. Building Quality Standards Handbook 45 October 2008 .Internal Services Zoning Consider zoning low occupancy areas separately for heating systems through the use of isolation valves and local heating controls.
with temperature sensing to avoid overheating. This table should be used as an initial guide only. ► local timer controls linked to a central time controller. e. It is a guide only. Tube) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X May be applicable Generally not applicable The following table provides relative cost indices for various types of heating systems on a square metre basis. ► extra insulation on boiler if upgrades are being undertaken (modern boilers are often well insulated). Unflued gas heaters are not permitted except if gas radiant. The actual cost of various options will be dependent upon amenity requirements. and ► lockable and tamperproof thermostats. If hydronic systems are used. Heating System Type General Purpose Classroom (GPC) Physical Education (PE) Music Art/Craft Library Staff Admin Computer Science/ Home Eco Tech Studies Power-flue Console Heaters High Efficiency Condensing Gas Heaters High Efficiency Condensing Gas Heaters + Cooling Reverse Cycle Airconditioning (in appropriate NatHERS Zones) Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydronic (Hot water Radiators) Gas Radiant (Panels. Consider providing the following features to plant and equipment : ► heat recovery modules in heated areas where there are high ventilation rates. The following table offers guidance on the recommended heating system types for selective areas within a school. System selection should be based on a life cycle analysis. trade and technology rooms. and the installation of any heating plant should be justified by the amenity required in the area.Internal Services Gas plant should have electronic ignition. ensure that the pipe work is well insulated. system design and site constraints. Heating System Type Typical Installation Cost $/m²/annum Typical Operating Cost $/m²/annum Typical Maintenance Cost $/m²/annum Power-flue Console Heaters 4 5 3 Building Quality Standards Handbook 46 October 2008 .g.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . Unflued radiant gas heaters remain a good option in spaces with high ceilings and large ventilation rates.
Ensure the return-air plenums are sealed. well sealed. Building Quality Standards Handbook 47 October 2008 . Do not use ceiling spaces for return air paths. Filters are to be located so they can easily be removed for cleaning and replacement.6.5 for details. the design should specify energy efficient equipment. testing and commissioning should confirm this performance.5.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . and designed to minimise air flow resistance. Return-Air Paths Return-air paths reduce energy use in ducted air systems. Ductwork Heating air ductwork is to be insulated to R1.) Sub-metering All electric heating systems should consider the use of electricity sub-metering by blocks in order to easily carry out energy cost audits. Controls All heating systems shall use simple yet effective controls to minimise the use of heating equipment while maintaining acceptable internal conditions.Internal Services High Efficiency Condensing Gas Heaters Reverse Cycle Airconditioning (in appropriate Zones) Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydronic (Hot water Radiators) Gas Radiant (panels. Testing and Commissioning Testing and commissioning should include two aspects: ► Firstly. Where appropriate. Ensure that the return-air path is not subject to infiltration and is appropriately insulated. outside air quantities should be minimised yet comply with ventilation regulations and provide appropriate indoor air quality levels. Outside Air Where fan forced ducted systems are used. Tube) 5 6 10 7 3 10 = Highest Cost 4 10 6 8 5 4 5 7 10 2 Filters Filters are to have a design pressure drop of 25 Pa. (Refer Section 4. including the cost of out of hours use.
► efficiency of systems. 4. Allow a space of at least 1000mm horizontally from the heater to nearest occupant. Unitary space heater locations should aim for even heat distribution and be sited away from corners and close to cold parts of the room. Maintenance Strategy Consultants will provide an ongoing maintenance strategy for later implementation by the school. especially in north facing rooms.2 Centralised Plant versus Individual Units Consideration should be given to the following factors when considering centralised plant: ► warm up time. ► room occupancy patterns (primary school rooms are generally occupied by the same people while secondary colleges are subject to continually changing and varying occupancy).g. ► solar gain. Ducted warm air furnace heating may be considered. provide a certified air distribution and diffusion test report which includes an adjustment and balance report.3 Primary Schools Unitary gas heaters should be used for classrooms and larger spaces. Toilets. If appropriate. Such documentation should not only set out details of the installation and its energy efficient operation but also clearly record all design assumptions and capacities in order to facilitate future modifications and building adjustment. Building Quality Standards Handbook 48 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . depending on architectural floor plan and building construction. storerooms and corridors should not be heated. particularly in part load circumstances.Internal Services ► Secondly. and ► zoning of building.6. Ducted warm air furnace heat should be used for administration and staff areas. documents should ensure the handover of accurate and detailed building and systems records and operational directions.g. pin boards.g. High level wall mounted or ceiling radiant electric heaters could be used where floor/wall space is limited. halls. e.6. ► control systems. windows. 4. e. Wall mounted gas radiant heaters should be used for large volume spaces with high ceilings. Layouts should allow 200mm both horizontally and vertically from walls. etc. canteen. and include convective powered flue or wall furnace types. fixed furniture. include a water balancing report. For hydronic systems. Radiant gas consoles or wall mounted heaters should not be used in these areas. e. Independence of main systems in areas to be used out-of-hours should be considered. and around floor level heaters for safety and maintenance.
Where possible. storerooms and corridors should not be heated.5 Heating System Controls Control systems should have a centralised master time clock to ensure after hours switch off as well as local controls allowing variations to suit local conditions.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 .6 Plant Rooms In-ground or partially subterranean plant rooms should be avoided. Physical education centres should be heated only when directed.6. fumes or odours are generated. The thermostat setting should not be higher than 19°C. Building Quality Standards Handbook 49 October 2008 . Heater controls should be student tamperproof and accessible only by a key. 4.7 Ventilation Ventilation is useful in reducing the overheating of large spaces. Toilets. heating controls should take into account climatic conditions and allow for early morning warm up to modulate temperature according to space conditions. Thermostats should be lockable and tamperproof. Where appropriate. especially where numbers of students gather. Independence of main systems in areas to be used out-of-hours should be considered.6.4 Secondary Colleges Designers should consider potential vandalism to heating systems when preparing designs for classrooms. Control systems should accommodate power failure and ensure that the resetting of the system is a simple procedure. Boiler and furnace plant rooms should be exclusive to that purpose.Internal Services 4. Central heating systems with re-circulating air or return-air should be used except in rooms where dust.6. Access should not be from a store. wet area or any area likely to contain flammable substances. Access to the plant room should be from outside or from a corridor. 4. 4. the plant room should have at least one external wall. Spot radiant heating should be controlled by local time switches (45 to 60 minute maximum operating times are recommended before a restart is required). Heating controls should also take advantage of internal heat generated by occupants and office equipment. Ventilation is also useful for overnight cooling. Time clocks with temperature sensing will help avoid overheating.
Consideration shall be given to the security of inlet and outlet openings that are required to be left open at night. Consideration shall be given to the elimination of dust intrusion. Duct velocities shall not exceed 6 metres per second. Fabric and Services No natural ventilation system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to reducing the cooling load to be satisfied.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . 4. cooled areas should be separated from the outside by air locks).2 Natural Ventilation Hand operated remote operating mechanisms for upper openings shall be provided. Building Quality Standards Handbook 50 October 2008 . Consideration shall be given to keeping air speeds low so as not to move paper. west. no natural ventilation system should be installed until an energy target for the building has been established and the performance of the proposed cooling system compared with that target. Insulation shall be made from material that has a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF).7. ► insulation of roof (both reflective and bulk). with their longer axis set out in an east/west direction. Rigid sheetmetal trunking ductwork with flexible duct run-outs limited to 5 metres in length should be provided. if possible.Internal Services 4. Consideration shall be given to the alternate summer/winter use of natural ventilation to ensure that winter heating loads are not increased. Consideration should be given to the provision of limited areas of higher volume to act as hot air drains and promote the use of natural ventilation. and ► doors shall be located. and revised if necessary. Items to consider include: ► orientation of building blocks.7. ► zoning of areas so that cooled areas are grouped and isolated from non cooled areas by means of doors (if possible. on the eastern side of the building to avoid hot northerly winds (as well as cold southerly winds).and north-facing windows.1 General Energy Targets If cooling is proposed. ► external shading of east-. ► minimisation of areas of east. 4.and west-facing glass (less than 5% of floor area each). Exhaust air inlet points over each shower cubicle and each group of two sanitary fixtures should be provided. walls and floors (if timber).7.3 Toilet and Change Room Exhaust System All toilet and change areas should be mechanically ventilated.
415V motors where practical and 1-phase. Manufacture the hood from 1.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . Exhaust fans should be interlocked and/or time controlled to ensure that they only operate when required. Exhaust fans should be time-clock controlled. Provide a local manual control station adjacent to the hood and complete with a LED-run indicator. Ensure an adequate make-up of exhaust air quantity. Locate fans with regard to adequate security. Ensure an adequate make-up of exhaust air quantity. acoustic performance and capital cost. Ensure that fans are statically and dynamically balanced. 4. including provision of relief vents. Building Quality Standards Handbook 51 October 2008 . Ensure all components are corrosion and weather resistant. 240V motors elsewhere. Control systems are to be tamperproof.7. maintenance access and acoustic performance. Use direct drives and avoid belt drives where possible. Use 3-phase. Motors shall be totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) squirrel cage induction types.7. Provide perimeter gutters with threaded cap drain points. Manufacture the hood from 1.4 Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Systems Size hoods to cover all cooking equipment and provide a minimum 150mm overhang.7. Install separately switched.4mm thick. Avoid ceiling access panels where possible. vapour proof fluorescent luminaires to provide 200 lux at working surface. 4. Weld all joints and provide a general purpose polish finish.6 Exhaust Fans Select the fan type with regard to system efficiency.Internal Services Adequate make-up of exhaust air quantity should be ensured. series 304 stainless steel. 4. expanded aluminium grease filters with integral frame handles in sufficient number to maintain the design air quantity within the manufacturers’ limits. Provide washable. Provide two speed fans with manual control station adjacent to the hood and complete with a LEDrun indicator.5 Kiln Exhaust Systems Size hoods to cover kiln openings and discharge points.6mm thick galvanised mild steel sheet. rated to a minimum of IP45.
7. including split airconditioning or console units as well as packaged units. All schools in these areas receive airconditioning to their entitled spaces under the space and area guidelines. including libraries. 4. Cooling systems are provided to schools on the basis of their location within the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS). The minimum height of ceiling fans (as measured from the underside of the fan blades) shall be 2. Provide sweep fans on the basis of one fan per 25m² of floor area. consider the replacement of ceiling fans installed prior to 1980.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . A range of different systems may be appropriate depending upon their application. all metal construction suitable for 240V supply. a combination of these factors is inadequate in maintaining comfortable room temperatures. and that they consist of a three bladed.Internal Services Ensure all exhaust fans are capable of being effectively sealed off when not in use to eliminate unwanted infiltration and exfiltration. its wall and roof insulation. Provide one control station per fan with a minimum of three speed settings in forward and reverse direction.8 4. and to administration areas.7 Ceiling Fans Provide ceiling sweep fans to all teaching areas. For upgrade projects. They should feature time out controls so that they only operate when required. Building Quality Standards Handbook 52 October 2008 .1 Cooling General The minimisation of overheating is integral to the successful utilisation of school buildings. Design and installation factors which contribute to the thermal comfort of a facility include its orientation and external shading. System selection should take into account the required amenity levels and employ a life cycle analysis process (over 15 years) to determine the most appropriate system based on total ownership costs. Where. Controls should be of commercial quality to withstand robust usage. thereby ensuring adequate air movement. Mount fans clear of lights to avoid stroboscope effect. These include: ► evaporative cooling. cooling systems are installed. Airconditioning is to be provided to all Special Developmental Schools. 4. The remaining schools are not provided with cooling systems except where a concentration of mainframe equipment is located. natural ventilation and the use of ceiling fans. The most appropriate cooling system for a particular application will depend upon the nature of space to be cooled and the activity therein. zones 20 and 27 (refer Appendix 3 – Postcode Areas within NatHERS Zones).4 metres from finished floor level. Ensure that fans are statically and dynamically balanced.8. because of climatic extremes. and ► refrigerated air cooling.
Internal Services Selection of a suitable system should be based on its ability to provide cooling in an appropriate and adequate manner. and ► energy costs on the basis of likely energy tariff rates. The following table offers guidance in the selection of cooling systems for various school areas where cooling is required. system design and site constraints. envisaged usage requirements (climatic demands and hours of operation) and the ability of a particular system to be controlled in such a way as to match its operation time to actual occupancy requirements. Building Quality Standards Handbook 53 October 2008 . The system selected should be based on a life cycle analysis. Cooling System Type General Purpose Classroom (GPC) Physical Education (PE) Music Art/Craft Library Staff Admin Computer Science Tech Studies Home Eco Evaporative Cooling Refrigerated Cooling Split Airconditioning Systems (Console Units) X X X X X X X X X X X May be applicable Generally not applicable. It is a guide only. Life-cycle analysis of systems that meet the amenity criteria should address: ► capital cost including associated infrastructure costs such as electric sub-mains.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . The actual cost of various systems will depend on amenity requirements. and the installation of any cooling plant should be justified by the amenity required in the area. ► maintenance costs for a realistic life of the system and its components.
Internal Services Energy Targets No cooling system should be installed until an energy target has been established and the performance of the proposed system compared with that target. Daylighting and Cooling No cooling system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to reducing the internal heat load of electric lighting by maximising the use of daylight from shaded windows or skylights.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . on the eastern side of the building to avoid hot northerly winds (as well as cold southerly winds). ► external shading of east-. Natural Ventilation No cooling system shall be considered. with their longer axis set out in an east/west direction. west. ► minimisation of areas of east. Insulation shall be made from material that has a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF). and revised if necessary.and west-facing glass (less than 5% of floor area each). Controls All cooling systems shall use simple yet effective controls to minimise the use of cooling equipment while maintaining acceptable internal conditions. designed or installed until the use of natural ventilation has been considered. and ► doors shall be located. Fabric and Services No cooling system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to reducing the cooling load to be satisfied. Thermostat settings should not be lower than 24°C. ► insulation of roof (both reflective and bulk). as well as the costing of out-of-hours use. cooled areas should be separated from the outside by air locks. ► zoning of areas so that cooled areas are grouped and isolated from non cooled areas by means of doors. Items to consider include: ► orientation of building blocks. If possible. walls and floors (if timber). Ceiling Fans and Cooling No cooling system shall be designed or installed unless ceiling fans have been installed. Building Quality Standards Handbook 54 October 2008 . Sub-metering All cooling systems should consider the use of electricity sub-metering (by blocks) for cooling in order to carry out energy cost audits.and north-facing windows. if possible.
Time delay and time control switches should be considered. marine grade aluminium or stabilised UV resistant polymer with a suitably matched fibre glass or polymer water sump. Maintenance Strategy Consultants should provide an ongoing maintenance strategy (including documentation) for use by school in relation to all refrigerated and evaporative coolers. Automatic dampers to close units when not in operation should be provided. A water treatment plant may be required in some hard water areas. Controllers should be linked to a central time clock. The length of ductwork should be minimised. Check with the cooler manufacturer for the recommended air change rate. pump and motors) shall be non corrosive and suitable for operation in a moist environment. securely fixed to the unit. Local water supply should be taken into consideration when supplying the units. Noise generation should be considered when selecting an axial or centrifugal fan unit. Smaller downwards discharge coolers may be supported off the rigid supply air duct. A purpose built weather cover. and automatic dump valve operation. Capital cost and operating environment shall be taken in to account when selecting the unit.2 Evaporative Cooling The cooler capacity should be based on a minimum of 35 air changes of the room volume served. should be provided. Design air change rates vary throughout the State. The use of attenuated ductwork should be considered. Flexible duct external insulation of glass or mineral fibre should be a minimum of 25mm thick. A suitable corrosion resistant support frame off building members for larger units should be supplied. All components (including the fan.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . Each unit should be provided with a water sump dump valve to flush out sludge and concentrated salts. Building Quality Standards Handbook 55 October 2008 .Internal Services Testing and Commissioning All installed systems should be tested and commissioned in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations to ensure that they work as specified. Internal duct insulation shall be moisture resistant or contain a moisture resistant membrane. Filters should be easily removable for cleaning. 4. The thermostat setting should not be lower than 24°C.8. The sump bleed and drain valve discharge pipe shall not discharge onto metal roof surfaces but be piped to the nearest stormwater down pipe. Each evaporative cooling unit shall have a variable or multiple fan speed controller. an ON/OFF pump controller. Sufficient openings to discharge the large volumes of introduced air must be provided. The unit casing shall be either stainless steel.
9 Fire Protection 56 October 2008 Building Quality Standards Handbook . In other locations. Refrigerants used should have an Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF) of 0. refrigerative coolers should be provided. Adequate means of access for the servicing of units should be provided. Consultants are to provide a servicing schedule for later implementation by schools in accordance with relevant legislative requirements. 4. The provision of wall/ceiling insulation and window shading devices will effect the performance of units.Internal Services Consideration should be given to evaporative coolers only in locations where there is reticulated town water. Systems with energy efficient (high) coefficients of performance should be selected. Time delay and time control switches should be considered.3 Airconditioning – Room and Packaged Plant These airconditioning units comprise of window/wall units. Controllers should be linked to a central time clock. The units shall comply with AS 1861. An adequate and permanent means of access and an appropriate platform for the servicing of units should be provided. Adequate support and vibration control should be provided. Filters should be easily removable for cleaning. A hose spigot point adjacent to the unit is to be provided for unit cleaning. packaged unitary systems and packaged split systems.5 minimum standard and preferably R2. Refrigerative cooling can be used for special areas. Ductwork in roof cavities shall be insulated to the R1. The units shall have hermetically sealed rotary compressors with reverse cycle capability and an automatic de-icing cycle. and comply with current environmental guidelines. Maintenance access and platforms for large roof-mounted plant should be provided.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . split systems. Consultants are to provide a servicing schedule for later implementation by the school.06 or less. The condenser sections shall be fitted with screens or placed in an enclosure to protect the fans from damage by vandals. The thermostat setting should not be lower than 24°C. Refrigerant leak detectors should be considered (refer to SAA HB40-1997). Evaporative coolers should be serviced four times a year for health considerations. Liaise with the principal consultant to determine the design conditions. but it should only be selected after evaporative cooling has been considered. 4.8.
2 Fire Hose Reels and Extinguishers Fire hose reels and fire extinguishers shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia. 4. All pipe work to hose reels shall be DN32 minimum and.1). 4.9. 4.9.Internal Services 4. appropriate operational measures shall be arranged with the relevant building surveyor or relevant chief officer.9. Where the effectiveness of hose reels may be restricted by locked rooms. 4. be copper tube “Type B” in accordance with AS 1432 (unless contrary to AS 2419.10 Electrical Lighting and Power Life cycle analysis of systems which meet the amenity criteria should address: Building Quality Standards Handbook 57 October 2008 . Fire hose reels shall not be provided in external unsecured areas.9. 4.3 Smoke and Fire Doors Smoke detectors shall be provided as well as magnetic hold-open devices to doors between smoke compartments.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 .9.5 Emergency Signs and Lighting Emergency signs and lighting shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia. 4.1 Fire Hydrants Fire hydrants shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia. Equipment installation and system design should comply with the requirements of AS 1670 and associated Australian Standards.4 Smoke Detectors and Sound Alarms Smoke detectors and sound alarms (incorporating International Standards Organisation [ISO] emergency signals) shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia and the relevant Australian Standards.6 Maintenance Log Books Maintenance log books should be provided to schools in accordance with the provisions of DEECD’s Annual Contracts: Guidelines for Building Services Maintenance in Schools as well as the Building Regulations.9. where below and within buildings.
Internal Services ► capital cost. ► Circuit Design When utilising daylight. metering and control gear ► maintenance costs associated with a realistic life of the system and its components ► energy costs on the basis of likely energy tariff rates. Building Quality Standards Handbook 58 October 2008 . including associated infrastructure costs related to electric sub-mains. the lighting circuit should be designed to minimise artificial lighting. Design and construction should minimise the fossil fuel required to provide acceptable indoor light levels. Circuitry should allow for night time use as well as maximum daylight availability.10. For artificial lighting. ► Powerline Carrier Systems Powerline carrier systems are not currently recommended because of their present unreliability. Where there are high levels of equipment (such as in staffrooms). the correct sizing and location of energy efficient equipment and control systems is important.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . 4. envisaged usage requirements (climatic demands and hours of operation) and the ability of the lighting system to be controlled in such a way as to match its operation time to occupancy requirements. Factors which will assist this include: ► Fabric and Services An awareness that the windows and skylights (the building fabric) and the artificial lighting (the services) both contribute to energy efficiency and are inseparable considerations. consideration should be given to the creation of two circuits within the general purpose power circuit design. ► Zoning The building should be zoned into different lighting and control zones depending on the closeness to windows and skylights. For natural daylighting. This would accommodate both 24 hour supply and supply which switches off after hours. ► Energy Targets Energy targets should be set for each project. and the tasks required to be performed.1 Design General It is important that lighting be considered in two forms: natural and artificial. the correct sizing and location of openings is the key factor.
10. 4.3 Main Switchboard Design Equipment and conductors shall have a short circuit rating of not less than the maximum prospective symmetrical RMS short circuit current values on incoming terminals at the operational voltage.10. Provide at least 25% spare capacity in the ratings of main incoming busbars and main switch/isolators. Check that tariffs are comparable to commercially available contract prices. The degree of protection required shall be IP20 for internal installations and IP54W for external or plant room installations. Location Locate the main switchboard to suit the layout of the site. Ensure there is sufficient capacity in the switchboard for planned future stages of school development. Switchboards and associated electrical conductors must be protected by fire-resisting construction (refer Building Code of Australia. review the electrical tariff proposed and ensure that it is the most advantageous to the school.2 Supply Tariffs The impact of a demand tariff on future energy costs should be considered when planning a new facility. clause C2. The short circuit rating shall withstand fault currents for a minimum of one second. ► minimising the consumers’ mains cable length. Building Quality Standards Handbook 59 October 2008 . ► centrality of the switchboard to electrical loads served.e.Internal Services 4. Meters Provide electrical meters on a per block basis to individually measure lighting. including all relocatable buildings necessary to meet peak enrolments. and 25% spare capacity for extra sub-circuits and circuit breakers. Green Power Consider recommending green electricity (i. For new and upgrade projects. taking into account the following: ► easy access for supply authority meter reading. electricity made from renewable sources of energy such as photovoltaic cells) that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the school.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . and ► its access for maintenance without undue disruption to the operation of the school.13). especially in the “contestable” marketplace. power and plant usage so that energy use profiles can be easily obtained.
10. the same conditions apply as in Section 4. Cables with conductor sizes greater than 35mm2 per phase shall be single core double insulated with a multi-stranded conductor.10. Copper conductors shall be multi-stranded and not less than 1.10. short circuit capacity and voltage drop.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . pie warmers. etc.5 Wiring Cables All cables shall be double insulated (i. Single insulated “building wire” will not be accepted.13). 4. Separation shall comply with Form 1 of AS 3439 Part 1. Utilise AS 3008 Part 1 when sizing cables. ► where RCD protection of general purpose outlets is required. appliances with high earth leakage currents (stoves. 4.5mm2 for power final sub-circuits. Cables should be sized to carry the intended electrical load. methods of installation. this should be provided at the relevant circuit protective device within the distribution board. dish and clothes washers.6 Power and Special Connections General Purpose Outlets All general purpose outlets shall be connected to a final sub-circuit and protected by an ELCB (RCD) rated at not more than 30mA. freezers). kilns. 4. clause C2.5mm2 for lighting or 2. Spare capacity should be included in the switchboard for planned future stages of school development. ► fault rating of busbars shall be calculated at the incoming termination of the distribution switchboard but at not less than 18kAmp/second.). taking into account the maximum demand. MIMS or fire resistant polymer insulated and sheathed.10.e.Internal Services The main switchboard is generally located in the administration area because of its central location and function. PVC.1 with the exception of the following: ► miniature DIN rail-mounted fault-limiting circuit breaker switchboards should only be installed.). and life supporting equipment (fish tanks. Distribution switchboards and associated electrical conductors must be protected by fire-resisting construction (refer Building Code of Australia. Single phase outlets shall: Building Quality Standards Handbook 60 October 2008 . Sub-circuits excepted are those permanently supplying appliances storing perishable goods (refrigerators. An emergency luminaire should also be considered above the location of the switchboard to facilitate safe viewing in the event of partial power failure. etc. and ► specify the maximum number of general purpose outlets or final sub-circuits per RCD device. XLPE-insulated with a PVC sheath).4 Distribution Switchboards Generally.
► incorporate a permanent method of circuit identification (IP stud.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . Building Quality Standards Handbook 61 October 2008 . photographic laboratories.e. Special Conditions Emergency stop (off) push buttons should be provided for trade rooms and laboratories adjacent to each exit door. etc. ► be of weather resistant type (i.) as required. Clipsal 56 Series). and ► incorporate: (a) rotating switch mechanism. and ► extra general purpose outlets to special class rooms as required. foyers. ► four per general classroom (i. Install other less efficient sources in special areas (i. and ► flush mounted for internal installations and surface mounted weatherproof for external installations.Internal Services ► comprise a rocker operated switch and 3-pin plug base with flat earth pin. ► be stainless steel or weather resistant in wet areas such as kitchens and laundries. (c) spring loaded flap.10. (b) 5-pin plug base. Push buttons will trip off all power circuits within the respective room/laboratory. audiovisual laboratories.7 Artificial Lighting Light Sources The installed capacity for lighting should aim for 8 watts of fluorescent lamp power per square metre. etc. label. and (d) screw-neck to plug base.). ► mounted adjacent each item of equipment. Locate 10-amp single-phase double general purpose outlets in accordance with the following: ► at 15 metre intervals along corridors. Three-phase outlets shall: ► be surface or semi-recess mounted. mounted on a common moulded impact resistant plastic flush plate and separate surround plate. Push buttons shall incorporate mushroom head with latch and twist release.e. and ► be weather resistant where installed in plant-rooms and external areas. two at the front and two at the rear). Permanently Connected Equipment Isolating switches should be provided for each item of permanently connected equipment. 4. Isolating switches shall be: ► rated at not less than the circuit protective device. Provide instant restrike high efficiency light sources such as linear or compact fluorescent lamps.e.
Where a prismatic lens is used. thereby minimising the requirement to store different lamp types for maintenance. Area Fitting Installation Options Recommended Illuminance Levels AS 1680. Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) and be 16mm diameter (T5). A common style of lamp should be used throughout the project.Internal Services Fluorescent lamps shall comply with AS 1201. The following table provides guidance on the recommended lighting for selected areas within a school. triphosphor lamps.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 .3 1994 Fitting Types Lamp Type Diffuser Types General Purpose Classroom Physical Education Computer Science/Home Eco Music Art/Craft Library Staff Administration Tech Studies S SM R 1xF 2xF 1 x HB HOF Tri F MH L/P Guard * S/SM S/SM S/SM S/SM S/SM S/SM SM/R SM/R S/SM = = = = = = = = = = = = 240 240 320* 320 320 320* 320 320 320* 1xF HB and HOF 1xF 1xF 1xF 1xF 1xF 1xF HB and HOF Tri F MH and Tri F Tri F Tri F Tri F Tri F Tri F Tri F MH and Tri F L/P Guard L/P L/P L/P L/P L/P L/P L/P Suspended Surface mounted Recessed Single tube fluorescent Double tube fluorescent High bay fitting High Output T5 Luminaires designed for areas above 3m Tri Phosphor fluorescent Metal halide Prismatic lens Impact Protected Task lighting to be considered. Bare or exposed lamp luminaries are also deemed unacceptable.2. Triple fluorescent lamp luminaries over 600mm in length shall not be used. Luminaires used in conjunction with T5 lamps shall be of a design originally intended for the T5 lamp. All luminaries shall have photometric files to NATA accreditation and EMC compliance as per Australian Standards. T5 retrofits for existing fluorescent luminaries are not acceptable. The following table provides indicative installation and operational costs for various options in a comparable lighting environment: Building Quality Standards Handbook 62 October 2008 . Single tube luminaires are recommended for most applications. a minimum of K19 is recommended.
consideration should also be given to the relocation of existing luminaries into lesser-utilised areas and the installation of new technology luminaries to capitalise on energy efficiency and reduced maintenance.2. 10. Arrange luminaires to provide general uniform lighting throughout the illuminated space.double tube (2 x 36W) . then the equivalent lamp technology may be used. Where additional luminaries are required for an area and the number does not exceed more than one third of any existing luminaries.single tube (1 x 58W) .single tube (1 x 36W) 65 50 70 1. In upgrades. dimmable ballasts may also be considered in conjunction with daylight sensors.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . (03) 9655 3260). select compact fluorescent types. Correct installation and airspace shall be provided in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations or a suitable surface mount luminaire should be selected in its place. Subject to their operating cost. Ballasts Fluorescent lamps should be power-factor connected and provided with low loss ballasts.70 1. In larger areas with higher ceiling heights.000-hour lamps in combination with Australian Certified Electronic Ballast should be used./m²) Tri phosphor fluorescent . provide suitable local task lighting or suspended luminaires Building Quality Standards Handbook 63 October 2008 .36 Notes: Unit cost of electricity Annual operation Capital cost = = = $0. Auditoriums and halls may consider dimming for effect and/or energy efficiency in relation to the task Illumination Levels and Glare Indices Illumination and glare index levels shall be designed to meet the relevant requirements of the nominated Australian Standards (in particular AS 1680.30 1. (For more information. If downlights are required. consult the “Energy Smart School Infosheets: School Lighting”. For renovations. Consider the replacement of luminaires installed prior to 1980.a. Where higher local illuminance levels are required for specific tasks.Internal Services Fitting Type Indicative Capital Cost ($/m²) Indicative Operation Cost ($/p. consider metal halide luminaires with a ceramic arc lamp or high output T5 luminaires. Should low voltage downlights be selected. consider “delamping” as appropriate.10/kWh 1500 hours 1997 fitting supply costs only excludes installation costs Compact fittings should be provided which maximise useful light by means of efficient reflectors and diffusers.3). including silver reflectors. available from Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria.
Luminaires shall incorporate low energy (high efficiency) light sources and should be located at building entries. and to alternate luminaire switching while maintaining uniform illumination. Where a large room such as a library has two entry points. Incandescent and quartz halogen lamps should only be used in conjunction with a movement sensor where a high level of light is required for a short period of time. Any alternative systems should be assessed for compliance by the relevant building surveyor in accordance with the Code. provided they meet Building Code of Australia requirements. arrange local switching to each room. Consider an alternative colour light source for security lighting to distinguish it from normal lighting. Arrange switching or daylight sensors to provide separate control of perimeter luminaires close to windows. switches shall be of an industrial type rated to IP56. Emergency and Exit Lighting Emergency and exit lighting shall be provided as required under the Building Code of Australia and in accordance. changes of direction to external pathways.2. Locate light switches on the jamb side of the main entry door to the relevant room. Lighting Switches Lighting switches shall generally be of the unbreakable polycarbonate rocker type. Systems shall consist of single point type luminaires. Building Quality Standards Handbook 64 October 2008 . High-pressure sodium lamps (SON) should be used for general flood lighting.Internal Services Wiring Systems In general. and ► 10-watt fluorescent self contained maintained exit signs. ► 10-watt fluorescent self contained non-maintained mode emergency surface mounted type. (Generally. Access/Security Lighting Internal security lighting shall be provided in the form of unswitched or after-hours automatically switched luminaires. with AS 2293 Parts 1 and 2. flush mounted where practicable. Enclosed fluorescent lamps are appropriate for perimeter and access lighting and shall be of a minimum IP65 rating. and generally employ: ► 10-watt tungsten halogen self contained non-maintained mode emergency recessed type.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . and adjacent to the closing side of doors. Both these should be controlled by a daylight (photoelectric sensor). Switch mounting heights will generally be 1200mm above the finished floor level. and stairs in corridors. Test Push Buttons or a Central Testing System shall be provided for testing the emergency and exit lighting in accordance with AS 2293. the latter system would be applied to larger secondary colleges). generally. Consider more efficient lights than the 10 watt noted above. In plant-rooms. provide two-way switching at both doors.
). 4. A switch in each room provides manual control of all lighting. automatically turn lighting off. such as store rooms.7.11 Special Services Building Quality Standards Handbook 65 October 2008 . ► push button timers to infrequently entered rooms. Areas with variable daylight provision Street lights. including general purpose classrooms. with a minimum of 16 amp for fluorescent loads. This system may also be designed to control lighting in response to available daylight. Lighting controls may take the form of: ► presence sensors to enclosed rooms. ► twist timers to classrooms (these typically allow the user to access lighting for a period of up to two hours). Lighting Control System Type Occupancy sensing – Passive infrared Occupancy sensing – Microwave Light level sensing – Internal Light level sensing – External Local Time delay off Central timed off Indicative Installation Cost $/m² $10 $10 $10 $250 per distribution board $5 $8 Comments Small areas (25m² max.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 .au/emerg/). GPC All internal spaces. Any form of lighting control must provide a switch to enable users to switch lighting off. through a time clock and/or linked to the school bell. The following table provides indicative installation costs for various lighting control systems and a guide to their application. Where multiple switches are provided. they should be clearly labelled as to the lights they serve. internal or external with infrequent occupancy.vic.Internal Services Flush mounted switches on columns and walls shall be mounted in standard size metal wall boxes to suit the wall construction. Infrequently used rooms. Large areas (greater than 25m²). Controls Lighting controls should be provided to ensure that lighting is only on when required – that is. PVC wall boxes may be used for PVC conduits but only where permitted. internal or external.sofweb. with infrequent occupancy. Alternatively. and ► centralised lighting control systems which.edu. such as store rooms. Lighting switches shall be suitably rated to carry the switched load. security light. when the space is occupied and insufficient or no daylighting is present.2 – Security and Access Lighting and the DEECD’s Emergency & Security Management website (http://www. Refer also Section 5. a plan indicating which lights are controlled by which switches should be placed next to the switch panel.
and depending on the chemicals used and experiments conducted). Section 4. Sliding sashes shall be toughened glass or clear acrylic and feature adequate corrosion resistant counter weights.1 Fume Cupboards The construction. one separately switched fluorescent luminaire (flame proof and corrosion proof) to provide 400 lux at the base. generally for senior classes.Internal Services 4. Services The following minimum services integral to fume cupboard construction should be provided: ► ► ► ► ► Power Lighting Sink Water Waste one double general purpose outlet (GPO) located either at the external top or side of the chamber but not within the chamber. 150mm deep conical cup sink. Exhaust ventilation fans should be considered a minimum requirement for fume cupboards. Technology Areas Depending on the courses offered by a school. Science Areas It is recommended that each preparation room have a fume cupboard (preferably single-sided) and that one also be made available to senior chemistry classes. siting. Sashes shall remain in place whenever stopped with a fixed minimum opening of 50mm. they should be provided with local exhaust ventilation. moulding plastics. etc. a PVC shell with a chemical resistant one-piece laminated work surface is suitable for most demonstration applications. 66 October 2008 Building Quality Standards Handbook .4 states that “operations which may produce flammable or toxic vapours should be carried out either in a fume cupboard or. Generally. one gooseneck style cold water supply outlet over sink. and an acid neutralising tank into which waste can be discharged.” Australian Standard AS 1485 – Safety and Health in Workrooms of Educational Establishments. there will be differing hazards associated with the likes of automotive engine testing. Fume cupboards are usually not required in physics areas but they might need to be considered in biology and agricultural science (again.11. Schools must indicate to the consultant in their educational specification the courses they intend to offer and how they want to operate them so that a risk assessment can be undertaken and requirements determined. maintenance and use of fume cupboards is detailed in Australian Standard AS 2243-1. recommends fume cupboards in laboratories as well as adequate or local exhaust ventilation in technology areas. one 200mm diameter. installation. if this is not possible.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . Construction Construction materials should be selected to provide suitable resistance against chemicals handled.
The noise level of the fan (as measured at the operator’s level) should not exceed 62dB(A). ► valved drain point and automatic condensate drain. The face velocity across the fully opened sash must measure 0. Centrifugal fans should be considered as a first choice in this operation. sized to maintain the number of compressor start/stop cycles within the manufacturer’s limits.2 Compressed Air Compressors Consider air cooled rotary scroll and rotary screw oil free compressor types. and be completed with the following: ► inspection opening.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . bench tops.5 metres per second. Commissioning tests (as indicated in AS 2243-8) must be performed by the supplier upon installation and the results reported to the school. squirrel cage induction motors rated to IP54. ► separate controls for water and gas services external to the chamber. to minimise air flow disturbances. Siting The Australian Standard includes diagrams which indicate the distance fume cupboards should be from doors. Ensure that adequate acoustic control measures are provided to maintain acceptable noise levels. ► dial type pressure gauge. Performance Select a fan and volume control system to maintain the required face velocity through an open sash area. The fume discharge point must be three metres above the roof.11. walls. 4. ► labelled emergency isolation switches for electricity and gas. There must be an adequate supply of replacement air to compensate for the volume exhausted. and ► automatic isolation of electricity and gas in the event of inadequate air flow.Internal Services Controls The following features should be provided: ► separate fan and light controls. Compressors shall be driven by TEFC. and air exhausted through a fume cupboard must not be re-circulated to other rooms. and Building Quality Standards Handbook 67 October 2008 . Receivers Compressed air receivers should be provided in accordance with AS 1210. etc.
0 μm. Each filter shall be completed with an integral pressure differential gauge assembly showing required replacement times. All branches shall be taken from the top of the main pipe work. Grade mains at 1:100 to drain points. and continuous pipe lengths should be maximised. 4. Valves Provide globe type valves for isolation and throttling purposes. All pipe work is to be concealed from view in normally occupied areas. Provide. All joints are to be brazed where practical. and all pipe work shall be sized to ensure that pressure loss does not exceed 10% of the design supply pressure.3 Reticulated Gas Services Scope The provision of reticulated bottled gas systems for specialist applications excludes LPG and vacuum systems. is also to be provided. a minimum filtration system comprising a woven media material capable of removing water droplets and particulate material to 1.Internal Services ► pressure relief valve. and plate check type valves for nonreturn applications.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . where exposed. Standards Non Flammable Gases: Oxygen and Acetylene: Storage Facilities: AS 2896 – 1998 AS 4289 – 1995 Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations Statutory Rule No. Filters Determine the level of filtration required to suit each application.11. 323/1989 Building Quality Standards Handbook 68 October 2008 . All valves shall be connected by flange or union. Protection from mechanical damage. Pipe Work Permanent pipe work is to be “Type B” copper tube to AS 1432. in every case. Install automatic condensate drains to the mains pipe work. excepting suitable flexible connections to the compressor unit. Ensure that separated liquids are automatically drained away from filter material.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . where required.2 materials. suitable for “high pressure” application in accordance with “HVAC Duct Construction Standards” published by SMACNA Incorporated (USA). Building Quality Standards Handbook 69 October 2008 . equipment security and serviceability. All cylinders for “portable” use shall be secured to stable. wheeled trolleys. Pipe work should be sized for a pressure loss not exceeding 5% of the reticulated supply pressure. ► steel flange type bolt clamps on joints enabling easy removal for clean out.Internal Services Enclosures Determine suitable locations for permanent storage of cylinders with regards to safe storage and handling procedures. and capital costs. ► electrical driven shaker assembly to clean filter media. direct driven by a 415V. and ► blast gate dampers where required for balancing purposes. ► acoustic attenuation of the fan assembly and discharge ductwork where necessary (noise levels within occupied areas and externally should be made acceptable). Pipe Work Copper pipe work is generally acceptable for most services except acetylene where stainless steel shall be used. security of plant and equipment. ► woven fabric media with abrasive resistant properties. Ensure an adequate separation of Class 2.4 Dust Extraction System Dust Extractors Units shall be self-contained mechanical cleaned type. collection efficiency and service life. Each unit shall feature: ► statically and dynamically balanced centrifugal mild steel fan. Preference should be given to external storage locations. 3 phase TEFC motor rated to a minimum of IP54 (maximum fan speed 1440 rpm). ► radiused bends and angled take-offs to main ductwork. and feature: ► sizing for transport velocities not less than 18 metres per second. ► “clean out” access panels. and ► explosion relief vent with minimal ductwork and changes in direction to a safe discharge area. ► bin type dust collector with robust sealing assembly.1 and Class 2. 4. all cylinders (whether “on-line”. located with regard to acoustic performance. Within each storage area. and removable caps at end of duct runs. selected for optional performance with regard to operating cost.11. Ductwork All ductwork shall be of circular type galvanised steel. “on-standby” or “spare”) shall be securely restrained in an upright position.
theft.13 Storage Well-designed storage provides the space in which to keep essential articles and equipment. 4.11. control and energy savings.5 Lightning Protection A risk assessment will be carried out in accordance with AS 1768. Complex building automation (energy) systems should be avoided. and ► location of bulk storage for receipt of deliveries. The planning of storage space is based on the need to: ► create new or additional storage within available space. Section 4. Consider the following factors: ► control of distribution or use.12 Centralised Energy Systems Centralised energy systems should be avoided. heat. The provision of storage can represent a significant cost to the design and development of a school. ► safe location of dangerous items. Safety and convenience are paramount. both in terms of accommodation and ease of access. moisture. students may also have access to stored items. or as centrally as possible where use occurs in various locations. In addition to adult users.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 4 . etc. Effective temperature and time clock controls should be provided to all centralised boilers and packaged plant. ► security of items. Building Quality Standards Handbook 70 October 2008 . and ► protect articles from breakage. 4. Items should be stored as close as possible to the point of use. cold.7 – Ventilation and Section 4.6 – Heating. Limitations of anticipated users must be kept in mind when installing new storage or re-assessing existing storage facilities. misuse. A risk index of greater than or equal to 12 shall require the implementation a lightning protection system.8 – Cooling. Refer Section 4. ► make access as convenient as possible.Internal Services 4. It must also facilitate their efficient use and handling. Satellite boilers and smaller packaged airconditioning plants provide greater flexibility.
the designer is required to make use of the most cost effective materials and installation techniques available. are referred to. materials. Consideration must be given to the following when determining the suitability of rainwater tanks: ► the purpose of the rainwater tank – whether for irrigation or connection to specific fixtures such as toilet cisterns (or both). water collected and stored in rainwater tanks.External Services 5. and underground drains as appropriate.2. The legal point(s) of discharge shall be obtained from the relevant authority. 5. Where classes. All design. In accordance with AS/NZS 3500 Part 1. and used as an alternated water supply.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 . Rainwater Collection Consideration should be given to the retention of stormwater on site through the use of tanks. must not be used for human consumption. workmanship. commensurate with appropriate levels of service and durability. Design of the drainage system shall be based on design methods outlined in Australian Rainfall and Runoff. In other cases the ARI shall be not less than 50 years. Building Quality Standards Handbook 71 October 2008 . Surface drainage in grassed areas may be collected by swale drains. All drainage in the region of buildings and paved areas shall be by combination of open inverts.1 EXTERNAL SERVICES Introduction When designing any given service. testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards. the Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) adopted for design shall be not less than 5 years. ► the location which best maximises the catchment area. kerb and channel. ► the estimated roof catchment yield. Where the site layout and falls provide an acceptable means of overland flood relief.2 Water Supply – Acceptable Solutions. they are in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard. and in accordance with the philosophy outlined in this Handbook.1 External Stormwater Drainage General A drainage system shall be provided to drain the site. 5. types. and ► security issues. etc. All dimensions are in millimetres unless noted otherwise. and the relevant authority’s requirements.2 5. This water can be used as an alternate source for the irrigation needs of the school.
3. ► DN150 downstream of any grated pit. 5. Junctions of pipes DN225 or larger with DN375 or larger pipes shall be made at pits.3 Other Issues The design of the drainage system shall address the following issues as appropriate: ► on site retention.3 5. 5. ► for DN225 and greater on straight runs without junction fittings.2.2. or at pits. and ► DN225 downstream of any side entry pit.2 Pipe Work and Structures Pipe sizes shall be not less than: ► DN (nominal diameter)100 for connection direct to down pipes. ► erosion control. of the appropriate class. and ► for DN225 and DN300 straight runs with junction fittings. Building Quality Standards Handbook 72 October 2008 . solvent jointed PVC conforming with AS 1260 or rubber ring jointed fibre reinforced cement conforming with AS 4139. rubber ring jointed reinforced concrete conforming with AS 4058 or rubber ring jointed fibre reinforced cement pipes conforming with AS 4139. Pipe work materials shall be: ► for DN100 and DN150. ► sedimentation control. of the appropriate class. Pit covers shall be of a tight fitting bolted down design or have sufficient weight to prevent their easy removal.2. solvent jointed UPVC conforming with AS 1260.1 External Sewer Drainage Pipe Work and Structures Pipe work materials shall comply with AS 3500. and ► maintenance.External Services 5. Junctions of pipes DN300 or smaller shall be made either with oblique or sweep junction proprietary fittings. ► litter control. Junctions of DN100 or DN150 pipes with DN375 or larger pipes may be made with saddle type fittings.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 .
copper tube “Type B” in accordance with AS 1342.3.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 . and be located at junctions of major sewer drainage runs and at not more than 60 metre intervals. ► acid drains. 5.3.External Services The preferred pipe work material is uPVC except where discharge or other conditions require an alternative material. Building Quality Standards Handbook 73 October 2008 . 5. and ► for DN25 and smaller. ► solvent/oil interception. with the additional requirement that all pipe work below buildings and concealed in buildings shall be copper tube “Type B” in accordance with AS 1342.1 Pipe Work. Sewer inspection chambers shall be provided to facilitate maintenance. ► neutralisers.1. UPVC except for the limitation above and the limitations of AS 3500.4. Valves and Fittings Pipe work. 5.3. and ► maintenance.4. Additional overflow relief gullies shall be provided to maximise the protection of buildings against blocked sewers.2 Backflow Prevention Provide all backflow prevention devices as required by the relevant authority and AS 3500.4 External Water Supply The supply of water is governed by the relevant Australian Standard as well as regulations and bylaws exercised through local water authorities. ► trade wastes. valves and fittings shall comply with AS 3500. 5.2 Other Issues The design of the sewer drainage system shall address the following issues as appropriate: ► grease arrestors. The preferred pipe work materials are: ► for DN32 and greater.
1 External Gas Natural Gas Meters Meter enclosures shall be well secured.5 5.4. physical security.4 Other Issues The design of the external water supply system shall address the following issues: ► enclosure of equipment to prevent vandalism. structures and earthing electrodes. All joints are to be brazed where practical. and ease of refilling or replacement.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 .5. A lockable. corrosion protected sheet metal enclosure with concrete base should also be provided for external cylinders. Building Quality Standards Handbook 74 October 2008 . 5. 5. 5.4. Do not install pipe work within concrete slabs and avoid installing pipe work under buildings where possible. Pipe work installed in the ground shall be complete with a corrosion resistant external wrapping. 5. and include a 10% safety factor.4 Gas Booster Gas pressure booster devices are to be avoided where possible. Where required.5. practical delivery intervals and cost.5.5. locate them carefully and ensure that adequate acoustic measures are provided to meet acceptable ambient and internal noise criteria.3 Pipe Work All consumer pipe work shall be “Type B” copper tube to AS 1432.3 Irrigation Systems Provide irrigation systems as appropriate to garden and grassed areas. Size pipe work to limit pressure loss to mandatory limits. Tank finish shall include abrasive cleaning. and ► dual supply to site where practical. allow for natural gas in the pipe work design. Meter by-pass pipe work facilities should also be provided.5. Ensure an adequate separation distance from other in-ground services. Carefully locate bulk storage tanks and cylinders with regard to statutory requirements.2 – Irrigation Systems. 5.External Services 5. Refer Section 7.2 LP Gas Storage Size bulk storage tanks and cylinders with regard to the maximum required vaporisation rate. Where LPG is likely to be replaced by natural gas within five years. prime painting and top coating. Provide external tanks with 75mm thick concrete plinths extending 500mm beyond the tank enclosure and with an 1800mm high chain mesh enclosure and lockable access gates.
► have rotating switch mechanism. ► source of water supply if street mains supply is inadequate or not available. 5. Maximum hose length should not exceed 20 metres.7.1. ► use of street hydrants to minimise the number of on site hydrants. unless dispensation is obtained from the relevant chief officer.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 . with access and hard standing for a fire appliance to connect to the hydrant.6.6. 5.7 5.4 Other Issues The design of the external fire protection system shall address the following issues: ► fire brigade booster connection.2 Fire Hydrants Preferred hydrant installations are external dual head individually controlled outlets. 5.6.6 5.External Services 5. The preferred pipe work material is UPVC except for the limitations on use imposed by AS 2419. valves and fittings shall comply with AS 2419. ► hose couplings compatible with relevant fire brigade. 5.1 External Electric Light and Power General Power All general power outlets provided externally shall be of the following type: ► surface mounted. Internal hydrants are not preferred. ► booster pumps. ► feature integral 3-pin with flat earth single phase socket or 5 round pin three phase socket. Valves and Fittings Pipe work.1. Building Quality Standards Handbook 75 October 2008 . and ► signage and notices. ► weather resistant with IP56 protection rating.1 External Fire Protection General Provide a hydrant system to satisfy the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia.6. ► appropriate valving for hydrants and hose reels.3 Pipe Work.
and ► feature keyed switch mechanism. those needs and applications associated with out-of-hours tuition. ► screw neck to plug base. 5. in general. Incandescent and quartz halogen lamps should only be used in conjunction with a movement sensor where a high level of light is required for a short period of time. also. Building Quality Standards Handbook 76 October 2008 .au/emerg/). Sub-circuit cabling should be installed to outlets either internally concealed within the building structure or within rigid non-metallic or metallic conduit. with superimposed pulse igniter circuits where igniters are required.vic. and vandalism.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 . Consideration should be given to car park lighting. community hiring of facilities. Luminaires Luminaires should be vandal resistant. Consider metal halide with electronic gear on pole luminiares for energy efficiency and prestige. etc. Non-metallic conduit subject to UV radiation should be suitably treated to prevent degradation through its life. Light Sources Security and access lighting should consist of high efficient light sources.sofweb. Controls Lighting shall. Consider lighting pathways and roads within the school. consider installing a local exterior distribution switchboard to service this load.2 Security and Access Lighting Adequate security lighting to the perimeter of all buildings should be provided to ensure safe access. courts and car parks.. Where lighting for areas such as playing fields. Useful security hints and practical advice can be obtained from the DEECD’s Emergency & Security Management website (http://www.85 lagging or better. Additional energy savings are available if motion detectors are used to activate lights rather than flood light an entire area. have a power factor corrected to 0. is located at some distance from the main buildings or internal distribution switchboard. Fluorescent lamps are appropriate for perimeter and access lighting. Consider. High-pressure sodium lamps (SON) should be used for general flood lighting. lighting from car parks to buildings.edu.External Services ► include spring loaded flap. be controlled by a photoelectric cell in conjunction with a time controller. Note that movement detector switching is not appropriate for High Intensity Discharge lighting or for lighting that has start up and restrike periods. and building illumination.7. Exposed cabling is not acceptable. if necessary. Both these should be controlled by a daylight (photoelectric sensor) in conjunction with a time clock. Control and Sub-mains Exterior lighting shall be controlled.
Building Quality Standards Handbook 77 October 2008 .External Services 5.3 Underground Services Underground cable conduits should be supplied and installed for the enclosure of HV and LV cables.7. Cable conduits for HV and LV cables shall be laid at 750mm and 500mm (to top of conduits) below finished surface levels respectively. metallic protection to cabling must be provided.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 5 . Where cabling is subject to mechanical damage or is installed with less cover than specified above.
portable devices. Multi-campus sites are now required to be linked for communication services. video (including audio-visual). wireless technologies. distribution (or facility) cabling which carries the service to each building or parts of each building. The involvement of the Information Technology Division in new school designs and an ICT check sheet are new initiatives. 000 network points are installed in schools to maintain the LANs within the school system and to allow for flexibility.2 ICT Architecture Communication services in schools cover data (administrative. curriculum. TV antenna (including satellite dish). Notebooks. It makes clear how funding has been allocated and details new requirements for Category 6/Class E cabling. High-speed broadband access will be delivered to every site. library automation. Over 210. Wireless technologies have been installed at every school since 2005 and are required to be installed in new buildings. and security. etc. etc. Over 200.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6. 6. This Section of the BQSH has been updated to reflect current Departmental standards and requirements.). It compliments the cabling system and adds some flexibility. Building Quality Standards Handbook 78 October 2008 . 6. These are made up of PCs. Wireless communications is not a replacement for a structured cabling system. emergency warning systems. and touches on VoIP (digital voice) technologies. Over 9000 wireless network points are now installed in every school and this is expected to be maintained in new installations.1 COMMUNICATION SERVICES Introduction The Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development is the number one user of IT in Australia and among the worldwide leaders in the use and implementation of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies).000 computers are in use in Victorian schools (2005). Administration PCs. voice (telephone). and room cabling which carries the service to the point of use in each room or space. There is also block (or entry) cabling which brings services onto the site. public address. The overall design of any new building or school construction is required to maintain the State’s leadership in ICT and encourage its use in the school environment. The State school system consists of over 1700 sites which are connected to a WAN (Wide Area Network) and each has their own LAN (Local Area Network).
conduits. It is clear. pathways (cable trays. Convergence may be extended to other services as appropriate if it is beneficial to do so. outlets. testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision of the relevant Australian Standards and the Building Code of Australia. fly leads. with a support system or ducting that offers significant flexibility and expansion throughout a school. teaching spaces. pits. The information provided in this section is of a general nature only but sets the minimum DEECD standards. workmanship. Professional advice should be sought in relation to the scope and potential of communications infrastructure. staff areas. It is a requirement to converge all telecommunications and communication services where possible. can involve separate suppliers and installers.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services Each of these services. backbone connections between buildings (fibre and copper). testing. Separate computer equipment will be supplied by the DEECD to run the administration network. classrooms and resource areas. The current DEECD standard for communications cabling is Category 5E/Class D for existing sites and Category 6/Class E for new sites.3 Budget The allocated budget covers the supply and installation or support of the following ICT infrastructure requirements: design. full installation and termination of all cabling. materials. can be investigated if requested. All design. that there will need to be a well-designed structured cabling system. The infrastructure for administrative systems is to be merged with the school network when cabling is installed. Alternatives such as “fibre to the desk” and Category 7/Class F. communications cabinets. however. Final design decisions may have to be made in the presence of an informed school community. PA system. associated power outlets (dedicated for cabinets). 6. patch panels. catenary wires. including administration areas. Budgeting may not provide for these technologies. manufacture certification (full minimum 15-year manufacturer’s warranty). cable managers. or the expected 2006 standard for augmented Category 6 cabling. Building Quality Standards Handbook 79 October 2008 . their infrastructures and cabling. structured horizontal communications cabling system for all areas of the school. A school’s cabling infrastructure should be established according to this BQSH and associated documents. etc). patch leads .
and a 15-year warranty on structured cabling system. a networked computer to student ratio of approximately 1:5 (plus servers. switches. networking for secure wireless technology as standard in all areas of the school on a basis of one network point mounted at two metres or above per every four (4) classrooms.au/ict/itproducts/schools.edu. a suitable telephone system (either analogue or VoIP). and the supply of a file server and printers are part of the communications cabling budget and not part of the computer allowance given to a school.vic. facilities to interlink sites in the context of a proposed multi-campus environment (refer to the Department’s Infrastructure Division for further information).4 Minimum Requirements All new school developments are expected to have the following IT infrastructure supplied and installed during construction: a structured cabling system rated at Class E/Category 6 for new schools or a minimum Class D 2000/Category 5E where matching existing infrastructure. 6. power. It is recommended that funding for these items be put aside as a prime cost (PC) sum and allocated to the school IT manager to distribute. security systems. PA system. printers. and intruder detection system (liaise with the Department’s Emergency and Security Management Unit for specification requirements). a fibre-optic network to interconnect buildings within the school and across multi-campus situations.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services telephone system. ie. refer: http://www. Building Quality Standards Handbook 80 October 2008 . It is expected that a specialist communications consultant be given responsibility for the design and implementation of a schools structure cabling and communications systems. access entry points for external connections including voice. For budget education pricing. The supply of switches 10/100/1000 with fibre connections where required to meet cabled requirements and computer allocation quantities. etc).sofweb. active equipment to run computer interconnections.htm. security and high-speed broadband access (fibre-optic).
The second document is the Standard Specification for Information Technology and Telecommunications Cabling. AS/ACIF mandatory standards. Consultants are welcome to use this document for Victorian Government work and to adapt it according to their requirements. It is strongly recommended that these documents are referred to and adapted for use.5.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6.6. The third document is ITD Cabling Routes.5 Consultation and Communications Standards The person responsible for the communications design is to discuss the network design with the school/DEECD representative and to implement any school requests where practical. 6. It is very important that the design be discussed with the client.gov. Building Quality Standards Handbook 81 October 2008 . The first document – Information Technology and Telecommunications Cabling Planning Guidelines – should be considered when liaising with the school client and DEECD representative to ensure that all areas of IT have been discussed and evaluated.2 for a standard specification that can be adopted to suit most environments.mmv.vic. These documents can be found at: http://www. 6.au/TelecommunicationsandBroadband.2 Communications Standards Cabling infrastructure will be carried out in accordance with Australian Standards. Reference to the Information Technology Telecommunications Cabling and Planning Guidelines should be made at this stage. manufactures guidelines and specifications.5. including discussion on the introduction of new technologies that may have developed during the planning period. A copy of the plans and specifications is to be delivered to the Department and the school’s IT representative at a suitable time prior to implementation. The BQSH. Consultation is to continue throughout the project. shall override their generic content on issues concerning school-specific considerations. The responsible person must provide and sign an ICT planning sheet provided by the DEECD. the BQSH and Departmental standards. however.1 New School Designs All designs and specifications for new schools are to be signed off by the Department’s IT Division and the school representative prior to implementation. The Department makes use of three documents to assist with the planning and specification of telecommunications cabling. a series of diagrams for the preferred layout and installation of structured cabling support mechanisms. See 6. The Department is to be informed of the contractors involved in the structured cabling of the school.
1:2004 AS/NZS 3087. AS/ACIF S009:2001 and AS 3000. the Australian Communications Industry Forum (ACIF). (Note: the ACA 008 and 009 standards were renamed AS/ACIF but are still the minimum mandatory requirement. These are in addition to the regulatory AS/ACIF S008:2001. installed to circulate the air.6 6. its methods of installation and the standard of workmanship. At a minimum. procedures.1:2003 AS/NZS 3087. 6.2:2003 In general. Australian Standards (AS) and/or any planning and installation guidelines published by equipment and cabling system manufacturers. are to comply with the technical specifications.6.6.2 Location of Communications Room The location chosen for the communications room shall take environmental and security concerns into consideration. Rooms should be well insulated and away from direct light sources.Administration of communications cabling systems .) Standard ACA CPRs AS/NZS 3080:2003 Description Telecommunications Cabling Provider Rules 2000 (CPRs) Telecommunications installations – Generic cabling for commercial premises (ISO/IEC 11801:2002. Backbone cabling should radiate in a star configuration to each building and then within each building from a centralised communications cabinet. all equipment supplied. Cabinets should be supplied with a fan tray.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services The following standards are mandatory at DEECD sites and represent a minimum for all communications cabling installations. and a cross connection of voice and data channels should be achievable. MOD) Telecommunications installations – Telecommunications pathways and spaces for commercial buildings Telecommunications installations . voice and data services cabling shall be integrated.Basic requirements Telecommunications installations – Generic cabling systems – Specification for the testing of balanced communication cabling Telecommunications installations – Generic cabling systems – Specification for the testing of fibre-optic cabling systems AS/NZS 3084:2003 AS/NZS 3085. Building Quality Standards Handbook 82 October 2008 .1 Cabling for Communication Services General A central communications cupboard or room is to be supplied for each site. practices and standards published or established by the Australian Communications Authority (ACA). 6.
select either: the most central building. This area may act as a point of connection for incoming cables and this may be the nucleus of the star configured cabling in the complex of buildings. video and data should be avoided when the layout length of buildings exceeds 90 metres. use 24 port loaded patch panels. suitable space should be allocated for the communications room in liaison. This is either provided through a communications cabinet or in a room. depending on the layout. be provided with an internal power rail to the cupboard (power to be supplied on a dedicated circuit). with a preference for 600mm deep where freestanding cabinets are selected. BDs are required in each building and might be combined with the CD. depending on equipment layout. UTP cables used for the distribution of voice. be metal. Building Quality Standards Handbook 83 October 2008 . with 19-inch internal mounting brackets.3 CD (Campus Distributor) and BD (Building Distributor) Cabinets or Areas A main communication cupboard or area CD is required in the building considered the “Point of Connection” by the communications carrier. provide patch lead cable management in all cabinets (one manager for each patch panel). additional BDs may be required. Subject to consultation with the school technology team and the observation of appropriate standards. or multiple floors are being constructed. The communication cabinet shall: be installed within a communications cupboard or area. provide patch lead and flylead for each cabled outlet (2). Location may be dependent on incoming communications services.. be a minimum of 450mm deep. Any building can contain the central communication area but. with sides and a door.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services A communication area is generally required in each building. or a room near the library.6. be a minimum 12 RU cabinet height. the administration building. incorporate a fan tray at the top of full-height cabinets. 6. and feature a cable tray in full-height cabinets for cable connections. with expansion space available for an additional 50% capacity. If the building length is greater than 180 metres. incorporate fibre-optic termination trays as required. be freestanding or wall mounted. be lockable.
au/ict/lan/standard. Cable terminations shall meet the T568A colour code standard. Professional advice should be sought with respect to the planning and establishment of data networks. This warranty shows that a certified system with matching components has been installed. Further advice should be sought before proceeding with these systems. data. Warranties shall be supplied for a minimum of 15 years lifetime. It also provides a fail-safe if the installer goes out of business. Sufficient access for communication cables is to be provided at each stage to accommodate additional cabling at a later stage. etc) within the school network. “Patch by Exception” systems and Category 7 Class F systems are permitted. and any compromise in termination and installation practices will affect the whole network.edu. Cabling shall be installed as structured cabling (combined voice. that the manufacturer has certified and trained the cabling company. every effort shall be made to match brands of component. Careful consideration should be given to cabinet cable entry.4 Horizontal Communication Cables within Buildings Cables shall be a minimum UTP Cat 5E/AS/NZ Class D 2000 at existing sites. Where schools have existing networks.6. the manufacturer continuing to support the warranty.sofweb. 6. but these are more difficult to administer and some are generally more expensive. Patch leads and fly leads shall be used and will match the installed rating of the cables. and that the product used is suitable to support such a warranty. All components will be marked with the “A TICK” from the Australian Communications Authority. Cabling will be selected in accordance with published standards only. with 8-way modular connectors (RJ45) at the cabinet and 8-way modular sockets at the telecommunications outlet (TO). Building Quality Standards Handbook 84 October 2008 . All new cabling for new sites shall be a minimum of Category 6/Class E Cabling.vic.htm for information on ITD cable routes. Category 6 cabling systems rely on precise installation practices. “Fibre to the desk”. and all patch panels and cabling shall meet minimum accepted DEECD Standards. refer http://www.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services All cables shall radiate from a communications cabinet patch panel and be terminated. All cables shall terminate on patch panels.
Wireless network points are required at a height of 2 metres . Music. links and other peripheral devices. Cooking etc Staff Areas Administration 28 22 4 1 per staff member plus shared printers/phones 1 outlet per 150 permanent student population plus server. Administration PCs will generally be housed in one area. It is envisioned that 1 point in each classroom will be required in the future.6 Area Recommended Horizontal Cabling Quantities Minimum Number of Outlets 5 Description Primary/secondary schools with normal computer ratio requirements. One point can be used for voice if required. PODs should not be larger than 12 PCs. teacher preparation area. Staff area might be staff rooms breakout rooms.5 Cabling Options This table summarises various cabling options: Standard AS/NZ Class D 2000/ Category 5E AS/NZ Class E 2000/ Category 6 AS/NZ Class F/ Category 7 Draft to be Ratified June 2006 ISO/IEC 11801 ed 2.1 New Class E TIA 568B 210Augmented Category 6 OM3 Fibre OS1 Single Mode Fibre Maximum Length 90 metres plus 10 metres patch leads 90 metres plus 10 metres patch leads 90 metres plus 10 metres patch leads 90 metres plus 10 metres patch leads Bandwidth 100Mhz 250Mhz Speed 10/100/1000 Mbs 10/100/1000 Mbs (10 Gig up to 55metres) 10/100/1000/10000 (10 Gig capable 90 metres) 10/100/1000/10000 (10 Gig capable 90 metres) Where Used Existing schools New schools 650Mhz Shielded system highspeed video streaming requirements Non-shielded system high-speed video streaming requirements Between buildings Between campuses over 275/550 metres 625Mhz Length dependent on speed requirement Unlimited High Very High 10/100 2Km 1000Mb 275 metres 10 Gig 6. Phone points will be required as per administration staff numbers. High usage area.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6.6. phones 1 outlet per 4 classrooms Wireless PODs 6-12 plus printer Building Quality Standards Handbook 85 October 2008 . printer. Standard Classroom IT-focused Classroom Library/Resource Area Arts. IT teaching area allowing for printers.6. Computers used occasionally.
Cabling required to be run underground shall be designed for that purpose and installed in conduits.7 Fibre-Optic Backbone Cabling Due to the increase in network traffic across a school site.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6. 6. fibre-optic connections shall be provided between all new communications cabinets within a building.6. or wireless options may be explored. Cabling between buildings in new sites shall be run underground and shall be designed for that purpose and installed in conduits. and run up to 2000 metres.8 Copper Backbone Cabling Copper communications cabling used between buildings is to be protected from damage. Hybrid OM3/OS1 is acceptable. Cabinet Network Points Quantity Fibre Core Size to Link to Main Cabinet Fibre Type <550mts >550mts 24 48 6 Core 8 Core OM3 OM3 OS1/hybrid OS1/hybrid All cable is to be protected from damage. but all cores must be terminated. Building Quality Standards Handbook 86 October 2008 . Conduit joints shall be glued to reduce water ingress. Adequate space for expansion shall be supplied Cabling between communications cabinets within a building may be used for distances less than 90 metres. OM1 and OM2 62/125µM style fibres shall no longer be used. All fibre-optic links will comprise of either OM3 50/125µM multi mode fibre or OS1 9/125µM single mode fibre. Voice Tie cables may be Category 3 / Class A. SCA connectors will be used for single mode connections. One UTP cable per 24 port switch should be installed.6. OS1 Single mode fibre shall be installed for lengths over 550 metres in order to guarantee gigabit speed connectivity and future 10 gigabit requirements. Sufficient access for communication cables is to be provided at each stage for the provision of additional cabling at a later stage. Links to separate buildings will be interconnected with fibre-optic cabling only. All fibres shall be a minimum of 6 core but shall be increased by one pair for every 24 network points per communications cabinet. All fibre-optic cores shall be terminated at both ends of the installation. Links between campuses will be interlinked with fibre where possible. Fibre-optic conversion switches or transceivers must be supplied or allowed for in a prime cost (PC) sum.
whether they are part of the initial site or not.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6. (Note: confirm conduit colour with the DEECD’s Emergency and Security Management Unit (ESM) for security services. data. with a minimum of 50mm for voice and data and 32 mm for security and video. Designers need to allow for connection to other campuses if they are building a new campus for an existing school. These conduits should be run to a suitable location where a communications pit can be installed to faciltate connections to other campuses at a later date. This may include liaising with new estate developers to secure space in service trenches during establishment. A minimum of one gigabit connection shall be maintained between sites. security and video links between buildings. All communications conduits are to be white and sized according to the AS/ACIF 009 standard or AS 3000. the favoured method of connection via underground privately owned conduit.7 Conduit Between Buildings A minimum of one conduit for each service shall be provided for voice. All conduits installed on a site that has a concrete slab base shall be installed in the slab. Conduits must have at least a 25% spare capacity built in. Interconnection options include (1) single mode fibre-optic links and (2) wireless. A fibre-optic solution is preferred. directly to the communications cabinet /security cabinet that they are to supply. 6. additional cables added at a later stage may damage existing cables.1 Conduits Between Multi-campus Sites All sites that are potentially multi-campus sites shall have consideration given to the interlinking of these sites. Consideration should be given to the installation of spare communications conduits. It should be noted that once cables are installed in a conduit. A minimum size fibre shall be 12 core and increased if a collapsing backbone design is being used between many sites. Single Mode Fibre-Optic Links All supporting infrastructure is to be installed and supplied by the builder in consultation with the DEECD’s Infrastructure Division and ITD when works require additional funding. and orange – security (refer ESM’s “School Alarm System Specification”). Building Quality Standards Handbook 87 October 2008 . There must be suitable access/draw pits.7. All communications conduits shall be buried to a depth of 500mm and have the following colour: white – communications and voice. Intruder detection system cabling from the central communications area is to be carried in a conduit used exclusively for that purpose.) These conduits shall radiate in a star configuration from the central communications area to each new building and have a draw wire installed.
antennas.HTM.sofweb. An allocation of one WAP (Wireless Access Point) per 4 class rooms will be sufficient to start with but cabling is to allow for a 1 WAP per 4 Classroom scenario at minimum. All active equipment is available from preferred suppliers who provide special education pricing.9 External Communication telecommunications carrier. These are for: Building Quality Standards Handbook 88 October 2008 . Active equipment quantities and design should be discussed with the school learning technology coordinators and TSSP technicians assigned to the school. Please contact the Department’s regional IT manager to verify the technician’s details. Equipment for this style of connection would be recommended to the school and a prime cost sum allowed.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services Wireless Some sites will not lend themselves to a fibre-optic solution.au/itb/SUPPLIER/SUPPLIER. School refurbishments do not have funds allocated for active equipment. Schools require two LANs across the links. 6. Wireless links between campuses are different to the LAN wireless network installed in a classroom. and cable infrastructure to be installed and supplied to maintain a line of site connection between sites. first. This may require masts. This should be discussed with ITD at DEECD.8 Active Equipment All new schools and school buildings have a budget amount allocated for network infrastructure cabling. An administration and a curriculum connection must be available. and satellite connection. Stand alone multi-campus solutions are not optional without.) Consideration should be given to factoring a prime cost (PC) sum for this equipment to the school. If fibre-optic cables are present. (Note: wireless connectivity does not replace cabled connections. 6. consulting the DEECD’s ITD and Infrastructure Division. including active equipment. There are two main connections to external communication services. designers may look at wireless options. It is envisioned that a 1:1 wireless to classroom ratio will be required in the future.edu. Additional funding may need to be requested from the DEECD’s Infrastructure Division.vic. Once the fibre options are exhausted. The preferred option is for 10/100 switches with gigabit uplinks to be used. Active equipment now includes specific Cisco Wireless products. populated fibre-optic transceiver ports. consideration shall be given to switches that have built-in. These companies are listed at: http://www.
This will allow provision of high-speed data services in the form of Telstra GWIP (Government Wide-Band IP) or BDSL (Business Digital Subscriber Line). The following considerations shall be given to the provision of the Telstra TCS GWIP (optic fibre) or BDSL (copper) services: Telstra hardware and services require physical space and associated electrical power supply and electrical connections to cables entering the building. 6. and will terminate at the main distribution frame.3 Telstra TCS BDSL Telstra will provide the following hardware items for the provision of Business DSL (Up to 2Mbps symmetric): copper (2 wire) access. fibre patch panel.2 Telstra TCS GWIP Telstra will provide the following hardware items for the provision of GWIP (4Mbps+): fibre access.1 Telecommunications Carrier Connection As of mid 2005 there are new details for service providers. please see below. the space allowed needs to be sufficient to allow staff to work on the equipment in accordance with health and safety guidelines. 89 Building Quality Standards Handbook October 2008 . including the BDSL modem and frame relay NTU are available only as freestanding units and only suitable for shelf mounting.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services External communications will terminate at the communication cupboard. The telecommunications connection will be effected through the supply of either a multipair cable or optic fibre cable to the site. the fibre patch panel is also to be rack mounted). and a TCS router – Cisco 2811. preferably within a communication rack. For details. 6. 6.9.9. it is recommended that 6 to 10 RU (rack units) of rack space be provided at each site for the housing of Telstra equipment (Telstra will assume all equipment is to be rack mounted unless otherwise advised prior to order. BDSL Modem (typically an Adtran modem) with an Ethernet 100BaseTX interface.9. a GWIP Switch (typically a Cisco 3550) providing one Ethernet interface. and a TCS router – Cisco 2811. and all other equipment.
A decision should be made at the start of the planning process as to which type of Voice system is to be used so that the infrastructure can be designed around that system. The Cisco 2811 router has three fans that operate at a slower speed to conserve power and reduce fan noise at ambient temperatures below 32oC. A communication rack of at least 450mm depth is required to house the Cisco 2811 router. Consideration should be given to the size of the site. 6. the router can be mounted vertically on a wall to conserve space.1 Analogue Telephone Systems The telephone system should comprise the following minimum: sufficient exchange lines for day-time traffic and night-time security (see following table).45cm x 41.6mm) and will not fit in some standard communication racks.45cm x 36. ease of adds moves and changes. They operate at high-speed in ambient temperatures above 32oC. 6. cost versus flexibility. flexibility for staged construction and expansion. sufficient extensions for efficiency and emergency needs. one or more private lines for emergency purposes (rotary switching will allow daily use also).45cm Adtran Total Access (TA) 544R NTU shelf mounted 1RU Power Consumption 105W with standard power Catalyst 3550-24: 65W.58cm x 44.82cm 4.10. readily available support (training and maintenance). and Building Quality Standards Handbook 90 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6. data service capabilities.66cm x 43.9.4 TCS Equipment Dimensions Dimensions (H x D x W) 4. VoIP ready. 222 Btus per hour 240VAC Equipment Model Cisco 2811 router Cisco 3550-24 switch Adtran BDSL modem Note: The Cisco 2811 router is extraordinarily deep (416. and multi-campus situations. VoIP systems are now considered mature and may result the requirement of less cabling infrastructure. Wall mounting kits are available for the Cisco 2811 router so that.10 Voice Services Voice systems are now separated into two streams: PABX and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol). in a situation where the router can not be rack mounted. especially in the backbone at school sites.
4 GHz frequency due to interference with the school wireless network. tel: 03 9589 6266. approximately one handset to every second room. Other telephone services required in schools are: security line. Cabling is to be combined with the structured cabling communications system and terminate on 8-way modular patch panels (RJ45) within the communications cabinet. this may affect the security line. This should be discussed with the DEECD’s Emergency and Security Management Unit. PABX tails are to be presented at the communications cabinet on 8-way modular patch panels (RJ45) within the communications cabinet. Computer or video communications should be carefully considered. The level of telephone service which may be required is outlined in the following table: Enrolment 150 300 700 1000 1250 1500 2000 Exchange Lines 2 3 5 7 9 11 14 Extensions 10 13 20 27 33 40 47 Extensions will be distributed through the school.10. Only administration staff will have executive style handsets with liquid crystal display.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services voice mail for all staff with central indication of mail waiting for individuals.2 Handsets All handsets will be capable of hands free and intercom usage. 6. Building Quality Standards Handbook 91 October 2008 . the extensions shall be distributed among any separate or distant buildings. and modem line (check if required locally). One extension should be available to the staff centre and located to minimise noise interference. For emergency purposes. Note: If a telephone system is upgraded or changed. Relocatable buildings should be included in the telephone system. fax line. Extra exchange lines will be needed for interactive television. Power fail attachments should be installed. Cordless phone should not be of the 2. A cordless extension should be available for use in the grounds.
reducing distribution cabling requirements. switchboards. 6. and the overall system call control (and therefore administration) typically resides on servers at a single site (plus possible backup site).10. This will allow the systems to be networked and provide an integrated communications infrastructure across all sites. handsets (terminals) with a login facility can assume the number and calling profile of whoever has logged in. This requires the installation of a Layer 3 managed switches environment. Among the disadvantages: QOS (Quality of Service) protocol must be available on switches running the system. Software-based phones can be installed directly onto computers.3 Multi-campus Situations In a multi-campus situation (whether primary school or secondary college). this is a significant advantage compared to programming and administering moves. a PABX telephone system is recommended for each campus. especially as users move between sites or sites are moved. tie lines. Building Quality Standards Handbook 92 October 2008 .10.5 VoIP IP telephony is a technology whereby one or more of the functions of a traditional telephone system (such as PABX. A school which may become multi-campus can rent tie lines as needed. just as computer desk-tops are profiled based on login (this is very effective for “hot desking” where staff are regularly moving their current workstation around a building. at every site.10. voice mail. but powered switches need to be investigated carefully for load sharing and capacity. call accounting and billing) are implemented over a LAN and/or WAN using the internet protocol. telephone handsets.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6.4 System Expandability All key systems and PABXs installed shall have an expansion capacity to meet the maximum extension requirements of the site. as well as least-cost routing on PABX switches. POE (Power Over Ethernet) switches will assist in reducing the number of local power requirements for handsets. With VoIP: telephony and data can be brought to a workstation through a single data line (switch port). For a system spanning multiple sites via a WAN. telephone backbone cabling can almost be eliminated. site or anywhere within a corporate WAN). adds and changes. Handsets are expensive. 6.
and underground conduits must be buried to a depth of 500mm and in accordance with AS 3000 standards. pre-announcement chime.htm 6. record and slave input. Intruder detection systems should not be part of the electrical contract. consult the Emergency & Security Management website: http://www. Building Quality Standards Handbook 93 October 2008 .sofweb. 3 balanced microphone inputs. 6. It is important to note the following matters: reliable power outlets are required for the system and must be installed by a licensed electrician.edu. The PA system comprises a public address amplifier and speakers operating on a 100 volt line. trained and experienced for this particular system. 2 auxiliary inputs. The security cabling and installers are pre-qualified.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services If a VoIP phone system is installed.12 Public Address System Public address (PA) cabling is specific for this particular system. The Emergency & Security Management Unit (tel: 03 9589 6266) will provide a detailed sectionalisation list from architectural drawings. This list is to be included in the builder’s construction specification.11 Intruder Detection System Intruder detection system cabling is to be installed in strict accordance to DEECD’s Emergency and Security Management (ESM) “School Alarm System Specification”.au/emerg/index. The public address amplifier shall feature: 250 watt amplifier minimum. no surface conduit is allowed. For further information. Systems installed by non approved installers will not be monitored by ESM. bell.vic. cables shall be installed in conduit in accessible under-floor areas. then a redundant power supply is strongly recommended as well as UPS and redundant links when interconnecting the system to other sites.
6.2 of the Standard Specification for Information Technology and Telecommunications Cabling which can be found at: http://www.15 As-built Documentation Hard and soft copies of as-built documentation must be submitted in accordance with Section 8. Three types of microphone will be connected to the system. Bell services can be achieved by the public address service.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services emergency alert and evacuation tones. will already be available in an integrated service.13 Clock-Bell Services The provision of stand alone clocks in schools is preferred. no separate infrastructure will be needed if a public address service is selected. These are: desk paging microphone. If special networking is required. and radio microphone.mmv.6 – Recommended Horizontal Cabling Quantities. consultation should be under taken with the school.gov. manufacturer’s warranty details. See Section 6.14 Library Automation Services These services should be connected to the school network and as such. so no infrastructure is needed for this service.au/TelecommunicationsandBroadband.vic. routes of cable runs. 6. rack frame layouts. 6. manufacturer’s certification.6. cardioid microphone with a floor stand. routes of conduit runs. Building Quality Standards Handbook 94 October 2008 . communications cabinet locations and numbering scheme. and monitor speaker. Requirements include but are not limited to: drawings showing as-installed details. Again.
and intruder detection system details. The contractor will be required to rectify any non compliances within 3 business days. Any underground.17 Cabling Provider Rules Licence All works must be carried out using personnel holding an “open” cabling licence with an ACA accredited Cabling Provider Rules (CPR) registration body. aerial. security or fibre-optic cable works using CPR “open” licensed personnel will further have the respective qualifications for these specialties. All work shall comply with all ACA regulations concerning licence use. A walk-through of the site by ITD personnel will be performed to check for installation quality. an ICT check sheet must be completed and submitted to the DEECD’s Information Technology Division.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services full summary of test results of all cabling. and to check submitted as-built documentation. Any installer must supply a TCR1 (“Telecommunications Cabling Advice Form”) to the client upon completion of works. Building Quality Standards Handbook 95 October 2008 . together with additional accreditation for UTP (unshielded twisted pair cabling) obtained from a training organisation recognised by the Telecommunications Industry Training Advisory Board. 6. 6.16 Customer Acceptance At the completion of all new school sites. Until the date of old licence expiry. compliance to the specification. A walk-through should occur prior to customer handover but after cabling completion. cablers holding an old ACA “Base General Premises Cabling Licence” with UTP endorsement may also be used.
Please note that endorsements such as that of UTP and Fibre specialties are no longer mandatory in order to work on these products.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6.17.2 Registration Card Example This is an example of a new-style registration card issued by one of the above registrars. The installer must also record these details on a TCA1 (Telecommunications Advice Form) to be handed over on completion of the installation. and a check of the registration should be performed prior to work commencing. Note voluntary endorsements Building Quality Standards Handbook 96 October 2008 . These details are to be recorded on the ICT check list.17. It is strongly recommended that all installers of ICT cabling and security systems in schools can prove that they have these endorsements.1 ACA Accredited Industry Registrars Example registration number Australian Cabler Registration Service (ACRS) Register Australian Security Industry Association Limited (ASIAL) Register BICSI Registered Cablers Australia (BRCA) Register Fire Protection Association Australia (FPA Australia) Register A ……… S ……… B ……… F ……… TITAB Australia Cabler Registry Services (TITAB ACRS) Register T ……… 6.
18 Classroom Layout Building Quality Standards Handbook 97 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6.
au/ict/lan/standard.htm for information on ITD cable routes Building Quality Standards Handbook 98 October 2008 .edu.sofweb.19 Typical Cabinet Layouts Read in conjunction with http://www.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services 6.vic.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 6 – Communication Services Building Quality Standards Handbook 99 October 2008 .
site development comprises five distinct categories: ► roads. it is the responsibility of the principal consultant to ensure that careful consideration is given to specific site development requirements. Every effort should be made to retain existing trees of use and importance. During the design phase of the buildings and site. Building Quality Standards Handbook 100 October 2008 . among other things. Other important issues to be addressed during the planning of a site development scheme include: ► requirement for a complete site masterplan – incorporating. ► fencing. 7. ► emergency access. For example. ► current and proposed school/community funded improvements. weather protection and shading – at a scale not less than 1:100 and on an accurate survey base (this is mandatory for new school projects. should be reflected in a school’s masterplan.1 SITE WORKS Introduction A well maintained. All aspects of site development. functional and aesthetic school site has a positive influence on student values. The extent of site development will vary and the needs and priorities of new and existing schools will clearly differ. ► planted landscaped areas. ► functional and safe access around the site for pedestrian and vehicular traffic. manageable. footpaths and hard courts. pleasant and ecologically responsible outdoor environment. bearing in mind the approved budget for this. To achieve this. Landscaping should not be dealt with in isolation but form an integral part of the overall development. but may not be necessary for all facilities upgrade proposals). behaviour and performance.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works 7. It is important that school grounds are developed to meet these goals in a balanced and comprehensive manner. assembly and physical education requirements. including landscaping. and ► site improvements. and ► provision of areas and facilities which meet outdoor play. ► covered ways. a new school project usually requires more site development than a major facilities upgrade at an existing school. ► provision of areas and facilities which meet outdoor curriculum requirements. The development of school grounds should be focused to satisfy goals in three major areas: ► provision of a safe. a proper survey should be carried out of all significant trees and site features prior to any masterplanning. In the context of school facilities provision.
etc. hard court areas. Consideration should also be given in the planning of site facilities to the access and circulation of emergency vehicles such as ambulances and fire trucks.2 7. Consideration should be given to a single point of vehicle entry into each staff car parking area. including car parking in accordance with AS 2890. materials and construction shall comply with the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards. For safety reasons.gov. and the extent of access roads should be minimised. demolition. contact EcoRecycle Victoria: http://www. canteen. ► active recreational area requirements. For economic reasons. provide shade and shelter. Delivery vehicles will require access as close as possible to areas such as administration. signage and bollards should be considered in the interests of safety. refurbishment or landscaping. planting should have regard to maintenance. ► passive recreational area requirements. and ► provision of disabled access throughout the site. aesthetic and educational values). where feasible. In terms of environmentally preferred materials. delivery vehicle access is usually incorporated into the staff car park.vic.) Useful security hints and practical advice can also be obtained from the DEECD’s Emergency & Security Management website: http://www. canteen and technology. Footpaths and Hard courts Vehicle Access Roads Vehicle access roads provide functional and safe access onto the site. Access roads are usually constructed of heavy duty asphalt (recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt may. All design. channel pedestrian traffic and provide visual screening (generally.ecorecycle. 7.au/emerg/. Building Quality Standards Handbook 101 October 2008 .sofwed. Speed traps. drinking fountains. On-site staff parking should be designed with minimal site intrusion. waste minimisation planning can lead to a reduction of site waste and a more intensive use of materials. ► direct routes to a full range of facilities (e.1 Roads. ► provision of non-slip path surfaces.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works ► maintenance and security (the ongoing cost of site maintenance can be minimised by careful planning through all stages of design).edu. (With respect to construction. mark boundaries. toilets.vic. Direct access to these areas.2. Details relating to landscaping must be addressed in the Design Development report. ► planting to stop erosion.au/. is not mandatory and the trolleying of equipment and goods over short distances is acceptable.g.). however. they should be separate from pedestrian access paths. be specified) with associated kerb and channel.
provision will be made in accordance with the following long-term enrolments. paper. beverage containers. A minimum of one parking bay should be provided for the disabled as part of the entitlement as specified in the Building Code of Australia. These include food wastes. A staff car park should be constructed of heavy duty asphalt with kerb and channel.000-1099 1.3 Waste Disposal A waste disposal facility is usually incorporated adjacent to the car parking area and sited as close as possible to the street boundary. staffrooms.2. canteens. libraries etc. Suitable screening should be considered around the waste disposal facility. However.2. This is necessary for safety reasons and limiting the intrusion of pickup trucks onto the site.100-1199 8 14 21 27 34 11 20 30 36 44 51 59 67 76 84 92 100 1-8 9-16 17-24 25-32 33-40 41-48 49-56 57-64 65-72 73-80 81-88 89-96 97-104 105-112 113-120 6 8 10 13 16 19 22 26 30 34 38 42 44 46 48 1-12 13-24 25-36 37-48 49-60 61-72 73-84 85-96 97-108 109-120 121-132 133-144 145-155 6 8 10 13 16 19 22 26 30 34 38 42 44 Considerations which may influence the location of staff car parks include: ► access for staff from car park to buildings.2 Parking Areas There is no requirement for the Department to provide staff car parking.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works 7. line marking and pram crossings. Operational wastes are those generated once a facility is in use. where site conditions permit (and subject to the availability of funds). The waste disposal bay should be constructed of heavy duty concrete. and ► access to physical education facilities (these can be shared with the community during after hours). The waste disposal facility (from which waste and recyclables are collected) should be of Building Quality Standards Handbook 102 October 2008 . Enrolment Primary School Car Spaces Secondary College Car Spaces Special Developmental Schools – Enrolment Special Developmental Schools – Car Spaces Special Schools – Enrolment Special Schools – Car Spaces 1-99 100-199 200-299 300-399 400-499 500-599 600-699 700-799 800-899 900-999 1. Effective design should ensure that classrooms. have areas allocated where waste and recycling bins are placed. 7. cardboard and other packaging materials.
Disabled access is required from the car park and street frontage to and around the buildings in accordance with current Australian Standards. where feasible. etc. where feasible. The hard courts should be constructed of light duty asphalt (recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt may. and sleeves should be supplied for any other games posts. and sleeves should be supplied for any other games posts. Recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt may. Path widths should suit their anticipated usage and. Permeable surfaces such as rubber.2. subject to budget and applicability. netball and volleyball. netball and volleyball. New Secondary Colleges Two double hard courts are to be provided. be specified for pedestrian paths. to each separate functional area within the school. 7. Paths are generally hard-paved or made of non-skid surfaces such as concrete. Basketball and netball fittings should be provided as required. especially if external access to classrooms is employed. The asphalt courts should be marked in a north/south orientation.2. The hard courts are regarded as an important physical education facility and should therefore be sited in close proximity to the gymnasium and outdoor grassed playing area.4 Pedestrian Paths A path network is required to provide a safe. be a minimum of 1500mm wide. Footpaths should be wide enough at building entrances to provide sufficient paved area for students waiting to enter. in general. be specified) and are usually marked in accordance with Sport and Recreation Victoria (Department of Victorian Communities) guidelines for basketball.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works a size to accommodate and store these materials prior to pick-up. Basketball and netball fittings should be provided as required. no fines concrete and other surface treatments may be considered. functional and direct means of access to and around school buildings. Access is required from the car park to buildings for staff. 7. The facility should also take into account the size of collection vehicles and methods of collection (eg.). The asphalt courts should be marked in a north/south orientation. be specified) and are usually marked in accordance with the Sport and Recreation Victoria guidelines for basketball. The hard courts should be constructed of light duty asphalt (recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt may. Surfaces such as gravel and granitic sand are not acceptable due to associated maintenance problems. visitors and deliveries. The paved area should be conveniently located for school assembly purposes.5 Hard courts and Paved Areas New Primary Schools One double hard court is to be provided as well as a paved area equivalent in size to a single hard court. rather. where feasible. Building Quality Standards Handbook 103 October 2008 . Disabled access is not required to every door of every building but. lift mechanism.
► horizontal and vertical ladders. ► climbing nets and frames. Written confirmation that the playground equipment and its installation meet the requirements of the Australian Standards should be provided by the supplier.au .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works 7. and ► climbing ropes (fixed).5 metres between items of equipment.net.5 metres away from any fences. ► swings (including log swings). and ► flying foxes. tel. The equipment must be at least 2. All apparatus must be fixed unless specifically designed to be portable. Particular attention needs to be given to the undersurfacing beneath the playground equipment. In general. Under-surfacing to an average compacted depth of 250mm should be provided and maintained in a loose condition. with a fall height of no more than 2.1 and AS/NZS 4422. In general. 9412 4013. Concrete footings should be set with the tops of the footings at least 200mm below ground level and backfilled. buildings or other similar objects. playground equipment should not be more than 3 metres above ground level. All playground equipment should be inspected weekly and repairs and maintenance carried out immediately. ► roundabouts. The following items are not approved for use in schools: ► seesaws. Building Quality Standards Handbook 104 October 2008 . ► maypoles. 9412 4013. Information and advice is available from the Playgrounds and Recreation Association of Victoria (PRAV). fax. ► merry-go-rounds. All equipment design and installation should conform to AS 1924 Parts 1 and 2. email email@example.com metres. ► jungle combinations. ► slides. ► horizontal bars. AS/NZS 4486. ► gymnastic combinations. There should be at least 2.3 Playground Equipment Only approved playground equipment may be erected in school grounds. approved equipment includes: ► sandpits.
well drained. Building Quality Standards Handbook 105 October 2008 . well drained. The yield of top soil stripped from the building site should also be assessed. All grass mixes should be drought tolerant. Refer to “Education & Environment”→ “Irrigation Management” and download the document Efficient Irrigation: A Reference Manual for Turf and Landscape.southeastwater. 7. the available stripped top soil resulting from building works is spread to create flat playing areas. A good example of best practice is included in the South East Water website www. An ongoing irrigation management plan is recommended to prevent “over irrigation”.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works 7. with a minimum of flowering species (such as clover) to minimise the attraction of bees.5.5 7.2 Irrigation Systems Appropriate water reticulation should be provided to enable grassed areas to be maintained.5. 7.1 Landscaping Sports Playing Field In general. At least two quick-coupling valves should be provided within the playing areas. grassed open playing area should be provided subject to the dictates of topography and available space (nominal field/oval dimensions of 110 x 90 metres). Systems should be carefully chosen using expert advice where appropriate.com.au.5.3 General Grassed Area All areas of the site not required for other purposes will be converted to general grassed areas. 7. Assessments should be undertaken at the commencement of the planning process to define what is practical for the site. New Primary Schools A flat. Trees may be planted through these areas to provide future shade. All playing surfaces need to be drained with falls across the playing surface and adequate sub-surface drainage. Quickcoupling valves should be provided in a suitable layout. The website’s “Irrigation Calculator” is of further assistance. New Secondary Schools A flat. Any adjoining party fencing requirements will need to be investigated by the principal consultant.4 Fencing A perimeter fence to enclose or define the extent of the site should be provided to a minimum height of 1200mm. The installation of an irrigation system alone may not achieve the best results in water conservation. grassed open playing area should be provided (nominal field/oval dimensions of 165 x 135 metres).
for planting information. In Victoria.8 – Planting Guidelines. The use of a dripper system should be explored in lieu of expensive pop-up sprays. When planning school grounds.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works Refer Section 7. 7. Call SunSmart on (03) 9635 5148 for a free copy.5. Effective shade provides shelter from the sun’s UV radiation at the right time of day and at the right time of year. Providing well-designed shade at the school will help protect students and staff from the sun’s harmful UV rays. or download a version from the SunSmart website: www. thereby reducing maintenance costs. ► determine the daily/seasonal movements of the sun. for planting information. and ► provide recommendations concerning additional shade (if required) The best types of shade have extensive overhead or side cover. Shade should be designed to offer the greatest protection during peak UV radiation times and usage periods. and service these with fixed water spray systems. consideration should be given to developing shade areas appropriate for student use. Therefore.4 Garden Beds Provide a minimum 150m2 of “ground level” mulched garden beds to match existing grades and site contours. UV Index levels are highest from September to April. ► assess the need for additional shade. Composts and mulches made to standards AS 4454 (composts. consideration should be given to developing appropriate shade areas for student use. Garden beds should be located in less heavily trafficked areas.au. The shaded area should also be an inviting space so that students will want to use it. Building Quality Standards Handbook 106 October 2008 . sites with high usage at that time have a higher priority for shade. Refer Section 7. This can be done in a variety of ways. SunSmart recommends that shade audits be conducted to: ► establish usage patterns at the site. Shade alone can reduce overall exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays by about 75%. soil conditioners and mulches).8 – Planting Guidelines.sunsmart. Fixed spray heads should be avoided due to vandalism. where possible. ► assess the quantity and usability of existing shade. 7. AS 3743 (potting mixes) and AS 4419 (soils for landscaping and gardens) should be employed in landscaping applications where feasible to do so. About 60% of daily UV radiation reaches the earth’s surface during the middle of the day. sun protection is an important health and safety issue that schools need to address. and are away from highly reflective surfaces. When planning for shade. Composts and mulches can reduce water consumption and eliminate weed problems.5 Shade Areas Due to Australia’s high skin cancer rates. please refer to Shade for Everyone: a Practical Guide for Shade Development.5. When planning school grounds.com.
The “shade tree chart” on page 19 of Shade for Everyone provides information to help select trees appropriate to the site. The shade area should be of sufficient height (three metres minimum) to make it light and airy and a welcoming space to use. Built Shade As trees can take years to grow. Any shade structure in fixed play equipment areas should be designed with reference to AS/NZS 4486. such as lunch and passive playground areas. Where possible. the covered way is a simple structure that comprises a galvanised frame with metal roof decking. Building Quality Standards Handbook 107 October 2008 . Trees with dense foliage and wide spreading canopies provide the best protection. preserve all existing and suitable shade trees on site. and located to minimise intrusion into play and circulation areas. Modify or select surfaces to reduce reflected UV radiation. These offer 90% protection from UV radiation. ► Vertical barriers at the sides of the shade structure should be designed to prevent climbing. brick). The UPF (ultraviolet protection factor) rating system for shade fabric is presented in AS/NZS 4399:1996. Roofing and guttering shall be provided in accordance with Section 3. For the longer term. locate shade planting in areas where students tend to gather. SunSmart recommends that shade fabrics have a UPF of 15 or higher. In general. In the case of new school developments. ► Cables and guy ropes should be avoided where possible.1:1997. If required. Plant groups of trees in clusters to increase the overall size of the canopy and therefore increase protection. Shade structures must be made in accordance with Building Code of Australia and Australian Standards. It is normal practice for modular buildings to be sited in cluster arrangements along a central covered way access spine.4 – Roof. for example. Vertical surfaces such as walls should also be made of materials that reduce reflected UV radiation (for example. with relocatables attached to either side.6 Covered Ways These facilities link both permanent construction and relocatable amenities. replace smooth concrete with brick. Take-offs from the central covered way are to be provided at entrance points.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works Natural Shade Natural shade should be a major element of shade provision within a school. grass or tanbark. with rounded edges and/or padding. covered ways should be provided to link relocatable units with permanent buildings. for example. Optimise the use of this existing shade by. 7. Design shade structures to reduce indirect UV radiation. it is recommended that built shade be constructed in the shorter term. locate them in garden areas and provide marking and padded protection. removing low branches so that students can play underneath. Safety is a major consideration when designing built shade: ► Columns and posts should be clearly visible.
7. depending on the size of the tree. are key to many first and lasting impressions. gender and their benefit in terms of social development and interaction. 7.7.3 Flagpole One flagpole.8 7.2 Litter Bins Outdoor litter bins (one for every 30 students and a school minimum of one) shall be provided.7. It is of particular importance that signs at the entry to the site clearly direct visitors to the school office.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works Covered ways may also be considered as a means of providing undercover external access around and between permanent buildings. 7. as such. shade. with all the attachments needed to raise a flag. accurate and visually interesting.1 Planting Guidelines General Hints ► Approximate planting distances: : : : Plants of up to one metre (300mm to 600mm apart).7 7. Seating configurations should take into account prospect/vista.7. This allows for the usual 30% death rate.1 Improvements (new schools) Seating Formal outdoor seating (100mm length per student and an overall school minimum of 20 metres) shall be provided.4 External Signage A system of external signs listing different parts of the school and clearly directing people to their intended location should be provided. and should be vandal proof. Plants from one to two metres (one metre apart). This should be addressed by the principal consultant as part of the building design process. 7. They can also provide useful shade to buildings and windows. informative. ► Plant eucalypts and other large trees within a suitable distance from buildings and sewerage. shall be provided. and Plants from two to two and a half metres (one and a half to two metres apart).8. Building Quality Standards Handbook 108 October 2008 .7. age group. Signs are important for both delivery and periodic maintenance. This ranges from two to six metres. 7. Signs are labels which establish a tone and.
► Small or established trees: : : for native trees. established trees are suggested. 7. ► Plant shade trees near car parks. shrubs will grow as wide as they are high. and in areas of high traffic. fragrance. particularly in hard soils. ► In general. however. five clumps of different species of acacias. poisonous or fruit bearing plants. Vegetation groupings should create significant places and gestures within school grounds. Judicious planting. A suitable area for such planting would be an unused corner at the edge of an oval or playground. For instance. such as Eucalyptus ficifolia. ► Before planting native trees. melaleucas or eucalypts would emphasise the diversity of plants within each genus. texture and leaf shape are some of the variables within each genus. ► Avoid planting trees under the eaves of classrooms or planting tall shrubs in front of windows. ► Plant several clumps of one particular type.8. near hard-paved areas. while flowering times. results are better with small trees. ► Avoid thorny. Such plants have a high success rate and are valuable in terms of local ecology. can shade some windows and provide a cooling effect.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works ► Trees in clumps look more natural if planted in uneven numbers. Deciduous trees offer shade in summer and let in the light during winter.2 Particular Plants Quick Growing Native Trees Eucalyptus globulus – Tasmania Blue Gum Eucalyptus leucoxylon rosea – Red Flowered Yellow Gum Eucalyptus nicholii – Willow Leafed Peppermint Eucalyptus saligna – Sydney Blue Gum Eucalyptus torquata – Coral Gum Building Quality Standards Handbook 109 October 2008 . Children can slip on these pods. ► Avoid planting trees with large seed pods. attempt to find out which trees and plants are indigenous to the area. ► Plant shrubbery areas thickly so that weeds won’t survive. and for this reason “one metre” garden beds are not useful planting areas.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works Quicker Growing Deciduous Trees Acer negundo – Box Elder Alnus incana – Grey Alder Fraxinus raywoodii – Claret Ash Quercus cerris – Turkey Oak Hardy Native Shrubs – Large Acacia cultriformis – Knife-edge Wattle Acacia floribunda – Catkin Acacia Acacia iteaphylla – Gawler Range Wattle Acacia longifolia – Sallow Wattle Acacia pravissima – Ovens Wattle Acacia stricta – Hop Wattle Acacia verniciflua – Varnish Wattle Callistemon citrinus – Lemon Scented Bottlebrush Callistemon linariifolius – Narrow Leaf Bottlebrush Callistemon salignus – Pink Tips Bottlebrush Callistemon viminalis – Weeping Bottlebrush Casuarina nana Grevillea rosmarinifolia – Rosemary Grevillea Grevillea “Clearview David” Grevillea “Pink Pearl” Grevillea glabrata Grevillea poorinda hybrids Hakea laurina – Pin Cushion Hakea Hakea saligna – Willow Hakea Hakea suaveolens – Sweet-scented Hakea Leptospermum lanigerum – Woolly Tea-tree Leptospermum petersenii – Lemon-scented Tea-tree Melaleuca armillaris – Bracelet Myrtle Melaleuca decussata – Cross Leaf Honey Myrtle Melaleuca diosmifolia Hardy Native Shrubs – Small-Medium Acacia conferta – Golden Top Acacia drummondii – Drummonds Wattle Anigozanthos flavida – Kangaroo Paw Building Quality Standards Handbook 110 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works Astartea fascicularis Callistemon pinifolius – Green Bottlebrush Calocephalus brownii – Cushion Bush Grevillea “Crosbie Morrison” Grevillea dimorpha Grevillea juniperina Grevillea lavandulacea Leptospermum flavescens – Tantoon Leptospermum scoparium – Manuka Melaleuca hypericifolia – Red Honey Myrtle Melaleuca incaca – Grey Honey Myrtle Rhagodia hastata – Salt Bush Thryptomene paynei Thicket Planting Acacia mearnsii – Black Wattle Acacia melanoxylon – Black Wood\ Plants to Avoid (Harmful to Humans) Hedera helix – English Ivy Kalmia latifolia – Kalmia Laburnum species – Golden Rain Tree Lantana species – Lantana Ligustrum vulgare – Common Privet Melia azedarach – White Cedar Myoporum insulare – Boobialla Nerium species – Oleander Prunus laurocerasus – Cherry Laurel Wisteria sinensis – Wisteria Plants to Avoid (“Limb Droppers”) Eucalyptus botryoides – Mahogany Gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis – River Red Gum Eucalyptus cladocalyx – Sugar Gum Eucalyptus mannifera – White Brittle Gum Eucalyptus viminalis – Manna Gum (Ribbon Gum) Trees with Troublesome Root Systems Building Quality Standards Handbook 111 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 7 – Site Works Fraxinus species – some Ashes Populus species – Poplars Salix babylonica – Weeping Willow Ulmus procera – English Elm Building Quality Standards Handbook 112 October 2008 .
3 Common Special Factors It is not possible to identify all items that may be considered special factors. and all additions must be supported by estimates and quotations. 8. Special factors affecting the cost of a building project include: ► existing site conditions ► climatic conditions ► existing conditions impacting on building design ► access and servicing ► multi-storey or higher than normal buildings. Approval must also be obtained from the DEECD before incurring additional costs. Each of the factors listed in Section 8. Building Quality Standards Handbook 113 October 2008 .1 Existing Site Conditions Due to the condition of the site. Budget allocations will be modified and approved during the course of documentation accordingly.2 Process The project budget may be increased at project initiation or during its development. and only the most common are defined as follows. the principal consultant must supply a detailed confirmation of the cost of each special factor specified in the original budget.3. additional works may be required to an otherwise standard building project. 8. During the course of the documentation. 8. Only in circumstances where an extraordinary item arises (and for which no monetary allocation has been provided) will approval of additional project funds be considered.1 need to be quantified and reasons and/or reports provided to justify such budget allocations. 8.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 8 – Special Factors 8. Investigations should demonstrate that alternatives have been evaluated.1 SPECIAL FACTORS Introduction Special factors associated with the construction of a facility may lead to additional costs and affect the budget of an otherwise standard building project.
8. heavy traffic) where noise levels exceed acceptable levels. trains. ► the bringing of service supplies to the site boundary. and ► external nuisance (aeroplanes. pump house.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 8 – Special Factors Such works may be generated by factors associated with: ► rock ► flood prone land ► filled sites ► swampy ground ► site contamination. 8.3. additional works may include or be caused by: ► excessive service runs as a result of current service locations. for example. Such works may be caused by: ► asbestos. however.g. ► the upgrade of existing external works and services as a result of additional “loads” imposed.4 Access and Servicing Due to the nature or location of the site.2 Climatic Conditions Design modification to an otherwise standard facility may arise as a result of climate. ► buildings required to house engineering services (e. ► soil ► slope of site (where the fall across the site is 1:20 or steeper) bulk excavation ► fill provision ► The impact on the construction method and/or the additional works involved must be identified and the likely cost quantified and approved by the DEECD.3. Snow entrances. additional works may be required to an otherwise standard building project.3 Existing Conditions Impacting on Building Design Due to site conditions. ► poor structural or maintenance condition of the existing building fabric. The impact on the construction method and/or the additional works involved must be identified and the likely cost quantified and approved by the DEECD. ► decanting requirements. does not represent a design modification. substation. 8. The construction cost in a place of high rainfall. Building Quality Standards Handbook 114 October 2008 . or proximity to the sea (generally within one kilometre) may incur an additional expense.3. gas meter enclosure). and any impact of this kind should be covered in the DEECD’s locality allowance.
).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 8 – Special Factors ► service and local government authority requirements (e. 8. it may be necessary for facilities other than single-storey buildings to be constructed. Location Allowance In general. headworks and outfall charges). No additional funds will be provided. Price Escalation and Rise and Fall during Documentation and Construction The DEECD does not budget for escalation or rise and fall costs when determining its budget for a project. extra footings etc. 8. and ► temporary access.4 Items Not Generally Considered ‘Special Factors’ The following items are not generally considered special factors and are accommodated within other components of the project budget. The impact of the additional works must be identified and the likely cost quantified and approved by the DEECD. all additional costs are to be borne by the school. In these circumstances (and because of higher roofs. a budget increase for those buildings (or parts of those buildings) which exceed a single-storey may be considered. projects constructed outside the metropolitan area bring with them increased costs. Above Standard Facilities When projects are documented over and above the DEECD’s current facilities standards.g. Building Quality Standards Handbook 115 October 2008 .3.5 Multi-Storey or Higher than Normal Buildings Due to the site or the nature of previously constructed buildings on-site. The impact of the additional works must be identified and the likely cost quantified and approved by the DEECD.
as far as practicable.vic. asbestos-containing materials are still present in many existing facilities. refurbishment. The principal consultant in conjunction with the Department’s Program Manager is responsible for the receipt and management of this information. While the most dangerous forms of this material have been attended to. capital or demolition works.2 Asbestos It is the Department’s aim to ultimately remove asbestos from all school buildings. The nature and location of each hazard shall be recorded by the builder/contractor and both the record and the proposed method of dealing with identified hazards should be included in a work plan. the presence of noxious. 9. http://www.sofweb. refurbishment or maintenance works) ensure that the builder/contractor arranges an examination of the building structure. equipment. they need to submit monthly reports to the Program Manager who.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 9 – Workplace Health and Safety 9. 9.au/emerg/). in turn. fittings and all parts of the site by a competent specialist to determine. The School Asbestos Co-ordinator must ensure that the builder/contractor responsible for the management and/or removal of existing asbestos material in school buildings complies with the Occupational Health and Safety ( Asbestos ) Regulations ( Parts 5 & 6 ) 2003. and that they have the required level of public liability and current asbestos insurance. Building Quality Standards Handbook 116 October 2008 . All schools have had an Asbestos Risk Assessment (previously known as Asbestos Audit) carried out in accordance with Part 5 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Asbestos) Regulations 2003. refer to Australian Standard AS 2601.edu. Additional advice in relation to general emergency matters is obtainable from the DEECD’s Emergency & Security Management Unit (tel: 03 9589 6266. a school-appointed School Asbestos Co-ordinator will ensure that works involving the removal or disturbance of asbestos are carried out by contractors licensed by the Victorian WorkCover Authority. To ensure that principal consultants have carried out their duties in accordance with all occupational health and safety requirements. For further information. This details the presence of any known visual asbestos-containing materials within the school. The principal consultant’s role in the course of a major building project is to: ensure that a Part 5 Asbestos Risk Assessment is included within the tender documentation or made available to tenderers during the tender process. including identification of special factors that may have cost implications. Before undertaking any maintenance.1 WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY Hazardous Materials and Conditions The school’s Occupational Health and Safety Representative should (before the commencement of any demolition. will collate these and submit them to the DEECD (likewise on a monthly basis). etc. toxic or explosive materials or conditions hazardous to the health of the school community or public if disturbed.
Specific information on particular treatments can be found in the following consumer safety sheets: AS5605 Supplements—Consumer safety information sheet AS5605 Supp 1 Copper chrome arsenate (CCA)-treated timber AS5605 Supp 2 Alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ)-treated timber AS5605 Supp 3 Copper azole-treated timber AS5605 Supp 4 Light organic solvent-borne preservatives (LOSP)-treated timber AS5605 Supp 5 Creosote or pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC)-treated timber AS5605 Supp 6 Bifenthrin-treated timber. Building Quality Standards Handbook 117 October 2008 .3 Copper-Chrome-Arsenate (CCA) Treated Timber Copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) treated pine must not be used in any exposed location where students or members of the public are likely to come into intimate and frequent contact. The suitability of timber treatments is identified in AS 5605 – 2007 (Guide to the Safe Use of Preservative – Treated Timber). liaise with contractors during the progression of works to ensure all that mandatory regulations are adhered to. all asbestos materials within the construction zone shall be removed as part of the project. liaise with contractors prior to the commencement of any project works.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Section 9 – Workplace Health and Safety ensure that a Part 6 Asbestos Risk Assessment (detailing the condition of the area to be worked in) is undertaken prior to the commencement of any project works. and at the completion of the project. please refer to AS 5604-2005. 9. the principal consultant shall be responsible to arrange a new Part 5 Asbestos Risk Assessment and provide copies to the DEECD and the school. and ensure the contractor conforms to the DEECD’s Asbestos Management Plan. AS 5604 – 2005 identifies the different durability characteristics of various natural and untreated timbers. and specifies timber types suitable for use under various circumstances. For a list of alternative timbers to be used. The following are requirements for asbestos works on DEECD sites: the school site is to be totally vacant during all asbestos removal works.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements APPENDIX 1 BUILDING ELEMENTS Building Quality Standards Handbook 118 October 2008 .
For a further detailed explanation. and element definitions. Element Number Preliminaries 00 Substructure 01 Superstructure 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 Finishes 12 13 14 Fittings 15 16 Services 17 SF Sanitary Fixtures FT SE Fitments Special Equipment WF FF CF Wall Finishes Floor Finishes Ceiling Finishes CL UF SC RF EW WW ED NW NS ND Columns (Framed Buildings) Upper Floors Staircases Roof External Walls Windows External Doors Internal Walls Internal Screens and Borrowed Lights Internal Doors SB Substructure PR Preliminaries Elemental Code Element Building Quality Standards Handbook 119 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements LIST OF ELEMENTS This attachment contains the National Public Works Conference Cost Control Manual list of element numbers. refer to the Manual. irrespective of construction and/or specification. The element numbers are only used to determine the order of the elements. An element is a portion of a project which fulfils a particular physical purpose. The element codes should be used for coding bills of quantity items as well as analysis by manual or computer means. element codes.
Footpaths and Paved Areas Boundary Walls. Fencing and Gates Outbuildings and Covered Ways Landscaping and Improvements AR Alterations and Renovations CE Centralised Energy Systems Building Quality Standards Handbook 120 October 2008 .Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements Element Number Elemental Code Element Services (continued) 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 PD WS GS SH VE EC AC FP LP CM TS SS Sanitary Plumbing Water Supply Gas Service Space Heating Ventilation Evaporative Cooling Airconditioning Fire Protection Electric Light and Power Communications Transportation Systems Special Services Centralised Energy Systems 30 Alterations 31 Site Works 32 33 34 35 36 External Services 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 External Alterations 45 Special Provisions 46 YY Special Provisions XX External Alterations and Renovations XK XD XW XG XF XE XC XS External Stormwater Drainage External Sewer Drainage External Water Supply External Gas External Fire Protection External Electric Light and Power External Communications External Special Services NP XR XN XB XL Site Preparation Roads.
drop aprons. in filled areas) are included in this element because of the impracticability of splitting a column into two elements. pedestals. steps and ramps in the one floor level. floor structures. Superstructure 02 CL Columns The upright supports to upper floors and roof forming part of a framed structure.g. pits. 09 NW). bases and service tunnels. Building Quality Standards Handbook 121 October 2008 . columns supporting exposed attached external stairs (04 SQ all finishes (06 EW. It excludes portal frames (05 RF). beams and strip footings. Substructure 01 SB Substructure The structurally sound and watertight base upon which to build. covered swimming pools. ramps and their finishes. all protective non-decorative coatings. 06 EW. 03 UF Upper Floors Floor structures above that at the lowest level. Note: Columns below lowest floor finish (e. The percentage that this cost bears to the remainder of the net project cost will be stated on the summary page of the Cost Analysis Form (CA2). work slabs and damp-proofing or other membranes. floor finishes (13 FF). entrance steps. foundation walls. basement walls (06 EW). It includes internal and external columns from tops of columns to bases. 09 NW). It includes basement and foundation excavations. hardcore filling. columns supporting awnings and attached covered ways (05 RF). where ascertainable. 12 WF). ducts. piers. all non-structural work associated with the internal services. subsoil drainage. column casings. all other work up to but excluding the lowest floor finish.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements DEFINITIONS OF ELEMENTS Preliminaries 00 PR Preliminaries It includes preliminary items as defined in Section 2 of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works. columns to non-framed (load bearing) structures (06 EW. structural screeds and toppings. piles. It excludes site preparation (32 XP). columns above tops of bases (02 CL.
Building Quality Standards Handbook 122 October 2008 . ring beams and stiffening beams not integral with floor. timber framed floors. flues and stacks (21 SH. plant room air flow screens. all insulation to external walls. 14 CF). structural screeds and toppings. balconies. internal storm water drainage runs. precast and in-situ floors. together with associated finishes. sun protection to windows (07 WW) and sunhoods integral with floors (03 UF). concrete. waffle slab and filler block floors. 05 RF Roof To provide a structurally sound and watertight covering over the building. 13 FF. parapet walls and roof balustrades. riser. computer floors. all protective non-decorative coatings. beams. thermal insulation. 08 E13). It includes structural walls. balustrades and handrails. beams integral with slabs (03 UF. columns and isolated piers to non-framed (load bearing) structures. concealed insulation. fire escapes. metal floors. gable and other walls in roof spaces. eaves. slab edges. spiral staircases. lintels and flashings at openings. roof construction. 03 UF). plant rooms and motor rooms. lifts and escalators (28 TS). roof lights and dormers with their sun screenings. verges and fascias. string and soffit finishes. awnings and open lean-to roofs. 29 SS). projecting overhangs and walls. 06 EW. ground level entrance steps (01 SB). thresholds and linings (07 WW. walls in roof (05 RF) and substructure (01 SB) and all doors (08 ED). It includes landings. access ladders. It excludes steps and ramps at changes in the one floor level (01 SB. tread. internal and external finishes (04 SC. all external finishes to all columns. all non-structural work associated with the internal services. independent roofs to exposed attached external stairs (04 SC). curtain and window walls. rainwater goods. hearths. all protective non-decorative coatings. ramps between floor levels. 05 RF). steps and ramps in the one floor level. balcony balustrades (06 EW). external shop fronts. solar screen walls. basement walls and tanking above lowest floors finish. gallery and balcony walls and balustrades. 04 SC Staircases The structural connections between two or more nominal floor levels or to roof. spandrel. It excludes landings and ramps between floor levels (04 SC). ceiling or roof slabs. It includes portal frames. 06 EW External Walls The vertical enclosure around the building other than windows and external doors from substructure to roof. It excludes all internal finishes to external walls (except screens and the like) and columns (12 WF). supporting framework. fire places. glazed screen walls. sills. overhangs and sunhoods integral with floors.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements It includes all beams. It excludes rainwater goods to balconies and other unenclosed floor areas (03 UF).
glazed screens. It excludes lintels and flashings (06 EW). roller shutters. part height solid walls (10 NS). sun protection to windows. Note: Includes hardware and decorations. under floor access doors (01 SB). 29 SS). 09 NW Internal Walls Permanent division of internal spaces into separate rooms or to enclose duct and other non-useable areas. It includes proprietary type office partitioning. decoration. ceiling or roof slabs. framing and glazing to sidelights to doors with or without highlights (06 EW). Clerestory windows occurring in external walls to clerestories are included in this element. 08 ED External Doors The access ways into the building both for pedestrians and vehicles. Note: Part height solid walls are screens (by definition) and included in element I0 NS.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements 07 WW Windows Openings in external walls to provide light and ventilation. glazing and infill panels within window frames. hardware. grille and chain wire doors. It includes walls. It excludes internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS). wall finishes (12 WF). 05 RF). internal columns and isolated piers to non-framed (load bearing) structures. gates. beams integral with slabs (03 UF. window cleaning equipment (16 SE). chain wire and grille Building Quality Standards Handbook 123 October 2008 . fold away and operable walls. hardware. flues and stacks (21 SH. hearths. window walls and glazed screens (06 EW). guard grilles. panels and highlights over. special blackout facilities (16 SE). It includes flyscreens. fire doors. It excludes frames forming an integral part of wire mesh or glazed screen walls (06 EW). linings. service cupboard doors and thresholds. blinds. remote control gear. overhead frameworks and supporting beams. solar screen walls (06 EW). lintels. internal shop fronts. part height solid walls glazed over to ceiling. sunhoods integral with floors (03 UF). track and pelmets. louvres. lintels and flashings (06 EW). garage doors. unducted air-flow grilles. flydoors. window sills and linings. fireplaces. fire walls and smoke screens. stiffening beams not integral with floor. rooflights and dormers (05 RF). 10 NS Internal Screens and Borrowed Lights To screen off or temporarily divide internal spaces into separate compartments and to allow the transfer of light through internal walls. damp courses and bearing strips. curtains. works in roof (05 RF) and substructure (01 SB). architraves. It includes frames. decoration. glazing.
architraves. where a finish incorporates a special type of formwork. It excludes all doors (11 ND). etc.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements screens. only that cost additional to the cost of rough formwork is to be included in the finish. timber and other finishes to concrete floors. glazing. are included with the relevant sub-elements in external walls (06 EW). 11 ND Internal Doors Passage ways through internal walls. 12 WF Wall Finishes To finish and decorate all interior faces of columns. fanlights and panels over and linings to blank openings. balustrades and rails not associated with staircases. lintels (09 NW). all protective non-decorative coatings. splashbacks. 13 FF Floor Finishes To provide a satisfactory finish on which to walk. balcony floor finishes. extra costs involved for face bricks. skirtings. It includes finishes to internal faces of external walls and columns: acoustic wall linings. Note: Finishes to internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS) are included in that element. and to provide access to service cupboards and ducts. cell and strong room doors. chain wire and grille doors. hardware and door grilles. all external finishes to external walls and columns (06 EW). Building Quality Standards Handbook 124 October 2008 . toilet doors. carpeting used as a permanent floor finish. face and coloured blocks and off form concrete. linings. internal screens and partitions. finishes to both sides of external screens (06 EW). Finishes to internal faces of external screens. framing and glazing to sidelights to doors (10 NS). finishes to steps in the one floor level. external walls and internal walls. wire mesh or glazed screens. counters and wall hatches (15 FT). toilet partitions and screen walls. Finishes In general. timber floor finishes. It includes all preparatory work and finishing. It excludes frames forming integral parts of demountable. dividing strips. borrowed lights. (10 NS). fire doors roller shutters. dados and regulation wall vents. service cupboard doors. The rough formwork cost is part of the structure. duct and pit covers. It includes frames. duct access panels. skirtings (13 FF) and cornices (14 CF). and applied to upper floors and substructure. It excludes finishes to internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS). mats and matwells. etc. pelmets. screeds. all finishes and decorations. decoration.
It excludes eaves soffits (05 RF). seats. It includes window cleaning. 05 RF). cupboards. dental and workshop equipment. It includes preparatory work. and other special services (29 SS) or external special services (44 XS). special blackout facilities. mirrors. racks. audio-visual aids. refrigeration plant associated with airconditioning (24 AC). fire fighting equipment (25 FP). It excludes cool rooms and process cooling. chalkboards. linen and refuse disposal equipment. incineration plant of custom design or built-up type. sink heaters. 03 UF). special equipment (16 SE). 04 SC. gas and other valves and cocks. 05 RF). gymnasium. soffits of projecting overhangs (06 EW). electric wiring and piping integral with this equipment. wall hatches. Fittings 15 FT Fitments To fit out the building with built-up fitments and fixed items included in the main contract. signs and name plates. coat rails and hooks. kitchen and central sterile services department (CSSD) type equipment. laboratory stills. loose equipment not covered in the main contract (46 YY). 14 CF Ceiling Finishes To finish and decorate all internal soffits of upper floors and roof over rooms and external soffits over unenclosed covered areas. notice boards. It excludes loose furniture and furnishings (46 YY). mortuary and photographic equipment. It includes benches. all protective non-decorative coatings (03 UF. stair and landing soffits (04 SC). finishes to external thresholds (08 ED). laundry. framing to bulkheads and cornices.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements It excludes structural screeds and toppings (01 SB. curtains and blinds (07 WW). incinerators. timber framed floors (03 UF. hot. commercially available type and/or of a type not covered by other elements. trafficable roof covering (05 RF). laboratory. sanitary fixtures (17 SF). diases and stages. ceiling manholes. refrigerators and refrigerated drinking water coolers. 11 ND). 01 SB). landing and stair finishes (04 SC). specified builders work in connection with this equipment. shelving. controls. suspended false ceilings. counters. internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS). 16 SE Special Equipment To provide items of equipment of unitary. Building Quality Standards Handbook 125 October 2008 . all cold. linings to roof lights. ceiling joists where not suspended (03 UF. proprietary suspended ceiling systems. extra costs involved for off-form concrete. circulating fans. Note: Element includes all floor finishes to areas measured in the building area (BA). acoustic ceiling linings. boiling water units. door sills (08 ED. bed pan washers. airconditioning grilles (24 AC). sanitary macerators.
kitchen. desalination or other means. sink heaters and laboratory stills (16 SE). The gas may be supplied from town mains. bed pan washers. simulated natural and liquefied petroleum gas from point of building entry to points of consumption. building and electrical work forming part of the contract for water supply. water heaters and coolers. 20 GS Gas Services To supply town.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements Services 17 SF Sanitary Fixtures To fit out the building with normal fixtures connected to the soil and waste plumbing systems and all associated ancillaries. 19 WS Water Supply Systems to supply water from point of building entry to the points of consumption. towel rails and hand driers. natural. drinking fountains. distillation. bores. rainwater tanks. It excludes sanitary macerators. duct access panels (11 ND). 44 XS). showers. 29 SS. water treatment plants. acid resisting pipes and drains. hobs. slop hoppers. The water may be at ambient temperature. softening. box ducting and paintwork. heated or cooled and may be treated by clarification. storage cylinders. troughs and runnels. sinks and tubs. centralised energy systems or other sources. It includes stacks and vents. basins. The water may be supplied from town mains. self-contained unitary equipment such as boiling water units. insulation. reticulation pipework including pipeline components. soap and toilet paper holders. rivers. It includes WC suites. pumps and ejectors. de-mineralisation. controls other than those associated with water consuming items of equipment. It excludes meters. flusherette valves. pumps. all loose traps. Building Quality Standards Handbook 126 October 2008 . It excludes rainwater disposal systems (05 RF). shower curtains and trays. urinals. terminal outlets not integral with fixtures (19 WS). 18 PD Sanitary Plumbing The disposal of all waste and soiled water from fixtures and equipment out to the external face of external walls. filtration. terminal outlets not integral with fixtures and/or equipment. incinerator flues (16 SE. floor wastes and all loose traps (18 PD). sheathing. lakes. painting and identification. laundry and sterilising equipment and refrigerated drinking water coolers (16 SE). extensions and connections to town mains or other sources (39 XW). terminal outlets integral with fixtures. box ducting. floor wastes. internal sewer drainage runs. sanitary incinerators (29 SS). It includes storage tanks. bulk storage tanks or other sources.
ducted systems. Note: Dust extraction is to be included under special services (29 SS). insulation and painting. It excludes any system which also involves space heating (21 SH). 22 VE Ventilation To ventilate buildings by means of supply and/or exhaust systems. louvred windows (07 WW). they are to be included in 21 SH. fireplaces. It excludes outlet cocks integral with appliances (16 SE). circulating fans (16 SE). hot water heaters (16 SE. 21 SH Space Heating To heat the interior of buildings by means of convection. regulation wall vents (12 WF). boiler plant installed within the heated building and servicing only element 21 SH in that building. 19 WS). space heaters (21 SH) and other like equipment. hot water or hot oil systems. regulators and other pipelines components directly associated with gas fired equipment should be included under the element appropriate to gas fired equipment. ducting. painting and identification. reticulated steam. evaporative cooling (23 EC). supply and/or exhaust fans. booster compressors. door grilles (11 ND). extensions and connections to town mains or other sources (40 XG). manifolds and regulators. Controls and electric wiring integral with equipment items are to be included with those items. or serving other elements such as (24 AC) or (19 WS) are to be included under centralised energy systems (30 CE). airconditioning (24 AC).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements It includes portable gas cylinders. valves. It includes unitary heaters. gas detection systems. hearths and associated work in chimney stacks. reticulation pipe work and pipeline components. exhaust hoods. Note: Boiler plant and pipe reticulation located outside the building served. electric floor or ceiling heating systems. Electric cabling terminates at the junction with electric light and power (26 LP). It includes mechanical ventilators. Gas controls. plant room air flow screens (06 EW). plant. controls and associated electrical world. Electric cabling ends at the junction with electric light and power (26 LP). It excludes any system which also provides air cooling/airconditioning (24 AC) or evaporative cooling (23 EC). terminal outlets not integral with fixtures and/or equipment. controls and associated electrical work. or under gas service (20 GS) if located within the building served – otherwise. warm air systems. Building Quality Standards Handbook 127 October 2008 . meters. building and electrical work forming part of the gas services element. radiation or any other form of heating. serving multiple buildings. space heating water supply system or other system should be included under the appropriate element. non-mechanical roof ventilators. Gas storage and reticulation systems are to be included under external gas (40 XG) if located outside the building served or if serving other elements. box ducting. Note: Gas appliances forming part of an airconditioning.
communications (27 CM) and centralised energy systems (30 CE). ductwork. 26 LP Electric Light and Power To provide all light and power and emergency light and power from and including main distribution board to and including power outlets and light fittings.). airconditioning grilles. controls and associated electrical work. evaporative cooling (23 EC). 24 AC Airconditioning To maintain and control the temperature. * Where the main switchboard supplies only one building. Building Quality Standards Handbook 128 October 2008 . special hot rooms (29 SS). airconditioning (24 AC). It excludes other electrical installations listed under other elements such as special services (29 SS). It excludes door grilles (11 ND). ducting. painting and associated electrical work. etc. Note: Air relief grilles in doors and walls are to be included under respective building elements. emergency lighting systems. 11 ND). 14 CF. 12 WF. humidity and quality of air under predetermined limits within buildings. power sub-mains to mechanical equipment and sub-mains and/or sub-circuits to other equipment and/or final sub-circuits. Electric cabling terminates at the junction with electric light and power (26 LP). It includes package airconditioners. insulation. systems which heat (21 SH) and/or ventilate (22 VE) only. rock bed regenerative systems and ancillary heating devices. 25 FP Fire Protection To detect and/or extinguish fires. fire proofing (02 CL. It includes main distribution board*. manual and automatic fire alarm installations. It includes sprinklers and other automatic extinguishing systems. It excludes fire doors (08 ED. plant. hydrant installations and hose reels and cupboards. special cool rooms (29 SS). It excludes door grilles (11 ND) and systems which heat (21 SH) and/or ventilate (22 VE) only. systems for cooling only.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements 23 EC Evaporative Cooling To cool air within a building by evaporative processes. fire indicator board. the system can include ancillary heating. it shall be considered as a main distribution board. sub-mains and distribution boards. 03 UF. fire fighting equipment. It includes evaporative coolers. 05 RF. hand appliances.
buildings to house such plant. stage lighting and theatre equipment. cool rooms and process cooling. lightning protection. heat and water reclaim systems and the like. It includes all lifts. reticulated soap dispenser systems. 29 SS Special Services To provide services or installations not covered by other elements. It includes the piping reticulation within central plant room or plant house and up to branch off-takes to energy consuming functional elements. internal telephone. TV antenna and closed circuit TV. staircase pressurisation systems. hot water. Building Quality Standards Handbook 129 October 2008 . Cables between buildings are to be included in 43 XC. 28 TS Transportation Systems To transport personnel and/or goods from floor to floor or area to area. within or through buildings served. heating. escalators. security systems. It includes the following systems: telephone. It excludes document hoists and conveyor systems (28 TS).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements 27 CM Communications To provide audio and video communication within a building. medical and industrial gas systems. sections of the main piping reticulation running to. Note: Document hoists and conveyor systems are to be included in 28 TS. communication services (27 CM). cabling within the central plant room or house and all work which forms part of the energy system element. hoists and conveyor systems. ducts and/or conduits. It excludes equipment items (16 SE). clock and/or bell. 09 NW). call. dust extraction systems. cables between buildings (43 XC). personal paging. special conditioned rooms. compressed air. public address. all associated equipment and work other than structural building work. It excludes such items as walls to shafts and lift wells and machine rooms (06 EW. laundry. emergency warning and intercommunication. Centralised Energy Systems 30 CE Centralised Energy Systems To produce and supply steam. service tunnels. chilled water and/or other cooling or heating media and/or site generated electrical energy to a number of buildings and/or to multiple energy consuming elements. It includes monitoring systems.
40 XG. fences. hoardings.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements It excludes emergency generating plant and cabling from central switch board to other buildings (42 XE). It includes work in connecting a new building to an existing. etc. removal of any paving.). Where energy generators supply the whole of their production to one functional system only and are contained within the alignment of the building served. general levelling and filling.). universities or colleges) to small boiler installations supplying energy to space heating and domestic hot water systems in relatively small single buildings (e. 42 XE. any work involved in permanent connections of new services to existing (39 XW. underpinning to adjacent buildings. any work involved in connecting new services to old in existing buildings (39 XW. retaining walls. trees. fences and outbuildings (32 XP). services.g. Alterations 31 AR Alterations and Renovations To alter or renovate any existing building including works to the substructure. Engineering systems serving the central plant room or plant house are to be included under appropriate elements for the building housing the centralised energy plant. major hospitals. alterations to buildings (31 AR) and existing site works (45 XX). Note: Interfaces between element 30 CE and other elements are those points where branches serve single elemental systems or where branches leave common mains within buildings to serve single elemental systems. It includes demolitions. refitting out and all mechanical and electrical services in connection therewith.g. Building Quality Standards Handbook 130 October 2008 . site clearance. underpinning to existing buildings for alteration works. 40 XG. etc. It excludes alterations and permanent diversion of services (45 XX). Site Works 32 XP Site Preparation All basic work necessary prior to proceeding with buildings and external works. airports. school classroom blocks. pavilion type hospital wards. Centralised energy systems may range from very large boiler and/or chiller and/or electrical generating plants serving large and complex sites (e. 42 XE. finishes. temporary diversions of services. redecorations. etc. they are to be considered part of that functional system. It excludes complete demolitions of existing buildings. site clearance and removal of any paving. alterations and renovations to external services and site works (45 XX).). fittings and internal services.
outbuildings. stair blocks. lawns. fences and gates at the site boundary. substations (42 XE) and similar engineering services buildings. steps and associated balustrades. It excludes uncovered bridge links (35 XB).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements 33 XR Roads. It includes grassing and turfing. gas meter (40 XG) and water meter (39 XW) shelters. It excludes all walls. playgrounds. flagpoles. open air swimming pools. etc. screen. sports pitches. garden plots and planting. fencing and gates (34 XN). bicycle sheds. cricket nets and basketball posts. pump houses (39 XW). It includes car parks. Building Quality Standards Handbook 131 October 2008 . crossovers. trees. site clearance (32 XP). fences and gates that subdivide the site (36 XL). 35 XL Landscaping and Improvements To improve the appearance of the site and provide incidental site facilities for the use of the occupants. mechanical and other services in connection therewith. garbage shelters. Footpaths and Paved Areas Trafficable areas between and around buildings (outside “fully enclosed covered areas” and “unenclosed covered areas” as defined. walls required to retain the site (32 XP). kerbs. sheds. fountains. play and entrance walls. residential and gatekeepers cottages. boiler and plant houses (30 CE). all retaining walls (32 XP). It excludes paving (33 XR). water towers (39 XW). 34 XN Boundary Walls. 35 XB Outbuildings and Covered Ways To provide small buildings supplementary to the main building(s) as well as covered areas or bridge links for pedestrian or vehicular site circulation. It excludes attached covered ways alongside buildings. all electrical. site landscaping and improvements (36 XL). signs and notices.) for vehicles and pedestrians. sculptures. dwarf. incinerator buildings. It includes detached covered ways not alongside buildings. petrol bowsers (pumps) and tanks. chapels. sports pitches and goal posts. workshops. stores. boundary walls. bollards. Fencing and Gates To enclose or define the extent of the site. seats. It includes all walls. garages. weed poisoning. cut and fill (32 XP).
pumps. connections to existing runs and pits. septic tanks. inspection pits and manholes. The water may be at ambient temperature. beneath buildings (18 PD). 132 Building Quality Standards Handbook October 2008 . rivers. filtration. road gullies. water towers. bulk storage tanks or other sources. It includes pipe runs from the external face of buildings. inspection pits. meter enclosures. culverts. It includes storage cylinders and tanks. road gutters (33 XR). The water may be supplied from town mains. bores. dilution pits. distillation. pumps and ejectors. pits. reticulation pipe work including pipeline components. etc. outfalls and head walls. demineralisation. runs from pools and fountains. terminal outlets not integral with fixtures and/or equipment. pits and mains. absorption trenches. It excludes diversion to existing runs (45 XX). natural. petrol and plaster arresters. storage cylinders. collection and holding wells. painting and identification. 39 XW External Water Supply Systems to supply water up to the external faces of new buildings and up to other major consuming points such as irrigation and ground watering outlets. transpiration areas. The gas may be supplied from town mains. It includes storage tanks. 38 XD External Sewer Drainage To dispose of soil and waste water from the site. sheathing. sumps. meters and regulators forming part of the contract. It includes pipe runs from the external face of buildings. building and electrical work forming part of the external gas supply contract. agricultural and sub-soil drains. building and electrical work forming part of this element. It excludes pipe runs. acid resisting and special drains. meters and meter enclosures included under the contract. etc. softening. diversions to existing runs (45 XX). grated trenches. water heaters and coolers. It excludes pipe runs. heated or cooled and may be treated by clarification. reticulation pipe work and pipe-line components. lakes. insulation. diversions to existing runs (45 XX). water treatment plants. simulated natural and liquefied petroleum gas up the external faces of new buildings and other consuming points. centralised energy systems or other sources. water bores. desalination or other means. box drains. rainwater tanks. under buildings from internal downpipes (05 RF). grease gullies. pits. irrigation and ground watering systems. connections to existing runs. temporary drainage as site preparation (32 XP). 40 XG External Gas To supply town.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements External Services 35 XK External Stormwater Drainage To dispose of rain and surface water from the site.
connections to existing cables. It includes connections to source of power supply. pylons. It includes Telstra (or other installer) work. bells. illuminated signs and building flood lighting. consumer mains. street and area lighting. 44 XS External Special Services To provide external service or installations not included in other elements. * Where the main switchboard supplies only one building. underground and overhead cables. community antenna systems. Fire alarm cables are to be included in 41 XF. pylons and all trenches for cabling. it shall be considered as a main distribution board and included in 26 LP. pipe runs. It excludes trenches for cabling (42 XE). main switchboard*. 41 XF External Fire Protection To supply fire hydrant and gas or vaporising agent runs up to external faces of new buildings. overhead and underground cables for fire detection systems. 43 XC External Communications To provide external communication cables to terminating frames of buildings and to provide communications systems between buildings and to external site areas. 42 XE External Electric Light and Power To supply electric power to main distribution boards of buildings and to provide lighting and power to external site areas.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements It excludes diversions to existing runs (45 XX). It excludes trenches for cabling (42 XE). hooters. emergency generating plant. It includes standby and booster pumps. Also to detect and/or extinguish fires in fixed plant or equipment located in the open air. hydrant points. closed circuit TV. storage and reticulation of gas and vaporising agents. external speakers. underground and overhead cables. external sprinkler systems. work to existing electrical work (45 XX). sub-station equipment. clocks. and for site connections and connection of fire detection systems between buildings. Note: Communications cables are to be included in 43 XC. It excludes communications cables (43 XC). Building Quality Standards Handbook 133 October 2008 .
Loose furniture and loose equipment are separate from fitments (15 FT) and special equipment (16 SE).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Building Elements It includes external connections to items included in special services (29 SS). External Alterations 45 XX External Alterations and Renovations To alter/renovate any existing site works and external services. ducts and conduits in connection with external reticulation of services elements. etc. These latter are usually installed or fixed in place as part of the building contract. Note: Builders Work and Allowances Where work on engineering services and the like is performed by nominated sub-contract or separate contract and included in any element. any monetary allowance for builder’s profit and attendance on the nominated sub-contract or separate contract and any builder’s work in connection therewith shall be included with the element concerned. no further amount is added to the budget for a school for these sub-elements. A decision on this matter should be made (and the cost determined) for each project. dust extraction plant. cold water and other external service runs.) are included with the relevant element. Special Provisions 46 YY Special Provisions Items not included in the net project cost but which may be included in the building contract or to make up the gross project cost. Each provision should be separately itemised. etc. The amount for fees covers only consultants. provisions for rise and fall. design and supervision fees. The cost of loose furniture and loose equipment need not necessarily be included in this contract or attract consultant fees. service tunnels. renewing fencing and gates. fees associated with services (electricity. loose furniture and loose equipment.) and lodgements (permits. Where some part of a building will be due for maintenance during the period that the builder is in possession. testing or commissioning shall be included with the element concerned. Any hoisting. It includes resurfacing paved and grassed areas. operational maintenance. incineration plant. It excludes renovating existing buildings (31 AR). A decision on this matter should be made for each project. As the cost schedule is based on fixed price (lump sum tenders which already include contingencies and escalations). permanent diversion of drainage. bulk storage for medical and industrial gases. Building Quality Standards Handbook 134 October 2008 . Such items may include contract contingencies. on-going maintenance may be included in the building contract. renovating outbuildings.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets APPENDIX 2 TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS & STANDARD DRAWINGS Building Quality Standards Handbook 135 October 2008 .
3 ► Tapware Cold Water Only: • Ablution Trough – two spray outlets. ► Hot and Cold Water: • Ablution Trough – right side: one spray outlet. spray outlet nominally 200mm above trough rim level. 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above trough rim level. with special purpose tapware and waste outlets.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Clay and Ablution Trough 1. 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above trough rim level. Secondary colleges normally have hot and cold water. • Clay Trough – right side: one spray outlet. • Central – one hot and cold swivel spray outlet. to serve clay trough and ablution trough. 2. 1. • Clay Trough – left side: one laboratory-type gooseneck outlet with tap on pillar.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Primary schools normally have cold water only. 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above trough rim level. 2. spray outlet nominally 200mm above trough rim level.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough. Building Quality Standards Handbook 136 October 2008 . 1.1 Fixture Details Use Primary schools and secondary colleges. left side: one laboratory-type gooseneck outlet with tap on pillar. 1. 1. Flat rim or fascia to suit project documentation. 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above trough rim level.2 Construction 1800mm long x 450mm wide x 150mm deep.
to Fri.16 10 11 to 13 14 Add “Not applicable” Circle “No” Insert “Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system”. disposal not to sewer or. Sections: 1 to 5 6(a) 6(b) 7 8(a) 8(b) 8 Column 1 To suit particular school Insert “School” Insert “School Classes” Insert “Mon.00 am and 4.00 pm” Leave blank Insert “Traces of clay” Insert relevant data as below: Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6 [Number] Clay & Ablution Trough Waste water containing traces of clay 80 10 0. Trade Waste Application If trade waste application is required (and provided the installation is a “typical school installation”). PVC settling tank with outlet trapped and connected to sewer.3 Treatment Apparatus Subject to the relevant retail water company and its requirements: ► ► the preferred arrangement is storage tank with contents regularly emptied. Building Quality Standards Handbook 137 October 2008 . 2. the following data for this fixture should be added to the “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”.2 Waste Combined DN50 trapped outlet to sewer. 3. DN40 outlet with DN40 gate valve to settling tank or storage tank. if required by relevant retail water company.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets 2. Refer also to the relevant retail water company’s “Application Guide – Information Required for Making a Trade Waste Application” and “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. between 9.
Note signage. solvents or other contaminated wastes”. etc. User Information All waste containing clay.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets 4. Operation & Maintenance Provide signage at fixture to read: “This fixture is not to be used for acids. plaster. Refer to the publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company. Building Quality Standards Handbook 138 October 2008 . is to pass through the storage tank or settling tank. 5.
3 Treatment Apparatus Not normally required for this fixture. 2. solvents or other contaminated wastes”.1 Fixture Details Use Normally only secondary colleges. 2.2 Waste Trapped DN50 outlet to sewer. User Information Note signage.3 Tapware Chrome-plated hose cock with wall plate.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Drip Trough and Rack 1. 1. 3. 20 BSP outlet. Locate tap in centre of trough. Trade Waste Application Not normally required for this fixture. and this Technical Data Sheet may not then be applicable. 4. Operation & Maintenance Provide signage at fixture to read: “This fixture is not to be used for acids. Building Quality Standards Handbook 139 October 2008 . 1. outlet nominally 300mm above trough rim level.2 Construction Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F1). 5. No special requirement. 2. 1. 2.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Cold water only. unless special application.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 140 October 2008 .
Outlet from Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank to be trapped and connected to sewer. Refer also to Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank with Dosing Tank Hydraulics Detail (drawings H1 and H2). 1.2 Waste DN50 outlet to Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank. 1.3 Tapware One laboratory-type gooseneck outlet. 2. Refer also to Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank with Dosing Tank Hydraulics Detail (drawings H1 and H2). 2.3 Treatment Apparatus Normally Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank with Dosing Tank. 2. Trade Waste Application Provided the installation is a “typical school installation”’ the following data for this fixture should be added to the “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. 3.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Cold water only. Building Quality Standards Handbook 141 October 2008 .2 Construction Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F4). all as per detail and the requirements of the relevant retail water company. 1. 2.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Frame Bath 1.1 Fixture Details Use Normally only secondary colleges.
00 pm” Tick “Solvents” Leave blank Insert relevant data as below: Col 1 [Number] Column 2 Frame Bath Column 3 Waste water containing traces of solvents and acids Col 4 20 Col 5 5 Col 6 0. User Information Note signage. Operation & Maintenance Provide signage to read: “This fixture is only to be used for wastes containing diluted acids and solvents”. Refer to publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company. Sections: 1 to 5 6(a) 6(b) 7 8(a) 8(b) 9 To suit particular school Insert “School” Insert “School Classes” Insert “Mon. between 9. Building Quality Standards Handbook 142 October 2008 . 5.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Refer also to the relevant retail water company’s “Application Guide – Information Required for Making a Trade Waste Application” and “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”.08 10 11 to 13 14 Add “Not applicable” Circle “No” Insert “Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system”. 4. to Fri.00 am and 4.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 143 October 2008 .
2. Building Quality Standards Handbook 144 October 2008 .3 Tapware One laboratory-type gooseneck outlet.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Hot and cold. Outlet from Mixing Tank to be trapped and connected to sewer. 2.2 Construction Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F3).Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Photographic Trough 1. 1. 1. Refer also to Photographic Trough – Water Connection Detail Hydraulics Detail (drawing H3). Refer also to the relevant retail water company’s “Application Guide – Information Required for Making a Trade Waste Application” and “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. 2. Refer also to Photographic Trough – Water Connection Detail.3 Treatment Apparatus PVC Mixing Tank to the requirements of the relevant retail water company. 1.2 Waste DN50 outlet to Mixing Tank. Trade Waste Application Provided the installation is a “typical school installation” the following data for this fixture should be added to the “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. minimum capacity to be greater of 100 litres or 15 minutes retention for each discharge from the trough.1 Fixture Details Use Normally only secondary colleges. 3. 2. Hydraulics Detail (drawing H3).
Refer to publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company. User Information Note signage. Spent photographic solutions shall be placed in containers for off site disposal by a registered EPA contractor. 4. Discharges to Mixing Tank to be not more frequently than one full photographic trough per 15 minutes per 100 litre capacity of Mixing Tank. between 9.00 pm” Tick “Photographic Wastes” Leave blank Insert relevant data as below: Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 [Number] Photographic Trough Waste water containing traces of photographic solutions from rinsing operations 20 5 0.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Sections: 1 to 5 6(a) 6(b) 7 8(a) 8(b) 9 To suit particular school Insert “School” Insert “School Classes” Insert “Mon. Operation & Maintenance Provide signage to read: “This fixture is only to be used for photographic rinsing wastes”.00 am and 4. All photographic rinsing wastes to pass through the Mixing Tank. Building Quality Standards Handbook 145 October 2008 .04 10 11 to 13 14 Add “Not applicable” Circle “No” Insert “Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system”. to Fri. 5.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 146 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 147 October 2008 .
2. Refer also to the relevant retail water company’s “Application Guide – Information Required for Making a Trade Waste Application” and “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. 1. and bypass Acid Neutralising Tank. 2.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Cold water only. 1.2 Waste DN50 outlet to Silt Pit. 20 BSP outlet. outlet nominally 300mm above trough rim level.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Potting Trough 1. 2. 1.1 Fixture Details Use Normally only secondary colleges.3 Treatment Apparatus Silt Pit to the requirements of the relevant retail water company. 3.3 Tapware Chrome plated hose cock with wall plate. Trade Waste Application Provided the installation is a “typical school installation” the following data for this fixture should be added to the “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. Outlet from Silt Pit to be connected to sewer. 2. Locate tap in centre of trough. Building Quality Standards Handbook 148 October 2008 .2 Construction Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F2).
Remove bucket. Replace bucket.08 10 11 to 13 14 Add “Not applicable” Circle “No” Insert “Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system”. 5. Refer also to publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company. between 9.00 pm” Leave blank Insert “Traces of soil” Insert relevant data as below: Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 [Number] Potting Trough [Number] Floor Area Waste water containing traces of soil Waste water containing traces of soil 80 40 10 20 0. to Fri. Operation & Maintenance Provide signage to read: “This fixture is not to be used for acids. Clean out soil and other debris from bucket and pit.00 am and 4.16 0. User Information Note signage.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Sections: 1 to 5 6(a) 6(b) 7 8(a) 8(b) 9 To suit particular school Insert “School” Insert “School Classes” Insert “Mon. 4. solvents or other contaminated wastes”. Building Quality Standards Handbook 149 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 150 October 2008 .
and Building Quality Standards Handbook 151 October 2008 . 2. Demonstration bench.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Secondary College Science Room – Plumbing Fixtures 1.2 Tapware Refer to BQSH Section 4. 2.3 Treatment Apparatus In ground Acid Neutralising Tank to the requirements of the relevant retail water company. fume cupboard. 1. each with a laboratory sink. sinks in prep area and glass washing sink normally have hot and cold water.2 1. student benches (approximately nine).4 Student benches and fume cupboards normally have cold water only. with wastes that require treatment: ► ► ► demonstration bench with laboratory sink.1 Fixture Details Construction Refer to BQSH Section 4.4 2. 3. Demonstration bench to have master control valve to isolate student benches. troughs. Trade Waste Application A secondary college science room usually contains the following fixtures.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Refer to BQSH Section 4.2 Waste Refer to BQSH Section 4. 2.2 Wastes generally connected to acid drains.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets
Science rooms are serviced by a prep area that usually contains the following fixtures, with wastes that require treatment:
► ► ► ►
laboratory sink; laboratory trough; glass washing sink; and fume cupboard.
For a “typical school installation” as above with the prep area servicing two science rooms, the following data should be added to the “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. Refer also to the relevant retail water company’s “Application Guide – Information Required for Making a Trade Waste Application” and “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”.
1 to 5 6(a) 6(b) 7 8(a) 8(b) 9
To suit particular school Insert “School” Insert “School Classes” Insert “Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm” Tick “Acids/Alkalis” Leave blank Insert relevant data as below:
[Numbers] Laboratory Sink [Number] Glass Washing Sink [Numbers] Laboratory Trough [Numbers] Fume Cupboard
Waste water containing traces of acid Waste water containing traces of acid Waste water containing traces of acid Waste water containing traces of acid
220 40 30 18
42 10 9 4.5
0.42 0.08 0.09 0.04
10 11 to 13 14
Add “Not applicable” Circle “No” Insert “Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system”.
Building Quality Standards Handbook
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets
Operation & Maintenance
Provide signage in prominent central location to read: “Fixtures in this room are not to be used for the discharge of contaminated wastes other than diluted acids”. Refer to publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company.
Building Quality Standards Handbook
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets
Secondary College Home Economics Room – Plumbing Fixtures
Refer to BQSH Section 4.2 1.2 Tapware
Refer to BQSH Section 4.4
Refer to BQSH Section 4.4 Student benches normally have hot and cold water. Demonstration bench to have master control valves to isolate student benches. 2.2 Waste
Refer to BQSH Section 4.2 Wastes generally connected to a grease interceptor. Dish washing machine normally commercial type, with discharge temperature too high for UPVC pipe work. 2.3 Treatment Apparatus
In-ground grease interceptor to the requirements of the relevant retail water company.
Trade Waste Application
A secondary college home economics room usually contains the following fixtures, with wastes that require treatment:
demonstration bench with general purpose sink; and student benches (approximately fourteen), each with a general purpose sink.
Building Quality Standards Handbook
Building Quality Standards Handbook 155 October 2008 . the following data should be added to the “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. Sections: 1 to 5 6(a) 6(b) 7 8(a) 8(b) 9 Col 1 To suit particular school Insert “School” Insert “School Classes” Insert “Mon.04 10 11 to 13 14 Add “Not applicable” Circle “No” Insert “Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system”.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Home economics rooms are serviced by a prep area that usually contains the following fixtures. between 9. For a “typical school installation” as above with the prep area servicing two home economics rooms.35 0.00 am and 4. and dish washing machine.03 0. Refer also to the relevant retail water company’s “Application Guide – Information Required for Making a Trade Waste Application” and “Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent”. to Fri. with wastes that require treatment: ► ► general purpose sink.18 1.00 pm” Tick “Oil/Fat Emulsions” Leave blank Insert relevant data as below: Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 [Number] Double Bowl Sink [Numbers] Single Bowl Sink [Number] Floor Area [Number] Dish Washing Machine Waste water containing traces of grease Waste water containing traces of grease Waste water containing traces of grease Waste water containing traces of grease 60 450 10 15 30 150 10 4 0.
User Information Note signage. Building Quality Standards Handbook 156 October 2008 . Operation & Maintenance Provide signage in prominent central location to read: “Fixtures in this room are not to be used for the discharge of contaminated wastes other than greasy wastes”.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets 4. Refer to publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company. 5.
4 for general requirements. 1. and may include: machine shop. 1. and electroplating.2 Construction Refer to BQSH Section 4.2 Waste Refer to BQSH Section 4.4 for general requirements.2 for general requirements.2 for general requirements.3 Treatment Apparatus To be assessed on an individual basis. 2.1 ► ► ► Fixture Details The “trade area” is part of “technology” and is only applicable to secondary colleges. automotive practice.3 Tapware Refer to BQSH Section 4. 2. Water supply may have particular requirements. 3. Trade Waste Application Building Quality Standards Handbook 157 October 2008 . Fixtures required can be diverse. 2. 1. and wastes may require specialised treatment.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Secondary College Trade Area – Plumbing Fixtures 1. 2. Requirements are to be resolved on an individual basis. Specialised fixtures to suit particular requirements.1 Plumbing Connection Water Supply Refer to BQSH Section 4.
5. 4. User Information To be assessed on an individual basis. Refer to publication “Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools” available from the trade waste section of the relevant retail water company. Building Quality Standards Handbook 158 October 2008 . Operation & Maintenance Provide appropriate signage at fixtures. Note signage.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets To be assessed on an individual basis.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 159 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Technical Data Sheets Building Quality Standards Handbook 160 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Postcode Areas within NatHERS Zones APPENDIX 3 POSTCODE AREAS Within NatHERS ZONES (NatHERS – Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme) Building Quality Standards Handbook 161 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Postcode Areas within NatHERS Zones NatHERS Zone 20 (*overlap with Zones 24 and/or 25) 3310 3311 3315 3317 3318 3319 3380 3381 3384 3385 3387 3388 3390 3391 3392 3393 3395 3396 3399 3400 3401 3407 3409 3412 3413 3414 3415 3418 3419 3420 3422 3423 3424 3453 3463 3464 3465 3472 3475 3478 3480 3482 3483 3485 3515 3516 3517 3518 3520 3523 3525 3527 3535 3536 3539 3550 3551 3555 3556 3557 3558 3559 3561 3562 3563 3564 3565 3570 3571 3572 3573 3607 3608 3610 3612 3613 3614 3616 3617 3618 3620 3621 3622 3623 3624 3629 3630 3631 3633 3634 3635 3636 3637 3638 3639 3640 3641 3644 3646 3647 3649 3666* 3669 3670 3672 3673 3675 3677 3678* 3682 3683 3685 3687 3688 3690 3691* 3693 3694 3695 3701* 3725 3726 3727 3728 3730 3732 3733 3746 3000 3002 3003 3004 3005 3011 3012 3013 3015 3016 3018 3019 3020 3021 3022 3023 3025 3026 3027 3028 3029 3030 3031 3032 3033 3034 3036 3038 3039 3040 3041 3042 3043 3044 3045 3046 3047 3048 3049 3050 3051 3052 3053 3054 3055 3056 3057 3058 3059 3060 3061 3062 3063 3064 3065 3066 3067 3068 3070 3071 3072 3073 3074 3075 3076 3078 3079 3081 3082 3083 3084 3085 3087 3088 3089 3090 3091 3093 3094 3095 3096 3097 3099 3101 3102 3103 3104 3105 3106 3107 3108 3109 3111 3113 3114 3115 3116 3121 NatHERS Zone 21 (*overlap with Zones 24 and/or 25) 3122 3123 3124 3125 3126 3127 3128 3129 3130 3131 3132 3133 3134 3135 3136 3137 3138 3139 3141 3142 3143 3144 3145 3146 3147 3148 3149 3150 3151 3152 3153 3154 3155 3156 3159 3160 3161 3162 3163 3165 3166 3167 3168 3169 3170 3171 3172 3173 3174 3175 3177 3178 3179 3180 3181 3182 3183 3184 3185 3186 3187 3188 3189 3190 3191 3192 3193 3194 3195 3196 3197 3198 3199 3200 3201 3202 3204 3205 3206 3207 3211 3212 3214 3215 3216 3217 3218 3219 3220 3221 3222 3223 3224 3225 3226 3227 3228 3230 3232 3233 3235 3236 3237 3239 3240 3241 3242 3243 3249 3250 3251 3254 3260 3264 3265 3266 3267 3268 3269 3270 3271 3272 3273 3274 3276 3277 3280 3281 3282 3284 3285 3286 3287 3292 3301 3302 3303 3304 3305 3309 3321 3322 3325 3328 3329 3331 3332 3333 3335 3337 3338 3340 3427 3428 3429 3430 3750 3751 3752 3754 3755 3759 3760 3761 3765 3781 3782 3783 3791 3797 3802 3803 3804 3805 3806 3807 3808 3809 3810 3812 3813 3814 3815 3816 3818 3820 3821 3822 3823 3824 3825* 3831 3835 3840 3842 3844 3847 3850 3854 3856 3857 3858* 3860* 3862* 3865 3869 3870 3871 3873 3874 3875* 3878 3880 3882 3885* 3886 3887 3888* 3890* 3891* 3892 3902 3903 3904 3909 3910 3911 3912 3913 3915 3916 3918 3919 3920 3921 3922 3923 3925 3926 3927 3928 3929 3930 3931 3933 3934 3936 3937 3938 3939 3940 3941 3942 3943 3944 3945 3946 3950 3951 3953 3954 3956 3957 3958 3959 3960 3962 3964 3965 3966 3967 3971 3975 3976 3977 3978 3979 3980 3981 3984 3987 3988 3990 3991 3992 3995 3996 NatHERS Zone 24 (*overlap with Zone 25) 3140 3158 3289 3290 3291 3293 3294 3300 3323 3324 3330 3334 3341 3342 3345 3350 3351 3352 3355 3356 3357 3360 3361 3363 3364 3370 3371 3373 3375 3377 3378 3408 3431 3432 3433 3434 3435 3437 3438 3440 3441 3442 3444 3446 3447 3448 3450 3451 3458 3460 3461 3462 3467 3468 3469 3521 3522 3658 3659 3660 3662 3663 3664 3665 3697 3698 3699* 3700* 3704 3705* 3707* 3708 3709 3711* 3712* 3713 3714 3715 3717 3718 3719 3720 3722* 3735 3737 3738 3739 3740* 3741* 3744 3747 3749 3753 3756 3757 3758 3762 3763 3764 3766 3767 3770 3775 3777 3778 3779* 3785 3786 3787 3788 3789 3792 3793 3795 3796 3799 3833* 3889 3893 3895 3896* 3898* 3900* NatHERS Zone 27 3487 3488 3489 3490 3491 3494 3496 3498 3500 3501 3505 3506 3507 3509 3512 3529 3530 3531 3533 3537 3540 3542 3544 3546 3549 3566 3567 3568 3575 3576 3578 3579 3580 3581 3583 3584 3585 3588 3589 3590 3591 3594 3595 3597 3599 Building Quality Standards Handbook 162 October 2008 .
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Glossary of Abbreviations Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations ACA ACCS ACIF AG Amp APAS ACQ ARI AS AV AVMRS BCA BD BDSL BQSH CASES Cat CCA CD CFC CPR dB DEECD DHW DIN DN ELCB ELV EPA ESD ESM FFL FWG FSTC GBCA GIC GPC GPO GWIP HV HVAC Hz ICT ID IP ISDN ISO ITD j kAmp kj kW kWh LAN Australian Communications Authority Australian Carpet Classification Scheme Australian Communications Industry Forum Australian Gas (Installation Code) Ampere (unit of electric current) Australian Paint Approval Scheme Alkaline copper quaternary Average Recurrence Interval Australian Standard Audio Visual Audio Video Media Retrieval System Building Code of Australia Building Distributor Business Digital Subscriber Line Building Quality Standards Handbook Computerised Administrative Systems Environment in Schools Category Copper chrome arsenate Campus Distributor Chlorofluorocarbon Cabling Provider Rules Decibel Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Domestic Hot Water Deutsche Industrie Norm (German industry standard) Normal Diameter Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker Extra Low Voltage Environment Protection Authority Ecologically Sustainable Design Emergency & Security Management Unit (DEECD) Finished Floor Level Floor Waste Gully Field Sound Transmission Class Green Building Council of Australia Gas Installation Code (see AG.000 ampere) Kilojoule (1. Ventilation and Airconditioning Hertz Information and Communication Technologies Infrastructure Division Internet Protocol Integrated Services Digital Network International Standards Organisation Information Technology Division (DEECD) Joule (basic unit of energy) Kilo-ampere (1. above) General Purpose Classroom General Purpose Outlet Government Wide-Band Internet Protocol High Voltage Heating.000 watts) Kilowatt Hour (measure of energy use) Local Area Network Building Quality Standards Handbook 163 October 2008 .000 joules) Kilowatt (1.
000.m.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Glossary of Abbreviations LED LOSP LPG Lux LV mA MATV MDF MJ mm Μm NatHERS NRC NOx ODF pa PA PABX PC (1) PC (2) PCB PEC PRAV PREP PRMS PS PVC R RCD RJ Rpm RU SAA SC SDS SEPP SEAV SMS SON SWEP TEFC TO UPF UPVC UV UTP V VIPP VoIP W W/sq.000 joules) Millimetre Micrometre (one millionth of a metre) Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme Noise Reduction Coefficient Nitrous Oxide Ozone Depletion Factor Pascal Public Address (System) Private Automatic Branch Exchange Personal Computer Prime Cost Polychlorinated Biphenyls Pigment-emulsified creosote Playgrounds and Recreation Association of Victoria Inc Project Review and Evaluation Panel Physical Resources Management System (now School Maintenance System) Primary School Poly Vinyl Chloride Rating (thermal) Residual Current Device Registered Jack Revolutions Per Minute Rack Unit Standards Australia Association Secondary College Special Developmental School State Environment Protection Policy Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria (now Sustainability Victoria) School Maintenance System High-pressure Sodium Lamps Schools Water Efficiency Program Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Telecommunications Outlet Ultraviolet Protection Factor) Unplasticised PVC Ultraviolet Unshielded Twisted Pair Volt (the voltage or “potential difference” specified for any appliance) Victorian Industry Participation Policy Voice over Internet Protocol Watt (measure of the power rating of electric appliances) Watts per square metre Wide Area Network Wireless Access Point Water Closet/Toilet Extra Long Polyethylene Building Quality Standards Handbook 164 October 2008 . WAN WAP WC XLPE Light-Emitting Diode Light organic solvent-borne preservatives Liquefied Petroleum Gas Unit of light intensity Low Voltage Milli-ampere Master Antenna Television Medium Density Fibre Board Megajoule (equal to 1.
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