UNIT 1 Prehistoric Britain

1. What were the main characteristics of the First Settlers of Britain and Ireland? In the late ice Age, when Britain was still joined by a land bridge to Europe, bands of hunter nomads roamed what is now southern England. 250.000 y ago, the first known inhabitant lived in the valley where the Kentish town of Swanscombe now stands. His tribe shared the forests with the prehistoric animals, that meant two things to them: meat and danger. There were straight-tusked elephants, gigantic cattle called aurochs, two species of fearsome rhinoceroses, horses and red deer. Armed only with wooden spears, the Swanscombe hunters tracked their prey in the forests of oak, elm and viburnum. After a kill, they skinned and butchered the animal. Swanscombe man probably had a beetling brow and a massive jaw. Only three of his skull bones have survived, but experts believe that he was not very different from men of today, with a very similar brain size. His life was precarious. Disease and hunting accidents must have taken a heavy toll. The bones which have been found belong to someone who died young, probably aged only 20 or 25 y old. The most tantalising question about Swanscombe man is wether he understood the secret of fire.

2. What were the most relevant Neolithic changes? The arrival of the first farmers in Britain and their settlement in the south of England, brought about one of the greatest changes in the history of the island. The farmers brought not only seeds of barley and of wheat, but sheep and cattle. Life was very hard for a Neolithic person, and in many ways, it was a more arduous form of existence. Agriculture helped to increase the population to m any times what it had been in the hunting and gathering era of around 8000 BC. Men

were able to observe the sun, the moon and the stars. They used their knowledge to build stone circles in which the stones were meticulously placed.

3. How did they build Stonehenge? It was built in 4 periods and it is unique, and represents the culmination of a very long tradition of building with large stones.

4. What were the new materials and tools used in the Bronze Age? The Wessex people brought the rich metal resources of Britain under their control, and founded a culture of exceptional wealth and power. Southwards, they were within easy reach of the English Channel and continental trade routes. The Wessex chieftains could exchange the grain, wool and hides produced by their peasant subjects for the precious metals of Ireland, Cornwall, Wales and northern England. They worked the valuable tin, copper and gold ores to create useful tools and beautiful ornaments.

5. What does ritual Landscape mean? They are places that, once upon a time, had been religious, they tend to have standing stones (Stonehenge) , they can also contain small graves, artificial ponds, wooden structures...

6. Enumerate the main features of Celtic Art. La Tène art is considered to be the first definitive Celtic art. Initially, it¶s fantastic imagery often included interpretations of classical and oriental forms. Like Celtic character, Celtic art was energetic, exuberant and explosive, and yet at the same time full of humour. By about 200 BC ,an essentially British style of Celtic art began to appear under Continental influence. Individual µschools¶ of artists, working under the patronage of wealthy chieftains, developed their own distinctive styles.

7. Describe the construction of the Hill-Fort defences. Most hill-forts occupied an impressive hilltop spur, fortified against attack from hill or valley. Many went out of use as major centres around 50 bc, for reasons which are not clear. There is no reason to suppose that their main function was defence against attack. The act of enclosure could be a response to a number of needs, both social and ritual, while the massive defence and gates could have been designed to impress rather than to deter, proclaiming the status of the occupants.

8. What were the most important changes in the Iron Age? There was an interaction between the µcivilised µcultures of the Mediterranean sphere (Greeks, Etruscans, Phoenicians, Romans) and the µbarbarians¶ beyond, played out over a period of some 800 y. The sea allowed adjacent communities to keep in contact with one another, exchanging ideas and gifts, trading in a nu mber of commodities, among them the metals in which the region was so very rich. In Ireland, Iron Age settlements were more elusive, but a number of hilltop enclosures have been found.

9. Why was religion so important in Prehistoric times? It was the µhero¶ and big solution against a great enemy, the devil. Churches were seen as places to keep safe. People have become less and less religious throughout the years, but in the old ages, religion was very highly considered, almost everyone was religious once upo n a time.

10 . Who were druids? Knowledge of the Druids comes directly from classical writers of their time. Druids managed the higher legal system and the courts of appeal, and their colleges in Britain were famous throughout the continent. Their knowledge of astronomy may have descended from the priests of megalithic times, together with the spiritual secrets of the landscape.

which covered most of the country. The tools were primitive. In the Neolithic. they hacked out cleanings in the woods. With their flint axes. It has very long history of building and alteration. It is the focal point of the densest concentration of Neolithic and bronze age monuments anywhere in Britain. and enjoyed absolute authority all over the Druids 11 . served for life. In good years. Digging sticks were used for planting and hoeing. men were able to observe the sun. It was the most important turning point since the introduction of farming. Excavations have shown that four main periods can be recognised in the building and use of Stonehenge. or henges. enough grain could be grown to last through a lean winter. 12 . This had been achieved in a mere 1500 y. but sheep and cattle. The farmers brought not only seeds of barley and wheat. Explain the evolution that occurred in Britain from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. and represents the culmination of a very long tradition of building with large stone.The president of the order. Describe the main symbolic features of Stonehenge. man began building huge earthwork enclosures. who was elected. brought about one of the greatest changes in the history of the island. These henges acted as religious centres for large areas and were used for over 500 y. They introduced new types of stone tools including sickles. . Agriculture had reached a stage where men could be spared from the field for long stretches. In the Neolithic period. The arrival of the first farmers in Britain and their settlement in the south of England. Agriculture helped to increase the population. Stonehenge is the stone circle with highest stones in the whole of Britain! Stonehenge is unique.

including that of individual elite burials under cairns or barrows. The best-known example from this time is Stonehenge. or what forms of worship or ceremonies took place within it The Boyne Ritual Landscape in Country Meath. a definable social structure began to emerge in Britain. is one of the most complex in the British Isles. it represents the culmination of a very long tradition of building with large stones. These causewayed camps were certainly not inhabited all the year round. with the ongoing use of stone circles and communal burials in chambered tombs. Ireland. . Stonehenge: It is unique. It is unknown what religious beliefs Stonehenge represents. New materials and Tools The Wessex people brought the rich metal resources of Britain under their control.the moon and the stars. and some of them were blocked. where the sarsen circle. which in places were bridged by solid causeways. In this period. there were strong elements of continuity with Neolithic traditions. wool and hides produced by their peasant subjects for the precious metals of Ireland. This place presents one of the best examples of such a group of monuments anywhere in Europe. Southwards. The Wessex chieftains could exchange the grain. In the Bronze Age. Around them were dug a series of ditches. Bronze Age: The Bronze age in Britain and Ireland covers the period from about 2400 to about 700 BC . Wales and northern England. Initially. Cornwall. and founded a culture of exceptional wealth and power. they were within easy reach of the English Channel and continental trade routes. They used their knowledge to build stone circles in which the stones were meticulously placed. An increasingly large and complex society soon began to construct it¶s first full-scale monuments. the old ancestral tombs were no longer used. New traditions had arisen. had been set up within the old henge. and later the horseshoe setting inside it.

It was abundant. played out over a period of some 800 y. but they were comparatively few in number. Many established themselves in well-defended hill-forts in the south and west of England. When the Romans came to Britain in 55 BC.They worked the valuable tin. widespread and much more durable than the medals they had been using. The Celts. when the Greeks and Phoenicians were starting to colonise the Mediterranean coasts. In the late Bronze Age and during the greater part of the Iron Age (the last millennium bc). Bronze Age monuments were certainly spectacular. helmets and horse trapping. As supplies of bronze increased in Britain. a warrior people. the migration of the Celts is recorded all over Europe. British trade and production in bronze reached its peak in the 8 th century BC. From this point on. British craftsmen were lavishing their skills on objects used to display wealth a nd status. . Phoenicians and Romans) and the µbarbarians¶ beyond. These objects were weapons. 13 . But during the next two centuries. spread across much of Europe throughout the 5 th and 4th centuries BC. In the Iron age. copper and gold ores to create useful tools and beautiful ornaments. new types of monuments such as hill-forts appeared and new iron weapons began to emerge. so did the technical abilities of the bronze smiths. It began in the eigth century BC. shields. Fostered by contacts with metal working on the continent. Compare the effects the Celtic settlement had on England and Europe The first written historical reference to the Celts is around 450 BC when the Greek historian Herodotus told of Celtic settlements near the source of the Danube. Etruscans. knowledge of an even better metal was beginning to spread to the island: iron. there was an interaction between the µcivilised¶ cultures of the Mediterranean sphere (Greeks..

Before Britain became a province of the Roman Empire. UNIT 2 Roman period and the Great invations 1.but the Romans established law and order among them. Its slaves were highly valued. Apart from that. La téne culture reached its flowering in the 3 rd century BC. Like Celtic character.The coming of Christianity brought with it µRomanitas¶ the culture of Rome. it was a place of mystery. Initially. Celtic art was energetic. Although Gaelic identity was stimulated by the coming of the Vikings. it was split into warring tribes . and it exported tin and copper. more practically.Norman invasion of the 12 th century. Why did the Romans come to Britain? The Romans knew little of Britain. the centre of the druidic religion which the Romans had encountered in Gaul. but later. La Téne art is considered to be the first definitive Celtic Art. its fantastic imagery often included interpretations of classical and oriental forms. 14 . native Gaelic society and culture was profoundly changed following the Anglo. it provided a refuge for Caesar¶s enemies . It was reported to be rich and that there was gold and pearl fishing. By about 200 BC. and yet at the same time full of humour. But. Native Celtic tradition now fused with these new ideas to create an extremely rich cultural environment. an essentially British style of Celtic art began to appear u nder continental influence 15 . its distinctive styles were more reminiscent of plant forms.. Outline the situation of Britain at the Romans¶ arrival. exuberant and explosive. Write about the major forms and manifestations of Celtic Art in Britain.

But its success depended on the constant manning of garrisons with loyal and well. the last effective roman forces left Britain for the Continent. Most of these positions were occupied only briefly. In 407. What were the Romanisation? most relevant features of the The Romans established a system of law and order which gave the island it¶s first taste of national unity. However. 5. in the 4 th century the forces were no longer available. It was simply abandoned to the wind. Vandals and huns battering on borders much nearer to Rome. which probably owed its early growth to Viking slave-trading. What were the main aims of the Northern Frontier? To have a barrier between the barbarians and the Romans 3. called longphorts by the Irish. in which they spent the winter so as to be able to make an early start to raiding when the spring arrived. which in the tenth century developed into Ireland¶s first true towns. the Vikings began to build fortified bases. The most successful of these was Dublin. the willing cooperation of it¶s people had to be guaranteed through a process of Romanisation. rain. Others were ordered away to fight Goths. founded in 841. but a few became permanent settlements. Under Rome. Britain was to enjoy three centuries of unprecedented peace and prosperity. Roman generals fighting for the imperial throne drained away troops.2. So no final. glorious battle decided the fate of the wall. wild flowers and the barbarian 4. Why did the Romans abandon Hadrian¶s Wall? Hadrian¶s fortification served it¶s purpose for 250 years. Which was the most important Viking settlement in Ireland? In 836. and opened up communications so that trade could flourish.disciplined men. If a province was to be integrated into the empire. .

bread and circuses. -They found a collection of roads and paths. The minor roads. Generations of Roman emperors believed that the best way to preserve the loyalty of their far -flung subjects was to provide them with µpanem et circenses¶. bloodthirsty crowds. Men and animals were torn or hacked to death in gladiatorial clashes which drew cheering.- - - -In the countryside. 7. This period of mass migrations across the North and Irish seas initiated the creation of a new political order. Even in Britain. Describe the circuses´. Every roman road in Britain was linked to London. These waves of land hungry warriors come to Britain first as raiders and then as settlers. most connecting local fields and hamlets. meaning of the phrase: ³Bread and 6. the Romans mostly ignored these previous paths. Most Roman cities had amphitheatres outside the walls. the roman need for food led to arrangements with tribes both inside and outside the province for supply of grain. were Roman culture had been most entrenched. social unrest and warfare. called. and depict tales of their feats. In building their network of roads. partly because the roman towns and forts were built on new sites away from the Celtic settlements. sporting events and real tragedies were played out. They were used for plays and pantomimes. In the arenas inside the cities. This upheaval affected all the British territories but its consequences were felt most strongly in southern and eastern Britain. Many pots made in Roman Britain show gladiators fighting. one of the most remote territories of the empire was a constant succession of popular entertainments. but also some longer -distance trade routes. . (all roads leads to Rome). µeconomic roads¶ were also built by the roman army to link economic centres. What were the origins of the great migrations and Invasions? The collapse of the Roman province of Brittania created a fragile structure that drew Germanic migrants from across the channel and propelled native people around the British Isles.

11. In the thick of the fighting. 9. Why is the Anglo-Saxons chronicle so important? Because a new era was opened in British History. Why was religion so important in the invasion period? Because the Romans were trying to spread out Christianity over the whole empire.This period of conflict provides the historical context for the heroic efforts of (the probably largely legendary) King Arthur to resist the Anglo-Saxon expansion into western Britain. of settling 10. and by the end of Roman Britain. the Vikings had shown signs permanently in the ravaged lands of Britain. 8. Then a great trial of strength took place. and was succeeded by Alfred. When was the zenith of the Viking¶s assimilation in Britain? The Vikings invasions of Britain reached their peak in 870-1. survived even after the norman conquest. existing British leaders were sufficiently highly regarded to be left in charge of their territories after the .the ³year of battles´. And t oday. while the Saxons remained pagan until the seventh century. In a few cases. Although the Romans rated military glory highly. place names ending in by (a village) and Thorpe (a hamlet) are a legacy of the Danish settlers. as the AngloSaxon Chronicle called it. By the mid¶ 870¶s. where they settled and imposed their legal customs. The Danelaw. conquest was not an end in itself. These new-comers created the pattern of villages that was to endure to modern times. The Vikings inspired their enemies to unite against them. Outline the situation of Britain at the beginning of the Romans period. Ethelred of Wessex died. Christianity had a significant number of believers in Britain.

Under Rome.Roman conquest. Roman civilisation was based on racial toleration and it was also firmly based on a society of different classes. There were Roman citizens and slaves. This brought a degree of political rules and wealth among these tribes. the Romans mostly ignored the previous paths. Describe the main features of the Romanisation of the British Isles. However. which must have been acquired in part through contact with the Roman Empire 12. most connecting local fields and hamlets. The British benefited from a range of opportunities offered by Roman occupation. partly because the Roman towns and forts were built on new sites away from the Celtic settlements. In the countryside. Britain was to enjoy 3 centuries of unprecedented peace and prosperity. temporarily. Walls = They were used as protective barriers. Explain the function of the roman walls and roads in Britannia. Roads: The Romans found a collection of roads and paths. 13. In building their network of roads. not only within the island. the Roman need for food led to arrangements with tribes both inside and outside the province for the supply of grain. Trade flourished under the protection of the Roman legions. but also some longer distance trade routes. at least. The Romans established a system of law and order which gave the island its first taste of national unity. each Roman town was surrounded of Walls. economic and social . but between Britain and the rest of Europe. the Roman administration needed a better network of roads to connect its new towns and army posts and to speed the flow of both trade goods and troops.

Christianity flourished under the Romans and inspired its own art. There was new political landscape. UNIT 3 The unification of England 1.Introduced to Britain in the 3rd century. This long period of conflicts and ethnic tensions redefined a new Britain. Discuss the meaning of the great migrations in Britain. This period of conflict provides the historical context for the heroic efforts of (the probably largely legendary) King Arthur to resist the Anglo-Saxon expansion into western Britain. Explain the main features Unification of England. 14. the finest examples of which were found in the Roman villa at Lullingstone in Kent. consisting of little kingdoms. This period of mass migrations across the North and Irish seas initiated the creation of a new political order. social unrest and warfare. of the process of the . It lasted from 600 to 1066. Two striking differences between the scenes in the Roman and AngloSaxon reconstructions are that: a) The town was much more densely occupied in Roman times and b) The building styles are very different. Celtic and Anglo-Saxon social organisation was not so different. unlike the roman provincial structure. The collapse of the Roman province of Britannia created a fragile structure that drew Germanic migrants from across the channel and propelled native people around the British Isles. but there were great religious and linguistic differences 15. Compare the impact of the Roman Conquest and the great invasions of Britain.

The kingdom of the West Saxons had spread eas twards in the central decades of the 9 th century to control Kent. his successors extended their rule over the Danes and the Northumbrians. Edward the elder (899-924).The ancient kingdom of the West Saxons had been transformed into a kingdom of Anglo-Saxons by King Alfred the Great. the Danish invaded. Alfred¶s ³kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons´ passed to his son. There was a process of political development throughout the ninth and 10th centuries. Northumbria and Mercia. The frontier had been taken up to the river Humber. Describe the main features of the Norman conquest. seemed to be moving towards greater political unity under the High king Brian Boru. who died with an arrow in his eye. . The Vikings conquered the kingdoms of East Anglia. from the kingdom of the West Saxons to the kingdom of the English. too. Any opposition to his rule was brutally crushed. After his death. One represented the new mobility of the Anglo-Danish power and the older defended the political interests north of the river Thames 2. The battle of Hastings was a traditional watershed in English history. the Dublin Norse re-established their links with York but it was not until the reign of king Edgar (975) that the unified kingdom of England was completed.on Athelstan¶s death. William the bastard (later William the Conqueror). Surrey and Essex. Ireland. William won his throne by force and he defended it by force. in the early 11th century. led by their Duke. The Norman conquest of 1066 was an outer ripple of this movement. and during the 10th century. the invading Normans. In 939. Sussex. who spread West Saxon control over the Da nes of eastern England and the Mercians. vanquished the Anglo-Saxons under Harold Godwineson. the English were facing a constant external threat and.

at the news of the conqueror¶s approach. Kent. 4. it came from the north. his communications with Normandy were vulnerable and his sources of supply uncertain.. This was the most serious defeat suffered by the Normans in England. The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizens µrights. the rebellion collapsed. Royal officials journeyed throughout the land. The survey was carried out quickly but with such thoroughness that. On Christmas day 1066 he was crowned king of England. In January. according to a chronicler. In 1068 the Conqueror faced a real challenge.Not all England had accepted him as king. to discover the true wealth and probable future wealth of England. Sussex and Essex. His dominion was primarily in the south. He must have known that if resistance continued. a Norman army was massacred in Durham. London still held out. the Normans fled from York. and stretching some way into Mercia. covering all the old kingdoms of Wessex. ( it demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.´ When the information had been gathered. returns were submitted for individual ³hundreds´. What is the Domesday Book? It¶s the record of the great national survey ordered by William I in 1085. Most of its clauses recounted their specific complaints against the lawless behaviour of King John.) The main aim of the Magna Carta was to curb the king and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans . or one cow or pig escaped notice. which were the subdivisions of counties. William knew that final victory was a long way off. a few weeks later. Yet such was the English leaders¶ indecision that. 3. leaving it to be occupied by the rebels. What were the main purposes of the Magna Carta? It was a document that King John of England was forced into singing. recording details of the property owned by everyone from the king downwards. It was one of the first censuses. ³not even one ox.

The Magna Carta is considered to be the founding document of English liberties and hence American liberties. At the most for the entire knight¶s ³fee´ and any man that owes less shall pay less. or other person that holds lands directly of the Crown. when he comes of age he shall have his inheritance without ³relief´ or fine . The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws. customary dues. in accordance with the ancient usage of ³fees´. he must govern his subjects according to its terms and not according to his own whim. but the fact that it was granted at all. If any earl. all the liberties written out below. TO ALL FREE MEN OF OUR KINGDOM we have also granted. and feudal services. The influence of Magna Carta can be seen in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. for us and for our heirs forever. He . That is to say the heir of heirs of an earl shall pay 100 for the entire earl¶s barony. The Magna Carta mixed specific complaints with some principles of law. and its liberties unimpaired.came. of us and our heirs: 2. 3 But if the heir of such a person is under age and a ward. and shall have its rights undiminished. All these clauses were largely the work of Stephen Langton. some copied and some recollected some old and some new. Magna Carta insisted that the king could not be above the law and that in the future. shall die. baron. for military service. 4 The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues. which in future ages were to be regarded as the backbone of English Liberties. Summary of Magna Carta: 1 The English Church shall be free. and at his death his heir shall be of full age and owe a ³relief´ . Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to sheriffs and other important people throughout England. sheriffs and other important people throughout England. Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to bishops. The most important thing about this charter was not what it said. the heir of heirs of a knight 100s. to have and to keep for them and their heirs.

the debtor is unable to discharge his debt. Heirs may be given in marriage. and (once) to marry our eldest daughter. 9 Neither we or our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt. mills. from the revenues of the land itself. and it shall be handed over to two worthy and prudent men of the same ³fee´. 5 For so long as a guardian has guardianship of suc h land. ³Aids´ from the city of London are to be treated similarly. 12 No ³scutage´ or ³aid´ may be levied in our kingdom without its general consent. his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age. irrespective of whom he holds his lands. and everything else pertaining to it. unless it is for the ransom of our person. For these purposes only a reasonable ³aid´ may be levied. who shall be similarly answerable to us. If they so desire. but not to someone of lower social standing. 8 No widow shall be compelled to marry. so long as she wishes to remain without a husband. unless the debtor can show that he has settled his obligations to them. She may remain in her husband¶s house for 40 d after his death. they may have the debtor¶s lands and rents until they have received satisfaction for the debt that they paid for him. his wife may have her dower and pay nothing towards the debt from it. Before a marriage takes place.shall do this without destruction or damage to men or property. he shall lose the guardian ship of it. 7 At her husband¶s death. it shall be µmade known to the heir¶s next-of-kin. 6. parks. fish preserves. . for lack of means. and he causes destruction or damage. a widow may have her marriage portion and inheritance at once and without trouble. to make our eldest son a knight. ponds. But she must give security that she will not marry without royal consent. his sureties shall be answerable for it. he shall maintain the houses. and within this period her dower shall be assigned to her. If. 10 If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been repaid. If we have given or sold to anyone the guardianship of such land. 11 If a man dies owing money to Jews.

17 Ordinary lawsuits shall not follow the royal court around. provided for in this chapter. 21 Earls and barons shall be fined only by their equals. 18 Certain cases were more appropriately (and conveniently) heard in local courts. The details included in this chapter were intended to assure a just hearing. than is due from it. For these purposes only a reasonable ³aid´ may be levied 16 No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight¶s ³fee´. and for a serious offence correspondingly. except to ransom his person. to come together on a fixed day (of which at least 40 d notice shall be given) and at a fixed place. through the sheriffs and other officials. a merchant shall be spared his merchandise. both by land and by water. None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood.13 The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs. but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood. 14 To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued. even when the docket was overloaded 20 For a trivial offence. or other free holding of land. and (once) to marry his eldest daughter. if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court. In the same way. and a husbandman the implements of his husbandry. to make his eldest son a knight. but shall be held in a fixed place. 19 If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court. . of those who have attended the court. having regard to the volume of business to be done. as will suffice for the administration of justice. 15 In future we will allow no one to levy an ³aid´ from his free men. and in proportion to the gravity of their offence. -Efforts would be made to assure a fair hearing. a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence. as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind.

wapentake. 31 Neither we nor any royal official will take wood for our castle. coroners. the Medway. unless the seller voluntarily offers postponement of this. thus establishing a standard of fairness 22 A fine imposed upon the lay property of a clerk in holy orders shall be assessed upon the same principles. or other royal officials are to hold lawsuits that should be held by the royal justices. royal official or other person shall take horses or carts for transport from any free man. after which they shall be returned to the lords of the ³fees´ concerned. 29 A knight taken or sent on military service shall be excused from castle-guard for the period of this service.20. his movable goods are to be distributed by his next -of-kin and friends. hundred. except the royal demesne manors. and throughout the whole of England. 27 If a free man dies intestate. one not subject to local interpretation. The rights of his debtors are to be preserved. 24 No sheriff. without increase. except the reasonable shares of his wife and children. and tithing shall remain at its ancient rent. -The goal of this provision was to provide a uniform system of justice. without the consent of the owner. without reference to the value of his ecclesiastical benefice. 23 No town or person shall be forced to build bridges over rivers except those with an ancient obligation to do so. constable. 32 We will not keep the lands of people convicted of felony in our hand for longer than a year and a day. 25 Every county. 26 If no debt is due to the Crown.21 ±Punishment for violations of the law was to be in proportion to the seriousness of the offense. 33 All fish weirs shall be removed from the Thames. or for any other purpose. under the supervision of the Church. 30 No sheriff. except on the sea coast . without his consent. 28 No constable or other royal official shall take corn or other movable goods from any man without immediate payment. all the movable goods shall be regarded as the property of the dead man.

or stripped of his rights or possessions. if a free man could thereby be deprived of the right of trial in his own lord¶s court. however. mean that a jury ( as we understand that term) would hear the case and render a verdict. 38 In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement. without producing credible witnesses to the truth of it. i. it did not. The writ calling for the inquiry was to be issued free of charge. and not refused.39 No free man shall be seized or imprisoned. subject to punishment. -The practice. In the context of the time in which it was written. 35 There shall be standard measures of wine. this chapter required ³faithful witnesses´ to attest that a man has committed a crime before he was formally accused and prosecuted. -Another key element in due process. These charges were considered legitimate ways for . this chapter required that an inquiry be conducted in any case that might result in the defendant being deprived of life or limb. It shall be given gratis. -The requirement for a jury of one¶s peers (or. until this clause was adopted. to no one deny or delay right or justice.34 The writ called precipe shall not in future be issued to anyone in respect of any holding of land. -A precursor to the writ of habeas corpus. indicating the importance he pla ced on this procedure. This established one of the essential elements of due process of law37 The king gives up his prior rights to lands of heirs. or outlawed or exiled. as the British Library translation puts it. and corn (the London quarter) 36 In future nothing shall be payed or accepted for the issue of a writ of inquisition of life or limbs. ³the lawful judgement of the equals´) is probably the most famous and certainly one of the most crucial guarantees of due process in the Magna Carta. ale.with cost dependant on the nature of the writ and its potential value.40 To no one will we sell. Edward Coke referred to this as the ³golden passage´. was to charge a fee for certain writs. this provision meant that a person could present his case to members of his own class.e.

constables. free from all illegal exactions.the king to raise revenue. for some short period. had the barony been in the baron¶s hand.they must ³know the law´ and be prepared to ³keep it well´ 46 All barons who have founded abbeys. may have guardianship of them when there is no abbot. 42 In future it shall be lawful for any man to leave and return to our kingdom unharmed and without fear. or of other ³escheats´ in our hand that are baronies. preserving his allegiance to us. Riverbanks that have been enclosed in our reign shall be treated similarly. for the common benefit of the realm. 44 People who live outside the forest need not in future appear before the royal justices of the forest in answer to general summonses. 47 All forests that have been created in our reign shall at once be disafforested. -This sets a standard for those appointed to enforce and administer the law. such as the honour of Wallingford. in accordance with ancient and lawful customs. 43 If a man holds lands of any ³escheat´. they had the effect of denying justice to those who could not afford them. . However. or other officials . only men that know the law of the realm and are minded to keep it well. and have charters of English Kings or ancient tenure as evidence of this. 50 We will remove completely from their offices the kinsmen of Gerard de Athée. sheriffs. Lancaster. We will hold the ³es cheat´ in the same manner as the baron held it. by land or water. at his death his heir shall give us only the ³relief´ and service that we would have made to the baron. Nottingham. and may stay or travel within it.41 All merchants may enter or leave England unharmed and without fear. except in time of war. for purposes of trade. and in future they shall hold no offices in England. Boulogne. 49 We will at once return all hostages and charters delivered up to us by Englishmen as security for peace or for loyal service. as in their due. unless they are actually involved in proceedings or are sureties for someone who has been seized for a forest offence 45 We will appoint as justices.

55 All fines that have been given to us unjustly and against the law of the land. when we have hitherto had this by virtue of a ³fee´ held of us for knight¶s service by a third party. castles. and such others as he wishes to bring with him.. bowmen. to its harm. or to remain forests. and his brothers. and the mercenaries that have come to it. if he can be present. shall be entirely remitted or the matter decided by a majority judgement of the 25 barons referred to below in the clause for se curing the peace (61) together with Stephen. with horses and arms. Philip Marc and his brothers. their attendants. . -Picking up on the theme of fairness. 54 No one shall be arrested or imprisoned on the appeal of a woman for the death of any person except her husband. with the guardianship of lands in another person¶s ³fee´. The Welsh shall treat us and ours in the same way. Worth nothing is the attempt to avoid a ³conflict of interest´: a baron was expected to step aside and allow a substitute to decide a case similar to one in whic h he was himself involved 56 English law shall apply to holdings of land in England. Welsh law to those in Wales. and the charters delivered to us as security foe the peace. and the law of the Marches to those in the marches. the chapter called for the repayment of all fines that were imposed unjustly. and all fines that we have exacted unjustly. in which the lord of the ³fee´ claims to own a right. when these were first a-orested by our father Henry or our brother Richard. 53 We shall have similar respite in rendering justice in connexion with forests that are to be disafforested. archbishop of Canterbury. 52 To any man whom we have deprived or dispossessed of lands.. Peter. and all their followers. without the lawful judgement of his equals we will at once restore these. 58 We will at once return the son of L lywelyn. and with abbeys founded in another person¶s ³fee´. Guy. and it established the procedure by which challenges against unjust fines were to be handled.The people in question are Engelard de Cigogné. liberties or rights. all Welsh hostages. with Geoffrey his nephew. we will remove from the kingdom all the foreign knights. 51 As soon as peace is restored.

king of Scotland. a mere boy in his twenties in the town of Paisley. and. we will treat him in the same way as our other barons of England. Edward was English.59 With regard to the return of the sisters and hostages of Alexander. Why is the summoning of the First English Parliament a turning point in British History? Because it introduced a feudal system. ove r the centuries. formerly king of Scotland. Wallace raised an enthusiastic army and he tramped his men into the north and retook the castles that Edward had captured. The Scots were on the march. and Scotland must be free of the king called the hammer of the Scots. and since we desire that they shall be enjoyed in their entirety. -Another of Coke¶s favourites. Let al men of our kingdom. that he could be treated otherwise. was driven by the conviction that he was Scottish. we give and grant to the barons the following security. Witness the abovementioned people and many others 5. this chapter enlarged the scope of the Magna Carta. 63 ±Both we and the barons have sworn that all this shall be observed in good faith and without deceit. his liberties and his rights. the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English civil war and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649 6. 60 All these customs and liberties that we have granted shall be observed in our kingdom in so far as concerns our own relations with our subjects. implying that the right and liberties would be extended to all men and by all men within the kingdom 61 SINCE WE HAVE GRANTED ALL THESE THINGS for God. How did Scotland win its independence in 1328? William Wallace. for the better ordering of our kingdom. unless it appears from the charters that we hold from his father William. observe them similarly in their relations with their own men. and to allay the discord that has arisen between us and our barons. Their great victory was in September . with lasting strength. whether clergy or laymen.

He was hanged. the Roman Catholic Church with it s sole truth. How can the Medieval British Economy be described? The general belief in medieval times was the existence of a sole Church. since he had never given his loyalty to an English king. Why was the medieval church so important in the British Isles? . This battle demonstrated the military brilliance of Wallace. a wandering fugitive with a small band of attendants. 9. In 1305 Wallace was betrayed and carried to London to be charged with treason. and when Edward seated himself upon the throne in Westminster. 8. What were main effects of the continual between the Houses of Lancaster and York? warfare Each family believed that it had a legitimate claim to the throne. had a stronger claim to the throne the House of Lancaster. 7. He rejected the charge. drawn and quartered all the same. Edward was proclaimed the first Yorkist king . The old king. the largest segment of the population. The medieval population were highly immobile with regard to both vertical (social) and horizontal (spatial) mobility. Vertical immobility was the result of a rigidly hierarchies society. Medieval society was mainly agricultural and it had to overcome serious difficulties with obtaining a continuous supply of food and raw materials. The land-cultivating class made up. by far. although both were branches of the house Plantagenet. Another feature of the middle ages is immobility. Henry VI remained at large. the catholic creed. The Lancastrians met defeat in their turn. there were few who regretted the passing of the red rose of Lancaster. The English survivors fled and Walla ce became the master of Scotland.1297 at Stirling Bridge. The House of York (1461-1485).

the outcome of the battle of Hastings. Therefore. Thus. Its symptoms inspired terror in men¶s hearts. and the court left London in haste f or the countryside. in which Harold was killed and Saxon England fell to William and his Norman invaders. but their primitive medical science was no barrier to the advance of the most virulent epidemic in western history. The appearance in 1066 of Halley¶s Comet. Epidemics usually follow commercial trade routes. . in times of trial and peril. Most particularly. it was believed. The epidemic had London in it¶s grip by January 1349. 10. and the Black Death was no exception. where they supposed there was less risk of infection. The English knew the plague was spreading towards them. The outbreak of the plague in 1348 seems to have originated in the Yunnan Peninsula of China. God seemed to have abandoned the English people. Edward III dissolved Parliament. the outbreak of a plague without known cause or cure led many to go on pilgrimages. But. Sickness. disease and death were a constant threat. faced divine vengeance.In the middle ages. men looked to God and the Church rather than to science for aid and assistance. It was regarded as a sign that God was about to punish King Harold for breaking an oath which he had broken his word and thus. What were the main social consequences of the Black Death? and economic Life in the middle Ages was a battle for survival for the vast majority of British people. Frightene d men asserted that the disease was carried in a great black cloud. as the terrible plague of the Black Death swept through England in 1348. seemed to justify their forebodings of disaster. And to many. had exactly that effect. natural phenomena in the skies such as eclipses or comets were often looked upon as divine intervention and greeted with awe and terror. named after the 17 th century astronomer who subsequently charted its orbit. man¶s faith in the Christian religion was unshakeable. or that it was spread by travelling Jews who poisoned the wells. The average Englishman could exp ect to live only to the age of 38 y in the mid 14th century.

The Magna Carta is considered to be the founding document of English liberties and hence American liberties. and came to a head with the crisis involving Archbishop Thomas Becket. It is difficult to say to what extent the Black Death affected the Irish population. Present your ideas and impressions about conflict between Church and State. the potential for conflict between church and state grew. Arguments for and against the signing of the Magna Carta. Magna Carta insisted that the king could not be above the law and that in the future. the Those at the head of the English church were often wealthy. The foregoing evidence shows that the plague penetrated all regions of the country between 1348 and 1350. aristocratic and cosmopolitan ecclesiastics. Becket was determined to sustain the church. 11. London¶s cemeteries were too small to take the hundreds of dead who arrived every day. The outcome of the row in 1164 was the murder of Thomas . He sought to limit papal power in England. The m ain aim of the Magna Carta was to curb the king and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. 12. In 1351 this outbreak of the plague had run its course. The destruction of one third of England¶s population of 3 million. With such conspicuous wealth among clergy. was a disaster unparalleled in modern times. Positive ones: Most of its clauses recounted their specific complaints against the lawless behaviour of King John. One chronicler explained that µno sin of man could be so awful as to deserve such a punishment of God. Henry II expected to have a complaint church after proposing the constitutions of Clarendon (1164). Priests could not be found to say Mass in poor parishes. he must govern his subjects according to its terms and not according to his own whim. and the laying waste of over 1000 villages. through some localities undoubtedly escaped.Three successive Archbishops of Canterbury died in the space of 12 months.

Ireland. 15. like their Anglo -Saxon predecessors. The . in his cathedral at Canterbury. Feudal lords owned plots of land laboured by their serfs.Becket in 1170. Discuss the importance of the feudal system. the sole monastic order available to Saxon England. unification of the In England. Commercial confidence was sustained by a moderate rate of inflation and the supply of sound silver coinage maintained by the Scottish and English kings. Medieval society was mainly agricultural and it had to overcome serious difficulties with obtaining a continuous supply of food and raw materials. worked closely with the church. In both England and Scotland. Why were the English lords so powerful in Medieval England? Main reasons. Norman kings. Discuss the meaning of the English territories. from Burgundy. fairs and boroughs where trade took place at designated times and often on privileged dates. and the Normans actively supported the reforming popes of the late 11th century. Scotland and Wales there was a wide network of chartered trading places such as markets. Their main aim was to stimulate and profit from trade. New religious orders were introduced to England to increase the Benedictine houses. The regular clery was a social group composed by clerks following a rule and forming a property-owning corporation such a monastic society or a military order. the money supply grew faster than the population during the 13th century. The medieval population were highly immobile with regard to both vertical (social) and horizontal (spatial) mobility. apparently by royal command. Kings and lords created this wide commercial structure. The first newcomers were members of the cluniac reform movement. 13. and in the same century a monetised economy was introduced to the English lordship or Ireland 14.

by far . The country counted for little on the continent. England and Spain would become the great rivals for supremacy. although the nobility had not supported its cause 2. 3. UNIT 4: The Tudor age 1. In 1485. England was divided and bankrupt after thirty years of civil war. The Tudor name brought with it an aura of daring and excitement. The king or the emperor and the Pope stood at the apex of medieval society. and on the high seas. whether in diplomacy. Why was the Tudor dynasty so important in England? The arrival of the Tudors heralded a new age. Knights were men of free birth following a non-servile service to an aristocrat. Mercator would complete his first map of the world. Who supported Mary¶s claim to the throne of England? The Scots. the largest segment of the population. commerce or war. the brilliant Tudors steered the country in a new direction to revitalise their kingdom and make it the envy of the world. Both of them were closed classes. power and enlightenment.land-cultivating class made up. All three claimed to derive their authority from heaven. In just over a century. The lesser nobility (knights and feudal lords) and the regular clergy constituted the next step in the pyramid. when the Tudor dynasty came to power. These were usually land-owning classes with great prerogatives. Under these we find the aristocracy and the upper church hierarchy. This was the age of the great voyages of exploration. What was the role of Parliament in English Politics? . With Henry VII came increasing peace.

. It was unusual for members of the House of Lords to criticise the king's policies. However. The House of Lords was made up of about sixty Bishops. This was often giving money to the church. they had to be passed by Parliament. he had to break away from the Catholic church. Dukes. The new Christians called themselves ³Protestants´ because they were protesting against the Roman ³Catholic´ (meaning ³universal´) Church.In Tudor times most important decisions concerning government were made by the king or queen and a small group of advisers called the Privy Council. An indulgence was a pardon instead of punish ment for a sin. He believed that man could only be saved by the grace of god. so it looked as if the church was selling pardons. Earls and Barons. What was the Reformation? It was a religious movement which led to the birth of the protestant faith. 4. Their demand for reform led to this period of history being called the Reformation. Church services changed back to Latin. he protested against the catholic practice of granting indulgences. However. While Mary¶s strong Catholic faith gave her a great sense of purpose. It was started by a catholic monk who did not believe that you could just buy your way into heaven. Parliament was the House of Lords and the House of Commons. they were in danger of being stripped of their titles. its teachings and its customs. its practices. it also made her obstinate and narrow minded. Members of the House of Commons were more independent as they were sometimes elected by the people who lived in the area they represented.. since the pope didn¶t agree with divorce 5. Why did Henry VIII break with the Catholic Church? Because in order to divorce from his wife. Luther (this monk) protested that this was wrong. To gain an indulgence. very few people had the vote and in many cases the largest landowner in the area decided who went to Parliament. before these decisions became law. a person had to perform a good deed. If they did so. In 1517.

including much of Ireland and small communities. English. In 1539 the 2nd act of Suppression was passed to sanction the transfer of further monastic possessions to the state. 6. Henry responded to the Pope with the act of supremacy. monasteries and convents across Engl. monasteries and convents across England. the 2nd act of suppression was passed to sanction the transfer of further monastic possessions to the state. and their stone-work was plundered by local people in search of building materials. It took about a century to work through society. the reformation merely substituted one barely int elligible language. Wales and Ireland. with another. land. In 1536. Wales and Ireland. and everything else. and Henry ordered the closing down of the wealthy Roman catholic Abbeys. and Henry ordered the closing down of the wealthy Roman Catholic Abbeys. Some of the monastic buildings and lands were sold off after the dissolution. In 1539. money. which became known as the ³Dissolution of the monasteries´. thereby putting himself in charge of all the churches and monasteries in England. At first. Henry needed to reduce the power of the church in England. Outlying areas of the British Isles. Wales also suffered the religious upheaval of the reformation. Latin. which ³Dissolution of the Monasteries´. never experienced the reformation. Some of the small monasteries stayed open because they paid some money to the king. the parliament passed the Act of became known as the Suppression. How did the British Reformation influence national and international politics? In 1534. In 1536. Henry VIII took ownership of all the buildings.The reformation was not an immediate success . Many of the greatest monasteries fell into ruin. as well as find money to fund his fruitless and expensive wars against France and Scotland. the parliament passed the act of suppression. Henry VII took .

It was there for basically a reactionary movement . and their communities scattered. bells re-hung and the old service books returned.. land. He was burnt at outside Gloucester Cathedral.. and their stonework was plundered by local people in search of building materials. He was burnt at Smithfield in London. In France. Spain. money and everything else. Elisabeth. Which were the main repercussions of the Counterreformation in Britain? The reformation started ideologically by Martin Luther.ownership of all the buildings. altars re-erected. Eng. wherever they were. A married priest. the monastic houses had largely been demolished or converted to other uses. Mary . Germany. The next was John Hooper. The Counter Reformation is the reaction of the Vatican and the Catholics against the protestant movement. Many of the greatest monasteries fell into ruin. Mary Tudor finally despaired of ever bearing a child and reluctantly recognised her sister. In the parishes. as heir to the throne of Engl. England got involved because Henry VIII wanted independence from the Vatican so he could get divorced and remarried. statuary replaced. for e. Early in the winter of 1558. Mary was able to re-establish a Benedictine monastery at Westminster and small religious houses elsewhere. Much could not be restored. Some of the monastic buildings and lands were sold off after t he dissolution.. And Switzerland became independent countries. churchwardens¶ accounts graphically show how church furnishings were restored. Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. John Rogers. Some of the small monasteries stayed open because they payed some money to the king. After all this. on the 17th of 11. the ones who won the day were the Catholics.trying to counteract the Reformation There were groups who supported these two movements. was the first to pay with his life for his loyalty to the protestant faith. A few days later. 7.g.

colonies 11. Their abilities showed themselves in their astute choice of servants and policies. united and annexed to and with his Realm of England´. fact which the preamble to the act of 1536 makes clear. the major powers (Spain. 10. . Describe monarchs. How did Britain become a world power in this period? The basis of the wealth was mostly exploiting the colonies. Eng. mostly trading with the A. It was the end of the Counter ±Reformation in Britain. 8. and much also to their continuing good luck.was dead and Elisabeth proclaimed queen. Colonised a good chunk of north A. What were the main reasons for British expansion overseas at the end of the sixteenth century? Had just been discovered at the end of the 15th century. got into colonising) Eng. Portugal. the English parliament passed a series of laws that became known as the Acts of Union during the reign of Henry VIII. somewhat of an exaggeration.. stating (on behalf of the king) that Wales ³is and ever has been incorporated. but in essence the simple truth 9. What was the significance of µthe Act of union of 1536¶? Between 1536 and 1543. and after that. their luck in the fact that they lived to an advanced age and left obvious heirs to succeed them. It was not a question of uniting two countries together as Wales had already been effectively incorporated into England since the days of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. And France tried to aswell. the main achievements of the Tudor The 5 Tudor monarchs were rulers of extraordinary ability.

However.Propaganda was the key to Henry¶s success. died in 1519. nominating Thomas Wolsey. Certainly his reign saw some of the most developments in Eng since the time of Edward I. It was part of the European debate. tried and found guilty . the Tudors had to appear strong. the eldest daughter of Edward IV. Magnificent displays of wealth and power were more than a way of life. it contained plenty of criticism of the Henry VIII¶s government he knew. Henry¶s second wife was Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII is probably the best known king of Eng. In 1536. This period was one of change in Eur. although the nobility had not supported its cause. Henry stood as a candidate to succeed him. Thomas Moore¶s utopia was published. And may even be the most notorious. When the Holy Roman Emperor. Pope. Henry strengthened his claim on the throne by marring Elisabeth of York. Katherine of Aragon. Henry strove to have an Engl. In order to be strong. Henry was the first to inherit a comparatively U.K. Tudor government and court The Tudor name brought with it an aura of daring and excitement. they were unlikely to join one. Maximilian I. who regarded him as a good prospect. Henry VII and later his son Henry VIII concentrated the residences they governed from in the south -east and were unwilling to travel their kingdom as much as their predecessors had done. Henry VII re-established the equilibrium of the English monarchy and its finances. Henry wanted to be the centre of the European stage. When Pope Leo X died in 1521. thereby uniting the houses of York and Lancaster under the new dynasty. the future Elisabeth I. In 1516. she was arrested. who gave birth to a girl. but without success. So long as Englishmen thought that their king could defeat any rebellion. in order to continue the alliance with Spain. having earlier been encouraged by Maximilian himself. He obeyed his father¶s that he marry his elder brother¶s widow.

successors to York and Lancaster. but in Scotland they were excluded after 1638. longer than any king since Edward III. Henry married Jane Seymour. and the House of Commons. Until the protestant reformation. for the first time.of treason and executed. Parliament. Simon de Montfort. who gave birth to the future Edward VI. It was under Henry III that. She personified her country at the summit of its fame. At the first Engl. The 1601 Parliament is a good example of a Parliament called for one purpose which diverted its attention to others. which remained on the statute book until 1834. Elisabeth went on to reign for nearly 45 y. on a March morning in 1265. Soon after that. The Parliament: The creation of Parliament is one of the greatest gifts that Britain has given to the world. the strong Tudor monarchs. Henry swore to mend his ways and reform his government. The English parliament consisted of 2 chambers. An important topic to be considered during Elizabeth¶s reign was the revolution in Ireland. In Engl. the different Houses of Lords included the abbots of the leading monasteries. the House of Lords. . There had been other rebellions during her reign. a historic assembly gathered together in the dim light of Westminster Hall. This achievement was the work of one man. who were the nobility. There were a number of revolts against English monarchy during Elizabeth¶s reign. controlled generally docile Parliaments. At first. including attacks on monopolies and a codification of the Poor Law. elected representatives from the different shires and the main towns (the parliamentary borough). bishops continued to sit in the Lords after the reformation. such as that of Shane O¶Neil in Ulster during the 1560¶s the Fitzmaurice rising of 1569-1573 and the desmond rebellion of 1579-1583.

13. Present the situation of England at the end of the th 16 century With the birth of his son. the corruption of the Renaissance papacy. such as that of Alexander VI (who did not keep the celibacy vow) resulted in loss of papal credibility. With the end of the middle Ages. Their daughter. . each having some support from different kings and princes of Europe. political and economical issues of the time. who was one of th e most influential. including sr. Francis Bacon. Avignon papacy. Henry VII wanted to make a strong alliance with the rulers of Aragon and Castile. which still can be seen today. it brought uncertainty to the people. loss of papal authority and credibility as well as other societal. This revolution had a major impact on Europe and it gave way to short term and long-term consequences. The link with Spain became even more important followin g Columbusus¶s discovery of a route to the Indies (1492) The end of the century saw Engl. and believed the Pope favoured the French. At the height of her power. They were eventually married in 1499. Arthur.12. Ferdinand and Isabella.a time where the headquarters of the Holy See had to be moved from Rome to Avignon. They were not happy that the Church was concentrating on making profits and not on the . was born just before Arthur. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church. whose court was one of the richest in Eur. because three different men were claiming to be the true Pope. in 1486. There were some great physicists and speculative thinkers who emerged in Elizabethan¶s y. Henry¶s reign is seen as the start of Eng. the Reformation had on Reformation is the religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th century. As the Holy See was not as powerful anymore. Compare the effects England and Europe. This was done through. it was suffering from attacks on the papacy. Catherine. Following this. as they did not trust the Pope. One of the main ones was that the papal authority and credibility were damaged. some go as far back as the fourteenth century. Many felt that the Pope and his Bishops had developed into an abusive feudal monarchy. Glory and the birth of a modern Engl. Finally. the Great Western Schism also contributed to the loss of papal authority as it split Christian Europe into hostile camps. There were many causes of Reformation.

which was held to follow ³God¶s divine laws´. The arrival of the Tudors heralded a new age.spiritual well being of people. Was divided and bankrupt after 30 y of civil warLife in Tudor England was governed by a rigid social system. 14. which allowed them to hug the water and dart through the waves.. and privileged position in. This Armada was doomed by the weather even more than by the superiority of English seamanship and the better design of the English ships. and in 1580 Philip became king of Portugal s well as Spain. . 15. Early reformation movements such as the Lollards and the Hussites that were founded by John Wycliffe and John Huss respectively were suppressed for their attacks on the papacy. power and enlightenment. People also resented the Church. With Henry VII came increasing peace. Conflict with Spain dragged on for another 15 y. when the Spanish sent their Armada against England in July 1588. thus increasing his maritime and merchant strength.. The society was aware that the higher clergy was interested in political power. material possessions. This was the age of the great voyages of exploration. because of practices such the indulgences ± when individuals paid to church for forgiveness of their sins. Eng. when Tudor dynasty came to power. England had been fighting an unofficial conflict with Spain. What were the major forms of English resistance to Spanish power? Throughout her reign (Elisabeth). Philip II of Spain was enfuriated by England¶s piracy of Spanish ships from the new world. Explain the situation of England at the beginning and at the end of the Tudor Age. In 1485. Philip¶s relationship with England continued to sour and the culmination of all this was one of the most famous confrontations of all time. Spain and Portugal dominated the seas.

Explain the Stuarts¶ belief in their µDivine Right¶ to rule? The first Stuart. He had witnessed the damaged relationship between his father and Parliament. 3. Few people could have predicted a civil war that started in 1642. unemployment was a major cause of poverty. he and his son. Their suffering always increased after bad harvests. however. boasted that he was an old and experienced king. How did the English civil Wars break out? The English civil wars were due to different causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Charles argued with Parliament over most issues. UNIT 5. had followed a different path. No king had ever . In the 16th century. as previous monarchs had consulted their people in Parliament 2. conceited and a strong believer in the divine rights of kings. but money and religion were the most common causes of arguments. From 1625 to 1629. would have ended with the public execution of Charles. Charles I. Why was Charles I in conflict with Parliament? Charles was arrogant. It has been estimated that in 1570 about 10% of the population were still wandering around the country looking for work. Their subjects. CIVIL WAR 1. both found that their subjects meant to instruct them. These kings believed in their ³Divine Right´ to rule as they chose. However. and considered that Parliament was entirely at fault. In Tudor England a third of the population lived in poverty. He found it difficult to believe that a King could be wrong.Pain for the poor and benefits for gentry were to be significant characteristics of the next century of English history. James I. His arrogant attitude was eventually to lead to his execution.

The wars were due to both long and short term causes.been executed in England. the Anglican church. This was the belief that god had made someone a king and God could not be wrong. 1660. a second in 1629 after protests over taxation. . James expected Parliament to do as he wanted. and London . 6. the navy. In what ways did µpopular¶ politics and religion come to prominence during the Stuart Age? Charles I dissolved his first Parliament in 1626 because they had demanded limits on his rights t o levy customs duties. he did not expect it to argue with any of his decisions 4. Rich-King Poor. Who supported the king and the Parliament in the civil Wars? King: Aristocracy. From 1629 until 1640. What did the civil wars and the Interregnum achieve? The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the Commonwealth of England after the English Civil War. a policy that worked as long as Charles did not need large amounts of money. James was a firm believer in the ³Divine Right of Kings´.[1] and ended with the restoration of Charles II on May 29.. and execution. Charles ruled without Parliament. An important long term cause was the fact that the status of the monarchy had started to decline under the reign of James I. and the execution of Charles was not greeted with joy.Parliament Similar enough to the Spanish civil wars 5. and the attempts to allow toleration for Catholics. the south. of Charles I in January 1649. It began with the overthrow. On the side of the Parliament were the new commercial classes.. the midlands. the war with Spain. Catholics. the landowners. the Puritans. which only Parliament could grant him.

forced Charles to call first the short parliament 7. and it is an expression that is still used by the Westminster Parliament. It promoted religious toleration and the Triennial Act. It was a second Magna Carta. . What was the glorious revolution? The expression ³Glorious Revolution´ was first used by John Hampden in 1689. It was also called the Revolution of 1688. This crit ical event is better described as the invasion it undoubtedly was. The new balance of power between Parliament and crown made the promises of English government more credible. 8. Parliament placed constitutionally significant legal and practical limitations on the monarchy establishing the foundation of England¶s constitutional monarchy. 9. rather than a ³revolution´. and occasionally the Bloodless Revolution. 1694. How did the glorious revolution development of Great Britain? affect the The new constitution created the expectation that future monarchs would also remain constrained by Parliament. setting out the personal and political rights of all Englishmen. It is an act of the Parliament of Eng. Enumerate the main civil and political rights included in the Bill of Rights. and credibility allowed the government to reorganize its finances through a collection of changes called the Financial Rev. whose title is An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the subjects and settling the succession of the Crown. Defeat in the first and second bishop¶ s wars. which prevented the king from dissolving Parliament at will and placed a legal requirement that general elections had to be held every 3 y.The inevitable crisis was caused by Charles0¶s attempts to impose the English liturgy in Scotland.

James believed in the Divine Right of Kings . For England. Why was the 1707 Act of Union of England and Scotland so relevant? Because it led to the creation of the U. 11. instead authorising use of the King James Bible that is still in existence today. The Scots feared that they would simply become another region of England. He forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own and made Sunday Church-going compulsory. The Parliament of the U. When he died in 1625 the country was badly in debt.10. Wales. The new king landed at Dover on May 26th. Describe the main causes that restoration of the Stuart monarchy. Suspicion and mistrust between the 2 countries had prevented the union throughout the 17 th century. 1707. Although he was a clever man. Catholics were not allowed to celebrate Mass and he refused to listen to Puritan demands for church reform. 12.that he was answerable to God alone and could not be tried by any court. The arrival of . his choice of favourites alienated Parliament and he was not able to solve the country's finan cial or political problems. provoked the The Restoration Settlement led to Charles Stuart being proclaimed King Charles II of England.K of Great Britain. being swallowed up as had happened to Wales some 400 y earlier. Describe the situation of Britain on the Stuarts¶ accession The accession of James VI of Scotland as James I of England united the countries of England and Scotland under one monarch for the first time. For eleven years. 1660. Scotland and Ireland on May 8 th. there had been no monarchy but the Restoration Settlement brought back from exile the son of the beheaded Charles I. the fear that the Scots may take sides with France and rekindle the ³Auld Alliance´ was decisive.K met for the 1rst time in Oct. James I also introduced English and Irish Protestants into Northern Ireland through the Ulster Plantation scheme and tried to keep England at peace with the rest of Europe.

and the new constitution created the expectation that future monarchs would also remain constrained by Parliament. the Restoration Settlement was a complicated affair spread between 1660 and 1664. . This act forgave and pardoned people for past actions (though it was eventually to exclude those classed as regicides) and it allowed the new monarch a fresh start.Charles in Dover was well received by the locals in the port ± and their jubilation was shared throughout the country. The new balance of power between parliament and crown made the promises of the English government more credible. This critical event of 1688 is better described as the invasion it undoubtedly was. One of the first acts of the new government was to introduce an Act of Indemnity and Pardon. It was also called the Revolution of 1688. Explain the significance of the glorious revolution in British history. and occasionally the Bloodless Revolution. Many were happy that the old order had been reinstalled as they saw the monarchy as the normal state of affairs within the country. The term µRestoration Settlement¶ seems to give an air of structure to the settlement but. and credibility allowed the government to reorganise its finances through a collection of changes called the Financial Revolution. in fact. The new co-monarchy of King William III and Queen Mary II accepted more constraints from Parliament than previous monarchs had. it was very much an ad hoc affair with little planning involved. rather than a ³revolution´. However. There was a desire to forget about the dislocation of the previous twenty years. Great things were expected from Charles II. In February 1689 William and Mary were proclaimed king and queen of England. 13. Parliament placed constitutionally significant legal and practical limitations on the monarchy establishing the foundation of England¶s constitutional monarchy. This may well have been a reaction to the years when Oliver Cromwell controlled the country ± an era of austerity which many saw as µunnatural¶.

religion. England started as a Catholic country and ended up being a Protestant one under the Tudors. Society. Scots. Tudor Britain People in Tudor times were very religious and were prepared to die for their beliefs. religion. its teachings and its customs. Among the causes that made great Brit. It must have been very hard for them during the 118 years the Tudor kings and Queens ruled because they were often forced to change their religion depending on the religion of the reigning monarch. there was a big change in the way some Christians worshipped God.14.. What drove English. a German monk called Martin Luther led a breakaway from the Roman Catholic Church. politics. Politics. Compare the role that religion played in the Stuart and Tudor ages. UNIT 6. Economy and culture in the 18th century 1. Express your opinion about the Stuarts and their policies in Britain. Up until the 16th century most people were Roman Catholic and the Pope in Rome was the head of church. Become a great empire were trade. Irish and Welsh men and women to travel across the Atlantic? For trade reasons. 15. In 1517. There were major changes in the church during the reign of the Tudor king and queens.. In the 16th century. Their demand for reform led to this period of history being called the Reformation. The new Christians called themselves µProtestants¶ because they were protesting against the Roman 'Catholic' (meaning 'universal') Church. ambition and adventure . which made money for British companies.

Started a second round of colonising attempts using joint -stock companies to establish settlement. led by J. so they could build new settlements.2. This set the pattern for English colonisation. the Mayflower landed in America. and found a colony based on their own religious ideals 3. From the beginning. in 1807. When King James I granted the first charter. Virginia. What were the main colonizing impulse? reasons that intensified the In colonial America. Smith and managed by the Virginia Company. Engl. practice their religion as they wanted. . 1614. so that they could build new settlements. In 1620. Britain was responsible for the transportation of a third of all the slaves that w ere imported. slavery was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies. Until the abolition of the slave trade. but as it proved to be ineffective. which issued instructions to the first settlers to appoint a colonial council. 4. In This was its main export. bringing Puritan separatists who were escaping from religious persecution in their homeland. land was plentiful and labour was scarce. a council was formed in England. What was the primary motivation for emigration in the New England colonies? The permanent English settlement was established in 1607 in Jamestown. These puritans later became known as the Pilgrim Fathers. a governor. The colony survived and started to ship tobacco to Engl. Why did the puritans go to America and settle there? Because they were escaping from religious per secution in their homeland. John Delaware was appointed.

Who is regarded as the first British politician to have held the office of Prime Minister and how long did he stay in power? From 1714 to 1784. a Whig son of Norfolk landowners who developed the idea of the cabinet. Walpole. Enclosures implied more effectively managed and cultiv ated land. coal was mined extensively and cloth-making was a national industry 8.5. 9. a group of ministers who met without the king and took the actual control of administration from the Crown. Walpole made sure that the powers of the king would always be limited by the Constitution. such as wearing the kilt or playing the bagpipes 7. This movement encouraged people to experience Christ personally. that is to say. Many highlanders were killed or sent to America and a law was passed that prohibited most of their traditions. Why is the precise? term Agricultural Revolution not really It was a gradual process rather than a single event. Rob. Why did so many Pennsylvania? people pour in the colony of It was a good refuge for English Quakers 6. Why did the Methodists appeal to the working class? Methodism was a religious movement which met the needs of the growing industrial working class. Under Walpole. Walpole was in power for over 20y. the British treated the Scots cruelly. . the Whigs were pre-eminent for 56 y. Why were the Scottish Highlanders repressed after the Jacobite rebellions? As a consequence of their support for the Jacobites.

Wesley¶s talent for organising as well as inspiring the poor made him an outstanding figure of great interest. He wanted to conquer sin. Write about the Methodist movement. the outward sign of grace. skilled craftsman. As a religion of the heart. Methodism demanded a transformation of human nature. and God was the most vigilant overseer of all. the cross was the pattern of his obedience. but Methodism successfully performed a dual role as the religion of both the exploiters and the exploited because of indoctrination: the Methodists . from which the transformed industrial worker hung. not social deprivation. Since salvation was never assured and temptations lurked on every side. The utility of Methodism as a work-discipline is obvious. The poor were suitable cases for treatment because they lacked the diversity of opportunity for sin. The Methodist was taught to bear his cross of poverty and humiliation. Which were the 4 main classes of people who lived in eighteenth century towns? Unskilled workers. 10.Methodism was identified the religious life of the lower and middle classes. so opening its doors to become the religion of the poor. Eternal damnation might be the consequence of indiscipline at work. social repercussions of the The transmission to working-class societies of forms of organisation was peculiar to the Methodist connection.. ordinary traders and merchants wealthy merchants. which was available to the rich. Work was the cross. and 11. Methodism could appeal to the simplest and least educated . There is an argument that Methodism was indirectly responsible for a growth in the self-confidence and capacity for organisation of working people. the was a constant inner goading to ³sober and industrious´ behaviour. Methodism as a faith for the working classes was ideally suited to the needs of middle-class utilitarianism. Methodism provided the impetus for that change.

and that their sinfulness had to be broken. It was a mutually agreed arrangement between landowners and tenants. and produced a shift of exces labour to the towns to work in the new industries. Despite this setback. The loss of the 13 colonies in North America in 1783 after the war of independence deprived Britain from its most populous colonies and marked the end of the ³1rst British Empire´. Reflect on the main consequences Agricultural change and write them down. 13. that took place in the U. 14. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815. This population had to be fed which led to improvements in the techniques and a change in the organisation of farming and crops. During the 18th century there was a fast growth in population in Britain and Ireland. of the It refers to a series of circumstances that produced an improvement in agriculture. Discuss the implications of the loss of the American Colonies. a sustained improvement in crops. The loss of the American colonies is considered as the event defining the transition between the ³first´ and ³second´ empires. This change of crops and better methods of farming led to a higher productivity enabling the population to be fed. by which lands were enclosed. parcelled and divided up. One of the processes that led to this change was the enclosure of the medieval common fields. and expanded its imperial holdings across the world.inherited from Welsey the conviction that children were sinful. Describe the role women in XVIII century society.. . 12. This process had started in the 16th century and became common in the 1740¶s. Britain enjoyed a century of dominance.K during the 18 th and 19th centuries. agricultural methods and output. British rule continued in the Caribbean and in upper and lower Canada.

The defiance of English rule and the onset of the war disrupted the usual patterns of life in many ways including impacting how women responded to events surrounding them. they prepared food for militia musters and made cartridges. a role which in many cases included partnership in running farms o r home businesses. Some women were able to continue to manage homes. the number of women generally exceeded that which would have been required and often represented a nuisance to commanding officers: women and accompanying children used scarce rations and slowed the movement of the army. However. farms and shops but others were unable to survive on their own and forced to abandon their homes and follow their husbands with the army. food foragers. women were an important element because they carried out tasks such as laundering and nursing (both of which were paid) which men were unwilling to do and without which the army would have been even more seriously depleted by disease. Women who travelled with the army were known as campfollowers and did so for many reasons: inability to provide for themselves at home. In the early days leading up to Lexington and Concord. eviction by troops. invading troops destroyed farms and homes.During the eighteenth century. doing so took on political overtones: the commitment of the women was critical to maintaining the tea boycott and the decision to boycott British goods caused home manufacturing to become both a statement of defiance and a n ecessity. War. the main implications of the enclosure . In addition. Nevertheless. touched everyone: resources were scarce leading to high inflation.000 women followed one army or another and transformed camps into small towns. In some ways. or in some cases as sutlers selling to the army. when it came. spies and water carriers (all unpaid). Write system. the attraction of a paying job and rations (even if their pay and rations were minimal). Even those women whose social standing afforded increased leisure took up spinning and other activities to replace imported goods. and the absence of husbands and fathers left some in danger of starvation. women performed duties as cooks. Well over 20. fear of attack. married women¶s lives revolved to a large extent around managing the household. 15. While the essential role of most women continued to be managing all aspects of their households. they were tolerated because they performed important jobs for the welfare of the armies and for fear that the men would desert if their families were sent home. desire to be with husbands.

As a result of this movement.The enclosure movement restricted the ownership of public far mlands specifically to the wealthy landowners. The nineteenth century 1. Why did the government change the political system in 1832? Because the first Reform Bill expanded right to vote and restructured representation in Parliament 2. UNIT 7. adding to the strength of Britain¶s work force. It was drafted by William Forster. 5. What was the main consequence of the Act of Union of 1800 for Ireland? The act of union abolished the parliament in Dublin. there was an exodus of unemployed farm workers from the country into the cities. since only men could vote in elections. and it was introduced on 17 February 1870 after campaigning by the National Education League. Did the Factory Acts solve the problems of children in factories? Not really 4. Why was the education act of 1870 considered very important? It set the framework for schooling of all children between ages 5 and 12 in England and Wales. Were men and women equal in Victorian Britain? No they weren¶t. 3. a Liberal MP. providing instead for Ireland to be represented at Westminster by 4 bishops and 28 . although not entirely to their requirements.

encompassing Canada. 1899-1902) and Indian rebellion (1857) being the only exceptions. With this act. with an Irish uprising (1848). it enfranchised the working classes in the towns. What was Chartism? It was a political organisation founded in 1838. and by 100 elected members in the house of commons. the right to vote was given to every male adult householder living in the towns. Male lodgers paying 10 p were also granted to vote. The ruling protestant minority was naturally opposed to the abolition of the Dublin Parliament. the Boer Wars in South Africa (1881. the empire doubled in size. India and various places in Africa and the South Pacific. the result pleased no one and Dublin declined in glamour and prosperity as estates in Ireland were neglected and fell into decay due to abs entee landlords. It evolved into Britain¶s first national working-class movement.000 men. The Catholics had the most to resent at the way things turned out. 9.500. Why was the 1867 Reform Act so relevant? It reduced the property qualification to the point where the urban working class became eligible to vote. In all. However. What were the dimensions of the British Empire during the Victorian Era? During the reign of Victoria.peers in the house of Lords. 7. In effect. What was Queen realignment? Victoria¶s role in the political Victoria¶s role after the realignment was one of mediation between departing and arriving prime ministers who were chosen by the party in control of the House of Commons. Australia. 6. . Her reign was almost free of war. 8. the act gave the vote to about 1.

It possessed the world ¶s largest empire protected by a very formidable navy. Even in her dotage. an entire era died with her. The Napoleonic Wars provided further additions to the empire. South Africa. When she died of old age. Victoria¶s was the longest reign in English history and her reign has been considered as one of the defining periods of British history. It possessed the world¶s largest Empire protected by a very formidable navy. Canada. Research the main social reforms that took place in the Victorian Era and write in depth about one of them. Victoria was named empress of India in 1878. India. by the spectacular growth of Upper Canada (now Ontario) after the emigration of loyalists from what had become the United States. Malaysia. . Saint Lucia. Australia. Imperialism was popular. Egypt. she maintained a youthful energy and optimism that infected the English population as a whole. How did the Treaty of Amiens affect Britain? The loss of Britain¶s 13 American colonies in 1776 -1783 was compensated by new settlements in Australia from 1788. The 19th century was marked by the full expansion of the British empire. and covered one sixth of the Earth¶s land surface.By 1870. 11. and Malta. By 1870. as well as political and social reforms on the continent. Britain was the most industrialized and the most powerful country in the world. and during this period Britain added to her colonial possessions. Mauritius. (New Zealand. She became queen when she was 18 y old. Victoria¶s long reign witnessed an evolution in English politics and the expansion of the British Empire. 10. Britain was the most industrialised and most powerful country in the world. Nigeria and Rhodesia. and in the Treaty of Paris (1814) France ceded Tobago. Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle William IV in 1837. the Treaty of Amiens (1802) made Trinidad and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) officially British.

. It was also an imperial leadership. In the two centuries following 1800. almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Most notably. Lucas.[2] In the words of Nobel Prize winning Robert E. there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft-animal± based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. then subsequently spread throughout Europe. Britain had a leading role as the first industrial nation and the pioneer railway transport. [5] The development of all-metal machine tools in the first . reflected by the importance of India as the most significant colony of the century. average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal. . Jr. "For the first time in history.. North America. while the world's population increased over 6-fold." [3] Starting in the later part of the 18th century.During the ³Victorian period´. mining. wider utilisation of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. It started with coal. and eventually the world. the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth. Summarize the main consequences of the Industrial Revolution. manufacturing. improved roads and railways. 12. It began in the United Kingdom. and was the increased by [5] the development use the of refined introduction of iron-making techniques Trade expansion enabled of canals. Queen Victoria refused any further influence from her domineering mother and ruled in her own stead. The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture.. the mechanisation of [4] the textile industries. the world's average per capita income increased over 10 -fold. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history. Nothing remotely like this economic behaviour has happened before. transportation.

doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises. This system is called a cottage industry. effective from 1-1-1801. the Choose one city or town in England and research social conditions there during the Industrial Revolution. Reflect Union¶1800. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials. brought into existence a political entity called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. a full-scale union between Ireland and Britain. instead of a separate and independent Ireland. 13. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century. He thought that the Irish problem required. Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry. developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham.two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. and thus goods in these mat erials made only a small proportion of the output. In 1743. India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods. . 14. upon the consequences of the Act of The act of union of 1800. but the processing was difficult because of the pre processing needed. British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans. In the early 18th century. Pitt succeeded in forcing this measure through the Parliaments of Westminster and Dublin. Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-andbobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness.

The ruling protestant minority was naturally opposed to the abolition of the Dublin Parliament.The Act of Union abolished the parliament in Dublin.g: India) . Pitt sidetracked their opposition by well placed bribes and by winning the support of the catholic majority. Research one of the British possessions during its empire in the XIX century and summarize its history. and by 100 elected members in the House of Commons. an experienced campaigner who had achieved prominence in 1800 for his speeches in Dublin against the Act of Union. O¶Connell contested a by-election for the century of Clare and won the seat. giving the community full equality of rights with the Anglo. The act of Union that was duly negotiated between Britain and Ireland in 1800 again represented the continuation of the English parliament. The result put Catholic Ireland into a state of chaos. In 1828. 15. Catholic emancipation was brought back by Daniel O¶ Coell. (e. The act of union was passed without any element of catholic emancipation being included. providing instead for Ireland to be represented at Westminster by 4 bishops and 28 peers in the House of Lords.Irish protestants. This he achieved by means of a pledge which he ful ly intended to honour. The Catholics had the most to resent at the way things turned out. Pitt was out of office for only three years. he organised a network of Catholic associations throughout Ireland to demand an end to discrimination. removing nearly all the barriers against Catholics holding public office. The Emancipation Act was passed in 1829. From 1823. the repeal of the union of 1800. O¶Connell took his seat and became the leader of the Irish members and worked towards the achievement of his main aim. until the king recalled him in 1804 to continue the war against Napoleon. but with less marginal adjustments in terms of political representation to accommodate Irish interests. and Pitt resigned in Febr uary 1801 when it became obvious that the king¶s opposition made it impossible for a subsequent bill to redress the omission. the promise of catholic emancipation.

How safe were the working conditions in Victorian Britain? Living conditions in cities became unsanitary and impoverished. By the end of the 19th century. the British crown assumed the East India Company¶s governmental authority in India. secured for her the title empress of India. suddenly. Disraeli. while its conquest of the Punjab (1849) and of Baluchistan (1854-76) provided substantial new territory in the Indian subcontinent itself. There was a huge employment of people either on the railways themselves. The railways opened up enormous opportunities and moved vast volumes of freight and passengers in the 19th century. Factories subjected men. Britain¶s acquisition of Burma (Myanmar) was completed in 1886. It is hard to consider the scale of 19 th century development without the railway. becoming known as ³ the jewel in the crown´ of Queen Victoria. She became empress of India in 1878 UNIT 8 THE 19th CENTURY (II) 1.In the wake of the Indian Mutiny (1857). How did the railway change the lives of people in Victorian Britain? The railway is considered to be one of the greatest factors in the transformation of Britain into an industrial nation. This status was emphasized in 1876 when her prime minister. India remained the most significant of the imperial possessions. the masses were able to travel.. foods and people faster than canals or horsedrawn wagons. due to its importance both on strategic and economic grounds. The lives of millions were changed as. building new tracks or in goods delivery services. It moved goods. women and even children workers at low . 2.

wages, hard punishments,, and unprotected work around dangerous machinery

3. Why have there been objections to the term of Industrial Rev? The Indus. Rev. Produced severe social problems, as Britain became the world¶s most urbanised country. Over half of the population now lived in cities. The social problems were to be found especially in the area of housing, education and health ca re

4. Why do we remember Florence Nightingale? She was the most important women in history of nursing (medicine). Known as the lady with the lamp..« She fought for effective reform of the entire system of military hospitals and medical care.

5. How was leisure time spent in Victorian Britain? Weatherpermiting, people went to many wonderful parks, most of them with a lake , with usually a band stand with people playing there. If it rained, they played board games. People would also go to the theatre, see a show

6. What are the impacts of Indus. Rev. On the lives of the British people during that time? Changes of activity, new places to live. New towns were built. The steam engine is the basis of the Industrial Rev. (coal was needed) wherever a factory was built, a new town was built around it for the workers. Before this, all these people had been agricultural workers

7. How crucial were the railways to the Victorian economy?

They were totally essential. Not only for the transport of people, but mostly for the transport of goods. Before railways, most heavy goods were transported by barge (by canal or river). Thanks to the trains, good could be transported more easily, to more places, and amazingly faster.

8. Mention some of the inventions that shaped the Indus. Rev The steam engine is the basis of everything else. In practical terms, railway engines, boats, any factory machine...

9. How many people died as a consequence of the Great Famine? 1 million.

10. How did the great Famine affect the emigration in Ireland? Many Irish people migrated. A large part of the Irish population lived as impoverished tenant farmers, generally in debt to British landlords. The need to survive on small plots of rented land created the perilous situation where vast numbers of people depended on the potato crop for survival. While the population of Europe rose during this period, population growth in Ireland was particularly dramatic. Unlike Britain, Ireland lacked major industrial centres. Jobs were scarce

11. Summarize the main consequences of the Indus. Rev. The Indus. Rev. Is a term applied to the social and economic changes that marked the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. It meant the widespread replacement of manual labour by new inventions or machinery..

The Industrial Rev. Originated in Engl., and was manifested in a series of technological and social innovations, which came about for several reasons. One most important starting points dates back to the creation of the bank of Engl. In 1694. The Industrial Rev. had a number of important consequences. It changed the face of nations, giving rise to urban centres requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialised and independent economic life and made the urban worker more completely dependent on the will of the employer than the rural worker had been. Relations between capital and labour were aggravated, and there was social unrest. The Indus. Rev was a great turning point in the history of Great Britain, which changed from a basically urban and industrial society.

12. Choose one technological innovation that took place during the Indus. Rev and write about its importance BoatsThe era of the steamboat began in America in 1787 when John Fitch (1743-1798) made the first successful trial of a forty -five-foot steamboat on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Convention. Fitch later built a larger vessel that carried passengers and freight between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey

13. Chose one means of transport that was developed during the industrial re. And discuss its importance Railways In early 1800s the Industrial Revolution needed quicker, cheaper transport. The Bridgewater Canal was already proving inadequate in the Northwest. Earliest railways were simple wagons on wooden rails, used to carry coal, etc, short distances to rivers or coasts. By 1810 there were about 300 miles of such µtrackways¶. First Public Railway: 1801 Surrey Iron railway (horse-drawn). First steam locomotive: 1804 (pulling coal at a mine) built by Trevithick. George and Robert Stephenson were building similar (but improved) locomotives after 1814.

The y of 1845 was a turning point in Ireland¶s history. Write about working conditions for children at the beginning of the Industrial Rev. a fungus called Phytophthora Infestans. the Great Famine of 1845 has been considered the hardest one. In 1841 Isambard Kingdom Brunel (shipbuilder) built the London to Bristol Railway (the Great Western). . 15. Although famine had been common in the 19 th century Ireland. 1830 Liverpool ± Manchester line opened ± Stephensons asked to be engineers and also asked to build the locomotives after the success of their µRocket¶ at the Rainhill trials in 1829. Horses were also used but it was proved that locomotives were more efficient. especially in the late 1800¶s. This was standardised to 4 foot 8 ½ after 1892. other crops were being grown in Ireland. 14. hope for better life encouraged record emigration from Ireland. and food was exported for market in Engl. The summer of 1845 was mild but very wet and provided the perfect weather conditions for the blight to spread. Potatoes were very vulnerable to disease and no cure existed in Ireland for the dreaded ³potato blight´. And elsewhere. And how they improved during the 19th century. Railways became hugely popular with passengers as well as greatly successful in moving goods ± 1844 µcheap trains¶ Act said that companies should run a certain number of cheap trains each day. While Irish peasants were forced to subsist on potatoes. businessman. Discuss the main consequences of the great Famine In the 19th century.First steam powered railway: 1825 Stockton ± Darlington Railway. using the 7 foot gauge to Stephenson¶s 4 foot 8 1/2 inch gauge (width between rails). built by Stephensons for Edward Pease. Beef cattle raised in Ireland were also exported for English tables.

and that as such. economic ans ideological crisis.K entered a period of decline. They expected their soldiers to come back to a land fit hor heroes and instead they could only offer them low wages and unemployment. This statement was followed not long after by the dissolution of the Labour government. and the beginning of the long y of the depression. W 1 be described? After the 1rst W. 2. rayon production and electrical engineering were very successful. W.W 1 proved costly in terms of human lives and sacrifices and people expected to be rewarded with a better life afterwards. However.UNIT 9 The early 20th century 1. the economy was not faltering everywhere in Britain. Of which party was David Lloyd a member? Member of the Welsh Council of the RCGP since 1992. . hit by the economic crisis. What was Labour Prime Minister James McDonald¶s response to the declining economy at the beginning of the depression? He tried to avoid the issue by repeating the socialist argument that the capitalist system was the problem. he could not be expected to do anything about unemployment within the capitalist system. the U. 3. The problem was that they were concentrated in the Midlands and in some areas of South East England. Some new industries such as car manufacturing. How can the British government¶s economic policy in the early years after the W.W. going through a social. while there was virtually no presence of these industries in the north and in Wales.

Which British Prime Minister was responsible for signing the Munich Pact? Chamberlain signed the Munich pact in 1938. 1917. How far did women¶s war efforts contribute to gaining the vote in 1918? They managed it in 1918. Why is the Easter Rising considered a turning point in Irish history? It was a republic that was declared during the rebellion. The law as seen as a success for women¶s suffrage. 1928 to gain political equality with men. granting Hitler the Czech Sudetenland to appease the dictator. 5. but it was a restricted franchise. The path to W. and it meant a fracture in Irish politics between constitutionalism and militantism. 6. Women had to wait until July 1928 to gain political equality with men. 7. What contribution did women workers make in the first W. although it was a restricted franchise. The appeasement policy proved to be a failure. since women under 30 could not vote.W II lay clear.4. all the jobs men couldn¶t do cause they were at war. since women under 30 could not vote. Women had to wait until 2 nd July. women became entitled to vote in the general election of 1918. since soon Hitler showed his wish for a total European domination. . to which the British had to reply with a declaration of war. in addition to the house wife and mother jobs. How did women win the vote? Since June. 8.W? They kept the country and society functioning by doing.

but only in southern Ireland.K was renamed ³The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland´ to reflect the change. which became the province of Northern Ireland or Ulster would remain united with Britain. it simply whetted his appetite for more. 10. The republicans who wanted the independence of all Ireland opposed the Treaty. Had they fought several years earlier there would have been a far shorter and less destructive war. They let annex Austria. The 6 north. The ³new Irish free State´ accepted the sovereignty of the British crown. Then they let him take the rest of Czechoslovakia. Read more: http://wiki. They let him take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. The U. by which Britain accepted the claims of the Irish to independence. the terms of an Anglo -Irish Treaty between the British government and the representatives of Dáil Éiream were agreed.9. The island was split into 2 parts. thus they let him build up the german armed forces in contravention of the treaty of Versailles. What was the policy of appeasement? The appeasement policy was the efforts by France and Britain in the 1930s to allow Nazi Germany to have pretty much anything it wanted in the hopes that eventually Hitler would be appeased and cease his aggressive policies. while the six counties.answers.. Besides. Finally they realized he would never be appeased and they would have to fight in order to stop him. far from being appeased.K while the south was a dominium within the British Empire.com/Q/What_was_the_appeasement_polic y_and_how_did_it_affect_World_War_2#ixzz1BUB4mCIl . a council of Ireland was set up to manage relations between the 2 Irish states.Irish Treaty arouse tensions among the Irish? A truce was signed between the IRA and the Irish on 11 July 1921. and in December 1921.eastern counties remained part of the U. Why did the Anglo. They let him put German troops in the Rheinland violating the same treaty. The affect of the policy was that each time Hitler was allowed to get away with something.

12. such as munitions factories and weapon manufacturers. Describe the political battle between the Conservative and Labour Parties in Britain during the inter-war years.Women¶s social and political union 14.K? Yes. so when most young . In 1865.K. they contributed not only to the war effort. but also to the running of the country. and on the same terms as men in 1928. the women¶s suffrage movement suspended its campaign. Women took on men¶s jobs as they went off to fight in the war. in hospitals and in offices. Search for arguments for and against the view that the first W. 1903. Write key arguments in favour of the against British women¶s suffrage.W 1. The first country that offered women the franchise without limits and the right to present as candidates in political elections was Australia in 1902. What evidence is there of Labour¶s impact on the generally Conservative British government? What factors kept the Labour Party from establishing and maintaining control over the government? 13.W was decisive for women in the U. They did the jobs usually done by men in industries key to the war. women acquired a limited right to vote 1918. since most women suffragists and suffragettes volunteered to help in the war effort. Could the women¶s Radical Suffrage have occurred in any contry other than in the U. Thus. In the U. in ended up happening in most countries. in fact. on farms. John Stuart Mill helped to found the first British woman suffrage association and organised campaigns for the cause. During W.K to gain the vote. but they also worked on the buses and trams.11.

we. 2. In which decades was the British Empire gradually transformed? The major change of the Empire was that Britain pulled out of the colonies and created the Commonwealth instead that includes countries such as Australia. Discuss the importance Independence in 1919. which had a favourable effect on public opinion. UNIT 10: 1950-2000 1. which proclaimed Irish freedom and ratified the Republic of Ireland and the power of the Irish parliament as the only organ responsible to make laws on the people of Ireland. the elected representatives of the ancient Irish people in national Parliament assembled. ratify the establishment of the Irish Republic and pledge ourselves and our people to make this declaration effective by every means at our command´ The 1rst elections of the Northern Ireland parliament were held in May 1921 and the Unionists got 40 of the 52 seats. The Parliament first met in Belfast... What was the aim of the rise of the comprehensive school? It had a double purpose: -to raise the cultural level of the population . Sr James Craig.. 15.men were in the army. The new northern Ireland prime minister was the Ulster unionist leader. This gave women suffragists and suffragettes respect and admiration. It was followed by the establishment of some de facto political organs.. June 1921. In its crucial line the declaration pronounced that ³. women were delivering the mail or driving the busses. of the Declaration of Dáil Éiream made the Irish declaration of Independence. New Zealand. in the name of the Irish nation. do.

the era was character ized by numerous strikes and restrictive practises 4. now European community (EEC). Economically. It was also overwhelmingly endorsed by the people of Ireland. What did the miners achieve after the 1984-5 strike? It was Margaret Thatcher¶s most serious union confrontation. 1998. 10th April. The Agreement reached at the conclusion of the Multi-Party negotiations altered the context in which the government¶s objectives with regard to Northern Ireland and Anglo-Irish relations were pursued. in referenda held simultaneously on 22 May 1998. Edward Health achieved his long-held ambition to lead Britain into the European Community after many y of campaigning on European issues. E. . The Agreement was reached and signed in Belfast on Friday.-Abolish social differences by allowing youngsters unprivileged background to get to higher education from an 3. north and south. Health remained Prime Minister until 1974. When did Britain enter the European Community? In 1973. both governments and the relevant political parties formally agreed to the holding of a referendum along lines close to those jointly proposed by Blair and Ahern. this event was a turning point in the progressive loss of power of the unions in Britain. but the miners returned to work without achieving any settlement. 5. Britain entered the European common market. Health finally achieved British membership and in 1973. insisting that a package be agreed by May 1998 as the basis for a referendum. In Belfast. As Ms Thatcher intended. April 10th by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. Which plan set out the Good Friday Agreement? Blair¶s original programme placed a time limit on the talks.

.000 deriving from Africa and elsewhere.00 of Caribbean origin and 380. 500.The referendum took place in May 1998. The black community consisted of 500. In the 1991 census. or about 5. The Asian groups included 825. 8.000 Indians. Notably. more multi-racial society than ever before. In the XXI century.000 Bangladeshis and 165. In Northern Ireland 71% voted for agreement 6. music.00 Pakistanis. What did the Race Relations Act in 1965 ban? In 1965. Engl. strong centralised control and a resolute determination to win the vote of ³ Middle England´ or the middle classes.Dean. What is the meaning of ³new labour´? Blair transformed the Labour party into what he called new Labour. 7. A 94% vote in the republic supported the Good Friday Agreem ent and the proposed change in the constitution. Why can we refer to the sixties as a time of Cultural Revolution? The 60¶s were like a magical decade. Symbolised by the film ³Rebel without a cause´ J.5% of the population. Britain enacted the Race Relations act. 165. which prohibited discrimination on the basis of race in public places such as restaurants and on public transportation.. fish and chips have been overtaken by curry as t he most popular British takeaway. Britain¶s ethnic minorities numbered some 3 million. Produced an outcast of creation in many fields. Britain is a more open. The scope of the prohibitions was expanded in amendments made in 1968 and 1976.000 Chinese. which came to mean a party with streamlined campaigning systems. poetry theatre. It started as a prolongation of the 50¶s youth rebelliousness.

Why was Margaret Thatcher called the ³Iron Lady´? Thatcher was the first woman to become prime minister. terrorist attacks in the USA. 2001. 11. The Blair government was also a strong supporter of the United States µposition that military action should be taken against Iraq if United Nations weapons inspections were not .There was a real explosion of creation. by reducing the government borrowing . the longest serving prime minister in 150 y. cause they claimed the isles were theirs. Thatcher managed to break union resistance through a series of laws that included the banning of sympathy strikes and boycotts. to push through her policies 10. During those y. 9. The 60¶s was a time of great social and cultural change that went hand in hand with an explosion in the creative arts. Thatcher kept using her apparent sense of invincible power. replacing the old mood of consensus with the aggressively adversarial stance described as ³conviction´ politics. Which international issue made Tony Blair lose popular support? Following the devastating Sept. Youth tended to drink beer and take speed. By the late 1980¶s. The new conservative government under Thatcher supported a regime of conservative policy making. which led to her being called the Iron Lady. the British government became the most visible international supporter of the Bush administration in its war on terrorism. Government officials visited Muslim nations to seek their participation in the campaign. She organised an amazing expedition to the Islas Maldives to fight the Argentineans. Because she was very strict. She served until 1900 and was. freezing expenditure and privatising state-owned industries. Thatcher¶s victory in the general election heralded a sea change in Britain. and British forces joined the Americans in launching attacks against Afghanistan after the Taliban government refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden.

The political parties in Northern Ireland generally reflect the sectarian divide. Reflect upon the Northern Ireland peace process. . the results reflected the British public dissatisfaction with the country¶s evolvement in Iraq. democratic campaign for a united Ireland and for reconciliation between the two communities.. and the failure to find any weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. the official unionists (heirs of the old unionist party (SDLP) has consistently waged a non-violent. In London we will find Irish..K. Describe the main ethnic minorities that make up Multicultural Britain and consider if they are really integrated Asians (Indians.it is noticeable that they are cities such as London that are regarded as a micro multicultural society within multicultural Britain. Pakistani. local elections. Blair¶s strong support for the invasion. Sinn Fein has close links with the IRA. in March 2003. Many ex -colonies became members of the Commonwealth. 2004. 12. It was born as a consequence of colonisation. On the Protestant side there are two main parties. The majority of the population was unionist and wished to remain part of the U. Research the history of the Commonwealth and the consequences for Great Britain. and has never condemned its terrorist activities. Chinese.) west Indians At the turn of the century. Caribbean. wanted a united Ireland. Focusing on the case of GB. It has meant an influx of the Commonwealth countries 13. Bangladeshi.resumed under new. pakis. GB and Ireland were viewed as increasingly multicultural societies. It had secured trade and cultural partners. Indian. 11..S led invasion of Iraq. were factors in Labour¶s thirdplace finish in the June. and committed British forces to the U. known as the nationalists. stricter conditions.. but a significant minority.

which killed more than 50 people and injured some 700. A t this stage. and tension led to a few race riots. by their ancestors in slave ships. appeared to be the work of Islamic suicide bombers. welcomed in Britain from the 1650¶s . but the bombs failed to detonate. The attacks. and immigrating in large numbers in the late 19 th and early 20th century. There was yet little religious diversity because the new immigrants were nearly all Christians. 2005.Most colonies were granted immigration after the 2 nd W. and some have risen to high positions. In the spring of 1948. 14. bombings in Madrid. Evidence uncovered by the British police indicated that the attacks may have been directed by a member of Al Qaeda. many generations earlier. a journey made in the other direction. the government placed advertisements in Jamaica. Hindus and Sikhs arrived from the republic of India. The Islamic supporters of the Jihad started having Britain as a target to aim at (enemies). Discuss the consequence of British participation in the Iraq war.W and then Britain encouraged immigration from the former colonies to deal with the labour market. were a settled community. London suffered 4 coordinated bombing on its underground and bus system. after Uganda¶s Indian population was expelled in 1972. in the longer term. . Hard predictions were made about the effect of these new arrivals on British society. On July. 7. The arrival of the West Indians transformed Britain into a multiracial society. 3 of the suspected ones were born in Britain. The Jews. However. Muslims came from Pakistan and Bangladesh. Terrorist bombing attacks in the tub of London. and Hindus also came from East Africa. many people with differing cultures have successfully integrated into the country. only one long established British group differed from the majority in both race and religion. A second set of suicide bombings was attempted later in the month. which broadly resembled the March 2004. inviting immigrants to make the journey across the Atlantic.

railway stations and government buildings. such as in churches. continues to stand in many cities that were once part of the British Empire.15. British colonial architecture. Is the primary language of up to 400 million people and is spoken by about one and a half billion as a first. British settlement of Ireland has left its mark in the form of divided Catholic and protestant communities in Northern Ireland. a non political. in which the UK has no privileged status. voluntary association of equal members. 15 members of the Commonwealth continue to share their head of state with the UK. second or foreign language. Today Engl. Write about the role of the British Commonwealth in the XXI century Most former British colonies are members of the Commonwealth. . as Commonwealth realms.

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