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2 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Describe the systemic circulation in the body and give its importance. (Not imp) Introduction: Circulatory system or systemic circulation is very important to the body as it carries blood so that it can supply o2 and nutrition to all parts of the body. Blood is pumped by the heart which will flow through the arteries finally distributes into small vessels called capillaries. These capillaries will supply O2 and nutrition to the tissues and will become veins which will be carrying blood again to the heart through lungs for oxygenation as shown in the figure.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY Circulation is as follows. Venous blood is carried to the R.A. by superior and inferior vena cava goes to the right ventricle goes to the lungs by the pulmonary artery for oxygenation. After oxygenation blood comes to L.A. by pulmonary veins goes to the L.V. comes by the aorta which will divide to supply upper part that is head, neck, and downward to the lower part. These arteries will divide into capillaries which after supply of O2 and nutrition to the tissues will become veins as superior and inferior venocole. Like this the circulation goes on repeating. Importance of circulation (Viva) 1. Supply of O2 to the tissues. 2. Supply of nutrition. 3. Taking of CO2 4. Taking in of other waste products of metabolism e.g. Uric acid & lactic acid. 5. Maintaining the normal blood pressure in the circulation so that the supply to the tissues of O2 & nutrition & taking of CO2 & waste product will be going on non material. High B.P& low B.P both will affect our birth.

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM

HEART MUSCLES
Give the properties of the heart muscles & their importance. Introduction : Heart muscles is a little different type of muscle than voluntary & involuntary muscles of the body because heart has to perform a very different type of function therefore the heart muscles will have special property than the other muscles. The properties of the heart muscles & their importance. 1. Contractility: Like all other muscles heart muscle will also contract to mechanical, thermal & electrical stimuli i.e110/min. All or None law: by this we mean when the heart muscle contract it will always contract maximum i.e. all the fibers are contracting or it will not contract at all if the stimulus is not sufficient. This is because all the adjacent fibers are connected with each other therefore all the muscles can contract as a whole. This is not the case in voluntary muscles.

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Importance: By this maximum contraction of the heart the circulation is always maintain normal. 3. Rhythmcity: This is a very special property i.e. the heart goes on beating regularly 70 times per minute. This is due to the special part of the heart muscles known as S.A node. This passes the impulses to the auricle for contraction. For this purpose S.A node is known as pace maker.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY 4. Conductivity: This means the impulses from the S.A node is conducted to the auricles & then to ventricles for their contraction. This is done by special junctional tissue i.e. S.A. node to A.V node & then by purkinje fibers to ventricle. 5. Refractory period: By refractory period it means the period within which the muscle is refracted i.e. it will not respond to any stimulus coming during this period as shown in figure.

Refractive period of voluntary muscles is very short while refractory period of heart muscle is the whole of contraction period plus the early part of relaxation. Importance: By this large R.P the heart muscle gets sufficient period of rest & heart muscles cannot be tetanised. Tone: Heart muscles also have some tone i.e. contraction as in other muscles. This gives better reaction of the heart. Conductive system of heart or junctional tissue (Short note) This means there are some special tissues in the different parts of the heart muscle which are called junctional tissues, main function of which will be conducting the impulses from one part to another. They are as follows. 1. S.A. node. 2. A.V. node. 3. Bundle of His. 4. Right and left bundle of His 5. Purkinje fibers

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM

The impulses originate from S.A. node in right auricle which will stimulate A.V. node in the auricular septum, thereby both the auricles contract together. Then it goes to bundle of His in the interventricular septum. Then divides into right and left branch finally into purkinje fibers which will supply and stimulate both the ventricles which will contract together. Importance of the System: This system is responsible for contraction of auricles together and of ventricles together. Any change or damage in the system will produce abnormal type of beating of the heart.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY

CARDIAC OUTPUT
What is cardiac output and how it is regulated? (Imp.) Definition: it can be defined in two ways. Stroke Output: that is amount of blood given out per beat equal to 70cc. Minute Output: it means amount of blood given out per minute equal to 5 liters. Distribution of cardiac output per minute to different organs is as follows. 1. Kidney 1300 c.c. (i.e. of cardiac output) 2. Liver 1500 c.c. 3. Muscle 700 c.c. 4. Brain 700 c.c. Regulation of cardiac output: whenever we do more and more work blood supply or cardiac output to the tissues should increase to supply more O2. E.g. when we do heavy muscular exercise cardiac output increase 10 times than normal i.e. (5 liter X 10). This regulation and control of cardiac output is automatically controlled by the body. Following are the factors regulating the cardiac out put. 1. Venous return 2. Force of heart 3. Rate of heart 4. Peripheral resistance 1. Venous Return: More amount of venous blood coming to right auricle by superior and inferior vena cava, if venous return is more cardiac output will be more. E.g. in muscular exercise there is more venous return therefore more cardiac output. Similarly when the venous return is less, the cardiac output will be less. E.g. in acute hemorrhage after accident loss of about 1-2 liters of blood therefore venous return is less and therefore cardiac output is less and the

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM patient will die. So cardiac output is directly proportional to venous return i.e. more venous return produces more cardiac output so we have to consider the factors controlling or regulating venous return. Factors Regulating the Venous Return a. Muscle tone: Our muscles are always slightly in contracted state known as muscle tone. This is responsible for normal venous return by pressing the vein so that blood goes towards the heart only because of the valves of the vein. So more the muscle tone more will be venous return and cardiac output more e.g. in muscular exercise where cardiac output may increase 10 times than normal. b. Capillary Tone: Capillaries also are in contracted state known as capillary tone. Dilation of the capillaries will mean more blood flow therefore more venous return while less contraction of capillaries will be less blood flow so less venous return. Again in muscular exercise there is dilation in capillaries. c. Onward flow of heart :

As shown in the figure blood will always flow from the arterial side to the venous side because of the pressure side. 2. Force of Heart: More the force of the heart more will be the cardiac output lesser the force lesser will be the cardiac output. Force of heart depends on initial length of the muscle fibers i.e. a. More the initial length more will be force of contraction. This is known as starlings law of heart muscle e.g. in muscular exercise heart muscles will be more stretched because of more filling of the heart. b. Force of heart depends upon nutrition and O2 supply of heart e.g. in heart attack i.e. when the blood vessels of the heart (coronary artery) is

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY blocked , O2 supply will be less so force of the heart is less and the person will die. Rate of Heart: cardiac output will be more when the rate is more and the cardiac output less when the heart rate is less. But this is within the limits of the heart i.e. when it increases from 70 beat to 120 beat per minute cardiac output will be more but if the rate increases suddenly to 200 the cardiac output will be so much less that the person will faint as in the case of disease called paroxysmal tachycardia. Peripheral Resistances: Here cardiac output is inversely proportional to the peripheral resistance i.e. more the peripheral resistance less will be cardiac output and vice-versa. Measurement of cardiac output is done by Ficks Principle

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM

CARDIAC CYCLE
What is cardiac cycle? Describe the different events of the cardiac cycle by means of a diagram? (V.imp) Cardiac cycle means, sequence or events occurring in the heart during one beat of the heart i.e. systole and diastole of the auricle and systole and diastole of the ventricles. Time taken is 0.8 second (when the heart rate is 70/minute). The cardiac cycle is explained in detail by the following diagram.

The cardiac cycle is divided into 1. Auricular events where a. Auricular systole is 0.1 second. b. Auricular diastole is 0.7 second. Changes during Auricular Systole (0.1sec): Both the auricles contracting together therefore both right and left A.V. valves open to pass the blood into the ventricles then

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY Auricular diastole (0.7 sec.):- here both auricles are gradually filled with the venous blood on right side and arterial blood on left side. 2. Ventricular Event: Ventricular systole 0.3 second Ventricular diastole 0.5 second Ventricular Systole: this is divided into three parts 1. Isometric contraction phase. (0.05 sec.) 2. Maximum ejection phase. (0.11 sec.) 3. Minimum ejection phase. (0.14 sec) 1. Isometric Contraction Phase: changes as follows. i. Closer of right and left A.V. valve therefore first heart sound produced ii. Opening of aortic and pulmonary valve. iii. This phase is called isometric because there is no change in the length of the fibers. 2. Maximum Ejection Phase: changes as follows. i. Heart muscle contract with maximum force thereby ejecting maximum amount of blood. ii. Both right and left A.V. valves remain closed while both aortic and pulmonary valve remain open. 3. Minimum ejection phase: changes as follows. i. Ejection of blood goes on but not much therefore minimum. ii. Condition of the four valves is same as in the maximum ejection phase. Events during ventricular diastole as follows: 1. Proto diastole phase 0.04sec

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM 2. 3. 4. 5. Isometric relaxation phase 0.08sec 1st rapid filling 0.113 sec. Diastases (rapid filling) 0.167 sec. Last rapid filling 0.1sec

1. Protodiastole Phase: Aortic and pulmonary valves should have closed but they are not closing during this period. 2. Isometric Relaxation phase : changes as follows a. Sudden closer of the aortic and pulmonary valve thereby producing the 2nd heart sound. b. Both right and left A.V. valve remain closed. 3. First Rapid Filling: changes as follows. Ventricle are suddenly filled with blood with large amount by opening of right and left A.V. valves. This produces 3rd heart sound. 4. Diastasis: (slow filling): - here ventricles go on filling with the blood but slowly. Condition of the four valves is same as above. 5. Last Rapid Filling: this rapid filling is due to auricular systole which is coming changing this event (see figure).

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY

HEART SOUNDS
Describe the different heart sounds with their importance to the body. (Imp) Introduction: Heart sounds are produce mainly by the closer of the 4 valves of the heart and to some extent by contraction of the thick muscles of the heart therefore heart sound will give an idea of the diseases of the valves of the heart and diseases of the heart muscles. Causes of heart sound: as follows 1. Closer of the valves 2. Contraction of thick ventricular muscle. 3. Sudden rushing of the blood. There are four heart sounds known as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th but we can hear only 1st and 2nd heart sound therefore only these heart sounds are important. Study of the 1st heart sound: Causes of 1st heart sound are as follows. i. sudden closer of the right and left A.V. valves by the systole of the ventricle (main cause) ii. contraction of the thick muscle of the ventricles during systole (main cause) Identification: of the 1st heart sound. i. By the character of the sound which is like LUBB i.e. dull and prolong. ii. Best heard at the site of the valve (see figure below). iii. Coincides with the apex beat of the heart. iv. Coincides with the carotid pulse. Importance of the sound: as the 1st sound is due to closer of the right or left artrioventricular valve therefore we will know if these valves are damage. E.g. they will produce an abnormal hissing sound. Most common disease is known as Mitral stenosis. (Left A.V. valve)

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM Study of the 2nd heart Sound: Causes of 2nd heart sound: It is due to closer of the aortic & pulmonary valves. Identification: of the 2nd heart sound 1. From the character of the sound which is like DUBB i.e. short and sharp. 2. Best heard at the site of valve (see figure) 3. It comes after the apex beat. 4. It comes after the carotid pulse. Importance of the 2nd sound: as this sound is produced by the closer of the aortic and pulmonary valve we will know the condition of these two valves whether they are diseased in which case a hissing sound will be produced. Third heart sound: This heart sound is produced due to sudden rushing of blood, into the ventricles. It is heard only in 10% of cases and not at all important. Fourth heart sound: It is due to contraction of auricles and is never heard by stethoscope but can be proved by electrical method. Following diagram will show position of the 4 valves of the heart.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY

HEART RATE
Describe how heart rate is regulated in man? Normal heart rate in an adult is about 70/min. This heart rate has to be regulated by increasing rate of the heart whenever there is need for more & more Oxygen. E.g. exercise; this is automatically done by the body by different factors acting on the cardiac center of the brain directly or indirectly (Reflex action). Physiological variation of heart rate. a. Age: In foetal life 120, infant 100, children 90, and adult 70, old 70. b. Sex: There is no difference between men and women. c. Sleep: Heart rate less. d. Exercise: Heart rate more. e. Emotional condition: heart rate more. Regulation of the heart: why the heart rate has to be regulated is mentioned above e.g. during exercise. Before actually coming to the regulation of the heart we should know the nerve supply of the heart and their action. It should be known that all the internal visceras are supplied by 2 types of nerve, sympathetic and parasympathetic having opposite action. Here nerve supply of heart is as follows: Sympathetic supply: this is from cardiac plexus near the heart. Action: stimulation will produce increase rate of the heart. Parasympathetic: this is by the nerve vagus which is 10th cranial nerve stimulation of this nerve will produce slowing of the heart. So regulation of heart can be divided into 2 as follows. 1. Local mechanism: this is by S.A. node of the right auricle known as pace maker because it is originating the rate of the heart. But this S.A node is controlled by the higher center of the brain called cardiac center which will either increase or decrease the rate of the heart by sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve. 35

CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM 2. Central Regulation: This is by center of the brain called cardiac center which is pin point and situated in medulla of the brain. This center has 2 parts- cardioaccelatory center therefore controlled by sympathetic and cardio inhibitory center controlled by parasympathetic nerve. This cardiac center will regulate the rate of the heart by factors acting on it directly from brain and some factors acting indirectly or reflexively from other regions. This regulating factor are shown and explained by the following diagram.

1. Factors acting directly on the cardiac center from cerebrum. a) Temperature: More temperature will increase the heart rate as e.g. fever, less temp will decrease heart rate.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY b) CO2 excess and O2 lack-will stimulate the center and therefore increase heart rate e.g. muscular exercise. c) Opposite of the CO2 lack and O2 excess will depress and therefore heart rate is less. d) High intra cranial pressure e.g. Hemorrhage after an accident will lower the heart rate accident patient should always be kept for observation at least for 24 hours. 2. Factors acting indirectly from Sino-aortic area. To understand this we should know the mechanism which is as follows. a) There are aortic and carotid bodies which are very vascular and effected by chemical such as CO2 & O2. b) There are stretch receptors in the aorta and carotid sinus which are affected by special things. As shown in the diagram II CO2 excess, O2 lack and acidemia e.g. exercise will stimulate cardiac center through chemoreceptor (aortic & carotid body) and fall of B.P. will stimulate cardiac center through baroreceptors which are present in the wall of aorta and the carotid artery, here it can be noticed that Heart rate is inversely proportional to the blood pressure called as Maryes reflex. Bainbridge Reflex : Enlargement of right auricle by venous blood will stimulate the heart rate through cardiac center so that the heart is cleared of extra blood this is also one of the regulating factors i.e. artrial reflex control of heart rate.

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PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE
What is peripheral resistance and by what factors it is controlled or regulated? It is a resistance to the flow of blood at the peripheral vessels i.e. capillaries and arterioles P.R is regulated by following 4 factors 1. Lumen of the vessel. 2. Viscosity of blood. 3. Velocity of blood. 4. Elasticity of wall of the blood vessel. Lumen of the vessel: In the capillaries the lumen is small, so the P.R should be highest in the capillaries but it is highest in the arterioles because of the velocity factor mention below. Velocity Factor: Velocity of blood in the capillaries is very slow compared to velocity in the arterioles because of this factor P.R is much more in the arterioles than capillaries. Viscosity of blood: normally blood is 4 times more viscous than water. This normal viscosity produces normal resistance, therefore normal P.R so if viscosity is less P.R will be less. Elasticity of the wall of blood vessels : Elasticity of the vessels in adult is normal therefore blood pressure is normal in adult e.g. elasticity is less in old age, therefore blood pressure increases accordingly to age. This increase is normal when peripheral resistance is controlled by vasomotor center of the brain as shown in the following diagram. As in the diagram the vasomotor center in the brain is passing continuously sympathetic motor impulses to all the blood vessels of thorax and abdomen thereby constricting the vessels to give normal peripheral resistance.

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So for normal blood pressure vasomotor center will control the peripheral resistance. When there is fall of B.P. after extreme haemorrhage vasomotor center is stimulated and will constrict the blood vessels thereby raising the B.P. When there is rise in the B.P. opposite thing will happen i.e. vasomotor center will now dilate the blood vessels to bring down the B.P. to normal. The vasomotor center will control or regulate mainly through the Sino aortic area by means of pressoreceptor as shown in the diagram and already explained above. This above mechanism will be the main regulating factor for the peripheral resistance.

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BLOOD PRESSURE
What is blood pressure? Give the physiological variation of blood pressure? Describe regulation of blood pressure in man? Blood pressure is the lateral pressure exerted by the blood on the vessels. Normally this pressure is measured on the brachial artery. The instrument used for measuring B.P. is called as sphygmomanometer. Physiological variation: 1. Age-in adults systolic/ diastolic is120/80mm of hg. In children about 100/60 In old age it will increase according to age, we can calculate as follows i.e. 100 + age. E.g. person40 years of age will have100 + 40 =140mm of hg systolic pressure. If systolic pressure is more than 160 then it means high B.P. similarly if diastolic pressure is more than 100 it means high B.P. 2. Sex-In females B.P. are lower comparatively than males. 3. In exercise, pregnancy & emotional condition B.P. is higher. Regulation of Blood Pressure: Regulation of B.P. is required because higher B.P. & lower B.P. will affect our body hence it is automatically done mainly by different reflexes of the body B.P is regulated as follows. Cardiac output is directly proportional to B.P. & peripheral resistance A. Cardiac output factors. i. Blood volume - if the blood volume is suddenly less the cardiac output is less & therefore B.P. is less e.g. accident with large hemorrhage there will be great fall of B.P. ii. Force of Heart - More the force of heart more will be the cardiac outputs therefore rise of B.P.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY iii. Rate of the Heart - More the rate of heart more will be the cardiac output so rise of B.P. but the rate of heart should not be more than140/per min. iv. Venous return - More the venous return more will be cardiac output so rise of B.P. & vice-versa e.g. muscular exercise-.here the venous return is more because of pressing of vein by muscular contraction. B. Peripheral resistance factors. i. As the viscosity of blood & elasticity of the arterial valve are not changing they will not be regulating factors of B.P. ii. Velocity of blood - More the velocity more will be B.P. e.g. exercise. Similarly if the velocity is less B.P. is less e.g. in heart failure when the blood flow is slow. iii. Lumen of the vessels - i.e. capillaries & arterioles which is the main regulating factor of B.P. The lumen of the vessels is controlled by the vasomotor centre from the baro receptors in the Sino aortic area. E.g. in acute hemorrhage as in accident there is sudden fall of B.P. This information is carried by presso receptors (in aortic arch &aortic sinus) to the vasomotor centre which is stimulated thereby constricting the blood vessels & therefore raising the B.P. Similarly when there is rise in B.P., the opposite thing will happen i.e. there will be vaso dilatation of blood vessels therefore bringing the B.P. to normal C. Some other factors i. In any emergency Adrenaline is secreted which will stimulate the blood vessels thereby raising the B.P., when there is acute form of low B.P. ii. Role of kidneys - In acute fall of B.P. kidney will produce hypertensin which will cause constriction of blood vessels & rise of B.P.

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ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY (E.C.G)
What is E.C.G? Discuss the different waves of E.C.G & their importance? Electrocardiogram is the instrument by which we get E.C.G while electrocardiograph is the actual tracing of the heart beat. By taking E.C.G we can know whether the persons heart beat is normal or the person is suffering from some heart disease. Basis of E.C.G A resting muscle where two ends are connected with sensitive galvanometer there will be no current flowing therefore no deflection of the needle of galvanometer but when the muscle contracts from one end that end will become negative while the other end is positive, therefore current will flow from positive to negative end & there will be deflection of the needle thereby giving the E.C.G of the heart.

For taking E.C.G different leads are used as follows. 1. Standard Limb Leads a. Lead I Right arm & Left arm b. Lead II Right arm & left leg c. Lead III Left arm &left leg

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY 2. Cardiac Leads Here one terminal is by joining left arm, right arm &left leg. The other terminal is over the heart in seven positions starting from right border of the sternum in 4th intercostals space. Study of normal E.C.G we get E.C.G wave PQRST as shown below.

The P wave is due to auricular contraction therefore it is called auricular complex while QRST is due to ventricular contraction therefore called as ventricular complex. P wave is due to auricular contraction, the height is above 4 milivolts &time taken is about 0.1second QRST is due to ventricular contraction QRS Time taken is 0.08 seconds Qthis is due to electrical activity in the interventricular septum R is due to right ventricular contraction. Height of R is equal to 8 milivolts. S is due to left ventricular contraction. T is the wave of depolarization equal to 0.27 seconds.

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CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM Importance of E.C.G I. Importance of Pwave

a)

If P wave is inverted as shown in the figure above it will be damage to the S.A node & the impulse is starting not from S.A node but from A.V node.

b)

c)

When the auricular rate is much more than normal i.e. 200/min as in the disease called auricular flutter. Absence of P wave will occur when the auricular rate is about 300 as in the disease known as auricular fibrillation.P wave is absent because there is no actual contraction of the auricles.

II. Q wave Normally the Q wave is very small downward deflection. If the Q wave is large it will mean the person had a previous Heart Attack. III. P R interval (short note) It is the interval from the top of Pwave to the top of R wave. It is due to conduction time of Bundle of His. Normally it is 0.13sec to 0.16sec.If it is more than 0.2sec it will mean damage to the bundle of his .e.g. diphtheria, typhoid etc.

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY IV. T wave is up stroke in limb leads I, II, III but it may also be inverted normally in lead III only therefore inversion of T wave in lead I & II will mean abnormal condition i.e. during a heart attack or after an attack T will remain inverted. V. E.C.G record during a heart attack.

Here we see ST segment is raised & T wave is inverted. This is during the attack but after about 50 days of heart attack the E.C.G may be normal but T is inverted.

TRIPLE RESPONSE (short note).


If you scratch over the sensitive skin we get the reaction in 3 stages. Red line: This is due to liberation of histamine due to damage to the skin. This will dilate the local blood vessels therefore red line. Flare: The red line while spreading over more area produces redness .This is due to reflex vasodilatation of more blood vessels. This reflex is not real reflex as there is no center for it. This reflex is known as Axon reflex. Wheal: This means the whole area now becomes raised due to damage to the capillaries due to histamine e.g. biting by bees will produce triple response as mentioned above.

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CORONARY CIRCULATION
What is coronary circulation? Introduction: Coronary arteries are the arteries supplying the muscles of the heart. As the heart is doing constantly a large amount of work the blood supply should be constant & sufficient Regulation of coronary is according to the amount of work done by the heart e.g. in heavy muscular exercise coronary circulation increases from 200/min to 2000/min (i.e. 10 times) Arterial Supply & Venous Drainage Coronary artery arises directly from ascending aorta dividing into right & left coronary arteries .these further divide into right artery supplying the right part of the heart while the left supplies the left part of the heart. Venous drainage venous blood is carried by coronary veins which will finally become coronary sinus which will drain the blood into right auricle. One of the peculiarity of venous blood is that it directly drains into ventricular cavity. Peculiarities of Coronary Circulation I. Normally coronary circulation is 200/min which will become 10 times in heavy muscular exercise II. Normally one capillary supplies 10 muscles but in coronary circulation one capillary supplies one muscle. III. Normally 4cc of O2 /min is supplied to general tissue but heart muscle will receive 3 times i.e.12cc of O2 /min. IV. Anastomosis is not sufficient in coronary circulation therefore regulation is required to increase the circulation when heart is doing more work e.g. muscular exercise Circulation is increased automatically by different reflex factors as follows. 1. Mean aortic pressure It is increased by 2 factors. a. Increasing the rate of heart b. Increasing the force of heart

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ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY 2. Role of O2 Lack of O2 called hypoxia will increase circulation by dilating the blood vessels e.g. in exercise there is always lack of O2 .It should be remembered that O2 lack is greatest stimulant for increasing the coronary circulation. Role of CO2 -- Excess of CO2 will also increase the coronary circulation by dilatation of the blood vessels. Role of nerve supply Coronary arteries is supplied by autonomic nervous system i.e. sympathetic & parasympathetic nerves. Normally sympathetic will constrict all blood vessels but here it will dilate the coronary arteries. Role of drugs Drugs like Nitroglycerine, Aminophyline & histamine will dilate the coronary arteries therefore useful in coronary spasm.

3. 4.

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CAPILLARY CIRCULATION
What is capillary circulation? Introduction: Capillaries are formed by many small branches of arterioles which will again become veins or venules on the other side.

This part of circulation is important because here O2 & nutrition will be taken in while CO2 & waste product will be given out. Histology:

Ruget cells will be acting as muscles for contraction of capillaries. Peculiarities of Capillary Circulation: 1) As the diameter of capillary is 8U R.B.C. will remain in a single line.

2) 3) 4)

Circulation will be in any direction. Capillaries can contract itself therefore important for capillary tone. (B.P.) Capillary pressure in different region. Normally everywhere it is 32 mm of hg. Kidneys 85 mm of Hg Liver 5 mm of Hg 48

ILLUSTRATED PHYSIOLOGY Regulation of capillary circulation (Short note) 1) Physical regulation Heat will dilate the vessels & cold will constrict the vessels. 2) Chemical regulation Here we find CO2 metabolism & histamine will dilate while O2 & hypertension will constrict the capillaries. 3) Hormonal regulation Adrenaline will constrict while acetylcholine will dilate. 4) Nervous regulation Capillaries are supplied by autonomic nervous system having opposite action as follows Sympathetic supply will stimulate thereby producing constriction. Parasympathetic supply stimulation produces dilation. Importance of Capillary Circulation: (Viva) a) For giving O2 to the tissues for there work. b) For giving nutrition to the tissues i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals & vitamins. c) For giving away the waste products i.e. CO2 & metabolites. d) There is always normal capillary tone which is maintaining normal blood pressure. Tissue fluid (fluid between the cells) is formed by the capillaries as shown in the fig.

Whatever tissue fluid is formed at the arterial side, same amount is taken in on the venous side so that tissue fluid always remains constant. 49