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1 The motion of vehicles on land Two types of vehicles on land:(i) vehicles with engines motorcycles, cars (ii) vehicles without engines bicycles

CLASS : ____

*Engine is a machine that burns fuel to give heat whereby the heat makes gas or steam expands and then produces movement. Four stroke petrol engine

Principle of operation The piston moves _____________. The intake valve ________ and the exhaust valve __________. A mixture of _________ and _________ is sucked into the cylinder. The intake valve and exhaust valve __________. The piston moves ___________ and the mixture of petrol and air is _____________. When the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, ______________ produces sparks. The mixture of petrol and air will ________ and produce a high __________. The piston is pushed _____________. The intake valve ____________ and the exhaust valve _________. The piston moves ____________. The fumes are pushed out of the cylinder through the __________

Compression

Power

Exhaust

Air

Principle of operation _________ is inserted into the cylinder but nit the mixture of petrol-air. The piston moves _________ and air is _____________. No _____________. __________________ sprays diesel. _________lights up the diesel. The intake valve closes and the exhaust valve opens. The fumes are pushed out of the cylinder through the ___________ valve.

Upward Stroke Downward stroke A mixture of _________ and ______ The piston is pushed by the rapidly enters the cylindrical engine. The expanding gas and as a result, it piston moves ____________ and the moves downwards to turn the transfer port close. The mixture of _________. The intake port ________

petrol and air is compressed in the and the exhaust port _______. The gas cylindrical engine. At the same time, escapes from the exhaust port. At the the intake port _________. A new same time, a new mixture of petrol mixture if petrol and air enters the and air will enter the cylindrical crankcase, ready for the next cycle. through the _______________. The _______________ produces sparks. The compressed mixture of petrol and air ___________. Comparison between the four stroke and the two stroke engine

5.2

Speed, velocity and acceleration Speed The rate at which an object moves or the measurement of the distance traveled by an object in a certain unit of time. It is a scalar quantity. Measured in metre per second (ms-1) or kilometer per hour (km h-1) Average speed can be calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time taken.

Q1: Answer: A person rides a motorcycle for 20km in 30 minutes. Calculate the speed in metres per second.

(a)

On a ticker tape, 50 dots are marked in one second. The distance between two successive dots is known as 1tick length. Therefore, the time interval for a 1-tick length is _______s. The figure shows a ticker tape produced in an experiment to investigate the speed of an object. Calculate the speed. 18cm

Answer :

Q3: Answer:

A boy pedals his bicycle for a distance of 200m in 20 seconds. What is the speed of the bicycle?

Velocity The rate of change of distance travelled by an object. The velocity of a moving object changes if either its speed or its directi0n changes. Two objects traveling with the same speed but in different directions have different velocities. Unit : ms-1

Q4:

The diagram below shows a ticker tape obtained from a moving trolley. If the ticker timer vibrates 50times per second, what is the velocity of the trolley?

Answer:

Acceleration The rate of change in velocity Unit : ms-2 When velocity decreases, its rate of change is called deceleration

Acceleration = change of velocity (ms-1) Time interval (s) = final velocity initial velocity

Q5: Answer:

What is the acceleration of a car which moves from its stationary state and reaches a velocity of 5ms-1 in 5 seconds?

Q6: Answer:

A driver drives at a constant velocity of 30ms-1. The driver then accelerates his car to 60ms-1 in 5 seconds. What is its acceleration?

Q7: Answer:

A racing car accelerates from rest to 90kmh-1 in 4s. Find its acceleration in ms-2.

SPM practice!

A) An object accelerates from rest and moves at a uniform

acceleration of 8ms-2. What is the velocity of the object after 4s? Answer:

B)

A car moving at a velocity of 40ms-1 starts to accelerate uniformly at 8ms-2. What is the time taken for the car to move at a velocity of 96ms-1. Answer:

C) Calculate its

The tape chart below shows the motion of trolley. Velocity = Length of strip Time taken Acceleration = final velocity initial velocity Time interval

5.3

Inertia The resistance of an object to a change in its motion. Inertia depends on mass. An object with a large mass has more inertia, and it has a greater tendency to maintain its state of motion. Application of inertia in everyday life:(i) Motion of a car When a driver inside a vehicle applies the brakes suddenly, the driver and the passengers are thrown forwards. This is because they have the tendency to keep moving. When a car starts to move, or when it is hit from behind, the head of the passenger tends to remain at rest.

5.4

It is more difficult to push a heavy bag than a light bag from rest. This is because the heavy bag has a greater mass, hence, it has a greater tendency to remain at rest and it is more difficult to move. The concept of momentum Can be defined as mass in motion All objects have mass; so if an object is moving, then it has momentum - it has its mass in motion. Momentum depends upon the variables mass and velocity.

(ii)

A jet plane of mass 60000kg travels at a velocity of 270ms -1. Calculate the momentum of the jet plane. Answer: Q8:

Q9:

An object with mass of 40kg is moving at a velocity of 20ms-1. Calculate its momentum, in Ns. Answer:

When 2 objects are both traveling at the same speed, the one

with a larger mass is more difficult to stop. The principle of conservation of momentum states that when there are no external forces, the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision.

total after

Q10: Particle A of 2kg moving with velocity 4ms-1 towards particle B of mass M, initially at rest. After colliding, A and B move off with velocity 1.2ms-1 and 0.8ms-1 respectively. Calculate:(i) mass, M of particle B (ii) momentum of particle B after collision Answer:

Chapter 5 Part II

Name : ________________________ Class : ________________________

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5.5

The amount of pressure depends on the strength of the force and the surface area which you apply the force. (a) The greater the strength, the higher the pressure (b) The greater the area, the smaller the pressure Q11: A box of mass 10kg is resting on a floor as shown below. Find the pressure exerted on the floor.

4m

Answer:

5m

2m

Q12: The wind pressure on the wall is 200Pa. If the wall has an area of 8m2, what is the force on it? Answer:

The greater the strength, the higher the pressure The greater the area, the smaller the pressure Concept of pressure in daily life. - A vehicle moving on a sandy surface area has broad tyres to reduce pressure on the sand. - The sharp knife has a smaller surface area in contact to increase the pressure against the food. Q13: A boy of mass 40kg stands on the floor. The total area of his shoes in contact with the floor is 200cm2. Calculate the pressure exerted on the floor if he stands on his feet. Answer:

11

Q14: Which of the following people would probably cause the greatest pressure on the floor? Why? (i) a fat man with big feet (ii) a thin boy with big feet (iii) a fat woman of mass equal to the fat man, with small feet Answer: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5.6 Hydraulic system The principle of transmission of pressure in liquid states that pressure acting on a liquid will be transmitted equally in all directions with the same magnitude in a closed system.

cylinders. A pipe containing a liquid connects the cylinders. A force F1 is applied to a small piston of area A1. The pressure is transmitted through a liquid to a larger piston of area A2. Fluid pressure in a small piston is equal to the fluid pressure in large piston.

= A2 12

Q15: The figure below shows a hydraulic system. If the area of piston P is 130cm2, calculate the area of piston Q in m2.

Answer:

Q16: The area of the pistons of a hydraulic system are 100cm2 and 25cm2 respectively. What is the weight of the load that can be lifted using this system if a force of 15N is applied on the small piston? Answer:

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The application of the hydraulic system in everyday life. Two devices in our daily lives that use the hydraulic principle to operate are hydraulic jacks and hydraulic brake.

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Q17: Why brake fluid is used in the hydraulic brake system in a car and not water? Give two reasons. (i) ________________________________________________________________ (ii) 5.7 ________________________________________________________________

Archimedes principle Archimedes principle state that when an object is immersed in a fluid (liquid or gas), the upthrust on the object is equal in size to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. The upthrust force pushes our body upwards when we are in the water.

Q18: Calculate the upthrust of a piece of marble if the marbles weight in the air and in the water are 10N and 7N respectively. Answer:

Q19: based on the tips given below, determine the upthrust of stone in the water. Weight in the air : 8N Weight of water displaced : 5N Answer :

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A ship , though very heavy , floats on the surface of the sea. This is because the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the ship. The buoyant force acting on the ship is large enough because the ship is hollow and the volume of water displaced by the ship is sufficiently large. A submarine has a large ballast tank, which is used to control its position and depth from the surface of the sea. A submarine submerges by letting water into the ballast tank so that its weight becomes greater than the buoyant force (and vice versa). It floats by reducing water in the ballast tank.-thus its weight is less than the buoyant force. Can Archimedes Principle be applied to vehicles that travel in the air??? The atmosphere is filled with air that exerts buoyant force on any object. A hot air balloon rises and floats due to the buoyant force (when the surrounding air is greater than its weight). It descends when the balloon weight is more than the buoyant force. It becomes stationary when the weight = buoyant force. The weight of the Hot-air balloon can be controlled by varying the quantity of hot air in the balloon.

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5.8

The motion of vehicles in the air The principle of operation of vehicles in the air.

17

Bernoullis Principle Bernoullis Principle states that where the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low; and where the velocity is low, the pressure is high.

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