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The present study would not have been the light of the day without the due guidance and cooperation of HZL employees. This project involves valuable contribution from some person. I wish to express my appreciation gratitude to every direct or indirect co-operation and assistance expanded to me, by different individual and officials of respective department of HZL. This assistance was offered to me in different forms like dissemination of information in the form of broachers, pamphlet etc. provided which was helpful in completing the project report. I shall always be indebted ZINC SMELTER, DEBARI, UDAIPUR for giving me an opportunity to undergo this summer training in such a prestigious and professional organization and also for their immense contribution towards execution and completion of the project. As the outset I humble acknowledge the kind grace of the management of HZL for highly illuminating summer placement training. I am thankful to Mr. P.K Jain for their guidance and gracious support in accomplishing this summer training successfully. I would also like to present my heartfelt thanks to Mr. S.C. Sharma (Sale Manager) for their precious guidance, tolerance and understanding. I am really grateful to sir for the time they have spared for me during the course of my tenure in HZL, Debari. Last but not the least I would like to thank all the employees of HZL and fellow summer trainees for their co-operation extended.
We have just stepped in 21st century. In last century, India was developing country keeping pace with the rest of the world. The mining industry has also played a vital role in development of the country, since independence the mining industry contributed a lot in making a fast development of the country. Keeping in view Zinc Smelter, Debari a giant company mainly involved in mining of Zinc, sulphuric acid, cadmium, lead, silver offers the opportunity to study, “ The Marketing Scenario of Zinc”. Zinc and lead are the 23 and 34 most abundant elements on the earth crust among the oldest metal used by men in alloys and in metals. In terms of tonnage used, these are the fourth and most widely consumed industrial metals today after iron, aluminum and copper, sulphate and galena source of most of the world’s suppliers of these metals generally co-occur in association with minerals of sodium, silver, copper. Zinc and lead are resources known to be hosted by at least six geological environment but most of the major deposits occur strata bound massive, mixed sulphide ores in metamorphic rocks and irregular breccias replacement in carbonate rocks. The primary producers of lead ore are US and ex-USSR and the primary producers of zinc ore are Canada and ex-USSR. India has the pride of having the oldest known deposits of zinc ore at Zawar Mines. Zinc metals also used to be extracted through a crude Pyro metallurgical process in ancient times. Recognizing this zinc extraction district as the oldest in the world. American society of metals declared it as an INTERNATIONAL HISTRORICAL LANDMARK by placing at Zawar in Rajasthan state in 2 nd of February 1989. The industrial upswing that took place in the country during 60’s assured in a new era of zinc metal extraction from ores. It was during this decade that government of India, realized the strategic importance of zinc and lead metals incorporated HZL. The company has over the years, shriven hard to be bridge the gap between indigenous zinc production and the national demand. Relationship of man with metals dates of the evolution of man himself. Common man generally associates the world metal only to such material that are made of gold, silver, platinum and copper and are unaware that most articles that he is using in day today life have a direct or indirect association of metal “Zinc” predominately zinc metal is known due to its unique property of corrosion resistance, which lands its uses for galvanizing. Today there is hardly any industrial sector of common product that has except the influents of zinc in some from or the other. Zinc is one of the essential non-ferrous metals required in the industrial economy and is fourth order of consumption amongst the major metals after iron, aluminum and copper.
The topic of my study is to “Analyze The Marketing Scenario of Zinc”. The company’s main objective to conduct this study is to find out whether company should increase its production capacity. Under this topic I did the following analysis: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Actual production with installed capacity of company. Different uses of Zinc in different industry. Various data relating production and consumption of Zinc. Customer list of Debari Zinc Smelter. Conclusion and suggestion regarding. SWOT Analysis of the company.
The scope of the present research work was to collect data or information from HZL, Debari. In 2008, the consumption of zinc was about 10774000 tons which is expected to grow at 9% 11.7% MT. The global zinc market to grow by 5% primarily on back of growth in emerging market such as china and India. Zinc consumption in India is expected to grow at 8% - 10%p.a from current demand of 4,20,000 MT driven by growth in steel, infrastructure and automobile industry.
periodic table - Extended Periodic Table
Name, Symbol, Number Chemical series Group, Period, Block Appearance Atomic mass Electron configuration Electrons per shell zinc, Zn, 30 transition metals 12, 4, d bluish pale gray 65.409(4) g/mol [Ar] 3d10 4s2 2, 8, 18, 2
Phase Density (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p. Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Heat capacity solid 7.14 g·cm−3 6.57 g·cm−3 692.68 K (419.53 °C, 787.15 °F) 1180 K (907 °C, 1665 °F) 7.32 kJ·mol−1 123.6 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 25.390 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor Pressure P/Pa at T/K 1 610 10 670 100 750 1k 852 10 k 990 100 k (1185)
Crystal structure Oxidation states Electronegativity Ionization energies (more) Atomic radius Atomic radius (calc.) Covalent radius Van der Waals radius hexagonal 2 (amphoteric oxide) 1.65 (Pauling scale) 1st: 906.4 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 1733.3 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3833 kJ·mol−1 135 pm 142 pm 131 pm 139 pm
Magnetic ordering Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion Speed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulus Shear modulus Bulk modulus Poisson ratio Mohs hardness Brinell hardness CAS registry number diamagnetic (20 °C) 59.0 nΩ·m (300 K) 116 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 30.2 µm·m−1·K−1 (r.t.) (rolled) 3850 m·s−1 108 GPa 43 GPa 70 GPa 0.25 2.5 412 MPa 7440-66-6
Notable Isotopes of Zinc iso 64Zn 65Zn 66Zn 67Zn 68Zn 69Zn 70Zn NA 48.6% syn 27.9% 4.1% 18.8% syn 0.6% half-life ε γ DM 1.1155 DE (MeV) DP 65Cu Zn is stable with 34 neutrons 244.26 d
Zn is stable with 36 neutrons Zn is stable with 37 neutrons Zn is stable with 38 neutrons 56.4 min β− 0.906 69Ga Zn is stable with 40 neutrons
Zinc production in the United States started in 1850. A major technological improvement was achieved with the development of the horizontal retort process in Germany which led to the erection of smelting works in Slesia. was introduced in France. In the 13th century Marco Polo described the manufacture of zinc oxide in Persia. Liege. both zinc metal and zinc oxide were produced from the 12th to the 16th century. Belgium and Aachen.THE HISTORY OF ZINC Centuries before zinc was discovered in the metallic form. For about 500 years zinc was produced from its oxide ores before the more abundant sulfides became the major source of supply. its ores were used for making brass and zinc compounds. It is believed that the Romans first made brass in the time of Augustus (20 B. In 1743. From India.D. the Rhineland and the Ruhr areas in Germany. zinc was recognized in India as a new metal – the 8th metal known to man at that time. the oldest anti-corrosion process. – 14 A. In 1836 hot-dip galvanizing. its ores were used for healing wounds and sore eyes.). 6|Page . India. On the technological side there was a drastic change in 1916 when the electrolytic process was introduced on a large scale replacing the hydrometallurgical process as the dominating production method. the first European zinc smelter was established in Bristol in the United Kingdom using a vertical retort procedure.C. At Zawar. zinc manufacturing moved to China in the 17th century where it developed as an industry to supply the needs of the brass industry. Zinc was recognized in Europe as a separate metal in the 16th century when Agricola (1490 – 1555) observed that a metal called “zincum” was produced in Slesia and Paracelsus (1493 – 1541) stated clearly that “zincum” was a new metal. By 1374. Zinc metal was used to make brass and zinc oxide served medical purposes.
silver and barite of fluorite may also be present. Australia.10% with zinc usually predominating over lead. Peru. Typically the ore body contains more lead than zinc and is associated with silver. Zinc occurs normally associated with lead and other metals including copper. lead and silver. ZINC DEPOSITS Zinc ore deposits are widely spread throughout the world.ZINC . zinc has been concentrated to much higher levels by natural geological and geochemical processes (5-15% or 50. In some areas. Zinc is present not only in rock and soil. animals and humans contain zinc. gold and silver. found at the earth’s surface and underground. The zinc lead content usually ranges from 5% . 2. 4. Sediment hosted (sedex deposits) The host rocks are mainly shale. are being exploited as ore bodies. Intrusion related (high sulphidation. Such concentrations. water and the biosphere. Europe and Canada are the biggest zinc mining countries. Concentrations of copper. 7|Page .NATURAL OCCURRENCE Zinc is a natural component of the earth’s crust and an inherent part of our environment. 3. Carbonate hosted (Mississippi Valley & Irish types) Limestone and dolomite are the most common host rocks. ranging between 10 and 300 mg/kg (Malle 1992). gold. China. Volcanic hosted massive sulphides (VMS) VHMS deposits are polymetallic and are an important economic source of copper and zinc often associated with significant concentrations of silver. siltstone. The average natural level of zinc in the earth’s crust is 70 mg/kg (dry weight).000 – 150. Minerals and metals are mostly obtained from the earth’s crust. cadmium. The lead/zinc content ranges from 10-20%. manto. vein) These deposits are typically found in carbonate rocks in conjunction with magmatichydrothermal systems and are characterized by mineral association of calcium and magnesium. The mineral has a high silver content. Sedex deposits represent some of the world’s largest accumulations of zinc.000 mg/kg). skarn. Zinc ores are extracted in more than 50 countries. There are four major types of zinc deposits: 1. and sandstone. Plants. but also in air. bismuth or tin.
the mineral calamine (smithsonite) In North America the mineral calamine often refers to the hydrated silicate mineral also known as hemimorphite. 8|Page . in the form of the minerals pyrite and galena are always associated in significant quantities while smaller quantities of other metals are commonly found.ZINC MINERALS The most commonly found zinc mineral is sphalerite (ZnS) also known as zinc blende. The mineral crystallizes from the hydrothermal solution as purezinc sulphide. Metamorphically formed oxide zinc ores such as franklinite or zincite are limited to only a few deposits. Zinc deposits close to the earth’s surface are often converted to oxides and carbonates. which is found in almost all currently mined zinc deposits. which is commonly found but rarely exploited as it is not easy to smelt. Small quantities of zinc carbonate. The mineral marmatite is a complex zinc-iron sulphide. Iron and lead sulphides.
This is done by roasting or sintering. To concentrate the ore it is first crushed and then ground to enable optimal separation from the other minerals. Apart from zinc the concentrate contains some 25-30% or more sulphur as well as different amounts of iron. However. lead and silver and other minerals. Rarely is the ore. 9|Page . rich enough to be used directly by smelters. it needs to be concentrated. At the same time sulphur reacts with oxygen giving out sulphur dioxide which subsequently is converted to sulphuric acid – an important commercial by-product. in terms of production volume open pit mines account for as much as 15%. by using either hydrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical techniques. a zinc concentrate contains about 55% of zinc with some copper. lead and iron. Zinc ores contain 5 -15% zinc. Typically. underground mines produce 64% and 21% of mine production comes from the combined underground and open pit mining. as mined. sulphur in the concentrate must be removed. Before metallic zinc can be recovered. 8% are of the open pit type and the remainder is a combination of both. The concentrate is brought to a temperature of more than 900°C where zinc sulphide (ZnS) converts into the more active zinc oxide (ZnO). Zinc concentration is usually done at the mine site to keep transport costs to smelters as low as possible. Roasting & Sintering Over 95% of the world’s zinc is produced from zinc blended (ZnS).THE PRODUCTION OF ZINC Zinc Mining 80% of zinc mines are underground.
3 – 3. carrying copper. Purification is mainly done by adding zinc dust to the solution. As all the elements to be removed lie below zinc in the electrochemical series they can be precipitated by cementation. Temperatures range from 1000°C at the top to 1500°C or more in the center of the furnace. crude zinc is released and is separated. China and Poland.95 % and Special High Grade (SHG) 99. To avoid that it oxidizes back to zinc oxide the zinc vapor is rapidly quenched and dissolved in a spay of molten lead in a condenser (lead splash condenser). The lead returns to the condensing process for another cycle of dissolving and then releasing ore zinc. The IS process is an energy-intensive process and thus became very expensive following the rise of energy prices in recent years. The zinc ingots may have different grades: High Grade (HG) 99. The zinc content dissolves whereas iron precipitates and lead and silver remain undissolved.5 volts between the anode and cathode causing the zinc to deposit on the aluminum cathodes in high purity.The Hydrometallurgical Process In a leaching stage the zinc oxide is separated from the other calcines. The Imperial Smelting process is based on the reduction of zinc and lead into metal with carbon in a specially designed Imperial Smelting furnace. The lead which is below its boiling point.99% of zinc. An electrical current is circulating through the electrolyte by applying an electrical difference of 3. The Hydrometallurgical Process The Imperial Smelting Process has been the most important hydrometallurgical process. the dissolved solution contains some impurities which need to be eliminated in order to obtain a high-purity zinc product at the end of the production process. Zinc evaporates and passes out of the furnace near the top along with other gases. Today. It is particularly indicated for treating concentrates with a significant amount of lead. This and the lower production of bulk concentrates containing significant amounts of lead led to abandoning more and more the Imperial Smelting process. melted and cast into ingots. It allows simultaneous production of zinc and lead metals – roughly 1 ton of lead for every 2 tons of zinc. Pre-heated air is blown from below in the shaft furnace. flows from the bottom of the blast furnace. 10 | P a g e . silver and gold with it. The thus obtained purified solution passes an electrolytic process where the purified solution is electrolyzed between lead alloy anodes and aluminum cathodes. dried. Imperial Smelting furnaces are only in operation in Japan. The major difference of the hydrometallurgical process and the Imperial Smelting process is that the first produce very pure zinc directly whereas the latter produces lower grade zinc that still contains significant impurities that have to be removed by thermal refining in the zinc refinery. By cooling the lead. The coke is converted into carbon monoxide which provides the means to reduce zinc and lead oxides to metallic zinc and lead. However. Sulphuric acid is used to do this. The deposited zinc is stripped off. The sinter is charged together with the pre-heated coke at the top of the furnace. Today over 90% zinc is produced hydrometallurgical in electrolytic plants.
the Russian federation are projected to add an extra 700000 tonnes to global capacity. reports the British Geological Survey. with the largest producers being China.000 tones of Zinc metal is forecast to be produced in 2007. in turn. An additional 640. 11 | P a g e . Over the medium term. For example. which is expected to produce 115000 tonnes Zinc a year. International investment by Chinese and Australian companies in African continent has already begun to pay off. Over the medium to long term. Australia and Peru.3 million tones. The increase in global production will come from a number of mine expansions and new projects that. Alaska and operated by Teck-Cominco. China produced almost one-fourth of the global zinc output.7 million tones in 2006. in that order. combined with the new projects and expansions in 2007. amounting to at least 400 000 are also expected to be completed. is not forecast to start up until 2009. World Zinc production grew by 4% to 10. EuroZinc is also planning to restart the Aljustrel mine (80 000 tonne capacity) in Portugal. In addition to this. enabling a 6% rise in total output to 11. reflect growing explorations budget in recent years. This massive mine produces over 600. a number of smaller projects. with expected capacity of approximately 330000 tonnes a year. countries in Africa may emerge as major producers of Zinc. owned by Xstrata. The largest producing zinc mine in the world is the Red Dog Mine located in Northwest Arctic Borough. increasing Canadian output in short term by around 120000 tonnes. Production in Canada is forecast to increase significantly as a number of new mines start up. This increase in capacity. Herald Resources’ 220 000 tonnes a year Dairi mine in Indonesia is yet another mammoth project. However the largest project. four large confirmed projects in Canada. Mexico. the Perseverance mine. In 2005. Three projects are due to start production in 2007.ZINC PRODUCTION There are zinc mines throughout the world.000 metric tons of zinc concentrate per year. San Cristobal in Bolivia (capacity of 167000 tones a year) and Cerro Lindo in Peru (capacity of 110000 tones a year) are both due to be commissioned in the third quarter of 2007. Global exploration budget have increased by approximately 150% since 2002. Increases to supply are expected to come on line progressively over the medium term. is projected to result in world Zinc production reaching 13.9 million tonnes by 2012.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF WORLWIDE ZINC MINE PRODUCTION GEOGRAPHICHAL DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC MINE PRODUCTION 12 | P a g e .
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF WORLDWIDE ZINC METAL PRODUCTION 13 | P a g e .
TOP ZINC PRODUCING COUNTRIES* TOP ZINC CONSUMING COUNTRIES 14 | P a g e .
Zinc production in India was in the hands of the government initially as all the operations in India relating to the metal were in the hands of a public sector company – Hindustan Zinc Limited. which took care of zinc extraction and its smelting process. India’s reputation regarding zinc is not significant as it just produces a small share of the metal in the world’s production and is not able to satisfy its domestic consumption demand making it a net importer of zinc. it should have been an important player in the world zinc market but this is not the current situation.PRODUCTION OF ZINC IN INDIA India was one the first countries that started the process of extracting and smelting zinc. Since that time.3% share in the total zinc smelter capacity in the Asia pacific region. The current Indian demand for zinc stands at around 3. It can be said that the zinc industry in India. After privatizing the zinc sector it is expected that by 2010 the country would become self-reliant to satisfy the domestic demand. After that. ever since the company got privatized. the country is producing this metal and is one of the oldest countries to do that. which was indulged in the production of zinc. About 70% of the Indian demand comes from the galvanizing sector. The major zinc mines in India which were under the control of the company are • • • Rampura Agucha mine Rajpura Dariba mine Zawar mine The smelting plants in India engaged in the production of zinc metal are • • • • • Chanderia Lead Zinc Smelter (CLZS) – Rajasthan Debari Zinc Smelter (DZS) – Rajasthan Dariba Smelting Comples(DSC). India may transform into a net exporter of the metal.Rajasthan Vizag Zinc Smelter (VZS) – Andhra Pradesh Binani Zinc Smelter – Kerala Indian zinc market As India was one of the first countries to gain the knowledge of extracting zinc from zinc ores and start the production of zinc metal. It was the biggest company in India. after privatization. India has approximately 4. is heading towards a major expansion programme. But in April 2002. 15 | P a g e . Though. the Indian industry is completely in the hands of the private sector. The largest company. is a public sector company named Hindustan Zinc Limited. this company was privatized in favor Sterlite group and after that the Indian industry is in the hands of private sector completely. But now.5 lakh tons that is fulfilled with the help of domestic production and imports too. India is not a leading player in the production zinc but it is moving in the direction to get self reliant in this context.
and the relative positions of zinc and iron in the electrochemical series. The first development from this was the production of continuous strip steel with a galvanized coating. The most important of these are Galvalume and Galfan. These include electroplating (also known as electrogalvanizing). caused by damage or operations such as cutting or drilling. sherardising. these two factors provide the basis of a unique corrosion protection system which uses some 4 million tonnes of zinc annually to protect around 100 million tonnes of steel. Refinements of this process today account for the greatest part of steel carrying zinc coatings. These can be formed and joined without significant damage to the protective coating. a series of alloys for coatings have been produced. It also means that any bare areas in a zinc coating on steel. many of which were profiled to produce the ubiquitous ‘corrugated iron’. Recent Zinc Galvanising Alloys Process developments in continuous galvanizing have enabled a range of coatings to be produced with very closely controlled thickness and surface finish. Taken together. This involves dipping prepared steel in molten zinc. mechanical plating and using zinc rich paints. drilling rigs and pipelines. Other Zinc Coatings Originally. are still protected by the surrounding zinc. Galvalume consists of about 55% aluminium and 45% zinc with a small amount of silicon. Zinc will corrode preferentially to give cathodic protection to iron when both are in contact in an aqueous medium. Along with these developments. flame sprayed coating. This is used to good effect to protect immersed structures such as ships’ hulls. figure 1. This was done mainly with fabricated steel or with sheets of steel. The development of the wide range of zinc coatings arose from two happy accidents of chemistry. the relatively slow and predictable rate of atmospheric corrosion of zinc compared with steel. 16 | P a g e . This represents almost half the total world consumption of zinc.ZINC AND ITS USES Zinc Coatings on Steel One of the biggest uses of zinc is in making protective coatings for steel. It is being used extensively around the world as it has better atmospheric corrosion resistance than pure zinc however. Other processes are available and are used where their specific characteristics are required. zinc coatings were applied by hot dip galvanizing.
which together dominate the standard AAA. The zinc air cell is a particularly interesting technology because it acts as a partial fuel cell using the O2 from air as the cathode. Its not surprising then that zinc is used in the manufacture of a variety of battery chemistries. while larger Zinc/Air cells have been developed to power electric vehicles and Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) installations. Its corrosion resistance is better than that of zinc and it retains some cathodic protection capability. wrist watches. and mechanically rechargeable zinc/air batteries that require the replacement of discharged anodes. consumer and industrial. Zinc/Air and Zinc/Silver batteries are also widely used in the electronics industry to power hearing aids. There are also electrically rechargeable zinc/air batteries that use a bifunctional oxygen electrode for charge and discharge. Galfan is a zinc. AA. 17 | P a g e . Industrial Zinc/Silver and Zinc/Nickel batteries are of critical importance in a variety of aeronautic and military applications. 5% aluminium alloy containing small amounts of rare earth metals which has a substantial and growing niche market in which its properties are valuable. Zinc Batteries Zinc based energy systems have tremendous advantages including high specific energy. recyclability. safety and zero emissions. both primary and rechargeable. C and D size consumer battery market. There are portable primary zinc/air batteries and industrial primary zinc/air batteries. calculators and the like.it loses the ability to protect any exposed steel such as that at cut edges. The most well known of these chemistries are the primary zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.
innovative plumbing fixtures and architectural details. Architects. Brasses can retain that color indefinitely if properly protected with suitable finishes. not simply for statuary. design parlance collectively identifies all of these alloys as "bronzes". Cast brasses offer almost infinite possibilities for artistic expression. natural colour and feel. Besides its traditional use for door handles. Rather. In fact.or contrast . Brass is also a hygienic material . it has the added benefit of being bacteriostatic. in some cases. That convention notwithstanding. cast brasses can be selected by color to match . an important advantage. The names given to alloys in the brass family are. although other elements may be present. brass is now an increasingly popular material with architects. Historically and technically. For example.the colors of most wrought brass alloys.Zinc Use in Brass The Brass Family Brass is not a single unique metal. Brass has a warm. as colorful as the metals themselves. but as decorative hardware. The very pleasing . Ageless beauty The brasses we normally think of are bright yellow in color. The amount of zinc present in these alloys ranges from 10% to more than 40%. Thus. "statuary bronzes" and even "green bronzes" (after weathering). or alloys of copper and zinc. Moreover. colors and weathering characteristics. brass is defined as any alloy in which the principal constituents are copper and zinc.and from a corrosion standpoint. all brasses contain zinc. "yellow bronzes". 18 | P a g e . mainly because of their similar uses. designers and sculptors take creative advantage of brass's gradual change in appearance to underscore the timelessness of their structural creations. interior designers and consumers. designers and architects speak of "white bronzes".natural patinas that brasses assume as they age have become synonymous with durability and lasting quality. the brasses comprise a family of copper-base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. lighting fixtures and decorative objects. the majority of the metals so identified are brasses. but the way brasses change color as they age opens an entirely new dimension to their use in architecture. very protective . railings and hardware.when used for handles.
When brass articles are no longer needed. they are almost never discarded. Its constituents. durable lacquers and polymeric laminates are now available that can retain the natural beauty of new metal for years. Environmentally friendly Finally. Alternatively. is the fact that brass is one of the most thoroughly and efficiently recycled of all industrial metals. The variety of surface finishes and colors available in brass is one more expression of the metal's almost endless variety. if ever. The recent development of extremely age-resistant protective finishes. it is possible to accelerate brass's ageing process through the application of chemical treatments. Rather. it is important to understand that brass is an environmentally friendly metal. brass is remelted and reprocessed to "new" brass many times over. These "artificial patinas" create within hours the protective mineral surface finishes that would take decades to form in nature. some architects have found that the combination of aged patinas and bright "new" metal finishes is especially appealing. though.Today. finds its way to a landfill. Interestingly. are produced today by energy-efficient processes. copper and zinc. The efficient recycling process has been going on for thousands of years. including powder coatings and vapor-deposited organic coatings.its family tree may include recycled products that are centuries old. It is simply too valuable to throw away. and brass rarely. whether indoors or exposed to the atmosphere. is one of the major driving forces behind brass's growing popularity. Think about that the next time you see a brand new brass product . 19 | P a g e . More important.
dusts being finer. Organic salts of zinc are used in paints. The difference between powder and dust is essentially a matter of fineness. which render it luminescent. Zinc oxide is used in the vulcanization of rubber. These are prepared by pulverizing a stream of molten metal in a jet of compressed air or water. They are used to purify solutions by cementation or to achieve other reductions. and zinc stearate is used in the preparation of plastics as well as in powder metallurgy. the most widely used zinc compound. The electrochemical properties of zinc account for its essential role as a negative electrode in dry (or Leclanché) batteries. which starts from zinc metal and gives a higher purity end product. ZnS is also used as a detector of alpharays. as well as in ceramics. The oxide is also used in varistors (that provide protection against over-voltages). and many other products and processes. in the manufacturing of Leclanché batteries. followed by oxidation of the zinc vapor in air. which starts from oxidized materials and involves a reduction step with carbon. paints. ZnS and the selenide ZnSe are used in infrared optics. is produced by two different methods: the direct or American process. Special grades of zinc powders are also used in alkaline batteries as well as in certain button cells. and the indirect or French process. Zinc oxide ZnO. 20 | P a g e . A special grade of zinc oxide has long been used in photocopiers. Zinc sulphide ZnS mixed with barium sulphate is used as a white pigment known as lithopone. etc. and as a scaling flux in galvanizing. zinc phosphate to passivate steels. zinc sulphate in agriculture and animal feed. Zinc salts have various applications: zinc chloride in the textile industry. animal feed and pharmaceuticals.Zinc Compounds In the chemical industry zinc is used in the form of zinc powders and dusts.
dimensional stability and high modulus make it suitable for working mechanical parts. that would be less durable if molded from polymers. Zinc can be cast at moderate temperatures thus providing significant energy and processing savings over other metals and engineering alloys. make it an ideal material choice for heat sinks. Precision Tolerances: Zinc alloys are castable to closer tolerances than other metals or molded plastics. electrical components and applications requiring electromagnetic shielding.Zinc castings also accept a broad assortment of finishes allowing almost any desired aesthetic characteristic and coating durability to be achieved. because of zinc’s density. Why Zinc Castings? For countless decorative and functional applications no other material and process can match the properties and economics of zinc die casting. mass-produced items manufactured by the metalworking industry. plastics. permanent Virtually any casting process can be used with zinc alloys to satisfy mold. weathered brass. and even leather And. Zinc’s excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. Strength & Ductility: Zinc alloys offer high strengths (to 60. self lubricating properties. stainless steel. cast zinc parts provide a feel of substance and durability that simply cannot be matched by plastic components. Precision. zinc castings can be made to look like solid gold. therefore presenting the opportunity to reduce or eliminate machining. Zinc casting alloys are stronger than reinforced molded polymers and zinc's hardness. graphite mold and plaster casting technology. Impact resistance is significantly higher than cast aluminium alloys. Toughness: Few materials provide the strength and toughness of zinc alloys. crimping and riveting operations. zinc castings are truly everywhere and positively impact our lives on a daily basis.000 psi) and superior elongation for strong designs and formability for bending. high-volume die casting is the most popular casting process. From bathroom fixtures and door and window hardware to office equipment and tools as well as automotive and countless electronic components. as well as precise casting tolerances. 21 | P a g e . Key Advantages of Zinc Casting Alloys include: Process Flexibility: Virtually any quantity and quality requirement.Zinc Die Castings Introduction Die Castings are among the highest volume. and grey cast iron. such as gears and pinions. For example. Zinc alloys can also be economically gravity cast for lower volumes using sand. "Net Shape" or "Zero Machining" manufacturing is a major advantage of zinc casting.
zinc alloys require less energy to melt and cast versus other engineering alloys. Zinc metal is non-toxic. chromated or anodized for decorative and/or functional service. Anti-Sparking: Zinc alloys are nonsparking and suitable for hazardous location applications such as coal mines. and scrap items are a reusable resource which are efficiently recycled. allows for thinner wall sections to be cast in zinc compared to other metal. 22 | P a g e . therefore. Easy Finishing: Zinc castings are readily polished. plated. Low Energy Costs: Because of their low melting temperature. Stiffness properties are.Rigidity: Zinc alloys have the rigidity of metals with modulus of elasticity characteristics equivalent to other die castable materials. therefore. tankers and refineries. trouble-free machining characteristics of zinc materials minimize tool wear and machining costs. extended life for die casting tools. Thin Wall Castability: High casting fluidity. Machinability: Fast. tooling life can be more than 10 times that of aluminum dies. Clean and Recyclable: Zinc alloys are among the cleanest melting materials available. For example. Bearing Properties: Bushing and wear inserts in component designs can often be eliminated because of zinc's excellent bearing properties. For example. far superior to engineering plastics. painted. regardless of casting process. Long Tool Life: Low casting temperatures result in less thermal shock and. zinc alloys have outperformed bronze in heavy duty industrial applications.
coating performance and the environmental characteristics of zinc coatings. in millions of metric tons 2.from automobiles to household appliances to residential.2000. products. left unchecked. Technical Performance of Zinc Coatings There are many factors to consider when selecting the most appropriate zinc coating. is estimated to cost an industrialized country’s economy at least 4% of GDP each year. appearance and cost should also be considered.Galvanizing 1. These factors each impact on selecting the correct zinc coating for a given application. Introduction For over a century. zinc has enhanced the longevity and performance of steel. Other zinc coatings in addition to continuous galvanizing are also briefly discussed. 23 | P a g e . All zinc coatings. These include: • • • • • • • high strength formability light weight corrosion resistance aesthetics recyclability low cost For this reason. Zinc-coated or galvanized steel offers a unique combination of properties unmatched by any other material. Total coated sheet steel capacity 1970 . like the steel they protect. are recyclable. commercial and industrial construction. In addition to corrosion protection. the coating’s formability. This section describes the continuous galvanizing process. adherence. Zinc coatings provide the most effective and economical way of protecting steel against corrosion which. galvanized steel sheet is an ideal material for a multitude of building and manufacturing applications .
2. With indoor exposure . the steel is cathodically protected by the sacrificial corrosion of the zinc coating adjacent to the steel. such as Galfan® or Galvalume®. floor decks and steel framing. Zinc coatings protect steel by providing a physical barrier as well as cathodic protection for the underlying steel. its thickness and that of the underlying steel. These two methods. This contrasts with paint and aluminum coatings where the corroding steel progressively undercuts the surrounding barrier film. In practice. Cathodic Protection: Another outstanding protection mechanism is zinc’s remarkable ability to galvanically protect steel. Coating life is determined by the coating corrosion rate. It is important that the correct zinc coating is specified to provide optimal performance under the exposure conditions to which the coating will be subjected. or by applying paint top coats. this means that a zinc coating is not undercut because the steel cannot corrode adjacent to a zinc coating.moisture may also be present. the atmosphere may be corrosive. The effectiveness of zinc coatings in any given environment is directly proportional to coating thickness. as well as by the area of damage. In industrial indoor situations.ventilation ducts. Barrier Protection: Zinc coatings provide a continuous. Without moisture. itself a function of many factors such as time. 24 | P a g e . Corrosion resistance of coatings can also be improved by using a zinc alloy coating. there is no corrosion. 2. except in certain chemical atmospheres. individually or together. are recommended for exposed sheet applications where enhanced corrosion protection is required. steel will corrode in almost any environment. the acidity level of rain will influence the zinc corrosion rate. 2. composition of the atmosphere and the type of coating.1.1.1. for example . such as at a cut edge or scratch.1. The extent of this cathodic protection is determined by the type of coating. When base steel is exposed.2. In situations of outdoor exposure. impervious metallic barrier that does not allow moisture to contact the steel. Corrosion Resistance: When left unprotected. Thus the type and weight of coating required depends both on the service life needed and the exposure conditions.
zinc’s cathodic action will prevent the steel from corroding. The term "duplex coating" is used for galvanized and painted steel parts.1. whereas the term "coil coating" or "pre-painting" is used for continuous galvanized and painted steel sheet. 2. Paint acts as a barrier protecting the underlying zinc coating. Zinc is an excellent substrate for paint coatings because if the paint film is broken. Even if the coating damage does reach the steel base. 25 | P a g e . zinc’s high corrosion resistance prevents undercutting of the paint film. Zinc’s ability to extend the life of paint coatings is what makes pre-painted galvanized steel sheet such a durable product that continues to extend its market share in commercial and residential roofing and cladding applications.When painted zinc-coated steel is scratched. Source: IISI Growth of corrosion of painted cold-rolled and painted galvanized steel sheets used for car body outer panel. zinc protects both the underlying steel from corrosion and the overlying paint coat from lifting. Painted Zinc Coatings: Zinc coatings are easily painted.3.
26 | P a g e . Formability and Adhesion: The formability and adhesion of continuous galvanized zinc coatings are excellent and in most cases match the formability of the underlying steel. The zinc and steel industries have for many years conducted both research and field trials on the performance of various combinations of painted and coated sheet steel. Similar evaluation can be made for other coating combinations and atmospheric conditions. It is therefore necessary to balance the requirements for corrosion resistance and formability . a 70 µm galvanized coating plus a 100 µm layer of paint will provide a coating life of over 50 years.2. Source: Stichting Doelmatig Verzinken / Progalva 2.is inversely proportional to coating and steel substrate thickness.Combigram of duplex systems. In the example shown for a highly corrosive industrial atmosphere. an important consideration for deep draw stamping applications. The formability of galvanized steel . however. The result of this extensive base of information is that existing performance can be predicted for a wide range of atmospheric conditions.which is defined as the resistance to cracking and loss of adhesion of the zinc coating during forming . some coatings that are more ductile than others. There are.
4.2.coating finishes. 27 | P a g e . strength and cure speed. adhesion. mainly to themselves. self-piercing rivets and lock forming can be used for a wide range of steel substrate. Adhesive bonding has become more popular and can also be allied to mechanical fixing. Electrogalvanized coatings have the smoothest finish among zinc coatings and provide the best substrate for a high quality paint finish. rivets. Surface Appearance: Zinc and zinc alloy coatings can differ in appearance depending on customer needs and consumer preferences.3.all targeted to enhance further processing. This technique is often used in the downstream sectors. oiling) . Assembly: Assembly refers to the technique of joining galvanized sheet steel products. The range of adhesive systems is wide and the selection depends on numerous variables such as surface condition. 2. Galvanneal (Zn-Fe) coatings have a matt grey appearance. Resistance welding is a technique that uses resistance to the flow of electrical current to generate heat and thereby join two materials. zinc coatings and applications.There are standards covering all aspects of surface appearance . In any application. the joining method should suit the metallic coating and will be determined either on the basis of its performance or the properties and characteristics of the galvanized product. There are several effective joining methods: Welding is the most common method of joining steel products. surface qualities (from regular to best quality) and surface treatments (chemical passivation. Mechanical fixing methods such as screws. Galvanized coating finishes can vary from extra smooth and featureless to a flowery "spangle" pattern. Pre-finished galvanized steel can be spot welded if the zinc coating is not too thick to enable the welding current to pass from one electrode to the other.
weldability and drawability. Galvanneal is used in the automotive industry because of its improved manufacturing performance in models which use lighter and stronger grades of steel. making it ideal for deep drawn and "zero-thickness" bend applications. Galvalume® and Galfan® coatings. Electrogalvanized: Steel sheet with an electroplated zinc coating that has an ultra-smooth surface finish which is desirable for surface critical parts such as automotive exterior body panels. agricultural and automotive applications. as well as in numerous other functions. These products can be used in a wide variety of applications and climates. such as automotive parts and domestic appliances intended for corrosive environments. Galvanized: A pure zinc coating that is the standard continuous galvanized product typically used in building panels. Galfan: Galfan is a zinc-5% aluminum coating with superior corrosion resistance when formed.1. Continuous Galvanizing 3. alloying elements can be added to produce galvanized coatings with different properties.3. It is widely used for painted and unpainted building panels and roofing and for higher temperature applications in vehicle powertrain and heat-reflective components. Galvalume: Galvalume is a zinc-55% aluminum alloy coating with superior corrosion resistance for applications without severe forming. The coating thickness for electrogalvanized sheet is typically lower than for a hot-dip galvanized product. electrogalvanized. It is used for painted building panels and for severely formed components. Galvanneal: A zinc-iron alloy coating with improved paintability. The family of continuous galvanized coatings includes galvanized. Electrogalvanized coatings generally use pure zinc although alloy coatings (Zn-Fe. It has good surface finish and adhesion properties. Galfan coated steel is noted for its outstanding coating adhesion. steel framing. Zn-Ni) are also commercialised. Products: Starting from high purity zinc. galvanneal. 28 | P a g e .
the aesthetic appearance of sharp profile. 29 | P a g e . cladding and three main assets . long life and favourable econom Roll forming of pre-painted sheet gives a lower cost than painting after forming. Roll formed pre-painted sheet for building. A wide variety of paint systems are available to meet the performance requirements of a g Today’s automobiles have a perfect body finish that combines a high degree of aesthetic standards of corrosion protection. Dom combine severe forming with guaranteed corrosion protection to meet the requirements of modern design. commercial and residential buildings. Steel sh provide advice on the most appropriate system for individual needs. allowin roofing and cladding possibilities for industrial. roll forming and s used to make tile roofing. offering a product with much lower weight and cost than the traditional material. Painted galvanized sheet is roll-formed to give profiles specified by the customer. The m and best quality painting method is continuous coil coating or pre-painting. Recent advanc technology and paint systems enable pre-painted galvanized sheet to be roll-formed with striking patterns. Aesthetics: Galvanized steel sheet can also be painted for improved corrosion protection and aesthetics.3. This allows for exact preparation of the ga prior to coil coating.2. For example.
standards such as ISO. ASTM and JIS are available to assist in the specifying galvanized steel sheet. Range of Commonly Available Coating Weights. floods and earthquakes better than any other construct this reason. it is being used more and more in commercial and residential construction. termites. please refer to your steel supplier. there are over 550 continuous galvanizing lines worldwide and additional capacity is planned in response to gro Zinc-coated steel resists decay. Common uses of coated steel sheet 30 | P a g e . A growing market is galvanized steel framing and roofing for residentia Today. Standards: Around the world. Applications: The major uses of galvanized steel sheet are construction and vehicle and appliance manufac galvanized sheet is a major constituent in the 50 million vehicles and over 40 million appliances produced each ye countless commercial and industrial buildings. wind.3.4. 3. corrosion.3. The table below lists some of the more popular coating weights available in each product standa local standards. fire.
Cockerill-Sambre .Usinor 31 | P a g e .Cominco .The growth in auto industry use of zinc-coated steel sheet Source: IZA-Europe Photos: BHP Steel .Galvazinc Association .
recycl Recyclability is a key selection criteria for specifiers. The Process: Continuous galvanized steel is made under precise. Galvanized steel is a value-added product that allows the use of steel sheet in applications where uncoated steel could coatings help expand the markets for steel. the coated sheet steel can be and recoiled. doors. The major use of electrogalvanized coatings is autobody outer panels. Canada 32 | P a g e . Thicker coatings are more expensive than thinner coatings and zinc alloy coatings are more expensive than galvanized cases.in this way.3.6. All galvan metallurgically bonded to the steel they protect. In the continuous hot-dip galvanizing process. roll or draw the steel into its final product shape. Ontario. although structural components such as inner panels. As the steel exits the molten zinc bath. The use of galvanized sheet for automotive body panels allows today’s automakers to guarantee up to 12 years’ corr while adding only a fraction of a percent to the cost of the vehicle. galvanized steel decking combined with high-speed concrete pouring allows faster cons lowering construction costs. Depending on customer requirements. formability.5. 3. Zinc is applied either by dipping in molten zinc or by electroplating. gas "knives" wipe off th from the steel sheet to control coating thickness. and cut to length and palletized before shipment to the fabricator. Choices are best made by matching coating performance to application needs. galvanized steel contributes to manufacturing economies. This ensures coating adhesion . zinc-coated steel using high-speed continuous lines that control not only the coating qu strength and formability of the steel product.critical fo processes that stamp. Commercial and industrial washing machines can operate every day around the clock thanks to galvanized steel sheet c wear and tear from exposure to soaps. coils of rolled steel are continuously u through cleaning and annealing sections before entering a molten zinc bath at speeds up t minute (650 feet/minute). housings and appliances are also pro material. however. The steel strip then undergoes a series chemical treatments. Galvanized steels can be stamped and formed using existing steel manufacturing equipment. bleaches and chemical solutions.galvanized coil coated products are now available with up to 50 year performanc improved performance and added value generated by zinc coated steel sheet is vastly superior to the small additional Durability. thus avoiding the nee tooling . The cost-benefit ratio represents outstanding value f The same applies to building panels . The existence of cost-effective recycling routes contributes favor cost of zinc-coated steel products. longterm stability of surface appearance and low maintenance are all significant advantages for t In the construction industry. factory-controlled conditions during which flat are upgraded to high-quality. The extra cost involved is small when compared to performance. Economics: Zinc-coated steel sheet offers a unique combination of strength. Electrogalvanized coatings are produced by electroplating zinc or zinc alloys onto steel process. aesthetics. durability. these premium products give higher performance. Continuous Hot Dip Galvanizing Line Courtesy of DNN Galvanizing Corporation.
Delivery Looping Tower . In general.12. refers to the galvanizing of fabricated or manufactured steel items. is fed into a spray gun.14. Entry Gauge . General Galvanizing: General Galvanizing. Preheat Furnace Furnace . Welder .25.Quench Tank . Skinpass Mill Dryer . 5. 5. or powder.2. Every year. The fabricated steel article is cleaned and then dipped into a molten zinc bath. Particulate Applied Zinc Coatings: Zinc can also be applied to steel by zinc metallizing. or thermal spraying.26. either on racks for small items or individually for large items. Zinc Pot . is a process by which zinc wire. Water Cooling Dryer . Gas Jet Cooling .Key: 1. Coating We Temper Rolling -19. Scale and Automatic Shipping 5.1.11. General galvanizing provides fabricated steel items with excellent protection against corrosion. melted and sprayed onto a work piece. Radiant Tube Furnace . also known as Hot Dip Galvanizing.220.127.116.11.15. AfterFabrication Galvanizing or Batch Galvanizing. Metallizing: Zinc metallizing. more than 10 million tonnes of steel products are protected against corrosion by the general galvanizing process.3. This resistance can vary from 20 years in an industrial site to over 65 years in a rural environment.24. Cleaning . Tension Leveller . worldwide. Controlled Cooling .18.104.22.168. Electrostatic O Shear .5. Zinc coatings from this process are five to ten times thicker than continuously galvanized coatings and can offer long term outdoor protection in most environments. The nature of the immersion process provides good edge protection and complete coverage of the outer surface area as well as inner protection of hollow parts. Entry Looping Tower . Tension Reel .2.2. a zinc coating of at least 60-70µm is applied. Other Zinc Coatings 5. or by adding zinc dust to paint systems. Air/Nitrog Galvannealing Furnace . Double Cut Shear .4. .21. Coil Cars . Melting is accomplished either by 33 | P a g e .6. Tower Roll Clean .
2. They can be applied by brush or spray and must always be applied over a properly prepared steel substrate. Uniform. Zinc-rich paints are classified as organic. which is then re-used for galvanizing. 5. Zinc-Coated Steel is an Environmentally Responsible Choice All types of zinc-coated steel products are recyclable. This closed-loop recycling route is widespread today in industrialised countries. The amount of galvanized scrap steel available for recycling has been rising over the last ten years. Zinc-Rich Paint: Zinc-rich paint typically contains over 77% zinc in the dry film and benefits from the barrier and cathodic protection provided by zinc.the largest market for galvanized steel sheet . which is in turn used for producing zinc.combustion in an oxygen-fuel gas flame. for example: 12-15 years for cars versus 25-100 years for building products. producing new steel and zinc that return to the market place. however. The tumbling action causes the glass beads to hammer the zinc onto the part. alternative supplies of raw material for the steel and zinc industries.5kg) threaded work or other close tolerance items. Coating thickness is controlled by time and quantity of zinc powder added. The parts to be plated are tumbled together with zinc powder and glass beads in water. or by an electric arc that is created between two zinc wires. Building product applications . Today. This process eliminates the possibility of hydrogen embrittlement of high strength fasteners.2. Sherardizing: Sherardizing is a diffusion controlled process which produces a zinc iron alloy coating. 80 percent of the zinc available for recycling is indeed recycled. Zinc-containing EAF dust is treated and the zinc recovered in the form of zinc oxide. whose availability for recycling is a function of product life-span. appliances and building products although more and more is now becoming available for recycling. Metallized coatings can be applied at high thickness (100–200 µm) which makes them ideal for long-term corrosion protection. is still in the marketplace in the form of cars. 6. zinc becomes part of the steel recycling circuit.4. depending on the binder used. Small fabricated articles are charged in a drum with zinc powder and sand. The Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) is the principal recycling route for zinc-coated steel. The resulting metallic coating is slightly porous with a lamella or layered structure.remain in service for 34 | P a g e . Both the technology and recycling capacity have been developed in response to environmental awareness and the need for cost-effective.3. • • • • Galvanized steel is recycled from three sources: scrap arising during the production of galvanized sheet scrap generated during product manufacturing and installation end-of-life products.2. for up to 3 hours. abrasion resistant coatings can be formed on complex parts.2. The majority of galvanized steel sheet. or inorganic. Once steel is galvanized. typically 380˚C. New cost-effective treatment technologies continue to be developed with the aim of maximising zinc recovery. Mechanical Plating: This process is used primarily for small (<0. 5. The drum is rotated at a temperature below the melting point of zinc. 5. hard.
zinc sheet is typically produced by continuous casting/rolling. after which it is cut to size and coiled. cornices and pipes. Architectural alloys generally contain copper and titanium and are produced in the form of sheet. such as gutters. Zinc Sheet Zinc sheet is used extensively in the building industry for roofing. strip. Today. Over the next ten years. where it solidifies. with the highest increase coming from the automotive sector. It is only recently that some of the lower life-span galvanized products. or cut and formed to desired shapes. flashing and weathering applications.many years before recycling. such as automobiles. and the molten metal is poured between the two endless bands of a Hazelett machine. have started entering the recycling circuit. The endless strip is fed continuously to a rolling mill. 35 | P a g e . as well as battery cans and coinage. plate and rods and are used as such. the supply of zinc-coated steel scrap is expected to increase by more than 50%. which reduces the thickness to the desired level in successive passes. The continuous 'ingot' delivered at the other end can be more than 1 m wide and from 10 to 20 mm thick. Zinc is melted in an induction furnace. Zinc sheet is also used in graphic art to make plates and blocks.
2. 36 | P a g e .5 Zn .5 Cu) ABOUT HINDUSTAN ZINC HISTORY Hindustan Zinc Limited was incorporated from the erstwhile Metal Corporation of India on 10th January 1966 as a Public Sector Undertaking. Sterlite Industries (India) Limited made an open offer for acquisition of shares of the company consequent to the disinvestment of Government of India’s stake (26%) including management control to Sterlite and pursuant to the regulations of SEBI Regulations 1997 acquired additional 20% of shares from public.Zinc sheet allows architects the freedom to create highly complex roof designs The United State's Penny is made from copper-plated rolled zinc (97. In April 2002.
S. Director Shri S.92% stake in Hindustan Zinc from Government of India 2002 Sterlite acquired 26% stake in Hindustan Zinc from the Government of India. 2005 Chanderiya Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter (Hydro I) commissioned along with a 154 MW coal based captive power plant. Consequent to disinvestment a further 20% is bought from market through open offer. Mittal. Milestones (Post Disinvestment) • • • • • 2007 Chanderiya Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter (Hydro II) commissioned o 63.92% of the paid up capital from Government of India (GOI). K. K. CEO & Whole-time Director HIGHLIGHTS One of the world’s largest integrated zinc and lead producer • • Refined zinc production capacity 669.2 MW Wind Energy Project commissioned 2006 Chanderiya Ausmelt Lead Smelter commissioned.000 tonnes per annum Operational Highlights of Hindustan Zinc 37 | P a g e . Our Board Shri Agnivesh Agarwal. Director Shri Nand Kishore Shukla. Director Shri K.000 tonnes per annum Refined lead production capacity 85. Smt. 2003 Sterlite Industries acquires 18. o Sindesur Khurd Mine began production. Director Shri A.In August 2003. Mehta. Ajita Bajpai Pande. Sterlite Industries acquired additional shares to the extent of 18. Kaura. Director Shri Anil Agarwal. K. Director Shri Tarun Jain. Chairman. Singh. Director Shri M. Director Shri Navin Agarwal.
maximizing stake-holder value Assets & Locations Hindustan Zinc is a vertically integrated company with mining and smelting operations located mainly in the State of Rajasthan and in the State of Andhra Pradesh 38 | P a g e . maintaining market leadership One million tonne zinc-lead metal capacity by 2010 Be innovative. creating value. Mission • • • Be a lowest cost zinc producer on a global scale.Vision & Mission Vision Be a world-class zinc company. leveraging mineral resources and related core competencies. customer oriented and eco-friendly.
OPERATIONS MINING 39 | P a g e .
SA 8000: 2001 Certifications Sindesar Khurd Mine Commissioned Location Capacity 2006 80 km north-east of Udaipur. Mining is done through vertical crater retreat and blast hole stoping. Ore is crushed underground before hoisting and stockpiling for secondary and tertiary crushing. Onsite concentrator to produce Zinc concentrates.00 million tonnes per annum ore An open cast mine and good ore grade leading to higher recovery and overall low cost of production. Rajasthan. Certifications ISO 9001:2000. OHSAS 18001:1999.Rampura Agucha Mine Commissioned Location Capacity Details 1991 225 km north of Udaipur. Rajasthan.3 million tonnes per annum ore SMELTING 40 | P a g e . OHSAS 18001:1996 Rajpura Dariba Mine Commissioned Location Capacity Rajpura Dariba Mine 1983 75 km north-east of Udaipur.6 million tonnes per annum ore An underground mine with onsite concentrator and two vertical access shafts. ISO 14001:1996. ISO 9001:2000. Rajasthan. India 0. India 0. India 5. ISO 14001:2004.
Rajasthan. ISP™ pyrometallurgical (Chanderiya Lead Zinc Smelter) and Ausmelt™ (Chanderiya Lead Smelter) process routes.000 tonnes per annum of Lead 120 tonnes per annum of Silver Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter Hydro I Commissioned in 2005 Roast Leach Electrowinning Technology with Lead Silver Residue Recovery 210. India Commissioned in 1991 Imperial Smelting Technology – UK Gone through a series of debotlenecking 105.000 tonnes per annum of Zinc 35. Roast Leach Electro-Winning (RLE).Hindustan ZincLtd.000 tonnes per annum of Lead Commissioned in 2005 Built by BHEL 2 x 77 MW Commissioned in 2007 Built by BHEL 80 MW Certification ISO 9001:2000.000 tonnes per annum of Zinc Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter Hydro II Commissioned in 2007 Roast Leach Electrowinning Technology with Conversion Process 210. ISO 14001:2004. OHSAS 18001:1999 Lead Smelter Coal Based Captive Power Plant 41 | P a g e . Chanderiya Lead Zinc Smelter Complex Location Lead Zinc Smelter 120 km from Udaipur. Vizag and Chanderiya Smelters). operates smelters using. hydrometallurgical (Debari.000 tonnes per annum of Zinc Commissioned in 2006 TSL Technology from Ausmelt-Australia Cansolv Technology for Sulphur Recovery 50.
+ 98.Slabs (25 kgs) Jumbo (1.Slabs (25 kgs) .5% concentration Debari Zinc smelter Location 14 km from Udaipur.Slabs (25 kgs) . Rajasthan. India 42 | P a g e .Bricks (30 kgs) . Cansolv plant for 100% sulphur capture from Ausmelt Lead Furnace.000 kgs) Prime Western Zinc (PW) Lead Cadmium Silver Sulphuric Acid .Highlights • • • • • • Largest single location Zinc-Lead Smelter Complex in the World World’s largest and latest generation roasters State-of-The-Art DCDA acid plants & Tail Gas Scrubber. Residue management using Jarofix Technology Zero discharge Products Range Special High Grade Zinc (SHG) .Pencils (160 gms) .
Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter Commissioned in 1968 Roast Leach Electrowining Technology with Conversion Process Gone through a series of debotlenecking 88. SA 8000:2001 Captive Power Generation Certifications Highlights • • DCDA acid plant & Tail Gas Scrubber.000 tonnes per annum of Zinc 29 MW DG Set BEST4 Certified Integrated Systems ISO 9001:2000.Slabs (25 kgs) Jumbo (600 kgs) Cadmium Sulphuric Acid . Zero discharge Products Range High Grade Zinc (HG) . ISO 14001:2004.+ 98% concentration Vizag Zinc smelter 43 | P a g e .Pencils (150 gms) . OHSAS 18001:1999.
India Commissioned in 1977 Roast Leach Electrowining Technology with Conversion Process Gone through a series of debotlenecking 56.000 tonnes per annum of Zinc BEST4 Certified Integrated Systems ISO 9001:2000. Andhra Pradesh. SA 8000:2001 Certifications Highlights • • Acid plant with Tail Gas Scrubber.+ 98% concentration Central Research & Development Laboratory 44 | P a g e .Pencils (150 gms) . ISO 14001:2004.Location Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter 17 km from Vishakapatnam. Zero discharge Products Range High Grade Zinc (HG) . OHSAS 18001:1999.Slabs (25 kgs) Cadmium Sulphuric Acid .
14 km east of Udaipur (Rajasthan) ISO 9001. Sizing. Autoclave. Recognized laboratory from Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). Stage-Crushing & Wet Grinding. Cooling centrifuge (Normal and high speed cooling). Pit furnace. lab scale leaching and downstream facilities Kg scale leaching plant. 14001. OHSAS 18001 certified unit Listed in American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM)’s Directory of International Testing Laboratories. Kg scale SX-EW plant Bioleaching Laminar flow work-station. Bioleaching columns for bench scale testing. Incubators (Stationary and shaking). High temperature furnace Hydrometallurgy Pressure Autoclaves. Wet / dry grinding ball mill 4 MT /day Extractive Metallurgy Pyrometallurgy Furnaces: Rotary Kiln.Establishment Location Certification Objectives 1977 Located at Debari. Bioleaching Reactors. and research institutions in India or overseas Technology development for recovery of metal values from by products. 2 TPD capacity. Froth Flotation. Government of India Establish Company’s image as a leading technology-driven company through in-house development of path breaking technologies or by working closely with technology leaders. Gravity Separation. universities. intermediates. Arc Furnace. Grinding. Froth-Flotation Continuous Testing Facility Portable continuous stage-flotation testing (Mini Flotation) unit along with slurry pumping and reagent dosing Mineral Processing Pilot Plant Continuous basis. Material Characterization/ Analytical 45 | P a g e . waste and environment management Act as Referral laboratory/ Umpire for export/ import consignment and exploration Facilities Mineral Processing Batch Testing Facilities Crushing.
Process development for recovery of Cobalt oxide from Beta cake of Debari Zinc Smelter. Recovery of Silver from Anode Mud of Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter. Production of Copper Cement and recovery of Zinc from Copper Cadmium cake of Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter. Upgradation of Silver grade in Lead Concentrate at Rampura Agucha Mine. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN LAST 5 YEARS 46 | P a g e . Silver enrichment in Moore cake and its recovery. Simulation of crushing & grinding circuits for Mineral Beneficiation plant for the automatic control of grinding circuits. Research Enduring Recovery of metal values from Rampura Agucha Tails. Recovery of Zinc values from Tailing via Bioleaching route. Mesh of Grind (MOG) studies for Hindustan Zincmines.Petromineralogy Facilities X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (with GTF and vapor generation unit) UV-vis Spectrophotometer Mercury Analyzer Karl Fischer Apparatus for Moisture determination Wet Chemical Analysis Recent Achievements Flotation Process development for new Lead-Zinc deposit. Recovery of Cadmium from Hot Gas Precipitator dust of Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter. Recovery of Antimony from Antimony dross of Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter.
SOME OF THE CUSTOMERS (Debari Zinc Smelter) 47 | P a g e .
Ltd. Punjab Hissar Tarapur Delhi Kota New Delhi Mumbai Zinc used in Battaries 1. Agrawal Metal Works (P) Ltd. Gangwal Industries 2. 9. HR sheets. etc. Jindal Industries Ltd. JSW Steel Ltd. Tata Steel Ltd. Modern Insulation Ltd. Punjab Indore Rajpura. Gwalior Rewari Jodhpur Zinc used in Galvanizing. Alcobex Metal Ltd.Zinc used in Brass pipes. 6. National Steel & Agro Ind. 1. 3. GI. 3. Steel Co. 1. Laxmi Metal Udyog 7. Techman (India) 11. Swastik Pipes Ltd. Nippo Bataries Co. KEC International Ltd. 3. Jabalpur Doraha. 4. power transmission 1.2) 2. 4. Brass etc. Stripes Ltd. Ltd. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Richhai.(Unit No. Man Structurals (P) Ltd. Agrawal Salt Company Jaipur Abu Road Jaipur Bikaner 48 | P a g e . Vardhman Industries Ltd. 2. 10. 5. 8. Multimetals Ltd. Nellore Zinc used in Insulaters.
Zinc used for Chemicals 1. such as:• • • • Subsidize canteen facility. 4. Bulsar. Human Resource Development: The progressive programs are designed to fill up gaps in the knowledge and skills of employees. weakness. STRENGTH: 1. Welfare Activities for workers: Various welfare activities are under taken by the company. Residential facility with subsidized electricity and water supply. The company provides free safety equipments security of employees through PF. Gujarat Silvasa SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis is a good management approach. 2. Proper authority is delegated at lower levels and responsibility of each personnel is well defined. Free medical facility for workers at their working place. On the job as well as off the job training programs are conducted for the workers at the shop floor level. 2. Welfare activities for society: 49 | P a g e . which helps the manager to analyze the strength. Demosha Chemicals (P) Ltd. gratuity scheme. 3. Transpek-Silox Industry Ltd. Well set up organization structure: The organization is well defined and this helps in better coordination at various levels of management. pension plan and accidental claims. opportunity and threats. Executives are trained through various executive training programs.
Globalization: 50 | P a g e . 5. various events to promote games. 2. Extra Manpower: I think that there is extra manpower still even after the privatization of the company and the operating cost can be reduced if we can reduce the unwanted manpower. OPPORTUNITIES: 1. pharmaceuticals. mines and townships.Family planning camps. adult education programs. 6. paints. THREATS: 1. Increasing Demand: Demand for zinc is increasing day by day but supply of zinc and lead is not fulfilling the requirement. Environmental Control Method: The various pollution control measures are operating effectively maintaining ambient air quality and effluent discharge at HZL smelters. automobile etc. WEAKNESS: 1. Leading producer: HZL is the leading producer of zinc in the country and has the market share of about 70% so he is the market leader. Especially zinc is used for galvanization. sports and cultural activities.
Government Policies: Instability within the country is major threats to all business organization whether it is a public sector or private sector undertaking. As we can see from the above financial statement that the turnover or sales of the company is increasing at increasing rate expect the last 07-08. the entire world is experiencing an explosive growth of global trade. 51 | P a g e . 3. 2.In the present sense. 2. CONCLUSION 1. This shows the company is regularly increasing the production capacity as there is demand in the market. Globalization has provided an opportunity to expand business it has lead to simultaneous increase in international competition. As we have seen above the various uses of zinc in various products the company has covered customers of virtually all kind as we can see from the above customer list.
HZL and Binani so there is virtually no competition in the market as the HZL is having all major mines with him. company look more zinc batteries company . zinc die casting companies.e.3. As we have seen from above that there are only two major players of zinc in India i. Suggestions 1. 2. zinc sheets manufactures which is used in infrastructure. 3. so company should increase its production capacity to increase in sales and earn more profit. As we have seen from the above customer list that most the customers are those which are engaged in galvanizing of steel and having less customer of batteries so.a due to the growing market of automotive and industrial batteries from current demand. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Annual Report HZL • Zinc News 52 | P a g e . Zinc consumption in India is expected to grow at 8%-10% p. HZL should search more mines and should increase the production as there is still some demand left in the domestic market even though the company is having market share of nearly 70%. As the sales is increasing every year it shows that increasing demand of zinc in the market. 4. As the demand is more than the supply in the domestic market and nearly 25% of demand is fulfilled by importing it from other countries so.
iza.com www.hzlindia.azobuild.com www.com • HZL Debari Zinc Smelter 53 | P a g e .• • • • www.com www.crnindia.
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