A Report submitted to GITAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree

Of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY By Vavilapalli Divya Regd.No:1210408361





This is to certify that the Industrial Training Report entitled STUDY ON BSNL TECHNOLOGIES is a bonafide work done by Vavilapalli Divya bearing permanent Id No.1210408361 submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Bachelor of Technology during a period from May 2011 to June 2011.





I express deep gratitude and sincere thanks to my guide Mrs.B.KANTHAMMA, Assistant professor, Department of Electronics and communication, for her timely guidance and constant support.

I thank PROF. D. PRASADA RAO, PhD, Principal and Dean, who gave us this opportunity to get a practical view of subject through this Industrial Training.

I express my deep gratitude to DR.V.MALLESWARA RAO, Head of the Department, ECE, for his constant support and encouragement.

I thank Mr. K. CHANDRA SEKHAR (D.E, OCB&BB, BSNL) for giving me an opportunity to learn at their premises and I express my deep gratitude to the industry guide Mr. V. RAMESH NAIDU (J.T.O), the co-operative management and helpful staff for giving me knowledge of their services and helping me from time to time.

I take the privilege to thank all the people who either directly or indirectly helped me in making this training a success.

V.Divya (Regd.No. 1210408361)


1) BSNL Overview a) Infrastructure b) Interesting Facts c) BSNL Services d) BSNL IT Tool 2) Making A Telephone Call 3) The Exchange a) Computer Unit b) Power Plant c) AC Plant (Central Air Conditioner) d) Introduction To OCB-283 e) Main Divisions Of OCB 4) Internet a) Internet Technologies b) OSI Networking Model c) Common Terminology Used In Internet d) National Internet backbone (NIB) 5) Broadband a) Introduction to Broadband b) Technological Options c) Broadband Connection At Home 6) Wi-Fi 7) WiMAX 8) Cellular Mobile Services a) WLL (Wireless In Local Loop) Mobile b) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Mobile c) Global System For Mobile Communication (GSM) d) Third Generation (3G) Technology 9) BSNL¶s IP TV 10) Conclusion


a status assigned to public sector companies in India.1. in recent years the company's revenue and market share plunged into heavy losses due to intense competition in Indian telecommunications sector. and the largest land line telephone provider in India. It is India¶s largest telecommunication company with 24% market share as on March 31st 2008.1 million subscribers as of April 2011.69 million wireless subscribers. As of June 30. BSNL had a customer base of 27. India. However. 2010. BSNL is India's oldest and largest communication service provider (CSP). which are managed by Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). It had a customer base of 90 million as of June 2008. 5 . Harish Chandra Mathur Lane.It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi.its headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan.45 million wire line and 72. New Delhi. It has the status of MINI RATNA. with over 87. BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL) OVERVIEW Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is a stateowned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi. BSNL is one of the largest Indian cellular service providers.

EWSD. A/C plant. External/internal infrastructure: y External infrastructure : Lines and cables(U/G including OFC ) Internal infrastructure : Battery. MDF. India¶s No. E/A. Leased Lines ( MLLN ). Vodafone etc. 1 wireless service provider with more than 50 Million customers. y  Interesting Facts:  There are 2 million BSNL mobile connections in rural  India (a record. Switches ( C-DOT. Broad Band. OCB 283. Largest pan India coverage-over 11000 towns & 3 lakh Villages. Power Plant. MPLS VPN. no other connection is as famous as bsnl in rural areas)  BSNL supplies phone lines to all other network such as Airtel. An incredible speed of 2mbps is only offered by BSNL    6 . AXE etc ).



11) EPABX y y y y EPABX CENTREX TRANSPONDER RABMN  BSNL IT tool  BSNL Working Environment  IT Tool used in BSN 9 .

Chhattisgarh and Gujarat Telecom circles. It has been successfully implemented in 171 SSAs across the country. billing. The database is accessed using application software residing in the nodes which have GUI interface. fault repair service and directory enquiry services. accounting. Rajasthan. First it was tested and implemented in Guntur SSA in 1997. Karnataka. It has been approved by the Telecom Commission for implementation all over India.     OS: Linux Front end: Forms 6i Back end Database: Oracle 9i Client Server Model ± 2 layer architecture 10 . Punjab. It has been conceptualized. AndhraPradesh Telecommunications Circle. designed and developed entirely by the core group of the Software Development Centre of the O/o CGMT. DOTSOFT: Dot Soft is the first integrated telecom software application in BSNL comprising of commercial. The central server contains the complete database to which all the nodes anywhere in the district log in. It is based on the latest software technologies running on a WAN and is the first of its kind in BSNL in the field of information technology. J&K and Haryana. Dot Soft is an enterprise wide telecom database system that revolutionizes the operation and supervision of customer services by enabling all the personnel to work online. All the SSAs of Andhra Pradesh. Rest of SSAs is from states of Maharashtra. Assam. Dot soft ensures better customer satisfaction and transparency in BSNL service. Tamilnadu. Madhya Pradesh. Hyderabad. Uttar Pradesh.

 DOTSOFT .Network Elements 11 .

12 .  Flow control / Error Detection / Signal amplification of frames is done in the switch.  The signal amplification is done.  The data from the data link layer is converted into electrical signals and sends on physical media. administered from the Router.  Hub  A Layer 1 (Physical Layer of OSI Model) device  Enables transit of packets within a LAN.  Traffic can be monitored. For example Ethernet to Serial Interface (PPP protocol).  After validation and approval from the concerned sections the work orders flow to the different field units depending on the activity.  Enables transit of packets within a LAN.  The nodes in the customer service centre service all the subscriber requests which flow to the commercial and accounts sections as the case may be.  Modem  For conversion of different protocols.  Switch  A Layer 2 (Data Link Layer of OSI Model) device.  After the completion of the work orders the commercial and billing data of the subscriber gets updated. Router  A Layer 3 (Network Layer of OSI Model) device  Enables transit of packets between two LAN's.

ready to take over in a few seconds in the event of equipment failure. Control unit 4. THE EXCHANGE All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges. which perform the functions the human operator. The called party then handles the process of ringing. stopping the flow of current. Once the dial tone is heard. sending electrical pulses. one or both parties hang up by replacing their handset on the base. one running the program that provides services and the second monitoring the operation of the first. The keys control a tone generator circuit that makes DTMF tones that the exchange receives. When conversation is over. the telephone number of called party. If the called party is in different exchange from the caller. The exchange then stops applying ringing and sets up the connection between the caller and the called party. Various exchanges present in BSNL are: E-10B OCB283 EWSD All exchange has some purposes and some basic structural units. When the called party answers the telephone by picking up the handset. the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits. MAKING A TELEPHONE CALL A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handset of the base. OMC 13 . burst of ringing current is applied to the called party¶s line. The exchange determines whether the called party is in the same exchange or different ones. detecting an answer.2. The number being dialed is stored and then passed to the exchange¶s central computer. and notifying the calling and billing machinery when the call is completed. steady current starts to flow in the called party¶s line and is detected by the exchange. Each telephone contains a ringer that responds to specific electric frequency. Switching network (CX) 3. that the exchange can count to get the telephone number. the caller exchange sets up the connection over the telephone network to the called party¶s exchange. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse dialing. including notifying billing equipment of the duration of the call if appropriate. which are: 1. subscribers connection unit 2. which in turns operates the switching to complete the call or routes it a higher level switch for further processing. The exchange then initiates the process of taking down the connection. If the called is in the same exchange. 3. Today¶s automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers.

1) Computer unit As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet. subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry. It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. AC Plant: .to feed proper power supply to exchange 3.For smooth working of an exchange following unit are very important:1. Computer Unit: . In this system when the user enters his complain it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number. Power Plant: . INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the latest service by the deals with additional services of the exchange to the customers with the help of computers. The server present in the main computer room provides this service. by using this. it is the interface between subscribers and exchange. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room. 2. MDF: . 14 .to maintain the continuous temperature + or ± 2 degree Celsius to the digital switch (exchange). connect switch (exchange) with the external environment (subscriber) i. The main servers of this room are:IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange. LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange.e. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room.

we have an engine to generate the power supply. even a microsecond delay will cause the loss of data.these are the instant sources of the power as soon as power is gone off. thus for this. until it gets fully charged.the main use of this system is to change AC mains to DC and vice versa as required by the parts of exchange. Inverter and Converter Unit: . The main work of the discharging unit is to control the discharging of the batteries. As soon as the AC power supply is on. Even if the power supply gone off. Thus there must be adjustment source of power. Engine Room:-we know that the batteries are the instant source of supply but we cannot use it for much larger time. then what is the source? No one think on this that the telephone is always plays its role in the human life. Thus. That is the first requirement of any organization is the input. >It saves equipment from dust so to avoid malfunction of equipment. As we know there is some equipment which can withstand any type of power supply. The slowly charging of the batteries is known as the trickle charging. but there are also some instruments which cannot withstand with this type of power supply. However. >It protects equipment from excess humidity which can caused rusting of equipment. the power is the main source or any organization.2) POWER PLANT As we know that. The main parts of the power room are: Batteries: . UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply):. In this type of charging awe take of the batteries from the load and charge separately. 3) AC PLANT For the function of electrical equipment.the UPS must give supply to the computer. The main source of this exchange is AC supply. But sometimes we need the BOOSTER charging. It is the case of E-10B exchange. 15 . this room controls the supply of the engine. The basic advantages of cooling systems are following: >It provides the thermal stability so that the temperature does not reach the tolerance limit of electronic equipment.Discharging Unit: .the batteries we are using in the power room need timely charging. as soon as the power supply is gone off. They are of 885 KVA. Charging. cooling system is basic requirement. we make use of the charging unit present in the power room.

The most widely used is simple reciprocal type a cylinder and piston arrangement.The basic unit of measurement used in the industry is known as ³ton of refrigeration´ (TR) which is equivalent to the heat extracted in 24 hours for converting thousands kg of liquid to ice at zero degree. The system has been upgraded and current version R20 has fully validated in Jan 1994. 16 . The latest version is R24. The call processing program is distributed over different control organs of the system and is stored in ROM/RAM of the units. The first OCB-283 exchange of R11 version were commissioned in Brest (France) and Beijing (China) in 1991. which extract heat out of the ambience. first OCB-283 exchange came to India in 1993. It increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas coming from the evaporator coils by compressing it. which supports a variety of communication needs like basic telephony. ISDN. All new technology switching system. The refrigerant then passes through the evaporator coils. For capacity more than 120 TR. The capillary tube or the expansion valve pressurizes liquid refrigerant and meters it flows to the evaporator. The compressor is the heart of the AC system and the costliest. data communication.  OCB-283(Organde Control Version B) OCB-283 is digital switching system. centrifugal compressors are used. Data required to handle the calls are also managed in RAM of different control units. interface to mobile. ALCATEL of France has developed this system. The condenser liquefies the refrigerant gas by a heat exchange process. are based on (SPC) stored program control concept. Compressor comes in various types.

MF (R2). The expansion can be very easily carried out by adding necessary hardware and software. cellular radio. This enables fast exchange of information and avoids complicated links and wiring between various units. The SMM puts this unit out of service. and other value added services. 14. 10. 11. The system has µautomatic¶ recovery feature. This is called a station. It supports both analog and digital subscribers. Subscribers¶ access unit can be placed at a remote place and connected to the main exchange through PCM links. This avoids loss of revenue in case of battery failure. it gives a message to SMM. 12.Salient Features of the System 1. It provides telephony. like decadic. It is a digital switching with single µT¶ stage switch. 2. 8. the number of spare cards to be kept for maintenance is drastically reduced. 4. The system is made up of only 35 types of cards. 6. A maximum of 2048 PCM¶s can be connected. switch over takes place automatically 17 . The exchange can be managed either locally or from an NMC through 64 kb/s link. The SMMs are duplicated with one active other standby. loads the software of this unit in a back up unit and brings it into service. ISDN. It supports all the existing signaling systems. The system has modular structure. 3. The charge accounts of subscribers are automatically saved in the disc. Due to this. 5. The traffic handling capacity of the system is huge. Further. 7. In case of faults. All the control units are implemented on the same type of hardware. When a serious fault occurs in a control unit. once in a day. This excludes the cards required for CSN. line concentrators can also be placed at a remote location and connected to the CSNL or CSND through PCMs. CAS and also CCITT#7 signaling system. 9. Data communication. Various units of OCB 283 system are connected over token rings. 13. It has a double remoting facility. Diagnostic programmers are run on the faulty unit and the diagnostics is printed on a terminal.

all lines are coming from subscribers. compact and maintenance free. These tag blocks are located on one side of the MDF called ³line side´. isolation point for testing. There is no fixed or rigid rack and suite configuration in the system. there is a unit called main distribution frame and is used for interconnection of exchange line and junction unit equipments to external physical lines coming to the exchange. In any type of exchange. are terminated on 100 pair krone type tag blocks in which gas discharge tubes type protective devices are provided to tackle voltages and current surges. TRANSMISSION MEDIA In many communication systems. this room is used to distribute the subscriber¶s call according to his request. On the other side of the MDF called ³exchange side´ tag blocks re provided for terminating the cables from CSE for subscriber lines and from transmission room for analog junction lines. protective devices used for safety of exchange equipment etc. Exploitation Room.  Main Divisions Of OCB-283 y y y MDF Room. It has a very huge memory capacity of 1. The transmission of information as an electromagnetic signal always occurs as a transverse electromagnetic wave. The space requirement is very small. The distribution frame provides easy and flexible interconnection. 17. The hard disc is very small in size. telex lines and analog junction lines.2 Giga bytes 16. non exchange lines. One of the media for transmission is: 18 . Switching Room. it is often necessary to interconnect points that are some distances apart from each other. MDF (Main Distribution Frame).15. In MDF.

As in this 19 .Coaxial cable: Optical Fiber Cable: In the Switching Room all the information is stored in the ZD-Racks. The Exploitation Room operates the whole OCB-283 exchange. So it is also known as operational room. My main responsibilities are come under this exploitation room.

The hundreds or thousands or millions of computer network are connected to each other for exchanging the information which is based on the unique identity and set of procedures. People use it to get information over a standard communication link. These are based on TCP/IP communications protocol. the computer network performs the following functions20 . >To provide alternate communication link among the networks. I have to operate some of these all the operations are done through system software by operating different commands over there. >To establish a communication link between two computers within as network. which are named as under and discussed in detail with the help of example as under: y y IDABSE INDIN 4. Internet is a series of interconnected networks providing global link to information. it is clear that network hardware sends the packets to specified destination and network software reassembles of communications. >Break the file in to small packets >Attach destination and source address in to packets >Multiplex and transmit these packets >At destination de-multiplex the packets >Remove address bits from the packets and assemble the data in to the original file >Make source bits as destination address and send the acknowledgement in to the source Therefore. Users can access GIAS from 99 cities in India by this means. Transfer of a file through Internet Suppose a file is to be transmitted on Internet from one computer to other ones. even if one network is not working. INTERNET TECHNOLOGY The basic function of Internet can be summarized as under>Interconnecting of computers to form a network. >Interconnecting of computers to form a network of networks. GIAS: BSNL launched the Gateway Internet Access Service (GIAS) through dial up/leased/ISDN network. INTERNET The Internet is a group of various co-operating computers worldwide interconnected by computer based on TCP\IP communication protocols.

Layers are: Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer 21 . OSI NETWORKING MODEL The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines all the methods and protocols needed to connect one computer to any other over a network.Addressing and routing Fragmentation and error correction Data error checking Connectivity control Multiplexing and de-multiplexing Data flow control End users interface etc. It was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1983 and is documented as standard 7498. The OSI model is sometimes called ³the seven layer model´. The data handling A single module cannot handle the entire process. One that adopted as a standard is an open system interconnection (OSI) model. The OSI model separates the methods and protocols needed for a network connection in to seven different layers. Each higher layer relies on services provided by a lower level layer.

it defines different packet protocols.PHYSICAL LAYER: The physical layer defines the properties of the physical medium used to make a network connection. The routing information in each packet tells the network where to send the packets to reach its destination and tells the receiving computer from where the packet originated. The MAC sub layer handles frame assembly and disassembly. Network Layer: The network layer.7 Broadband. For example. on matters of flow and control. The data link layer typically includes error detection and correction to ensure a reliable data stream. error detection and correction.Other MAC protocols include 802. It includes a network cable that can transmit a stream of bits between nodes on the physical network. the voltages carried on the cable.5 Token ring . Transport layer protocols include Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX). It establishes a reliable protocol through the physical layer. defines the connection from a user to a network server. but the standard allows for both serial and parallel transmission). layer-5. is where a lot of action goes on for most networks. the bits can be transmitted either in series or in parallel (most network use a serial stream of bits. The LLC sub layer performs tasks such as call set up and termination and data transfer. and 802. The two most common MAC protocols are 802. or from a peer on a network to another peer. and so on.12 100 Base VBG. Examples of frame types include x. Transport Layer: The Transport Layer. and authentication to the network. These packet protocols include source and destination routing information.Each is used in concert with IP and IPX respectively.11 Wireless. defines standard that assign meaning to the bits carried by the physical layer. 802. The network layer defines how data packets get from one point to another on network.25 and 802. so the network layer (layer 3) can transmit its data. transfer of user information. 22 . DATA LINK LAYER: The data link layer. and it can consist of either half duplex (one direction at a time) or full duplex (both directions simultaneously) transmissions. These virtual connections are referred to as sessions. It identifies each computer or node on a network uniquely. layer 2. and addressing.processing. The specification for the physical layer also defines the cable used. the distance that can be run. the timing of the electrical signals. transaction. It ensures that the packets are decoded in the proper sequence and that all packets are received. The Network layer is also known as packet layer. layer-4. manages the flow of information from one network node to another. They include negotiation between the client and the host. Layer-3.x (802.x includes both Ethernet and Token Ring networks). a NIC network interface network) is part of the physical layer. Session layer: The session layer.3 Ethernet and 802. The physical connection can be either point to point or multipoint. The data link layer is usually subdivided in to two sub layers. such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Internet Protocol Exchange (IPX). or peer and peer. Moreover. called the Logical link control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC) sub layers. The data elements carried by the data link layer are called frames.

COMMON TERMINOLOGY USED IN INTERNET WWW: World Wide Web (WWW) is a wide area hypermedia information retrieval aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents. data flows from an application program or the operating system. As mentioned earlier. HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a system of marking or tagging the various parts of web documents to tell the browser software how to display the document text. ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital phone connection technology that provides both voice and data services over the same connection. HTTP: Hyper text transmission Protocol (HTTP) is the communication protocol used to transfer documents from the server to client over the WWW (http:// www). controls how the operating system and its application interact with network. but it includes headers. layer 7. takes the data supplied by the lower level layer and transform so it can be presented to the system. and so on. trailers pre-ambles. at the presentation layer. and then goes through the protocols and devices that make up the seven layers of the OSI model one by one until the data arrives at the physical layer and is transmitted over the network connection. for example. Application Layer: The Application layer. The computer at the receiving end reverses this process. ISP: Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an agency that provides Internet access and other net related services. and post-ambles. the data is ³wrapped´ with new control information related to the work done at the particular layer. a presentation header is wrapped around the data and it is passed to the session layer.Presentation Layer: The presentation layer. link graphics and link media. At each stage of the OSI model. where a session header is wrapped around all the data. This control information is different for each layer. it starts at the application layer and includes an application header and application data. 23 . when the data goes into the networking software and components making up the OSI model. At the receiving computer this process is reversed. until it reaches the physical layer. Next. Therefore. layer-6. The Presentation layer can include data compression and decompression as well as data encryption and decryption.

the Internet exchange points and network that interchange Internet traffic between the countries. The resilience of the Internet results from its principal architectural features. continents and across the oceans of the world.  Architectural Principles The Internet. These data routes are hosted by commercial. government. and consequently its backbone networks. MTNL. Tata Communications is a Tier-1 IP network.National Internet Backbone (NIB) The Internet backbone refers to the principal data routes between large. academic and other highcapacity network centers. reliability. nor do they implement any global network policies.  NIB in India India's backbone is very extensive due to a very large population. most notably the idea of placing as few network state and control functions as possible in the network elements. 24 . This country alone has nearly 250 million internet users as of 2009. BSNL.000. and Reliance Communications.000 m2) of data center and collocation space worldwide.000 square feet (93. In addition. and authentication. The backbone structure keeps on getting stronger because of the huge number of new emerging mobile operators which leads to decrease in prices due to competition in the market. with connectivity to more than 200 countries across 400 Pops and nearly 1. strategically interconnected networks and core routers in the Internet. the high degree of redundancy of today's network links and sophisticated real-time routing protocols provide alternate paths of communications for load balancing and congestion avoidance. Four of India's top Internet Service Providers are Tata Communications. but instead relying on the endpoints of communication to handle most of the processing to ensure data integrity. It is India's largest provider in data center services and also operates India's largest data center in Pune. do not rely on central control or coordinating facilities.

y Delivers services & facilities with an upstream and downstream speed 200 Kbps or more. Entertainment Activities: y Web surfing. 25 . As the Internet market continues to explode. A concept of broadband services and the means of access technologies to bridge the customer and service provider is emerged out throughout the world. Integration of telecom and computer networking technology trend has further amplified the importance of telecommunications in the field of information communication. µbroadband¶ indicates a means of connectivity at a high or µbroad¶ bandwidth. demand for greater bandwidth and faster connection speeds have led to several technological approaches developed to provide broadband access to all consumers. To state the obvious. y Video games. y Home office. data.5. y Provides signal switched facility offering integrated access to voice. y Video on demand. DEFINITION: Broadband is the nonspecific term for high-speed digital Internet access. reflect the needs of enhanced infrastructure to optimize the demand of traffic. In fact there is no specific International Definition for Broadband. It becomes a tool for the conveyance of information. y Video conferencing (one to one or multiple person video telephone calls). Broadband solutions represent the convergence of multiple independent networks including voice. Professional Activities: y Telecommuting (access to corporate networks and system to support working at home on a regular basis). video and data into single unified broadband network. y Home based business (e-commerce). Range varies from 128 Kbps to 100 Mbps. and thus can be critical to the development process. There are the various ways to define the broadband:y Term for evolving digital technologies that provide customers a high-speed data network connection. y The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defines Broadband as an advances telecommunication capability. BROADBAND INTRODUCTION Rapid growth of data communication market and popularity of Internet. and video and interactive delivery services. ³Broadband´ refers to highspeed Internet access.

y Broadband 256Kbps ± 8000Kbps. Optical Fibre Technologies. 3. WIRE LINE TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE 1. FSO (free space optics). 2.Consumer Activities: y Shopping. Terrestrial Wireless 3. Satellite Media 2. Cable TV Networks. Wi-Max. y Distance learning. PLC (power line communication). TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR BROADBAND SERVICES Communication of data with different throughput is feasible by following technologies:y Narrow Band 2. y LAN 1000 ± 100Mbps.4Kbps ± 128Kbps. y Information gathering. y Wireless Technology. y Public services. y Photography. 4. 26 . Wi-Fi (wireless Fidelity) 5. 6. Broadband communication technology can be divided broadly in two categories:y Wire line Technology. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE 1. 3G Mobile 4. y Telemedicine (remote doctor¶s remote medical analysis). Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) on copper loop.

Modem as 3 LED lights on it 1 is for DSL 2nd one is for power & 3rd for line when line is clear and no disturbance is there line LED is stable. 6) Now modem installing is done in computer for this open the network window on our operating system. 3. 3) There are two types of modem available in the market Type 1 modem ±without Wi-Fi facility Cost-1200-1300Rs Type 2 modem ±with Wi-Fi facility Cost-1800-2000Rs 4) Officer at BSNL department enters the serial number of modem in his CRM and activates the broad band connection for requested number. In second port outgoing for telephone instrument is attached. When Broadband connection is activated by CRM DSL also become stable. Telephone Connection. 27 . Ethernet cord. Office after verifying the form and submission of fees provide username and password to the user. 5) Ethernet cord attaches modem and computer. LAN Card. Modem.BROADBAND CONNECTION AT HOME For Broad band connection at Home or office 5 things are required 1. Splitter has 3ports In one port main telephone line is attached. 4. 9) Select bridging or PPPOE mode and do next. 2) Office also provide modem or user can buy his own modem from market. 5) Now main telephone cord is connected with splitter. Steps for Broadband connection are as follows:1) A form for broadband connection is filled at BSNL office mentioning the plans preferred. 2. Splitter. Now on modem setting or programming is finished. 8) Enter the IP address provided by BSNL in the address bar of internet explorer. Third one is for modem. A home page of BSNL is opened enter your username and password given by BSNL office. 10) As the username and password is verified ok buttons appears click it. 5. 7) Enable the Local Area connection option on yours window.

What can you do with it? Quick/easy temporary network access Staff access to corporate network Patron internet access (hotspot) Interconnecting two networks Advantages Setup Cost ± Reduced cabling required Flexibility ± Quick and easy to setup in Temporary or permanent space Scalable ± Can be expanded with growth Freedom ± You can work from any location That you can get a signal 28 . Then click ³connect´. 12) Internet session is started indicating the speed. 13) Now you can surf various websites by your browsers. Click on ³connect to internet ³option and click next now select type of connection (broadband pppoe) and then fill the username and password. 6. Wi-Fi What is Wi-Fi? Short for wireless fidelity Wi-Fi is a wireless technology that uses radio frequency to transmit data through the air.11) Now on Network and sharing centre window set up a new connection.

covering many kilometers using licensed spectrum to deliver a point-to-point connection to the Internet from an ISP to an end user. long-range system. WiMAX WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is based on the Wireless MAN (IEEE 802. There is no uniform global licensed spectrum for WiMAX.16) standard. and to provide high-speed data and telecommunications services.3 GHz.5 GHz . Mobile Users ± Can access the Corporate Network from any public hotspot using VPN Disadvantages planning ± Depending on the goal Security ± Greater exposure to risks Access Compromising Data Denial of Service Speed ± Slower than cable Range ± Affected by various medium Travels best through open space Reduced by walls. glass. 29 . speeds of 10 Mbit/s at 10 km distance is possible. water. while for WiMAX devices with omni-directional antennas only 10 Mbit/s over 2 km is possible. WiMAX can also be used to connect many Wi-Fi hotspots with each other and also to other parts of the Internet.5 GHz and 3. although three licensed spectrum profiles are being used generally ± 2. etc 7. It is a telecommunications technology providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways. from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access.Lower total cost of ownership ± Because of Affordability and low install cost Additionally. When using WiMAX device with directional antennas. WiMAX is a highly scalable. WiMAX can be used to provide a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for broadband access. 2.

speed or screen size! WiMAX could connect remote Indian villages to the Internet using broadband. 2) Bad weather conditions such as rain could interrupt the signal. WiMAX could provide Internet access. 3) Other wireless equipment could cause interference.With WiMAX enabled handsets and laptops coming into the market. 30 . Maintaining such system would also be easy. people could connect to the fast broadband internet from anywhere. voice and IPTV to those areas. 2) Much faster deployment of new users comparing to wired networks. Disadvantages 1) Line of sight is needed for more distant connections. without having to depend on the slow rate mobile network data transfer. 4) It is standardized. 3) Speed of 10 Mbps at 10 kilometers within line-of-site. call friends and colleagues and watch realtime TV from the top of a forest hill station many kilometers away from the access point ± without compromising on quality. You can work on broadband. and the same frequency equipment should work together. This would avoid hassles in cabling through the forests and other difficult terrain only to reach a few people in remote places. Advantages 1) Single station can serve hundreds of users. 6) High installation and operational cost. 4) Multiplied frequencies are used. 5) WiMAX is a very power-consuming technology and requires significant electrical support.

It provides a broad customer base. Today. There are various benefits of Wimax technology such as it provides simple based prospective cost saving and service efficiency but to be capable to allow VoIP calling. 8. mobile and internet access. mobile devices. forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide. The local loop is access part of telecommunication network i. 1. it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Application of wireless loop technology has just been started in the worldwide. It is forecasted that cellular system using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications.e. By the year 2005. 31 . Currently there are more than 45 million subscribers in worldwide and nearly 50% of those subscribers are located in USA. However.Wimax Applications Wimax network provides the ability for service provider to deploy new era broadband service. video making and high speed data transfer. Wimax applications are most effective than today. WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP (WLL) MOBILE WLL is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as substitutes of conventional wires for all part of connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. WLL network application involves uses of radio to replace of the wire link between PSTN switch and subscriber. The radio technology is able to provide same quality of services as that provided by the wires line. Wimax technology applications are a mean of service providers to present data. a number of national and international air interface standards for digital cellular mobile telephone system are available. while adding up a mobility feature to those services. It works on CDMA technique. video. There is no standard for this so far. the part between PSTN switch and subscribers. CELLULAR MOBILE SERVICES Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunication applications. voice.

Cost of installation and Maintenance of WLL is lower than cable network 2. add new users as well as capable to block service given to user. areas.These types of BSC are totally automatic it doesn¶t depend on local exchange for its functions. ADVANTAGES OF WLL: 1.Selective installation for those who require connection at certain time. It can troubleshoot the problem.Installation time is less. 3. it consists of different processors.TECHNICAL ASPECTS: WLL is based on CDMA technique and is entirely different from GSM.This type of BSC cannot switch by itself so it is dependent on local exchange / PSTN for switching and keeping records of billing etc. 4. It is basically a computer system. BSNL uses this type of BSC for rural II. The system for WLL services can be divided into following parts: BSC (Base Switching Centre):.It provides links between BTS & BSM. BSNL uses this type of BSC for urban areas. CCS-7 / R2:. In BSNL we have two types of BSC:- I. it works as an amplifier (router) to overcome the loss in signal in transmission. which manages the whole process of WLL service.As it is clear from its name it transmits as well as receive signal. V-5. BTS (Base Transceiver System):. it is complete in itself. BSM (Base Station Management):. in BSNL it is of SUN Polaris of LG Company.Cellular systems are too expensive with lesser signal quality than fixed broad band wireless that use directional antennas 32 .Quality of wireless technology has improved the speech quality 5.2:.It controls and manages the WLL services. In BSNL BSM are two UNIX based computer system.

a mobile phone system based on multiple radio cells (cellular mobile phone network). quicker and with more quality than ever before. the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. The circuits are demands assigned i. but the original CDMA is known as CdmaOne.2. competes with GSM technology for dominance in the cellular world. It has been agreed upon and is completed by ETSI. GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM) What is GSM? GSM is a standard for a Global System for Mobile communications. There are now different variations. as opposed to narrow-band channel techniques used in conventional analog systems. Global System for Mobile communications. 3. CDMA cell phones are also more efficient as they use a channels "band-with" efficiently. CDMA: .e. like sharing of trunked radio facility. The Goals of GSM: a) Improved spectrum efficiency b) International roaming 33 .Where large number of transmission are combined on the same channel at the same time and separated by the codes. assigned on demand first-cum-first-served basis. CDMA uses wide-band spread spectrum techniques for signal transmission. Multiple access radio has similarity to the LAN in which the common channel is available to all users. CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA): CONCEPT OF MULTIPLE ACCESSES Multiple access system allows a large number of users to share a common pool of radio telephone circuits. a cellular technology originally known as IS-95. CDMA channels the packets of voice and data over wireless radio frequencies so a cellular user can hear better. WHAT IS CDMA? CDMA.

 Offered services a) Mobile telephony b) Emergency calling Bearer-Data Services:  Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN. Short Message Services up to 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal a) Unified Messaging Services (UMS) b) Group 3 fax c) Voice mailbox d) Electronic mail  34 . ISDN etc at rates from 300 to 9600 bps.c) Low-cost mobile sets and base stations d) e) High-quality speech Support for new services GSM Services: a) Tele-services b) Bearer-Data Services c) Supplementary services Tele-services:  Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones.

Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by user e) Multi Party Call Conferencing .All calls. outgoing calls.Supplementary services: Call related servicesa) Call Waiting.Notification of an incoming call while on the handset b) Call Hold.Put a caller on hold to take another call c) Call barring. or incoming calls d) Call Forwarding.Link multiple calls together GSM System Architecture: Mobile Station (MS) a) Mobile Equipment (ME) b) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) a) Base Transceiver station (BTS) b) Base station controller (BSC) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) a) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) b) Home Location Register (HLR) c) Visitor Location Register (VLR) d) Authentication Center (AUC) e) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 35 .

System Architecture of Mobile Station (MS): The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: a) Mobile Equipment (ME) b) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Mobile Equipment (ME): a) Portable. vehicle mounted. Kc and A3. hand held device b) Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) c) Voice and data transmission d) Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover e) Power level: 0.8W ± 20 W f) 160 character long SMS. A5 and A8 d) Protected by a password or PIN e) Can be moved from phone to phone ± contains key information to activate the phone algorithms 36 . Subscriber Identity Module (SIM): a) Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) b) Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services c) Encoded network identification details -Key Ki.

encrypts. b) Frequency hopping c) Communicates with Mobile station and BSC d) Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units Base Station Controller (BSC): a) Manages Radio resources for BTS b) Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MS¶s in its area c) Handles call set up d) Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality e) Handover for each MS f) Radio Power control g) It communicates with MSC and BTS System Architecture of Network Switching Subsystem (NSS): Mobile Switching Center (MSC): a) Heart of the network b) Manages communication between GSM and other networks c) Call setup function and basic switching d) Call routing 37 . modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna. multiplexes.System Architecture of Base Station (BSS): Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts a) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) b) Base Station Controller (BSC) Base Transceiver Station (BTS): a) Encodes.

roaming. MISDN. SRES. The Black List and the Gray List b) Only one EIR per PLMN 38 .Location Updating Home Location Registers (HLR) a) Permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area (generally one per GSM network operator) b) Database contains IMSI. supplementary services. Visitor Location Registers (VLR) a) Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area. Kc) c) Generally associated with HLR Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) a) Made up of three sub-classes: The White List.e) Billing information and collection f) Mobility management . by HLR database b) Controls those mobiles roaming in its area c) Reduces number of queries to HLR Authentication Center (AUC) a) Protects against intruders in air interface b) Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets (RAND. prepaid/postpaid.Registration .

This is useful to prevent theft of service. Personal information such as contact numbers of friends and family can also be stored on the SIM by the subscriber. called the Ki. which contains details of all the mobiles currently in that area. Each geographic area has a database called the Visitor Location register (VLR). which is activated by the operator once the billing relationship. If a mast can be successfully contacted. the phone is said to be attached to the network.  After subscribers sign up.e. it will search for the nearest mobile phone mast (also called a Base Transceiver station (BTS)) with the strongest signal in the operator's Frequency band. a new area. but also called visiting when describing the underlying technical process. then there is said to be coverage in the area. Every SIM card contains a secret key. Whenever a phone attaches. The phone then identifies itself to the network through the control channel. This is generally called roaming from a customer perspective. is established. or where bills are issued and settled after the service has been consumed (postpaid). The key feature of a mobile phone is the ability to receive and make calls in any area where coverage is available. and also to prevent "over the air" 39 . The current cellular location of the phone (i. or visits. Once the SIM card is loaded into the phone and the phone is powered on. This is usually either where services are paid for in advance of them being consumed (prepaid). the Visitor Location Register must contact the Home Location Register to obtain the details for that phone. Once this is successfully completed. a user needs three things:  A billing relationship with a mobile phone operator. information about their identity (telephone number) and what services they are allowed to access are stored in a "SIM record" in the Home Location Register (HLR). A SIM (³Subscriber Identity Module´) card. After activation the card is then programmed with the subscriber's MSISDN (³Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number´) (the telephone number). Most phone companies sell phones from third-party manufacturers. which is used to provide authentication and encryption services.  A mobile phone that is GSM compliant and operates at the same frequency as the operator. which BTS it is at) is entered into the VLR record and will be used during a process called paging when the GSM network wishes to locate the mobile phone.Accessing a GSM network In order to gain access to GSM services.

If so. The network does this by utilizing the Authentication Centre and is accomplished without transmitting the key directly. 10 -Answer back (ring back) tone is routed from called user to MS via GMSC. Voice calls: Outgoing calls 1-MS sends dialed number to BSS 2-BSS sends dialed number to MSC 3. 5 -MSC routes the call to GMSC 6 -GMSC routes the call to local exchange of called user 7. 8. Every GSM phone contains a unique identifier (different from the phone number). MSC asks BSS to allocate resources for call. MSC. 9.snooping of a user's activity.MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed the requested service. When a phone contacts the network. its IMEI may be checked against the Equipment Identity register to locate stolen phones and facilitate monitoring. 4 . called the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This can be found by dialing *#06#. BSS 40 .

13. 11.Incoming calls 1. Signal Setup to HLR 4. Request MSRN from VLR 6. 9. 5. 15. Security checks 16. MS answers 14. Get current status of MS 10. Set up connection 41 . Forwarding call to GSMC 3. Forward responsible MSC to GMSC 7. 17. Calling a GSM subscribers 2. Paging of MS 12. Forward Call to current MSC 8.

Finally. news. 42 . The mobile phone may sometimes override the default setting.  4. or if it is to be routed directly to the mobile.Routing the call When the HLR receives this query message. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G network you can make video calls. access the high speed internet. channel structure. If that is the case. watch live TV. Many operators may set this value automatically to the phone's voice mail number. it determines whether the call should be routed to another number (called a divert). and synchronization. then the CFU number is returned to the Gateway MSC for immediate routing to that destination. receive emails and download music tracks. like person to person video. so that callers may leave a message.  If the owner of the phone has previously requested that all incoming calls be diverted to another number. It enhances the services such as multimedia. THIRD GENERATION 3G TECHNOLOGY Third generation (3G) networks were conceived from the Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) concept for high speed networks for enabling a variety of data intensive applications. then it will request a temporary number (called an MSRN) from that VLR. if the Home Location Register knows that the phone is roaming in a particular Visitor Location Register area. internet access with the ability to view video footage on your mobile handset. live streaming. and the call is forwarded there. power control. current affairs and sport content and video messaging Data Speed: The data speed of 3G is determined based on a combination of factors including the chip rate. known as the Call Forward Unconditional (CFU) Number. and then used to route the call to the MSC where the called phone is roaming.  If the mobile phone is not currently associated with a Visited Location Register (because the phone has been turned off) then the Home Location Register returns a number known as the Call Forward Not Reachable (CFNRc) number to the Gateway MSC. as well as the usual voice call and messaging services found on a mobile phone. downloadable video of entertainment. This number is relayed back to the Gateway MSC. high speed mobile broadband. 3G is the next generation of mobile communications systems. then this number is stored in the Home Location Register.

email and video telephony at the same time. The services utilizing 3G provide the ability to transmit both voice data such as calls and non-voice data such as instant messaging.3G is the short form for third-generation technology. It is one of the popular mobile phone standards. Japan was the first country to introduce 3G on a wide scale commercially. almost 40 per cent of the subscribers in Japan used 3G services. In 2005. On the technical front. 3G services are wide area cellular telephone networks 43 .

South Korea.9. France is leading in IPTV . Popular in France. Germany. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups:   Live Television: with or without interactivity related to the current TV show Time-Shifted Programming: catch-up TV (replays a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago). start-over TV (replays the current TV show from its beginning) Video on Demand (VOD): browse a catalog of videos. not related to TV programming  44 . BSNL¶s IPTV ‡ ‡ ‡ First started in Japan in 2002. Hongkong etc.

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Mobile GSM & 3G. It helped me to develop an individual personality and boosted my confidence. and the basics of processing Exchange. WLL. I also got firsthand knowledge of how a Telephone Exchange works.CONCLUSION Training at BSNL helped me to attain knowledge about the various processes involved. It was very informative. Internet. I learnt quite a lot about electronic exchange. 46 . It¶s an unforgettable experience for me as it made me get accustomed to the professional environment.

in 3) 4) 5) www.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) 2) 47

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