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Surveying involves the measurement of distances and Angle. Distances - maybe in horizontal or vertical in direction. Angle - Also maybe in horizontal or vertical plane. The purpose for measuring distances and angles. - to determine the relative positions of existing points or objects on or near the surface of the earth. - to lay out or mark the desired positions of new points or object which are to be placed or cont.

- constructed on or near the earths surface. Survey measurement - need to be precise (precision) to achieve max accuracy. The practice of surveying is an art because depends on skill, judgments and experience. Surveying may also be considered to be an applied science, because field and office procedures rely upon a systematic body of knowledge, related primarily to mathematics and physics.

An understanding of Art and Science of Surveying is, of course, necessary for surveying practitioners, as well as for those who must use and interpret surveying data (architects, construction contractors, geologists, urban planners, as well as civil engineers.

Basic of Surveying

Surveying is based on the of precise measuring instruments. Instruments may be traditional or electronic. The computations (primarily of position, direction, area and volume) involve applications of geometry, trigonometry and basic algebra. The traditional transit or theodolite (to measure angles), the level and level rod (to measure vertical distance or elevations), and the steel tape (to measure horizontal distances).

Basic of Surveying

Electronic electronic recording tacheometer, or total station. Comprises an electronic distance measuring (EDM) device, an electronic theodolite to measure angles, and automatic data recorder.

Importance of Surveying

Surveying plays an essential role in planning, design, layout and construction of our physical environment and infrastructure. Infrastructure constructed facilities and system allow communities to function and thrive productively. Surveying is the link between design and construction. Road, bridges, buildings, water supply, sewerage, drainage systems and many other essential public works projects could never be built without surveying technology.

Importance of Surveying

Some activities that would be nearly impossible without accurate surveying methods include testing and installing accelerators for nuclear research and development, industrial laser equipment, and other sensitive precision instruments for manufacturing or research.

Defining the Horizontal & Vertical Directions The earth actually has the approximate shape of an oblate spheroid, but for our purposes we can consider the earth to be a perfect sphere. We can consider that the surface of the sphere is represented by the average level of the ocean, or mean sea level. The curved surface of the sphere is termed a level surface. The direction of gravity is perpendicular or normal to this level surface at all points, and gravity is used as a reference direction for all surveying measurement.

Measuring Distances and Angles: A horizontal distance or length is measured along a level surface. Figure 1.5

Measuring Distances and Angles: A vertical distance is measured along the direction of gravity and is equivalent to a difference in height between two points. When height is measured with reference to given level surface, like mean sea level, it is called an elevation. Figure1.6, the difference in the readings on the rod at two points is equivalent to the difference in height or elevation between the points.

Measuring Distances and Angles: The relative vertical positions of several points separated by long distances can be determined by a continuous series of level rod observations, as illustrated in figure 1.7. This procedure is called levelling. A horizontal angle is measured in a plane that is horizontal at the point of measurement, as illustrated in figure 1.8.

PLANE SURVEYING Most surveying measurements are carried out as if the surface of the earth were perfectly flat. In effect, this means that we make our measurements as if the lines of force due to gravity were everywhere parallel to each other, and as if underneath the irregular ground surface, there existed a flat, horizontal reference plane. This illustrated in figure 1.10; The method of surveying based upon this assumption is called plane surveying.

PLANE SURVEYING In plane surveying, we neglect the curvature of the earth, and we use the principles of plane geometry and plane trigonometry to compute the results of our surveys. Within a distance of about 12 mi or 20 km, the effect of the earths curvature on our measurement is so small that we can hardly measure it. Certain public survey, however cover large areas or distances. Such large-scale surveys must account for the true shape of the earth, so that the required degree of accuracy is not lost in the results.

GEODETIC SURVEYING A survey which takes the earths curvature into account is called a geodetic survey. River basin commissions and large cities also perform geodetic surveys. Such survey generally utilize very precise instruments and field methods and make use of advanced mathematics and spherical trigonometric formulas to adjust for curvature. Figure 1.11 Show the difference between geometry and trigonometry of curve surface from plane or flat figures.

GEODETIC SURVEYING Geodetic surveying methods are generally used to map large areas and to establish large-scale networks of points on the earth for horizontal and vertical control.

Principals Creating a plan or a map of two points which is on the surface of the earth. The distance between this two points are also measured and this distance is converted using appropriate scale. The line between this two points is used as a baseline to do other measurement. Measurement on other points can be made by using one of the following method;

Principals Chain Method measuring of three points by using chain. Offset Method measuring a point which is 90 from the base-line Traverse Method measuring distance and angle from one base point using prismatic compass or theodolite. Triangulation method Measuring angle from every points.

Divided Into Three. 1. Sight Overviewing 2. Observation and Measurement 3. Work and Results Presentation

Construction Survey Construction survey, also called layout or location survey, is performed in order to mark the position of new points on the ground. These new line represent the location of building corners, road centerlines and other facilities that are to be built. These positions are shown on a site plan. The site plan shows the location dimensions which are to be measured with reference boundaries or other control points. Vertical height are given by elevations.

Construction Survey An example of a drawing which includes location dimensions is shown in fig 1.12.

Cadastral Survey Is a boundary survey. Refer to the surveying and identification of property. Hydrographic Survey Preliminary survey applied to a natural body of water. Gather data for mapping the shoreline and for charting the water depths of a river, lake, or harbor.

Topographic Survey Topographic is performed in order to determine the relative positions (horizontal & vertical) of existing natural and constructed features on tract of land. Features include ground elevations, bodies of water, vegetation, rock outcrops, roads, buildings, and so on. Data obtained from topographic survey are plotted and drawn as a suitable scaled map, called a topographic map, or topo map.

Hydrographic Survey Preliminary survey applied to a natural body of water. Gather data for mapping the shoreline and for charting the water depths of a river, lake, or harbor. Topo map is prepared from a hydrographic surveys. Navigation and water resources planning project depend upon data obtained from hydrographic survey.

Geodetic Survey

Astronomy Survey Is the science which deals with heavenly bodies. All the methods of surveying provide the relative position of points on the surface of earth. Absolute position of any points is desired, reference has to be made to one or more heavenly bodies e.g. sun, polaris (north star), etc. A surveyor has to deal with that branch of mathematical astronomy which relates to the determination of true meridian, latitudes, longitudes and time.

Astronomy Survey The latitude and longitude of a survey station are obtained by observation of the sun or a star, to locate its absolute position, and also the true meridian the direction from it of a true north and south line.

Global Positioning System (GPS) GPS provide quickly, accurately and inexpensively the time, position and velocity of the object anywhere on the globe at any time. It uses the satellite signals, accurate time, and sophisticated algorithms to generate distances in order to triangulate positions anywhere on the earth. The system provides accurate, continuous, worldwide, three dimensional position and velocity information to users with appropriate receiving equipment.

Photogrammetry Science and art of producing a mosaic or map by compiling the photograph.

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