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AIM OF TRAINING: To study various divisions of a thermal power station.

DURATION: 31ST May to 14th June

SUBMITTED TO: Mrs. Rachna Bhal Sr. Manager HR EDC BTPC

SUBMITTED BY: Swati Negi & Supriya Tomar B.Tech (Instrumentation and Control Engineering) 4th semester Netaji Subhas Institute Of Technology


1. Acknowledgement 2. Preface 3. Introduction 4. Role of NTPC in Power Generation in India 5. Conversion of coal to electricity 6. C&I  Manometry Lab  Protection and Interlock Lab  Automation Lab  Pyrometry Lab  Furnace Safety and Supervisory System Lab  Electronics Lab


We would like to convey our deepest thanks to, Mrs. Rachna Bahl, the Senior Manager (HR-EDC) for her valuable advice and support she has given us in writing of this report. We would also like to thank, Mrs. Reena and Mr. Suresh, of C&I Department for their guidance under which we completed our training. Also we are extremely grateful to, Mr. Dheeraj Jain and Mr. Manmohan Singh, for giving us the wonderful opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organisation. We would like to extend our gratitude to the technical staff of BTPC to help us throughout during our training by giving us the prerequisite knowledge about the plant before visiting it.


This report is an account of the vocational training, which we undertook at NTPC for two weeks. It also contains an account of various departments we visited during our course of training here. The training which we did at NTPC was a great learning experience and has helped us understand our subject better.


NTPC, Indias largest power company, was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. It is emerging as an Integrated Power Major, with a significant presence in the entire value chain of power generation business. NTPC ranked 317th in 2009, Forbes global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies. With a current generating capacity of 31,704 MW, NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017. NTPC Limited, Indias largest power company with an installed capacity of 29,894 MW is presently operating 15 coal based, 7 gas based power stations and 4 joint ventures. NTPC contributed around 28.5% of the countrys entire power generation during the year 2007-08 and plans to become a 75,000 MW power company by 2017. NTPC has moved ahead by diversifying its portfolio to emerge as an integrated power major with presence across the entire energy value chain. NTPC has been allocated 6 coal mine blocks which are expected to produce 48 million tons per annum.

Indias largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. Apart from power generation, which is the mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash utilisation and coal mining. NTPC ranked 317th in the 2009, Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies. The total installed capacity of the company is 31,704 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. By 2017, the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW, 10000 MW through gas, 9000 MW through Hydro generation, about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000 MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES). NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged growth strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects, expansion of existing stations, joint ventures, subsidiaries and takeover of stations. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 18.10% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.

In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with the government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public. The issue was a resounding success. NTPC is among the largest five companies in India in terms of market capitalisation.

Presently, NTPC generates power from Coal and Gas. With an installed capacity of 31,704 MW, NTPC is the largest power generating in the country. It has also diversified into hydro power , coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution. With an increase in presence in the power value chain, NTPC is well on its way to becoming an Integrated Power Major.

Installed Capacity

Be it the generating capacity or plant performance or operational efficiency, NTPCs Installed Capacity and performance depicts the companys outstanding performance across a number of parametres.

NO. OF PLANTS CAPACITY (MW) NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Total 5 27 2,864 31,704 15 7 22 24,885 3,955 28,840

Regional Spread of Generating Facilities REGION Northern Western Southern Eastern JVs Total COAL 7,525 6,360 3,600 7,400 924 25,809 GAS 2,312 1,293 350 1,940 5,895 TOTAL 9,837 7,653 3,950 7,400 2,864 31,704

Coal Based Power Stations

With 15 coal based power stations, NTPC is the largest thermal power generating company in the country. The company has a coal based installed capacity of 24,885 MW.

COAL BASED(Owned by NTPC) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Singrauli Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon NCTPP, Dadri Talcher Kaniha

STATE Uttar Pradesh Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa

COMMISSIONED CAPACITY(MW) 2,000 2,100 2,600 1,600 3,260 2,000 2,340 1,330 3,000


Feroze Gandhi, Unchahar

Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Delhi Chhattisgarh

1,050 460 1,000 440 705 1,000 24,885

11. Talcher Thermal 12. Simhadri 13. Tanda 14. Badarpur 15. Sipat-II Total

Coal Based Joint Ventures:

COAL BASED (Owned by JVs)



1. Durgapur West Bengal 2. Rourkela 3. Bhilai 4. Kanti Orissa Chhattisgarh Bihar



Gas/Liquid Fuel Based Power Stations

The details of NTPC gas based power stations is as follows GAS BASED (Owned by NTPC) 1. Anta 2. Auraiya 3. Kawas 4. Dadri 5. Jhanor-Gandhar 6. Rajiv Gandhi CCPP Kayamkulam COMMISSIONED CAPACITY(MW) 413 652 645 817 648 350 430 3,955

STATE Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Kerala Haryana

7. Faridabad Total

Gas Based Joint Ventures: COAL BASED (Owned by JVs) 1. RGPPL Total COMMISSIONED CAPACITY 1940 1940



Hydro Based Power Projects (Under Implementation)

NTPC has increased thrust on hydro development for a balanced portfolio for long term sustainability. The first step in this direction was taken by initiating investment in Koldam Hydro Electric Power Project located on Satluj river in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. Two other hydro projects under construction are Tapovan Vishnugad and Loharinag Pala. On all these projects construction activities are in full swing. APPROVED CAPACITY(MW)



1. Koldam (HEPP)

Himachal Pradesh

800 600 520 1,920

2. Loharinag Pala (HEPP) Uttarakhand 3. Tapovan Vishnugad (HEPP) Uttarakhand


Performance Statistics

In terms of operations, NTPC has always been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal based power stations has increased from 89.32% in 1998-99 to 91.76% in 200910, which compares favourably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 76.6% in 1998-99 to 90.81% during the year 2009-10.

The table below shows that while the installed capacity has increased by 62.15% in the last twelve years the generation has increased by 99.84%.

DESCRIPTION UNIT 1998-99 Installed Capacity Generation MW 17,786

2009-10 28,840 2,18,840

% OF INCREASE 62.15 99.84

MUs 1,09,505

* Excluding JVs and Subsidiaries The table below shows the detailed operational performance of coal based stations over the years.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COAL BASED NTPC STATIONS Availabili Generation(BU PLF(%) ty ) Factor(%) 2009 -10 2008 -09 2007 -08 2006 -07 2005 -06 2004 -05 2003 -04 2002




206.94 200.86 188.67 170.88 159.11 149.16 140.86

91.14 92.24 89.43 87.52 87.51 84.40 83.57

92.47 92.12 90.09 89.91 91.20 88.79 88.70

-03 2001 -02 2000 -01 1999 -00 1998 -99 133.20 130.10 118.70 109.50 81.11 81.80 80.39 76.60 89.09 88.54 90.06 89.36


NTPCs core business is construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad.The installed capacity of NTPC is 27,904 MW through its 15 coal based (22,895 MW), 7 gas based (3,955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1,054 MW). NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. This JV Company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW), Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW). NTPC also has 28.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC, GAIL, Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Co Ltd. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry in the area of power plant construction and and operations.


NTPC is committed to the environment, generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3c. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. In 1991, it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection (CENPEEP)" has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development. (USAID). CENPEEP is efficiency oriented, ecofriendly and eco-nurturing initiative a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India. As a responsible corporate citizen, NTPC is making constant efforts to improve the socio-economic status of the people affected by its projects. Through its Rehabilitation and

Resettlement programmes, the company endeavors to improve the overall socio economic status Project Affected Persons. NTPC was among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Government in 1987-88. NTPC has been placed under the 'Excellent category' (the best category) every year since the MOU system became operative. Harmony between man and environment is the essence of healthy life and growth. Therefore, maintenance of ecological balance and a pristine environment has been of utmost importance to NTPC. It has been taking various measures discussed below for mitigation of environment pollution due to power generation. Environment Policy & Environment Management System Driven by its commitment for sustainable growth of power, NTPC has evolved a well defined environment management policy and sound environment practices for minimizing environmental impact arising out of setting up of power plants and preserving the natural ecology. National Environment Policy: At the national level, the Ministry of Environment and Forests had prepared a draft Environment Policy (NEP) and the Ministry of Power along with NTPC actively participated in the deliberations of the draft NEP. The NEP 2006 has since been

approved by the Union Cabinet in May 2006. NTPC Environment Policy: As early as in November 1995, NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled "NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System". Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are company's proactive approach to environment, optimum utilization of equipment, adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. The policy also envisages efficient utilization of resources, thereby minimizing waste, maximizing ash utilization and providing green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance. Environment Management, Occupational Health and Safety Systems: NTPC has actively gone for adoption of best international practices on environment, occupational health and safety areas. The organization has pursued the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments. As a result of pursuing these practices, all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international Certifying Agencies.

Pollution Control systems: While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects, NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. In order to ensure that NTPC comply with all the stipulated environment norms, various state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices as discussed below have been installed to control air and water pollution.

Electrostatic Precipitators: The ash left behind after combustion of coal is arrested in high efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) and particulate emission is controlled well within the stipulated norms. The ash collected in the ESPs is disposed to Ash Ponds in slurry form.

 Flue Gas Stacks: Tall Flue Gas Stacks have been provided for wide dispersion of the gaseous emissions (SOX, NOX etc) into the atmosphere.  Low-NOXBurners: In gas based NTPC power stations, NOx emissions are controlled by provision of Low-NOx Burners (dry or wet type) and in coal fired stations, by adopting best combustion practices.

 Neutralisation Pits: Neutralisation pits have been provided in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for pH correction of the effluents before discharge into Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for further treatment and use.  Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits: In these Pits, coal dust and oil are removed from the effluents emanating from the Coal Handling Plant (CHP), coal yard and Fuel Oil Handling areas before discharge into ETP.  DE & DS Systems: Dust Extraction (DE) and Dust Suppression (DS) systems have been installed in all coal fired power stations in NTPC to contain and extract the fugitive dust released in the Coal Handling Plant (CHP).  Cooling Towers: Cooling Towers have been provided for cooling the hot Condenser cooling water in closed cycle Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Systems. This helps in reduction in thermal pollution and conservation of fresh water.  Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal systems: Ash ponds have been provided at all coal based stations except Dadri where Dry Ash Disposal System has been

provided. Ash Ponds have been divided into lagoons and provided with garlanding arrangements for change over of the ash slurry feed points for even filling of the pond and for effective settlement of the ash particles. Ash in slurry form is discharged into the lagoons where ash particles get settled from the slurry and clear effluent water is discharged from the ash pond. The discharged effluents conform to standards specified by CPCB and the same is regularly monitored. At its Dadri Power Station, NTPC has set up a unique system for dry ash collection and disposal facility with Ash Mound formation. This has been envisaged for the first time in Asia which has resulted in progressive development of green belt besides far less requirement of land and less water requirement as compared to the wet ash disposal system.  Ash Water Recycling System: Further, in a number of NTPC stations, as a proactive measure, Ash Water Recycling System (AWRS) has been provided. In the AWRS, the effluent from ash pond is circulated back to the station for further ash sluicing to the ash pond. This helps in savings of fresh water requirements for transportation of ash from the plant. The ash water recycling system has already been installed and is in operation at Ramagundam, Simhadri, Rihand, Talcher Kaniha, Talcher Thermal, Kahalgaon, Korba and

Vindhyachal. The scheme has helped stations to save huge quantity of fresh water required as make-up water for disposal of ash.  Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES): Dry ash has much higher utilization potential in ash-based products (such as bricks, aerated autoclaved concrete blocks, concrete, Portland pozzolana cement, etc.). DAES has been installed at Unchahar, Dadri, Simhadri, Ramagundam, Singrauli, Kahalgaon, Farakka, Talcher Thermal, Korba, Vindhyachal, Talcher Kaniha and BTPS.  Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System: The objective of industrial liquid effluent treatment plant (ETP) is to discharge lesser and cleaner effluent from the power plants to meet environmental regulations. After primary treatment at the source of their generation, the effluents are sent to the ETP for further treatment. The composite liquid effluent treatment plant has been designed to treat all liquid effluents which originate within the power station e.g. Water Treatment Plant (WTP), Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) effluent, Coal Handling Plant (CHP) effluent, floor washings, service water drains etc. The scheme involves collection of various effluents and their appropriate treatment centrally and re-circulation of the treated effluent for various plant uses.

NTPC has implemented such systems in a number of its power stations such as Ramagundam, Simhadri, Kayamkulam, Singrauli, Rihand, Vindhyachal, Korba, Jhanor Gandhar, Faridabad, Farakka, Kahalgaon and Talcher Kaniha. These plants have helped to control quality and quantity of the effluents discharged from the stations.  Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities: Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) sewage treatment facilities have been provided at all NTPC stations to take care of Sewage Effluent from Plant and township areas. In a number of NTPC projects modern type STPs with Clarifloculators, Mechanical Agitators, sludge drying beds, Gas Collection Chambers etc have been provided to improve the effluent quality. The effluent quality is monitored regularly and treated effluent conforming to the prescribed limit is discharged from the station. At several stations, treated effluents of STPs are being used for horticulture purpose.  Environmental Institutional Set-up: Realizing the importance of protection of the environment with speedy development of the power sector, the company has constituted different groups at project, regional and Corporate Centre level to carry out specific environment related functions. The Environment Management Group, Ash Utilisation Group and Centre for Power Efficiency &

Environment Protection (CENPEEP) function from the Corporate Centre and initiate measures to mitigate the impact of power project implementation on the environment and preserve ecology in the vicinity of the projects. Environment Management and Ash Utilisation Groups established at each station, look after various environmental issues of the individual station.  Environment Reviews: To maintain constant vigil on environmental compliance, Environmental Reviews are carried out at all operating stations and remedial measures have been taken wherever necessary. As a feedback and follow-up of these Environmental Reviews, a number of retrofit and upgradation measures have been undertaken at different stations. Such periodic Environmental Reviews and extensive monitoring of the facilities carried out at all stations have helped in compliance with the environmental norms and timely renewal of the Air and Water Consents.

Up gradation & retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems: Waste Management Various types of wastes such as Municipal or domestic wastes, hazardous wastes, Bio-Medical wastes get generated in power plant areas, plant hospital and the townships of projects. The wastes generated are a number of solid and hazardous wastes like used oils & waste oils, grease, lead acid batteries, other lead bearing wastes (such as garkets etc.), oil & clarifier sludge, used resin, used photo-chemicals, asbestos packing, e-waste, metal scrap, C&I wastes, electricial scrap, empty cylinders (refillable), paper, rubber products, canteen (bio-degradable) wastes, buidling material wastes, silica gel, glass wool, fused lamps & tubes, fire resistant fluids etc. These wastes fall either under hazardous wastes category or non-hazardous wastes category as per classification given in Government of Indias notification on Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 (as amended on 06.01.2000 & 20.05.2003). Handling and management of these wastes in NTPC stations have been discussed below. Advanced / Eco-friendly Technologies NTPC has gained expertise in operation and management of 200 MW and 500 MW Units installed at different Stations all over the country and is looking ahead for higher capacity Unit

sizes with super critical steam parameters for higher efficiencies and for associated environmental gains. At Sipat, higher capacity Units of size of 660 MW and advanced Steam Generators employing super critical steam parameters have already been implemented as a green field project. Higher efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Power Plants are already under operation at all gas-based power projects in NTPC. Advanced clean coal technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) have higher efficiencies of the order of 45% as compared to about 38% for conventional plants. NTPC has initiated a techno-economic study under USDOE / USAID for setting up a commercial scale demonstration power plant by using IGCC technology. These plants can use low-grade coals and have higher efficiency as compared to conventional plants. With the massive expansion of power generation, there is also growing awareness among all concerned to keep the pollution under control and preserve the health and quality of the natural environment in the vicinity of the power stations. NTPC is committed to provide affordable and sustainable power in increasingly larger quantity. NTPC is conscious of its role in the national endeavour of mitigating energy poverty, heralding economic prosperity and thereby contributing towards Indias emergence as a major global economy.


Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C.H.P. This coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P.A fan. This fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. Atmospheric air from F.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum . Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine.

Fuel gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan, which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F.D fan. These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines, where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam. The stationary and moving blades together.

Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition 24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A 0.85 lag M AI N 310 V T 3000 rpm U R 50 Hz BI 0.49 N 98.4% E D Anti Clockwise A Double Star T 9( 6 neutral and 3 A phase) 210 MW 3000 rpm 130 kg/cm^2 2600 A

Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection Number of terminals brought out Rated output of Turbine Rated speed of turbine Rated pressure of steam before

emergency Stop valve rated live steam temperature 535 degree Celsius Rated steam temperature after reheat at 535 degree Celsius inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 1. For cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 1.Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2.Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 3.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg 670 tons/hour 27000 cm/hour 24,27,30,33 23,99,24,21,24,49,24.82 68,645,652,662 19.9,55.5,65.4,67.7


A Thermal Power Station comprises of all the equipment and a subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an electrical generator. Some prefer to use the term ENERGY CENTER because such facilities convert forms of energy, like nuclear energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy (derived from the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy. However, POWER PLANT is the most common term in the united state; While POWER STATION prevails in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom. Such power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Typical diagram of a coal fired thermal power station 1. Cooling water pump 2. Three-phase transmission line 3. Step up transformer 4. Electrical Generator 5. Low pressure steam 6. Boiler feed water pump 7. Surface condenser 8. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. Steam control valve 10. High pressure steam turbine 11. Deaerator Feed water heater 12. Coal conveyor

13. Coal hopper 14. Coal pulverizer 15. boiler steam drum 16. Bottom ash hoper 17. Super heater 18. Forced draught(draft) fan 19. Reheater 20. Combustion air intake 21. Economizer 22. Air preheater 23. Precipitator 24. Induced draught(draft) fan 25. Fuel gas stack The description of some of the components written above is described as follows:

1. Cooling towers
Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, Chemical plants, power plants and building cooling, for example. The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter, or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. Smaller

towers are normally factory built, while larger ones are constructed on site. The primary use of large , industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants , petroleum refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forced-draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants.

2.Three phase transmission line

Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase, two phase, or direct current system at the same voltage. In a three phase system, three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Taking one conductor as the reference, the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current. This delay between phases has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. At the power station, an electric generator converts mechanical

power into a set of electric currents, one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The current are sinusoidal functions of time, all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally, giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30,000 volts. At the power station, transformers: step-up this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i.e. the household voltage). The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase. Where the step-down is 3 phase, the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase-neutral voltage. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral , 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply.

3.Electrical generator
An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, , water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment , to 2,000,000 hp(1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in Boilers or steam generators as they are sometimes called. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the worlds electricity. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators .As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system, the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems, and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds, and have a 4-pole

generator rather than the more common 2-pole one. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy.

4.Boiler feed water pump

A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. In either case, to force the water into the boiler; the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the

boiler. This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch. As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage, the pump is activated. I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed, its supply has been cut off or exhausted, or its discharge is blocked); the second stage will be triggered. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating), trigger an alarm, or both.

5. Steam-powered pumps
Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. In this situation, though, the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. A means had to be provided, of course, to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump).the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end; no crankshaft was required. In thermal plants, the primary purpose of surface condenser is to

condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased, which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser.

6. Control valves
Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature,pressure,flow,and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a set point to a process variable whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems

7. Deaerator
A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it non-corrosive. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section

as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam, condensate, and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves- the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow. If operated properly, most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm3/L)

8. Feed water heater

A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to preheat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.[4] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle), feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibilitys associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water). A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys,

with a continuous loop of material- the conveyor Belt that rotates about them. The pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material, such as grain, coal, ores etc.

9. Pulverizer
A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant.

10. Boiler Steam Drum

Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the hotter-water/and saturated steam into steam drum. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390C and pressure well above 350psi (2.4MPa). The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super heater, while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve, water level indicator and fuse plug. A steam drum is used in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level.

So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom.

11. Super Heater

A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam; non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam; Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century, to most steam vehicles, and so stationary steam engines including power stations.

12. Economizers
Economizer, or in the UK economizer, are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Boiler, power plant, and heating, ventilating and air conditioning. In boilers, economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids , usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boilers efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it

(the feed water). Modern day boilers, such as those in cold fired power stations, are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Greens original design. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input , in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection.

13. Air Preheater

Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler). The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack.

14. Precipitator
An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. ESPs continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills, and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed, today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached , maximizing corona production. Transformer rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing, avoiding damage to the components. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESPs to stay in operation for years at a time.

15. Fuel gas stack

A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. Fuel gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other large combustion device. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves, ovens, fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes, restaurants , hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys.


We were assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 31st May 2010 to 12th June 2010. CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It has following labs: 1. MANOMETRY LAB 2. PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB 3. AUTOMATION LAB 4. PYROMETRY LAB 5. FURNACE SAFETY SUPERVISORY SYSTEM(FSSS) 6. ELECTRONICS TEST LAB

This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this.

MANOMETRY LAB TRANSMITTERS It is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids, its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. It gives an output of 4-20 mA DC. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. MANOMETER Its a tube which is bent, in U shape. It is filled with a liquid. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs.

Bourdon Pressure Gauge Its an oval section tube. Its one end is fixed. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. It is of 2 types: (a) Spiral type: for Low pressure measurement. (b) Helical Type: for High pressure measurement.

PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay, which trips the circuit. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers.

Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. RELAY It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase angle and velocity. 2. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any

other material because of its comparatively low specific heat. MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER They are used with combination of the control circuits to. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. It consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. There are three types of - MANUAL TRIP - THERMAL TRIP - SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP

PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK SYSTEM 1. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.C supply. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start.

2. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0.415 KV A.C supply. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails.

AUTOMATION LAB This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. Earlier, the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. However, the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks. Once the measured is common i.e. pressure the control circuits can easily be designed with single chips having multiple applications. Another point is the universality of

the supply, the laws of electronic state that it can be any where between 12V and 35V in the plant. All the control instruments are excited by 24V supply (4-20mA) because voltage can be mathematically handled with ease therefore all control systems use voltage system for computation. The latest technology is the use of ETHERNET for control signals.

PYROMETER LAB (1) LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. (2) ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace.

(3) THERMOCOUPLES This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. This is an important part in the plant. (4) RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR) It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. In this lab, also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices).

FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. For first stage coal

burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. It is made up of mild steel. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation, to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace, which threatens to blast it.

ELECTRONICS LAB This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes, integrated circuits, cards auto analyzers etc. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. Transmitter converts mV to mA. 2. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. It extracts the magnetic portion. ANNUNCIATIN CARDS They are used to keep any parameter like temperature etc. within limits. It gets a signal if parameter goes beyond limit. It has a switching transistor connected to relay that helps in alerting the UCB.

Control and Instrumentation Measuring Instrumentsments In any process the philosophy of instrumentation should provide a comprehensive intelligence feed back on the important parameters viz. Temperature, Pressure, Level

and Flow. This Chapter Seeks to provide a basic understanding of the prevalent instruments used for measuring the above parameters.

Temperature Measurement The most important parameter in thermal power plant is temperature and its measurement plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. Rise of temperature in a substance is due to the resultant increase in molecular activity of the substance on application of heat; which increases the internal energy of the material. Therefore there exists some property of the substance, which changes with its energy content. The change may be observed with substance itself or in a subsidiary system in thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called testing body and the system itself is called the hot body. Expansion Thermometer Solid Rod Thermometers a temperature sensing Controlling device may be designed incorporating in its construction the principle that some metals expand more than others for the same temperature range. Such a device is the thermostat used with water heaters

The mercury will occupy a greater fraction of the volume of the container than it will at a low temperature. Under normal atmospheric conditions mercury normally boils at a temperature of (347C). To extend the range of mercury in glass thermometer beyond this point the top end of a thermometer bore opens into a bulb which is many times larger in capacity than the bore. This bulb plus the bore above the mercury, is then filled with nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas at a sufficiently high pressure to prevent boiling at the highest temperature to which the thermometer may be used. Mercury in Steel the range of liquid in glass thermometers although quite large, does not lend itself to all industrial practices. This fact is obvious by the delicate nature of glass also the position of the measuring element is not always the best position to read the result. Types of Hg in Steel Thermometers are: Bourdon Tube Most common and simplest type Spiral type: More sensitive and used where compactness is necessary

Helical Type: Most sensitive and compact. Pointer may be mounted direct on end of helix Which rotates, thus eliminating backlash and lost motion? Linkages, which only allow the pointer to operate over a selected range of pressure to either side of the normal steam pressure. (Refer Fig No.77) Dewrance Critical Pressure Gauge Measurement of Level Direct Methods 'Sight Glass' is used for local indication on closed or open vessels. A sight glass is a tube of toughened glass connected at both ends through packed unions and vessel. The liquid level will be the same as that in the vessel. Valves are provided for isolation and blow down. "Float with Gauge Post" is normally used to local indication on closed or open vessels. "Float Operated Dial" is used for small tanks and congested areas. The float arm is connected to a quadrant and pinion which rotates the pointer over a scale. Bourden Pressure Gauge a Bourdon pressure gauge calibrated in any fact head is often connected to a tank at or near the datum level.

"Mercury Manometer" is used for remote indication of liquid level. The working principle is the same as that of a manometer one limp of a U-tube is connected to the tank, the other being open to atmosphere. The manometer liquid must not mix with the liquid in the vessel, and where the manometer is at a different level to the vessel, the static head must be allowed in the design of the manometer. 'Diaphragm Type' is used for remote level indication in open tanks or docks etc. A pressure change created by the movement of a diaphragm is proportional to a change in liquid level above the diaphragm. This consists of a cylindrical box with a rubber or plastic diaphragm across its open end as the level increases .the liquid pressure on the diaphragm increases and the air inside is compressed. This pressure is transmitted via a capillary tube to an indicator or recorder incorporating a pressure Measuring element. Sealed Capsule Type The application and principle is the same as for the diaphragm box. In this type, a capsule filled with an inert gas under a slight pressure is exposed to the pressure due to the head of liquid and is connected by a capillary to an indicator. In some cases the capsule is fitted external to the tank and is so arranged that it can be

removed whilst the tank is still full, a spring loaded valve automatically shutting off the tapping point. Air Purge System This system provides the simplest means of obtaining an indication of level, or volume, at a reasonable distance and above or below, the liquid being measured. The pressure exerted inside an open ended tube below the surface of a liquid is proportional to the depth of the liquid

The Measurement of Flow Two principle measurements are made by flow meters viz. quantity of flow and rate of flow. 'Quantity of flow' is the quantity of fluid passing a given point in a given time, i.e. gallons or pounds. Rate of flow' is the speed of. a fluid passing a given point at a given instant and is proportional to quantity passing at a given instant, i.e. gallons per minute or pounds per hour. There are two groups of measuring devices: Positive, or volumetric, which measure flow by transferring a measured quantity of fluid from the inlet to the outlet.

Inferential, which measures the velocity of the flow and the volume passed is inferred, it being equal to the velocity times the cross sectional area of the flow. The inferential type is the most widely used. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Pipes: "The Rotating Impeller Type" is a positive type device which is used for medium quantity flow measurement i.e., petroleum and other commercial liquids. It consists of Two fluted rotors mounted in a liquid tight case fluid flow and transmitted to a counter. Rotating Oscillating Piston Type This is also a positive type device and is used for measuring low and medium quantity flows, e.g. domestic water supplies. This consists of a brass meter body into which is fitted a machined brass working chamber and cover, containing a piston made of ebonite. This piston acts as a moving chamber and transfers a definite volume of fluid from the inlet to the outlet for each cycle. Helical Vane Type For larger rates of flow, a helical vane is mounted centrally in the body of the meter. The helix chamber may be vertical or horizontal and is geared to a counter. Usually of pipe sizes 3" to 10" Typical example

is the Kent Torrent Meter. Turbine Type this like the helical Vane type is a inference type of device used for large flows with the minimum of pressure drop. This consists of a turbine or drum revolving in upright bearings, retaining at the top by a collar. Water enters the drum from the top and leaves tangentially casings to rotate at a speed dependent upon the quantity of water passed. The cross sectional area of the meter throughout is equal to the area of the inlet and outlet pipes and is commonly used on direct supply water mains, Combination Meters this is used for widely fluctuating flows. It consists of a larger meter (helical, turbine or fan) in the main with a small rotary meter or suitable type in a bypass. Flow is directed into either the main or bypass according to the quantity of flow by an automatic valve. By this means flows of 45 to 40,000 gallons per hour can be measured.

Measurement of Fluid Flow through Open Channels: The Weir If a fluid is allowed to flow over a square weir of notch, The height of the liquid above the still of the weir, or the bottom of the notch will be a measure of the rate of flow. A formula relates the rate of flow to the height and is dependent upon the design of the Venturi Flumes The head loss caused by the weir flow meter is considerable and its construction is sometimes complicated, therefore the flume is sometimes used. The principle is same as that of venture except that the rate of flow is proportional to the depth of the liquid in the upstream section. It consists of a local contraction in the cross section of flow through a channel in the shape of a venturi. It is only necessary to measure the depth of the upstream section which is a measure of the rate of flow. This may be done by pressure tapping at the datum point or by a float in an adjacent level chamber.

Pressure Difference Flow meters These are the most widely used type of flow meter since they are capable of measuring the flow of all industrial fluids passing through pipes. They consists of a primary element inserted in the pipeline which generates a differential pressure, ^he magnitude of which is proportional to the square of the rate of flow and a secondary element which measures this differential pressure and translates it into terms of flow.

Primary elements Bernoulli's theorem states that the quantity of fluid or gas flowing is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. There are four principal types of primary elements (or restrictions) as enumerate below: Venturi; This is generally used for medium and high quantity fluid flow and it consists of two hollow truncated cones, the smaller diameters of which are connected together by a short length of parallel pipe, the smallest diameter of the tube formed by this length of parallel pipe is known as the throat section and the lower of the two pressures, (the throat, or downstream pressure) is measured here.

Orifice Plate This is the oldest and most common form of pressure differential device. In its simplest form it consists of a thin metal plate with a central hold clamped between two pipe flanges. In the metering of dirty fluids or fluids containing solids the hole is placed so that its lower edge coincides with the inside bottom of the pipe. It is essential that the leading edge of the hole is absolutely sharp rounding or burring would have a very marked effect on the flow.