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Le Bureau du Procureur

The Office of the Prosecutor

OTPWeeklyBriefing
2025July2011Issue#97 HIGHLIGHTS: INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY DISCUSSES EFFORTS TO ADDRESS THREATPOSEDBYLRA PROSECUTIONAPPEALSJUDGESDECISIONONTHECONDITIONSFORA FORMEROTPLAWYERTOJOINDEFENCETEAM
PREVIEW GoranHadic,thelast fugitivefromICTY,is arrested,p.5

InternationalcommunitydiscusseseffortstoaddressthreatsposedbyLRA 21JulyTheUNSecurityCouncilencouragedallStatestocooperatewiththeUgandanauthoritiesandwiththeICCinorder toimplementtheICCwarrantsagainstthetopLRAleadershipandbringtojusticethoseresponsibleforLRAatrocities.The Council strongly condemned ongoing LRA attacks and emphasised the importance of sustained coordinated action by regionalGovernmentstobringanendtotheLRAproblem,stressingtheneedforcoordinationamongstallthoseengagedin addressing the threat posed by the LRA. The Security Council welcomedrecent AUinitiatives to develop and implement a comprehensive strategy to tackle the LRA threat, including military operations and civilian protection work, together with demobilisation,disarmament,repatriation,resettlementandreintegration. 25 July Discussions between the South Sudan Caretaker Minister of Regional Cooperation Deng Alor and visiting DRC Foreign Minister Alexis Thambwe Mwamba included renewed focus on strategies to put a stop to LRA attacks, with DRC, Uganda,SouthSudanandCARworkingtogetherunderAUauspices. 25JulyInapressstatement,theUNSecurityCouncilWorkingGrouponChildrenandArmedConflictstronglycondemned abuses against children committed against children by the LRA, including recruitment, rape and other forms of sexual violenceandabductionsinthesoutheasternandeasternareasofCAR. ProsecutionappealsontheconditionsforaformerOTPlawyertojoinDefenceteam 25JulyTheProsecutionrequestedtheAppealsChambertoreversethedecisionofTrialChamberIVof30June,inwhichit deniedtheProsecutionsrequesttoinvalidatetheappointmentofaformerOTPtriallawyerwhojoinedthedefenceteamin theBandaandJerbocasetwoweeksafterleavingtheOTP. The Prosecution submitted that the Trial Chamber erred when it refused to apply an objective standard that a former Prosecution lawyer may not join the defence against his former office in a case that was open when he/she worked for the Prosecution,whichtheProsecutionsubmitswouldhaveledtodisqualificationofthepersoninvolved.TheProsecutionalso held that the Chamber erred when it required, while applying article 12(1)(b) of the Code of Professional Conduct (which requires disqualification if the attorney was privytoconfidentialinformationasastaffmemberoftheCourtrelatingtothecasein which counsel seeks to appear), that the former OTP trial lawyer be effectively in possession of more than de minimis confidentialinformation,placinganunrealisticevidentiaryburdenthat,inmostcases,willbeimpossibletomeet. TheProsecutionholdstheviewthattheimportanceoftheCourtsmandate,theparticularcontextinwhichtheCourtoperates andtheneedtoprotecttheintegrityofitsproceedingsrequiretheadoptionofstandardsthatprovidethehighestdegreeof protectiontotheintegrityoftheCourtsproceedings.Becauseoftheessentialneedtofreelyconsultanddiscussfactual,legal, andpolicyissues,lawyershaveanobligationofconfidentialityastoallinformationandanassumptionthatallinteractions within the Prosecution Division will be unrestricted and therefore confidential. National systems also generally reflect the objective principle that a former prosecutor cannot immediately join the Defence. In the view of the Prosecution, the Trial

Chambersdecisionembracesatestthatiswronginlawandoffersinadequateprotection,particularlyinadequateinviewof practicewithintheOTP. TheProsecutionisalsoseekingleavetoappealinasimilarsituation,involvingaformerProsecutionlawyerwhojoinedthe defenceintheMuthauracaseinthesituationofKenya.

I.InvestigationsandProsecutions

Overthereportingperiod,theOTPpresented28filingsinthevariouscasesandconductedfourmissionsinfourcountries.

I.1.SituationintheDemocraticRepublicoftheCongo(DRC)
ThissituationwasreferredbytheDRCinMarch2004.TheOTPopeneditsinvestigationinJune2004,focusingfirstonIturiwheresomeof themostseriouscrimeshadbeencommittedbythemainarmedgroups.FourarrestwarrantshavebeenissuedagainstThomasLubanga DyiloandBoscoNtaganda,leadersoftheUPC,andGermainKatangaandMathieuNgudjoloChui,leadersoftheFNIandFRPI.Thetrialof ThomasLubangaDyilobeganon26January2009.TheProsecutionfileditsclosingbriefon1June.Oralclosingargumentswillbepresented on25and26August2011.ThetrialofGermainKatangaandMathieuNgudjoloChuibeganon24November2009;on8December2010,the Prosecution concluded the presentation of its case. Bosco Ntaganda is at large. In September 2008, the OTP announced the start of its investigation into alleged crimes in the Kivus. On 28 September 2010 the judges issued an arrest warrant under seal against Callixte Mbarushimana,ExecutiveSecretaryoftheFDLR.Hewasarrestedon11October2010inParis,andsurrenderedtotheCourton25January 2011.TheConfirmationofChargesHearingissetfor17August2011.

20JulyTheProsecutionfiledthepublicredactedversionofitsClosingBriefintheLubangacase.Theclosingstatementswill takeplaceon25and26August. 22JulyAUNinvestigationintomassrapesintheDRCsevenmonthsagoidentifiestherapistsasCongolesearmysoldiers, demands their prosecution and asks the Government to protect the victims from reprisals from the perpetrators. NavenenthemPillay,theUNHighCommissionerforHumanRights,calledforanendtotheuseofrapeasaweaponofwar, anddemandedthattheperpetratorsbeprosecuted.TheprobebytheUNmissionintheDRC(MONUSCO)andtheUNHigh CommissionerforHumanRights(OHCHR)saysoftheincidentsinthevillagesofBushaniandKalambahiroinNorthKivu provinceinthecountryseastthatitcanconfirmthatmeninuniformidentifiedbyvarioussourcesassoldiersoftheArmedForcesof theDemocraticRepublicofCongo(FARDC)submitted47women,includingoneminor,tosexualviolence,includingrape,abductedtwo civilians,andinflictedcruel,inhumanordegradingtreatmenton12othercivilians.

I.2.SituationinUganda
ThissituationwasreferredbyUgandainJanuary2004.TheOTPopeneditsinvestigationinJuly2004.Fivearrestwarrantshavebeenissued against top leaders of the Lords Resistance Army (LRA): Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti (allegedly killed in 2007 on order of Kony), Okot Odhiambo, Raska Lukwiya (killed on 12 August 2006, whose arrest warrant has been withdrawn), and Dominic Ongwen. These arrest warrantsareoutstanding.Sinceearly2008,theLRAisreportedtohavekilledmorethan2,000,abductedmorethan2,500anddisplacedwell over300,000inDRCalone.Inaddition,overthesameperiod,morethan120,000peoplehavebeendisplaced,atleast450peoplekilledand morethan800abductedbytheLRAinSouthernSudanandtheCentralAfricanRepublic.

I.3.SituationinDarfur,theSudan
ThissituationwasreferredbytheUNSecurityCouncilinMarch2005.TheOTPopeneditsinvestigationinJune2005.Threearrestwarrants have been issued, against Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb, and against Omar Al Bashir, which are outstanding. Also three summons to appearhavebeenissued,againstBaharIdrissAbuGardaandagainstAbdallahBandaAbakerNourainandSalehMohammedJerboJamus. On12July,PreTrialChamberIissuedasecondwarrantofarrestagainstOmarAlBashirforthreecountsofgenocidecommittedagainstthe Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups: genocide by killing, genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm and genocide by deliberately inflicting on each target group conditions of life calculated to bring about their physical destruction.Abu Garda voluntarily appeared before the Court pursuant to a summons. The confirmation of charges hearing was held on 1930 October 2009. On 8 February 2010thePreTrialChamberissuedadecisiondecliningtoconfirmthecharges.TheOTPrequestedleavetoappealthisdecisionon15March andthiswasdeniedbythePTCon23April.TheOTPwillpresentadditionalevidence.On25MaythePTCChamberissueditsDecision informing the United Nations Security Council about the lack of cooperation by the Republic of the Sudan in the case against Harun & Kushayb.On17June,AbdallahBandaAbakerNourainandSalehMohammedJerboJamusappearedvoluntarilybeforetheICC,toanswer charges of war crimes for their roles in the 2007 attack against African Union peacekeepers in Haskanita. The confirmation of charges
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hearing for Banda and Jerbo took place on 8 December 2010.On 6 March 2011, PreTrial Chamber I confirmed all of the charges against BandaandJerbo.Adateforthetrialhasnotbeensetyet.

22 July FIDH and its Sudanese member organisations, the African Center for Justice and Peace Studies (ACJPS) and the Sudan Human Rights Monitor (SUHRM), expressed deep concern about the serious violations of human rights and humanitarianlawbeingperpetratedinSouthKordofan.CommentingonPresidentAlBashirandAhmedHarun,ACPJSnoted thattheirroleinSouthKordofanisreminiscentoftheirroleintheDarfurconflict.Thisisanunbearableexampleofthethreattopeace andsecuritywhichcanemanatefromthefailuretoaddressaccountability.Inthiscontext,executionoftheoutstandingarrestswarrantsis criticalforthesakeofbothjusticeandpeace.

I.4.SituationintheCentralAfricanRepublic(CAR)
This situation was referred by the CAR in December 2004. The OTP opened its investigation in May 2007. One arrest warrant has been issuedagainstJeanPierreBembaGomboforcrimescommittedin20022003.Theconfirmationofchargeshearingwasheldon1215January 2009.On15June2009,PreTrialChamberIIrendereditsconfirmationofchargesdecision.On18September,thecasewasreferredtoTrial Chamber III. In parallel, the Office continues to monitor allegations of crimes committed since the end of 2005. The trial started on 22 November 2010. The Defence decided not to appeal the 17 December Decision on the review of detention of Mr. JeanPierre Bemba, pursuanttotheAppealsJudgmentof19November2010.

I.5.SituationinKenya
The Office made its examination of the postelection violence of December 2007January 2008 public in February 2008. On 9July2009,theAfricanUnionPanelofEminentAfricanPersonalities,chairedbyKofiAnnan,announcedthesubmissiontotheOTPofa sealedenvelopecontainingalistofpersonsallegedlyimplicatedandsupportingmaterialspreviouslyentrustedtoMr.AnnanbytheWaki Commission. On 5 November the Prosecutor informed President Kibaki and Prime Minister Odinga of his view that crimes against humanity had been committed and of his duty, in the absence of national proceedings, to act. Both the President and the Prime Minister committed to cooperate with the Court. On 26 November the Prosecutor requested authorization from PreTrial Chamber II to open an investigation,noting that: 1,220 persons had been killed;hundreds raped, with thousands more unreported; 350,000 people were forcibly displaced;and3,561injuredaspartofawidespreadandsystematicattackagainstcivilians.On31MarchthePreTrialChamberauthorized theProsecutortocommenceaninvestigationcoveringallegedcrimesagainsthumanitycommittedbetween1June2005and26November 2009.TheProsecutormadehisfirstvisittoKenyasincethebeginningoftheinvestigationon812Mayandhissecondvisit13December. The Prosecutor submitted two applications for summonses to appear regarding six individuals (William Samoei Ruto, Henry Kiprono Kosgey, Joshua Arap Sang, Francis Kirimi Muthaura, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Mohamed Hussein Ali) on 15 December 2010. These individuals are alleged to be most responsible in accordance with the evidence. On 8 March 2011, PreTrial Chamber II issued the six summonses to appear. The six suspects voluntarily appeared before the Court on 7 and 8 April 2011. The Chamber scheduled the confirmationhearingson1stand21September2011.

I.6.SituationinLibya
This situation was referred by the UN Security Council on 26 February 2011 by Resolution 1970 (2011). As per the Rome Statute, the ProsecutorshallproceedwithaninvestigationunlessthereisnoreasonablebasistobelievethatcrimesfallingundertheICCjurisdiction havebeencommitted.Followingapreliminaryexaminationofavailableinformation,theProsecutordecidedtoopenaninvestigationon3 March2011andrequestedPreTrialChamberItoissuearrestwarrantsagainstMuammarAbuMinyaGaddafi,SaifAlIslamGaddafiand AbdullahAlSanousion16May.ThewarrantswereissuedbytheJudgeson27June2011.

25JulyTheOTPhasdismissedsuggestionsthatMuammarGaddaficouldbeallowedtoremaininLibyaaspartofnegotiated dealtoremovehimfrompower,insistingthatanewgovernmentwouldbeobligedtoarresthimunderwarrantsissuedbythe Court.ThedecisiontoseekjusticehadbeenunanimouslymadebytheUNSecurityCouncil,andtheCourtsarrestwarrants arelegalfactswhichcannotgoaway.TheOTPhasinsistedthatanynegotiationordealhastorespectUNSecurityCouncil resolution1970andtheJudgesdecision.

I.7.SituationinCtedIvoire
TheCourthasjurisdictionoverthesituationinCtedIvoirebyvirtueofanArticle12(3)declarationsubmittedbytheIvorianGovernment on 1 October 2003. On 4 May 2011, the President of Cte dIvoire, Alassane Ouattara, confirmed his wish for the OTP to conduct independentandimpartialinvestigationsintothemostseriouscrimescommittedsince28November2010ontheentireIvorianterritory.On 23June2011,theOTPrequestedPreTrialchamberIIIfortheauthorizationtoopenaninvestigationintothesituationinCtedIvoiresince 28November2010.

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II.PreliminaryExaminations

StatisticsonArticle15Communicationsandotherpreliminaryexaminationactivities.
ApreliminaryexaminationisthefirstphaseoftheOfficeoftheProsecutoractivities,inordertoassessifaninvestigationshouldbeopened. ItisaphaseduringwhichtheOfficefirstassessesthejurisdictionoftheCourt,whethercrimesfallingundertheICCjurisdictionmayhave been,orarepossiblybeing,committedinagivensituation;iftheconditionsaremet,whethergenuineinvestigationsandprosecutionsare being carried out by the competent authorities in relation to these crimes; and, as a third step, whether the possible opening of an investigationbytheProsecutorwouldnotgoagainsttheinterestsofjustice.Duringthisphase,andinaccordancewithArticle15,theOffice proactively evaluates all information on alleged crimes from multiple sources, including communications from individuals and parties concerned.Thetriggeringofapreliminaryexaminationdoesnotimplythataninvestigationwillbeopened.

II.1.Afghanistan
TheOfficemadeitsexaminationpublicin2007.ItexaminesallegedcrimeswithinthejurisdictionoftheCourtbyallactorsinvolved.The OTP met outside Afghanistan with Afghan officials and organizations. The OTP sent requests for information to the Government of Afghanistanandhasnotyetreceivedananswer.

II.2.Colombia
The Office made its examination public in 2006. It examines alleged crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court and investigations/proceedingsconductedinColombiaagainsttheallegedlymostseriousperpetrators,paramilitaryleaders,politicians,guerrilla leaders and military personnel. The Office is also analyzing allegations of international networks supporting armed groups committing crimesinColombia.

II.3.Georgia
TheOfficemadeitsexaminationpublicon14August2008.TheGeorgianMinisterofJusticevisitedtheOTP.Russia,aStatenotPartytothe Statute,hassent3,817communicationstotheOTP.TheProsecutorrequestedinformationfromtheGovernmentsofRussiaandGeorgiaon 27 August 2008.Both the Russian and Georgian authorities responded. The Office conducted avisit to GeorgiainNovember 2008 and to RussiainMarch2010.AsecondmissiontoGeorgiawasconductedinJune2010.

II.4.Palestine
On 22 January 2009, the Palestinian National Authority lodged a declaration with the Registrar under Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute whichallowsStatesnotpartytotheStatutetoaccepttheCourtsjurisdiction.TheOTPwillexamineissuesrelatedtoitsjurisdiction:first whetherthedeclarationacceptingtheexerciseofjurisdictionbytheCourtmeetsstatutoryrequirements;andsecondwhethercrimeswithin the Courts jurisdiction have been committed. The Office will also consider whether there are national proceedings in relation to alleged crimes.AdelegationfromthePalestinianNationalAuthority,andRepresentativesoftheArabLeaguevisitedtheCourton1516October 2009 to present a report in support of the PNAs ability to delegate its jurisdiction to the ICC. On 11 January, the OTP sent a letter summarizingitsactivitiestotheUnitedNationsattheirrequest.On3May,theOTPpublishedaSummaryofsubmissionsonwhetherthe declarationlodgedbythePalestinianNationalAuthoritymeetsstatutoryrequirements.TheOTPhasnotmadeanydeterminationonthe issue.

II.5.Guinea
TheOfficemadeitsexaminationofthesituationinGuineapublicon14October2009.GuineaisaStatePartytotheRomeStatutesince14 July2003and,assuch,theICChasjurisdictionoverwarcrimes,crimesagainsthumanityandgenocidepossiblycommittedintheterritory of Guinea or by nationals of Guinea, including killings of civilians and sexual violence. The Office has taken note of serious allegations surrounding the events of 28 September 2009 in Conakry in accordance with Article 15 of the Statute. In January 2010, OTP high level representatives held consultations with President Compaore of Burkina Faso, mediator for the contact group on Guinea, and President WadeofSenegaltoensurethattheyareinformedofitswork.From15to19February2010,theOTPsentamissiontoGuinea,ledbyDeputy Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda, in the context of its preliminary examination activities. From 1921 May a second OTP mission met with the Guinean Minister of Justice, Col. Lohalamou, and Guinean judges. A third OTP mission, lead by Deputy Prosecutor Bensouda, went to Conakryfrom8to12November2010,andmetwithformerPresidentSkoubaKonat,formerPrimeMinisterDor,aswellasbothelection candidates.TheGuineanauthoritiesextendedfullcooperationtotheCourt.

II.6.Nigeria
TheOfficemadeitsexaminationofthesituationinNigeriapublicon18November2010.NigeriaisaStatePartytotheRomeStatutesince27 September2001.TheOfficehasbeenanalyzingtheallegedcrimescommittedinCentralNigeriasincemid2004andislookingforwardto engagingconstructivelywiththeNigerianauthoritiesontheissue.
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II.7.Honduras
TheOfficemadeitsexaminationofthesituationinHonduraspublicon18November2010.HondurasisaStatePartytotheRomeStatute since1July2002.TheOfficehasreceivedmanycommunicationsoncrimeslinkedtothecoupofJune2009.Thereweredifferentallegations, mostly regarding alleged massive cases of torture and more than a thousand people being arrested in one day. The Office met with the HondurasMinisterCounsellorinTheHagueon22November,whoprovidedrelevantinformationandpromisedtheirfullcooperation.

II.8.RepublicofKorea
The Office madeits examination of thesituationin the Republicof Korea publicon 6December 2010.Koreais a StateParty to the Rome Statute since 13 November 2002. The Office of the Prosecutor has received communications alleging that North Korean forces committed war crimes in the territory of the Republic of Korea. The Office is currently evaluating if some incidents constitute war crimes under the jurisdictionoftheCourt.Theseincidentsare:a)theshellingofYeonpyeongIslandonthe23November2010whichresultedinthekillingof South Korean marines and civilians and the injury of many others; and b) the sinking of a South Korean warship, the Cheonan, hit by a torpedoallegedlyfiredfromaNorthKoreansubmarineon26March2010,whichresultedinthedeathof46persons.

III.CooperationGalvanizingEffortstoArrest
20 July Following the arrest of Goran Hadic, the last fugitive from an ICTY arrest warrant issued for crimes against humanityandwarcrimes,theUNSecretaryGeneralsspokespersonhighlightedthepowerfulmessagesentthatthosewhoare allegedtohavecommittedsuchcrimescannotevadejusticeandwillbeheldaccountable.UNHighCommissionerforHumanRights NaviPillaysaid:Astrongmessagehasbeensenttodaytothosewhocommithumanrightsviolationsthattheywillbeheldaccountable, ifnotbydomesticjudicialprocesses,thenbyinternationaljusticemechanisms.Themomentumcreatedbytheselatestdevelopmentsinthe ICTYwillservetostrengthenexistingprocessesandinitiativesinthefieldofinternationalcriminaljustice,notonlyintheregion,butalso elsewhereintheworld.

IV.UpcomingEvents

2830 August Deputy Prosecutor Bensouda participates in the 5th Annual International Humanitarian Law Dialogs, Chautauqua,NewYork 29AugustProsecutorMorenoOcampoparticipatesinthe2011EuropeanForumPoliticalSymposium,Alpbach,Austria

*ThisdocumentreflectstheviewsoftheOfficeoftheProsecutoroftheICC.Formoreinformation,contactMrs.OliviaSwaakGoldman,InternationalCooperationAdviser intheOfficeoftheProsecutor,atOTP.Briefing@icccpi.int

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