Biomass, a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, (hydrogen

) gas, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat.

Why biomass is a renewable source Biomass takes carbon from the atmosphere while it is growing, and returns it as it is burned. If it is managed on a sustainable basis, biomass is harvested as part of a constantly replenished crop. This is either during woodland or arboricultural management or coppicing or as part of a continuous programmed of replanting with the new growth taking up CO2 from the atmosphere at the same time as it is released by combustion of the previous harvest.

preparation and processing. including alkali.Chemical composition Biomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen. There are five basic categories of material: y y y y y Virgin wood. often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms. in the form of heat or electricity. or may convert it to another form. Conversion technologies There are a number of technological options available to make use of a wide variety of biomass types as a renewable energy source. alkaline earth and heavy metals. Conversion technologies may release the energy directly. from forestry. such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. and postconsumer waste Industrial waste and co-products from manufacturing and industrial processes. for others there may only one appropriate technology. Biomass Technology Chart Conversion Process Type Thermochemical Major Biomass Feedstock Energy or Fuel Produced heat steam electricity Technology Direct Combustion wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste residential fuels wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste Gasification 40% to 55% Thermochemical low or medium-Btu producer gas Pyrolysis Thermochemical synthetic fuel oil (biocrude) charcoal . arboricultural activities or from wood processing Energy crops: high yield crops grown specifically for energy applications Agricultural residues: residues from agriculture harvesting or processing Food waste. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usage options. from food and drink manufacture. usually including atoms of oxygen.

Anaerobic Digestion Biochemical (anaerobic) animal manure agricultural waste landfills wastewater sugar or starch crops wood waste pulp sludge grass straw rapeseed soy beans waste vegetable oil animal fats wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste medium Btu gas (methane) Ethanol Production Biochemical (aerobic) ethanol Biodiesel Production Chemical biodiesel Methanol Production Thermochemical methanol How Much It Costs The cost of electricity from biomass energy depends on the type of biofuel used. Power plants that burn biomass directly currently generate electricity at a cost of between 7 and 9 cents per kilowatt-hour. how it's converted to electricity and the size of the plant. Estimated Cost of Renewable Energy Options (Cents per kWh) BIOMASS GENERATES MORE CARBON THAN COAL .

BIOMASS IS NOT CARBON NEUTRAL BIOMASS ENERGY IS INEFFICIENT BIOMASS SANITIZES AND MINES OUR FORESTS The dispersed nature of wood as a fuel source combined with its low energy value means any sizeable energy plant must burn a lot of wood. removal of water from rivers occurs just when flows are lowest. BIOMASS ENERGY USES LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER A large-scale biomass plant (50 MW) uses close to a million gallons of water a day for cooling. especially trout. Most of that water is lost from the watershed since approximately 85% is lost as steam. . Water channeled back into a river or stream typically has a pollution cost as well. 50 megawatt biomass plant would require roughly 32.500 acres of forest each year if running at near full capacity and entirely on wood. For instance. including higher water temperatures that negatively impact fisheries. Since cooling need is greatest in warm weather. and fish are most susceptible to temperature stress.

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