Marketing Notes | Advertising | Consumer Behaviour

MODULE 1 EVOLUTION/HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT ( Refer-BOVEE, THILL, DOVEL, WOOD-advertising excellence, pg 17) (Refer-S.A Chunawalla and k.

c Sethia-foundations of advertising, pg 1) -Before public education, trade people attracted attention with public relation and pictorial signs. -In ancient Egypt, products would entice buyers with flowery descriptions of the cargos from newly arrived ships. -Early Greek & roman merchants used signs to advertise mere products. -The upsurge in advertising came after the development of printing. When printing techniques were perfected, the signs replaced written words & messages. -During the 17th century, when newspapers started in various parts of world, this was an important phase in the history of advertisement. -Technology of the industrial revolution changed with the pattern & the economics of production & consumption further perceiving the growth of advertising. -When power driven equipment and large trade factories were introduced in England in mid 1700s many people left the farms to works in urban factories & relied less on their own production & more on affordable mass produced goods. -Trap widened between producers & consumers to stimulate demand the businesses turned to advertising to reach customers -Invention of photography, telephone, typewriter motion pictures opened up new avenues for personal & business communication. -Once the powerful technologies of radio & television became common place. The face of advertisement changed forever. Advertising ³Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas goods or services by an identified sponsor.´ - American Marketing Association

Purpose of advertising (Refer- MANENDRA MOHAN, PG 4) (Refer- B.BALAJI AND SONALI TALWAR, PG 3.5)

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Communication with customers Effective communication to target audience. We come to know of products existing in market only through advertisements. Eg ± 3G ad ±Abhishek Bachan Persuasion Influence customers to buy. Eg- school bag with Dora, Barbie, Ben 10, Hannah Montana, etc. with attractive pictures. Informs/Service information Eg ± Half price sales, new features, offers, etc. Reflects changes in economic and social activities Eg ± TVS scooty ± Promote girls having fun. Pleasure Priyanka Chopra ± Why should boys have all the fun? Tata Tea ± Jago re Offers a choice Eg- Lux ± Lavender, Rose, etc. Different options for consumers. Reminders Eg ± Cadbury ± 1st day ± Eat sweets. Festivals ± Celebrations pack. Establish a good, service or idea Eg- Pepsi blue. Create demand Eg ± A/c with sensor ± Panasonic Onida ± In the car itself, person can switch on ac at home.

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- Opinion leaders ±all celebrities influencing public Lux ad-rekha.up vs. aishwarya rai. Coke ± different ads Thums.B.- Create knowledge Eg ± I phone. Printed word is manufacturer¶s guarantee. (Sales increases when producer has earned a name) Creates insurance for manufacturer¶s business. Pepsi. abishek etc . Katrina. Their work is reduced and is made easier. PG 3. executives etc. profit. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING - - (Refer. Eg. Srk Priyanka chopra Amithabh. Pepsi. Receptiveness of new product. and employment Overall economic development of the country Distinguish products and services from competitors Eg ± Sprite. Helps dealers to sell the advertised product. Helps to secure better employees.BALAJI AND SONALI TALWAR.6) - Primary Functions Increase sales of product Persuasion sales. Movies. salesmen. Creates a feeling among employees and staff that they work in a company having public response. Creates brand image and brand loyalty. Eg ± In a supermarket. 3G Contribution to economic growth Increase in demand. we are persuaded to purchase many attractive things. parveen. Secondary Functions Encourages salesmen. Products are not so good but the advertisements are very attractive.

such as its influence on social values and life styles.mobiles. Related to the product itself . EG:-Royal Challengers-Bangalore.SOCIAL ISSUES IN ADVERTISING Advertisement criticized on the grounds of deception manipulation and bad taste and also relates to the social effects of advertisement. . EG:. Since it can manipulate buyers into making a decision against their will or interests. -Adv. -TASTE Some cities feel that the advertising has adverse effects on creative exposition may not always be in good taste. shirts.contents of improved sunsilk and old one is more or less the same. DECEPTION Advertisement is introduced into process of the audience and the output of that perpetual process either differs from the reality of the situation. separately considered. alcohol. EG:.50% off on few related items of Bata shoe sale etc. EG:. EG:. -Objections to the occasion and exposure adv.buying of goodness product beyond the budget available-. ladies salwars. MANIPULATION Choice of consumers is restricted by the power the adv. EG:-Action scenes while children are watching.Kids stain-surf excel Fair and lovely -Adv must not create a misleading impression although every statement. Must not be artfully continues to distract and direct readers attention from true nature of the terms and conditions of an offer. -Moral concern about the adv.EG:-cigarettes. may be literally truthful.

EG:. Strategy like excessive reception of the claim.SWATHI MAJUMDAR.EG:.AREAS UNDER SCRUTING OF ETHICS. -Objection to the techniques of adv.zatak deo spray. . Ad for fatal effects Tobacco chewing or alcohol ads instead of creating awareness temptation for non smokers or non drinkers to try. Umbrella adv during rainy season. EG:. The questions here is whether -to make an impact -to increase demand -to increase market shares 1.over emphasis on tax appeal. AD. feelings or actions through the deliberate use of argument or reasoning 2. instead of making people aware of safe sex & benefits of birth control. resolve or formulate other people¶s opinions. posing nude with a python wrapped around. ETHICS IN ADVERTISEMENT (Refer.Axe deo spray. PG 284) Ads for tuff shoes featuring madhu sapre & milind soman.-Objections to appeals employed.3G advertising aerated drinks advertising during summer. Ads for sex related products. ETHICS OF PERSUASION Persuasion is an act of communication that tries to change.-pills ads misleading rather than educating. ads continue to intrigue the youngsters Ex.

children teasing a kid in surf excel ad.Fair and lovely 3.Sugarfree ± have trans. Larger effects on society -Value formation Eg ± Lava phone ads Ordinary phone .only fair people get jobs ± insults the dark shaded.2 weeks challenge ± to lose weight .Many misleading ads: . Cosmetics-never say its effect in long term 5. - 4. Ads targeting children & adolescents¶ ex. Minute maid lemon juice-say it¶s natural-but they actually use preservatives-they hide the true facts -use of deception Eg. .Kellogs . jealousy. Sexual and racial Eg ± fair and lovely . daag acche hai Kellogg challenge (slim-few day challenge) CARD (children¶s advertising review dep unit)to protect children¶s interests. Types of appeals Could be unethical Use of questionable appeals Eg ± neighbors¶ envy. Fat ± which is harmful ± but ads are misleading . mom in law and daughter in law fights promoting such feelings Stereotypical appeals.girl gives chocolates saying he¶s a boy Guy with a LAVA phone ±she gives him a condom saying her a man -media content Real fruit juices Eg.

Eg.zen-good car-but when stopped production alto & many other cars took over the market. 8.Even lower class people can purchase ± standard of living increases. 7.Tata Nano ad. Advertisement and violation of right to privacy May use names pictures of a person without consent. y During recession Unemployment. Those who managed to advertise at least a little during recession survived. Lack of academic interest when they try to relate ethical issues to traditional advertisement issues. Many competitors come in & who cannot match demand. Demand starts growing ± sometimes businesses cannot meet growing demand. Economic effects or aspects of advertising Advertising ± closely linked with economic development of the country. no money. During expansion Employment. Many ads use film stars (pictures) at times to promote products without permission. Why be ethical? Unethical ads often have negative consequences like consumer boycotts legal actions etc. hack of investment.6. Basically advertise in recession as well as expansion Research ±because which maintained or increased advertisement during recession managed greater sales growth than because which reduced advertisement during recession y . Impediments to research. and demand for product goes down. lose market share Eg. ideas and trademarks of others. and stock market crashes. Eg. Average businesses gained market share at expense of smaller competitors. purchasing power-high etc. ± Beauty parlours with Aishwarya Rai¶s photos etc. etc.

Eg. celebrities etc ±parties mostly for products which are expensive like cars. NECC-egg promotion not just a company but an entire industry *Google search as soon as we search and number of ads from various causes comes up Eg.TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENT (Refer.parts of the ad cost will be paid by them. AXIS bank. jobs. Google ad sense was the first one to start contextual ads venture. PG 3.BALAJI AND SONALI TALWAR. insurance co ads. Launch of TATA aria by TATA motors Build public image INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISING Promoter the company itself Eg. Free songs download.B. eg. Matrimonial sites CO-OPERATIVE ADVERTISING A grocery store might decide that it wants to take out a full page of a local newspaper for an ad. It can approach any company from whom it orders to see if anyone is interested . etc ±keywords advertisement KEYWORD ADVERTISING Yahoo was the company to venture Main keywords are highlighted to catch attention of customers. CORPORATE ADVERTISING Product launches-with influential people. . This compels the consumers to at least think about buying the product & check what everyone is raving about Eg. harpic ads etc CONTEXTUAL ADVERTISING It is targeted form of internet marketing in which the advertisements are selected by automated systems based on context being viewed by a particular user. matrimonial. expensive gadgets etc Eg. Public opinion for movies.LIC improving image of company making it seem more trustworthy or responsible Eg.11) BANDWAGON ADVERTISEMENT Aims at convincing user that everyone else is using the product in favor of the brand. Automated system scans the text of a website for keywords & sends ads that match content.

face creams Surrogate ads Several nation laws have banned the advertisement of products like alcohol or cigarettes Eg.car company . AXE ±chocolate PONDS-anti ageing BIG BAZAAR ±dhoni & asin Promotional ads Use of promotional give ±away items or promotional media events which help to gain public attention & Are effective Eg.behind buses-yeddyurappa¶s photo. wonderla ads-behind autos Strategic use of moving vehicles to promote different products to widen range of potential clients. t-shirt (rcb)-indirectly promoting the brand Online/web ads Eg . calendars . Restroom ads In which at least groups of people visiting a restroom were questioned whether they noticed the ad in there & surprisingly a major percentage of the group were seen to have a high retention of the advertisement Eg .movie promotions . services etc Persuasive ads Targeting consumers emotions & general sensibilities & persuade them to buy Eg.dominos .promotion of his party.matrimonial sites. Even autos Sometimes jewellery ads. Malaya ±put his brand on cricket team.MOBILE BILLBOARDS OR MOBILE VEHICLES Eg . Bata -50% off Shop for 4 & pay for @-brand factory Favourite shop-50% Key chains. Fun world. diary ±promotional give aways Public relations ads Help company to maintain goodwill & build & maintain particular brand image & identity .

etc Kanti sweets. kindergarten schools etc Tuition. posters etc TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENT -basis of geographical spread 1>national ads 2>local ads 3>global ads Most ads on TV ±on sony. johny walker .these campaigns are often sponsored by trade associations Testimonials/endorsement ads Nissan ±ranbir kapoor All out ±rani / vidya Convert ads Coca cola & yaadein movie Motorola & don movie My name is khan ±reebok Outdoor /out of home ads Billboards. etc Global ads ±BMW ad common for all countries I phone. conservation . kuberan silks.safety etc . Pepsi. Microsoft. IBM.Eg. coke .etc -basis of target group . Restaurant ads on cable channels. shops. kalamandir. star etc Nationwide ads-consumer product Local ads within city limits Eg. sony. Hrithik & aishwarya spent time with people who were paralyzed for µ¶guzaarish¶¶ Public service ads Commonly aimed at altering public attitudes by raising consciousness about particular issues like health .

vicco etc 6>financial ads Public company-invites public to invest through shares in company via issues of prospectus . competitive ads Direct & indirect Direct ±stimulate immediate buying Eg . c.recommended by doctors 7 dentists ±the cause go to doctors & ask them to recommend 5>product ads a. amul.center shock Make customers purchase once Indirect ±just to keep up with competition. pepsodent .to show products still exist Eg. Colgate. rin. Process cooling systems in magazines. equipments sold to industries Eg. Colgate ±stayed in market for long-keep innovating Coming out with a new concept-new features b. 7>service ads Ads of service industry . AXE. retentive ads Reminder ±to customers.1>consumer ads (final consumers) Consumer product ads Fair n lovely. pizza hut etc It influences dealers or retailers to sell such products 4>professional ads Eg.call details about company will be mentioned in it. etc 2>industry ads Machinery. surf excel. McDonalds in malls to attract people Malls call in for franchisees like kfc. oral B . Nirma . 3>Trade ads Ads for dealers. McDonalds. pioneering ads First time intro-USP Eg.

Here the advertiser is the source who transmits the message which passes through an appropriate medium like press TV. Ads are parts of human nature to be noticed. The dancing daffodils or sweet smelling roses which silently invited butterflies to achieve the objective of pollination. was not used until about 200 years ago. Signs were used to carry info for advertising goods and services well before development of printing. When a neta delivers a speech he Is advertising that he wants to be noticed. radio or the internet.it will be blurred Rin vs. When a woman wears lipstick she is advertising that she wants to look beautiful. Adv is not ordinary communications but marketing communication. The message is decoded meaningfully to the target audience.Bharti axa. Cox & kings ±tourism. Since it is to large number through mass media it is called mass communication. The EX CEO of Lintas says. dates back to ancient Greece and Rome. Banks 8>comparative ads Comparing one product with another Eg.´When a man wears trouser shirt assemble instead of a dhoti he is advertising he is westernized. Pepsi Public service ads Eg. Modern ±Ariel-die-l Traditional m-i-l ±soap (rin). Advertisement is the most visible marketing tool which seeks to transit an effective message from the marketer to a group of individuals. Transmission of inf. Amithabh ±pulse polio drops Aamir khan ±atithi devo bhava AIRCEL ±save tigers ±dhoni Advertising as a tool of communication Persuasive form of communication is advertising pre-existed human life.-any insurance ads SOTC.´ Adv. . tide Coke vs. -Basically it is a communication process. Thus. LIC.

Namely Product. price. BARRIERS TO ENTRY There is a general belief that adv. the right distribution channel and personal selling. Advertising as a part of the total marketing mix influences the sale of the product with product brand. channel of communication. Four variables which are well within controllable limits by the individual¶s organ. price. Adv. raises the propensity to consumers. Consumers can be used by advertising into low quality products. right price. EG:-Degree of production dominated by a few large firms.ADVERTISING AS A MARKETING TOOL Each organization has marketing objectives as a marketing plan to achieve them. EG:-A prestige product with a premium price. This necessarily calls for right adv. ADVERTISING AND PROPENSITY TO CONSUMERS It is believed that adv. Planning. EG:-Nike shirts . An organization also identifies the segments of the market it intends to serve. promotion and an ideal mix of these is important to set objectives. EG:-More than 200 different boxes of cereal on the shelves but most of the choices offer slight variations from each other. Promote industrial concentration to a greater or lesser degree. personal selling etc. should reinforce the idea of the high quality and associated with the prestigious people 4 places. Right advertising is an essential as the right product. Inefficient manufacturers stay in business. resulting in wastage of resources which could have been used to produce other products. CRITISM OF ADVERTISING PRODUCT PROLIFERATION It leads to the multiplication of products that are almost identical.

Guide for decision making and follow process of developing promotional plans. Provide benchmark so that success and failure of a programme can be determined.MODULE 2 Advertising and Campaign Planning The sequence of derivation of advertising strategy should be the following: Corporate/Business Goals Marketing Objectives Advertising Objectives Advertising Strategy Advertising planning Formulation of Advertising Programmes ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE Three reasons for setting objectives y y y Means of Communication and Co-ordination between client and agency working on different parts of a campaign. In matter of advertising objective.2 distinct thoughts emerge that are y Sales y Communication SALES .

In sales promotion program:-their goal is often to generate trial or short term sales increases. such as the creation of awareness or positive attitudes towards the organization or product. ideas and awareness in the minds of people -Affective Stage deals with emotions or affections. In consumer markets.world cup jao´ COMMUNICATION y y Promotional efforts are termed as communication tasks. MODELS THAT TEND TO INFLUENCE BUYER BEHAVIOUR -Cognitive Stage basically involves communication that deals with cognition or knowledge. market share is sensitive barometer of performance. -Conative Behaviour Deals with final buyer behaviour. Communication objective basically to move people to action and induce then to purchase the products.y y The only meaningful measure of the effectiveness of the promotional spend is in the sales results Sales turnover is the first and most obvious factor in B2B markets. . evaluation by monitoring the amount of sales is possible. It deals with creating knowledge. Interest may further strengthen to take the shape of strong desires or performance. y Ads -Kind of incentive offering -Announcing contests -Place orders on phone/internet -Evaluation is based on sales results y y If a particular celebrity is used for an Ad campaign. perception. Performance or dislike for product world either purchase or reject the products. Eg: ³Britannia khao.

-Awareness need to be created developed. refined or sustained. Buyer experiences high involvement ± in purchase decision Eg: The LG golden eye ads are repeatedly shown in spite of high awareness to ensure top of mind and retain existing awareness levels. Buyer experiences low involvement ± in purchase decision.DAGMAR APPROACH DAGMAR: Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. Step 3: Conviction to buy the brand. Eg: Sahara Homes ad that feature Amitabh Bachan saying ³Jaha base Bharat´. Eg: Parle G ad that talks about it being the largest teller ³Duniya ka sabse zyada bikna wala biscuit´. however it is a high involvement decision. Awareness level is low.Awareness has to be created in the target audience and it should not be neglected or else the audience would be distracted by competing messages and the level of awareness will decline. Parle G already enjoys a high level of awareness and requires low involvement decision. AWARENESS . Comprehension . Step 4: Action or actually buy the product. Mainly Ad is for pretension. -Conceived by Russell H Colley in 1961 for µDefining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results¶ Dagmar model suggests Step 1: unawareness to awareness Step 2: Comprehension of what product and its benefits.

Usage. New applications.Awareness on its own may not be sufficient to stimulate a purchase. This can be achieved by providing specific information about key brand attributes. Hindustan liver was initially promoted exclusively for ladies. offer a more attractive packaging or introduce a diff size. Aqua Guard are famous in Indian cities as a result of Personal telling. reply cards and coupons. Eg Lifebuoy ± Lifebuoy personal. Benefit of a product Eg Brooke bond came up with tea bags which offered the consumers the basic advantage of convenience and gave consumer the route of style. Eg: Tupperware.MANENDRA MOHAN. Conviction Buyers are moved to a portion where they are convinced that a particular product in the clan should be tried is done through merges that demonstrate the product¶s superiority over a rival or talking about rewards as a result of using the product. Subsequently it was targeted at children and finally was projected as the µ¶family bath soap¶¶. 2 3 . Vaseline petroleum Jelly ± Vaseline Haldi. PG 80) 1 Product market variations The marketer has to keep pace with these changes in order to survive and prosper. -For higher involvement decisions. ADVERTISING SITUATIONS (Refer.The related Purity of the water with that of river Ganga. Use of toll free numbers. Vaseline moisturizer. Knowledge about the product or the organization is necessary. Eg: The ad of Ganga mineral water. personal selling and use of interpersonal skills. which banked on purity aspect . Action Ads can be directive and guide the buyers into certain behavioral outcomes. featuring Govinda. Upgrading the product In order to give a superior image to its products a company may add new features like rise in its prices. Eg Pears soap. Eg: Thumbs up featured the reward of social acceptance as µgrown ups¶.

AMCO. Thus. of clients by opening up new franchises. EG: .´ 5 6 7 8 9 Seasonal Products Products like raincoat.AMCO batteries«.Standard crackers Popy umberella 10 Raising capital . It is a delight moment when a chilled tip of Kissan squash meets a thirsty throat.proving ³made in India truly means Indian made. The services of banks are made available to a large no. Eg: . payable in advance. warm clothes. Eg. Though buyers are aware of purchasing them but need for advertising is not lessened. ³1933 wasn¶t the best time to proclaims one¶s Indianess«. and crackers are meant for seasonal use.orange. Kanti sweets. mango etc. many organizations aim at building up and maintaining a definite image. to keep a bottle handy for unexpected guests or expected thirsts. Change in brand name Companies may at times enter into fixed term contracts for the purchase of technology and use of products. umbrella.4 Special offers Eg Subscribers to Reader¶s digest of other magazines got special discount on yearly subscription. Experience it with your favorite fruit flavor. I love you ± Rasana Thirst Aid ± Limca Dar ke Age jeet hai ± Mountain dew Distribution and service View to affording convenience to customers. Institutional Advertising Reputation of a company as a whole and that of its individual or group of products are very closely interwoven. marketers. the names and locations of their distribution channels. the producer of car batteries. advertisers. Eg work up a big thirst today. Competition Is an essential element of the market situation. projects its patriotism. lime. Eg Hutch ± Vodafone.

Advertising for getting people to subscribe to equity capital. 11 Technology and other inputs Companies having foreign technology collaboration lay stress on the collaboration in their advertisements. . 12 Recruitment Organisations which are looking for personnel advertise vacancies so that potential candidates could be reached.Jamal Hamadi ±Sunsilk Shampoo. 13 Memberships and Programs Educational and professional institutes training and development centres invite membership and nominations through advertisements. debentures and fixed deposits has become very common. EG: . EG: . Advertising strategy ATTITUDINAL STRUCTURES -forces which influences strongly the choice criterion for evaluating brands belonging to the product class Eg. NOKIA ± user friendly Sony ± innovation Apple i-pod ± quality Add characteristics which are considered prominent to product class Change the perception of the companies brand with product characteristics.Tell all the features of TATA area and take home. 14 Contests Encourage trail of a product.

Eg : SBI ± bank to every Indians Change the perception of the competition brand with regard to some prominent product characteristics Eg: DOCOMO and MTS MARKETING STRUCTURES Company¶s strengths and weaknesses Product history and its life cycle stage Poisoning of product Anticipated and existing competition Support needed by sales force and distribution channel Availability of media and target audience Total promotion p[package Both attitudinal and marketing context are relevant for developing advertising strategies ADVERTING PLANNING It is necessary to provide for a flow system for various components of advertising Like :y y y y y y Creative strategy Message formulation Budget ± Media plan Feedback Integrating with advertising agencies The advertiser and agency both have specific informative input s and research data which may be used for arriving at decisions Pre.testing of creative strategy and creative output can be very helpful .

³Unless your campaign contains a Big idea.The advertising objectives are achieved by formulating advertising stratergy and then by formulating creative stratergy which is implemented through media planning and media stratergy. AD STRATERGY (SEVEN POSSIBLE STRATERGIES) Pioneering a product Emphasize a product Put across the usp of a brand Build a brand image .Eg: Giving free conditioners with shampoo and getting its feedback Step 1 ± The beginning should be made with development and understanding of marketing strategies for the brand Step 2 ± Selection of target audience Step 3 ± determining advertising propositions like y y y y Consumer problems which could b solved by product Eg : vanish ( tough stains removal).´ -David Ogilvey Ad campaign is a process where the advertising plan is intergerated to the overall marketing plan and corporate plan. STEP 4 ± ADVERTISING EVALUATION Advertising is gradually interpreted of being an investment. Now uses for the product. Problems with competitive brands which brand solves Correct misconceptions about product.it will pass like a ship in the night.

It became the catch word of the 60¶s and 70¶s.Maggie (2 mins noodles) revolutionized children¶s eating habits.With USP it became easy to create a distinct brand positions in the mind. USP. -Brand strategy leads to creative executions -then developing as appeal proposition is important .one strong claim or concept. EG:. which pulled over to a new lifestyle of eating. though there are a very few different among brands.shortest time instant gratifications of hungry child¶s desire Purchase Proposition (appeal)/ brand proposition. He wrote an advertising classic Reality in advertising where he explained the concept of USP. EG:-Dove soap -1/4 of moisturizing cream Benefit:-it won¶t dry your skin.Airtel with bio-enzymes (micro systems) Consumer should remember just one thing from the ad. USP has 3 Major Features Each advertisement must say to the reader what specific benefit the product offers. EG:. Promise made by the ad must be one that the competition has not made so far. The product differential becomes a brand differentiation.- Offer a range of products New uses for an existing product Creative strategy First step in campaign development was advertising strategy which leads us to ± Creative strategy Creativity in campaign Sales Proposition/usp (unique selling proposition) Rosser Reeves wasrs by profession a journalist who switched teaches to be an advertising professional.

. EG:. Creative campaign are creative due to a good briefs. The strategist should be a good motivator for the creative team. Advertising Brief and the Creative -Client has to brief the agency about the strategy -The strategy formulated is communicated to the creative people.µ100 % bath´ -Brand positioning for the detergents may lead to quick actions though easy to use. -It is the job of a client to say and it is the agencies job to decide how to say it. -Within the creative team (1) copywriter and (2) visualiser work together and it is difficult to attribute the final product to either of them.but lifeboy which a health soap washes away the germs in dirt.-the basic question 1) who I am (2) why buy me (3) whom will I compete (4) What kind of people am I meant for. EG:-A fuel efficient car that gives a smooth ride is a value proposition and becomes positioning statement for a car like maruthi must Mercedes is positioned differently. Right strategy and creative campaign is a winning combination. Detol. Strategy should be communicated with clarity.all soaps wash away germs . -If you want to catch fish. no amount of creativity will help. If you want to catch consumers think like one. To develop a brand appeal the advertisers have to put in the shoes of the buyers to know buyers perspective. you have to think like fish. Three phases of campaign Creation Strategy Development Phase -Decides the objectives and contents of communication -Analysis research data and decides the positioning of brands -In this stage-many brain storming sessions -These ideas ultimately make up the strategy -If strategy is wrong.

´ .The Creative Phase -Here the lateral thinkers come on the scene. -They re-arrange the order of things. They create abruptions in the consumers minds. There should be a beautiful marriage between the strategy and lateral thinking by creative people. -³Strong creative¶s are probably the cheapest competitive advantage that a company can have.´ -³It is the sensitive understanding of the audience that takes¶ one¶s creative from logic to magic.Norman .

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