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Service-Learning and National Service: An Introduction

James C. Kielsmeier
Founder and CEO, National Youth Leadership Council

Dina H. Sherif

Associate Director, John D. Gerhart Center for Philanthropy and Civic Engagement, American University, Cairo, Egypt

Andrew Furco
Associate Vice President for Public Engagement, University of Minnesota

Session Overview
Brief synthesis of National Service and ServiceLearning in formal education Service as an educational enterprise Standards of good practice A rationale for youth service in formal schooling Examples Findings from the Research

Service-Learning and National Service: Emerging Synthesis


From military analogue to a continuum of service expectations and opportunities available throughout the growing up and continuing life experiences of all citizens.

Service Contexts

Full-time service-National Service organization. Service Corps organized by local government or NGO.

Service in Educational Contexts


Volunteerism Community Service Study-service Service-Learning Aprendizaje-servicio Service Schemes

Service-learning & Education: A Change in Philosophy and Method


New Vision of Young People New Vision of Learning New Vision of Community

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active
Sensitive

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active
Sensitive Offer Help

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active
Sensitive Offer Help Act As Resources

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active
Sensitive Offer Help Act As Resources Givers

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active
Sensitive Offer Help Act As Resources Givers Leaders

A New Vision of Youth


Traditional View
Passive
Violent Need Help Utilize Scarce Resources Recipients Victims Consumers

Service-Learning
Active
Sensitive Offer Help Act As Resources Givers Leaders Producers

Lecture Reading Audio Visual Demonstration Discussion Group Practice by Doing

A New Vision of Learning


5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75%

Teaching Method Retention Rates

Teaching Others

90%

New Pedagogy Demands New Standards


K-12 Service-Learning Standards
Duration and Intensity Youth Voice Link to Curriculum Progress Monitoring

Partnerships
Meaningful Service

Reflection
Diversity

A New Vision of Community


Africa Europe

Service

Latin America Asia

Middle East

Charity

Communitarianism

Public Work

Participatory Democracy

Citizenship/Civic Responsibility

Solidaridad

Social Change

Social Justice

1997 Community Service All Primary & Secondary Schools Secondary Schools Colleges and Universities Service-Learning All Primary & Secondary Schools Secondary Schools Colleges and Universities 42% 71% 45%

2001 64% 83% 70%

2004 70% 89% 78%

2008 68% 81% 89%

23% 28% 22%

32% 38% 40%

28% 31% 43%

24% 25% 51%

Campus Compact. (1998). Service matters: Engaging higher education in the renewal of America's communities and American democracy. Providence, RI: Campus Compact. Campus Compact, (2001). Campus service participation survey 2000-2001. Providence, RI: Campus Compact. Campus Compact (2005). Campus service participation survey 2005-2005. Providence, RI: Campus Compact. Gray, M.J., Ondaatje, E.H., Fricker, R., Geschwind, S., Goldman, C.A., Kaganoff, T., Robyn, A., Sundt, M., Vogelgesang, L., & Klein, S.P. (1998). Coupling service and learning in higher education: The final report of the evaluation of the Learn and Serve America, higher education program. Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation. National Center on Educational Statistics. (1997). Student participation in community service activity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Youth Leadership Council (2005). Growing to Greatness. Minneapolis, MN: National Youth Leadership Council. Skinner, R. and Chapman, C. (1999). Service-learning and community service in K-12 public schools. National Center for Education Statistics. NCES 1999-043, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Learn and Serve America, 2008

Service in Educational Settings: Why now?

IN AUSTRALIA:

Students growing disaffection from school, especially among boys, needs to be addressedEarly leavers experience lower levels of earnings compared with school completersOver the long term, early leavers are much more prone to disengagement and long-term unemployment than school completers.
(Lamb and McKenzie, 2005)

The percentage of students who enter secondary school and who finish and graduate: The percentage of students in the inner city who enter secondary school and who finish and graduate? :

67%
50%

Mean Australia Belgium Canada Denmark France Germany Italy Japan Korea New Zealand Poland Sweden 502 518 481 461 512 523 484 555 546 479 477 489

Standard error 2.1 1.7 1.1 2.4 2.1 1.9 2.6 1.9 1.5 2.1 3.7 1.5

Standard deviation 89 94 104 124 93 85 98 57 71 110 119 99

United Kingdom
United States

509
494

1.5
3.9

86
100

OECD average
Source:

500

0.4

100

Willms, J. D. (2003) Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation, results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD. (page 68)

Reasons cited for dropping out:


12% 12% 18% 21% 28% 35% 38% 42% 43% 47%

Had drug or alcohol problem Got married, pregnant, or became a parent Got a job/had to help support family Didnt feel safe at school Didnt get along with students or teachers Failing in school Too much freedom/not enough rules or structured time Spent time with people not interested in school Missed too many days/unable to keep up Bored w/school and classes/School irrelevant

Primary reasons Australian Students Leave School:


learning Powerlessness to affect life or environmental conditions (disempowerment) Normlessness (no expectation to continue education)

Social estrangement from family and peers Meaninglessness of the curriculum and school

Oerlemans and Jenkins, 1998

Success in the global workforce will be marked by ones: ability to make connections across the disciplines; ability to apply knowledge to address complex situations; people skills that allow him/her to work effectively in diverse group settings; capacity for higher order thinking in ways that enhance problem solving and analysis; knowledge about and facility with the global society (e.g. conversing in different languages, having intercultural competencies, etc.); and facility in organizing and utilizing increasing sources of knowledge and information effectively.

Type of Problem

ALL COUNTRIES (TIMMS)

Overall Average Avg. for E&M problems (16)

35% 32%

Avg. for Mechanics (16)


Avg. for Modern Physics (14) Avg. for Thermo-dynamics (9) Avg. for waves and light (11)

33%
34% 39% 44%

10 Things Adolescents Need to Succeed in School


Mentoring and Tutoring Meaningful activities that promote personal, social, career, and civic growth Individualized instruction that provide opportunities for individual contribution, leadership, and responsibility High expectations and challenging problem solving tasks Authentic and active learning experiences that have real life consequences Out of school enrichment and enhancement Early intervention Positive family involvement Opportunities to apply skills, talent , and creativity in new situations Positive peer bonding experiences
Eccles & Gootman, (2002), National Academy of Education; Schargel & Smink, (2004), National Dropout Prevention Center

In terms of classroom learning, students learn best when the curriculum: emphasizes learning over teaching engages students as active participants in the learning process is student-centered rather than teacher-centered; promotes the development of students higher order thinking skills; focuses on making connections among the disciplines; connects new knowledge to what students know by having students construct meaning; is meaningful and/or of interest to students; is brain-based; is socially constructed; and is practiced and used
Sources: Slavkin (2004); Marzano, Pikering, and Pollock (2001);
Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (1999); Oakes and Lipton (1999).

These practices encompass many of the factors that are aligned with: youth engagement civic participation global workforce preparation positive adolescent development good teaching

An elite American liberal arts university based in the heart of Cairo Based in a city with wide-scale poverty and social inequities In a country and region where democracy generally does not exist and the concept of citizenship unclear Youth bulge Strong culture of service and giving back

Launched 3 years ago to enhance civic engagement across the region Service-learning was introduced as a tool to:
Enhance learning Enhance critical and creative thinking skills not acquired within Egyptian schooling system To create a sense of community and enhance understanding of what it means to be a citizen through service learning and faculty guided reflection

Project oriented Heavy focus on social change as opposed to charity or simply volunteering within a community-based organization
Psychology students completely upgrading wards in mental hospitals Urban upgrading Building the capacity of NGOs Wide scale public awareness campaigns

Better grades and more excited about going to class More engaged/socially active Deeper understanding of problems within their surrounding communities and how they are a part of the solution

3% 2% 13% Packaged Food Alcohol & Cigarettes 39% Other Beverages Non-Food Products Meat Produce

17%

26%

Hennessey Lavery et al., 2005

% Change in Sales over 7 Months

Produce Alcohol Cigarettes Profits

15% 10% 10% 12%

Increased

scores on standardized tests

Statistically significantly higher test scores on the Terra Nova in the areas of 6th grade LANGUAGE ARTS and SCIENCE for students in servicelearning (when compared to control group. (Billig and Klute, 2002) MATH achievement scores on Metropolitan Achievement Test statistically higher for students randomly assigned to service-learning group than for students in control (non-service-learning group). (Santmire, Giraud, and Grosskopt, 1999); Gains in students READING and LANGUAGE ARTS scores on California Test of Basic Skills significantly higher for students participating in servicelearning. (Weiler et al., 1998); READING and MATH achievement scores on 4th grade Michigan educational assessments statistically higher for students in service-learning group than for students in control group. (Akujobi and Simmons, 1997);

Increased content knowledge and skills

83% of students at or above proficiency level (met or exceeded the content standard) (Furco, 2006) Students in a Kansas alternative school showed significant positive increases on a six trait WRITING assessment and changes in scores on a set of READING level indicators (Kraft and Wheeler, 2003) 6th-grade participants in a scored slightly higher and 2nd-grade students scored much higher in READING and WORD ANALYSIS as a result of participating in a Vermont environmental steward civic engagement program. (Klute, 2002) Middle and high school students participating showed higher learning of MATH content than comparison group after participation in servicelearning. (Melchior, 1999)

Improved school attendance:


The attendance rates among service-learning students were higher than those of peers at the school who did not participate in service-learning.(Melchior, 2004;Shaffer, 1993; Melchior and Orr, 1995) Florida schools that offered educational youth service activities showed a rise in overall student attendance rates over a threeyear period. (Follman, 1999) High school students who served as tutors as part of a civic engagement program integrated with curriculum were less likely to drop out of school than comparable students not participating in the program.(Stupik, 1996)

Improved grade point average:


High school students who served as tutors as part of a youth service program had higher grade point averages after participating in the program. (Eccles and Gootman, 2002; Loesch-Griffin,
2001; Stupik, 1996)

83% of schools participating in Floridas youth service activities reported having 75% or more of its students with higher overall grade point average after participating in service-learning.
(Follman, 1999)

Broadened understanding of government and its procedures:


Levine, 2006; Michelsen et al., 2002; Torney-Purta, 2002

Enhanced citizenship and social responsibility:


Melchior, 2004; Kahne and Westheimer, 2002; Covitt, 2002; Ammon et al., 2001

Enhanced awareness and understanding of social issues:


Covitt, 2002; Michelsen et al., 2002 , Perry and Katula, 2001; McDevitt and Chaffee, 2000.

Greater exposure to new points of view and perspectives:


Furco, 2002; Melchior, 2000; Weiler et al., 1998

Positive changes in ethical judgment:


Leming, 2001; Zeff et al., 2001; Melchior, 2000

Enhanced ability to make independent decisions


regarding moral issues:
Furco et al., 2005; Eccles and Barber, 1999; Leming, 2001

Broadened career awareness and options: Billig and Klute, 2002; Furco, 2002; Shumer, 1998 Enhanced understanding of workforce ethics: Melchior, 2004; Melchior 2000; Weiler et al., 1998 Enhanced preparation for the workforce: Furco, 2002; Melchior, 2000; Shumer, 1998; Weiler et al., 1998

Self-esteem
Service-learning participation and civic leadership programs increase students self-esteem (Shaffer, 1993; Switzer et. al. 1995; Eccles and Barber, 1999; Eccles and
Gootman, 2002; Hecht, 2002)

Empowerment
2001; Furco 2003)

and self-efficacy

Service-learning and civic engagement enhance students sense of self-efficacy and empowerment (Shaffer, 1993; Scales & Blyth, 1997; Root, 1997; Zaff et al.,

Prosocial

behaviors

Service-learning and civic engagement increase students likelihood to engage in prosocial behaviors and decreases students likelihood to engage in at-risk behavior (Batchelder & Root, 1994; Stephens, 1995; LoSciuto et al., 1996; Yates
and Youniss, 1996; Allen et al., 1997; Berkas, 1997; Follman, 1998; Eccles & Barber, 1999; Leming, 1998; Melchior, 1999; ODonnell et al., 1999; Eccles and Gootman, 2002; Billig, 2003; Melchior, 2004; Furco, 2005)

Motivation

Service-learning and organized civic participation have positive effects on students motivation for learning. (Loesch-

Griffin, Petrides, and Pratt 1995; Stephens, 1995; Eccles and Barber, 1999; Eccles and Gootman, 2002; Furco, 2003; Covitt, 2003; Billg 2005)

Engagement

Service-learning and civic participation increase student engagement in three areas:

Civic Engagement: Service-learning and civic education enhance students engagement in community and civic affairs. (Yates and Youniss, 1996; Youniss, McLellan, Social Engagement: Service-learning and civic participation enhance students engagement with peers and adults (Conrad and Hedin, 1989; Rutter and Newmann, 1989; LoeschGriffin, Petrides, and Pratt 1995; Billig, 2002; Furco 2003)

& Yates, 1997; Melchior, 1997; Berkas, 1997; Melchior, 2002; Kahne, Chi, and Middaugh, 2002; Michelsen, Zaff, and Hair, 2002; Melchior, 2004)

Academic Engagement: Service-learning and community programs enhance students engagement in school and in learning(Silcox, 1993; Waterman,

1993; Follman & Muldoon, 1997; Weiler et al., 1997; Melchior, 1997; Eccles and Gootman, 2002, Billig, 2003; Billig and Meyer 2005; Furco, 2005)

Mediating Factors

Educational Service Experiences

Resilience Empowerment Prosocial behaviors Motivation Engagement

Academic Success

Clearly defined programmatic features

Authentic Active Constructivist Collaborative Personalized Empowering Expands Boundaries