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OUTLINE OF THIS PRESENTATION
1.INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO CHINESE HISTORY
2. PATTERNS IN CHINESE HISTORY
3. THE GOLDEN AGE OF CHINA 4. SOME POINTS TO PONDER
INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO CHINESE HISTORY
and lose the Mandate when they don’t. . d.THREE KEY IDEAS 1. The dynasty begins to decay and the empire declines. c. A new ruler unites the land and founds a new dynasty. 3. Zhongguo The Chinese name for China that means “The Middle Kingdom” 2. and is overthrown by a rebellion. b. The Dynastic Cycle a. War begins to rage across the land over discontent and dissatisfaction in the emperor’s rule. An emperor or a dynasty is said to have the Mandate when they do well. their legitimacy to rule. The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven. The Mandate of Heaven The performance standard instituted during the Zhou dynasty. The kingdom achieves prosperity and a new golden age.
PAN GU 3 SOVEREIGNS / 3 AUGUST ONES Emperor of Heaven Emperor of Earth 5 EMPERORS Huangdi. Yao. Zhuanxu. Ku XIA DYNASTY Emperor of Mankind SHANG DYNASTY ZHOU DYNASTY . Shun.
Manchu) 1644 – 1912 .CHINESE HISTORY AND SINIC CIVILIZATION THE TEN MAJOR DYNASTIES OF CHINA Shang 1750 – 1100 BCE Tang 618 – 907 Zhou (Chou) 1100 – 256 BCE Song 960 – 1279 Qin (Chin) 221 – 206 BCE Yuan (Mongol) 1279 – 1368 Han 206 BCE – 220 CE Ming 1368 – 1644 Sui 589 – 618 Qing (Ching.
.SHANG (1750 – 1100BCE) The Shang was marked by impressive bronze technology and the beginning of China's distinctive writing system.
SHANG (1750 – 1100BCE) A replica of an oracle bone with an ancient script that corroborated the existence of the Shang dynasty. there is only one system of writing — a major unifying factor in Chinese history. Although there are many mutually unintelligible dialects in China. .
" and later as "Tian. or "God above. .SHANG (1750 – 1100BCE) KEY CULTURAL ELEMENTS • The notion of a supreme heavenly power (referred to as Shangdi." or "Heaven") • The belief in the power of the spirits of ancestors to affect events on earth • And the importance attached to rituals venerating ancestors and the role assigned to the king in performing these ceremonial rituals.
ZHOU (1100 – 256 BCE) The Duke of Zhou overthrew the Shang King and instituted the “Mandate of Heaven” or tianming. The Zhou is divided into the • Western Zhou (1027-771 BCE). capital at Xian • Eastern Zhou (770-221 BCE). capital at Luoyang .
Many philosophical schools emerged during this period also called “The Hundred Schools of Thought” . small states competed for power.ZHOU (1100 – 256 BCE) The Eastern Zhou is divided into • Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BCE) • Warring States Period (475-221 BCE) After the displacement of the Western Zhou and the shift to the east.
also known as Laozi Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tzu) (c. 500) Daodejing. 369-286) Zhuangzi . 233) Han Feizi Li Si (Li Ssu) (d. 208) who became the Prime Minister of Qin Daoism (Taoism) Lao Zi (Lao Tzu) "Old Master" (c. 551-479 BCE) Analects Mencius (371-289 BCE) Mencius Xun Zi (Hsun Tzu) (298-238) Xunzi Legalism Han Fei Zi (Han Fei Tzu) (d.ZHOU (1100 – 256 BCE) THE HUNDRED SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT Confucianism Confucius (c.
CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM .
Daoism adheres to the natural order of things – the Way (dao) – and opines that the root of chaos is that man has deviated from the dao. . There is wisdom in the natural world. and we must return to our inner nature (puh) and allow things to be (wu wei).CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM SUMMARY CONFUCIANISM DAOISM Confucius believes that man is primarily a social being in a set of relationships and that men must educate and cultivate themselves so that their behavior will be consonant with the moral order and they will be able to serve the state as moral leaders.
By doing nothing it leaves nothing undone. cannot change. . There is the Way (tao) which is formless and nameless.CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM CONCEPT OF THE ABSOLUTE CONFUCIANISM DAOISM There is the notion of tianming that is a moral imperative for people to do good. Ming also refers to a sense of This refers to the natural Destiny that teaches people to rhythms of all things which not strive for things that they man must learn to reunite with.
Its key principles are natural simplicity (uncarved block). and compassion. effortless action (wu wei). spontaneity. DAOISM The focus of Taoism is with man’s relationship to the world. . power and even education create discrimination and division that is unnatural to man.CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM VIEWS ON PERSONAL MORALITY CONFUCIANISM The highest goal of any person is to achieve goodness or morality without any self-interest or additional motive. Virtues of the perfect gentleman: ren (benevolence) chih (wisdom and intelligence) yung (courage) hsin (integrity) ching (reverence) yi (right) Objects such as wealth.
If all human relationships follow that ideal. While Confucius does not hold the common people in high regard but he recognizes their role as that which the rulers must take care of. A leader must allow everyone to do what they want according to their own virtue (te). This is a way of following the tao. DAOISM The happiness of one person lies in allowing other people to be happy. A leader must not provide for things that will cause inequality and discrimination among people. society will be in order.CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY CONFUCIANISM Society is ruled like the family. .
and the conservatism of the established order.ZHOU (1100 – 256 BCE) IMPACT OF CONFUCIANISM Confucianism builds on the Chinese worldview: the Middle Kingdom. Confucianism was adopted as the state ideology starting in the Han dynasty. . The family. the emperor as the Son of Heaven. education and the state are all part of one moral universe.
ZHOU (1100 – 256 BCE)
CONFUCIANISM IN A WIDER CONTEXT Confucius lived during the "Axial Age," the period between 800-200 BCE when the world's major religious and thought systems emerged. Other figures who lived between 800-200 BCE include:
Israel: Isaiah, 770-700 BCE, followed by the “Prophetic Revolution," 650-600 BCE Greece: Socrates, 469-399 BCE; Plato, 427-347 BCE; Aristotle, 384-322 BCE Iran: Zoroaster, ca. 600 BCE India: Buddha, 563-483 BCE, and the Upanishad texts written ca. 550 BCE China: Confucius, 551-479 BCE; and Laozi, 606-530 BC
QIN (221 – 206BCE)
The First Unified Empire in China
• Centralized all power to the emperor • Utilized Legalism
• Relied on a powerful army
• Established a network or roads and canals • Began building frontier walls for protection • Unified currency, system of writing, thought
Qin Shih Huang Di = “The First August God of the Qin”
Location of the Great Wall (NASA) .
.HAN (206BCE – 220CE) The Han dynasty retains the centralized form of government introduced by the Qin but grafts a Confucian style government on top of it.
.HAN (206BCE – 220CE) The Han dynasty is the contemporary of the Roman Empire which ran from 27BCE to 476BCE.
Silk Routes. over-land and over-sea (Wikimedia Commons) .
spices Indo-China spices. ivory. tortoise shell. precious stones East Africa gold. incense. ivory. coinage West Europe silver. glassware. wine . precious stones. gold. tortoiseshell.GOODS TRADED IN THE SILK ROAD China silk. pearls North India precious stones. timber. amber Asia Minor silver. slaves. wine. ivory. incense Trans-Sahara ivory. tin North Europe slaves. timber South India ivory. exotic animals. lacquerware. clothing. timber. timber Arabia spices. spices. slaves. cloth. precious stones. cloth. slaves North Africa grain South Europe olive oil. spices.
AFTER THE HAN After the Han dynasty disintegrates in the 3rd century. Nomadic tribes dominate northern China. China experiences a 300-year period of political fragmentation. . A series of Chinese dynasties succeed one another in the south. Buddhism enters China via the trade routes.
II PATTERNS IN CHINESE HISTORY .
Each of these invaders rules through the Chinese bureaucracy. leading to the expression that China "sinicizes its conquerors. and of the Manchus.PATTERNS IN CHINESE HISTORY PATTERN 1 TERRITORIAL PRESSURE Incursions from China's north by nomadic groups. agricultural civilization of China." . who again conquer China and establish the last dynasty. that rules for 300 years (1644-1911 CE). the Qing. who conquer China and establish the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 CE). The most illustrative examples are those of the Mongols. are from those attracted by the wealth of the settled.
the tendency toward political unification and reunification. . economically diverse area of China. the scholar-gentry who sit for exams and staff the civil administration.PATTERNS IN CHINESE HISTORY PATTERN 2 CULTURAL CONTINUITY The following consist this pattern: the evolution of the bureaucratic structure — the civil service examination system. the growth of commercial activity and the development of a unified and sophisticated marketing system over the vast. the refinement of the Confucian classics as the basis of education and elite selection.
and Qing dynasties. This is when the Chinese often say a dynasty has lost the "Mandate of Heaven. when compounded by natural calamities such as flood or droughts." . while political rebellions brought down the Tang and Ming dynasties.PATTERNS IN CHINESE HISTORY PATTERN 3 DYNASTIC CYCLE The last years of many dynasties were marked by inefficient administration and corruption. Movements and rebellions incorporating popular religious ideas took place in the last years of the Han. Yuan. which. led to social unrest among the population.
III THE GOLDEN AGE OF CHINA .
particularly in the period from the 7th to the 12th centuries. and the production of fine silks. porcelain. and teas all flourish. historical writing. The first cities in Japan emulated this. is often referred to as China's "Golden Age“.THE GOLDEN AGE: TANG DYNASTY (618 – 907) PREFACE The Tang (618-907). along with the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE) that follows. political thought. Poetry. and medicine. philosophy. landscape painting. . scientific advances in astronomy. The Tang capital at Changan (modern day Xian) was the most cosmopolitan at that time. chemistry. calligraphy.
. Buddhism entered via the Silk Road and henceforth became a vehicle for cultural exchange. It’s emphasis on spiritual salvation presented a good balance to the other two philosophies.THE GOLDEN AGE: TANG DYNASTY (618 – 907) THE ROLE OF BUDDHISM Buddhism. Confucianism and Daoism coexisted as the “Three Teachings” at that time. It also played a very important economic role.
Japan and Vietnam shared in Chinese culture particularly through: a. c. Confucian thought and social and political values. literary Chinese and its writing system which becomes the language of government and that used by the elites of these societies to communicate among themselves. . Buddhism (in forms developed and refined in China after its origination in India).THE GOLDEN AGE: TANG DYNASTY (618 – 907) THE SPREAD OF CHINESE INFLUENCE Korea. b.
Map showing the use of Chinese characters .
Forbidden City. Japan Palace of the Heavenly Purity. Seoul Himeji Castle.Gyeongbokgung Palace. Beijing .
Beijing .Gyeongbokgung Palace. Japan Palace of the Heavenly Purity. Seoul Himeji Castle. Forbidden City.
the compass. . and printing all occur under the Song. The use of paper money.THE GOLDEN AGE: SONG DYNASTY (960– 1279) THE AGE OF COMMERCE The Song is distinguished by enormous commercial growth. and the inventions of gunpowder. the introduction of tea drinking. Urbanization accompanies commercial growth and Chinese cities are the largest and most sophisticated in the world at this time.
Traditionally. 2/3 to 3/4 of the Chinese population is concentrated below the Yangtze. There people subsisted on rice. there is a shift in the concentration of the Chinese population to southern China. By the end of the Song. . Chinese cities rested in the north and its people subsisted on wheat. After 1127.THE GOLDEN AGE: SONG DYNASTY (960– 1279) POPULATION EXPANSION During the Song there is enormous growth in Chinese population and a shift in the locus of this population to southern China.
E. is a period of stunning development in China. (COMING SOON: Michael Yamashita presents Marco Polo) . ca.1368) as the Yuan dynasty. 1000.BEYOND GOLD This period of Chinese history.. to the Ming voyages of exploration (1405. from roughly 600-1600 C. The achievements of China under the Song are the subject of Marco Polo's "fantastic" reports when he journeys to China under the Mongols. From the Tang through the "pre-modern" commercial and urban development of the Song. who rule in China for eighty-nine years (1279. between the Song and Ming.1433) with ships that reach the coast of Africa.
MONGOLS IN CHINA The Mongols invade China from the north. The Mongol empire spans Eurasia in the 13th and 14th centuries and facilitates trade and exchange across the Eurasian land mass. defeat the Song. 1227). and establish the Yuan dynasty in 1279 to 1368. Under Khubilai (Kublai) Khan (1215-1294). the Mongols move the Chinese capital to Beijing and establish the capital of their empire there. the supreme leader of the Mongols and a grandson of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (d. .
Modern historians use the imagery of the time to promote the image of a global and friendly China.CHINA AT ITS BRIGHTEST: THE MING DYNASTY The Ming dynasty is a new focus in modern-day Chinese historiography. there is a contradiction. However. .
THE CELESTIAL EMPIRE By the Qing dynasty. the Chinese empire saw themselves as the Celestial Empire. . Qian Long declared that they had everything they need and had no use for the manufactures of the West. In a letter to the King of England.
IV SOME POINTS TO PONDER .
A DIFFERENT PAST Why didn’t history happen the other way around: China colonizing the West? What would our world be like if it happened the other way around? .
and discrimination against women was present. Society as family meant that males were dominant. .SOCIAL ISSUES IN CHINA GENDER DISCRIMINATION The importance of Confucianism in China is similar to the importance of Hinduism in India. It was also as controversial.
and highlighted the subjugation of women during the dynastic age of China. .Foot-binding was a sign of beauty.
THE CHINESE SOCIETY SOCIAL INEQUALITY Political power rested with whoever held “The Mandate of Heaven”. . more people migrated outside of China. As power rested with the dynastic elite. Not everyone felt they were part of “the Center of the World”.
In a society where individual happiness is subsumed into the group’s happiness. what room is there for liberty and democracy? .THE CHINESE SOCIETY POLITICAL LIBERTY China’s deep Confucian roots lead to its deep conservatism.
Do we wait for another 3600 before we catch up? . Our own history is roughly 400 years young.THE CHINESE SOCIETY THE CHALLENGE OF CHINESE HISTORY China took around 4000 years to learn their lesson (and they’re still learning).
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