Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.


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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

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Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821

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The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

The Indians. In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons.Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . Utah and Colorado . the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 .Provincial towns were organized by royal decree. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed . almost all of the Aztec empire. royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . sometimes there would be advanced warning .Large cities such as Oaxaca. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . church . along with such regions as Colina. Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces .A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell .Eventually. all were to have a main plaza. eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office .Colonial Mexico 1519 .1821 MexicanHistory. The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . The presidios (military towns). The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. There were 62 viceroys in New Spain.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Arizona.In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas. The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . New Mexico. A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito. Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly. always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on .org/colonial. California.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ .org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico.Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Charles V took this charge seriously. The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes .the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy.Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. The Indians. a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems. Dominicans and the Augustinians . with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . led by Tenamaxtli . leaving the area undermanned . Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . monastic life and humble character . The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century.Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making . Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold.His successor. it's continuation. the most serious revolt of the times .org/colonial. who were still viewed as a menace. http://mexicanhistory. King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor. Augustin's City of God . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41). that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing .1821 MexicanHistory. and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians . A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition.

org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country. which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. They built fortess missions across New Spain . The Catholic reverence for saints.Nine million were baptized by 1537. She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . often being the first Europeans to explore an area . The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe. Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . This was the open chapel or capilla shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily .Colonial Mexico 1519 . http://mexicanhistory. 50 such churches had been built . Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . By 1540. The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts . For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory.000 Indians a day .

Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned . Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. Phillip II ( r 1556 . the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language . Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds . The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems .The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain . 1601.Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain . Charles V was dead.In the mid 16 century. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles . Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. and the new Spanish king. such as. They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization . Mexico.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .Indians http://mexicanhistory. Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers .1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . In the Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages.The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . the Florentine Codex.

The crime of heresy. The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting . criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster . The Bourbon kings. Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike. These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment. especially those of the Enlightenment writers. this decree led to riots and other disturbances. This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico. principally in San Luis Potos . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines. These works did find there way into the private libraries.The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories .Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain .Crimes like the first in the colony was in 1574 . Juan de Palafox. which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Auto de fes drew large crowds .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 . with the prisoners often strangled first . however .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown . Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes . The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 .There were also quarrels with civil authorities .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla.In New Spain. Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n. who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power .

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . The Social Classes a Mestizo baby.1700 ) . The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). Cholos. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights . most of these returned to Spain . Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans.Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes.Colonial Mexico 1519 . who taught many local artist .1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church .org/colonial. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 .org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. . persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. Indians and African slaves . Creoles could not hold royal office . At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period . She wrote poetry. some of it in the Nahuatl language.Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . http://mexicanhistory.One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo. be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ).1695 ).1821 MexicanHistory. persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent. la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 . Castizo. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). Mestizo. by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law .Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 . persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent.

gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. which fixed the price of goods and their quality .org/colonial.. Commerce was controlled by royal decree.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem . tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . ceramics. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . persons who were mixed indio and negro. from piracy .000 by 1800. The most hated was the alcabala. which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. Money makers such as tobacco. After about 1560.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus .Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other Mulatos.000 in the 16th century to 6. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians.1821 MexicanHistory. The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . tailors. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20. ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers .With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . industry could not grow and advance.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. They were sometimes made into slaves.Colonial Mexico 1519 .There were royal taxes of all kinds on land. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. etc . The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . which was due on almost everything sold. Zambos. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. Over the years. Euromestizos. which were the wards of the church and the Crown . etc. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export .The China trade was established in 1564 silks. licenses.

one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . The restrictions. diversified economy from growing . Such http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . was of prime importance to Spain . Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . combined with bad Some of the haciendas were vast. These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas. Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however.In the early colonial period.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . silver bar from shipwreck. bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. By the 18th colonies and Spain itself .

usually a week at a time .Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage.There were many abuses to this system.It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. However. Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks.1821 MexicanHistory. 1549. So. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians .Colonial Mexico 1519 . plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. but few wished to. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.The debts were passed down from father to son . The building material in New Spain was more colorful. thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. which was abolished in the early 17th century.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay .org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . except for mine labor . a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . but was modified by the new land. rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem .

built in the late 18th century.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style . The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575).In the mid 16th century.1821 the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines . The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco. The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu .Colonial Mexico 1519 .org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. http://mexicanhistory.

It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times. the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades. a spanish architect ).

An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. hospitals and universities . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock. plazasa.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . built in 1585 . University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction . Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years .1821 MexicanHistory. Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa . http://mexicanhistory. a more the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana.In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City .org As a reaction to the excess. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence .

Colonial Mexico 1519 . built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war . Basilica Guadalupe.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons . http://mexicanhistory. particularly their designs.1821 MexicanHistory.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs . Spain in the 16th century .org/ Castillo de Chapultepec. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 . Chinese ceramic was soon imitated.Many people consider Puebla. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.

Wine was introduced early to New Spain . who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. and more popularly called pulque. Duke of Anjou. The crown had a monopoly on Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. feeble in mind and body.1700 ). Tequila . Philippe de Bourbon. but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries .1821 MexicanHistory. which was a major source of revenue .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . He had named a greatnephew. Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara. Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . Tequila was first produced in the 16th century.The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory. When Charles II died in 1700. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon. the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. which they called octli (

The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown .org/colonial. was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. replacing 200 low paid.. global warfare. It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty . Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies . After eleven years of bloody. Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general . It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco . the Duc d'Anjou. as Philip V.The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas . the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . http://mexicanhistory. improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents .The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. He had two main Louis XIV ) as his successor.Silver production rose from 2. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. Cochineal production also increased.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . In 1740. fought on four continents and three oceans. Under his rule Spain once again became a world power .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. becoming the second biggest export . .The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration.1821 MexicanHistory.2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804.Colonial Mexico 1519 .88 ).Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining . Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 .The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually .Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain .

Through widespread use in Europe.Another viceroy. United States dollar and the Chinese yuan.Colonial Mexico 1519 . another able ruler( 1789 .Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. meaning double).htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Yet little was reinvested in New Spain .King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . worth eight reales. often refers to a seven-gram (0.The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before .1821 MexicanHistory. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. the Americas and the Far East. The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'. Peru. it became the first world currency by the late 18th Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . Many existing currencies. or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown .The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules. many creoles prospered during this period in business .By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world . or Nueva Granada. the national motto for Spain . was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines .94 ) created the first public transportation system . Mexico.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. By 1810. The creole Count Regla. the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal . The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . Revillagigedo .org/colonial. The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight. For example. There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana . meaning a double-sided token coin. The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population . the real de a ocho. such as the Canadian dollar. The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n. http://mexicanhistory. Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 .

org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 .1821

com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 Things to do near DC Close to DC. Scoundrels. shopping & more! www. Celts www.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Dominican Rep.lindenhill. Costa The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821. www.mortgageallianceprogram.1821 MexicanHistory. Fairfax County has great attractions.fxva. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.

edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .utexas.lib.http://www.

1821 MexicanHistory.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but not equality for all. their lot was so hard .Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland. http://mexicanhistory. The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .MilitaryHistory. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. The lower classes.The war for Independence 1810. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose. They did rebel. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .org The war for Independence 1810. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without

destroying many Creoles financially .By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence . in these years.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .org/Independence. Art Print Buy for $ Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America. with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 . ruled by independent juntas. Unlike the wise Charles III. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars . his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies. The peninsulares thought otherwise . 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout".Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 . The church had to call in their mortgages.Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814. Without a true Spanish monarchy.99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory.. many creoles thought they should rule themselves. Bullfighting from. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity . These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles..The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform .1821 MexicanHistory. Latin America was.The war for Independence 1810.

However. Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . 1810.A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende. her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic . the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once . http://mexicanhistory. There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato. doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant .org/Independence.The war for Independence 1810. who became an independence symbol. they marched for San Miguel.Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8.However. Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . However. reading proscribed books.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .1821 MexicanHistory.He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). 1810. a captain of the cavalry . In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe. gathering more recruits along the way. none of these charges could be proved and he was released . With Hidalgo at their head.

Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward. However. San Luis Potosi and Valladolid . Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . 1811. Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon.000 marching on Mexico City .org/Independence.1821 MexicanHistory. He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City . http://mexicanhistory. Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning . Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas. They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup . In the middle of the battle.000 rebels were killed . Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces . Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.The rebels took Guadalajara .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2.The war for Independence 1810. The army retreated into Mexico City .An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then . turning into a rout .By late October the army had about 80.

After awhile only two major bands remained.He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms.With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point .Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state . http://mexicanhistory. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control .org/Independence. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement. retaking many towns .000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1.By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital . The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.Gradually.By 1819.1821 MexicanHistory.The war for Independence 1810. the Spanish viceroy. Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out .000 around Oaxaca .org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this .Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare .In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished. the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed . one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2. viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile. who had been recruited by Hildago .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax .For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination . those opposed to it were guilty of treason .They issued a Declaration of Independence.

the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional Spain. Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala.The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2.1821 MexicanHistory.500 men to fight Guerrero . a virtual prioner of the army at this point. King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. Ironically. Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. bad food. If this was not done there would be a military coup . At C diz.The king. free speech and curbed the power of the church . He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. yielded to their demands . . the Creoles found this change too liberal. A new army would be created. and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government . Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights. The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .The war for Independence 1810. led by King Ferdinand or another European prince . The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms .org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile. in January 1820.Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed .

O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares . this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit .After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. One more proviso was added by Iturbide . Mexico was independent at last . a Mexican congress would chose an emperor. Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. the last viceroy of New Spain . Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army.1821 Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico.The war for Independence 1810. On September 27. 1821 .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. viceroy Apodaca resigned . Juan de O'Donoju. Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. this was to become an important point .

However. which in turned named him as its presiding officer .March 19.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21.S. a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war.ancestry. 1821 . Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. 1821. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. www. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch .com www.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . General Agustín de Iturbide. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.ObesityControlCenter. Ferdinand VII. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online. would also be Emperor of Ads by Google After the declaration of independence on September Web Google Search MexicanHistory. it did not accept the offer . Mexico for fractions of the cost Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide .

from California in the north to Panama . Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . hoping to promote free republican governments . Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . On July 21. Iturbide had his own troops. outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee . and the Mexican state of Chiapas .In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22. the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. the regiment of Celaya. Honduras. They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. then accepted . http://mexicanhistory. Iturbide feigned reluctance. The heir apparent was Senor Don August. as Agustin I . stage a demonstration on his behalf . 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . which included Costa Rica. 1821 . El Salvador. Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . Guatemala. Court etiquette was issued.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. 1822 .org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. When Iturbide was declared emperor. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .org/firstempire. Nicaragua.The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico.

The First Mexican Empire 1821

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy . Ads by Google

Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM]

The First Mexican Empire 1821

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM]

The Early Republic

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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM]

Mexican border . the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army . but no an inspiring or talented administrator . The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. the caudillo . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war .Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 . another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza . In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . Bravo was exiled to Ecuador . http://mexicanhistory.1843 ) was a former rebel leader.Groupon. led by vice president Bravo .The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner.000 men were kept under Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero. These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. who controlled the army. The government sought to support itself through import duties. he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain . The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US .The York Rite masons .As Iturbide did.29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name. These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited .org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . A local military strongman emerges during these times. brave in battle. some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public.Over 50. Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president . gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . taxes and monopolies .After some fighting .

org/earlyrepublic.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. the Spanish general surrendered .Guerrero set off with a force to attack them. abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . Santa Anna became extremely popular .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla .org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria .From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree. Bustamante. President Bustamante 1830 . With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. choose this time to invade its most important former colony . As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. Slaves were few in number by this time.This marked a return to power of the conservatives. the most important of which was calling up of the reserves. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. The treasury by this time was also bankrupt. Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy . Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion . This plan backfired . However. which had been abandoned . with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero.They landed near Tampico.Some of the states. such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight . even after the repulse of the Spanish. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . who fled the country . All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level. which had never recognized Mexico's independence. After an initial attack which failed. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . Reserves in Jalapa.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . mainly middle class merchants.32 - http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna settled in for a siege .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain. Bustamante agreed. called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them. but his act increased his support among mulattos.

But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero .org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans.Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election . using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance . but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. Corruption was rampant .The Early Republic MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again . Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 . which he did in 1833.Bustamante. Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections. signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23).org/earlyrepublic. Bustamante was to go into exile.47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press.

htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history .com www. but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz .Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.ancestry. 1835 .1842 Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Discover Family Heroes. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. a liberal politician of intellectual distinction .He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times . Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it .1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 Santa Anna 1794 .1843 . Britain.1834.ObesityControlCenter.1841 . http://mexicanhistory. and Texas as well as published sources.1839 .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. trained specialist treats you in Collection.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.

He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built.' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . State militias were disbanded . He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. more pejoratively. Michoacán.000 acres . Jalisco." or. Several of these states formed their own governments. the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .Corruption was widespread. "dictator" or "strongman".org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. began with two major reforms . he reduced its size and abolished military fueros . Yucatán. Durango. The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90. Guanajuato. such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna . Nuevo León.In order to secure power. Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . and the Republic of Texas. Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) .The Zacatecan militia. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. that of the church and that of the army . the constitution of 1836 was enacted . the Republic of Yucatan. Santa Anna became a millionaire .The presidential term was extended from four years to eight . The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. the treasury was still bankrupt . To curb the undue influence of the army. led http://mexicanhistory. Querétaro. Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church .The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483.Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.The congress was disbanded .The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms .The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal .000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation. warlord. Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 . the Republic of the Rio Grande.They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office .Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas. His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. San Luis Potosí.

Nacogdoches. Goliad.There were small towns in the by Francisco Garcia. After defeating Zacatecas. The first Europeans in the which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain .61 rifles. or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . Comanches and other Indian tribes . the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches. 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. was well armed with .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker . Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours. After two hours of combat. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3. and others. he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2. on 12 May 1835.000 prisoners. San Antonio. 1835 to April 21.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.

the judge and commandant .Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. Austin was the supreme authority. He reached home in safety. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . but his exposure and privations had weakened him. Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. By 1827 there were 12.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . a Prussian officer. Life in the new land was rough. leaving his dying injunction to his Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s. In 1820 he set out for Texas. and was then in the service of Mexico. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.000 Americans living in Texas. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. While at work they kept guard against the Indians. and fought over land titles and for political domination." Gone to Texas . Mexico became independent and Moses' son. The land titles were duly recorded. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas. Stephen. who roved about stealing the stock.000 Mexicans . By 1835 there were 30.25 an acre in the US . and he returned home.In 1827. there were only 7. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory.000 Americans and only around 8. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. after great exposure and privation. T. T. at times making a night attack upon a cabin. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. to carry out his project.Spain wished to colonize the territory. who had served under Frederick the Great.000 settlers . The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. and a local militia was organized.

by sending a thousand soldiers. mostly criminals and convicts. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this .Mexico increased custom duties on exports. Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. but the societies were too different and tensions increased . even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. but not independent from Mexico and to have its own the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . an empresario.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. there were approximately 5. This emeute. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders . The check immigration into Texas from America. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters .Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. to stations in the country.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . which were to be redistributed in Mexico.Most Americans remained Protestant. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas .Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823. to take over the region. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo .President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. In 1830. The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. called " The Fredonian War. increasing the cost of trade with the US . but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all .000 slaves in Texas. Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente.S. One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila . By a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 . instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] ." was easily suppressed. but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened .

1835. Throughout November 1835. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. they reached the camp. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. Two Texian militias answered the call. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad. under the defence of General Cos. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. having never been formally charged with sedition. negotiations were held. at 7 p. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. and Austin sanctioned it.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .m. Since they had no cannon balls. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. which began on October 12. the Texans captured Bexar. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. He then ordered his brother-in law. including Jim Bowie.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. On October 1.m. The siege of Bexar. The Texians refused. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. who was stationed in San Antonio. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . Austin was released in July. At 3 a. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. The next morning. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. Austin saw little choice but revolution. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. Castañeda established a camp. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. and was in Texas by August. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. and gunfire was exchanged.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. many of the volunteers simply Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas.. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. On September 20. civilians were massacred by the thousands. who went to Gonzales. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement .org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. Several officers resigned. and Coahuila. http://mexicanhistory. As a reward. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. and negotiations fell through. Unable to cross. Under the Liberal banner. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. Zacatecas.

was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. Capt. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. in a fortress doomed to destruction. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. never more to leave them. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. 1835. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. Although the Matamoros Expedition. These men. the political and military center of Texas. chiefly husbands and fathers. despite Austin's leadership. The expedition failed. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. The remaining Texan army. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly." No further reinforcement arrived. now led by General Sam Houston. on March 2. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. poorly led. Soon. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. a force of about 6. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. and with no collective motivation. but it marched forward. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. On November 6. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ). The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. nothing came of it. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. arriving in Texas months before it was 1835. bringing only disaster for months to come.000. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. "At dawn on the first of March. as it came to be known. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. but his talents were not well suited for military life. hoping to sack the town. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. The army suffered hundreds of casualties.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. Albert Martin. owning their own homes. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army.

gave unrelenting chase. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. under Santa Anna's direct orders. border.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . March 20. so it was put to the torch. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. The Mexican cavalry. and much animosity was aimed towards him. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2. March 27. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. rather than a cruel one. the United General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. A scorched earth policy was implemented. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen always on the heels of Houston. brought up cannon and reinforcements. 1836. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. making his way north following the coast of Texas. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. Overnight. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. the rains made the roads impassable. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. Santa Anna's army.together with the fall of the Alamo. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. experienced and feared. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. and even Great Britain and France. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds.. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. 1836. José Urrea At Goliad. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Soon.

200 Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. Santa Anna. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Without Houston's consent. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. after burning Vince's Bridge. catching the Mexican army by surprise. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. and tired of running away. who had been wounded in the ankle. An 18minute-long battle ensued. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. but not without protests from Urrea. Santa Anna. which had proven costly and prolonged. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. both armies met at the San Jacinto River. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. Hours before the attack. marched back to Mexico. Houston could do nothing but follow. General Vicente Filisola. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. Also. On that same day. as dictator of Mexico. the Texans surged forward. but nothing came of it. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. which the Texans used as cover. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. waited for reinforcements. but Filisola disagreed. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. mostly cavalry. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. and he was brought before Houston. which were led by General Cos. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. swelling Santa Anna's army to over and race quickly towards Galveston. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and put an end to the war. Texas. Numbering about 700. only nine Texans died. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. To the dismay of the Texans. not the Army of Operations. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign.

the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Nuevo León. But unknown to Santa Anna. In the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . and after meeting with U. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . when French forces landed in Veracruz. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. After some time in exile in the United States. into Texas. thus. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico. occupying San Antonio. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power.. but briefly. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. a French soldier of fortune. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. He was re-elected President. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . one private ) on May 14.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence .C.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. The war continued as a standoff. D. two actually formed republic besides Texas. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. and soon after. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . called Manga de Clavo. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace.

with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. La Ceiba . the Republic of the Rio Grande failed. and the United States.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. After the end of the Mexican-American War. http://mexicanhistory. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) . the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6.In November. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority.By 1855. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America.C. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. however. ultimately. Spain.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. Texas . There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army .the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. Yucatán declared its neutrality. but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . During this meeting. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. Upon this event. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. In 1840. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant .org/santaanna. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. Nuevo León.

a military expedition into Texas was renewed. The war with France had weakened Mexico.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed .Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . Meanwhile. or the French would demand satisfaction. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. Thus began the Pastry War . to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. In 1846. and to seize the port of Veracruz. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation.000 pesos in payment and when payment.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. and the people were discontented. In 1842. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. but France upped the ante to Santa Anna tried to elude capture. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. His life was spared. This was too much for the Mexicans. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico. President Again Soon after. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. and imprisoned. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. at war against Santa Anna.000 troops .Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua .000 pesos.was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Fearing for his life. by an army commanded by the president himself. The French landed 3. Veracruz. Mexico declared war on France. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. With resentment ever growing against the The Pastry War In 1838. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. the United States declared war on Mexico. turned over to authorities. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. Also. Mexico agreed to pay.

pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. moved to Turbaco. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". Mexico for fractions of the cost www. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Mexico Obesity Doctor U. the base of chewing gum. Thomas Adams. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. but he failed to profit from this. trained specialist treats you in Collection.ancestry. and Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory. Jamaica. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. He funneled government funds to his own pockets. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. Colombia.ObesityControlCenter. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! of the United States. the United States. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. penniless and heartbroken. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. and two years later. which was tried without success. naval Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. This reign was no better than his earlier ones. Colombia. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts. He then lived in exile in Cuba.S." which helped found the chewing gum industry. In 1851. Discover Family Heroes.S. and he fled back to Cuba. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. to the United States. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. on June 21. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. 1876. In April 1853.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. Thomas.

com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. APX Alarm." So Far from God: The U. War With Mexico. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. & GE. or the course of events. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. www. was not for immediate annexation .S. 18461848This wellwritten.TopAlarmCompanies.1848 MexicanHistory." said Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video Web Google Search Mexican American War 1846 .org/mexicanamericanwar1. The American president after Texas won its independence.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas . Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico . Andrew Jackson . if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government. beyond all Mexico Obesity Doctor U.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. " Prudence. President Tyler The following president. Compare & Save.Mexican American War 1846 . 4 Quotes. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory. Van Buren. and to uphold the Government constituted by them. and maintain our present attitude. 1 Form.S.The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue. shall have proved. Brinks. at least until the lapse of time.

On the 3rd March. a few hours before his term of office expired. The new president. which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month .1848 MexicanHistory. President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . 1845 .On the 4th July.Prior to Polk's election. Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . There was a fear England would purchase California. that what could not be effected by were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas.It was discovered by President Tyler.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle. Texas joined the Union on December 29. he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport . and that. 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war . looks at the war from the perspective of both countries.who was pro-annexation.S. as half of the Senators represented free States. could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. 1845 . The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28. a survey of the This History Channel special. The Border Question and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.Mexican American War 1846 . and the December 29. Texas consented to be annexed. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. the Mexican minister to the U. an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California.No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. it joined the Union . he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast . such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 .

convinced that Mexico should be "chastised.000.Mexican American War 1846 . the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River . Oklahoma.000. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . supported by populist newspapers. They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . Wyoming. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). Slidell.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and Colorado. $5. he withdrew them across the Rio In 1836. Kansas.000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25. which included parts of modern day New Mexico.1848 MexicanHistory.The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source. Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil .Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. as per the Treaties of Velasco . The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar ." returned to the United States. the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . However.000 or more for California . the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty .

take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country.000 men. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. Herrera.S. and. your main object will be the protection of Texas . This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border .1848 MexicanHistory. Mississippi. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos . He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. with much difficulty. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas. in December 14.000 in all He was told. was able to assemble a force of 6. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force. drive them from their positions on either side of the river. but instead of marching north against the invaders. will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. 1846.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2.Mexican American War 1846 ." http://mexicanhistory. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments.In case of war. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico . defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose. was plotting to Tennessee. if deemed practicable and expedient. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities.Louisiana. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts. and Kentucky. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms .about 4. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera.

At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. wrote to the Secretary. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. or committed any overt act of hostilities. 1846. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war.S. particularly those of July 8th. On the 12th January. a Mexican settlement." On approaching Point Isabel. 4th.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. and the site of a Mexican Custom House." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. 1845. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. Taylor. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . he found the buildings in flames. whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. regard you as openly committing hostilities. later known as Fort Brown . The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that. it would enter into no negotiation with him. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression. commenced his march into the Mexican territory. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. He expelled the U. the inhabitants must. he prudently waited for further orders." As there was no invasion to repel.Mexican American War 1846 . the extreme point of Texas proper. from which it appeared probable that. and http://mexicanhistory. I do not feel at liberty under my General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. and Oct. envoy from Mexico. declared his willingness to fight.1848 MexicanHistory. and for which no reason had been assigned. Not an American. without having met with the slightest in pursuance of orders. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. except in reference to Texas.

investigated an abandoned hacienda. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. "a war by the act of Mexico." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. adding.S. reports. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . it will clearly result that arms. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. It appears they separated. War is Declared General Taylor. to make the intended war. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war .1848 MexicanHistory. published in the Philadelphia Inquirer . coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. On May 13.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil." Notwithstanding the blockade. He immediately charged upon them . and thus. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained." and requiring him within twenty. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. " 16 Americans. Another letter. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. In April 1846. according to the wishes of the sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. says. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. drove away the men. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground. and took possession of their horses. ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. must decide the question. Congress declared war on Mexico. Accordingly. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . about 25 miles from the U. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States." In this affair. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. acting on the advice of a local guide . and therefore unseen. thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] ." Upon the Strength of this despatch.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. on April 24 . one of defence. not to remain any longer idle. the President announced to Congress and the world.Mexican American War 1846 . or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. and he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. 1846. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. Tamaulipas. it seems. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter. and arms alone. appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. does not appear . and retire beyond the Nueces ." but the main body of about 2. whereupon he determined. and. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . he reports. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. despite protests by the Mexican government . Pofter and one man was killed whether any. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. . 4th Infantry.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. camp .four hours to remove his camp.

Try Visual Search! www.Mexican American War 1846 . & More. licensed Customs Broker will answer www.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by National Customs Broker Call us today and an Terms American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory.1848 MexicanHistory.+4 Billion Records Mayan ® Anna 1833 .World's largest online family history 47 resource.Bing.

htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . including So Far from God: the ObesityControlCenter.S. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle had no small arm factories of its own . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.The rifle.The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' .which played a decisive role in several key The U. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. Discover Family Heroes. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory. The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources . The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced . was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it . War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written.The The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories . with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate . while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy .com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy. trained specialist treats you in Collection.

were almost utterly unknown in the United States. seems to have been arranged jointly.500 hundred men .The President declared that in his opinion. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot. as commander of the army. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army." would be the best means of producing peace. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . by consultations between the President. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. and General Scott . before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. and the means to execute them. Secretary at War. like a fire breathing dragon. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. but trained in horseback riding and combat . General Stephen W. General Scott. was stationed at The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. a carbine or short musket called the dragon. At this time. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive .

who was now in command of the Mexican army. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. Major Brown. To take this place would. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. The plan was judicious. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. and was only prevented from being carried out. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. It appears that General Arista. which had been left in care of a small detachment. 3 and that another corps was about to cross below.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. In the mean while. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. capture Point Isabel. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. with his main force. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . was comparatively defenceless. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. Leaving an unfinished field-work. The departure of General Taylor with his army. Captain Hawkins. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. under whose direction the fort was built. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. therefore. . he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. under the command of Major Brown. and continued at intervals till the 10th. and arrived on the next day. and then fall on the American army. and several killed and wounded. Arista saw that Point Isabel. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. both for skill and gallantry. by the accidental infor. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. In this defense. The army was halted. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. The former was killed by a shell. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions.

The Dragoons. the army advanced by heads of columns. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. Ridgely. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. and the battle was soon ended. To remedy this. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. Arista. In this firing. At two P. The Lan.cipitately from the field. and by the 5th Infantry. by the Americans. and with greater energy of body. A battery of artillery. Ridgely. mostly Lancers. Their columns. M. when they were deployed into line. The artillerymen were dispersed. Montero. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. at night" This might be true . as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery.tery and by the infantry on the wings. The Dragoons cut through the enemy.dered Torrejon. This he did. general of cavalry. under Lt. might have easily been defended. A ravine here crossed the road. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. The Mexican cavalry. had advanced beyond support. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. and took a new position several miles off. moved up the main road.The Mexican American War at a pool. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. and General La Vega taken prisoner. On the left wing of our army. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. but with as little success. from which he did not depart till two p. now broken by successive charges. says.. They fled pre. dating his despatch. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. but he was in retreat. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. under Lt. were on their left. of the field. to charge the American right. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. and by other troops of that division. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. the next day. The charge was gallantly made. 4th. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . and in turn fell back on the main body. General Arista or. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets.cers were again driven back.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. while the 3d. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. The position was well chosen . It was here that this officer became so distinguished. " in sight of the enemy. M. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. under the command of Col. but was met by the Flying Artillery. In two hours. at Resaca de la Palma. however. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry.

and near it other heights. and in the rear. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. he advanced to the village of Marin. and at that point sent out reconnoitering a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. Being reinforced. to the left. the capital of New Leon . after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. and were occupied. while the main body. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. In front. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. both the general government at home. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. were destined for the march to Monterey. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. Comargo. numbering six thousand six hundred. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. They fought gallantly. or citadel. the general. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. The opposite side of the city.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. in rear of the town and beyond the river. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. all fortified. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. Mier. left Comargo. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. as http://mexicanhistory. and around it.ted to them. On the heights. which was regularly fortified. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. In the mean time. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. and Revilla surrendered. and on the 5th of September. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. behaved well.

i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. and the troops remained upon their arms. entered the town to the right. with three companies of the 4th regiment. The point of attack was designated by Major A column of six hundred and fifty men.drawn. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. if practicable. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. Campbell.vious. were both ordered forward . and fired upon the redoubt. were forts also erected. Up to this time. with his division. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. however. The army. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. and Davis. and two or three thousand irregulars. advanced against the redoubt. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry.nied the parly in its advance. was ordered to the left. who had advanced with it. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . May's Dragoons. with Bragg's Artillery. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . Tennessee. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. in spite of its fire. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. were with. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. the column rapidly moved. General Butler. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. and they were compelled to retire. to attack the lower part of the town. and advanced against the second battery. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. however. were detached to the right. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses. pressed forward. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. supported by the Light Artillery. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. Garland's force. with the bayonet and the artillery. to the support of General Worth. and Mississippi. who accompa. being wounded. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. The front defense here was a redoubt. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. This movement was executed during the evening. which killed or disabled one-third of the men.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The two last regiments. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. and Wood's Texan Cavalry. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. and after another severe contest retired in good order. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. with its cannon and ammunition. and commenced its assault on the town. it is ob. General Worth. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. three miles from Monterey. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. into the rear of which.other column. superior in numbers to the American army.

M. Missouri. on the morning of the 23d. believed to be favorable to peace. The Surrender of Monterey. but. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. Marines." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. two companies of light. Louis . and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. but always unsuccessfully. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. Kearney. the city of Linares. on the 13th of October. At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . treads upon the territory of this republic. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. stopped in San Pedro. To this the Mexican chief replied. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. and carried several fortified heights. but General Taylor made no important movement in front. defeated the enemy. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. charges. " The Saclede Rangers. gave a new face to affairs. in their defence. The houses were fortified. while Gar. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. from St. to fire upon the American positions . and take possession of. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. two provinces. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. The guns of the Citadel continued. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. When Stockton's forces.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. This was the key to Monterey. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city.The Mexican American War town." a volunteer troop. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. recommenced the advance. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . from Cole and Platte counties. 1846. The main part of the capitulation was. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . Worth and his Division. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. Besides al!'s command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. but here a new resistance was made. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . from St. For this concession there were strong reasons. he dispatched 50 U. Doniphan .artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). Louis. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. and San Fernando de Prezas . under Colonel Alexander W. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks.In Northern California. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. and the Mexicans confined. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. General Taylor. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. sailing south to San Diego. then in command of the Mexican army. The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. in arms. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. California and New Mexico. was one to move against. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. That evening (at 9 p. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. during this day. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. after some negotiation. the American army had but a short supply of provisions.

January 9. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. Arizona and the Sonora desert. On January 13. Meanwhile. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. after being appointed commanding general. General Stephen W. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. their re-supplied. led by U. with 4. fought as Californio Lancers. left too small a force in Los Angeles. had http://mexicanhistory. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. 1847. October 7 through October 9.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. however. forces. 1846. Philip St. The next day.S. Lt. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. [25] and the next day. California. Col.S. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. Taylor. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed. Marines were killed. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido.600 men. Iowa Territory. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores.S.S. Other U. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. He promised the U. Col. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California. On March 15. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! . Then. With U. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25. 1847. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. however. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. January 1848. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. marched north from San Diego on December 29.000 men. U. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. On January 12. Jonathan D. 1846. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed.S. The rancho vaqueros. 1847. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. 14 U. forces continued to arrive in California. On January 28. 1847. Navy Captain William Mervine. combined force. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. on December Kearny. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. Later. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. led by José Mariá Flores. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. That marked the end of the war in California.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. and the Californios. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8.000 . Stockton. California. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. near San Pedro. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. he reneged again and seized the presidency.S. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs.S. 1847. banded together to defend their land. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. 1847. 1847.

He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. http://mexicanhistory.S.500 healthy troops. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. army suffered 400 casualties.S.400 men. A group of 12. Santa Anna flanked the U. Polk distrusted Taylor. Santa Anna withdrew that night. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions. about half of whom were civilian. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea. during which some U.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies.600 mounted dragoons ahead.S. while the Mexicans suffered over 1.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. troops suffered 80 casualties.000 were taken prisoner. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. troops were routed. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. Although by then aware of the positions of U. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. The U. army. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. he attacked the next morning. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. Furious fighting ensued.000 casualties and 3. the U.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. During the siege. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. The Mexican army was routed. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. However. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico.S. Scott had sent 2. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. U. weapons and horses near the walled city. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott. 1847. Instead of taking the main road.000 men in a tired state. Included in the invading force were Robert E. troops. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. George Meade. along which he expected Scott to appear. Grant. Ulysses S. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House.S. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .

org/mexicanamericanwar2. Lee. 1847. However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. Twiggs agreed.The Mexican American War On the same day. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. http://mexicanhistory.S. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . U. in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . The deserters were court martialed and many were hung. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army .

" is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. including the cadets. Juan Escutia. "From the Halls of Montezuma. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet.S. ended the war and gave the U. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. forces. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. when one was left (Juan Escutia). The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. some as young as 13 years old. Before he could withdraw. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. also known as the Halls of Montezuma.S. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. At 08:00. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. 211 Union Battalion.S. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . Lasting throughout most of the day. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The scaling ladders arrived. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point.The efforts of the U. he grabbed the Mexican flag. and there was a lull in the battle. and General Juan N. Pérez was killed. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U.S. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. To the southwest. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". Newman S. but his troops managed to raise the U. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill.S.. 277 Mina Battalion. Johnston.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. One by one they fell. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. President Polk tried to recall Trist. and the first wave ascended the walls. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. but was unable to communicate with him .org/mexicanamericanwar2.S. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. Flag over the castle. and the U. Vicente Suarez. apparently falling from above . and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. forces were about to kill him. established the U. and the castle's garrison of 100 men.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. Caught between two fronts. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. signed on February 2. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage.S. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. who took over 90% casualties.. A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front. the fighting had been severe and costly. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. undisputed control of Texas. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. and cadets Agustin Melgar. 115 Queretaro Battalion. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate.

S. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River.S.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. especially among U. with the 15 million already spent.S. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time.000. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US . By doing so. newspaper.S. agreed to assume $3. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. New Mexico.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California . Nevada. Mexico received US $15.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Utah.Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory. and Wyoming. Arizona. and parts of Colorado. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla. The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla .000—less than half the amount the U. citizens. politicians that had opposed the war from the A leading U. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U.S. In return.

After over a year of guerrilla warfare. Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support .mortgageallianceprogram. sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .S. The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. democratic state .com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less the neighboring states of Morelos.The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico . Costa Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez . the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law.This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital.The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma.In Guerrero.).Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state . while the liberals (puros) refused . 1854 .which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution . Dominican Rep. www. The moderates ( moderados) favored Web Google Search Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor.One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. http://mexicanhistory. who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president .The leader of the young. which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. Michoacan .

assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals .The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) . They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . freedom of speech.The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms .Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws . http://mexicanhistory. the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church . President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned.For the first two years. In the new constitution. Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals . The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861. The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. While freedom of religion was not declared. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez. These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction . press. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power .HumanEvents. Comonfort becomes President www.Revolution of Ayutla Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .The civil war was very vicious . the Plan de Tacubaya.this conflict led to the vicious war of reform. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals .The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new but gave up and named Comonfort his successor . The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war .The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions . the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot .

In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City . Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives . Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . Spain. which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French .The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts. under the leadership of Napoleon III.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. Spain and England withdrew their troops .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies . Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory.Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico. 1861. some over fifty years old .Juarez won the presidental election of 1861.France. and 64 million of this was owed to the British . Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought . The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant .To get some breathening space for the economy to revive. In december. Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country.But the biggest problem was yet to come. Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .The new president chose a more lenient policy.On October 31.However. this was not to be .000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz. England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties .org/Ayutla.By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives. With the War of the Reform over. Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World . Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France.The conservative President.

org/French.As mentioned before. America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27. the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory.He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota. he was determined to make France great again .1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico .Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king . Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal .000 to Mexico . Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie. Vera French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 .

It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again . the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo . The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy .The French bombarded Puebla.On May 5. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory.The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi.000 French.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. where around 4.000 reinforcements .The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462. Napoleon ordered 30. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months . under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.

1863.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time.He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people .org/French.On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces.Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves . 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou.In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico . General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion . They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange . Emperor of Mexico on April 10.A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army. 1864.He was proclaimed Maximilian I. http://mexicanhistory.The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte. met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived. that of Camaron on April 30. map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives . French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people .Here. who had a wooden hand.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867. which of course approved him .

and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. Guerro. This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. After the fall of the Confederacy.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865. The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. but nothing came of it . Chihuahua. as secretary of foreign affairs .He even named Jose Fernando. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. which had never recognized Maximilian's government . creating a succession issue. a moderate liberal. which was not the case . He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives. General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. was to lead to the emperors own death . religious freedoms. Sonora and Baja. The emperor . This[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. the republicans only held four states. religious toleration .The French. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it .Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces. the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. a Mason. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . After its fall. however. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support . General Grant ordered 42.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua.After the downfall of the Confederacy. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. http://mexicanhistory. The liberals. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor .The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. however. However.

Monterey. Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. Portirio Diaz.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. However on May 15. The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong . but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope. saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .It also introduced French ideas. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion . the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory. Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca. It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak . fashion and culture into Mexico .000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare.However.During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . along with Miramon and Mejia .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies .He was executed by firing squad on June 19. who urged the emperor to join him. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future .a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca.The battle began on Feb 19. Over 50. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. talked him out of it. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days .the last french soldier left on March 16. the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia. but his wife. before he could carry out this plan. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression . However. 1867.

com www.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife . 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.ancestry. Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. sanbornsinsurance. Home Revolution of Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory. purchase and print your auto policy online. www.fiestamericanagrand.

Dominican Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. the rurales was established to check Mexico Obesity Doctor U. purchase and print your auto policy online. Juarez immediately set about making economic.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.ObesityControlCenter. Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15.mortgageallianceprogram. Costa Rica. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. http://mexicanhistory.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection. The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention . but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 .org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. political and educational reforms. Schooling was made mandatory.S. Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . sanbornsinsurance. www.Despite this. There was still antagonisms from the conservatives.

a rural police force was established. Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory.To secure the roads.Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative.Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment . especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country .Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico . the rurales.000 miles .org/RestoredRepublic. in contrast with the US which had over 30. Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy . The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat. Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors .

Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 . In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. beginning the Mexican muralist movement .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. who had the support of the military and conservatives . Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico . http://mexicanhistory. Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy . in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October . and Porfirio Diaz. none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. miles off telegraph line was put up .When the ballots were counted.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes.The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time . but he through this effort 1. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army . where he defeated Diaz easily . A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled.

This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . following the pattern of Juarez. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16. Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory. 1876. Lerdo was reelected on July 24. 1876.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 .

Mexico was still troubled by banditos . agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .Farming methods had changed little from colonial days .' During his 33 year rule.MegWhitman. The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury. www. Free Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .who was a Mestizo.ObesityControlCenter.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) .S.ancestry. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory. of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales .org/Diaz.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Like Juarez before him. the main engine of the economy. Mexico entered the industrial age . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records. still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades . huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .Despite the efforts of the liberals mining.

The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing .Jose Limantour. President Gonzalez 1880 . The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth .org/Diaz. Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term .84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country. made economic changes such as changing tariffs.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . and then to remove all restrictions on re-election.Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling . the Mexican treasury was running in the black .During his administration. first to allow two terms in office. Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction.These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. so he cut the salaries of government officials . the railway from Mexico City to El Paso. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims .By 1890. secretary of the treasury. switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption .Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez. Díaz had the constitution amended. At the end of his first term. http://mexicanhistory.Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge . but the strain was too much for the treasury .

000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness . Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination.Diaz was advised by cientificos. from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15. and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877.He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico. but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society . became much more productive . Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule.000 Pesos in 1877 to 85.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years. From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . in contrast to 50 in the US at the time . After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest .16 percent of the population was homeless . but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .000. They promoted science. which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . such as silver and cooper mines .Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly . The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost .silver production increased from 24. Elections were held. It seemed a http://mexicanhistory.000 Pesos in 1908. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. France and Germany . generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power . Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops.The press was tightly censored. In 1910 life expectancy was 30. Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions . Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size . manipulated by the powerful . Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune . but they were shams for the most part.Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda.

Now.Like many powerful leaders before.The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz . they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes . who often worked in appaling conditions .Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato. They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers . This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907.By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed. The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work .org/Diaz. such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua . Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . some advocating violent overthrow. he had overstayed his welcome .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight .The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good . Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell .Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them . http://mexicanhistory.In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %.

After this. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule. Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio. In a 1908 interview with the U.S.When the official results were announced by the government.Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses . Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León. Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections . They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico . Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. decided to run for president again . Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . Despite Reyes silence. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero . however. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . http://mexicanhistory. journalist James Creelman. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. Despite what he had told Creelman. He thoght political. They organized a revolutionary party.such as the Flores Magon brothers . This caused aroused widespread anger. In St.

com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. brings the US into the conflict .org/Diaz. the outnumbered federal commander surrendered . others towns such as Tehuacan. Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government .Diaz had been overthrown.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion.the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting. Afterwards. Díaz died in exile in Paris. but the revolution had just started . At the last minute. afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso. 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them. In 1915. yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command . Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero . In Chihuahua. In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . After the victory at Ciudad Juarez.Madero changed his mind and called of the attack. His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great . On May 10. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack.BookIt.Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years. The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses .On Jan 2.

Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended . And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. But underneath. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional.To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick) panchovillastories.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . President Diaz. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. anger was simmering over the injustice of decades. Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution . Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910. a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women . everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months. Pancho Villa. Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. below in Mexico. Now on DVD www. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their

htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years. Trains were often used as weapons themselves.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land. . but solely upon the army . The election of 1910 provided a spark. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. started by Diaz himself. The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest." Diaz.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. Most large companies were foreign owned.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .

A ladron steals from his neighbors. However.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. Emiliano Zapata (August 8.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915.often led by Villa himself. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. from federal forces. http://mexicanhistory. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush .org/revolution. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South). was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy. commonly known as Zapatistas. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile . he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. As a result. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. Madero campaign. but was never caught.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi.Famous for their cavalry charges.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. and then return home to spend most of the year farming. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. Previously. 1879–April 10.1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. when 1910 came. He neither drank or smoked. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5.The Mexican Revolution Creelman.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. Madero was an unusual person for the times. banditos. 1878 – July 20.

Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. 1911 – February 18. Francisco de la Barra. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. on 31 October of that year. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States. from federal forces.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Madero promoted him to colonel. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. Porfiro Diaz. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over would serve as interim president. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910. After being wounded in Ojinaga. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength.In April the forces of Madero. the ambassador to the U. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government.S. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. The Madero Presidency November 6.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. remarkably. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. His nephew. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall.He was killed on Aug 30. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and. Now let's see if he can control it.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua.

However. Educational reformers were also disappointed . It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . the secretary of foreign relations. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned. Zapata Some. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself. On October 1. to many this looked like old style corrupt government .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .He gave out government contracts to family businesses. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. During this time. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. 1911 Modero won the national election . which undermined the reforms he advocated . Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry .which had been gagged since Diaz. this infuriated Zapata.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. Leon de la Barra. however. but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876.such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. It is not without significance. Madero allowed freedom of the press. Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . some of them conservative.Madero appointed family members. became the interim president . but the government had no money with with to pay them. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. to important posts. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast.

Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions .and on March 3 went into open revolt.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . Huerta in charge of the army . Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion. Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts .On August 8 Madero orders Gen. supported by Villa.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1.The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . Prisoners were commonly executed by all side.000 army.S. Jose Salas. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets. Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U. who had reached an agreement with Madero. convinced the Gomez forces to give up their angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Gen. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. Reportedly. In his Plan Orozquista. who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size .. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. from which Villa later escaped.Orozco. By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside. Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces . Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. committed suicide .000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. but this showed how weak the new government was . http://mexicanhistory.

an action which would cost him his life . on Oct 12. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. led mostly by supporters of Diaz . Reyes. and together they plotted a coup . feeling compassion for Diaz. the nephew of Porfirio.Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. 1912 led by Felix Diaz. yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. Modero.Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender .org/revolution. did not order his execution.

Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua.It is still not known if Diaz. Mustering some five thousand men. many of them women and children. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops. near Mexico City. Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . Huerta is supported by conservatives.On Feb 21. 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. powerfully fortified. which had no social reform goals. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison . not all did . Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ). is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. the Plan de Guadalupe. At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal.And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .However. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops .org/revolution. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . 1913. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar.Reyes .000 none too loyal army Soldaderas . Huerta or someone else ordered the murders .Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. but over six thousand helpless non-combatants.bull fights and walking on the streets.The press. just the ouster of Huerta. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day .In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free.which had been free under Madero.For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .They of course declared a plan. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed. On Feb 17. were slaughtered in the streets. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. The American ambassador. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels . Using these tactics he created a 200. The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community.

org/revolution. Political assassination was also used . much of which was done under forced conscription. Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico. American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. often fought with their husbands as well . Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed. then only numbering about 50.The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz.The convention exposed the differences between the fighters. By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent . despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. such as La Adelita .By March and April.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . http://mexicanhistory.The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them . 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. against the wishes of Carranza. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president . but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . 1914 . Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez .They were celebrated in folk songs. the major ports and most large cities . the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot. The Americans. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention .Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states . The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . In 1914. Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south .The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began . Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . The convention chose.000. The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army . which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . Initially. huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico.Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250. in order to pacify the country.The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas.This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US . It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction. while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados. This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred . The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21.As his military position began to crumble.000.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta . decided Huerta would have to go .In early 1914.

who had never been defeated in a major battle . Carranza. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . who had fled to Nuevo Leon. Villa lost an estimated 4. None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . In early April.this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa. Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry. seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . the battle of Celaya . http://mexicanhistory.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair. by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges . roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Villa attacked with an estimated By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon.000 killed. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 .000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire.

On Jan 9.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . New Mexico. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property .President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. 1917 . This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw. 1916.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico. who held a majority and voted in major reform articles .The power of the church was limited. 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory. After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election. killing 18 Americans .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857. no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed .The clamor for intervention was immediate . who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians . which he won in March. Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes.On March 16.The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. 1916. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . who were pro-Villa.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista was to be secular. The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms . with stronger executive control.

The Mexican Revolution


When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. but Rubio won under allegations of fraud .34 (PRI). Stop lockstep liberalism! www. The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts.The government withdrew its support for unions. in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government . Callas became more conservative as time wore on. a fascist group attacked Jews .com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory. In the election of 1928. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings . There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] .Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR.supported by Callas. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner. Communists and Chinese. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio.

which endeared him to the people .He did not use bodyguards.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns . Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli. www. Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed .000 Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .000.The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule . Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army. By his first term he had redistributed 49. and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History.Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution.PlayMusic123.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. the CTM. the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .adultjewishlearning. Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union . Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . a Governor of Michoacan.By The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas . 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home .Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos . As before. Some cooperative projects were started. Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad). Paracho & SofiaMari. Lowest Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas. think he would be able to control him as a puppet . Habla Español www.40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education .As he had in Michoacan. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. With Callas' support.RoyaltyClearinghouse. such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton .

htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .As the depression went on. Home Obergon.Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. it hurt the economy. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936.000. However.The US.The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. he threw his support behind Avila Comacho. In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution .Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco . the Peso weakened and the economy worsened . also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts . Oil income was a major source of income for the government. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million .While this move was popular. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. who won the 1940 election . Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. the new American president. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived. but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left .000 in 1930 . Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America. and as production declined the national debt rose . Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico .org/cardenas. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain.The matter was sent to an arbitration board. Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 .40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15. In the election of 1939. 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico.

' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith. on a variety of fronts. Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www. threw his support behind secretary of war.Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered .org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians. Cardenas. Avila Comacho.000 Mexican workers in America .46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica. afraid of more socialization. However. The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming .org/camacho. and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .com/LA http://mexicanhistory. every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] . however. Less land was redistributed.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership. More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly . Under the slogan' Each one teach one'. a well known revolutionary .Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions . Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war .That day after Pearl Harbor. on May 14 and May 24.000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war.15. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . The conservatives.There was not much support for joining the War. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier. By the time the war ended there were over 300. promoted Juan Andreu .Groupon.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course .

org/camacho.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.

irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 . this is the story of Pablo Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .Women were allowed to vote in 1952 .com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs. Great price. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .nmhu.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico . 1947 . Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway.S.2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .com Miguel Aleman 1947 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . 1940s.Mexican History 1947 . the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory.Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .ObesityControlCenter.Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.

Money for books had been 'diverted. but being a Catholic some of the largest housing 100.000 a people poured into the cities .Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J. The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment .and fewer than half of school age children went to school .Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City . nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock. There was large scale corruption.Strong economic growth continued. there were no books on the bookshelves.In 1960. Adolfo Mateos 1958.While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952. he did not undertake and new large projects .58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration . The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area .000 people . Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground .F.In response. the urban population surpassed the rural population . implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects.000.Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over. Ruiz Cortines 1952 . much to the chagrin of the US .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory.Mexican History 1947 .Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated. one of the most modern in the world atthe time .K. cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents . all was not well . Communists were not tolerated and arrested . Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities .However.2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Because of corroption. the issue of birth control was skirted around . He continued land redistribution. strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools .

After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband.70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 . which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot .Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI. http://mexicanhistory. Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli . the army used tear gas and clubs .The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns.On October 2. However it started. there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings . Huge demonstrations were held on many universities .2008 until his death in 1970 . several hundred people were killed . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics . sometimes with federal troops being called in .For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets. On August 27.But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s .Mexican History 1947 .and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail . barricading streets and burning buses . the following clash led to some deaths. and the tourist trade greatly increased . Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 .In July 26.In the following days there were more riots.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution.

he tried to order price controls on basic items . Wages were low and workers conditions were bad .2008 Despite this. The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 . By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged . The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl . former secretary of the interior.He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control .¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him.Many started to go to America illegally.76 Echeverría. became president in 1970 . By 1974. Luis Echeverría 1970 . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. at least in terms of its economic policies. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down . maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly.Mexican History 1947 . 1976." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor).org/aleman. One of the largest.. and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. During his period.Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years.The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. Robberies and kidnappings . to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . http://mexicanhistory. to make exports more competitive.Since 1973." "excessive overseas borrowing. the bane of other Latin American countries.In September. This caused the ruling party.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption. 1976.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Caught in the inflation of the early 70s. In September. about 70. the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976. underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings .Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico.000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras. the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods . On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession .

htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Over 100.Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up. huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco.Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out . Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s.Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF .The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated .Public spending was cut by one third .86 During his tenure. the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982. 1985 . foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions . a 8. fraud and strong arm election tactics . Miguel de la Madrid 1982 . the economy only made weak progress.000 were left homeless . for example.000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10.Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . On Sept a process that continued under his successors. by the end of the Lopez administration. http://mexicanhistory. During de la Madrid's presidency. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment.Despite the oil boom.Mexico could not meet its debt repayments. Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development .In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports . with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo.Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread. The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars . and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs. suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation .1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7. increased 100% in price . crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years . He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 .Mexican History 1947 .The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar .2008 In 1974. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars .

and established a new relationship between State and Church. but reports of the national and international media . Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections .2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake. Also in http://mexicanhistory. was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Mexican History 1947 .He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting. Indian abuse and its own government . Carlos Salinas .1994 In the election of 1988. EZLN. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes . The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.Some progress was made with political corruption as well. and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs.Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . Salinas' chosen sucessor.The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos .It was led by The president responded with military repression. the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement . masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising .But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. started in Chiapas against corruption.

Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. however economy grew at a slow pace . Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. and led to an economic recesssion . Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . and countries in Central America. In spite of opposition within his party.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . Ernesto Zedillo 1994 . the Peso suddenly collapsed . China. http://mexicanhistory.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul.Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country.In 2000.GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2.Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.Mexican History 1947 . Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico . putting the country in an economic tailspin . In 1997 he moved to Ireland.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia .Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 . Vicente Fox . which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . behind Cortes and Diaz . approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8.He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor. a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico.He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses. known as the December Mistake.2 percent in 2002. Vicente Fox 2000 .2% during Fox's administration.2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president . the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú. The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico. Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change.Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved . Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico.2000 Within days of taking office. Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords .

present On July 6. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization. and authoritarianism. but a choice between "the past and the future.58% for Calderón over his closest contender.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. 2006. 2006. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. resulting in a narrow margin of 0.On September 5." In his interpretation. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . However. state control of the economy. liberalization. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election.Mexican History 1947 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. market control of the economy.

2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Mexican History 1947 .org/aleman.

000 5. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out Mexico! AmoLatina.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.500 Indus civilization 2.500 BC 5. Find Your Sweetheart in www.500 Knossos founded 2. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .000 - 2.ancestry.000 BC 11.500 BC Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.000 Archaic era 1.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.000 BC 7. profiles.S.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs. Baja 7. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco Large animals vanish.

com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco. El Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico Sanborns Mexico Insurance sanbornsinsurance.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf.ObesityControlCenter.S. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory. AmoLatina. purchase and print your auto policy salsa. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.elwired.

Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay.

Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory. 1846.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. president can only serve one term. Nuevo León. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. 1846.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. 1821 . Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . modeled after the one of 1824. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to September 27. reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila.

and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz.Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. England and France agreed to the Convention of London first to allow two terms in office. angry at not getting US recognition . church power limited. New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory.Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon. has the constitution amended. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. England and France land troops. Maximilian executed. hundreds killed by naval fire. French troops stay. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . who had Madero jailed . Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City .1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . Diaz revolts again. England and Spain depart. blockade demanding repayments of debt.

org/timeline. major dams built. which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed .BookIt.Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. known as the December Mistake. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president. later known as PRI. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated.

The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican www. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico. Discover Family Heroes.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence . By 1835 there were 30.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. trained specialist treats you in Collection.000 Americans and only around 8. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. Many states. Mexico http://mexicanhistory. The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty.S. including Texas revolt. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Mexicans .com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship.ancestry.Mexico orders halt to American immigration. replaces it with a new centralist constitution. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle.

1841 from a American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found.S. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. President John Tyler.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico. Polk http://mexicanhistory.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it.such as former President Martin Van Buren. who is overthrown. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. 1845 U. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate. The mutineers select Gen.

Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations.S. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule.S.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen. Nov 29 Former U.500 regulars have gathered.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U. but regains power. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico . Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'. gives interim President Herrera. Coahuila. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico. Dec2 . March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. and Mexico . authority to raise troops and prepare for war. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces By late Oct 3.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Mexico. however. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations.500 troops. on the transport Alabama. but had been parts of Tamaulipas. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas.S.. Louisiana into Texas with 1. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. had never ratified these treaties. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup.

soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. killing 16 U. April 25 a 1.000 men. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory.S. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen.Jose Maria Castro. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans.Col. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. April 2 Gen. but is not authorized to attack. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake.000 men under his American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera. assembles a force of 6. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team. Taylor refuses. March 8 Gen. Arista reaches Matamoros. Francisco Mejia. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. Mejia has 3. declared President of Mexico. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen.200 men.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U.

Arista resigns command to Gen.S. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. border set at the 49th parallel.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army.S. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities.300 confronts Taylor's 2. Arista retreats toward Linares. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House. 6.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line. Taylor attacks his center. Aug 5 Gen. Maj.Jose Maria Ortega.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U.losing many men in the desert.Arista with 3.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. May 13 U. incident.300.Mexican American War Timeline command. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his Gen. overrunning the Mexican artillery. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. Nuevo Leon. http://mexicanhistory. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire. Americans have 9 killed. 39 Americans killed. Mexican losses 200 killed. which later becomes Brownsville.

who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen. no Americans killed.500 man army in four months.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight.200 regulars and 3. Ampudia asks for terms.000 Mexican regulars and 23. to be led by Gen. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U. Aug18 Gen.called the Black Fort by the Americans. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6.which is defended by a formidable citadel. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship.000 militia. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. the last Mexican stronghold in California.Richey.S. Americans suffer 120 killed. Mexicans 700 casualties. forcing them to surrender. leaving 4.700 for garrison duty. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge. Winfield Scott.000 volunteers. gathering a Jan 13 Lt. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles.645 troops.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace.

000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion. Taylor retires toward Monterrey.Special Cavalry Division. Robert E. Santa Anna's 18. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg. Mexicans lose 1.8. an easier to defend narrow pass. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa. California is renamed San Francisco.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !').Americans lose 63 killed.General Santa Anna. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. most in a 800 man cavalry charge.500 desertions. Siege of Veracruz begins. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4. Mexicans lose 300 killed.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks.. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic. Only 14. March 9 American landing at Veracruz.800. Army Corps of Engineers Capt.000 man Mexican army.600 soldiers land by nightfall.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City. March 21 10. 3. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena.000 Mexican prisoners taken.

the last major defense before Mexico City. Scott now has 14. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo.000 dead and 3.Bravo. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.820 . 30 out of 69 are executed. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec.000 troops. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today.hoping he will ask for terms. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle. Six cadets fight to the death. Scott sends 3. a surprise attack kills 700 defended by 260 defenders under Gen. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. http://mexicanhistory.500 under Worth to take it.000 of his defeated troops.000 captured. which falls after a fierce battle. Santa Ana flees Mexico City. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.. Americans have lost 139 killed. 50 of which are cadets. Mexican loses are 4. Joseph E. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19.500 of which are sick.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .(Boy Heros).and is left with 5.000 troops and 30 cannons. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired.500 troops. Americans lose 116 killed.

Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war. Book now! www.S. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3. Free Investor Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.5 million in claims by U.Arizona and New Mexico. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War. 1876 July 31 last of 18.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon. America takes Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport. citizens against Mexico.000) were to be treated as U. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory.HolidayInn. Anaya become interim president. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80. citizens. in Coloma.sailor Owen Edgar. Since 1960.Nevada.CaliBaja.Utah. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door. Goldline.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe.Colorado. A couple of days of severe rioting follows.

Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term. www.pestilence and death. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www. Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.Info." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 . To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). this huge class of people was not educated.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory. http://mexicanhistory. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or April 20 Hailey's Comet appears.Metin2. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war. He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876.

Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. He didn't drink or smoke. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango.often led by Villa himself. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Francisco Madero. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Madero joined by other local leaders. Oct 11 Madero. better known as Pancho Villa. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of Madero was unusual for his period. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular.

May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty. Diaz offers to resign. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero. Madero enters city. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata. Madero refuses.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. April 3. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez.. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president. let’s see if he can ride it.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons.500 under Madero. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas.

Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands. He plans to march on Mexico City. raises a well equipped army of 6.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army.000 in the north. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Slow to take action on land reform .Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata. Madero turns to Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. Nov 9 In Texas. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero.once an ally of Villa. Pascual Orozoco. supported by powerful hacienda landowners.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support.

Gen Felix 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens. Revolt fails and Leon is executed. Brig. Diaz freed.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. Huerta defeats Orozoco. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad.400 men.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . April 26 Col.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2. 300 killed around presidential palace.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City.Mexican Revolution Timeline order.5. forcing him to flee to the US.

the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Feb 24 The Huerta seizes Madero. In reality Huerta ordered the murders. of Coahuila. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta.bull fights and walking on the streets. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement . 500 civilians killed. Jose Suarez and cabinet. Using these tactics he created a 200. 100 Madero supporters are executed. Huerta is supported by conservatives. In the next election. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857.who murder him.New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected. Gen..Huerta sees this as a chance to become president.The press. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez.000 none to loyal army. limiting church power. Vice Pres. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. Lane recalled. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Huerta would become temporary president.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar.which had been free under Madero. Soon others launch rebellion. http://mexicanhistory.

Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. federals round up civilians.. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. Several hundred executed. all federal officers executed. 1913.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. Federal train blown up. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . The northern armies of Villa. calling his forces the Constitutionalists.000 men. 12. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua.killing 100 federal troops.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe. City taken. with the secret support of the United States. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. a politician and rancher from Coahuila. all federal officers executed. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. On March 26.

Sniper fire continues.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine.Snipers open fire on Americans.Eventually 3. 400 more Americans are sent ashore. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila . June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz. Villa became a folk hero in the U. through such writers as John Reed. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico.000 marines Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico. The Mexican commander refuses. There was a considerable concentration of U. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . leading to his resignation on July 15.S.300 sailors and 2.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. American Rear Adm. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute. Huerta goes into exile in Europe. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property.S.. 4 Americans killed.

Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president. Their combined armies of 50. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. abandoned by Villa and Zapata. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. who departs for Veracruz. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim and many supplies. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. who lose 2.000 march through city. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces.

500 infantry.000 causalities and retreats north.5.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.000 cavalry. US cuts off arms supplies to Villa.barbed wire and machine guns. known as the general who never won a battle .500 horsemen and 6.Hill succeeds him.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .his days as a leader of a large northern army are over.000 taken prisoner. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico.000 man army. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues. angering him. http://mexicanhistory. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.Villa has cavalry against Obregon's 9. Despite using terror tactics.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches . 6.400 cavalry and 14. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in unable to defeat Zapata .Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire.Villa loses 4. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez.

gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos.south or east will be contested.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6. Villa losses many of his remaining 5. Retreats with only 1. has 9. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3. workers allowed to form labor unions. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines. New Mexico with 500[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 followers.000 man army occupies every major town in the state.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.000 men to pursue Villa. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen.child labor prohibited. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory. Takes much booty and gives speech.equal pay for men and women.400.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM. with air support. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off. Approved on Feb 17.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. 400 desert Villa.30. 1917 It allows freedom of religion.000 in late April.

Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza. by which time the U. March many Obregon supporters arrested. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon. Obregon harassed. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca.believing he would become his puppet.S.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving.. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10. http://mexicanhistory. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. Supporters.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . but murders him while he is 200. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. including Villa rally to his side. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide.Following Zapata's death. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta.000 followers. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty.. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. Gov. the ambassador to Mexico. Huerta gives a 25. flees Mexico City. had declared war on Germany. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta.

but large scale fighting is over. Minor revolts and mutinies in following Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated. Huerta flees http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution. Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price.

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