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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

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http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
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org/colonial. Utah and Colorado . eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office . A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north .1821 MexicanHistory.Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . almost all of the Aztec empire. sometimes there would be advanced warning . wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly. In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . all were to have a main plaza.In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas. In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. along with such regions as Colina.org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Provincial towns were organized by royal decree. Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . The Indians.A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs .Eventually. church . The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies .Large cities such as Oaxaca. There were 62 viceroys in New Spain. always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on . California. The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. The presidios (military towns). royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . New Mexico. pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. Arizona.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed . Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces .

The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. leaving the area undermanned . The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war .org/colonial.Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ . They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing . Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. the most serious revolt of the times . led by Tenamaxtli . Augustin's City of God . Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41).They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . http://mexicanhistory. monastic life and humble character .the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy.Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. it's continuation.Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making .His successor. King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians . A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. The Indians.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century. Dominicans and the Augustinians . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. Charles V took this charge seriously. a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems. Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . who were still viewed as a menace. The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico.org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes .

She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . By 1540. They built fortess missions across New Spain .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . The Catholic reverence for saints. The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts .Colonial Mexico 1519 . The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe.1821 MexicanHistory. 50 such churches had been built .000 Indians a day . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan.org/colonial.Nine million were baptized by 1537.org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country. For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. often being the first Europeans to explore an area . Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . http://mexicanhistory. Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . This was the open chapel or capilla abierta.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .

The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles .Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy .Colonial Mexico 1519 . In the process.The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . Mexico. Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned .1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century .org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages.Indians http://mexicanhistory. who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life. which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain . Phillip II ( r 1556 . Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain . Charles V was dead. Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. such as. Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . the Florentine Codex. and the new Spanish king.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds . the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language . Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers . These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization .In the mid 16 century.1821 MexicanHistory. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun. 1601. The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws.

In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters . Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes .There were also quarrels with civil authorities .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla. criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster . who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting . however .Crimes like adultery. Auto de fes drew large crowds . The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico.Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . especially those of the Enlightenment writers. Juan de Palafox.org/colonial. which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike. wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 . These works did find there way into the private libraries.In New Spain. with the prisoners often strangled first . Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory.The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories .Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . principally in San Luis Potos . The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment. this decree led to riots and other disturbances. Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n. The Bourbon kings.1821 MexicanHistory. the first in the colony was in 1574 .Colonial Mexico 1519 .The crime of heresy.

. be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ).htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . some of it in the Nahuatl language. Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans. Castizo. Creoles could not hold royal office . At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period .1700 ) .1695 ). Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law .Colonial Mexico 1519 .org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. Indians and African slaves .1821 MexicanHistory. most of these returned to Spain . http://mexicanhistory. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 . The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent.1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo.One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. She wrote poetry. who taught many local artist . Mestizo.Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 . persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. The Social Classes a Mestizo baby. Cholos. persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent. There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 .org/colonial.Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 .

The China trade was established in 1564 silks. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory. which fixed the price of goods and their quality . The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus . In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . Over the years. The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . persons who were mixed indio and negro. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. Euromestizos. Money makers such as tobacco.There were royal taxes of all kinds on land. They were sometimes made into slaves. The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . which was due on almost everything sold.Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . tailors.. etc .1821 MexicanHistory. which were the wards of the church and the Crown .With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. which went from 2 % to as high as 14%.Colonial Mexico 1519 . tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . industry could not grow and advance. gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem . The most hated was the alcabala. After about 1560. etc.org/colonial. Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . ceramics. The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties .000 in the 16th century to 6. Zambos. licenses.org Mulatos. from piracy .To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . Commerce was controlled by royal decree.000 by 1800.

bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. Such http://mexicanhistory. Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. diversified economy from growing .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. By the 18th century. was of prime importance to Spain . The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. The restrictions.1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high .org colonies and Spain itself . Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined .In the early colonial period. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas. Some of the haciendas were vast.org/colonial. These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . silver bar from shipwreck. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. combined with bad roads.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . usually a week at a time . 1549.Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage.The debts were passed down from father to son . Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. http://mexicanhistory. thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . but few wished to. repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians . plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico.1821 MexicanHistory.There were many abuses to this system. Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks. Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay.Colonial Mexico 1519 . except for mine labor .org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer .org/colonial. a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . However. So. which was abolished in the early 17th century. but was modified by the new land. rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . The building material in New Spain was more colorful.

In the mid 16th century. The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575).Colonial Mexico 1519 .org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines .1821 MexicanHistory. the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style . http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial. built in the late 18th century. The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu .

especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades. alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org/colonial.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged. a spanish architect ).1821 MexicanHistory. the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times.

built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction .There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock.org/colonial. plazasa. http://mexicanhistory. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years . Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals. Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress.Colonial Mexico 1519 . An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . a more severe. neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830. the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana.org As a reaction to the excess. Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. hospitals and universities . built in 1585 . University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.1821 MexicanHistory.

http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org Castillo de Chapultepec.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons . Spain in the 16th century . Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 .1821 MexicanHistory. Chinese ceramic was soon imitated. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera. Basilica Guadalupe. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina. built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war . particularly their designs.Colonial Mexico 1519 .Many people consider Puebla.

The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. feeble in mind and body. which they called octli (later.Colonial Mexico 1519 . The crown had a monopoly on pulque. When Charles II died in 1700.1700 ). He had named a greatnephew. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him.org/colonial. which was a major source of revenue . Duke of Anjou.org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . Wine was introduced early to New Spain . but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries . Tequila . Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . and more popularly called pulque. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon.The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . Philippe de Bourbon.1821 MexicanHistory. Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory.

Colonial Mexico 1519 .The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown . improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . In 1740.2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining .1821 MexicanHistory. was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco . Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general .88 ). as Philip V.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. the Duc d'Anjou.The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration.The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually .org/colonial. replacing 200 low paid.The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas .Silver production rose from 2. global warfare. Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 . Under his rule Spain once again became a world power .. http://mexicanhistory. Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies . fought on four continents and three oceans. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. becoming the second biggest export . After eleven years of bloody.Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining . unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents . the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 .org Louis XIV ) as his successor. Cochineal production also increased.Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain . He had two main concerns.

The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population . it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. another able ruler( 1789 . such as the Canadian dollar. The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight. a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . http://mexicanhistory. Through widespread use in Europe. or the eight real coin) is a silver coin.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines .The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules. meaning double). the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal . the national motto for Spain . or Nueva Granada.Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. meaning a double-sided token coin.By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. often refers to a seven-gram (0. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. For example. By 1810. Many existing currencies. The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n.org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins. worth eight reales.1821 MexicanHistory. Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . the real de a ocho. Revillagigedo . New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . Peru. The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy .Another viceroy.79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity .org/colonial.It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 . many creoles prospered during this period in business . the Americas and the Far East. but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. The creole Count Regla.94 ) created the first public transportation system . The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom .Colonial Mexico 1519 .Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . Mexico. United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown .The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana .

org/colonial.org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .

1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates. Dominican Rep.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.org/colonial. Fairfax County has great attractions. shopping & more! www.mortgageallianceprogram.net Things to do near DC Close to DC. Heroes.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Costa Rica. Scoundrels. Celts www.org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821.lindenhill.fxva. www.

lib.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.utexas.http://www.

Norwich. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain . The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand.org The war for Independence 1810. http://mexicanhistory.Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. The lower classes.1821 MexicanHistory. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. their lot was so hard . the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose.org/Independence.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation.The war for Independence 1810.MilitaryHistory. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far . They did rebel.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . but not equality for all.

events in Europe caused it to be a necessity ..org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America.99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory. his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies.The war for Independence 1810. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars .Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814. Latin America was.Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 . in these years. Art Print Buy for $19. The church had to call in their mortgages.. ruled by independent juntas. Without a true Spanish monarchy. Unlike the wise Charles III. destroying many Creoles financially . Bullfighting from. These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles.By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence .The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform .org/Independence. with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout". many creoles thought they should rule themselves. The peninsulares thought otherwise .

Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . none of these charges could be proved and he was released .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant .1821 MexicanHistory.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16.org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende. In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe.He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). gathering more recruits along the way. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia .The war for Independence 1810.However. who became an independence symbol.org/Independence.Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8.However. a captain of the cavalry . They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic . the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once . reading proscribed books. With Hidalgo at their head. 1810. they marched for San Miguel.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them. Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . http://mexicanhistory. Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato. 1810. However. There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City .

1811. The army retreated into Mexico City .000 rebels were killed . He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2. Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon. However.By late October the army had about 80.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup . http://mexicanhistory.The rebels took Guadalajara .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .org/Independence. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas. Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces . Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces . Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition .000 marching on Mexico City .Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward. Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning . turning into a rout . In the middle of the battle.An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then .The war for Independence 1810. They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31. a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran. San Luis Potosi and Valladolid .

1821 MexicanHistory. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement.Gradually.000 around Oaxaca .By 1819.In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms. viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile. Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out .Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare .org/Independence. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control . The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon. one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2.They issued a Declaration of Independence.The war for Independence 1810.Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state .For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination .By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital .000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1. those opposed to it were guilty of treason . the Spanish viceroy.org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this . retaking many towns .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point . the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed . Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax . who had been recruited by Hildago . http://mexicanhistory.After awhile only two major bands remained.

1821 MexicanHistory.The war for Independence 1810. The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2. He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption.org/Independence. Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights. Spain. in January 1820.The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan . A new army would be created. bad food. led by King Ferdinand or another European prince . Ironically.500 men to fight Guerrero .org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile. Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala. and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . If this was not done there would be a military coup . yielded to their demands . the Creoles found this change too liberal. The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . . and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . At C diz. free speech and curbed the power of the church . troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay.The king. the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. a virtual prioner of the army at this point. King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America .

One more proviso was added by Iturbide . Mexico was independent at last . a Mexican congress would chose an emperor. After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. the last viceroy of New Spain . this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees.The war for Independence 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . Juan de O'Donoju. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy.1821 MexicanHistory.org/Independence. viceroy Apodaca resigned . Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit . unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares . Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army.org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. this was to become an important point .O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. 1821 . On September 27.After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees.

The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch . it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain. However. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide . a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.ancestry. would also be Emperor of Mexico. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power. 1821. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.ObesityControlCenter.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.BookIt. 1821 . which in turned named him as its presiding officer .org/firstempire. www. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico. General Agustín de Iturbide.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21.March 19.S.com www.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online. it did not accept the offer .com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala.com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U. After the declaration of independence on September 27. Ferdinand VII.

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . the regiment of Celaya. Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . then accepted .org/firstempire.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. When Iturbide was declared emperor. 1822 . http://mexicanhistory. which included Costa Rica. Nicaragua. from California in the north to Panama . Iturbide feigned reluctance. Court etiquette was issued. Guatemala. Honduras. stage a demonstration on his behalf . as Agustin I . hoping to promote free republican governments . Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22. Iturbide had his own troops. President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico. El Salvador. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico .The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. 1821 . There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once . The heir apparent was Senor Don August. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . On July 21. Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee . The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary .

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

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Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

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The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

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the caudillo . gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . but no an inspiring or talented administrator .org/earlyrepublic.29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name.After some fighting . Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president . another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza . Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US . http://mexicanhistory. The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero. These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited .Groupon.Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 .Over 50.Mexican border . he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain . The government sought to support itself through import duties.1843 ) was a former rebel leader.The Early Republic MexicanHistory.com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators . who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support .000 men were kept under arms. taxes and monopolies .The York Rite masons . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public.org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war . A local military strongman emerges during these times. These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army . led by vice president Bravo .As Iturbide did.The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner. brave in battle. In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. who controlled the army. President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador .

Santa Anna settled in for a siege . which had never recognized Mexico's independence. Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . Reserves in Jalapa. With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy . and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico .From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . Slaves were few in number by this time. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero. Bustamante. Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. After an initial attack which failed. abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . President Bustamante 1830 . The treasury by this time was also bankrupt. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . However.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. mainly middle class merchants.org/earlyrepublic. Bustamante agreed. Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level. who fled the country . choose this time to invade its most important former colony . This plan backfired .Guerrero set off with a force to attack them.This marked a return to power of the conservatives. which had been abandoned . Santa Anna became extremely popular . such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight . but his act increased his support among mulattos.org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria . Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. the Spanish general surrendered .32 - http://mexicanhistory.Some of the states. He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . even after the repulse of the Spanish. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them. The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. the most important of which was calling up of the reserves.They landed near Tampico.

by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections.Bustamante. but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. which he did in 1833. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero . Corruption was rampant .The Early Republic MexicanHistory.Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election . Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 . using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance .The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again .47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23).org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. Bustamante was to go into exile. Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza.org/earlyrepublic.

Mexico for fractions of the cost www.org/santaanna. Spain.1842 . but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz . trained specialist treats you in Collection.1834.1841 .S. 1835 .com www. Discover Family Heroes. Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history . and Texas as well as published sources.1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.ancestry. http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .1839 . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times . Britain. a liberal politician of intellectual distinction .1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years.1843 .com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.org Santa Anna 1794 . Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.ObesityControlCenter.

State militias were disbanded . Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist . Durango.In order to secure power.The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . Several of these states formed their own governments. Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . Yucatán. the Republic of the Rio Grande. Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.The presidential term was extended from four years to eight .' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . began with two major reforms .The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal . His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna . "dictator" or "strongman". Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms .Corruption was widespread.org/santaanna. Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . the treasury was still bankrupt .000 acres . To curb the undue influence of the army. led http://mexicanhistory." or.Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. the constitution of 1836 was enacted . Querétaro.000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation. The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 .The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. he reduced its size and abolished military fueros . The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90.org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. and the Republic of Texas. the Republic of Yucatan.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Nuevo León. Guanajuato. the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states.The congress was disbanded . "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) . that of the church and that of the army . Tamaulipas and Zacatecas.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . warlord.They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office .The Zacatecan militia. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. Jalisco. San Luis Potosí. His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. more pejoratively.He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. Santa Anna became a millionaire . Michoacán.

and others. San Antonio.61 rifles. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3. After two hours of combat. which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. on 12 May 1835. Nacogdoches.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain .org by Francisco Garcia. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived . 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268.There were small towns in the interior. was well armed with . Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker . After defeating Zacatecas.org/santaanna.000 prisoners. or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . Comanches and other Indian tribes .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Goliad. 1835 to April 21. The first Europeans in the area.

In 1820 he set out for Texas. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. to carry out his project. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . T. the judge and commandant . Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river . or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler.25 an acre in the US . and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The land titles were duly recorded. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. and a local militia was organized. at times making a night attack upon a cabin.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. While at work they kept guard against the Indians. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas. Austin was the supreme authority." Gone to Texas . there were only 7. Life in the new land was rough.Spain wished to colonize the territory.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory.000 settlers .000 Mexicans . he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River. By 1827 there were 12. and was then in the service of Mexico. after great exposure and privation.000 Americans and only around 8. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. He reached home in safety. Stephen. and. T.org/santaanna. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands. Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. a Prussian officer. leaving his dying injunction to his son.In 1827. and he returned home. who roved about stealing the stock. and fought over land titles and for political domination.000 Americans living in Texas. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. Mexico became independent and Moses' son. but his exposure and privations had weakened him. By 1835 there were 30. who had served under Frederick the Great. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas.

which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente.Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters . increasing the cost of trade with the US . which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico.Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans." was easily suppressed. but the societies were too different and tensions increased . One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila . The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo . whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened . Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas.Most Americans remained Protestant. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders . which were to be redistributed in Mexico. they were also supported by many Mexican liberals.000 slaves in Texas. leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 .President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. This emeute. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion.S. Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . an empresario. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . to stations in the country. Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all .org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. called " The Fredonian War.Mexico increased custom duties on exports. there were approximately 5.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila .org/santaanna. mostly criminals and convicts. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. by sending a thousand soldiers. but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities. By 1836. to take over the region. The check immigration into Texas from America. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this . In 1830. Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory.

imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. and Coahuila. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. they reached the camp. Since they had no cannon balls. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. and gunfire was exchanged. 1835. The next morning. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. Austin saw little choice but revolution. at 7 p. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.m. Austin was released in July. Zacatecas. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. including Jim Bowie. On October 1. As a reward. He then ordered his brother-in law. the Texans captured Bexar. The siege of Bexar. Throughout November 1835. and Austin sanctioned it. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . many of the volunteers simply left.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas. under the defence of General Cos. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. civilians were massacred by the thousands. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. On September 20. The Texians refused. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. and was in Texas by August. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. having never been formally charged with sedition. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. Unable to cross. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. Under the Liberal banner. who was stationed in San Antonio. and negotiations fell through.. which began on October 12. Castañeda established a camp. negotiations were held. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. At 3 a. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt.m. Two Texian militias answered the call. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. Several officers resigned.org/santaanna. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. who went to Gonzales.

The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause.org 1835. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. 1835. the political and military center of Texas. in a fortress doomed to destruction. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. and with no collective motivation. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. Capt. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. Although the Matamoros Expedition.000. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. despite Austin's leadership. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. "At dawn on the first of March. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. now led by General Sam Houston. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. but it marched forward. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. never more to leave them. Soon. These men.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. arriving in Texas months before it was expected.org/santaanna. nothing came of it." No further reinforcement arrived. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. chiefly husbands and fathers. hoping to sack the town. Albert Martin. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. as it came to be known. bringing only disaster for months to come. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. The expedition failed. a force of about 6. owning their own homes. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. On November 6. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. poorly led. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. on March 2. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. but his talents were not well suited for military life. The remaining Texan army. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ).

thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. March 27. Overnight. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. always on the heels of Houston.. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. experienced and feared. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. rather than a cruel one. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. 1836. March 20. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. José Urrea At Goliad. and much animosity was aimed towards him.together with the fall of the Alamo. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. A scorched earth policy was implemented.S. the United States. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. so it was put to the torch.. Soon.org/santaanna. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. under Santa Anna's direct orders. border. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. The Mexican cavalry. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. and even Great Britain and France. 1836. brought up cannon and reinforcements.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. Santa Anna's army. gave unrelenting chase.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the rains made the roads impassable. making his way north following the coast of Texas. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U.

and tired of running away. waited for reinforcements. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. and put an end to the war. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. General Vicente Filisola. Without Houston's consent. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. Hours before the attack. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. and he was brought before Houston.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . only nine Texans died. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. after burning Vince's Bridge. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. but Filisola disagreed. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war.org and race quickly towards Galveston. which the Texans used as cover. as dictator of Mexico. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. but nothing came of it. Santa Anna. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1. both armies met at the San Jacinto River. On that same day. which were led by General Cos. mostly cavalry. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. Houston could do nothing but follow. catching the Mexican army by surprise. who had been wounded in the ankle. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. To the dismay of the Texans. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. An 18minute-long battle ensued. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. not the Army of Operations. which had proven costly and prolonged. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. Santa Anna. the Texans surged forward. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move.200 men.org/santaanna. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. marched back to Mexico. Also. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. Numbering about 700. but not without protests from Urrea. Texas.

Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. He was re-elected President. Nuevo León.S. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . but briefly. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. and after meeting with U. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. into Texas. one private ) on May 14.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . In 1838. But unknown to Santa Anna. called Manga de Clavo. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. D. occupying San Antonio.org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. and soon after. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. two actually formed republic besides Texas. when French forces landed in Veracruz. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. a French soldier of fortune. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss.. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico.org/santaanna. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . The war continued as a standoff.C. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . After some time in exile in the United States. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . thus. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward.

Nuevo León.org In 1840. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. http://mexicanhistory. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out.By 1855. After the end of the Mexican-American War. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant .: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. however. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. Upon this event. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) . Spain. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority. La Ceiba .The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America.C. During this meeting. ultimately. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. the Republic of the Rio Grande failed. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. Texas . Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo.In November. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out. D. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6.org/santaanna. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. Yucatán declared its neutrality. and the United States. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .

Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. Thus began the Pastry War . or the French would demand satisfaction. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. Meanwhile.org/santaanna. His life was spared. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. by an army commanded by the president himself.org The Pastry War In 1838. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time.000 troops . Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. turned over to authorities. the United States declared war on Mexico. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. Fearing for his life. In 1846. With resentment ever growing against the president. and the people were discontented. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory. Mexico declared war on France.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. Also. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. and to seize the port of Veracruz. Veracruz.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. The war with France had weakened Mexico.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed . President Again Soon after. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. but France upped the ante to 800.was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. Mexico agreed to pay. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. Santa Anna tried to elude capture. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power.000 pesos in payment and when payment.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. In 1842. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . at war against Santa Anna. a military expedition into Texas was renewed. This was too much for the Mexicans.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero.000 pesos. The French landed 3. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. and imprisoned. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838.

Jamaica. penniless and heartbroken.ancestry. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. This reign was no better than his earlier ones. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. Thomas Adams. the base of chewing gum.org of the United States. on June 21.S. moved to Turbaco. Discover Family Heroes. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. He funneled government funds to his own pockets.S. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. trained specialist treats you in Collection. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. Thomas. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. and St. Colombia.ObesityControlCenter. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna." which helped found the chewing gum industry. which was tried without success. but he failed to profit from this. 1876. In 1851. the United States. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. naval blockades. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. and two years later. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. He then lived in exile in Cuba.org/santaanna.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. to the United States. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". In April 1853. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase).com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory. and he fled back to Cuba. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Colombia. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government.

" seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. or the course of events. 1 Form. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico .The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . www. & GE.S. " Prudence." said he. War With Mexico. shall have proved.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. The American president after Texas won its independence.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.Mexican American War 1846 . Van Buren.S.TopAlarmCompanies. Brinks. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. at least until the lapse of time.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . Compare & Save. Andrew Jackson . and to uphold the Government constituted by them. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. President Tyler The following president. if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government.org/mexicanamericanwar1.1848 MexicanHistory. beyond all dispute.org Mexican American War 1846 . 4 Quotes. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory. and maintain our present attitude.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. APX Alarm. was not for immediate annexation ." So Far from God: The U. 18461848This wellwritten.

an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California. The new president. the Mexican minister to the U. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule .org/mexicanamericanwar1. Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . There was a fear England would purchase California. lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport .On the 4th July. a few hours before his term of office expired. On the 3rd March. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . 1845 .No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions.Prior to Polk's election.1848 MexicanHistory. 1845 . it joined the Union . the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. and that. a survey of the This History Channel special. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing. President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast .who was pro-annexation. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . Texas consented to be annexed. Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle. as half of the Senators represented free States. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28. such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 .S.It was discovered by President Tyler. Texas joined the Union on December 29. could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. and the December 29. 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war .org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas. The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera .Mexican American War 1846 . hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . that what could not be effected by treaty.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .

000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25. Kansas. and Colorado. The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar .The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source. Wyoming. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. supported by populist newspapers.Mexican American War 1846 . Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil .org/mexicanamericanwar1. the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult." returned to the United States. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . as per the Treaties of Velasco . convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. $5.000. he withdrew them across the Rio Grande.000 or more for California .1848 MexicanHistory. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). which included parts of modern day New Mexico. Slidell. In 1836.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River .000. the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . Oklahoma. However.Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty . After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico .

Louisiana. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos .In case of war. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . Mississippi." http://mexicanhistory. 1846. was plotting to invade.S. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .org/mexicanamericanwar1. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. but instead of marching north against the invaders. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera.000 men.Mexican American War 1846 . in December 14. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. was able to assemble a force of 6.about 4.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. with much difficulty. Herrera. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose. Tennessee. if deemed practicable and expedient.000 in all He was told. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico . take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country. drive them from their positions on either side of the river.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2. and Kentucky. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. and. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border . will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities.1848 MexicanHistory. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas. your main object will be the protection of Texas .

" As there was no invasion to repel. particularly those of July 8th. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . he prudently waited for further orders. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. from which it appeared probable that. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. Taylor.Mexican American War 1846 .The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. envoy from Mexico.S. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. a Mexican settlement. so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. He expelled the U. or committed any overt act of hostilities." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. commenced his march into the Mexican territory. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. the extreme point of Texas proper. it would enter into no negotiation with him. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. Not an American.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . declared his willingness to fight. and for which no reason had been assigned. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him. 1846. whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. later known as Fort Brown . he found the buildings in flames. and Oct. in pursuance of orders.org/mexicanamericanwar1. the inhabitants must. 4th. wrote to the Secretary." On approaching Point Isabel. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. except in reference to Texas. without having met with the slightest opposition. and http://mexicanhistory. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that. regard you as openly committing hostilities. and the site of a Mexican Custom House. On the 12th January.1848 MexicanHistory. 1845. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department.

has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. In April 1846. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river." In this affair. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. It appears they separated. " 16 Americans. Accordingly. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. must decide the question. reports. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. War is Declared General Taylor." Upon the Strength of this despatch. acting on the advice of a local guide . the Mexicans did not attack Taylor .four hours to remove his camp.Mexican American War 1846 . ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy." Notwithstanding the blockade. The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April.S. Congress declared war on Mexico. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. whereupon he determined. it seems. and. Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained. it will clearly result that arms." and requiring him within twenty. not to remain any longer idle. despite protests by the Mexican government .org/mexicanamericanwar1." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. Another letter." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons . discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. Tamaulipas. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. he reports. "a war by the act of Mexico.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. and thus. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war . 4th Infantry. and therefore unseen. thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States." but the main body of about 2.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. one of defence. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. He immediately charged upon them . published in the Philadelphia Inquirer ." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men.1848 MexicanHistory. adding. to make the intended war. Pofter and one man was killed whether any. drove away the men. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. On May 13. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . and took possession of their horses.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. the President announced to Congress and the world. does not appear . camp . including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . and arms alone. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. and retire beyond the Nueces . and Porter. 1846. on April 24 . . and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. investigated an abandoned hacienda. says. about 25 miles from the U. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros.

com ® Anna 1833 .Mexican American War 1846 .com American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory. Terms Served.com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by Party. licensed Customs Broker will answer www.org Ancestry.1848 MexicanHistory.Bing.World's largest online family history 47 resource.ancestry.+4 Billion Records Mayan www. Try Visual Search! www.com/VisualSearch National Customs Broker Call us today and an experienced.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .org/mexicanamericanwar1. & More.apexlogistics.

Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops. Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' .com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy. Discover Family Heroes. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written. was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it .The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory. with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate . and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory.Mexico had no small arm factories of its own .The US.org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy .ancestry. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle . including So Far from God: the U.S.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources .com ObesityControlCenter. The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced .The rifle. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time. source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories .com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.S.which played a decisive role in several key The U.S. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. trained specialist treats you in Collection.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Mexico for fractions of the cost www.

Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed.The President declared that in his opinion. General Scott. seems to have been arranged jointly. and the means to execute them. Secretary at War." would be the best means of producing peace. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. and General Scott .The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. General Stephen W. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot.500 hundred men . American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. but trained in horseback riding and combat .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . like a fire breathing dragon. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. was stationed at Washington. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. a carbine or short musket called the dragon. by consultations between the President. At this time. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory. as commander of the army. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive .org/mexicanamericanwar2.

when the defenders of the fort were relieved.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. The departure of General Taylor with his army. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. The plan was judicious. under the command of Major Brown. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. In this defense. who was now in command of the Mexican army. In the mean while. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. Arista saw that Point Isabel. To take this place would. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. and arrived on the next day. both for skill and gallantry. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. under whose direction the fort was built. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. and continued at intervals till the 10th. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. by the accidental infor. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. was comparatively defenceless. . 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. Major Brown. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. capture Point Isabel.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .org/mexicanamericanwar2. and then fall on the American army. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. The army was halted. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. The former was killed by a shell. and was only prevented from being carried out. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. and several killed and wounded. Leaving an unfinished field-work. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. Captain Hawkins. therefore. with his main force. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. which had been left in care of a small detachment. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. It appears that General Arista. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. get in the rear of General Taylor's army.

and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. and by the 5th Infantry. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . This he did. and General La Vega taken prisoner. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. moved up the main road.tery and by the infantry on the wings. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. The position was well chosen .cipitately from the field. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. and by other troops of that division. and with greater energy of body. Ridgely. under Lt. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. They fled pre. might have easily been defended. and took a new position several miles off. at night" This might be true . from which he did not depart till two p. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. mostly Lancers. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. The Dragoons. had advanced beyond support. and in turn fell back on the main body. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. " in sight of the enemy.The Mexican American War at a pool. while the 3d. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service.org/mexicanamericanwar2. says. Montero. M. the army advanced by heads of columns. now broken by successive charges. In this firing. 4th. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. and the battle was soon ended. of the field. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. when they were deployed into line. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. The artillerymen were dispersed. M.. however. A battery of artillery. under Lt. To remedy this. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. general of cavalry. In two hours. Ridgely. but with as little success. dating his despatch. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. On the left wing of our army. by the Americans. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. Their columns. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. but he was in retreat.cers were again driven back. The Mexican cavalry.dered Torrejon. were on their left. The Lan. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. but was met by the Flying Artillery. The charge was gallantly made. to charge the American right. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. Arista. under the command of Col. General Arista or.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . A ravine here crossed the road. the next day. At two P. at Resaca de la Palma. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery.

and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. the capital of New Leon . which was regularly fortified. while the main body. and on the 5th of September. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . and Revilla surrendered. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. and were occupied. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. In front. in rear of the town and beyond the river.in-chief left Comargo. were destined for the march to Monterey. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. Being reinforced. all fortified. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. Comargo. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. and in the rear. both the general government at home.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. he advanced to the village of Marin. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. numbering six thousand six hundred. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. In the mean time. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The Mexicans lost many prisoners. and around it. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. to the left. behaved well. They fought gallantly.ted to them. or citadel. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. Mier. On the heights. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. The opposite side of the city. Comargo. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. as http://mexicanhistory. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. the general. and near it other heights.org/mexicanamericanwar2.

Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. Campbell. and two or three thousand irregulars. advanced against the redoubt. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. with the bayonet and the artillery. were forts also erected. supported by the Light Artillery. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. This movement was executed during the evening. General Butler. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. were detached to the right. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses. superior in numbers to the American army. who had advanced with it. Tennessee.other column. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. and Davis. and after another severe contest retired in good order. were both ordered forward . were with. with three companies of the 4th regiment. it is ob. and Wood's Texan Cavalry.vious. and fired upon the redoubt.org/mexicanamericanwar2.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . with Bragg's Artillery. and the troops remained upon their arms. The front defense here was a redoubt. however. and Mississippi. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio.nied the parly in its advance.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. Garland's force. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. The two last regiments. three miles from Monterey. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. into the rear of which. to attack the lower part of the town. if practicable. A column of six hundred and fifty men. and they were compelled to retire. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . with his division. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. pressed forward. and advanced against the second battery. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. being wounded. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. to the support of General Worth. with its cannon and ammunition. May's Dragoons.drawn. in spite of its fire. who accompa. the column rapidly moved. and commenced its assault on the town. General Worth. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. however. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. entered the town to the right. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. Up to this time. The army. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. was ordered to the left.

directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. When Stockton's forces. and the Mexicans confined. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). The main part of the capitulation was. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. Marines. and San Fernando de Prezas . in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . The houses were fortified. from St. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. from Cole and Platte counties. the American army had but a short supply of provisions. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. charges.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. recommenced the advance." a volunteer troop. To this the Mexican chief replied. The guns of the Citadel continued. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . For this concession there were strong reasons. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. " The Saclede Rangers. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. 1846. Worth and his Division. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. during this day. after some negotiation.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. but. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. then in command of the Mexican army. stopped in San Pedro. the city of Linares. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. This was the key to Monterey. on the 13th of October. in arms. gave a new face to affairs.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. M.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Kearney. but always unsuccessfully. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. in their defence.The Mexican American War town.S. Doniphan . End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . he dispatched 50 U. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. two provinces. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. was one to move against. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles.In Northern California. on the morning of the 23d. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. but General Taylor made no important movement in front.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. believed to be favorable to peace. and take possession of. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. Louis . That evening (at 9 p. while Gar." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. sailing south to San Diego. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. California and New Mexico. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. Besides al! this. defeated the enemy. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. to fire upon the American positions . The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. from St. under Colonel Alexander W. two companies of light. treads upon the territory of this republic. General Taylor. and carried several fortified heights. The Surrender of Monterey. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. Louis. Missouri. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. but here a new resistance was made.

600 men. Kearny. 1847. their re-supplied. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. On March 15. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed. Iowa Territory. however. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. 1847. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. banded together to defend their land.000 men.S.S. 1846. Arizona and the Sonora desert. Meanwhile. however. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25. Lt. marched north from San Diego on December 29.S. Then. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. General Stephen W. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. California. he reneged again and seized the presidency. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. with 4. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. forces. forces continued to arrive in California. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. Jonathan D. Later. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. Col. on December 6. Taylor. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846.S. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. The next day. Other U. led by José Mariá Flores. U. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. near San Pedro. January 1848. after being appointed commanding general. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government.S. January 9.org/mexicanamericanwar2. 1847. 1846. fought as Californio Lancers.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. That marked the end of the war in California. 1847. 1847.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. left too small a force in Los Angeles. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. On January 12. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. [25] and the next day. had http://mexicanhistory. October 7 through October 9. Stockton.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. led by U. With U. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! .S. California. combined force. and the Californios. 1847. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. The rancho vaqueros. Philip St. On January 13. 1847. Col.S. He promised the U. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. 14 U.000 . Navy Captain William Mervine. On January 28. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. Marines were killed. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton.

500 healthy troops. Grant. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12.S.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. http://mexicanhistory.S. army suffered 400 casualties. However. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C.000 were taken prisoner. troops were routed.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. Furious fighting ensued. side began to fall victim to yellow fever.S. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. army. Santa Anna flanked the U. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice.000 men in a tired state.S. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. 1847. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . Instead of taking the main road. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. troops. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. Although by then aware of the positions of U.S.000 casualties and 3. weapons and horses near the walled city. Included in the invading force were Robert E. Lee. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. during which some U. A group of 12. Santa Anna withdrew that night. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. troops suffered 80 casualties.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Scott had sent 2. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. George Meade. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott. The Mexican army was routed. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. Ulysses S.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea. Polk distrusted Taylor. he attacked the next morning.600 mounted dragoons ahead. the U. about half of whom were civilian.S. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. U.400 men. The U. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans.S.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. During the siege. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. along which he expected Scott to appear.

General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. 1847. in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E.The Mexican American War On the same day. Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. http://mexicanhistory. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St. Twiggs agreed. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . U. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . Lee. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered .org/mexicanamericanwar2.S. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. Caught between two fronts. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl. also known as the Halls of Montezuma.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. Lasting throughout most of the day. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery. but his troops managed to raise the U. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls.The efforts of the U.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. including the cadets.S. 211 Union Battalion.S. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort. established the U. Johnston. and the U. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. ended the war and gave the U. the fighting had been severe and costly. and the first wave ascended the walls. some as young as 13 years old. but was unable to communicate with him .S. Flag over the castle. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point. "From the Halls of Montezuma. A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. forces. he grabbed the Mexican flag. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. Before he could withdraw. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. forces were about to kill him.. apparently falling from above . undisputed control of Texas. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". Pérez was killed. Vicente Suarez..S.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. who took over 90% casualties. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. Juan Escutia. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. Newman S. and there was a lull in the battle. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. and cadets Agustin Melgar. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. To the southwest. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale.S. President Polk tried to recall Trist. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. The scaling ladders arrived. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. signed on February 2. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. 277 Mina Battalion. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. At 08:00. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. when one was left (Juan Escutia).org/mexicanamericanwar2. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate.S. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . One by one they fell. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. 115 Queretaro Battalion. and General Juan N.S. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city.

The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla . Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US .org/mexicanamericanwar2. In return.S. agreed to assume $3. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time.S.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. citizens. New Mexico. and parts of Colorado. newspaper.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California.000—less than half the amount the U. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla. Nevada. By doing so. with the 15 million already spent. Arizona. Mexico received US $15. and Wyoming. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California .Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million.000.S.S. Utah. A leading U. especially among U. politicians that had opposed the war from the start.S.

Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet.org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.org/Ayutla.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico . insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . Costa Rica. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1. the neighboring states of Morelos.). democratic state . while the liberals (puros) refused . www.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . After over a year of guerrilla warfare. who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president . The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice .mortgageallianceprogram.S.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital.ObesityControlCenter. 1854 . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca.CaliBaja. Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support .In Guerrero. The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . Michoacan .This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez .which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution . http://mexicanhistory. This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state .One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.The leader of the young. which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. Dominican Rep.

Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws . the Plan de Tacubaya.The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals . They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals . http://mexicanhistory. The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot .The civil war was very vicious . The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824.org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor . the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term . While freedom of religion was not declared.For the first two years.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) .HumanEvents. The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla . Comonfort becomes President www.com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church . The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861.org/Ayutla.The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms . press.The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power . Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan. These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction . assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. In the new constitution. Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals .The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned.this conflict led to the vicious war of reform. the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church . freedom of speech.

To get some breathening space for the economy to revive. 1861. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . In december.However. and 64 million of this was owed to the British . some over fifty years old .Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts.The conservative President. 6. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers .000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz. England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties . sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico. Spain. under the leadership of Napoleon III.By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives.org/Ayutla. Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought . which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil .The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts.But the biggest problem was yet to come.Juarez won the presidental election of 1861. but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .HumanEvents. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives . Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www.France. 1861.org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . With the War of the Reform over. Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country. Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France. Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory.The new president chose a more lenient policy.On October 31.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City . Spain and England withdrew their troops . this was not to be . The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant .

1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico . America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal . Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie.He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota.org/French.org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 . western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory. the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions . he was determined to make France great again . Vera Cruz.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .000 to Mexico .As mentioned before.Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king .

000 reinforcements .It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again . The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy .The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6.The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo .On May 5.org/French. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .000 French. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. where around 4. The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly. Napoleon ordered 30.The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462. 1862. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla.The French bombarded Puebla. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months . under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever.

In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico .He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people .The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte. 1863. General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida .An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle .On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe . They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange . http://mexicanhistory.Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves . 1864. which of course approved him .He was proclaimed Maximilian I. 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867. that of Camaron on April 30. French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people .org/French.A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army. Emperor of Mexico on April 10.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion . map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time.Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces.Here. met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived. who had a wooden hand.

a Mason.After the downfall of the Confederacy. which was not the case . General Grant ordered 42. considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support . Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions.The French. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. After the fall of the Confederacy. General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. creating a succession issue. as secretary of foreign affairs . This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. The emperor .He even named Jose Fernando. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. After its fall.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. The liberals. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . Sonora and Baja. but nothing came of it . religious toleration . the republicans only held four states. Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso .Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. http://mexicanhistory.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. Chihuahua. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor . He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it .The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies. This decree.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. religious freedoms. and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. which had never recognized Maximilian's government .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. however. a moderate liberal.org/French. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces. Guerro. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . was to lead to the emperors own death . However. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class. however.

org/French. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies .000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days . the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . However. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope. Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression . Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. Over 50. Monterey. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. Portirio Diaz. but his wife.the last french soldier left on March 16. saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong . Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca.He was executed by firing squad on June 19. who urged the emperor to join him.It also introduced French ideas.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. fashion and culture into Mexico . the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. along with Miramon and Mejia . before he could carry out this plan.The battle began on Feb 19. Tampico. However on May 15. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future . and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion .During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 .On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia. 1867.However. talked him out of it. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak . took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .

Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina.com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory. www. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.com www. purchase and print your auto policy online.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife .com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.fiestamericanagrand. sanbornsinsurance.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Home Revolution of Ayutla.ancestry.org/French.

Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 . Juarez immediately set about making economic. Schooling was made mandatory. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. purchase and print your auto policy online. http://mexicanhistory. political and educational reforms. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s .Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org/RestoredRepublic.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. sanbornsinsurance. www.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection.mortgageallianceprogram. There was still antagonisms from the conservatives. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.ObesityControlCenter.org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz .S. Dominican Rep. Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention . and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz .com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. Costa Rica.Despite this. the rurales was established to check banditry.

org/RestoredRepublic. The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat. Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy . Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country . in contrast with the US which had over 30.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway.Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative. a rural police force was established. Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep .000 miles . the rurales. an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors .Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment .To secure the roads.

Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army .600 miles off telegraph line was put up .When the ballots were counted.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts . who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled. The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy . Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico . and Porfirio Diaz. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . http://mexicanhistory. Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 . who had the support of the military and conservatives . beginning the Mexican muralist movement . where he defeated Diaz easily . but he through this effort 1. 1871.The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time .org/RestoredRepublic.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871.the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes.Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867.

with a small majority and amid charges of fraud. Lerdo was reelected on July 24.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . 1876. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory. 1876.org/RestoredRepublic. This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 . by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. following the pattern of Juarez.

Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury.MegWhitman.Farming methods had changed little from colonial days . still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades .com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records. of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales .org/Diaz. www. Free trial. the main engine of the economy. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border . huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .ancestry.who was a Mestizo. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Mexico entered the industrial age .org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Like Juarez before him.Despite the efforts of the liberals mining. The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.ObesityControlCenter. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.' During his 33 year rule.S. Mexico was still troubled by banditos .com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) .com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www.

These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims . the railway from Mexico City to El Paso. so he cut the salaries of government officials . http://mexicanhistory.By 1890. secretary of the treasury. Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term . made economic changes such as changing tariffs.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government. and then to remove all restrictions on re-election.During his administration. first to allow two terms in office.org/Diaz.Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . At the end of his first term.Jose Limantour.Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling . switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . but the strain was too much for the treasury .84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country.Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez. In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge . Díaz had the constitution amended. For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing . but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . President Gonzalez 1880 . Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction. the Mexican treasury was running in the black .

from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15. Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune .000 Pesos in 1908.000. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877. became much more productive . but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society .16 percent of the population was homeless .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons. but they were shams for the most part. Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive . Elections were held. in contrast to 50 in the US at the time . Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size . which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions .He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion. By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land .Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly .org/Diaz. Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. In 1910 life expectancy was 30. Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. It seemed a http://mexicanhistory. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves . who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico.satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule. manipulated by the powerful .Diaz was advised by cientificos.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost .The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years. Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving .000 Pesos in 1877 to 85. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power . France and Germany .000.Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . such as silver and cooper mines .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest . threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination.silver production increased from 24. The army was moderized and observers were sent to America.The press was tightly censored. From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. They promoted science.000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness .

The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good . some advocating violent overthrow. Now.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work . http://mexicanhistory. This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907. Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato.In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %. The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers.Like many powerful leaders before.By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed. they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes .The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz .Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . he had overstayed his welcome . Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell .org/Diaz. who often worked in appaling conditions . They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers .Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them . the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief . such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua .

Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe.S. wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections .Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses . On his release and subsequent flight to the US.Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico . decided to run for president again .org/Diaz. Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. They organized a revolutionary party. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. Despite Reyes silence. In a 1908 interview with the U. After this. journalist James Creelman. Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio.Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. Despite what he had told Creelman.such as the Flores Magon brothers . Diaz began plans for his last hurrah. Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. He thoght political. In St. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration.When the official results were announced by the government. This caused aroused widespread anger. however.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule.

In Chihuahua. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command .org/Diaz.Diaz had been overthrown.Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.BookIt.In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso.the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting. Díaz died in exile in Paris. Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government . Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . others towns such as Tehuacan. In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. brings the US into the conflict .Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . In 1915. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great . On May 10. Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www. Afterwards.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.On Jan 2. but the revolution had just started . At the last minute.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years. yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him . 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them. The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . the outnumbered federal commander surrendered .

everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana. anger was simmering over the injustice of decades. Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended . who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday.com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. President Diaz.net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org/revolution.To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). But underneath. Pancho Villa.Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury. However.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution . Now on DVD www. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers .org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women .com panchovillastories.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster.ancestry. below in Mexico. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.

In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks." Diaz. The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite.org/revolution. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9. started by Diaz himself.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. Most large companies were foreign owned. . The election of 1910 provided a spark. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. Trains were often used as weapons themselves. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. but solely upon the army . this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land.

when 1910 came.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time. He neither drank or smoked. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. Previously.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. 1878 – July 20. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South). was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua.on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ).often led by Villa himself. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush . but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. from federal forces. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). Madero campaign. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile .org/revolution. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. commonly known as Zapatistas. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. As a result.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. and then return home to spend most of the year farming. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head. but was never caught.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. However. Emiliano Zapata (August 8. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. A ladron steals from his neighbors.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915.Famous for their cavalry charges. 1879–April 10. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. banditos. Madero was an unusual person for the times. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. http://mexicanhistory. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi.1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation.

on 31 October of that year. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States. The Madero Presidency November 6.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall.In April the forces of Madero. Porfiro Diaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. After being wounded in Ojinaga. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory.org/revolution. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution. remarkably. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. 1911 – February 18.S. from federal forces. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910.He was killed on Aug 30. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. Now let's see if he can control it. would serve as interim president. His nephew. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. the ambassador to the U. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Francisco de la Barra. Madero promoted him to colonel. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship.

Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . which undermined the reforms he advocated .such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. to important posts. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory.Madero appointed family members. However. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack.He gave out government contracts to family businesses.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Madero allowed freedom of the press.which had been gagged since Diaz. this infuriated Zapata. however. During this time. Zapata Some. but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . It is not without significance. 1911 Modero won the national election .who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. Educational reformers were also disappointed . both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. but the government had no money with with to pay them. Leon de la Barra. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876. the secretary of foreign relations.org/revolution. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . On October 1. some of them conservative. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. to many this looked like old style corrupt government . became the interim president . Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems.

org/revolution. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion. By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets.000 army. Reportedly.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.Orozco. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment.On August 8 Madero orders Gen.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight. and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution. who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . In his Plan Orozquista. Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor. Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size ..htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . from which Villa later escaped. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. http://mexicanhistory. Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions . supported by Villa. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U. but this showed how weak the new government was . Huerta in charge of the army . who had reached an agreement with Madero. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. committed suicide . A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.S. Gen.The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes .and on March 3 went into open revolt. Jose Salas. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces .

yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz. an action which would cost him his life . did not order his execution. on Oct 12.The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. and together they plotted a coup .org/revolution.Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. feeling compassion for Diaz. led mostly by supporters of Diaz . 1912 led by Felix Diaz. the nephew of Porfirio. Modero.Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. Reyes.

1913. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ).However. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day . Huerta is supported by conservatives. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production .000 none too loyal army Soldaderas .which had been free under Madero.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops. were slaughtered in the streets.On Feb 21. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. powerfully fortified.The press.They of course declared a plan. many of them women and children. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city. Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua. broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm.bull fights and walking on the streets. just the ouster of Huerta. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison . For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . The American ambassador.Reyes . and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. near Mexico City. not all did . 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed. On Feb 17. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . Using these tactics he created a 200. At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders . where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora. which had no social reform goals.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta .It is still not known if Diaz.In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north. Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces.For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed .org/revolution. Mustering some five thousand men. the Plan de Guadalupe. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels .

First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention . The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army . In 1914. under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. then only numbering about 50. despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war .The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began . It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction.The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. The convention chose.The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south . Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. Political assassination was also used .000. decided Huerta would have to go . Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados. which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21.By March and April.They were celebrated in folk songs. http://mexicanhistory. 1914 .Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states . The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot.Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez . Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. such as La Adelita . often fought with their husbands as well . against the wishes of Carranza. 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president . Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed. Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico. the major ports and most large cities .In early 1914. By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico .This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US . Initially. but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred .As his military position began to crumble.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. much of which was done under forced conscription.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta . The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace .000.The convention exposed the differences between the fighters.In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent .The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them . in order to pacify the country.org/revolution. Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . The Americans. huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico.

War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 . None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . http://mexicanhistory.000 killed. Villa attacked with an estimated 25.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists.org/revolution. Villa lost an estimated 4. the battle of Celaya . Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa. seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair. while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . who had fled to Nuevo Leon.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. In early April.000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry. Carranza. by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges . This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . who had never been defeated in a major battle . Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other .

On Jan 9. Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops. After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica. The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory. Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people. Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance. no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed .The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa.org/revolution. New Mexico.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency.On March 16.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . which he won in March.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property .There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . 1916.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico.The power of the church was limited. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms . Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present. killing 18 Americans . 1916. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .The clamor for intervention was immediate . with stronger executive control. who were pro-Villa.Education was to be secular. 1917 . who held a majority and voted in major reform articles . who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians . Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw.

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

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Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

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a fascist group attacked Jews .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] .KausforSenate.The government withdrew its support for unions. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts.com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory.Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR. Stop lockstep liberalism! www. The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s. In the election of 1928. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. Callas became more conservative as time wore on.. but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner.supported by Callas. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.34 (PRI). by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings . There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury .Obregon and Callas 1920 . Communists and Chinese. in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government .org/1920s.

Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns .com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www. As before.He did not use bodyguards. think he would be able to control him as a puppet . http://mexicanhistory. With Callas' support.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed . Paracho & SofiaMari. a Governor of Michoacan.RoyaltyClearinghouse. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July.000 acres.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.000.By 1935. which endeared him to the people .The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos . Some cooperative projects were started.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton .org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas. www.org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule .As he had in Michoacan.PlayMusic123. the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution.adultjewishlearning. the CTM. Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union . Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education . Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . Lowest Price. Habla Español www.org/cardenas. 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home . Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad). and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. By his first term he had redistributed 49.when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas . The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army. Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell.

The US. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry.The matter was sent to an arbitration board. In the election of 1939. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. who won the 1940 election .Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco . and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico . Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 .While this move was popular. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. However. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain. This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution . The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18.The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration".000 in 1930 . Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America. In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention.000. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts . it hurt the economy. Oil income was a major source of income for the government. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor.As the depression went on. Home Obergon. he threw his support behind Avila Comacho.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. the new American president. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million . and as production declined the national debt rose . 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. the Peso weakened and the economy worsened .org/cardenas.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15.Land redistribution slowed down after 1938.

000 Mexican workers in America . More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith. and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners. however. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly .Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered . However. Avila Comacho. The conservatives. on May 14 and May 24. on a variety of fronts. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war .the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course .The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www. promoted Juan Andreu .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] . Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce. threw his support behind secretary of war. every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write . World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory.15.000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war. a well known revolutionary . afraid of more socialization.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . Less land was redistributed. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership.Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions.There was not much support for joining the War. By the time the war ended there were over 300.Groupon.com/LA http://mexicanhistory.Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions . Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier.org/camacho. Cardenas. The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming . Under the slogan' Each one teach one'.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica.That day after Pearl Harbor.

org/camacho.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .

Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.nmhu.S. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U.52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza . Great price.com Miguel Aleman 1947 .ObesityControlCenter. Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway.2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. 1940s.Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output . this is the story of Pablo Acosta.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico . the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico.Mexican History 1947 .org 1947 .org/aleman. www.Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .Women were allowed to vote in 1952 .2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs. irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.

cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman. Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground .000 a people poured into the cities .' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952.000 people . nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration . implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents .America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .and fewer than half of school age children went to school .2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. the issue of birth control was skirted around .However. much to the chagrin of the US .In 1960. Money for books had been 'diverted.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .In response. but being a Catholic country. Adolfo Mateos 1958. strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools .While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines. all was not well .org/aleman. one of the most modern in the world atthe time . The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area . he did not undertake and new large projects . there were no books on the bookshelves.000. some of the largest housing 100.Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over.Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects.Strong economic growth continued. Ruiz Cortines 1952 .Mexican History 1947 . Communists were not tolerated and arrested .Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated. The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment .K.The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.F.Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J. There was large scale corruption. the urban population surpassed the rural population . Because of corroption. He continued land redistribution.Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory. Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities .

the following clash led to some deaths. After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband. barricading streets and burning buses .70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%.org/aleman.In July 26. 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco.The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns.In the following days there were more riots. several hundred people were killed . which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot . http://mexicanhistory.2008 until his death in 1970 . Huge demonstrations were held on many universities . the army used tear gas and clubs . However it started. Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 . Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 . and the tourist trade greatly increased .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings . there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in .For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets. On August 27.Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI.But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s . Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli .In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics . 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution.Mexican History 1947 . sometimes with federal troops being called in . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes.On October 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail .

The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. he tried to order price controls on basic items .He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control . became president in 1970 . On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco.Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico. In September. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. former secretary of the interior. 1976. and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. about 70. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly. By 1974. Luis Echeverría 1970 .org/aleman. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . the bane of other Latin American countries.. The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. 1976. The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl .2008 Despite this. at least in terms of its economic policies.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption.Many started to go to America illegally.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession . the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods .Mexican History 1947 . to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad.Caught in the inflation of the early 70s.Since 1973. This caused the ruling party. Wages were low and workers conditions were bad . During his period.¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him. underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . Robberies and kidnappings .76 Echeverría.In September. to make exports more competitive. started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down ." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor)." "excessive overseas borrowing. One of the largest. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976. By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged .000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras. http://mexicanhistory.

On Sept 19. http://mexicanhistory. crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years .Mexico could not meet its debt repayments.Over 100. foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions . huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco.The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated . Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development .Despite the oil boom. a 8.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars .2008 In 1974. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.Mexican History 1947 . Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s. fraud and strong arm election tactics . the economy only made weak progress.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs.org/aleman.The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar . a process that continued under his successors. 1985 .86 During his tenure.In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports .Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread.Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up. Miguel de la Madrid 1982 .000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage . the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982. increased 100% in price .Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year. with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo. He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 . by the end of the Lopez administration.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation .Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF . The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars .000 were left homeless .1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out .Public spending was cut by one third . for example. During de la Madrid's presidency.3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10.Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments.

but reports of the national and international media . and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections . the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. http://mexicanhistory.1994 In the election of 1988.Mexican History 1947 .But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 .He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting. started in Chiapas against corruption.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. Also in 1994. Salinas' chosen sucessor. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party. Carlos Salinas . Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos .org/aleman. The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War.It was led by The president responded with military repression. In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%.Some progress was made with political corruption as well.The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. EZLN. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement . Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana .Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising . and established a new relationship between State and Church. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . Indian abuse and its own government . was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes .

behind Cortes and Diaz . Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . however economy grew at a slow pace .Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo.Mexican History 1947 . approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8. In spite of opposition within his party. putting the country in an economic tailspin .He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court. Vicente Fox . the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú.He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor. the Peso suddenly collapsed . Ernesto Zedillo 1994 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved .2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president .GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2.2000 Within days of taking office.Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 . maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.In 2000. In 1997 he moved to Ireland.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . China. known as the December Mistake. a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico.org/aleman.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia . and countries in Central America.2 percent in 2002.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords . and led to an economic recesssion .Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico. which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico. Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history. Vicente Fox 2000 . Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change. http://mexicanhistory. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico .2% during Fox's administration.

López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. expropriation. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization. liberalization. market control of the economy. 2006. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization. state control of the economy. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election.Mexican History 1947 .On September 5.present On July 6. 2006. and authoritarianism.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . However.org/aleman.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] ." In his interpretation. but a choice between "the past and the future. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador.58% for Calderón over his closest contender. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. resulting in a narrow margin of 0.

org/aleman.Mexican History 1947 .2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .

000 5.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.500 Indus civilization 2. profiles.000 BC 7.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.ancestry.S.500 Knossos founded 2.000 Archaic era 1.000 - 2.org/timeline.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U.000 Large animals vanish.000 BC 11.500 BC 5.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1.com Mexico! AmoLatina. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8. Baja 7.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines. Find Your Sweetheart in www.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.500 BC 5.

sanbornsinsurance.org/timeline.ObesityControlCenter. El Tajin.S. purchase and print your auto policy online.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.elwired. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory.com salsa.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. AmoLatina.

1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence. Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay.Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31.org/timeline. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory.

1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila. 1846. Nuevo León. modeled after the one of 1824. September 27. president can only serve one term. 1821 . reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857. Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. 1846. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 .org/timeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .

but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. hundreds killed by naval fire. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City . Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 .Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. blockade demanding repayments of debt. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. England and France land troops. England and Spain depart. widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. has the constitution amended. Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico. angry at not getting US recognition . Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. first to allow two terms in office. church power limited. French troops stay. Diaz revolts again.org/timeline. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. Maximilian executed. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan .Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. who had Madero jailed . foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon.

economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed . known as the December Mistake.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www. major dams built. later known as PRI. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.BookIt. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks.Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins.org/timeline. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 . which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR.

1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. trained specialist treats you in Collection. The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas. Mexico http://mexicanhistory. Many states.ancestry. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. including Texas revolt. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence .ObesityControlCenter.000 Americans and only around 8. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle.000 Mexicans . By 1835 there were 30. The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico.S.com www.Mexico orders halt to American immigration. Discover Family Heroes. replaces it with a new centralist constitution.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .

President John Tyler.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it. 1845 U. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state.S.such as former President Martin Van Buren. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. Polk http://mexicanhistory. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. The mutineers select Gen. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. who is overthrown. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba.Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. 1841 from a cold. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia.

S. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U. on the transport Alabama. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'.S. but had been parts of Tamaulipas.500 troops. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president. but regains power..htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .S. Mexico. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. Nov 29 Former U.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. Dec2 . and Mexico . had never ratified these treaties. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. Coahuila. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco.500 regulars have gathered.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. By late Oct 3. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas. gives interim President Herrera. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River. Louisiana into Texas with 1. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico . The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule. however.

patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. March 8 Gen. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. Francisco Mejia.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . declared President of Mexico. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera. Taylor refuses.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. April 2 Gen. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory. Mejia has 3. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande.Jose Maria Castro. The Mexican commander in Matamoros.000 men under his command. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory.200 men. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen.S.S. but is not authorized to attack. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen.000 men. assembles a force of 6.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. killing 16 U. Arista reaches Matamoros. April 25 a 1.Col. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C.

Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities.Mexican American War Timeline command. May 13 U. 39 Americans killed. which later becomes Brownsville. border set at the 49th parallel.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. Aug 5 Gen. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara. Arista resigns command to Gen.losing many men in the desert. 6. http://mexicanhistory. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor. Maj. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. Nuevo Leon. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic. Arista retreats toward Linares.Jose Maria Ortega. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire. Americans have 9 killed. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Taylor attacks his center. Gen. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U. Mexican losses 200 killed. overrunning the Mexican artillery.S. incident. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House.Arista with 3. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros.S.300.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .300 confronts Taylor's 2.

200 regulars and 3.000 Mexican regulars and 23.700 for garrison duty. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .000 militia. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3. Americans suffer 120 killed. Mexicans 700 casualties.which is defended by a formidable citadel.Richey. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight. to be led by Gen. leaving 4.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms. Ampudia asks for terms.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace. Aug18 Gen. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles. Winfield Scott.000 volunteers.645 troops.500 man army in four months. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. gathering a 21. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. Jan 13 Lt. no Americans killed.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi.S. the last Mexican stronghold in California. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles. forcing them to surrender.called the Black Fort by the Americans. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge.

March 9 American landing at Veracruz.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4.000 man Mexican army.General Santa Anna. an easier to defend narrow pass.. Only 14.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.8. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4.000 Mexican prisoners taken.Americans lose 63 killed. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. most in a 800 man cavalry charge. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .800. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20.Special Cavalry Division. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City. Robert E. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry.500 desertions.600 soldiers land by nightfall. Siege of Veracruz begins. Taylor retires toward Monterrey. 3. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2. Mexicans lose 300 killed. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena. California is renamed San Francisco. Santa Anna's 18. March 21 10. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !').000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg. Mexicans lose 1.

Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco. which falls after a fierce battle.500 of which are sick.000 captured.(Boy Heros). The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle.000 of his defeated troops. the last major defense before Mexico City. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today. Six cadets fight to the death.820 . defended by 260 defenders under Gen. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec. Joseph E.Bravo. Americans lose 116 killed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col. Scott now has 14. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey..000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired. 50 of which are cadets.hoping he will ask for terms. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans. Santa Ana flees Mexico City. Mexican loses are 4. 30 out of 69 are executed.500 under Worth to take it. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.and is left with 5. Americans have lost 139 killed. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3.000 troops. Scott sends 3. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle.500 troops. 2. http://mexicanhistory.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.000 dead and 3.000 troops and 30 cannons. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there.

Goldline.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City.CaliBaja. citizens against Mexico.S. America takes California. in Coloma. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War. A couple of days of severe rioting follows.Arizona and New Mexico.sailor Owen Edgar.HolidayInn.com http://mexicanhistory.Nevada.000) were to be treated as U.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon.Colorado. 1876 July 31 last of 18. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war. Free Investor Kit.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill. Anaya become interim president. Since 1960. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.Utah. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport.5 million in claims by U.S. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena. citizens. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door. Book now! www.

org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Shopping.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . this huge class of people was not educated.pestilence and death. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. www. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 . Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term.Metin2.com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution.Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory. He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once.Info. http://mexicanhistory. Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www.

Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. Madero joined by other local leaders. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz.often led by Villa himself. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. Francisco Madero. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. better known as Pancho Villa. Madero was unusual for his period.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. He didn't drink or smoke. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. Oct 11 Madero. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua.

Madero enters city. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas..Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo. April 3. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. let’s see if he can ride it.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president.500 under Madero. Diaz offers to resign. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. Madero refuses. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata.

org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory. Pascual Orozoco. Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .once an ally of Villa. Nov 9 In Texas. Slow to take action on land reform . supported by powerful hacienda landowners.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen. He plans to march on Mexico City. Madero turns to Gen.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. raises a well equipped army of 6.000 in the north. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest.

5.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens.400 men. forcing him to flee to the US.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. Diaz freed.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Mexican Revolution Timeline order.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. April 26 Col.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander. Huerta defeats Orozoco. Brig. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City. Revolt fails and Leon is executed. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. 300 killed around presidential palace. Gen Felix Diaz.

Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Feb 24 The Gov. Lane recalled. In the next election.New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. In reality Huerta ordered the murders. Huerta is supported by conservatives. Jose Suarez and cabinet.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.which had been free under Madero. Huerta seizes Madero. Gen. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man. http://mexicanhistory. 500 civilians killed. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement . limiting church power. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 none to loyal army. Huerta would become temporary president. Soon others launch rebellion.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president.The press. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him. 100 Madero supporters are executed.. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. Using these tactics he created a 200. Vice Pres.bull fights and walking on the streets. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane. of Coahuila. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar.who murder him.

March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. City taken. all federal officers executed. 12. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. federals round up civilians. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5.000 men. Federal train blown up. calling his forces the Constitutionalists.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . 1913. The northern armies of Villa.killing 100 federal troops.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. all federal officers executed. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. with the secret support of the United States. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions. Several hundred executed.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. On March 26. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another .. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. a politician and rancher from Coahuila.

citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry. 4 Americans killed.S. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released. Villa became a folk hero in the U. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila . There was a considerable concentration of U.000 marines land.300 sailors and 2. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . leading to his resignation on July 15. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. 400 more Americans are sent ashore.S. The Mexican commander refuses. Sniper fire continues. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off.Snipers open fire on Americans. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10. through such writers as John Reed.Eventually 3.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12.. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed. Huerta goes into exile in Europe. American Rear Adm. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine.

org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. who departs for Veracruz. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. abandoned by Villa and Zapata. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government.000 and many supplies. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. who lose 2.000 march through city. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. Their combined armies of 50.

http://mexicanhistory. 6.000 taken prisoner.Villa has 8.000 cavalry against Obregon's 9. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.400 cavalry and 14.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches .500 infantry.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.Hill succeeds him. angering him.barbed wire and machine guns. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Despite using terror tactics.5. known as the general who never won a battle .000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20.is unable to defeat Zapata . US cuts off arms supplies to Villa.000 cavalry.500 horsemen and 6. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults.000 man army.Villa loses 4.000 causalities and retreats north.

The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory.000 followers. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. with air support.equal pay for men and women.000 man army occupies every major town in the state.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans.child labor prohibited. Approved on Feb 17. has 9.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.30. Retreats with only 1.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train. Takes much booty and gives speech. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen.400. 400 desert Villa. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off.000 in late April. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City.south or east will be contested. Villa losses many of his remaining 5.000 men to pursue Villa. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. New Mexico with 500 riders. 1917 It allows freedom of religion. workers allowed to form labor unions.

Following Zapata's death. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10.killing 200. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. http://mexicanhistory. Huerta gives a 25. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide.believing he would become his puppet. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. March many Obregon supporters arrested.S. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. flees Mexico City.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. Supporters. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas..000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. the ambassador to Mexico. Obregon harassed. Gov.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train.. but murders him while he is sleeping. by which time the U.000 followers. including Villa rally to his side. had declared war on Germany.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 .

Minor revolts and mutinies in following years.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Huerta flees Mexico. Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price. An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution. but large scale fighting is over.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory.

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