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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

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http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
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htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . New Mexico. The presidios (military towns). Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito. Arizona.Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . Utah and Colorado .1821 MexicanHistory. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs .In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas. Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies . In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons.org/colonial. church . almost all of the Aztec empire.Provincial towns were organized by royal decree.Colonial Mexico 1519 . There were 62 viceroys in New Spain.Eventually. along with such regions as Colina. sometimes there would be advanced warning . wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly. the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed .A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office . Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces .Large cities such as Oaxaca. A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . California. The Indians. royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . all were to have a main plaza.

Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. http://mexicanhistory.the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing . The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor.org/colonial. The Indians. A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition.Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion.1821 MexicanHistory. which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ . it's continuation. Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41). the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century. The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico.His successor. who were still viewed as a menace. led by Tenamaxtli . leaving the area undermanned . monastic life and humble character .Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making . The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs .org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes . Augustin's City of God . Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . the most serious revolt of the times . that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. Charles V took this charge seriously. Dominicans and the Augustinians .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems.Colonial Mexico 1519 . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians .

1821 MexicanHistory. who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City .Colonial Mexico 1519 .org/colonial. They built fortess missions across New Spain . often being the first Europeans to explore an area . The Catholic reverence for saints. The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts .Nine million were baptized by 1537.000 Indians a day .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. By 1540. She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices . http://mexicanhistory. The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe. This was the open chapel or capilla abierta. 50 such churches had been built . which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan.org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country.

Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain .In the mid 16 century. Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers . 1601. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles .1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language .The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . and the new Spanish king.Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws. which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . In the process. such as. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain .The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds . These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization . They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . the Florentine Codex. Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun. Phillip II ( r 1556 .1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. Charles V was dead.org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages. who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life.Indians http://mexicanhistory.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco.org/colonial.

This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico. The Bourbon kings. principally in San Luis Potos . which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) . who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster . The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n.In New Spain. Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory. wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes .Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . These works did find there way into the private libraries. These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment. Juan de Palafox.The crime of heresy. however . this decree led to riots and other disturbances.The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla.Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown .The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories .1821 MexicanHistory.The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting .There were also quarrels with civil authorities . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . with the prisoners often strangled first .org/colonial.org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike. Auto de fes drew large crowds .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . especially those of the Enlightenment writers.Crimes like adultery. The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . the first in the colony was in 1574 .

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . most of these returned to Spain . Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans. Indians and African slaves .1695 ). There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent.1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 .org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566.Colonial Mexico 1519 .One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. Mestizo. Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). Castizo. . Creoles could not hold royal office . persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. The Social Classes a Mestizo baby. persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights . At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period . Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ). http://mexicanhistory.Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . who taught many local artist . Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo.Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 .1700 ) . Cholos. She wrote poetry.1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. some of it in the Nahuatl language. The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares).

Commerce was controlled by royal decree.1821 MexicanHistory.Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries.000 by 1800. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. which was due on almost everything sold. etc. silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . which were the wards of the church and the Crown . The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. After about 1560. The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year .org/colonial. Zambos. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem .. tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . The most hated was the alcabala. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. which went from 2 % to as high as 14%.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. They were sometimes made into slaves.org Mulatos. ceramics. The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . from piracy . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians. Euromestizos. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . persons who were mixed indio and negro.Colonial Mexico 1519 . In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . industry could not grow and advance. Money makers such as tobacco. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . licenses. Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain.There were royal taxes of all kinds on land. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory.The China trade was established in 1564 silks.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . tailors. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20.With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus .000 in the 16th century to 6.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . which fixed the price of goods and their quality . Over the years. etc .

org colonies and Spain itself . Such http://mexicanhistory. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas.1821 MexicanHistory. Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. diversified economy from growing . The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . The restrictions. silver bar from shipwreck. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle.Colonial Mexico 1519 . combined with bad roads. bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy.In the early colonial period. Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . Some of the haciendas were vast. Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . was of prime importance to Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . By the 18th century.org/colonial. Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high .

the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used .There were many abuses to this system.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . http://mexicanhistory. So.org/colonial. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. but was modified by the new land. in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians .It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. The building material in New Spain was more colorful. except for mine labor . thick walls were needed because of earthquakes.1821 MexicanHistory. plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. However. a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil .Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage. Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo. usually a week at a time . but few wished to. 1549. rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . which was abolished in the early 17th century.The debts were passed down from father to son .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks.

org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style .1821 MexicanHistory. the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu .In the mid 16th century.org/colonial. mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines . The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575). built in the late 18th century.

1821 MexicanHistory.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged. a spanish architect ). the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera. alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory. especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades.Colonial Mexico 1519 . It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times.

In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. a more severe. http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals.org As a reaction to the excess. An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. plazasa. built in 1585 .1821 MexicanHistory. University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City . hospitals and universities . the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana. Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa .org/colonial.

Spain in the 16th century .Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 . Basilica Guadalupe.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org/colonial.org Castillo de Chapultepec.Many people consider Puebla. built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war . particularly their designs.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons . Chinese ceramic was soon imitated. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina. http://mexicanhistory. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.

and more popularly called pulque.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas .org/colonial. but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries . The crown had a monopoly on pulque.org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . Philippe de Bourbon. the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. Wine was introduced early to New Spain . Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara. the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. feeble in mind and body.The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . When Charles II died in 1700.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . which was a major source of revenue . Tequila . He had named a greatnephew. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer .1700 ). Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory. which they called octli (later. The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. Duke of Anjou. Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon.

The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually . unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents .2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining . as Philip V..Silver production rose from 2. Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. http://mexicanhistory. . After eleven years of bloody.88 ).Colonial Mexico 1519 . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty . improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . Cochineal production also increased. fought on four continents and three oceans. global warfare.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . replacing 200 low paid. In 1740. Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 . the Duc d'Anjou. was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. becoming the second biggest export .1821 MexicanHistory.The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas . The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown . He had two main concerns.Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain . Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general .org Louis XIV ) as his successor. Under his rule Spain once again became a world power .org/colonial. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco .The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession.The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration.Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining .

The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. Peru. The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. such as the Canadian dollar. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .Colonial Mexico 1519 . The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n.org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . By 1810. the real de a ocho. The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight.94 ) created the first public transportation system . but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal . another able ruler( 1789 . United States dollar and the Chinese yuan.Another viceroy. Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins.79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines . meaning double). Many existing currencies. For example.The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . many creoles prospered during this period in business . or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. Revillagigedo .It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. the national motto for Spain . often refers to a seven-gram (0.The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules. New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'. or Nueva Granada.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain.By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world . the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles .1821 MexicanHistory.King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . Mexico. There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana .Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . worth eight reales. The creole Count Regla.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Through widespread use in Europe. a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population .org/colonial. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 . meaning a double-sided token coin. these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown . the Americas and the Far East. http://mexicanhistory.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 .org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial.

mortgageallianceprogram. Heroes. Fairfax County has great attractions. Scoundrels.net Things to do near DC Close to DC. www.1821 MexicanHistory.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates. Celts www. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. shopping & more! www. Costa Rica.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821.fxva.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory.lindenhill.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Dominican Rep.

lib.utexas.http://www.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.

only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .MilitaryHistory. The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. The lower classes.1821 MexicanHistory.org/Independence. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose.Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland. They did rebel. http://mexicanhistory.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation. their lot was so hard .The war for Independence 1810.org The war for Independence 1810. but not equality for all.Norwich.

99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory. The peninsulares thought otherwise . Bullfighting from. Without a true Spanish monarchy. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars . 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout". Unlike the wise Charles III. These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles..1821 MexicanHistory. with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 . ruled by independent juntas..org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America. The church had to call in their mortgages. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity . destroying many Creoles financially .Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814.The war for Independence 1810.Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 .org/Independence. Art Print Buy for $19.The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform . many creoles thought they should rule themselves.By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Latin America was. in these years. his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies.

In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe. They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato. the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once .org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8. a captain of the cavalry . reading proscribed books. they marched for San Miguel. http://mexicanhistory. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia . none of these charges could be proved and he was released . Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement .However.However. 1810.He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). With Hidalgo at their head.A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende. gathering more recruits along the way.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . 1810. her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic . Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . However.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16.org/Independence. doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant .The war for Independence 1810.1821 MexicanHistory. who became an independence symbol.

An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then .The war for Independence 1810. a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran. Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon. San Luis Potosi and Valladolid .By late October the army had about 80.The rebels took Guadalajara .000 marching on Mexico City . 1811. Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning . They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas.1821 MexicanHistory. Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces . The army retreated into Mexico City .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2. Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City . However.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup .org/Independence. In the middle of the battle.Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward. Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces . turning into a rout .000 rebels were killed .

Gradually. The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon. Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax .With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point . http://mexicanhistory.org/Independence.The war for Independence 1810. the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed . retaking many towns .After awhile only two major bands remained.In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control .They issued a Declaration of Independence.org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this .He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms. viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile. one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2.By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital . the Spanish viceroy.000 around Oaxaca .Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare .1821 MexicanHistory.By 1819. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement. those opposed to it were guilty of treason .000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1. Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out .Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state .For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination . who had been recruited by Hildago .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .

Spain. The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army .500 men to fight Guerrero . Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2.The king. troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. a virtual prioner of the army at this point. Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights.Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . A new army would be created.org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile. free speech and curbed the power of the church .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Ironically. yielded to their demands . At C diz. The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. . led by King Ferdinand or another European prince . If this was not done there would be a military coup . and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . in January 1820.The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . bad food. Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala. He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. the Creoles found this change too liberal.The war for Independence 1810. This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan . and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government .1821 MexicanHistory.org/Independence.

this was to become an important point . Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico. the last viceroy of New Spain . Mexico was independent at last . On September 27. a Mexican congress would chose an emperor. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army.org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. viceroy Apodaca resigned . One more proviso was added by Iturbide . Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba .O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. Juan de O'Donoju.The war for Independence 1810.After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit . unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares .org/Independence. 1821 . After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory. Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy.

General Agustín de Iturbide.March 19. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch .ancestry.com www. 1821 .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. would also be Emperor of Mexico. Ferdinand VII. After the declaration of independence on September 27.org/firstempire. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power. it did not accept the offer . which in turned named him as its presiding officer . However.com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala.com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide .ObesityControlCenter. 1821. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online.S.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21. www.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.BookIt. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war.

stage a demonstration on his behalf .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . Nicaragua.org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. Honduras. as Agustin I . When Iturbide was declared emperor. The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico . On July 21. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . the regiment of Celaya. http://mexicanhistory. the shouted ' Viva Agustin I.org/firstempire. Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . Iturbide had his own troops. Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . 1821 . Court etiquette was issued.The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. which included Costa Rica. The heir apparent was Senor Don August. 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . El Salvador. but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22.In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . 1822 . Guatemala. They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. then accepted . There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. hoping to promote free republican governments . Iturbide feigned reluctance. from California in the north to Panama . outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee .

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

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Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

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The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

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htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . brave in battle. http://mexicanhistory. led by vice president Bravo .Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 .Mexican border .After some fighting . These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited . he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain . the caudillo .As Iturbide did. A local military strongman emerges during these times.Groupon. The government sought to support itself through import duties.The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner. gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna .29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators .Over 50. These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero.com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador . who controlled the army. taxes and monopolies .org/earlyrepublic. The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public.000 men were kept under arms. another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza . President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support .The Early Republic MexicanHistory.The York Rite masons . In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US . the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army . but no an inspiring or talented administrator . Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president .1843 ) was a former rebel leader.org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war .

Bustamante agreed. The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain. President Bustamante 1830 . With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . Slaves were few in number by this time. This plan backfired . Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion . The treasury by this time was also bankrupt. Reserves in Jalapa. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero.32 - http://mexicanhistory.Guerrero set off with a force to attack them. He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . but his act increased his support among mulattos.Some of the states. All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . which had been abandoned . However. The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level. choose this time to invade its most important former colony .This marked a return to power of the conservatives. but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla .From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree.org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria . the Spanish general surrendered . such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight . who fled the country . even after the repulse of the Spanish. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll.They landed near Tampico.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. After an initial attack which failed. Santa Anna settled in for a siege . the most important of which was calling up of the reserves. Bustamante. Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy . Santa Anna became extremely popular .org/earlyrepublic. mainly middle class merchants.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . which had never recognized Mexico's independence.

47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero .Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election . Corruption was rampant . Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 . Bustamante was to go into exile. but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press.org/earlyrepublic. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections. which he did in 1833. using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again .org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza. signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23).Bustamante.The Early Republic MexicanHistory.

Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it . a liberal politician of intellectual distinction . Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history .1843 .1842 . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.1841 .com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.ObesityControlCenter.com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .S. Discover Family Heroes. Britain.He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times . but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz . http://mexicanhistory.com www.Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade. trained specialist treats you in Collection.1834.org Santa Anna 1794 .The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. and Texas as well as published sources.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.ancestry.1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years. Spain.1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org/santaanna. 1835 .1839 .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

Santa Anna became a millionaire . San Luis Potosí. The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .The Zacatecan militia. Several of these states formed their own governments. that of the church and that of the army . Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. Guanajuato. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . began with two major reforms . led http://mexicanhistory. The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90. warlord.He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna . Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . Durango. He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. Nuevo León. "dictator" or "strongman". Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 . His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. Querétaro. he reduced its size and abolished military fueros . "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) .' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one. more pejoratively. State militias were disbanded .000 acres .org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist . His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . the Republic of Yucatan. the treasury was still bankrupt .000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation. To curb the undue influence of the army.The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna.They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office .Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . the Republic of the Rio Grande. Yucatán. Jalisco.In order to secure power. Michoacán.Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . the constitution of 1836 was enacted .Corruption was widespread." or.The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . and the Republic of Texas.The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal .The presidential term was extended from four years to eight .The congress was disbanded .org/santaanna.

Goliad. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Comanches and other Indian tribes .584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain .61 rifles. 1835 to April 21. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3. Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. and others.There were small towns in the interior.org by Francisco Garcia. Nacogdoches.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker .000 prisoners. 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. on 12 May 1835. which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. The first Europeans in the area. was well armed with . or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . After defeating Zacatecas. After two hours of combat.org/santaanna. San Antonio. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours. he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2.

who roved about stealing the stock.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. The land titles were duly recorded. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Life in the new land was rough. and fought over land titles and for political domination.25 an acre in the US . T. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes.In 1827. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas." Gone to Texas . after great exposure and privation.Spain wished to colonize the territory. there were only 7. a Prussian officer. and he returned home.000 Mexicans . he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. In 1820 he set out for Texas. By 1827 there were 12. to carry out his project. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river . and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas. the judge and commandant . but his exposure and privations had weakened him.000 settlers . He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. Austin was the supreme authority. Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. who had served under Frederick the Great. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. Mexico became independent and Moses' son. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. While at work they kept guard against the Indians. He reached home in safety. at times making a night attack upon a cabin. and. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. leaving his dying injunction to his son.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s.000 Americans living in Texas. T. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands. and was then in the service of Mexico. and a local militia was organized.org/santaanna.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1.000 Americans and only around 8. Stephen. By 1835 there were 30.

S. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters." was easily suppressed. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 . Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo . increasing the cost of trade with the US . which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. by sending a thousand soldiers. they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. By 1836. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished.org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president .Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. called " The Fredonian War. Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened . there were approximately 5. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters . This emeute. mostly criminals and convicts.President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . an empresario. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. The check immigration into Texas from America.000 slaves in Texas. even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . but the societies were too different and tensions increased . Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila . which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico. to take over the region. The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all .Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism.org/santaanna. In 1830. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas .There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this . Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders . grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823.Mexico increased custom duties on exports. The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. to stations in the country.Most Americans remained Protestant. which were to be redistributed in Mexico. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities.

m. negotiations were held. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. Austin saw little choice but revolution. He then ordered his brother-in law. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. Austin was released in July. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. As a reward. and gunfire was exchanged. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. they reached the camp. having never been formally charged with sedition. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . The Texians refused. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. Under the Liberal banner. Zacatecas. On October 1. which began on October 12. at 7 p. Two Texian militias answered the call. Throughout November 1835. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. civilians were massacred by the thousands. Unable to cross. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Several officers resigned. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas. who went to Gonzales. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. 1835.org/santaanna. who was stationed in San Antonio. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men.m. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. The siege of Bexar. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. including Jim Bowie. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. http://mexicanhistory. The next morning.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. Since they had no cannon balls. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. and Austin sanctioned it. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad. On September 20.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. under the defence of General Cos. At 3 a. the Texans captured Bexar. Castañeda established a camp. and Coahuila. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. and was in Texas by August. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . and negotiations fell through. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna.. many of the volunteers simply left.

" No further reinforcement arrived. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. bringing only disaster for months to come. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. nothing came of it. The expedition failed. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. never more to leave them. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . hoping to sack the town. The remaining Texan army. a force of about 6. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. chiefly husbands and fathers. and with no collective motivation. These men. Albert Martin. despite Austin's leadership. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. but his talents were not well suited for military life. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. Soon. now led by General Sam Houston. Capt.org 1835. in a fortress doomed to destruction. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army. on March 2.000. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. On November 6. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. "At dawn on the first of March.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. the political and military center of Texas. owning their own homes. but it marched forward. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ). would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. 1835. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. Although the Matamoros Expedition. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico.org/santaanna. as it came to be known. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. poorly led.

The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. rather than a cruel one.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. 1836. A scorched earth policy was implemented. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. Soon. The Mexican cavalry. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. Santa Anna's army. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. so it was put to the torch. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. José Urrea At Goliad. brought up cannon and reinforcements. March 20. the rains made the roads impassable. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. and even Great Britain and France. experienced and feared.org/santaanna. under Santa Anna's direct orders. and much animosity was aimed towards him. making his way north following the coast of Texas. border. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. 1836.together with the fall of the Alamo. Overnight. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2.. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. gave unrelenting chase. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. March 27. the United States. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies.S. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. always on the heels of Houston..

This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. but nothing came of it. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. after burning Vince's Bridge. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible.org/santaanna. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. Hours before the attack.org and race quickly towards Galveston. which the Texans used as cover. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. waited for reinforcements. which had proven costly and prolonged. which were led by General Cos.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. Santa Anna. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. but not without protests from Urrea. as dictator of Mexico. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. Houston could do nothing but follow. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. but Filisola disagreed. and tired of running away. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas.200 men. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. and put an end to the war. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. who had been wounded in the ankle. An 18minute-long battle ensued. marched back to Mexico. the Texans surged forward. Numbering about 700. catching the Mexican army by surprise. Also. To the dismay of the Texans.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. On that same day. only nine Texans died. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. mostly cavalry. Santa Anna. General Vicente Filisola. Without Houston's consent. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. and he was brought before Houston. not the Army of Operations. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. both armies met at the San Jacinto River. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. Texas.

1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. The war continued as a standoff. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . two actually formed republic besides Texas. He was re-elected President. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power. into Texas. but briefly. one private ) on May 14. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. But unknown to Santa Anna.C.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . When Santa Anna returned to Mexico. thus. and soon after. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. a French soldier of fortune. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838.S. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. In 1838. Nuevo León. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. occupying San Antonio. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . D. called Manga de Clavo.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . and after meeting with U.org/santaanna. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner .org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead.. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. After some time in exile in the United States. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . when French forces landed in Veracruz.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico.

The proposal received serious attention in Washington. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority. but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century .In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out.C. D.In November. http://mexicanhistory. and the United States.By 1855.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. Texas .This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded.org/santaanna. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. After the end of the Mexican-American War. Upon this event. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . Spain. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) .the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6. however. Nuevo León. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria.org In 1840. During this meeting. La Ceiba . 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. ultimately. Yucatán declared its neutrality.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the Republic of the Rio Grande failed. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control.

Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. Fearing for his life. or the French would demand satisfaction. This was too much for the Mexicans. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed .was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua .org The Pastry War In 1838. President Again Soon after. Mexico declared war on France.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero.000 troops . Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. turned over to authorities. Mexico agreed to pay. and the people were discontented. but France upped the ante to 800. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. In 1842.org/santaanna. With resentment ever growing against the president. the United States declared war on Mexico. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. at war against Santa Anna. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory.000 pesos. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . Santa Anna tried to elude capture. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. and imprisoned. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration.000 pesos in payment and when payment. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. Also. Veracruz.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. The war with France had weakened Mexico. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. In 1846. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico. a military expedition into Texas was renewed.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Thus began the Pastry War . by an army commanded by the president himself. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. His life was spared. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. Meanwhile. The French landed 3. and to seize the port of Veracruz. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic.

and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. This reign was no better than his earlier ones.S.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. In April 1853.S. Colombia. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory.org of the United States. Thomas.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. but he failed to profit from this. and St. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. on June 21. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts. Colombia. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. naval blockades. and he fled back to Cuba. trained specialist treats you in Collection." which helped found the chewing gum industry. the United States. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Discover Family Heroes. He funneled government funds to his own pockets. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. moved to Turbaco.ancestry. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States.ObesityControlCenter. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives. and two years later. In 1851. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. the base of chewing gum. Thomas Adams. penniless and heartbroken. to the United States. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org/santaanna. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. which was tried without success. He then lived in exile in Cuba. 1876. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna. Jamaica.

1848 MexicanHistory. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas . was not for immediate annexation . The American president after Texas won its independence. War With Mexico. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. and maintain our present attitude. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. or the course of events. if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. 1 Form." So Far from God: The U. shall have proved.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.S. & GE. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico .TopAlarmCompanies. " Prudence.Mexican American War 1846 .com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 .The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue.S. Van Buren. APX Alarm. beyond all dispute. President Tyler The following president.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory.org Mexican American War 1846 .org/mexicanamericanwar1. www." said he. Brinks. 4 Quotes. Compare & Save. 18461848This wellwritten. Andrew Jackson . at least until the lapse of time.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. and to uphold the Government constituted by them.

who was pro-annexation.Prior to Polk's election. it joined the Union . he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . that what could not be effected by treaty.No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. There was a fear England would purchase California. a survey of the This History Channel special. 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war . could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress.1848 MexicanHistory.It was discovered by President Tyler. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. as half of the Senators represented free States. he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . and the December 29. and that. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey.S. President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast . Texas consented to be annexed. lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport .On the 4th July.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . a few hours before his term of office expired. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. On the 3rd March. the Mexican minister to the U. 1845 .org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas.Mexican American War 1846 . Texas joined the Union on December 29. The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. 1845 . Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle.org/mexicanamericanwar1. The new president. such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 . which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28.

the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty .000.1848 MexicanHistory. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary .org/mexicanamericanwar1. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power. the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River . which included parts of modern day New Mexico.000. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera.Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. supported by populist newspapers.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . Slidell. as per the Treaties of Velasco . Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil . he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. Wyoming. They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. In 1836. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory. Oklahoma.000 or more for California . Kansas. and Colorado.The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source. $5.Mexican American War 1846 .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25." returned to the United States. the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto. The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar . However.

Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos . in December 14. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities.000 men. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico .In case of war. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. if deemed practicable and expedient.S. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border .Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2. Mississippi. drive them from their positions on either side of the river.Louisiana. was able to assemble a force of 6. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas.org/mexicanamericanwar1. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife.1848 MexicanHistory. but instead of marching north against the invaders. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities. Herrera. with much difficulty. 1846. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose." http://mexicanhistory. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande.about 4. Tennessee. and Kentucky.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force. was plotting to invade. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts.Mexican American War 1846 . your main object will be the protection of Texas . disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country. and.000 in all He was told. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments.

not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. from which it appeared probable that. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande." As there was no invasion to repel. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. it would enter into no negotiation with him. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. regard you as openly committing hostilities." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. 1845. 1846. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. On the 12th January. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression. wrote to the Secretary. he prudently waited for further orders. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that. a Mexican settlement. in pursuance of orders.org/mexicanamericanwar1. later known as Fort Brown . so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war.Mexican American War 1846 . commenced his march into the Mexican territory. 4th. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. envoy from Mexico. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . whatever professions of peace 'you may employ.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. without having met with the slightest opposition. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. He expelled the U.1848 MexicanHistory." On approaching Point Isabel. and the site of a Mexican Custom House.S. declared his willingness to fight. and Oct. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. he found the buildings in flames. and for which no reason had been assigned. Not an American. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. or committed any overt act of hostilities. the inhabitants must. except in reference to Texas. particularly those of July 8th. and http://mexicanhistory. Taylor. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . the extreme point of Texas proper.

after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded." but the main body of about 2. must decide the question. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. and therefore unseen. On May 13. camp . and. He immediately charged upon them . Pofter and one man was killed whether any.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. 1846. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. and Porter. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. the President announced to Congress and the world. acting on the advice of a local guide . published in the Philadelphia Inquirer . ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. Congress declared war on Mexico. appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. War is Declared General Taylor." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. whereupon he determined. In April 1846. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war . " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained.1848 MexicanHistory. investigated an abandoned hacienda. It appears they separated.four hours to remove his camp. adding." and requiring him within twenty. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. Tamaulipas. says. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground. Another letter. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. reports. "a war by the act of Mexico. 4th Infantry. and arms alone." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. and thus. Accordingly.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . despite protests by the Mexican government . " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. drove away the men. one of defence. and took possession of their horses." Notwithstanding the blockade. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . about 25 miles from the U. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. to make the intended war. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. it will clearly result that arms. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter. does not appear . " 16 Americans. . Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. he reports.Mexican American War 1846 . coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. on April 24 ." In this affair. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. it seems.S. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet.org/mexicanamericanwar1. not to remain any longer idle." Upon the Strength of this despatch." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons . Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. and retire beyond the Nueces .

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The rifle. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory.The US. source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories . American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military.com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy. Discover Family Heroes.S. Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' . Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle . The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced .S. with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate . The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources . but the frontiersman's rifle of the time.ancestry.S. trained specialist treats you in Collection.Mexico had no small arm factories of its own .org/mexicanamericanwar2.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written. including So Far from God: the U. was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it .com ObesityControlCenter.The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops.which played a decisive role in several key The U. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.

The President declared that in his opinion.500 hundred men . General Stephen W. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. but trained in horseback riding and combat . engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive .org/mexicanamericanwar2.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. like a fire breathing dragon. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. was stationed at Washington. and General Scott ." would be the best means of producing peace. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. Secretary at War. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory. a carbine or short musket called the dragon.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and the means to execute them. At this time. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. by consultations between the President. as commander of the army. seems to have been arranged jointly. He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. General Scott. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.

Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. with his main force. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. The departure of General Taylor with his army. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. and arrived on the next day. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. Major Brown. which had been left in care of a small detachment. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. The plan was judicious. The former was killed by a shell.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. It appears that General Arista. The army was halted. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. Leaving an unfinished field-work. was comparatively defenceless. by the accidental infor.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. both for skill and gallantry. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. therefore. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. . the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. In this defense.org/mexicanamericanwar2. who was now in command of the Mexican army. To take this place would. capture Point Isabel. and continued at intervals till the 10th.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. Captain Hawkins. and was only prevented from being carried out. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. Arista saw that Point Isabel. and then fall on the American army. under whose direction the fort was built. under the command of Major Brown. In the mean while. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. and several killed and wounded.

On the left wing of our army. The position was well chosen . but with as little success. by the Americans. Arista. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. but he was in retreat.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. while the 3d. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. says. M. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. under the command of Col. Ridgely. from which he did not depart till two p. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. might have easily been defended. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. and General La Vega taken prisoner. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. of the field. This he did. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. A ravine here crossed the road. had advanced beyond support.cipitately from the field. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. The artillerymen were dispersed. at night" This might be true . as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. and with greater energy of body. and by the 5th Infantry. were on their left.tery and by the infantry on the wings. and the battle was soon ended. The charge was gallantly made.cers were again driven back. general of cavalry. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. mostly Lancers. to charge the American right. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. At two P. when they were deployed into line. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. and by other troops of that division. dating his despatch. now broken by successive charges. under Lt. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. The Mexican cavalry. but was met by the Flying Artillery.. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. In this firing. They fled pre. The Lan. under Lt.The Mexican American War at a pool. Montero. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. and in turn fell back on the main body. In two hours. 4th. Ridgely. and took a new position several miles off. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. General Arista or. which was returned by Ridgely's bat.dered Torrejon. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. the army advanced by heads of columns.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . however. moved up the main road. Their columns. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. The Dragoons. the next day. A battery of artillery. " in sight of the enemy. at Resaca de la Palma. M. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. To remedy this.

while the main body. and near it other heights. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. Comargo. Mier.ted to them. the general. was the point selected as the depot of supplies.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. and on the 5th of September. numbering six thousand six hundred. to the left. as http://mexicanhistory. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. he advanced to the village of Marin. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. behaved well. in rear of the town and beyond the river. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. In front. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. The opposite side of the city. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. and in the rear. and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. or citadel. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. In the mean time. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. all fortified. and around it. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. Comargo. the capital of New Leon . both the general government at home. which was regularly fortified. Being reinforced. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande.in-chief left Comargo. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. On the heights. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. and were occupied. and Revilla surrendered. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. They fought gallantly.org/mexicanamericanwar2. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. were destined for the march to Monterey.

and after another severe contest retired in good order. with the bayonet and the artillery. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. and fired upon the redoubt. supported by the Light Artillery. the column rapidly moved. were forts also erected. and two or three thousand irregulars. if practicable. into the rear of which. with his division. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. being wounded. to attack the lower part of the town. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. to the support of General Worth. The army. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. A column of six hundred and fifty men.vious. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops.org/mexicanamericanwar2. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. who accompa. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. May's Dragoons. and they were compelled to retire. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. General Worth. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. The two last regiments. and Wood's Texan Cavalry.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. however. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . advanced against the redoubt. with its cannon and ammunition. The front defense here was a redoubt. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort.other column. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . were with. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. This movement was executed during the evening. with three companies of the 4th regiment.nied the parly in its advance. and Davis. Tennessee.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel.drawn. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. it is ob. superior in numbers to the American army. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. and the troops remained upon their arms. in spite of its fire. were detached to the right. and Mississippi. were both ordered forward . with Bragg's Artillery. and commenced its assault on the town. Garland's force. three miles from Monterey. pressed forward. General Butler. Up to this time. who had advanced with it. was ordered to the left. entered the town to the right. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. however. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. and advanced against the second battery. Campbell.

It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. The guns of the Citadel continued. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . sailing south to San Diego. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. from St. To this the Mexican chief replied.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. gave a new face to affairs. and take possession of. 1846. When Stockton's forces.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). and San Fernando de Prezas . or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. stopped in San Pedro. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . but always unsuccessfully. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). General Taylor. believed to be favorable to peace. Marines. defeated the enemy. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. Louis . The Surrender of Monterey. M. two companies of light.In Northern California. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. charges. but. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. Worth and his Division. but here a new resistance was made. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. Doniphan . and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. to fire upon the American positions . on the morning of the 23d. " The Saclede Rangers. Louis. the city of Linares. For this concession there were strong reasons. recommenced the advance. he dispatched 50 U. The main part of the capitulation was. That evening (at 9 p. the American army had but a short supply of provisions. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . two provinces. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . on the 13th of October. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men." a volunteer troop. in arms. in their defence. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. This was the key to Monterey. after some negotiation. then in command of the Mexican army. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. California and New Mexico. Besides al! this. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. and the Mexicans confined. treads upon the territory of this republic.org/mexicanamericanwar2. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. The houses were fortified. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. during this day. Kearney. while Gar. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. under Colonel Alexander W. from St. At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all.S. from Cole and Platte counties. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. Missouri. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth.The Mexican American War town. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. was one to move against. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. and carried several fortified heights. but General Taylor made no important movement in front.

More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. marched north from San Diego on December 29. Navy Captain William Mervine. banded together to defend their land. had http://mexicanhistory. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California. On March 15. 1847. left too small a force in Los Angeles. On January 13. with 4. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. General Stephen W. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. 1847. combined force. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. forces. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! . Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. [25] and the next day. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California.S.S. however. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. California.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. He promised the U. Later. 1847.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and the Californios. October 7 through October 9. 1846. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States. led by U. 14 U. 1847. With U. Meanwhile. Arizona and the Sonora desert. U. he reneged again and seized the presidency. Marines were killed. Col. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. Then. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. Lt. Kearny. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. January 1848. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. 1847. on December 6. after being appointed commanding general.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. Stockton. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. near San Pedro.600 men. 1847.000 . however. acting on their own and without help from Mexico.org/mexicanamericanwar2. On January 28.S. California. with a squadron of 139 dragoons.S. forces continued to arrive in California. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25. fought as Californio Lancers. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. Philip St. That marked the end of the war in California. The rancho vaqueros.S. January 9.S. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. Iowa Territory. their re-supplied. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. On January 12.S. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. 1847. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. 1846. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. The next day. Taylor. led by José Mariá Flores. Col. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego.000 men. Jonathan D. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. Other U.

S.S.600 mounted dragoons ahead. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis.S. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders.org/mexicanamericanwar2. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. Scott had sent 2.S. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions. Polk distrusted Taylor. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. during which some U.400 men. Grant. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. the U. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. troops were routed. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice.000 men in a tired state. 1847. Included in the invading force were Robert E. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. Although by then aware of the positions of U.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna flanked the U. army. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded.000 were taken prisoner. weapons and horses near the walled city. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. A group of 12. about half of whom were civilian. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City.S. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. troops suffered 80 casualties. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. Furious fighting ensued. army suffered 400 casualties.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz.S. Santa Anna withdrew that night. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north.500 healthy troops. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . along which he expected Scott to appear.S. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. However. he attacked the next morning. Ulysses S.000 casualties and 3. During the siege. Lee. Instead of taking the main road. troops. The U. U. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. George Meade. The Mexican army was routed.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance.

Lee. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . 1847. http://mexicanhistory. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St.S.The Mexican American War On the same day. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung. Twiggs agreed. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E.org/mexicanamericanwar2. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . U. However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west.

Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. and cadets Agustin Melgar. and the first wave ascended the walls. "From the Halls of Montezuma. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. but his troops managed to raise the U. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. 211 Union Battalion. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. To the southwest. and General Juan N. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city.. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. but was unable to communicate with him . and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. and there was a lull in the battle. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. and the U. At 08:00. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. signed on February 2. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. Vicente Suarez.S. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city.S. he grabbed the Mexican flag. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. 115 Queretaro Battalion. some as young as 13 years old. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . when one was left (Juan Escutia)." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Before he could withdraw. Flag over the castle. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. forces. Newman S. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist .S.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders.S.The efforts of the U. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city.S. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort.. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. ended the war and gave the U. The scaling ladders arrived. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. President Polk tried to recall Trist. established the U. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. 277 Mina Battalion. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. apparently falling from above . A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist.S. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point. Lasting throughout most of the day. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. including the cadets.S. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. Johnston. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. who took over 90% casualties. also known as the Halls of Montezuma. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. undisputed control of Texas. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. Juan Escutia. Caught between two fronts. the fighting had been severe and costly. Pérez was killed. forces were about to kill him. One by one they fell. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U.

and Wyoming. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory.S. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time. and parts of Colorado.000.S.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California . newspaper. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time. especially among U. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla .S.S. Nevada. agreed to assume $3.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River. citizens. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US . had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U. Mexico received US $15. with the 15 million already spent.000—less than half the amount the U.org/mexicanamericanwar2. New Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . In return. Arizona. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. politicians that had opposed the war from the start.Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. Utah.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla.S. A leading U. By doing so.

1854 .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 .The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma.ObesityControlCenter.org/Ayutla.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support . a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca.org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital. sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues . This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state .The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico . the neighboring states of Morelos. while the liberals (puros) refused . Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor. After over a year of guerrilla warfare.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. Michoacan . the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice . Costa Rica.In Guerrero. who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president . The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet. Dominican Rep.which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution . insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . democratic state .The leader of the young. socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez . www. http://mexicanhistory.S.CaliBaja. The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise.mortgageallianceprogram. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1.).htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .

The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned. Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan.The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms .Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws . delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. freedom of speech. While freedom of religion was not declared. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez.The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions . http://mexicanhistory.com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .org/Ayutla. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power . In the new constitution. Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals . the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church .The civil war was very vicious .this conflict led to the vicious war of reform.The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. Comonfort becomes President www. They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term .org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot . The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war .HumanEvents. These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction .For the first two years. press. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) . The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861. the Plan de Tacubaya. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals . The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824.

With the War of the Reform over. and 64 million of this was owed to the British .The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts.The new president chose a more lenient policy.By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives. Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France. Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World .The conservative President.However.France. this was not to be .In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City . Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .org/Ayutla.000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz. 1861.But the biggest problem was yet to come.HumanEvents. England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties . 1861. The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant .Juarez won the presidental election of 1861.On October 31. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . some over fifty years old . In december. under the leadership of Napoleon III. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico.Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts.com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . Spain. 6.To get some breathening space for the economy to revive. Spain and England withdrew their troops .org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought . Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives . but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies .

he was determined to make France great again . the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie.He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota.000 to Mexico .org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 . America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27. western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king .1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico . Vera Cruz.As mentioned before.org/French. Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal .

the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo .org/French. Napoleon ordered 30.000 reinforcements .The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla.The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi. 1862.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months . The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy . under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever.000 French. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory.The French bombarded Puebla.On May 5.It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again . The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462. where around 4.

map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time. They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange .Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves .He was proclaimed Maximilian I. 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou.Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives . French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people . Emperor of Mexico on April 10.Here. that of Camaron on April 30. who had a wooden hand. 1864.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867. which of course approved him .He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people . met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived. 1863.On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle . http://mexicanhistory.In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico .A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army.org/French. General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion .

Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . which had never recognized Maximilian's government . After the fall of the Confederacy. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865. the republicans only held four states. After its fall.org/French. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. However. however.After the downfall of the Confederacy.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville.He even named Jose Fernando. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . however. The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. a moderate liberal. but nothing came of it . religious freedoms. This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support . American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. was to lead to the emperors own death . and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class.The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. as secretary of foreign affairs . French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . Guerro. He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. Chihuahua. General Grant ordered 42. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . http://mexicanhistory. The liberals. Sonora and Baja.The French. religious toleration . This decree. which was not the case . There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage .Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. creating a succession issue. The emperor . General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces. a Mason.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded.

talked him out of it. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope. However. Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 . It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak .During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops. the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. but his wife. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . Over 50.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. who urged the emperor to join him. Portirio Diaz. Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression . saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity.the last french soldier left on March 16. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. before he could carry out this plan. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future .He was executed by firing squad on June 19. However on May 15.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion .The battle began on Feb 19. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. Tampico. who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . fashion and culture into Mexico .a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines.org/French.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies . along with Miramon and Mejia . Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca.000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. 1867. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days . The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong . the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory.However. Monterey.It also introduced French ideas.

sanbornsinsurance.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online. www.fiestamericanagrand.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Home Revolution of Ayutla.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife .com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. purchase and print your auto policy online.com www.ancestry.org/French. Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina.com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.

org/RestoredRepublic.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867. and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . Costa Rica.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.Despite this.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection.mortgageallianceprogram.S. The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention .org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. sanbornsinsurance. Dominican Rep. Schooling was made mandatory. Juarez immediately set about making economic. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. There was still antagonisms from the conservatives. http://mexicanhistory.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . the rurales was established to check banditry. purchase and print your auto policy online.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 . political and educational reforms. Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz . Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . www.ObesityControlCenter.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .

Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative. an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors .Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country . the rurales.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway. Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy . Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress .000 miles .Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico . Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872.Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment . The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat.To secure the roads. a rural police force was established.org/RestoredRepublic. especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep . in contrast with the US which had over 30. Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory.

in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . where he defeated Diaz easily . http://mexicanhistory. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. but he through this effort 1. Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . and Porfirio Diaz. Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time . who had the support of the military and conservatives . who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October .org/RestoredRepublic. beginning the Mexican muralist movement . The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy . Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained.Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867. none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 . A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts .When the ballots were counted.600 miles off telegraph line was put up . Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada.the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. 1871.

He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. 1876. Lerdo was reelected on July 24. following the pattern of Juarez. Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory.org/RestoredRepublic.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. 1876.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 . This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud.

S.Farming methods had changed little from colonial days . Free trial.com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www.ancestry.org/Diaz. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory.' During his 33 year rule.who was a Mestizo.seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . www.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales .com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .MegWhitman. still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades . the main engine of the economy.com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records. Mexico entered the industrial age .Despite the efforts of the liberals mining. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border . of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side. Mexico was still troubled by banditos . The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .ObesityControlCenter.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Like Juarez before him.

but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . Díaz had the constitution amended. and then to remove all restrictions on re-election.By 1890. At the end of his first term. http://mexicanhistory.Jose Limantour. President Gonzalez 1880 . but the strain was too much for the treasury .Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won .Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling .These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. the railway from Mexico City to El Paso.Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . made economic changes such as changing tariffs.org/Diaz. switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . first to allow two terms in office.84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country.During his administration. For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing . who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth . so he cut the salaries of government officials . secretary of the treasury. In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government. Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims . the Mexican treasury was running in the black . Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term .

who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda.Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions .silver production increased from 24. became much more productive . but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society . From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877. By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . In 1910 life expectancy was 30.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico. The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule.000.000 Pesos in 1908. Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving .000 Pesos in 1877 to 85.Diaz was advised by cientificos. Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. in contrast to 50 in the US at the time . Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive .000. France and Germany . Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune . The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost . threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination. Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size .org/Diaz. Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land.000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness . It seemed a http://mexicanhistory. manipulated by the powerful .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest .Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . They promoted science.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged.Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly . Elections were held. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves .He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion. but they were shams for the most part. such as silver and cooper mines .16 percent of the population was homeless .The press was tightly censored.

Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell . the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief . some advocating violent overthrow. This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907. such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua .By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed.Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them .org/Diaz. Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . Now. http://mexicanhistory. they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %. he had overstayed his welcome . who often worked in appaling conditions .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work . Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato. The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers.The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good .Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers .Like many powerful leaders before.The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight .

Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico .When the official results were announced by the government. http://mexicanhistory. They organized a revolutionary party. Despite what he had told Creelman. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. however. In a 1908 interview with the U. Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz. Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio. journalist James Creelman. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León.org/Diaz.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . After this.Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections . Despite Reyes silence. although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20.Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates.S. Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. decided to run for president again . In St. They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. He thoght political. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses . This caused aroused widespread anger.such as the Flores Magon brothers . The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero .Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well. Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections.

the outnumbered federal commander surrendered . Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government . yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him .the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years.org/Diaz. In Chihuahua.Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero . At the last minute. The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses .BookIt. In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command . brings the US into the conflict .Diaz had been overthrown.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . but the revolution had just started . His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great .Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.On Jan 2. afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso. On May 10. Afterwards.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . In 1915. Díaz died in exile in Paris. others towns such as Tehuacan. 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion. Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www.

An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday.To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution . a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women . Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. below in Mexico. President Diaz. However.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended . Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . anger was simmering over the injustice of decades.org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online.net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.ancestry. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Pancho Villa. everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana.com panchovillastories. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months.Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. Now on DVD www.org/revolution. But underneath.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .

Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods.org/revolution.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. started by Diaz himself. The election of 1910 provided a spark. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism." Diaz. Trains were often used as weapons themselves.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Most large companies were foreign owned. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. but solely upon the army . . Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9.

By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush . and then return home to spend most of the year farming. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. 1878 – July 20.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him.often led by Villa himself. However. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader. he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. commonly known as Zapatistas.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. from federal forces. He neither drank or smoked. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time.Famous for their cavalry charges. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves).htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. but was never caught. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico. when 1910 came. was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy. 1879–April 10. Emiliano Zapata (August 8. but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. banditos. As a result. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. Madero campaign.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile . crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. A ladron steals from his neighbors. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. Previously. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time.org/revolution. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. http://mexicanhistory. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South).on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). Madero was an unusual person for the times.

Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength.In April the forces of Madero. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and.org/revolution. the ambassador to the U. from federal forces. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. would serve as interim president. Now let's see if he can control it. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910. remarkably. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua.S. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. Porfiro Diaz. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. After being wounded in Ojinaga. Madero promoted him to colonel. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. on 31 October of that year. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. Would this be an end to the bloodshed.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. The Madero Presidency November 6. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. His nephew. Francisco de la Barra. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. 1911 – February 18. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government.He was killed on Aug 30.

which undermined the reforms he advocated .Madero appointed family members.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned.He gave out government contracts to family businesses. however. both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder.which had been gagged since Diaz. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself. Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . some of them conservative.org/revolution. Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . this infuriated Zapata. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . Zapata Some. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. Madero allowed freedom of the press. but the government had no money with with to pay them. During this time. On October 1. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876. to many this looked like old style corrupt government .These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. It is not without significance. the secretary of foreign relations. became the interim president . 1911 Modero won the national election .such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . Educational reformers were also disappointed . to important posts. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. However. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. Leon de la Barra. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands.

angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. Gen. Huerta in charge of the army .Orozco. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side. Jose Salas.. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets. committed suicide . In his Plan Orozquista.000 army. Reportedly. http://mexicanhistory. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.On August 8 Madero orders Gen. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U.and on March 3 went into open revolt.The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . from which Villa later escaped. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size . By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside.org/revolution. Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions . who had reached an agreement with Madero. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. but this showed how weak the new government was .Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. supported by Villa. Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor.S. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces .

and together they plotted a coup .The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. feeling compassion for Diaz. the nephew of Porfirio. led mostly by supporters of Diaz . yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz. on Oct 12. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. did not order his execution. 1912 led by Felix Diaz.org/revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Reyes. Modero. an action which would cost him his life .Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender .Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen.

Reyes . 1913. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ). where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora. Huerta is supported by conservatives.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders . 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal. broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free. Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. Mustering some five thousand men. near Mexico City. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day . From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation.For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico.And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . not all did .On Feb 21.They of course declared a plan. The American ambassador. powerfully fortified. were slaughtered in the streets. The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. the Plan de Guadalupe. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end.000 none too loyal army Soldaderas . Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels . seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. On Feb 17.In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior .org/revolution. just the ouster of Huerta.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president .which had been free under Madero. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Using these tactics he created a 200. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen.It is still not known if Diaz. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison . and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. which had no social reform goals.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. many of them women and children. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed .The press.However.bull fights and walking on the streets.

This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred .In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army . the major ports and most large cities .As his military position began to crumble.Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250.They were celebrated in folk songs.Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states . 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention . Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . decided Huerta would have to go . The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot. against the wishes of Carranza. while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas. Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. Political assassination was also used .By March and April. huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico. The Americans.The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them . but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. Initially.000.000. and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent . More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. much of which was done under forced conscription.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados.The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began .The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south . In 1914. http://mexicanhistory. The convention chose. The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21. Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. then only numbering about 50. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez . Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed.This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US .org/revolution. It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president . 1914 . The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . such as La Adelita . Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico.In early 1914.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta .The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. often fought with their husbands as well .The convention exposed the differences between the fighters. Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . in order to pacify the country.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .

htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .000 killed. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. the battle of Celaya . By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . Villa attacked with an estimated 25.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair. who had never been defeated in a major battle . seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914. In early April. who had fled to Nuevo Leon. http://mexicanhistory. None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . Villa lost an estimated 4. by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges .this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat .org/revolution. Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa. roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. Carranza.000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 . War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists. Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry.

New Mexico. 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops. killing 18 Americans . which he won in March. After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory. Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms . with stronger executive control. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property .Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . 1916.On March 16.On Jan 9.org/revolution. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election.Education was to be secular.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6.There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians .The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. 1917 .The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present. 1916. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency. no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed . who were pro-Villa.The power of the church was limited. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. who held a majority and voted in major reform articles . Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico.The clamor for intervention was immediate .

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

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Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

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Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner.34 (PRI).Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.Obregon and Callas 1920 .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] . but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts.supported by Callas. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings .org/1920s.. Callas became more conservative as time wore on. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio. Communists and Chinese. a fascist group attacked Jews . In the election of 1928.com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory. The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s.KausforSenate.com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent.The government withdrew its support for unions. Stop lockstep liberalism! www. in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government . There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury .

1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home . http://mexicanhistory. a Governor of Michoacan.40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell. Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns . As before. Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad).com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas. The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army.The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . the CTM.He did not use bodyguards.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. which endeared him to the people . such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton .org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .As he had in Michoacan.Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos .000. By his first term he had redistributed 49.By 1935. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education .This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos.Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed . Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union .000 acres. Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July. and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History.when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas .PlayMusic123. www. Habla Español www. the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli.RoyaltyClearinghouse. Some cooperative projects were started. With Callas' support.com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. think he would be able to control him as a puppet . Lowest Price. Paracho & SofiaMari.org/cardenas.adultjewishlearning.

deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution .000. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. and as production declined the national debt rose .While this move was popular. and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico . Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans.000 in 1930 .The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration".The US. but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain. He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America.org/cardenas. it hurt the economy. Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 . he threw his support behind Avila Comacho. The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. Home Obergon. the Peso weakened and the economy worsened . However.Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . Oil income was a major source of income for the government. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. the new American president. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry.As the depression went on. In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention.The matter was sent to an arbitration board. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. who won the 1940 election .40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts .Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million . He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. In the election of 1939.

15.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory.46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica. World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians.Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith.That day after Pearl Harbor. Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war . however. promoted Juan Andreu . a well known revolutionary .Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered . Cardenas. Under the slogan' Each one teach one'. The conservatives. threw his support behind secretary of war.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course . Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly .000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war.com/LA http://mexicanhistory.org/camacho. Avila Comacho. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . on a variety of fronts. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier. afraid of more socialization.Groupon.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] . By the time the war ended there were over 300. More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. Less land was redistributed.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . However.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .There was not much support for joining the War.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions . Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www. The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming . on May 14 and May 24. and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners.000 Mexican workers in America . every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write .

The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.org/camacho.

Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .nmhu.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico . 1940s.Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 . Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway. www. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico.com Miguel Aleman 1947 .Women were allowed to vote in 1952 . irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 . the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory.Mexican History 1947 .org/aleman.2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Great price. this is the story of Pablo Acosta.The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .org 1947 . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.ObesityControlCenter.edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .S.2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .

nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock. much to the chagrin of the US . The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area . Adolfo Mateos 1958. Money for books had been 'diverted.F.Mexican History 1947 .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory. there were no books on the bookshelves. the issue of birth control was skirted around . cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.000 a people poured into the cities . the urban population surpassed the rural population .Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects.' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952.K. Ruiz Cortines 1952 . Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities .000. Communists were not tolerated and arrested . one of the most modern in the world atthe time .The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City .2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration . He continued land redistribution.America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .000 people .64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents . he did not undertake and new large projects .While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.However.Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over.org/aleman.Strong economic growth continued. some of the largest housing 100. but being a Catholic country.and fewer than half of school age children went to school . There was large scale corruption. Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground .Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated. Because of corroption. implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .In 1960.In response.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment . strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools . all was not well .Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J.

the following clash led to some deaths.But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s .70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%.Mexican History 1947 .org/aleman.On October 2.Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI. After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband.The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns.In the following days there were more riots. barricading streets and burning buses . and the tourist trade greatly increased .For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 . However it started.and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail . the army used tear gas and clubs . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes. several hundred people were killed . http://mexicanhistory.In July 26. Huge demonstrations were held on many universities . there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings . Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli . 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution. which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot . Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 . sometimes with federal troops being called in .2008 until his death in 1970 . 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. On August 27.In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics .

His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption. to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad.. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods . the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence." "excessive overseas borrowing. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%.000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor). the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976. Robberies and kidnappings .org/aleman. he tried to order price controls on basic items .Caught in the inflation of the early 70s.Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan. to make exports more competitive. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. about 70. During his period. Wages were low and workers conditions were bad . 1976.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . at least in terms of its economic policies. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco.¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him.Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico.Since 1973. In September. By 1974. One of the largest.Many started to go to America illegally. former secretary of the interior.2008 Despite this.Mexican History 1947 . Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession . became president in 1970 . started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down . http://mexicanhistory. Luis Echeverría 1970 . The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl .76 Echeverría. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly.In September. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged . the bane of other Latin American countries.The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%.He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control . and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. This caused the ruling party. The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 . 1976.

the economy only made weak progress. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated .Mexican History 1947 .86 During his tenure. Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development .More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars .Over 100. fraud and strong arm election tactics .000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage .Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up.Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF .Madrid's popularity was severly damaged .Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread.Despite the oil boom. crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years .Mexico could not meet its debt repayments.Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments.2008 In 1974.In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports . http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7.Public spending was cut by one third .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10. Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s. by the end of the Lopez administration. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out .000 were left homeless . with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo.Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year. increased 100% in price . a process that continued under his successors. and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs.The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar . 1985 . Miguel de la Madrid 1982 . huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco. He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 . for example. On Sept 19. The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars . the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment. a 8. foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions .org/aleman. suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation . During de la Madrid's presidency.

Mexican History 1947 . Also in 1994.The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes .Some progress was made with political corruption as well.It was led by The president responded with military repression. Indian abuse and its own government . Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. but reports of the national and international media .But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. Salinas' chosen sucessor. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War. and established a new relationship between State and Church. and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections .org/aleman.He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake. masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising . the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. Carlos Salinas .1994 In the election of 1988. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate. http://mexicanhistory. EZLN. Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party. started in Chiapas against corruption. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement . Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos .

In 1997 he moved to Ireland. Vicente Fox .Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses.2 percent in 2002.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords .Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. Vicente Fox 2000 .2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president . Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . http://mexicanhistory. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico .org/aleman.In 2000.2000 Within days of taking office.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia .He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor. behind Cortes and Diaz . US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico. and countries in Central America. approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul. and led to an economic recesssion .He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court. Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico. which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system. the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú.Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved . putting the country in an economic tailspin . China. Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. known as the December Mistake.Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 . Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico. the Peso suddenly collapsed .Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo.2% during Fox's administration. however economy grew at a slow pace . In spite of opposition within his party. Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . Ernesto Zedillo 1994 .Mexican History 1947 . Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change.GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2. maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.

org/aleman. 2006.present On July 6. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .On September 5. market control of the economy. and authoritarianism." In his interpretation.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right. resulting in a narrow margin of 0. expropriation.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . 2006. However. but a choice between "the past and the future.Mexican History 1947 . the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election.58% for Calderón over his closest contender. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization. liberalization. state control of the economy.

org/aleman.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.Mexican History 1947 .

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11. Find Your Sweetheart in www.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.500 Knossos founded 2.org/timeline.500 BC 5. profiles. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.S.000 Archaic era 1.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. Baja 7.500 BC 5.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.500 Indus civilization 2.000 BC 7.000 BC 11.000 Large animals vanish.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.ancestry. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.000 5.000 - 2.com Mexico! AmoLatina.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online.

com salsa. El Tajin.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org/timeline.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory. AmoLatina. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf.S.elwired.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.ObesityControlCenter. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . sanbornsinsurance. purchase and print your auto policy online.

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown.org/timeline. Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory. Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence.

rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. 1846. Nuevo León. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857. modeled after the one of 1824. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. 1846.org/timeline. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . 1821 . Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory. president can only serve one term. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled. September 27.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .

widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. first to allow two terms in office.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again.Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City . New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. Diaz revolts again. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. who had Madero jailed . hundreds killed by naval fire. but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. Maximilian executed. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . England and France land troops. has the constitution amended. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. French troops stay. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . angry at not getting US recognition . England and Spain depart. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain.org/timeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. blockade demanding repayments of debt. church power limited. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory.

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .BookIt. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 . major dams built. which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated.org/timeline.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. known as the December Mistake. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed .Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR. later known as PRI. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president.

The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas. Discover Family Heroes. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.000 Mexicans . March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco.com www.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. replaces it with a new centralist constitution. By 1835 there were 30. Mexico http://mexicanhistory.ObesityControlCenter.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .S. The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.ancestry. Many states. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence .Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle. trained specialist treats you in Collection.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.Mexico orders halt to American immigration. including Texas revolt. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico.000 Americans and only around 8. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico.

1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. Polk (49) becomes president of the US.S. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it. 1841 from a cold. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found. who is overthrown. The mutineers select Gen. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. 1845 U.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state.such as former President Martin Van Buren. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. President John Tyler.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. Polk http://mexicanhistory.

he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule.500 regulars have gathered.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. but regains power.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. Nov 29 Former U. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'.500 troops. and Mexico . gives interim President Herrera. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas.S.S. Mexico. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. authority to raise troops and prepare for war.S.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. on the transport Alabama. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen. Louisiana into Texas with 1.. Dec2 . had never ratified these treaties. however. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico . When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. By late Oct 3. Coahuila. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border. but had been parts of Tamaulipas.

htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera. assembles a force of 6.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Arista reaches Matamoros. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake. April 25 a 1.S. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen.Jose Maria Castro. but is not authorized to attack. Mejia has 3.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team. Taylor refuses. April 2 Gen. March 8 Gen. killing 16 U.000 men under his command. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen. Francisco Mejia. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory.Col. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol.000 men. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness.S.200 men. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. declared President of Mexico.

May 13 U. overrunning the Mexican artillery. Maj.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros. Arista retreats toward Linares. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor.losing many men in the desert. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas.Mexican American War Timeline command. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. Gen.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic.S. incident. Nuevo Leon. which later becomes Brownsville. Taylor attacks his center.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Aug 5 Gen. 39 Americans killed. 6. Mexican losses 200 killed.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line. Americans have 9 killed. Arista resigns command to Gen. http://mexicanhistory. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts.300 confronts Taylor's 2. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire. border set at the 49th parallel. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U.S. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara.Jose Maria Ortega.Arista with 3.S. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen.300. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House.

Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan.called the Black Fort by the Americans. no Americans killed. leaving 4.700 for garrison duty. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles.S. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U.which is defended by a formidable citadel.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen.200 regulars and 3. to be led by Gen. Jan 13 Lt. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3. Aug18 Gen. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City.000 militia.500 man army in four months. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms.000 Mexican regulars and 23.Richey.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. forcing them to surrender. Ampudia asks for terms. the last Mexican stronghold in California. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Winfield Scott.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6. gathering a 21. Mexicans 700 casualties.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship.645 troops. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.000 volunteers. Americans suffer 120 killed. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi.

500 desertions. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. 3.Special Cavalry Division..Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance.800. Santa Anna's 18. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12.8.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. March 9 American landing at Veracruz. an easier to defend narrow pass.000 man Mexican army. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line. most in a 800 man cavalry charge. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa. Taylor retires toward Monterrey. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues.Americans lose 63 killed.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor. California is renamed San Francisco.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans. Mexicans lose 300 killed. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. Mexicans lose 1. March 21 10.600 soldiers land by nightfall.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20. Only 14. Siege of Veracruz begins. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !'). Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila.General Santa Anna. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Robert E.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2.000 Mexican prisoners taken.

org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 30 out of 69 are executed.000 captured. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion. which falls after a fierce battle.500 troops. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there. Santa Ana flees Mexico City. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today.000 troops.. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. http://mexicanhistory. Six cadets fight to the death. Americans have lost 139 killed.500 of which are sick. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . the last major defense before Mexico City.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired.500 under Worth to take it.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec. Scott sends 3.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements. 50 of which are cadets.Bravo. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3.820 . July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. Joseph E. Americans lose 116 killed. 2. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col.000 dead and 3. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans.and is left with 5.000 troops and 30 cannons.000 of his defeated troops. defended by 260 defenders under Gen. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey.(Boy Heros).hoping he will ask for terms. Scott now has 14. Mexican loses are 4.

Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City.S. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War. A couple of days of severe rioting follows. Since 1960. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door. America takes California.Nevada.com http://mexicanhistory.CaliBaja.HolidayInn.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1876 July 31 last of 18. Anaya become interim president.Utah.S.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80. citizens. Book now! www. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe.000) were to be treated as U. Free Investor Kit.Colorado. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill.Arizona and New Mexico.5 million in claims by U. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport. citizens against Mexico. in Coloma.sailor Owen Edgar. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Goldline. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.

He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876. many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. this huge class of people was not educated.pestilence and death.com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. http://mexicanhistory.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once. To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.Info." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 . www.Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Shopping. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost.Metin2. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www.

including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua. Oct 11 Madero. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi. Madero joined by other local leaders. 1911 http://mexicanhistory.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Madero was unusual for his period. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . He didn't drink or smoke. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Francisco Madero.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. better known as Pancho Villa. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising.often led by Villa himself. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular.

Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. let’s see if he can ride it. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. Diaz offers to resign. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries.500 under Madero. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga.. Madero enters city. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. Madero refuses.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero. April 3. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.

Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.once an ally of Villa. Madero turns to Gen. He plans to march on Mexico City.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. supported by powerful hacienda landowners. raises a well equipped army of 6. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support. Slow to take action on land reform . angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Pascual Orozoco.000 in the north. Nov 9 In Texas. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.

300 killed around presidential palace. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Huerta defeats Orozoco.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. April 26 Col.400 men. Brig. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. forcing him to flee to the US. Diaz freed. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .5.Mexican Revolution Timeline order. Revolt fails and Leon is executed. Gen Felix Diaz. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City.

Huerta would become temporary president. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Gen. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. 500 civilians killed. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected.The press. http://mexicanhistory.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president. Huerta is supported by conservatives. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. 100 Madero supporters are executed. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . of Coahuila. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him. limiting church power. Feb 24 The Gov. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857.which had been free under Madero. Vice Pres. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man. In reality Huerta ordered the murders. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. Lane recalled. Huerta seizes Madero. Jose Suarez and cabinet. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane..New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government.bull fights and walking on the streets. Using these tactics he created a 200.000 none to loyal army. In the next election.who murder him. Soon others launch rebellion. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's.

Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . City taken. all federal officers executed.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town.. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. a politician and rancher from Coahuila. was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. with the secret support of the United States. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border.000 men. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. Federal train blown up.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. Several hundred executed. The northern armies of Villa. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. calling his forces the Constitutionalists. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. 1913. On March 26. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions.killing 100 federal troops. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. 12. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. federals round up civilians. all federal officers executed.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales.

Huerta goes into exile in Europe. There was a considerable concentration of U.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off. through such writers as John Reed.S. 400 more Americans are sent ashore. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory. American Rear Adm. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed. Sniper fire continues.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico.Snipers open fire on Americans. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York. The Mexican commander refuses.300 sailors and 2. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released.S. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila . June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz. leading to his resignation on July 15.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico. 4 Americans killed. Villa became a folk hero in the U.Eventually 3.. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry.000 marines land. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T.

org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. Their combined armies of 50. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape.000 march through city. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz.000 and many supplies. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president. who lose 2. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. who departs for Veracruz.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. abandoned by Villa and Zapata. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms.

known as the general who never won a battle . Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults.Hill succeeds him.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US.000 cavalry against Obregon's 9.is unable to defeat Zapata . Despite using terror tactics.barbed wire and machine guns.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI.000 taken prisoner.000 man army.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .400 cavalry and 14. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico. US cuts off arms supplies to Villa.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.Villa has 8.000 cavalry.500 horsemen and 6.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches .000 causalities and retreats north. 6. http://mexicanhistory. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.5.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over. angering him.500 infantry.Villa loses 4. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire.

March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3.000 men to pursue Villa. 1917 It allows freedom of religion. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west. has 9.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train.equal pay for men and women. New Mexico with 500 riders. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus. Retreats with only 1.400.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train. Takes much booty and gives speech. Villa losses many of his remaining 5.000 followers.south or east will be contested. 400 desert Villa.000 in late April. Approved on Feb 17.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos. workers allowed to form labor unions.30.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 man army occupies every major town in the state. with air support. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen.child labor prohibited.

http://mexicanhistory. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta.believing he would become his puppet.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez. by which time the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. Supporters. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty..S.000 followers. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta. but murders him while he is sleeping. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. March many Obregon supporters arrested. the ambassador to Mexico. flees Mexico City. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas. Huerta gives a 25. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon.killing 200. including Villa rally to his side. Gov. had declared war on Germany.Following Zapata's death.. Obregon harassed.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving.

Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years. An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory. but large scale fighting is over.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated. Huerta flees Mexico.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.

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