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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
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A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524.Colonial Mexico 1519 . always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on . eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office .Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito.Large cities such as Oaxaca. The presidios (military towns). The Indians. A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . Utah and Colorado . In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. all were to have a main plaza.In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas. Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed . Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces .Eventually. Arizona. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs . church . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 .1821 MexicanHistory. almost all of the Aztec empire. Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies .org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . There were 62 viceroys in New Spain. The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly. along with such regions as Colina. The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. California.Provincial towns were organized by royal decree. sometimes there would be advanced warning . New Mexico.

The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war .Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making . leaving the area undermanned .org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans.Colonial Mexico 1519 . They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems.Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. Dominicans and the Augustinians . The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico. who were still viewed as a menace. The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . The Indians. Augustin's City of God . A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ . King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians .1821 MexicanHistory. The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs . monastic life and humble character . The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty .the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy. Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . it's continuation.His successor.They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold.Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41). led by Tenamaxtli .org/colonial. Charles V took this charge seriously. http://mexicanhistory. the most serious revolt of the times . the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century.

Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City .1821 MexicanHistory. http://mexicanhistory. For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts . with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .Nine million were baptized by 1537. This was the open chapel or capilla abierta. The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe. She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . The Catholic reverence for saints.org/colonial. often being the first Europeans to explore an area . They built fortess missions across New Spain .org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country.000 Indians a day .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . 50 such churches had been built . By 1540.

Charles V was dead.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Mexico.org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages. They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life.In the mid 16 century. Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. Phillip II ( r 1556 . Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers . and the new Spanish king. the Florentine Codex. The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws. Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds . 1601. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun.The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned .The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded .1821 MexicanHistory. These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization .org/colonial.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm .1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain .Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . In the process.Indians http://mexicanhistory. such as. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles .

Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory. with the prisoners often strangled first . The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . These works did find there way into the private libraries.In New Spain.Colonial Mexico 1519 . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.Crimes like adultery.In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . The Bourbon kings. criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster . the first in the colony was in 1574 .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla.Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain .org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike. This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico. Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes . this decree led to riots and other disturbances. which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) .org/colonial.1821 MexicanHistory. however . The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment. Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n. Juan de Palafox. especially those of the Enlightenment writers. after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting . who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters . wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . principally in San Luis Potos .The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . Auto de fes drew large crowds .There were also quarrels with civil authorities .The crime of heresy.

1700 ) . wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 . Mestizo. Indians and African slaves .1821 MexicanHistory. Creoles could not hold royal office . Castizo. be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ). http://mexicanhistory. The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans.org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . some of it in the Nahuatl language.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . who taught many local artist . Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop .Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 .Colonial Mexico 1519 . persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent. She wrote poetry.1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . . Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). Cholos.org/colonial. la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 .1695 ). At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period . There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . The Social Classes a Mestizo baby. persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent. most of these returned to Spain .One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman.Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes.

silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . ships traveled in annual convoys for protection..There were royal taxes of all kinds on land. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20. Euromestizos. They were sometimes made into slaves. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians. Over the years. which was due on almost everything sold. The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. which fixed the price of goods and their quality .org/colonial. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . Zambos.000 in the 16th century to 6.1821 MexicanHistory.One example of this is the olive and wine industry.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus .The China trade was established in 1564 silks. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . After about 1560.Colonial Mexico 1519 . licenses. etc. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. Money makers such as tobacco. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . industry could not grow and advance. In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. ceramics.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . which were the wards of the church and the Crown .000 by 1800.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . etc . tailors. from piracy . gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem .org Mulatos. The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . persons who were mixed indio and negro. The most hated was the alcabala. Commerce was controlled by royal decree. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory.With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled.Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries. tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver .

combined with bad roads.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org colonies and Spain itself . The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . was of prime importance to Spain . silver bar from shipwreck. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas.1821 MexicanHistory. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle.org/colonial.In the early colonial period. bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . Such http://mexicanhistory. Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . By the 18th century. The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. Some of the haciendas were vast.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. The restrictions. diversified economy from growing .

repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians .1821 MexicanHistory. Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . However. The building material in New Spain was more colorful.org/colonial. plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. 1549. a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . thick walls were needed because of earthquakes.org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer .It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. http://mexicanhistory. So.The debts were passed down from father to son .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks. but was modified by the new land. but few wished to. usually a week at a time .Colonial Mexico 1519 . rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . except for mine labor . in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay .Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage.There were many abuses to this system. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. which was abolished in the early 17th century.

1821 MexicanHistory.org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style .org/colonial. the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines . http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .In the mid 16th century. The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.Colonial Mexico 1519 . built in the late 18th century. The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu . The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575).

org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged. alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.Colonial Mexico 1519 . It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times. a spanish architect ).1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.

Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years .In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock. hospitals and universities . built in 1585 . Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence .built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction .1821 MexicanHistory. a more severe.org/colonial. Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana. An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . University of the Cloister of Sor Juana. http://mexicanhistory.org As a reaction to the excess. Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals. plazasa. Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City . neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830.

particularly their designs.Colonial Mexico 1519 . http://mexicanhistory.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons . Chinese ceramic was soon imitated.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .org Castillo de Chapultepec.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Spain in the 16th century .Many people consider Puebla.1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina. built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war . Basilica Guadalupe. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera. Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 .

Wine was introduced early to New Spain .1700 ). Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon. Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. He had named a greatnephew. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Duke of Anjou. Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara. the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . and more popularly called pulque. The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant.org/colonial.1821 MexicanHistory. but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries . When Charles II died in 1700. Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. which they called octli (later. Philippe de Bourbon. Tequila . Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer .The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . feeble in mind and body. The crown had a monopoly on pulque.org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . which was a major source of revenue .

The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas .Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty . The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown . improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . the Duc d'Anjou.88 ). Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies .The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually . Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 .1821 MexicanHistory..htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general . In 1740. the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . http://mexicanhistory. fought on four continents and three oceans. becoming the second biggest export .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms.The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration.Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining . Under his rule Spain once again became a world power .2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco .Colonial Mexico 1519 .Silver production rose from 2. .org/colonial. Cochineal production also increased. as Philip V. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. replacing 200 low paid. He had two main concerns. was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents . global warfare.org Louis XIV ) as his successor.The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. After eleven years of bloody.

Mexico.Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . For example.1821 MexicanHistory. often refers to a seven-gram (0. it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. Through widespread use in Europe. http://mexicanhistory. There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana .By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world . Revillagigedo . meaning a double-sided token coin. New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . By 1810.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. the real de a ocho. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n.Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. Many existing currencies. but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population .King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . meaning double). a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period .79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . The creole Count Regla. Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy .It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857.The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules. many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'.The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. worth eight reales. the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal . was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight. the Americas and the Far East. United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins. another able ruler( 1789 .Another viceroy. Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 .94 ) created the first public transportation system . or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. such as the Canadian dollar. many creoles prospered during this period in business . the national motto for Spain .org/colonial. or Nueva Granada. Peru.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org/colonial.1821 MexicanHistory.

net Things to do near DC Close to DC.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Celts www. Dominican Rep.org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821. www.org/colonial.lindenhill.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates. Scoundrels.1821 MexicanHistory. shopping & more! www.fxva. Fairfax County has great attractions.Colonial Mexico 1519 . you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory. Heroes.mortgageallianceprogram. Costa Rica.

lib.utexas.edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.http://www.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .

The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . They did rebel.Norwich.Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose.org/Independence. but not equality for all. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.1821 MexicanHistory. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far .org The war for Independence 1810. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .MilitaryHistory.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www.The war for Independence 1810. The lower classes. http://mexicanhistory. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation. their lot was so hard . There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland.

. Bullfighting from. ruled by independent juntas. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity . Unlike the wise Charles III.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles. in these years.Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814.99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory.By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence .Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 . his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies. Latin America was.1821 MexicanHistory. The church had to call in their mortgages. Without a true Spanish monarchy.. The peninsulares thought otherwise .org/Independence.The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform . with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 . many creoles thought they should rule themselves. 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout".The war for Independence 1810.org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America. destroying many Creoles financially . The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars . Art Print Buy for $19.

Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 .Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16. Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . none of these charges could be proved and he was released . her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic .A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende. Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato.The war for Independence 1810. gathering more recruits along the way.org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato . 1810.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them. With Hidalgo at their head. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia . 1810. However. reading proscribed books.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . who became an independence symbol. In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe.However. http://mexicanhistory.He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once . they marched for San Miguel. They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels .org/Independence.However.1821 MexicanHistory. There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant . a captain of the cavalry .Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8.

org/Independence.By late October the army had about 80.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2.The war for Independence 1810.The rebels took Guadalajara . http://mexicanhistory. He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City . Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning . In the middle of the battle. a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.000 rebels were killed . However. Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon. Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces . The army retreated into Mexico City . turning into a rout . Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . 1811. They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31.An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then . Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces . San Luis Potosi and Valladolid . Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition .000 marching on Mexico City .1821 MexicanHistory.Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward.

the Spanish viceroy.000 around Oaxaca . one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2.For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination .By 1819. The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement. retaking many towns . viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile.000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1.With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point .Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare .After awhile only two major bands remained.He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms. who had been recruited by Hildago . Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out . those opposed to it were guilty of treason . http://mexicanhistory. the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed .By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital .1821 MexicanHistory.Gradually. Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax .org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this .In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.The war for Independence 1810.Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state .They issued a Declaration of Independence.org/Independence. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .

The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. the Creoles found this change too liberal. A new army would be created. and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government . The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. free speech and curbed the power of the church . This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala. the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. Spain.The king. Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2.The war for Independence 1810. troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption.Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . . The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . led by King Ferdinand or another European prince . King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . in January 1820. bad food.500 men to fight Guerrero . a virtual prioner of the army at this point. At C diz. The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. Ironically. If this was not done there would be a military coup . yielded to their demands .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .org/Independence. the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan .org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile. Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights.1821 MexicanHistory.

org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain.org/Independence. Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit . Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army. Mexico was independent at last . Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. 1821 . One more proviso was added by Iturbide . On September 27.After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares . Juan de O'Donoju. the last viceroy of New Spain . Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy. After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. a Mexican congress would chose an emperor. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico.O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. this was to become an important point .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .The war for Independence 1810. this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. viceroy Apodaca resigned .

The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch . General Agustín de Iturbide. 1821 .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online.ancestry.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21. a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war.BookIt. www. it did not accept the offer .March 19.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .com www. However. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. which in turned named him as its presiding officer .com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala. Ferdinand VII.com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U.S. would also be Emperor of Mexico. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico. After the declaration of independence on September 27.org/firstempire. 1821. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain.ObesityControlCenter.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide .

1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico . outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee . Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long .org/firstempire. Iturbide had his own troops. Court etiquette was issued. Iturbide feigned reluctance. Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them .org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18.In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. stage a demonstration on his behalf . President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico. the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. When Iturbide was declared emperor. from California in the north to Panama . They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. Nicaragua. The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. El Salvador. which included Costa Rica. 1822 . hoping to promote free republican governments . 1821 . Honduras. There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once . The heir apparent was Senor Don August. Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . then accepted . but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22.The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. On July 21. http://mexicanhistory. Guatemala.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . as Agustin I .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . the regiment of Celaya.

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

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Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

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The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

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Over 50. A local military strongman emerges during these times.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . the caudillo . The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero.000 men were kept under arms.com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. but no an inspiring or talented administrator .29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name.org/earlyrepublic. the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army .org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 .1843 ) was a former rebel leader.Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 . The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza .The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner. President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. who controlled the army. who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war . led by vice president Bravo .After some fighting .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain .Groupon. taxes and monopolies .The York Rite masons . brave in battle. http://mexicanhistory. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador . The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators . who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US .Mexican border . These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public. These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited .As Iturbide did. The government sought to support itself through import duties.

With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. even after the repulse of the Spanish. mainly middle class merchants. which had never recognized Mexico's independence.org/earlyrepublic. Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion . He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . Bustamante. As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution .They landed near Tampico.Guerrero set off with a force to attack them. the most important of which was calling up of the reserves.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . which had been abandoned . abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. President Bustamante 1830 . Santa Anna settled in for a siege . Bustamante agreed. the Spanish general surrendered . The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country.From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree. The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight . The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain. Santa Anna became extremely popular .org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria . After an initial attack which failed. The treasury by this time was also bankrupt.32 - http://mexicanhistory. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico .This marked a return to power of the conservatives. Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy . Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. Reserves in Jalapa.Some of the states. Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . However. Slaves were few in number by this time. who fled the country . choose this time to invade its most important former colony . but his act increased his support among mulattos. This plan backfired .King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction .

The Early Republic MexicanHistory.Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election . Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza.The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again . signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23). using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance . but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections.47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory. Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 .org/earlyrepublic. Bustamante was to go into exile. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press.Bustamante.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . which he did in 1833.org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. Corruption was rampant .

1843 . Britain.1841 . and Texas as well as published sources.S.ObesityControlCenter.ancestry. Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history .1839 .1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it .Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade. 1835 .com www. Discover Family Heroes.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years. a liberal politician of intellectual distinction .1842 .com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. http://mexicanhistory.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times .org Santa Anna 1794 . Spain.org/santaanna. but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz . trained specialist treats you in Collection.1834. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.

the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. Nuevo León. Durango. The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . State militias were disbanded . Yucatán.org/santaanna. such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. the Republic of Yucatan.org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.The presidential term was extended from four years to eight . in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . San Luis Potosí. To curb the undue influence of the army.The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90. began with two major reforms .The Zacatecan militia. The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 .Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . the constitution of 1836 was enacted . Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one. Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . "dictator" or "strongman".They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office .000 acres . His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . Michoacán. Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist .The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. he reduced its size and abolished military fueros .The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal . more pejoratively." or. Santa Anna became a millionaire . Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) . led http://mexicanhistory.The congress was disbanded . Querétaro.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. warlord. Several of these states formed their own governments. that of the church and that of the army . Guanajuato. Jalisco.000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation.In order to secure power.Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . the treasury was still bankrupt . and the Republic of Texas. The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms .' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . the Republic of the Rio Grande.Corruption was widespread.

1835 to April 21. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches.61 rifles. After defeating Zacatecas.There were small towns in the interior. The first Europeans in the area.org/santaanna. Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours. he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2. Goliad.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived . which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. and others. San Antonio. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3. Nacogdoches.000 prisoners.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker .org by Francisco Garcia.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. on 12 May 1835. Comanches and other Indian tribes .584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain . was well armed with .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . After two hours of combat.

org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s. T. T. but his exposure and privations had weakened him. who roved about stealing the stock. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio.000 Mexicans . The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. and he returned home. and fought over land titles and for political domination. a Prussian officer. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. to carry out his project. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. Austin was the supreme authority. By 1835 there were 30.000 settlers . Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. He reached home in safety. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. and a local militia was organized. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . Stephen.000 Americans and only around 8. By 1827 there were 12.25 an acre in the US .Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. and. While at work they kept guard against the Indians. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. Mexico became independent and Moses' son. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1. at times making a night attack upon a cabin.org/santaanna. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas. Life in the new land was rough.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river . leaving his dying injunction to his son. The land titles were duly recorded. and was then in the service of Mexico. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .In 1827. In 1820 he set out for Texas.Spain wished to colonize the territory. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. the judge and commandant .000 Americans living in Texas." Gone to Texas . after great exposure and privation. who had served under Frederick the Great. there were only 7.

to take over the region. Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders .Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. called " The Fredonian War. The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . In 1830. Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. an empresario.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823. by sending a thousand soldiers. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente. This emeute. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters .Mexico increased custom duties on exports. Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. to stations in the country. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . which were to be redistributed in Mexico. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico.President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory .The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all . instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 . which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves." was easily suppressed. One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila . but the societies were too different and tensions increased . Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this . grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo .000 slaves in Texas.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. mostly criminals and convicts. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. By 1836. but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened .org/santaanna.S.Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. increasing the cost of trade with the US . Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. The check immigration into Texas from America.Most Americans remained Protestant. they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. there were approximately 5.

who was stationed in San Antonio. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. and was in Texas by August. civilians were massacred by the thousands. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. Castañeda established a camp. At 3 a.m. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next.org/santaanna.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Several officers resigned. Austin was released in July. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . at 7 p. and gunfire was exchanged.m. negotiations were held. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. including Jim Bowie. http://mexicanhistory. He then ordered his brother-in law. On October 1. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. The siege of Bexar. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. having never been formally charged with sedition. they reached the camp. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. Two Texian militias answered the call. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. who went to Gonzales. The next morning. and Coahuila. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. 1835. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. As a reward. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. which began on October 12. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. Austin saw little choice but revolution. Since they had no cannon balls. the Texans captured Bexar. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . Zacatecas. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad. Unable to cross. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. The Texians refused.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. and Austin sanctioned it. under the defence of General Cos. Under the Liberal banner. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. many of the volunteers simply left. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. Throughout November 1835. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. On September 20. and negotiations fell through.

Although the Matamoros Expedition. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. despite Austin's leadership. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. The remaining Texan army. chiefly husbands and fathers. Goliad http://mexicanhistory.000. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards.org 1835. but his talents were not well suited for military life. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. These men. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. hoping to sack the town. the political and military center of Texas. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ). would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. a force of about 6. bringing only disaster for months to come. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. Soon. now led by General Sam Houston. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony." No further reinforcement arrived. on March 2. On November 6.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. "At dawn on the first of March. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. and with no collective motivation. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. Capt. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. poorly led. Albert Martin. nothing came of it. as it came to be known. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. in a fortress doomed to destruction.org/santaanna. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. but it marched forward. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. 1835. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. owning their own homes. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. The expedition failed. never more to leave them.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .

The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. José Urrea At Goliad. experienced and feared.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and much animosity was aimed towards him. and many settlers also fled in the same direction.. Santa Anna's army. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. and even Great Britain and France. 1836. rather than a cruel one. under Santa Anna's direct orders. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. 1836. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday.S. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. making his way north following the coast of Texas. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2. March 27. Soon.together with the fall of the Alamo.org/santaanna. Overnight. so it was put to the torch. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. border. the rains made the roads impassable. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. The Mexican cavalry.. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. March 20. always on the heels of Houston. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. A scorched earth policy was implemented. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. the United States. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. brought up cannon and reinforcements. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. gave unrelenting chase.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros.

Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. catching the Mexican army by surprise. Without Houston's consent. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. and put an end to the war. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. waited for reinforcements. Santa Anna. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. the Texans surged forward. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. Hours before the attack. and tired of running away.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Only Santa Anna had been defeated. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. which were led by General Cos. Houston could do nothing but follow. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. mostly cavalry. who had been wounded in the ankle.org and race quickly towards Galveston. which the Texans used as cover. Santa Anna. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. marched back to Mexico. which had proven costly and prolonged. and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. Texas. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. but nothing came of it. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. after burning Vince's Bridge. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. but Filisola disagreed. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. as dictator of Mexico.org/santaanna. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. General Vicente Filisola. but not without protests from Urrea. Numbering about 700. not the Army of Operations. only nine Texans died. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. To the dismay of the Texans. On that same day. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. both armies met at the San Jacinto River.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.200 men. and he was brought before Houston. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. An 18minute-long battle ensued. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. Also. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued.

htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . president Andrew Jackson in 1837.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner.org/santaanna. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. D. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. He was re-elected President. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz. In 1838. when French forces landed in Veracruz.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . and after meeting with U. the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. two actually formed republic besides Texas. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. occupying San Antonio. thus. into Texas. But unknown to Santa Anna. a French soldier of fortune. called Manga de Clavo. one private ) on May 14. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . After some time in exile in the United States. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico. The war continued as a standoff. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846.C. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 .. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838.S. and soon after. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. but briefly. Nuevo León. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll.

D.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. During this meeting. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century .C. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. however.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt. Yucatán declared its neutrality.By 1855. Spain. After the end of the Mexican-American War.org/santaanna.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. Texas . 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. La Ceiba . but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and the United States.org In 1840. Nuevo León. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) . declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. the Republic of the Rio Grande failed. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. Upon this event. http://mexicanhistory. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress. ultimately.In November. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority.

President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. Veracruz.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . The war with France had weakened Mexico. Mexico declared war on France. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero.000 pesos. His life was spared. Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. Also. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Mexico agreed to pay. Thus began the Pastry War . the United States declared war on Mexico. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. With resentment ever growing against the president. The French landed 3. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. Santa Anna tried to elude capture. by an army commanded by the president himself. Meanwhile. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation.was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. and to seize the port of Veracruz. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. In 1842. This was too much for the Mexicans. turned over to authorities.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . a military expedition into Texas was renewed.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. In 1846. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. Fearing for his life.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed . Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury.org The Pastry War In 1838. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. and imprisoned.000 pesos in payment and when payment. and the people were discontented. but France upped the ante to 800.000 troops . Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed.org/santaanna. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. or the French would demand satisfaction. President Again Soon after. at war against Santa Anna. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande.

Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. Thomas Adams. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. which was tried without success. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. 1876.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . moved to Turbaco. He then lived in exile in Cuba. and St. In 1851. In April 1853. trained specialist treats you in Collection.org of the United States.org/santaanna. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. Discover Family Heroes. naval blockades. to the United States. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. the base of chewing gum. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army.ancestry. Colombia.S. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna.ObesityControlCenter. penniless and heartbroken. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. and he fled back to Cuba. on June 21. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. Thomas. and two years later. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. but he failed to profit from this.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. Jamaica. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion.S. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). Colombia. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna." which helped found the chewing gum industry. the United States. He funneled government funds to his own pockets. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. This reign was no better than his earlier ones.

Van Buren. 4 Quotes. War With Mexico. and maintain our present attitude.org Mexican American War 1846 . beyond all dispute.1848 MexicanHistory. The American president after Texas won its independence.S. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. Brinks. " Prudence. APX Alarm. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. 1 Form. shall have proved.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. 18461848This wellwritten.The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue." So Far from God: The U.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . at least until the lapse of time. President Tyler The following president. was not for immediate annexation . If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory. and to uphold the Government constituted by them.S. www.TopAlarmCompanies." said he. Andrew Jackson .Mexican American War 1846 . & GE. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico . also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Compare & Save. or the course of events.org/mexicanamericanwar1.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT.

1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war . Texas consented to be annexed. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. it joined the Union . he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . There was a fear England would purchase California.Prior to Polk's election. The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle.Mexican American War 1846 . and the December 29.No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. On the 3rd March. the Mexican minister to the U. Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . a survey of the This History Channel special. he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . 1845 .S. 1845 . could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress.On the 4th July. Texas joined the Union on December 29. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . a few hours before his term of office expired. such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 . as half of the Senators represented free States. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. and that. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast .1848 MexicanHistory. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing.It was discovered by President Tyler. lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport .org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas. The new president. which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California.who was pro-annexation. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries.org/mexicanamericanwar1. that what could not be effected by treaty. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28.

Throughout Spanish and Mexican history.The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source. However. Oklahoma. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty . $5. Wyoming. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult.000 or more for California . Kansas. supported by populist newspapers. They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. which included parts of modern day New Mexico. Slidell. as per the Treaties of Velasco . In 1836. he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River . and Colorado.1848 MexicanHistory.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil .Mexican American War 1846 . Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory.000.org/mexicanamericanwar1. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto." returned to the United States.000.

but instead of marching north against the invaders. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country.In case of war. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande." http://mexicanhistory. 1846. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico .Louisiana.000 in all He was told.org/mexicanamericanwar1.1848 MexicanHistory. Herrera. drive them from their positions on either side of the river. was able to assemble a force of 6. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .about 4. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts.S. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border . will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments. Tennessee. your main object will be the protection of Texas . Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos . the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. in December 14.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas. Mississippi. if deemed practicable and expedient.Mexican American War 1846 . and. with much difficulty.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2. and Kentucky. was plotting to invade.000 men.

so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. a Mexican settlement. 1845. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . except in reference to Texas. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. without having met with the slightest opposition. from which it appeared probable that. declared his willingness to fight. and http://mexicanhistory. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. the extreme point of Texas proper. whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. 1846. it would enter into no negotiation with him. On the 12th January. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. and the site of a Mexican Custom House. regard you as openly committing hostilities. in pursuance of orders. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that." As there was no invasion to repel." On approaching Point Isabel.1848 MexicanHistory. he prudently waited for further orders. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. envoy from Mexico.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. or committed any overt act of hostilities. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. later known as Fort Brown . and Oct.Mexican American War 1846 . 4th. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. Not an American. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression.S. particularly those of July 8th. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. Taylor. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor.org/mexicanamericanwar1. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. and for which no reason had been assigned. the inhabitants must. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. He expelled the U. he found the buildings in flames. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. commenced his march into the Mexican territory. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. wrote to the Secretary.

or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. It appears they separated. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. whereupon he determined. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter." Notwithstanding the blockade. despite protests by the Mexican government . and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. " 16 Americans. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. and thus. The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained." and requiring him within twenty. In April 1846. reports. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans.org/mexicanamericanwar1. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank. it will clearly result that arms. coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. it seems." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons . and arms alone.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . and retire beyond the Nueces . ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. the President announced to Congress and the world. camp . . Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. one of defence. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. Accordingly." but the main body of about 2." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result.S. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. on April 24 . 4th Infantry. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. and therefore unseen. investigated an abandoned hacienda. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. Another letter. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. says. Congress declared war on Mexico.1848 MexicanHistory. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war .He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. adding. acting on the advice of a local guide . drove away the men. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. does not appear ." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. and took possession of their horses. Tamaulipas." In this affair. must decide the question. War is Declared General Taylor. about 25 miles from the U. On May 13." Upon the Strength of this despatch. "a war by the act of Mexico. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. He immediately charged upon them . to make the intended war. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. and. 1846. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 .four hours to remove his camp.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. he reports. Pofter and one man was killed whether any. published in the Philadelphia Inquirer .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras.Mexican American War 1846 . not to remain any longer idle. and Porter. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed .

org/mexicanamericanwar1.com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by Party.Bing.com/VisualSearch National Customs Broker Call us today and an experienced.ancestry.Mexican American War 1846 .World's largest online family history 47 resource.+4 Billion Records Mayan www.com ® Anna 1833 .apexlogistics. licensed Customs Broker will answer www.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . & More. Try Visual Search! www.org Ancestry. Terms Served.com American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory.1848 MexicanHistory.

The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources .com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.S. War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory.which played a decisive role in several key The U.The US. source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories . was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it .S. Discover Family Heroes. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. including So Far from God: the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .Mexico had no small arm factories of its own .com ObesityControlCenter. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle .org/mexicanamericanwar2. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time.The rifle. with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate . Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' . The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced . Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy .ancestry. trained specialist treats you in Collection. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military.org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.S.com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy.The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army. as commander of the army.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. General Scott. General Stephen W.The President declared that in his opinion. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. like a fire breathing dragon. by consultations between the President." would be the best means of producing peace. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. Secretary at War.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .500 hundred men . Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. a carbine or short musket called the dragon. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. seems to have been arranged jointly. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot.org/mexicanamericanwar2. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. At this time. but trained in horseback riding and combat . He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. was stationed at Washington. and General Scott . " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive . and the means to execute them.

which had been left in care of a small detachment. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. It appears that General Arista. The army was halted. therefore. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. and then fall on the American army. The plan was judicious. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. and was only prevented from being carried out.org/mexicanamericanwar2. capture Point Isabel. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. and several killed and wounded. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. Major Brown. In the mean while.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Arista saw that Point Isabel. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. and arrived on the next day. by the accidental infor. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. In this defense. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. under whose direction the fort was built. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. Captain Hawkins. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. and continued at intervals till the 10th. both for skill and gallantry. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. Leaving an unfinished field-work. The former was killed by a shell. To take this place would. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. The departure of General Taylor with his army.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. with his main force. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. was comparatively defenceless. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. who was now in command of the Mexican army. . and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. under the command of Major Brown.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory.

org/mexicanamericanwar2.. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. To remedy this. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . A ravine here crossed the road. This he did. and with greater energy of body. Ridgely. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. M. On the left wing of our army. Their columns. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. and the battle was soon ended.tery and by the infantry on the wings. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. while the 3d. and in turn fell back on the main body. moved up the main road. at night" This might be true . The position was well chosen . now broken by successive charges. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. however. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. A battery of artillery. " in sight of the enemy. general of cavalry. 4th. They fled pre. but was met by the Flying Artillery. under Lt. Ridgely. In two hours.cers were again driven back. M. The artillerymen were dispersed. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. mostly Lancers. dating his despatch. to charge the American right. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. and by other troops of that division. under Lt. The Mexican cavalry. In this firing. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . were on their left. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. The charge was gallantly made. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry.dered Torrejon. the next day. might have easily been defended. The Lan. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. Arista. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. says. from which he did not depart till two p.cipitately from the field. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. General Arista or. and General La Vega taken prisoner. had advanced beyond support. when they were deployed into line. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. and by the 5th Infantry. and took a new position several miles off. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. At two P. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. under the command of Col. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. the army advanced by heads of columns. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. The Dragoons. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. Montero. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. but he was in retreat. but with as little success. by the Americans.The Mexican American War at a pool. at Resaca de la Palma. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. of the field. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery.

On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. as http://mexicanhistory. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. Being reinforced. Mier. he advanced to the village of Marin. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. In front. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. and near it other heights.in-chief left Comargo. or citadel. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. both the general government at home.org/mexicanamericanwar2.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .ted to them. which was regularly fortified. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. and in the rear. Comargo. in rear of the town and beyond the river. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. and Revilla surrendered. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. The opposite side of the city. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. In the mean time. and were occupied. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science. and on the 5th of September. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. to the left. the capital of New Leon . behaved well. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. were destined for the march to Monterey. all fortified. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. the general. while the main body. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. and around it. On the heights. Comargo. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. They fought gallantly. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. numbering six thousand six hundred.

nied the parly in its advance.vious. and after another severe contest retired in good order. General Worth. with three companies of the 4th regiment. and Mississippi.drawn. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . In the afternoon of the 20th of September. was ordered to the left. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. and the troops remained upon their arms. with his division. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. Up to this time. it is ob. A column of six hundred and fifty men. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. and two or three thousand irregulars.other column. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. which killed or disabled one-third of the men.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . were forts also erected. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. to attack the lower part of the town. Campbell. and advanced against the second battery. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. however.org/mexicanamericanwar2. The army. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. The two last regiments. were with. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses. three miles from Monterey. supported by the Light Artillery. pressed forward. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. General Butler. with Bragg's Artillery. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. the column rapidly moved. and Wood's Texan Cavalry. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. and fired upon the redoubt. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. with the bayonet and the artillery. being wounded. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. were detached to the right. May's Dragoons. This movement was executed during the evening. into the rear of which. who accompa. were both ordered forward . entered the town to the right. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. to the support of General Worth. Garland's force. in spite of its fire. and commenced its assault on the town. advanced against the redoubt. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. and they were compelled to retire. however. with its cannon and ammunition.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. Tennessee. and Davis. superior in numbers to the American army. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. who had advanced with it. The front defense here was a redoubt. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. if practicable.

which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. after some negotiation. That evening (at 9 p. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. General Taylor. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. defeated the enemy. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. was one to move against. and the Mexicans confined. To this the Mexican chief replied. two provinces. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. believed to be favorable to peace. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. sailing south to San Diego. The houses were fortified. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. gave a new face to affairs. under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. two companies of light. from St. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country." a volunteer troop. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. The main part of the capitulation was. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. while Gar. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. treads upon the territory of this republic. The guns of the Citadel continued. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. and San Fernando de Prezas . and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. from St. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place .In Northern California. Missouri. then in command of the Mexican army. For this concession there were strong reasons. " The Saclede Rangers. in their defence. to fire upon the American positions . The Mexicans marched out with their arms. Louis . and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. but always unsuccessfully. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. but. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. Doniphan .S. but here a new resistance was made.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. Kearney. and carried several fortified heights. Louis. from Cole and Platte counties. he dispatched 50 U. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken .The Mexican American War town.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. on the morning of the 23d. Worth and his Division. When Stockton's forces. The Surrender of Monterey. in arms. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . 1846. Marines. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. M. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. This was the key to Monterey. recommenced the advance. stopped in San Pedro. Besides al! this. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. under Colonel Alexander W. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. but General Taylor made no important movement in front. on the 13th of October. the American army had but a short supply of provisions. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. during this day. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and take possession of. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. charges. the nearly http://mexicanhistory.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. the city of Linares. California and New Mexico.

1847. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U.S. With U. Jonathan D. 1846. Taylor. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. 1847. their re-supplied. U. fought as Californio Lancers. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. He promised the U. banded together to defend their land. On January 13. Later. with 4. Kearny. General Stephen W. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs.S. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. 1847.S. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Meanwhile. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. Lt. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. however. led by U. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. On January 12. 14 U.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . [25] and the next day. and the Californios. Col. Philip St. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. after being appointed commanding general. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. near San Pedro. combined force. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. led by José Mariá Flores. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States.S. January 1848. Stockton. 1847. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. Then. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. however. That marked the end of the war in California. January 9. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. Marines were killed. left too small a force in Los Angeles. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived.000 men. 1846. marched north from San Diego on December 29. The rancho vaqueros. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed. The next day. he reneged again and seized the presidency. On January 28. Iowa Territory. On March 15. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton.000 . forces continued to arrive in California. California.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. 1847.600 men. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. 1847. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. October 7 through October 9. Arizona and the Sonora desert. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25. Navy Captain William Mervine.S. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! . in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. 1847. that if allowed to pass through the blockade.S. had http://mexicanhistory. on December 6. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. forces. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. Col. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. Other U. California.S.

weapons and horses near the walled city. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7.S.S. Scott had sent 2. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. The U.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. A group of 12.S.S. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. During the siege. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. Lee. 1847. during which some U. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. George Meade. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. about half of whom were civilian. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions. Santa Anna withdrew that night. However. Ulysses S.000 men in a tired state. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City. Polk distrusted Taylor. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. army. U.500 healthy troops. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. Grant. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. http://mexicanhistory. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. while the Mexicans suffered over 1.400 men.000 casualties and 3. along which he expected Scott to appear.S. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. the U. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U.000 were taken prisoner. Furious fighting ensued. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. troops. he attacked the next morning. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . Included in the invading force were Robert E. Instead of taking the main road.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . troops suffered 80 casualties. army suffered 400 casualties. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea.S.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed.S. troops were routed. Santa Anna flanked the U. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. Although by then aware of the positions of U. The Mexican army was routed. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott.600 mounted dragoons ahead. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north.org/mexicanamericanwar2.

org/mexicanamericanwar2. Twiggs agreed. http://mexicanhistory. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . 1847. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung.The Mexican American War On the same day. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. Lee. However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. U.S. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco.

Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca.The battle had been a significant victory for the U.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. including the cadets. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. To the southwest. Johnston. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. President Polk tried to recall Trist. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward. and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. but his troops managed to raise the U. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort.S. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl. some as young as 13 years old. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. who took over 90% casualties. One by one they fell.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. forces. established the U. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate.S. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. and General Juan N. and the U. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. undisputed control of Texas. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW.S. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. Juan Escutia. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U.. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point.S. Flag over the castle. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. the fighting had been severe and costly. Vicente Suarez. when one was left (Juan Escutia). apparently falling from above . General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city.S.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City.. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. ended the war and gave the U. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. 277 Mina Battalion. Before he could withdraw. also known as the Halls of Montezuma.S. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. signed on February 2.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. 211 Union Battalion. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. he grabbed the Mexican flag. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. At 08:00. but was unable to communicate with him . In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. 115 Queretaro Battalion. "From the Halls of Montezuma. Caught between two fronts. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men.The efforts of the U. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . and there was a lull in the battle. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. Lasting throughout most of the day. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. and the first wave ascended the walls. The scaling ladders arrived.org/mexicanamericanwar2.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale.S. and cadets Agustin Melgar. Pérez was killed. Newman S. forces were about to kill him. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders.

A leading U. Utah. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US . the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California .The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River. newspaper.S. agreed to assume $3. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory. New Mexico. Nevada. citizens.000—less than half the amount the U.S.S. Arizona. In return. Mexico received US $15.S. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. especially among U. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time. and Wyoming. By doing so.S.000.org/mexicanamericanwar2. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla . with the 15 million already spent. politicians that had opposed the war from the start. and parts of Colorado.Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla.

org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Michoacan . sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues . Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support . Dominican Rep. socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez .Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Costa Rica.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.In Guerrero. 1854 .).One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca. which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. the neighboring states of Morelos. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution .S. while the liberals (puros) refused . the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1.ObesityControlCenter. The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise. After over a year of guerrilla warfare.The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico . who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president .com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.org/Ayutla.The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma.mortgageallianceprogram. The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. democratic state . insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . http://mexicanhistory.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt .The leader of the young.This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war .CaliBaja. www. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country . This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state .

org/Ayutla.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. freedom of speech. The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war .The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term .The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824.For the first two years. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power . press.this conflict led to the vicious war of reform.Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws .org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor . President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals . http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . While freedom of religion was not declared. assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla . Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan. Comonfort becomes President www. These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction . The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861.HumanEvents. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) . the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church . In the new constitution. They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . the Plan de Tacubaya.The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions .The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms . delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals .The civil war was very vicious .com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot . Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals . The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez.

Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts. this was not to be . With the War of the Reform over. In december.To get some breathening space for the economy to revive.However. Spain. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant .com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory. Spain and England withdrew their troops . Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives .But the biggest problem was yet to come.org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City .000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz.The new president chose a more lenient policy.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties . 1861. Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France.org/Ayutla.The conservative President.On October 31. 1861. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought . 6.France. which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil .HumanEvents. Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives.The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts. and 64 million of this was owed to the British . but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies . some over fifty years old . sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World .Juarez won the presidental election of 1861. under the leadership of Napoleon III.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.

he was determined to make France great again . western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory. America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27.1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico . Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory.He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota. Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie.Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king .As mentioned before.org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .org/French. the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions . Vera Cruz.000 to Mexico .

The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy .The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462.org/French.000 reinforcements . 1862.The French bombarded Puebla. Napoleon ordered 30. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .000 French.The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi. the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo .On May 5. The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months . under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever. where around 4.The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla.

who had a wooden hand.Here.He was proclaimed Maximilian I. General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida .On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867. in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion . 1863. 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time.He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people . met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived.The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte.In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico . French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people . map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army. which of course approved him . that of Camaron on April 30. 1864.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle . http://mexicanhistory. Emperor of Mexico on April 10.org/French. They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange .Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces.Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves .

The emperor . the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . however. and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class. a Mason. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. but nothing came of it . He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. http://mexicanhistory. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . religious freedoms. a moderate liberal. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor .After the downfall of the Confederacy.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. as secretary of foreign affairs . General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian.The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. The liberals. He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. was to lead to the emperors own death . however. After its fall. considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. General Grant ordered 42. After the fall of the Confederacy.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. Chihuahua. creating a succession issue. French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . which was not the case . The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. the republicans only held four states. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . Guerro.He even named Jose Fernando.org/French. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. However. This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. which had never recognized Maximilian's government .The French. religious toleration . and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. This decree. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives. Sonora and Baja.

French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops. Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 . who urged the emperor to join him. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong .Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies . talked him out of it.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. along with Miramon and Mejia .During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity.He was executed by firing squad on June 19. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. Over 50.It also introduced French ideas. Tampico.000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca. Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future . It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak . However. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days . Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression .org/French. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . fashion and culture into Mexico . the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia. However on May 15. the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines.the last french soldier left on March 16. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion . 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope. Portirio Diaz. but his wife.However.The battle began on Feb 19.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. Monterey. 1867. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. before he could carry out this plan.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial.

ancestry.fiestamericanagrand.com www.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife .com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. purchase and print your auto policy online.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online.com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory.org/French. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . www. Home Revolution of Ayutla. sanbornsinsurance. Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina.

The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention . www. purchase and print your auto policy online.org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 .ObesityControlCenter. the rurales was established to check banditry.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection.mortgageallianceprogram. http://mexicanhistory.Despite this.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . There was still antagonisms from the conservatives. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. political and educational reforms. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Juarez immediately set about making economic. Costa Rica. Dominican Rep. sanbornsinsurance.org/RestoredRepublic. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz . Schooling was made mandatory. Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15.S.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.

The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat.Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative. Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway. an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors . Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy . a rural police force was established. especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep . in contrast with the US which had over 30. Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . the rurales.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country .000 miles .Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .org/RestoredRepublic.To secure the roads.Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment .

beginning the Mexican muralist movement . http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . but he through this effort 1. and Porfirio Diaz. who had the support of the military and conservatives . Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 .The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867. The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy . 1871. Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled. Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained.When the ballots were counted. A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes. Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army . Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico . none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress.600 miles off telegraph line was put up . where he defeated Diaz easily . Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts . who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October .org/RestoredRepublic. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada.

following the pattern of Juarez. by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 .org/RestoredRepublic. Lerdo was reelected on July 24. 1876. This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . 1876. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection.

www.org/Diaz.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .Despite the efforts of the liberals mining.seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory. Mexico was still troubled by banditos .S.MegWhitman.com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales .ancestry. of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side.com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears . still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades .Farming methods had changed little from colonial days .ObesityControlCenter. the main engine of the economy. Mexico entered the industrial age .who was a Mestizo. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) .' During his 33 year rule. Like Juarez before him. Free trial.

84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country. The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth .Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez. but the strain was too much for the treasury .Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . At the end of his first term. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims . For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .By 1890. made economic changes such as changing tariffs.org/Diaz.Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling . Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term . Díaz had the constitution amended. first to allow two terms in office. the Mexican treasury was running in the black .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government. and then to remove all restrictions on re-election. secretary of the treasury.The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge . but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory .These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . http://mexicanhistory. so he cut the salaries of government officials . switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . President Gonzalez 1880 .During his administration. Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction.Jose Limantour. the railway from Mexico City to El Paso.

Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions . from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15. threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination. France and Germany .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877. Elections were held. Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving . By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land .Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly .org/Diaz.He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion.Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance .silver production increased from 24. It seemed a http://mexicanhistory. which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . They promoted science. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves . Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive .000. In 1910 life expectancy was 30.satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons.The press was tightly censored. Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost .000. Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size . who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico.000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness .000 Pesos in 1877 to 85. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power . became much more productive . in contrast to 50 in the US at the time . but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society . Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. manipulated by the powerful .Diaz was advised by cientificos. but they were shams for the most part. From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda.16 percent of the population was homeless . such as silver and cooper mines .000 Pesos in 1908.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years.

The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato. Now.Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. he had overstayed his welcome .Like many powerful leaders before.org/Diaz.By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed.The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work .Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them . who often worked in appaling conditions . some advocating violent overthrow. http://mexicanhistory. such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua . The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers. the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight . They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers . they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes . Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell .The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz .In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %. This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907.

Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. He thoght political. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe. Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. however. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. This caused aroused widespread anger. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio. Despite Reyes silence. After this. an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections. http://mexicanhistory. In St.Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico . Despite what he had told Creelman. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero . Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency.org/Diaz. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them.such as the Flores Magon brothers .When the official results were announced by the government. journalist James Creelman. Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . They organized a revolutionary party.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well.S. decided to run for president again .Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . In a 1908 interview with the U. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah. They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections . Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses .

the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting. At the last minute. In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez.org/Diaz. Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero .In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years. Afterwards. 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them. afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso. others towns such as Tehuacan.On Jan 2. the outnumbered federal commander surrendered . yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him . but the revolution had just started .BookIt. On May 10. His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . In 1915. Díaz died in exile in Paris.Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . brings the US into the conflict . In Chihuahua. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez.Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government .Diaz had been overthrown. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command .

net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch.org/revolution. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster. President Diaz. Pancho Villa. anger was simmering over the injustice of decades. Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. Now on DVD www. below in Mexico. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . However. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory. But underneath. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution .org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended .com panchovillastories.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana.com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women .ancestry.Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months.

The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. . this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. but solely upon the army . started by Diaz himself.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas. Most large companies were foreign owned. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. Trains were often used as weapons themselves. The election of 1910 provided a spark. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people." Diaz. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages.org/revolution.

but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. http://mexicanhistory. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .He became a general of the army that formed in that state. from federal forces. but was never caught.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. banditos. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile . was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy. As a result. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. Previously. 1879–April 10. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. He neither drank or smoked. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring .Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915.often led by Villa himself. he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. when 1910 came.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. and then return home to spend most of the year farming. However. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Emiliano Zapata (August 8.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). commonly known as Zapatistas. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. A ladron steals from his neighbors. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head.on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !.Famous for their cavalry charges. 1878 – July 20. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America.1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. Madero campaign. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South). Madero was an unusual person for the times.org/revolution.

In April the forces of Madero. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . The Madero Presidency November 6. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos.org/revolution.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and.He was killed on Aug 30. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship. Francisco de la Barra. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. and in early 1911 to brigadier general.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government.S. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon. Madero promoted him to colonel. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. would serve as interim president. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. the ambassador to the U. Now let's see if he can control it. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. Porfiro Diaz. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. His nephew. 1911 – February 18. After being wounded in Ojinaga. from federal forces. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. on 31 October of that year. remarkably.

both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. became the interim president . During this time. Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands.org/revolution. 1911 Modero won the national election . to important posts. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. Leon de la Barra. It is not without significance. Madero allowed freedom of the press.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory. some of them conservative. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. but the government had no money with with to pay them. Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much .which had been gagged since Diaz. which undermined the reforms he advocated . They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876. Zapata Some. However. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . On October 1.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. to many this looked like old style corrupt government . this infuriated Zapata. the secretary of foreign relations.Madero appointed family members. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself.He gave out government contracts to family businesses. Educational reformers were also disappointed . however.

On August 8 Madero orders Gen. Jose Salas. convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight..Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces . In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets. http://mexicanhistory.The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . from which Villa later escaped. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform .org/revolution. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion.S.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . In his Plan Orozquista. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. Gen. committed suicide . Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor.000 army. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size . By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside. who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . supported by Villa. and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution. who had reached an agreement with Madero. Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez.and on March 3 went into open revolt. Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions .000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .Orozco. but this showed how weak the new government was . Reportedly. Huerta in charge of the army .

led mostly by supporters of Diaz . did not order his execution. the nephew of Porfirio. an action which would cost him his life . 1912 led by Felix Diaz. Modero. feeling compassion for Diaz.Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender . Reyes. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. and together they plotted a coup .The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. on Oct 12.org/revolution.

Huerta is supported by conservatives.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory.which had been free under Madero. The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt. Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well .For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal. Using these tactics he created a 200. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders .Reyes . The American ambassador. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed .In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison . not all did .The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. many of them women and children. just the ouster of Huerta.On Feb 21. the Plan de Guadalupe. were slaughtered in the streets. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city.It is still not known if Diaz.And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day .They of course declared a plan. near Mexico City. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed. powerfully fortified. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora.The press. 1913. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end. On Feb 17. Mustering some five thousand men. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians.bull fights and walking on the streets. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ). Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north. which had no social reform goals.000 none too loyal army Soldaderas .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .However.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels .org/revolution. but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops.

000.org/revolution. By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico .Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250. which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . Political assassination was also used . The Americans. It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction.Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states .They were celebrated in folk songs. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez . under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. the major ports and most large cities .In early 1914. 1914 . Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . Initially. Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president .This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US . such as La Adelita . often fought with their husbands as well . the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot.In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico. The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21.As his military position began to crumble. More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. decided Huerta would have to go .The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them . despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. against the wishes of Carranza.The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began . Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. much of which was done under forced conscription.The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent . The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention . while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . http://mexicanhistory. Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas. Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred .He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados. American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta . in order to pacify the country.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army . then only numbering about 50. Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south .The convention exposed the differences between the fighters.By March and April.000.The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. The convention chose. In 1914.

Villa attacked with an estimated 25.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. Villa lost an estimated 4. Carranza. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other .this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . http://mexicanhistory. War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair.000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire. the battle of Celaya . who had fled to Nuevo Leon.000 killed. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 . while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914. by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges . In early April. Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .org/revolution. This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa. By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. who had never been defeated in a major battle .

no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed . The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory.The power of the church was limited.The clamor for intervention was immediate . Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance.Education was to be secular. 1916.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . which he won in March. Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops. The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms . Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. killing 18 Americans .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years.org/revolution. 1916. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election. New Mexico. 1917 .On March 16. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua .On Jan 9. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property . Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw. The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857.The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa.There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians . who were pro-Villa. After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica. who held a majority and voted in major reform articles . with stronger executive control. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes.

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

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Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

org/1920s.Obregon and Callas 1920 .34 (PRI). in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government . but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s. Stop lockstep liberalism! www.com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent.supported by Callas. Callas became more conservative as time wore on. In the election of 1928. Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner. Communists and Chinese.com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory..Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio. a fascist group attacked Jews .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] .KausforSenate. There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury .The government withdrew its support for unions. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings . Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts.

Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution.As he had in Michoacan.com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www. Lowest Price.adultjewishlearning. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule . http://mexicanhistory. think he would be able to control him as a puppet .Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos .when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas .000 acres.By 1935.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed . Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . which endeared him to the people . 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home . Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union .org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education .He did not use bodyguards. Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad). www. such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton . Paracho & SofiaMari. The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army. a Governor of Michoacan. Some cooperative projects were started. As before. Habla Español www.PlayMusic123.The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. the CTM.40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell.000. the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos . By his first term he had redistributed 49.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .RoyaltyClearinghouse. With Callas' support.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July. Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History.org/cardenas. Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns .com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli.

As the depression went on. the Peso weakened and the economy worsened .000. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution . but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts . who won the 1940 election . Home Obergon.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 . In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention. However. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain.The US.40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15. Oil income was a major source of income for the government. and as production declined the national debt rose .Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived. it hurt the economy. The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. In the election of 1939. Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans.While this move was popular. the new American president.org/cardenas. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936.Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco .The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million .000 in 1930 . and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico . he threw his support behind Avila Comacho.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies.The matter was sent to an arbitration board.

htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .15. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership. Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www.000 Mexican workers in America . Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce. However. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war .The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . Under the slogan' Each one teach one'.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith.Groupon. promoted Juan Andreu . afraid of more socialization. threw his support behind secretary of war.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory. on a variety of fronts. on May 14 and May 24.That day after Pearl Harbor. and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners. The conservatives.Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered . however.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course . every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write .Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions .000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war.46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly .There was not much support for joining the War. Avila Comacho. World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians.com/LA http://mexicanhistory. The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming .org/camacho. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . a well known revolutionary . Less land was redistributed.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions. By the time the war ended there were over 300. Cardenas.

46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .org/camacho.

2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .com Miguel Aleman 1947 . 1940s.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .nmhu.edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.S. www.2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org 1947 . Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico. the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory.52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .Mexican History 1947 . this is the story of Pablo Acosta.org/aleman.com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs. irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 .Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico . Great price.Women were allowed to vote in 1952 .ObesityControlCenter.

In response. the issue of birth control was skirted around .Mexican History 1947 . much to the chagrin of the US .Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects. all was not well . nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory. one of the most modern in the world atthe time . There was large scale corruption.America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico . The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment .F. there were no books on the bookshelves. Communists were not tolerated and arrested .' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952. He continued land redistribution.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.000 a people poured into the cities . Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities .org/aleman.2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated. some of the largest housing 100. Money for books had been 'diverted.Strong economic growth continued. the urban population surpassed the rural population . Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground . implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .000 people . Ruiz Cortines 1952 . Because of corroption.64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents . cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.000.In 1960.Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J.K. The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area . strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools .Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City .Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over.However.While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.and fewer than half of school age children went to school . Adolfo Mateos 1958. he did not undertake and new large projects . but being a Catholic country.

Mexican History 1947 .70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%. http://mexicanhistory. Huge demonstrations were held on many universities . sometimes with federal troops being called in .The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns. Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli .In July 26.In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings . After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband. Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 . there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s . the following clash led to some deaths.In the following days there were more riots. barricading streets and burning buses .For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets.org/aleman. 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 .2008 until his death in 1970 . which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot . several hundred people were killed . and the tourist trade greatly increased . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes.Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI.On October 2. However it started. 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution. On August 27. the army used tear gas and clubs .and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail .

This caused the ruling party. 1976. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods .He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control . and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. he tried to order price controls on basic items . to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor). In September.In September.Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan. about 70. became president in 1970 . The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 . Luis Echeverría 1970 .76 Echeverría.org/aleman. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years. at least in terms of its economic policies.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession ." "excessive overseas borrowing. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly.¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. 1976. to make exports more competitive. One of the largest. Robberies and kidnappings .The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. By 1974.Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Many started to go to America illegally. the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence.Mexican History 1947 . During his period. http://mexicanhistory.2008 Despite this. the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976..000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras. By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged . former secretary of the interior. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down . The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl . the bane of other Latin American countries.Caught in the inflation of the early 70s. underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . Wages were low and workers conditions were bad .His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%.Since 1973.

The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out .The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar .Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up. Miguel de la Madrid 1982 .Mexican History 1947 .Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments.000 were left homeless . He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 .Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF .Over 100. the economy only made weak progress. Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development . for example.Public spending was cut by one third .The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated .Mexico could not meet its debt repayments. crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation .Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year.org/aleman. 1985 . a process that continued under his successors.000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage . a 8. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption. huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco.86 During his tenure.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars . and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs.In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports . the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982.1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7. During de la Madrid's presidency. On Sept 19.Despite the oil boom. Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s.2008 In 1974. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment. foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10.Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars . with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo. increased 100% in price . fraud and strong arm election tactics . by the end of the Lopez administration.

the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement .Some progress was made with political corruption as well. Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising .The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War. and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections . forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . and established a new relationship between State and Church.1994 In the election of 1988. but reports of the national and international media . the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos . and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs.But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure.org/aleman. Salinas' chosen sucessor. started in Chiapas against corruption. The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party.It was led by The president responded with military repression. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes .Mexican History 1947 . EZLN. http://mexicanhistory. Indian abuse and its own government .2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake.He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting.Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . Carlos Salinas . Also in 1994.

In 2000. which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system.Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. and led to an economic recesssion . Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . Vicente Fox . Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords . Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change. known as the December Mistake.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico.Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. In 1997 he moved to Ireland. In spite of opposition within his party. Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses. maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.2000 Within days of taking office.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia . which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico .He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor.Mexican History 1947 . behind Cortes and Diaz . Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico.2 percent in 2002.2% during Fox's administration. The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo. China.2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president .GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. Ernesto Zedillo 1994 . however economy grew at a slow pace . approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8. http://mexicanhistory. Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. putting the country in an economic tailspin .Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . and countries in Central America. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico. the Peso suddenly collapsed .org/aleman.Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved . Vicente Fox 2000 .Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 .He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court. the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú.

state control of the economy." In his interpretation. expropriation. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. liberalization. 2006. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization. market control of the economy. resulting in a narrow margin of 0.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right.58% for Calderón over his closest contender.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization.On September 5. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election. However. and authoritarianism. but a choice between "the past and the future. 2006. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador.Mexican History 1947 .org/aleman. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount.present On July 6.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 .

org/aleman.2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Mexican History 1947 .

500 BC 5.000 BC 11.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.000 Large animals vanish.000 Archaic era 1.000 5.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs.000 - 2.500 BC 5. profiles.com Mexico! AmoLatina. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.000 BC 7.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.S. Find Your Sweetheart in www.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .500 Knossos founded 2.org/timeline.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online. Baja 7.ancestry.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.500 Indus civilization 2. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.

org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. El Tajin. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.elwired. sanbornsinsurance.com salsa. purchase and print your auto policy online.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.S.org/timeline. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.ObesityControlCenter.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . AmoLatina.

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory. Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31.org/timeline. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence.Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown. Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay.

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. president can only serve one term. 1846. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War.org/timeline. 1846. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. 1821 . Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . September 27. modeled after the one of 1824. Nuevo León. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain.

blockade demanding repayments of debt. has the constitution amended. England and France land troops. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . French troops stay. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan .org/timeline. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. angry at not getting US recognition . Diaz revolts again. hundreds killed by naval fire. church power limited. first to allow two terms in office. Maximilian executed.Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. who had Madero jailed .Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City . England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain. England and Spain depart. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon.

which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks.Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins. major dams built. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .BookIt. later known as PRI.org/timeline.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed . known as the December Mistake. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 .

President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas.000 Americans and only around 8. Many states.ObesityControlCenter.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico.S.ancestry. By 1835 there were 30.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence . The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. trained specialist treats you in Collection.000 Mexicans .com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Mexico http://mexicanhistory. replaces it with a new centralist constitution.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco. Discover Family Heroes.Mexico orders halt to American immigration. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. including Texas revolt.com www.

Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. The mutineers select Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1841 from a cold. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. President John Tyler.S. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia.Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island. who is overthrown.such as former President Martin Van Buren. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. Polk http://mexicanhistory. 1845 U. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution.

Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. Louisiana into Texas with 1. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas.S. and Mexico . regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border. but had been parts of Tamaulipas.. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. Nov 29 Former U. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation.500 regulars have gathered. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. had never ratified these treaties. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'.S. however. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna.500 troops. By late Oct 3. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. gives interim President Herrera. but regains power. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. Coahuila. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. Dec2 . on the transport Alabama. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico . Mexico.S. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U.

600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen.200 men.Jose Maria Castro. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. Taylor refuses. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. Mejia has 3. Francisco Mejia. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera.000 men under his command. killing 16 U. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. but is not authorized to attack. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders.000 men. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C. Arista reaches Matamoros. assembles a force of 6. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. April 25 a 1. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen.Col. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera. declared President of Mexico.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. March 8 Gen. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans. April 2 Gen.S.

losing many men in the desert.S. Americans have 9 killed. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto.S. Nuevo Leon. http://mexicanhistory.S. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. 6. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. May 13 U.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic.300 confronts Taylor's 2. which later becomes Brownsville.Jose Maria Ortega. 39 Americans killed. Mexican losses 200 killed. Taylor attacks his center. Arista retreats toward Linares.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire.300. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army.Arista with 3. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara. Aug 5 Gen. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor.Mexican American War Timeline command. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House. Gen. Arista resigns command to Gen. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. overrunning the Mexican artillery. border set at the 49th parallel. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . incident. Maj.

htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .500 man army in four months.000 militia.Richey. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms. Jan 13 Lt.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran.000 volunteers.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight. leaving 4. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship. Mexicans 700 casualties. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge.S. the last Mexican stronghold in California. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.645 troops. to be led by Gen.000 Mexican regulars and 23.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace. Ampudia asks for terms.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Winfield Scott. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen. Aug18 Gen.200 regulars and 3. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi. no Americans killed. gathering a 21. Americans suffer 120 killed. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles.700 for garrison duty. forcing them to surrender.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory.called the Black Fort by the Americans.which is defended by a formidable citadel. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City.

General Santa Anna. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa. Only 14.000 man Mexican army. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi. March 21 10. 3. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !').000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion. Siege of Veracruz begins.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena. Taylor retires toward Monterrey.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. Mexicans lose 1. most in a 800 man cavalry charge.Special Cavalry Division.. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg. California is renamed San Francisco. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line.000 Mexican prisoners taken.600 soldiers land by nightfall. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry. Robert E.800.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues. an easier to defend narrow pass. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila. Mexicans lose 300 killed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.8. Santa Anna's 18.Americans lose 63 killed. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. March 9 American landing at Veracruz. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4.500 desertions.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2.

2.000 of his defeated troops. Scott sends 3.500 under Worth to take it. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there.and is left with 5. http://mexicanhistory. 50 of which are cadets. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle.820 . Americans have lost 139 killed. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. Scott now has 14. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired. Joseph E.500 troops.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec. defended by 260 defenders under Gen. Santa Ana flees Mexico City.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col.500 of which are sick. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today. Americans lose 116 killed.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.. the last major defense before Mexico City. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle. 30 out of 69 are executed.000 captured. Mexican loses are 4. Six cadets fight to the death.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4.000 dead and 3.000 troops. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey.000 troops and 30 cannons. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City.Bravo. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City.(Boy Heros).hoping he will ask for terms. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. which falls after a fierce battle. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.

300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.Colorado. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3. Free Investor Kit.000) were to be treated as U.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Since 1960.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.Utah.Arizona and New Mexico.CaliBaja. in Coloma.sailor Owen Edgar. Goldline.HolidayInn. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door.Nevada. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war. America takes California. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed.S. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe. citizens against Mexico.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80.com http://mexicanhistory. citizens. A couple of days of severe rioting follows. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War. 1876 July 31 last of 18. Book now! www. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.5 million in claims by U. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena. Anaya become interim president.S.

com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears.Shopping.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. www.Metin2. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once.Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost.com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term.Info. many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 . To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. http://mexicanhistory. this huge class of people was not educated.pestilence and death. Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7.

Villa's men are mostly miners from the north.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Madero joined by other local leaders.often led by Villa himself. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Oct 11 Madero.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. Francisco Madero. Madero was unusual for his period. better known as Pancho Villa. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. He didn't drink or smoke. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi.

htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga.500 under Madero. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo. let’s see if he can ride it. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. April 3. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas. Madero refuses. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz. Diaz offers to resign. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico..Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. Madero enters city. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City.

Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support. He plans to march on Mexico City.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory. supported by powerful hacienda landowners. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero.000 in the north. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. Madero turns to Gen. Slow to take action on land reform . Pascual Orozoco. Nov 9 In Texas. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands.once an ally of Villa.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. raises a well equipped army of 6.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest.

Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City. forcing him to flee to the US. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. 300 killed around presidential palace.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Revolt fails and Leon is executed.Mexican Revolution Timeline order. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz.5. April 26 Col.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Diaz freed.400 men. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. Gen Felix Diaz. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. Brig.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2. Huerta defeats Orozoco.

Huerta would become temporary president. Vice Pres. Soon others launch rebellion.bull fights and walking on the streets. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement .New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. Huerta seizes Madero.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected. 100 Madero supporters are executed.000 none to loyal army. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him. limiting church power.The press. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community.which had been free under Madero. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president. Huerta is supported by conservatives.. http://mexicanhistory. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man.who murder him. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. 500 civilians killed. of Coahuila. Jose Suarez and cabinet. In reality Huerta ordered the murders. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. Gen.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Feb 24 The Gov. Using these tactics he created a 200. Lane recalled. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857. In the next election. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .

. calling his forces the Constitutionalists. with the secret support of the United States. City taken. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. all federal officers executed.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. Federal train blown up. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5. federals round up civilians. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga.killing 100 federal troops. 1913.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. Several hundred executed. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe.000 men. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. 12. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . a politician and rancher from Coahuila. all federal officers executed. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. On March 26. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. The northern armies of Villa. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta.

American Rear Adm.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico. 4 Americans killed.S. Villa became a folk hero in the U.Eventually 3. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine. Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released..S. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz.300 sailors and 2. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . The Mexican commander refuses.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico. There was a considerable concentration of U. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Sniper fire continues. through such writers as John Reed.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. leading to his resignation on July 15. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York.Snipers open fire on Americans. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila . Huerta goes into exile in Europe.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . 400 more Americans are sent ashore.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute.000 marines land. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T.

Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa.000 march through city. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. who departs for Veracruz. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. Their combined armies of 50. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12. who lose 2. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 and many supplies. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. abandoned by Villa and Zapata. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms.

000 cavalry against Obregon's 9. Despite using terror tactics. angering him. US cuts off arms supplies to Villa.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over.is unable to defeat Zapata . http://mexicanhistory. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez.000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20.Villa loses 4.000 man army.000 cavalry.500 horsemen and 6. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire. 6.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches .500 infantry. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI. known as the general who never won a battle .Villa has 8.000 taken prisoner.barbed wire and machine guns. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults.5.000 causalities and retreats north.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.400 cavalry and 14. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.Hill succeeds him. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US.

1917 It allows freedom of religion.000 man army occupies every major town in the state.000 followers. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west. 400 desert Villa. has 9. Villa losses many of his remaining 5. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines.30. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro.child labor prohibited.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos. New Mexico with 500 riders. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen.south or east will be contested. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan. Retreats with only 1. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. workers allowed to form labor unions.equal pay for men and women. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans.000 men to pursue Villa.400. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3. Approved on Feb 17.000 in late April.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Takes much booty and gives speech. with air support.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City.

taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. Gov.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. had declared war on Germany. Huerta gives a 25. flees Mexico City.. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta.S.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving.. March many Obregon supporters arrested. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. but murders him while he is sleeping. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. by which time the U.killing 200. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza.Following Zapata's death. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. Obregon harassed. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. including Villa rally to his side.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty. Carranza retreats with 100 followers.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon. the ambassador to Mexico.believing he would become his puppet. http://mexicanhistory.000 followers. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. Supporters.

Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years. but large scale fighting is over. Huerta flees Mexico. An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory.

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