Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.

org

Web
Google Search

MexicanHistory.org

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
True Colonial blinds from the company that makes them for Colonial Williamsburg
www.shutterblinds.com

Mexico Obesity Doctor U.S. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost
www.ObesityControlCenter.com

Single Mexican Women Marry One of These Single Women Neighbors will Envy You!
AmoLatina.com

Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

Maps of Mexico

Mexican coins

http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

www.BookIt.com Ads by Google

Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

Big Hat Curio... Art Print

http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

Buy for $19.99

Search For Posters!
Go

Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Provincial towns were organized by royal decree.Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . New Mexico. eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office . The presidios (military towns). Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces . pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. There were 62 viceroys in New Spain.Large cities such as Oaxaca.A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . all were to have a main plaza. In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies . The Indians. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs . royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly.1821 MexicanHistory.In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas. sometimes there would be advanced warning .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Arizona. Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito. The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . almost all of the Aztec empire.Eventually. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on .org/colonial. California. The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . Utah and Colorado . along with such regions as Colina.Colonial Mexico 1519 . church . the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed .

The Indians. A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes .Colonial Mexico 1519 . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war . Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . Charles V took this charge seriously. http://mexicanhistory.org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems.Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ .Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making .1821 MexicanHistory. that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. Dominicans and the Augustinians . the most serious revolt of the times . it's continuation. leaving the area undermanned . Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico. led by Tenamaxtli .Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41).org/colonial.His successor.the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy. Augustin's City of God . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians . They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing . Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor. monastic life and humble character .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. who were still viewed as a menace.

which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. 50 such churches had been built .org/colonial.org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country. with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts . They built fortess missions across New Spain . Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe.000 Indians a day . http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory. By 1540.Nine million were baptized by 1537. The Catholic reverence for saints. This was the open chapel or capilla abierta.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 . often being the first Europeans to explore an area . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City .

The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws. Phillip II ( r 1556 . the Florentine Codex.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Charles V was dead. They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . 1601.org/colonial. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles .Indians http://mexicanhistory.In the mid 16 century.Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life. Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned . such as.1821 MexicanHistory. Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs.1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers .org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. and the new Spanish king. Mexico. In the process. Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun. Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain .The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds . Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain . which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery .

criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster . however . especially those of the Enlightenment writers. this decree led to riots and other disturbances.Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown . This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico. Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes . Juan de Palafox.There were also quarrels with civil authorities . the first in the colony was in 1574 . principally in San Luis Potos .org/colonial. The Bourbon kings. These works did find there way into the private libraries. which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) . with the prisoners often strangled first . The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . Auto de fes drew large crowds .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n.The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla. who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment.Crimes like adultery.org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike.In New Spain.1821 MexicanHistory. wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.Colonial Mexico 1519 .The crime of heresy.Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain .The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories . The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony .

1695 ).One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Indians and African slaves . There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 .Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 .Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans.org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566.org/colonial. Mestizo. who taught many local artist . The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. some of it in the Nahuatl language. most of these returned to Spain . be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ). Castizo. She wrote poetry. persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 .1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). http://mexicanhistory. Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . Creoles could not hold royal office . The Social Classes a Mestizo baby.1821 MexicanHistory. . persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent. by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period . Cholos.1700 ) .

000 by 1800.. from piracy . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. which was due on almost everything sold. After about 1560. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians. The most hated was the alcabala. which fixed the price of goods and their quality . ceramics. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . which were the wards of the church and the Crown . The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus .000 in the 16th century to 6.org Mulatos. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory. Zambos. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem . tailors. Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain.With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. Euromestizos. They were sometimes made into slaves. Over the years. Money makers such as tobacco. persons who were mixed indio and negro.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers .The China trade was established in 1564 silks. etc . Commerce was controlled by royal decree. The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . licenses. etc.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . industry could not grow and advance.1821 MexicanHistory.Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries. The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment .To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild .There were royal taxes of all kinds on land.Colonial Mexico 1519 . The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths.org/colonial.

bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. silver bar from shipwreck.org/colonial. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. diversified economy from growing . Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas. The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . Some of the haciendas were vast.In the early colonial period.Colonial Mexico 1519 . was of prime importance to Spain .1821 MexicanHistory. The restrictions. Such http://mexicanhistory. Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . combined with bad roads. By the 18th century.org colonies and Spain itself . The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute .

So.There were many abuses to this system.org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . but was modified by the new land. 1549. Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.org/colonial.1821 MexicanHistory. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . which was abolished in the early 17th century. Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks.It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. http://mexicanhistory. but few wished to. except for mine labor . rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . thick walls were needed because of earthquakes.Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . However. The building material in New Spain was more colorful. usually a week at a time .The debts were passed down from father to son . plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico.Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage. in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians .

1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.In the mid 16th century. The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575). The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu . The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.Colonial Mexico 1519 . considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style . mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines .org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. built in the late 18th century.

alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial. It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times. a spanish architect ).1821 MexicanHistory. especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged.the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades.

the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana. plazasa. Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. a more severe. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years . built in 1585 .org As a reaction to the excess. University of the Cloister of Sor Juana. Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City .built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction . hospitals and universities . http://mexicanhistory.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa .Colonial Mexico 1519 . neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830. Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals.org/colonial.In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock.1821 MexicanHistory.

http://mexicanhistory.org Castillo de Chapultepec.Many people consider Puebla. Spain in the 16th century . Basilica Guadalupe.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera. Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 .org/colonial.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . particularly their designs.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs . Chinese ceramic was soon imitated. built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war .

Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Tequila . The crown had a monopoly on pulque. feeble in mind and body. and more popularly called pulque.The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . When Charles II died in 1700. which was a major source of revenue . who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon. Duke of Anjou. the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings.org/colonial.1700 ). Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara.1821 MexicanHistory. Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . He had named a greatnephew. Wine was introduced early to New Spain . Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries . which they called octli (later.org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. Philippe de Bourbon.

becoming the second biggest export . Under his rule Spain once again became a world power .The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas . He had two main concerns. global warfare. Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies . Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 . Cochineal production also increased. Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general .org Louis XIV ) as his successor. In 1740. improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers .. http://mexicanhistory. Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty .The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually . the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining .Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining .Colonial Mexico 1519 . fought on four continents and three oceans.The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco .The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. . The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. After eleven years of bloody.Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain . was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war.88 ).1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. replacing 200 low paid. as Philip V.Silver production rose from 2. the Duc d'Anjou.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804.

meaning double). The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms.1821 MexicanHistory. New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . By 1810. There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana . Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 .Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 .By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world .It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . http://mexicanhistory. the national motto for Spain . but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. Peru. a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . the Americas and the Far East. Revillagigedo . was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines . worth eight reales. as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins.The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules. The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy .org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . Through widespread use in Europe. it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed . Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . Many existing currencies. another able ruler( 1789 . many creoles prospered during this period in business .79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown .The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . The creole Count Regla. For example. many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'. The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n. or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. such as the Canadian dollar.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 . the real de a ocho. the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal .225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. meaning a double-sided token coin. The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population .King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . often refers to a seven-gram (0.94 ) created the first public transportation system . The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight.Another viceroy. or Nueva Granada. Mexico.org/colonial.

1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial.org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 .

you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.fxva. Costa Rica.net Things to do near DC Close to DC. Dominican Rep. shopping & more! www.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory. Heroes. www.Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory. Scoundrels.org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821. Celts www.lindenhill.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates. Fairfax County has great attractions.mortgageallianceprogram.org/colonial.

lib.edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.utexas.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .http://www.

Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. The lower classes. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation. but not equality for all.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org The war for Independence 1810.Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far .org/Independence.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www.Norwich. http://mexicanhistory. They did rebel.The war for Independence 1810.1821 MexicanHistory. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .MilitaryHistory. their lot was so hard . The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand.

Art Print Buy for $19.By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence .Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars . Unlike the wise Charles III. in these years. The church had to call in their mortgages. Without a true Spanish monarchy. with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 .org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America. his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies.1821 MexicanHistory. Bullfighting from. many creoles thought they should rule themselves.99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory. ruled by independent juntas.Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 .. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity . Latin America was.org/Independence. 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout".htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . The peninsulares thought otherwise .. These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles.The war for Independence 1810. destroying many Creoles financially .The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform .

However.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant . 1810.org/Independence. a captain of the cavalry .They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them. none of these charges could be proved and he was released . In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe. Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia . With Hidalgo at their head.org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8. 1810. However.1821 MexicanHistory. Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato. gathering more recruits along the way. the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once . Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . who became an independence symbol. they marched for San Miguel. her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic . They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . reading proscribed books.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16.The war for Independence 1810.A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende.However. http://mexicanhistory.

San Luis Potosi and Valladolid .Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward.org/Independence. Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces .1821 MexicanHistory. Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning .The rebels took Guadalajara .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2.An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then . 1811. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas. Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces . http://mexicanhistory. Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . turning into a rout . They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31. He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City .The war for Independence 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon. In the middle of the battle. The army retreated into Mexico City .Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup .000 rebels were killed .By late October the army had about 80. However. a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.000 marching on Mexico City .

000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1.With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point .They issued a Declaration of Independence.Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state . one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2. the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed .Gradually. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control . Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax . the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement. who had been recruited by Hildago .1821 MexicanHistory.org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this .By 1819.The war for Independence 1810. retaking many towns .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare .000 around Oaxaca .In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital . those opposed to it were guilty of treason . viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile.org/Independence. the Spanish viceroy.He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms. http://mexicanhistory.After awhile only two major bands remained. Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out .For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination .

yielded to their demands . the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2. the Creoles found this change too liberal. a virtual prioner of the army at this point. bad food. and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez .The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country.org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile. King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms .The king. The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people.500 men to fight Guerrero . Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala. This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government .org/Independence. A new army would be created. If this was not done there would be a military coup . .Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. free speech and curbed the power of the church . Spain. Ironically. in January 1820. Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights. He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . led by King Ferdinand or another European prince .The war for Independence 1810. At C diz. the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay.

Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. viceroy Apodaca resigned . 1821 .After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army.org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. On September 27.1821 MexicanHistory.O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico. Juan de O'Donoju. this was to become an important point . unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares . the last viceroy of New Spain .The war for Independence 1810. Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . Mexico was independent at last .org/Independence. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. a Mexican congress would chose an emperor. One more proviso was added by Iturbide . Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit .

a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online. 1821.com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. would also be Emperor of Mexico. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.March 19. 1821 . Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide . but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. Ferdinand VII. www. General Agustín de Iturbide. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.ObesityControlCenter. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21. After the declaration of independence on September 27. However.ancestry. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. which in turned named him as its presiding officer .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. it did not accept the offer .S.com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala.BookIt.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch .org/firstempire.com www. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain.

There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once . The heir apparent was Senor Don August. Court etiquette was issued.org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. from California in the north to Panama . which included Costa Rica. the regiment of Celaya.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. hoping to promote free republican governments . 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . stage a demonstration on his behalf . The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. as Agustin I . Honduras. Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . On July 21. El Salvador.In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . Iturbide feigned reluctance. When Iturbide was declared emperor. then accepted . Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. 1821 . Nicaragua. President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico.org/firstempire. http://mexicanhistory. but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22. Guatemala.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . Iturbide had his own troops. 1822 . outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee .The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico .

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

www.BookIt.com Ads by Google

Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

http://mexicanhistory.org/firstempire.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM]

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

http://mexicanhistory.org/firstempire.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM]

The Early Republic MexicanHistory.org

Web
Google Search

MexicanHistory.org

The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

http://mexicanhistory.org/earlyrepublic.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM]

the caudillo .29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name.The Early Republic MexicanHistory.As Iturbide did. the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army . The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators .Mexican border . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public. another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza .After some fighting . President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . Bravo was exiled to Ecuador .com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828.Over 50. he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain .org/earlyrepublic. The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero. These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited . The government sought to support itself through import duties.Groupon. A local military strongman emerges during these times.The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner. Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US .1843 ) was a former rebel leader. who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . taxes and monopolies .The York Rite masons . but no an inspiring or talented administrator .org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . led by vice president Bravo .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war .000 men were kept under arms. These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. who controlled the army. brave in battle. http://mexicanhistory.Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 .

This marked a return to power of the conservatives.Guerrero set off with a force to attack them.org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria . as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . After an initial attack which failed. All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . which had been abandoned . Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. the most important of which was calling up of the reserves.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion . Reserves in Jalapa. Bustamante.32 - http://mexicanhistory. which had never recognized Mexico's independence. choose this time to invade its most important former colony . Santa Anna settled in for a siege . However. Slaves were few in number by this time. Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . who fled the country . but his act increased his support among mulattos. such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight . Bustamante agreed.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. the Spanish general surrendered .King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain. The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them.They landed near Tampico. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero.From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree.Some of the states. but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . mainly middle class merchants.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . Santa Anna became extremely popular . This plan backfired . Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy . President Bustamante 1830 . With this victory and that off driving out the emperor.org/earlyrepublic. The treasury by this time was also bankrupt. These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . even after the repulse of the Spanish.

org/earlyrepublic.47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections.The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again .Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election . which he did in 1833.Bustamante.org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press. but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 . Bustamante was to go into exile. signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23).The Early Republic MexicanHistory. using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero . Corruption was rampant . Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza.

1842 . and Texas as well as published sources.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias. Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history . 1835 .1834.org/santaanna.ancestry.S.com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. trained specialist treats you in Collection.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years.com www. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico. Britain.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times .1841 . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.1839 .1843 . Spain. a liberal politician of intellectual distinction . http://mexicanhistory.ObesityControlCenter. Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it . but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz .org Santa Anna 1794 .1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Discover Family Heroes.

His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . warlord. Querétaro. more pejoratively. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms . Several of these states formed their own governments.Corruption was widespread." or. led http://mexicanhistory.They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office . Guanajuato. San Luis Potosí. Jalisco. Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . he reduced its size and abolished military fueros . the Republic of Yucatan.The Zacatecan militia. He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one. The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90.' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . To curb the undue influence of the army.The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal . Michoacán.In order to secure power. the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states.The congress was disbanded . Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist . The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna .org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias.Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows .The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . Yucatán. Durango.org/santaanna.000 acres . Nuevo León. State militias were disbanded . the constitution of 1836 was enacted . The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the treasury was still bankrupt .He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. Santa Anna became a millionaire . Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. and the Republic of Texas. "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) . "dictator" or "strongman". that of the church and that of the army . began with two major reforms .000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation. the Republic of the Rio Grande.Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power .The presidential term was extended from four years to eight .

The first Europeans in the area. or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . After two hours of combat. After defeating Zacatecas. 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker .61 rifles. 1835 to April 21. and others.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. on 12 May 1835.000 prisoners.org by Francisco Garcia. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain . was well armed with . Comanches and other Indian tribes . the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches. San Antonio.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3. which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory.org/santaanna.There were small towns in the interior. Nacogdoches. Goliad.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived .

and he returned home. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River.Spain wished to colonize the territory.000 Mexicans . who had served under Frederick the Great. T. who roved about stealing the stock. Stephen. after great exposure and privation. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. the judge and commandant . and fought over land titles and for political domination. While at work they kept guard against the Indians.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . He reached home in safety. leaving his dying injunction to his son.000 Americans living in Texas. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas. Austin was the supreme authority. and was then in the service of Mexico. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas.000 settlers .org/santaanna. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. By 1827 there were 12. By 1835 there were 30. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. Mexico became independent and Moses' son.000 Americans and only around 8. to carry out his project. at times making a night attack upon a cabin.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. and a local militia was organized. The land titles were duly recorded. a Prussian officer. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. there were only 7. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. In 1820 he set out for Texas.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. T.In 1827." Gone to Texas . and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. and. Life in the new land was rough.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river .25 an acre in the US . but his exposure and privations had weakened him.

The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila .Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. called " The Fredonian War. which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. to take over the region.Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. mostly criminals and convicts. Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. By 1836. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 . Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. to stations in the country. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters . The check immigration into Texas from America. increasing the cost of trade with the US .The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila .org/santaanna. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened . which were to be redistributed in Mexico. but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital.org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities. Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico. Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente. but the societies were too different and tensions increased . by sending a thousand soldiers. an empresario. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo . leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent.000 slaves in Texas. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. In 1830.President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory ." was easily suppressed. Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. there were approximately 5. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all . this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this .Mexico increased custom duties on exports. but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. they were also supported by many Mexican liberals.Most Americans remained Protestant. grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism. This emeute. even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas .S.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.

Zacatecas. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. civilians were massacred by the thousands. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. Castañeda established a camp. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. He then ordered his brother-in law. The Texians refused. http://mexicanhistory. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. Since they had no cannon balls. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. Unable to cross. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. 1835. including Jim Bowie. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. and Coahuila.org/santaanna. Several officers resigned.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Throughout November 1835. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and negotiations fell through. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. many of the volunteers simply left. which began on October 12.m. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. and was in Texas by August. having never been formally charged with sedition. who went to Gonzales. under the defence of General Cos. As a reward. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . Two Texian militias answered the call. Austin was released in July.m. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824.. The next morning. Austin saw little choice but revolution. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. the Texans captured Bexar. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. At 3 a. On September 20. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. at 7 p. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas. The siege of Bexar. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. negotiations were held. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. Under the Liberal banner. On October 1.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. and Austin sanctioned it. they reached the camp. and gunfire was exchanged. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. who was stationed in San Antonio.

The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. but it marched forward. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. as it came to be known. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. These men. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. now led by General Sam Houston. Although the Matamoros Expedition. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans.org 1835. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. On November 6.org/santaanna. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. nothing came of it. Albert Martin. poorly led. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. despite Austin's leadership. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. 1835. Capt. on March 2. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. but his talents were not well suited for military life." No further reinforcement arrived. in a fortress doomed to destruction. a force of about 6. The remaining Texan army. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ).Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. chiefly husbands and fathers. The expedition failed. and with no collective motivation. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army.000. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the political and military center of Texas. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. owning their own homes. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. never more to leave them. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. Soon. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. bringing only disaster for months to come. hoping to sack the town. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. "At dawn on the first of March.

htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . so it was put to the torch. making his way north following the coast of Texas.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. A scorched earth policy was implemented. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds. experienced and feared. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. March 27. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. The Mexican cavalry. gave unrelenting chase. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. under Santa Anna's direct orders.org/santaanna. José Urrea At Goliad. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. border. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. always on the heels of Houston. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. 1836. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. 1836.S. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna's army. the United States. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. Soon. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men.together with the fall of the Alamo.. Overnight.. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. and even Great Britain and France. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2. the rains made the roads impassable.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. brought up cannon and reinforcements. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. rather than a cruel one. March 20. and much animosity was aimed towards him. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday.

Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. Houston could do nothing but follow. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. only nine Texans died.org and race quickly towards Galveston. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. but Filisola disagreed. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. On that same day. which were led by General Cos. catching the Mexican army by surprise. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Santa Anna. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. waited for reinforcements. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. who had been wounded in the ankle. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. which the Texans used as cover. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. not the Army of Operations. after burning Vince's Bridge. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. General Vicente Filisola. both armies met at the San Jacinto River.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. Texas. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. and tired of running away. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. as dictator of Mexico. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. marched back to Mexico. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. Without Houston's consent. but not without protests from Urrea. Numbering about 700. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness.200 men. Hours before the attack.org/santaanna. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. and put an end to the war. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. the Texans surged forward. To the dismay of the Texans. mostly cavalry. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Santa Anna. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. but nothing came of it. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. which had proven costly and prolonged. Also. and he was brought before Houston. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. An 18minute-long battle ensued.

Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. D. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. into Texas. but briefly. thus. But unknown to Santa Anna. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. a French soldier of fortune. occupying San Antonio.. called Manga de Clavo. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. He was re-elected President. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico.S.org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . one private ) on May 14.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . when French forces landed in Veracruz. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. After some time in exile in the United States.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. and soon after. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. two actually formed republic besides Texas. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 .C. In 1838. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. and after meeting with U. Nuevo León.org/santaanna. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. The war continued as a standoff. the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico.

when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . Yucatán declared its neutrality. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. the Republic of the Rio Grande failed.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .In November. Nuevo León. 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress.org/santaanna. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. After the end of the Mexican-American War. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. http://mexicanhistory. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority.By 1855. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. La Ceiba . Texas . many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) .This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida.org In 1840.C. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. ultimately. however. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. Upon this event. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. and the United States. During this meeting. D. Spain.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out.

org The Pastry War In 1838. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. President Again Soon after.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed . President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. Santa Anna tried to elude capture. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán.000 pesos in payment and when payment. the United States declared war on Mexico. by an army commanded by the president himself.org/santaanna. Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). but France upped the ante to 800. In 1842. at war against Santa Anna. With resentment ever growing against the president. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. The war with France had weakened Mexico. This was too much for the Mexicans. and to seize the port of Veracruz. Veracruz. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. The French landed 3. Mexico agreed to pay. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. Mexico declared war on France. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. Also. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. turned over to authorities. and imprisoned. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Thus began the Pastry War .The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. In 1846.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. a military expedition into Texas was renewed. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. and the people were discontented. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. Fearing for his life.000 troops .was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero. Meanwhile. or the French would demand satisfaction. His life was spared.000 pesos.

In April 1853.ObesityControlCenter. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . He then lived in exile in Cuba.ancestry. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. He funneled government funds to his own pockets.org/santaanna. trained specialist treats you in Collection.S. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. Thomas.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. and two years later.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory. to the United States. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. on June 21. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". which was tried without success. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. the United States. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. penniless and heartbroken. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. the base of chewing gum. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States. Colombia. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives." which helped found the chewing gum industry.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Thomas Adams. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. Discover Family Heroes.org of the United States. 1876. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. Colombia. but he failed to profit from this. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna. and St.S. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna. This reign was no better than his earlier ones. Jamaica. naval blockades. In 1851. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. and he fled back to Cuba.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. moved to Turbaco.

htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . www. at least until the lapse of time. and maintain our present attitude. War With Mexico. & GE. and to uphold the Government constituted by them. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory.org/mexicanamericanwar1. 4 Quotes.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . 18461848This wellwritten.TopAlarmCompanies. Brinks.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. shall have proved. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico . Andrew Jackson . if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government. " Prudence. President Tyler The following president. Van Buren. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. The American president after Texas won its independence.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT." said he.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Compare & Save. was not for immediate annexation .Mexican American War 1846 . also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas .The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue." So Far from God: The U. 1 Form.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.S.1848 MexicanHistory. beyond all dispute. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. or the course of events. APX Alarm.org Mexican American War 1846 .S.

1845 .On the 4th July. On the 3rd March. he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport . which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month .No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war . president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . Texas consented to be annexed. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress.It was discovered by President Tyler. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. the Mexican minister to the U.S.org/mexicanamericanwar1. Texas joined the Union on December 29. a survey of the This History Channel special.who was pro-annexation. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 . that what could not be effected by treaty. and the December 29.1848 MexicanHistory. an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California.Prior to Polk's election.Mexican American War 1846 . The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. it joined the Union . President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast . as half of the Senators represented free States.org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas. The new president. could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . a few hours before his term of office expired. 1845 . There was a fear England would purchase California. Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing. President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28. and that.

The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar . the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River . he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto.org/mexicanamericanwar1. supported by populist newspapers. Wyoming. $5.The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source.000. Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil . They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. which included parts of modern day New Mexico.Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas.Mexican American War 1846 .000 or more for California . In 1836. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. However. and Colorado.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . Kansas. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. as per the Treaties of Velasco . Oklahoma." returned to the United States.000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25.000. Slidell.1848 MexicanHistory. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory.

you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. drive them from their positions on either side of the river. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. with much difficulty. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments." http://mexicanhistory. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . and.1848 MexicanHistory. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border .about 4. will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country. Mississippi. in December 14. if deemed practicable and expedient. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos .000 in all He was told. but instead of marching north against the invaders.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and Kentucky. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2.In case of war. Herrera. was plotting to invade. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts.org/mexicanamericanwar1. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico . your main object will be the protection of Texas .Louisiana. was able to assemble a force of 6. Tennessee. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas.S. 1846.Mexican American War 1846 . Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama.000 men.

in pursuance of orders. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. He expelled the U. commenced his march into the Mexican territory. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. it would enter into no negotiation with him. or committed any overt act of hostilities. the extreme point of Texas proper. 4th.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. from which it appeared probable that.S. regard you as openly committing hostilities.Mexican American War 1846 .org/mexicanamericanwar1. he found the buildings in flames. he prudently waited for further orders. without having met with the slightest opposition. 1846.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. and for which no reason had been assigned. the inhabitants must. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi." As there was no invasion to repel. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. wrote to the Secretary. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. and the site of a Mexican Custom House. particularly those of July 8th. declared his willingness to fight. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. later known as Fort Brown . 1845. and http://mexicanhistory. envoy from Mexico. except in reference to Texas. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. Taylor. On the 12th January. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that. and Oct." On approaching Point Isabel. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. Not an American.1848 MexicanHistory. a Mexican settlement.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force.

" It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained. thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros.1848 MexicanHistory." Upon the Strength of this despatch. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis.four hours to remove his camp. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. and therefore unseen. and thus. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. and Porter. "a war by the act of Mexico. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. one of defence." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. drove away the men. according to the wishes of the Cabinet." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. 4th Infantry." and requiring him within twenty." but the main body of about 2. acting on the advice of a local guide . Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. It appears they separated. says. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . In April 1846. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank. investigated an abandoned hacienda." In this affair. it will clearly result that arms. He immediately charged upon them .org/mexicanamericanwar1. despite protests by the Mexican government . Pofter and one man was killed whether any. does not appear . Accordingly. camp . adding. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. and took possession of their horses.S. Another letter. and arms alone. it seems.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. published in the Philadelphia Inquirer . War is Declared General Taylor. On May 13. and retire beyond the Nueces .He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. whereupon he determined. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. " 16 Americans. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war ." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons . he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. reports. ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. he reports. the President announced to Congress and the world. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. on April 24 . and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. . 1846. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter. Congress declared war on Mexico. must decide the question.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande." Notwithstanding the blockade. Tamaulipas. about 25 miles from the U. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. not to remain any longer idle. coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras.Mexican American War 1846 . and. to make the intended war.

com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by Party. Terms Served.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .org Ancestry.Bing.com American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory.+4 Billion Records Mayan www. & More.org/mexicanamericanwar1.ancestry.World's largest online family history 47 resource.Mexican American War 1846 .com ® Anna 1833 .1848 MexicanHistory.com/VisualSearch National Customs Broker Call us today and an experienced. licensed Customs Broker will answer www. Try Visual Search! www.apexlogistics.

ancestry.S.S. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . Discover Family Heroes.The US.org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories .org/mexicanamericanwar2. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops. Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' . The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced . history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle . Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com ObesityControlCenter. including So Far from God: the U. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy .com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time. with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate .Mexico had no small arm factories of its own . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.S. was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it . War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written. The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources .which played a decisive role in several key The U. trained specialist treats you in Collection. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory.The rifle.The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

a carbine or short musket called the dragon. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. and the means to execute them.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . General Stephen W. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. Secretary at War. General Scott. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846." would be the best means of producing peace. At this time. was stationed at Washington.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. like a fire breathing dragon. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. and General Scott . The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force.500 hundred men . as commander of the army. but trained in horseback riding and combat .org/mexicanamericanwar2. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. by consultations between the President.The President declared that in his opinion. seems to have been arranged jointly. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive .

The plan was judicious.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. with his main force.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. In this defense. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. and then fall on the American army. and continued at intervals till the 10th. Captain Hawkins. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. To take this place would. under the command of Major Brown. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. was comparatively defenceless. therefore.org/mexicanamericanwar2. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. both for skill and gallantry. which had been left in care of a small detachment. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. and was only prevented from being carried out. The departure of General Taylor with his army. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. Major Brown. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. under whose direction the fort was built. Arista saw that Point Isabel. who was now in command of the Mexican army. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. by the accidental infor. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. The army was halted. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. In the mean while. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. capture Point Isabel. and arrived on the next day. . 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. The former was killed by a shell. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. It appears that General Arista.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. Leaving an unfinished field-work. and several killed and wounded. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country.

dered Torrejon.. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. In two hours. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. under Lt. and by the 5th Infantry. General Arista or. mostly Lancers. dating his despatch.The Mexican American War at a pool. might have easily been defended. while the 3d. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. at night" This might be true .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. and by other troops of that division. In this firing. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. at Resaca de la Palma. says. of the field. from which he did not depart till two p. by the Americans. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. 4th.tery and by the infantry on the wings. M. " in sight of the enemy. A battery of artillery. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. and took a new position several miles off. The Dragoons. the next day. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. This he did. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. Montero. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. now broken by successive charges. had advanced beyond support. Ridgely. and with greater energy of body.cipitately from the field. Arista. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. They fled pre. moved up the main road. Their columns. and in turn fell back on the main body. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. when they were deployed into line. to charge the American right. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. but with as little success. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . general of cavalry. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. under Lt. under the command of Col. The artillerymen were dispersed. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. At two P. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. the army advanced by heads of columns. Ridgely. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. A ravine here crossed the road. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. The position was well chosen . On the left wing of our army. were on their left. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. but was met by the Flying Artillery.cers were again driven back. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. To remedy this. The charge was gallantly made. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. and General La Vega taken prisoner. The Lan. but he was in retreat. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. M.org/mexicanamericanwar2. The Mexican cavalry. however. and the battle was soon ended.

and Revilla surrendered. numbering six thousand six hundred.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . and on the 5th of September. to the left. They fought gallantly. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. In the mean time. as http://mexicanhistory. the general. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. and near it other heights. were destined for the march to Monterey. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science.in-chief left Comargo. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. and around it. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. he advanced to the village of Marin. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men.org/mexicanamericanwar2. both the general government at home. Comargo. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande.ted to them. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. while the main body. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. the capital of New Leon . with which some nations are fortunately gifted. and were occupied. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. which was regularly fortified. Mier. behaved well. Being reinforced. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. in rear of the town and beyond the river. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. or citadel. On the heights. Comargo. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. and in the rear. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. The opposite side of the city. all fortified. In front.

but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second.org/mexicanamericanwar2. to the support of General Worth. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. however. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. supported by the Light Artillery. General Worth. in spite of its fire. if practicable.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. Up to this time. was ordered to the left. with three companies of the 4th regiment. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. the column rapidly moved.The Mexican American War the Americans approached.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . being wounded. A column of six hundred and fifty men. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. General Butler. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. with Bragg's Artillery. The army. with his division. and advanced against the second battery. Tennessee. and two or three thousand irregulars. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. were detached to the right. with its cannon and ammunition. May's Dragoons. were with. however. and after another severe contest retired in good order. and Davis. three miles from Monterey. This movement was executed during the evening. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. who had advanced with it.vious. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. Campbell. advanced against the redoubt. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . entered the town to the right. superior in numbers to the American army. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. The two last regiments. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. into the rear of which. to attack the lower part of the town. and the troops remained upon their arms.other column. Garland's force. were both ordered forward . carry the enemy's works in that quarter. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses.nied the parly in its advance. with the bayonet and the artillery. and they were compelled to retire. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. pressed forward. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. it is ob. and commenced its assault on the town. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. The front defense here was a redoubt.drawn. and Mississippi. and Wood's Texan Cavalry. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. and fired upon the redoubt. were forts also erected. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. who accompa.

General Taylor. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right.S. under Colonel Alexander W. Kearney. That evening (at 9 p. two provinces. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa.The Mexican American War town. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. The Surrender of Monterey. Doniphan .org/mexicanamericanwar2. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. two companies of light. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. California and New Mexico. gave a new face to affairs. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. on the morning of the 23d. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. to fire upon the American positions . The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. in arms. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. and take possession of. but. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. but here a new resistance was made. At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. This was the key to Monterey. Marines. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. Louis. the American army had but a short supply of provisions. during this day. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. from St. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. in their defence.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. from St. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. When Stockton's forces. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. the city of Linares. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . but General Taylor made no important movement in front. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. charges. stopped in San Pedro. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada.In Northern California. and San Fernando de Prezas . under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. treads upon the territory of this republic. To this the Mexican chief replied. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. The houses were fortified. but always unsuccessfully. " The Saclede Rangers. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and the terms were unusually favorable to them. was one to move against. Louis . defeated the enemy. Besides al! this. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place ." a volunteer troop. For this concession there were strong reasons. recommenced the advance. Worth and his Division. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. after some negotiation. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. then in command of the Mexican army. and the Mexicans confined. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . believed to be favorable to peace. 1846. he dispatched 50 U. The main part of the capitulation was. Missouri. on the 13th of October. from Cole and Platte counties. sailing south to San Diego. The guns of the Citadel continued. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . and carried several fortified heights. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. while Gar.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). The Mexicans marched out with their arms. M. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers).

Jonathan D. 1847. led by José Mariá Flores. On March 15. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. Col.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Meanwhile. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. 1847. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. however. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. Marines were killed. California. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. Stockton. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. [25] and the next day. January 9. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. 1846. and the Californios. Lt. near San Pedro. Kearny. combined force. however. 1847. On January 12.org/mexicanamericanwar2. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. Taylor.S. On January 28. On January 13. fought as Californio Lancers. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed.S. on December 6. October 7 through October 9. General Stephen W. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. 1846. banded together to defend their land. Philip St. The next day.S. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. left too small a force in Los Angeles. 1847. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. Navy Captain William Mervine. Iowa Territory. Then. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. he reneged again and seized the presidency. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California.600 men. marched north from San Diego on December 29. U. Later. [24] linking up with Frémont's men.000 . 1847. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. The rancho vaqueros. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. forces. He promised the U. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. 1847.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. That marked the end of the war in California. 1847. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. had http://mexicanhistory. after being appointed commanding general. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. With U. forces continued to arrive in California.S. 14 U. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25.S. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! . Other U. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U.S.000 men.S. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. Col. January 1848. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. California. their re-supplied. with 4. led by U. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. Arizona and the Sonora desert.

S.S. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. army suffered 400 casualties.S. the U.000 men in a tired state. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. he attacked the next morning. A group of 12. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed.500 healthy troops. The U. troops were routed. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . During the siege. Furious fighting ensued. Santa Anna flanked the U. troops suffered 80 casualties. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans.000 casualties and 3.600 mounted dragoons ahead. U. Santa Anna withdrew that night. Ulysses S. The Mexican army was routed.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. Instead of taking the main road. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. army.org/mexicanamericanwar2. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City.S. Lee. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. Included in the invading force were Robert E. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions.S. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. during which some U. http://mexicanhistory. However.400 men. Scott had sent 2. troops.S. along which he expected Scott to appear. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. weapons and horses near the walled city. George Meade. about half of whom were civilian. Although by then aware of the positions of U.S.000 were taken prisoner. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. Grant. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. Polk distrusted Taylor. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. 1847.

S. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. 1847. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St.org/mexicanamericanwar2. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. Lee.The Mexican American War On the same day. U. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Twiggs agreed. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung.

signed on February 2. Vicente Suarez. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12.The efforts of the U. he grabbed the Mexican flag. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. To the southwest.S. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. 115 Queretaro Battalion. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. and the U. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. but was unable to communicate with him . A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. when one was left (Juan Escutia). Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. undisputed control of Texas. At 08:00.S. but his troops managed to raise the U. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city. Caught between two fronts. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. Before he could withdraw. forces. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. also known as the Halls of Montezuma. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. Juan Escutia..-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. and cadets Agustin Melgar. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl.org/mexicanamericanwar2. 211 Union Battalion. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point. The scaling ladders arrived. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. Newman S. 277 Mina Battalion.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. forces were about to kill him. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. One by one they fell.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery. the fighting had been severe and costly. and General Juan N. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. established the U. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. "From the Halls of Montezuma. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city. and the first wave ascended the walls. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag.S. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls..S. Flag over the castle. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front. ended the war and gave the U. President Polk tried to recall Trist. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. who took over 90% casualties.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. Johnston. and there was a lull in the battle. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. apparently falling from above . including the cadets. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera.S. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway.S. some as young as 13 years old. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. Lasting throughout most of the day. Pérez was killed. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist .

New Mexico. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla. In return.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U.S.Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. By doing so. newspaper. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US .S. The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla . especially among U. Arizona. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time.S.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California .The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River.000. A leading U. citizens. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory. Utah. and Wyoming. Mexico received US $15. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California.org/mexicanamericanwar2.S. and parts of Colorado.S. politicians that had opposed the war from the start. Nevada.000—less than half the amount the U. agreed to assume $3. with the 15 million already spent.

Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support .One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna.S.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice . the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital.This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . the neighboring states of Morelos. Dominican Rep.org/Ayutla. insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . Michoacan . who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president .In Guerrero. After over a year of guerrilla warfare.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 .which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution .The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma. the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country . a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca. democratic state .com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1.The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico . while the liberals (puros) refused . which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.CaliBaja. This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state . sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .The leader of the young.org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. http://mexicanhistory. Costa Rica. Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor.). The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . 1854 .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .mortgageallianceprogram. www.ObesityControlCenter.

Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor .The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez. These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction .Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws .org/Ayutla. assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals . The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned. The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war . Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan. the Plan de Tacubaya. the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term .The civil war was very vicious .HumanEvents. press. http://mexicanhistory. In the new constitution. the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot . The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla . The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) .this conflict led to the vicious war of reform.The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms . Comonfort becomes President www.The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals . freedom of speech. Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals .The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions . They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power .com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .For the first two years. While freedom of religion was not declared.

England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties . With the War of the Reform over. some over fifty years old . Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought . 1861. Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts. Spain. this was not to be .On October 31.France.000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz.By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France. 1861. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico. The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant .org/Ayutla. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French .org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . and 64 million of this was owed to the British .The new president chose a more lenient policy.But the biggest problem was yet to come. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . under the leadership of Napoleon III.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City . Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. In december. but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies . sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World .To get some breathening space for the economy to revive. Spain and England withdrew their troops .HumanEvents. 6.The conservative President. Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country.com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory.Juarez won the presidental election of 1861.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts.However.

French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Vera Cruz.000 to Mexico . western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory.He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota. he was determined to make France great again . Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal . the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions .Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king . Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie.As mentioned before.1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico . America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27.org/French.

The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy . Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory.000 French. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla.It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again .500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .On May 5. the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo . Napoleon ordered 30.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. 1862. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months .The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462.org/French.000 reinforcements . where around 4.The French bombarded Puebla. under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever.The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi.

that of Camaron on April 30.Here. 1863.org/French. http://mexicanhistory.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle .Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces.He was proclaimed Maximilian I. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou. French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people . which of course approved him . They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange .The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte. map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3.A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army. Emperor of Mexico on April 10. 1864.He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867.In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico . who had a wooden hand. General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida .Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves . met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived.On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .

religious toleration .The French. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . The liberals. as secretary of foreign affairs . http://mexicanhistory. considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support .He even named Jose Fernando. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives. This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. however. General Grant ordered 42. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. a Mason. Sonora and Baja.org/French.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. religious freedoms. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. was to lead to the emperors own death . There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor . French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces. Chihuahua.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . This decree. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. but nothing came of it . After its fall. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. which was not the case . and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. The emperor . creating a succession issue. American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. Guerro. He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865.The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . however.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . After the fall of the Confederacy.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. However. a moderate liberal. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US .After the downfall of the Confederacy.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. which had never recognized Maximilian's government . the republicans only held four states. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua. and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class.

but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. but his wife. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong . fashion and culture into Mexico . Monterey. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope.During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. talked him out of it.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. Portirio Diaz. who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca. the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. However. It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak . saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. However on May 15. Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression .It also introduced French ideas. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. before he could carry out this plan. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion . Over 50. 1867.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege .The battle began on Feb 19.000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare.However. Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies .org/French.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . who urged the emperor to join him. along with Miramon and Mejia .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future . Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days . the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia.the last french soldier left on March 16. Tampico. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 .He was executed by firing squad on June 19.

com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory. Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . www.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife .org/French.com www.fiestamericanagrand. sanbornsinsurance.ancestry. Home Revolution of Ayutla. purchase and print your auto policy online.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online.

The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention .Despite this. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . Costa Rica. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force.mortgageallianceprogram. There was still antagonisms from the conservatives.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 . Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . sanbornsinsurance.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.ObesityControlCenter.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection. and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . www. the rurales was established to check banditry.org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.org/RestoredRepublic. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. political and educational reforms. purchase and print your auto policy online. http://mexicanhistory. Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15. Juarez immediately set about making economic.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Schooling was made mandatory. Dominican Rep.S.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.

Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy .org/RestoredRepublic. In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment . The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat.Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .To secure the roads. Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory. an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors .000 miles .Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative. a rural police force was established.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country . Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. the rurales. in contrast with the US which had over 30. especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep .

Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 . who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October . in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . who had the support of the military and conservatives . http://mexicanhistory.org/RestoredRepublic. where he defeated Diaz easily . none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico .the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes. beginning the Mexican muralist movement . and Porfirio Diaz. A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time .600 miles off telegraph line was put up .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army . The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy . Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained.When the ballots were counted.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. but he through this effort 1.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves.Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled. 1871. Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19.

htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. 1876.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud. This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 .org/RestoredRepublic.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16. by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government. 1876. following the pattern of Juarez. Lerdo was reelected on July 24.

ancestry. The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales . Free trial. www. still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades . Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .S. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www.' During his 33 year rule.org/Diaz. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Farming methods had changed little from colonial days .seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury.MegWhitman. the main engine of the economy.com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records.Despite the efforts of the liberals mining.ObesityControlCenter. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.who was a Mestizo. of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side. Mexico entered the industrial age .org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U.com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) . Mexico was still troubled by banditos . Like Juarez before him. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .

but the strain was too much for the treasury . the Mexican treasury was running in the black .During his administration. but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez.Jose Limantour. In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge .org/Diaz. who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . so he cut the salaries of government officials . Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term .By 1890.Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling .The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . At the end of his first term. and then to remove all restrictions on re-election. Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government. Díaz had the constitution amended.84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country. The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth . first to allow two terms in office. the railway from Mexico City to El Paso. For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing . President Gonzalez 1880 .Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . secretary of the treasury. http://mexicanhistory. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims . made economic changes such as changing tariffs.These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877.

Elections were held.000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .16 percent of the population was homeless .Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving .The press was tightly censored. From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. but they were shams for the most part. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest . It seemed a http://mexicanhistory.000. but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society . threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination. such as silver and cooper mines . They promoted science.silver production increased from 24. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico. Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule. The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost .Diaz was advised by cientificos. Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size . The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power . Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons. in contrast to 50 in the US at the time .org/Diaz. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877.000. By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions .He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion. who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. became much more productive . In 1910 life expectancy was 30. France and Germany . Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive .000 Pesos in 1877 to 85.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years.Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. manipulated by the powerful . Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves . which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15.000 Pesos in 1908.

the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief . they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes . They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers . who often worked in appaling conditions .Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight .Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them . http://mexicanhistory. such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua .The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good .org/Diaz. This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907.The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work .In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %.The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz . Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato. Now. Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell .By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . he had overstayed his welcome . The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers. some advocating violent overthrow.Like many powerful leaders before. Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land .

an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. They organized a revolutionary party. In St. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. Despite what he had told Creelman. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. decided to run for president again .Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections . who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe. After this.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero . although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy.When the official results were announced by the government. however. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. He thoght political. journalist James Creelman.Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico .The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. http://mexicanhistory. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections. Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . Diaz began plans for his last hurrah. Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio. Despite Reyes silence. This caused aroused widespread anger. Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. In a 1908 interview with the U.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses .S.such as the Flores Magon brothers .org/Diaz.

In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . brings the US into the conflict . In 1915. Díaz died in exile in Paris.the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting.BookIt. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great .org/Diaz. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command . afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso. others towns such as Tehuacan. the outnumbered federal commander surrendered . In Chihuahua. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez. Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government .Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion. Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero . yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him .Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez.Diaz had been overthrown. but the revolution had just started . 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. Afterwards.On Jan 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . At the last minute. Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . On May 10. Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www.

Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.ancestry. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended .com panchovillastories. Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . However. everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . anger was simmering over the injustice of decades. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. below in Mexico.org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster.net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers .The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Now on DVD www. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch. Pancho Villa.org/revolution. But underneath.To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. President Diaz. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land. a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women . Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution .com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico.Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months.

The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. started by Diaz himself. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. but solely upon the army .The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9.org/revolution. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. Most large companies were foreign owned. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. . Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. Trains were often used as weapons themselves." Diaz. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. The election of 1910 provided a spark.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez.

Madero was an unusual person for the times.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. banditos. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua.org/revolution. when 1910 came. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. Emiliano Zapata (August 8. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. but was never caught. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves).most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5.Famous for their cavalry charges. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. 1879–April 10. A ladron steals from his neighbors. he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. http://mexicanhistory. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico. Madero campaign. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. Previously. He neither drank or smoked. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . and then return home to spend most of the year farming. However. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush .The Mexican Revolution Creelman. from federal forces. As a result. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile . the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South).often led by Villa himself. 1878 – July 20. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education.on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. commonly known as Zapatistas. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income.

it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. on 31 October of that year.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. remarkably. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. His nephew. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. Porfiro Diaz. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. The Madero Presidency November 6. Francisco de la Barra.He was killed on Aug 30. would serve as interim president. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States.org/revolution. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . 1911 – February 18. Madero promoted him to colonel. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. Now let's see if he can control it. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government.In April the forces of Madero. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. from federal forces. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. After being wounded in Ojinaga.S. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. the ambassador to the U. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910.

Zapata Some. to important posts. this infuriated Zapata. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. some of them conservative. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned. Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . 1911 Modero won the national election .These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. Educational reformers were also disappointed .which had been gagged since Diaz. however. the secretary of foreign relations.org/revolution. On October 1.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . It is not without significance. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform .Madero appointed family members. Leon de la Barra.He gave out government contracts to family businesses. to many this looked like old style corrupt government . Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast. During this time. but the government had no money with with to pay them. Madero allowed freedom of the press.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. which undermined the reforms he advocated . However. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued. Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876.such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. became the interim president .

but this showed how weak the new government was . Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside.and on March 3 went into open revolt. Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . committed suicide . Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions .000 army.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. In his Plan Orozquista. and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution. Gen.org/revolution. Huerta in charge of the army . supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size .S.Orozco. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez.The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . from which Villa later escaped. supported by Villa.On August 8 Madero orders Gen. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. Jose Salas. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces . Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U.. convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. who had reached an agreement with Madero.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. http://mexicanhistory. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion. Reportedly.

yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz. Modero. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. did not order his execution. Reyes. the nephew of Porfirio. 1912 led by Felix Diaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . an action which would cost him his life . led mostly by supporters of Diaz . feeling compassion for Diaz. on Oct 12.The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then.org/revolution.Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender . and together they plotted a coup .Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen.

Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt. were slaughtered in the streets. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels .which had been free under Madero.On Feb 21. many of them women and children. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora.It is still not known if Diaz.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. The American ambassador. the Plan de Guadalupe.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9.And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. just the ouster of Huerta. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day . but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. 1913. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed .org/revolution.In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua.Reyes . where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end.The press. Huerta is supported by conservatives.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal.bull fights and walking on the streets. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders . Using these tactics he created a 200. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison . This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city.They of course declared a plan. On Feb 17. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed.000 none too loyal army Soldaderas . is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . near Mexico City. not all did . powerfully fortified. which had no social reform goals. broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free.For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Mustering some five thousand men. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .However. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ).

The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began . while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . the major ports and most large cities . despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez . The convention chose.The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south . much of which was done under forced conscription. The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention . and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent . huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico. in order to pacify the country.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta .Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250. which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico. http://mexicanhistory.org/revolution. Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed.This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US . under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. 1914 .The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. decided Huerta would have to go .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners.Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states .By March and April. The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . against the wishes of Carranza.In early 1914. but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians.As his military position began to crumble. The Americans. Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas.The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them .He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president .They were celebrated in folk songs. then only numbering about 50. In 1914. Initially. Political assassination was also used . The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army . This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred . often fought with their husbands as well . the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot.In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters .000. Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction.000. Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself .The convention exposed the differences between the fighters. such as La Adelita .

while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon.000 killed.org/revolution. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 .000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry. This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. the battle of Celaya . Villa attacked with an estimated 25. roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. Carranza. Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists. who had fled to Nuevo Leon. In early April. By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . who had never been defeated in a major battle . Villa lost an estimated 4.this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat .By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. http://mexicanhistory. by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges .

The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory.On Jan 9. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. 1916. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms . Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. 1917 . which he won in March. no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed . The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present. killing 18 Americans .Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917.org/revolution. with stronger executive control. who held a majority and voted in major reform articles .The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. New Mexico. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property . Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops. 1916.The clamor for intervention was immediate .There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage .Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .Education was to be secular.The power of the church was limited. who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians .On March 16. who were pro-Villa.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes. 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency. Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica.

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

Meet Mexican Ladies Beautiful Mexican Women Seeking Love & Marriage. Join Free Now!
www.MexicanCupid.com

Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less
www.CaliBaja.com

Mexican Furniture Rustic Furniture Manufacturers Hacienda furniture disscounts
www.santaferustic.com

Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

http://mexicanhistory.org/revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Web
Google Search

MexicanHistory.org

Mexico in the 1920s
Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico!
AmoLatina.com

Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less
www.CaliBaja.com

Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. Stop lockstep liberalism!
www.KausforSenate.com

The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Callas became more conservative as time wore on.com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] .com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.KausforSenate. a fascist group attacked Jews . The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings .supported by Callas.org/1920s. In the election of 1928. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles..Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR.Obregon and Callas 1920 . in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government .34 (PRI).The government withdrew its support for unions. Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner. but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury . Communists and Chinese. Stop lockstep liberalism! www.

the CTM. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History.He did not use bodyguards.adultjewishlearning.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas .This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union . http://mexicanhistory. Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad).The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos . The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army. With Callas' support.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed . Lowest Price.000 acres. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .org/cardenas. a Governor of Michoacan.40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell.org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns . Some cooperative projects were started.com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www. such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton .PlayMusic123.Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution. Habla Español www. Paracho & SofiaMari. Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . which endeared him to the people . Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July. By his first term he had redistributed 49.Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos .The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli. As before.com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas.000. 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home .RoyaltyClearinghouse. Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . think he would be able to control him as a puppet . www. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule .As he had in Michoacan.By 1935.

000 in 1930 . and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico . the new American president. Oil income was a major source of income for the government. but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .org/cardenas. he threw his support behind Avila Comacho. However.000. In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention.While this move was popular.The matter was sent to an arbitration board. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . In the election of 1939. Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 . This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution . He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million .As the depression went on.The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts . 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived.40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15. and as production declined the national debt rose .The US.Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco . The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18.Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. it hurt the economy. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. the Peso weakened and the economy worsened . who won the 1940 election . Home Obergon. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain.

afraid of more socialization. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war . Under the slogan' Each one teach one'.Groupon. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership. threw his support behind secretary of war.There was not much support for joining the War.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers .000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier. However. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly . on May 14 and May 24.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .That day after Pearl Harbor. The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming .Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions .46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory. By the time the war ended there were over 300. however. More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www. every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write . on a variety of fronts.com/LA http://mexicanhistory. World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians.15. Avila Comacho.Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered . and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners. Cardenas. Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce. promoted Juan Andreu . Less land was redistributed.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course .46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica.org/camacho. The conservatives. a well known revolutionary .000 Mexican workers in America .Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .

htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .org/camacho.46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.

Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming . good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico. this is the story of Pablo Acosta. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .S. 1940s.Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 .2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Great price. www. Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway. the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory.ObesityControlCenter.org 1947 .Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .Women were allowed to vote in 1952 .52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.nmhu.The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .com Miguel Aleman 1947 .Mexican History 1947 .org/aleman.edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico .

Strong economic growth continued. some of the largest housing 100. Ruiz Cortines 1952 .K. There was large scale corruption. He continued land redistribution. implemented new social welfare and rural education programs . Communists were not tolerated and arrested .000 a people poured into the cities .The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32. strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools . Adolfo Mateos 1958. The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment .Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects. the urban population surpassed the rural population . nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration .000.' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952.Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory.and fewer than half of school age children went to school .In 1960.While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.In response. the issue of birth control was skirted around . much to the chagrin of the US . Because of corroption. he did not undertake and new large projects . one of the most modern in the world atthe time .Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J. cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.org/aleman.2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Money for books had been 'diverted. The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area .Mexican History 1947 . there were no books on the bookshelves.F. but being a Catholic country.However.Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City . Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground .Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over.Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated.64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents .000 people . Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities .America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . all was not well .

org/aleman.For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets. After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband.Diaz ordered troops into the buildings .and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail .On October 2. 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution. However it started. there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes.In the following days there were more riots.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .2008 until his death in 1970 . barricading streets and burning buses . the army used tear gas and clubs .In July 26.70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%.Mexican History 1947 . the following clash led to some deaths.But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s . Huge demonstrations were held on many universities .The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 . On August 27. several hundred people were killed . http://mexicanhistory. 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 . Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli . which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot . and the tourist trade greatly increased . sometimes with federal troops being called in .Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI.In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics .

¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him.The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. Luis Echeverría 1970 .76 Echeverría. former secretary of the interior. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. By 1974. he tried to order price controls on basic items . became president in 1970 . 1976. the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor).Caught in the inflation of the early 70s. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly. to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad. 1976.In September.000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras. In September. the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption.Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan. about 70.He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control . The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 . Wages were low and workers conditions were bad . One of the largest. the bane of other Latin American countries.Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico.Mexican History 1947 . Robberies and kidnappings . at least in terms of its economic policies. During his period. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods .Since 1973. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco. By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged . underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . to make exports more competitive..Many started to go to America illegally." "excessive overseas borrowing. This caused the ruling party.2008 Despite this. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl . http://mexicanhistory. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 .82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession . started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down .org/aleman.

Mexico could not meet its debt repayments. On Sept 19.Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread. increased 100% in price . by the end of the Lopez administration.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Despite the oil boom.org/aleman. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out . He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 .In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports .1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7. a 8. http://mexicanhistory.The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar .Public spending was cut by one third .The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated . foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions . a process that continued under his successors.Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up.2008 In 1974. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment.Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF . Miguel de la Madrid 1982 . the economy only made weak progress.Mexican History 1947 .000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10. with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo. suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation . and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs. During de la Madrid's presidency. huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco. fraud and strong arm election tactics . Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years .Over 100.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars . 1985 .Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year. the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982. The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars . for example.000 were left homeless . Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development .Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments.86 During his tenure. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.

Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos . http://mexicanhistory. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement .The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising .He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting.But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. Indian abuse and its own government .Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War.2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake. and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections . the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.org/aleman. EZLN. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Carlos Salinas . started in Chiapas against corruption. Also in 1994. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes . and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party.1994 In the election of 1988.Mexican History 1947 . Salinas' chosen sucessor.Some progress was made with political corruption as well. In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate.It was led by The president responded with military repression. Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . and established a new relationship between State and Church. but reports of the national and international media .

known as the December Mistake. a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico. and countries in Central America. Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords .2000 Within days of taking office. however economy grew at a slow pace . In 1997 he moved to Ireland. Vicente Fox . and led to an economic recesssion . Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . Vicente Fox 2000 . which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico .Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved . Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad .2% during Fox's administration. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico. China.Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country.He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor. the Peso suddenly collapsed . behind Cortes and Diaz . maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8.In 2000.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses. Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico.GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change.Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul. putting the country in an economic tailspin .org/aleman. which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan.He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court.2 percent in 2002. In spite of opposition within his party. Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia . http://mexicanhistory. Ernesto Zedillo 1994 . The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo.Mexican History 1947 . the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú.2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president .

and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. but a choice between "the past and the future. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. 2006.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right. state control of the economy.present On July 6.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization.Mexican History 1947 .58% for Calderón over his closest contender.On September 5. However." In his interpretation. liberalization.org/aleman. expropriation. market control of the economy. and authoritarianism. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization. resulting in a narrow margin of 0. 2006.

org/aleman.2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.Mexican History 1947 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .

000 Large animals vanish.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .ancestry.500 BC 5.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.500 Indus civilization 2.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines. Baja 7. Find Your Sweetheart in www.500 Knossos founded 2. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.S.org/timeline.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.000 BC 7.com Mexico! AmoLatina. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.000 Archaic era 1.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online.500 BC 5. profiles.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.000 - 2.000 BC 11.000 5.

Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.org/timeline. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory. purchase and print your auto policy online.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf.com salsa.elwired. El Tajin.S. AmoLatina. sanbornsinsurance.ObesityControlCenter.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.

Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown.org/timeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence. Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay.

Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. Nuevo León. president can only serve one term. modeled after the one of 1824. 1821 .htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. 1846.org/timeline. Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. 1846. September 27. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled.

Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico. French troops stay. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. Maximilian executed. Diaz revolts again. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. England and Spain depart. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City .Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. angry at not getting US recognition . Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. has the constitution amended. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . first to allow two terms in office. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. blockade demanding repayments of debt. widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. church power limited. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. who had Madero jailed . great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. England and France land troops.Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain.org/timeline. hundreds killed by naval fire.

and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 . gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www.BookIt.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats.org/timeline. major dams built.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president. later known as PRI. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. known as the December Mistake. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed .Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink.

000 Americans and only around 8. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico. The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded. The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle. By 1835 there were 30.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.ObesityControlCenter. including Texas revolt. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico. trained specialist treats you in Collection.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Discover Family Heroes.S.ancestry.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco.000 Mexicans .com www.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. Many states. Mexico http://mexicanhistory.Mexico orders halt to American immigration.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas. replaces it with a new centralist constitution. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence .

who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. 1841 from a cold. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . President John Tyler. 1845 U.S. who is overthrown.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it. The mutineers select Gen. Polk http://mexicanhistory.Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island.such as former President Martin Van Buren.

Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . and Mexico .org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Mexico. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River.S. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas. but regains power.500 regulars have gathered.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. Louisiana into Texas with 1. Dec2 . regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border.500 troops. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. By late Oct 3. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'. gives interim President Herrera. Coahuila. on the transport Alabama.S.S. however. Nov 29 Former U. but had been parts of Tamaulipas. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. had never ratified these treaties.. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule.

Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Mejia has 3.000 men. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory.Jose Maria Castro. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness.000 men under his command. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. April 25 a 1. Arista reaches Matamoros. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. but is not authorized to attack. April 2 Gen. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. Francisco Mejia. Taylor refuses.S. killing 16 U.S.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake.Col. declared President of Mexico. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans.200 men. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen. assembles a force of 6. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. March 8 Gen. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera.

Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. Americans have 9 killed.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 6.Mexican American War Timeline command.losing many men in the desert.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. Nuevo Leon. Aug 5 Gen. Taylor attacks his center.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line.300. Mexican losses 200 killed. Maj. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic. which later becomes Brownsville. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire. Arista retreats toward Linares. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House. May 13 U.S. overrunning the Mexican artillery. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U.Arista with 3. 39 Americans killed. Arista resigns command to Gen. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities. incident. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara.S. http://mexicanhistory. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. border set at the 49th parallel.300 confronts Taylor's 2. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army.Jose Maria Ortega. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire. Gen.S.

Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge.000 volunteers.S. no Americans killed. Mexicans 700 casualties.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen. to be led by Gen. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms. Americans suffer 120 killed.called the Black Fort by the Americans. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3.700 for garrison duty.500 man army in four months.000 militia. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan.645 troops. the last Mexican stronghold in California.Richey.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory. Jan 13 Lt. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City. Winfield Scott.which is defended by a formidable citadel.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship. forcing them to surrender. gathering a 21. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. Aug18 Gen. Ampudia asks for terms. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles.000 Mexican regulars and 23.200 regulars and 3. leaving 4.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace.

Army Corps of Engineers Capt.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila.800.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion..htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor. Siege of Veracruz begins.8. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !'). Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic.General Santa Anna. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg.Special Cavalry Division. March 9 American landing at Veracruz. 3.000 Mexican prisoners taken. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. most in a 800 man cavalry charge.500 desertions. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. March 21 10. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois. Mexicans lose 1. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12. Taylor retires toward Monterrey. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena. California is renamed San Francisco. Mexicans lose 300 killed. Robert E.Americans lose 63 killed.600 soldiers land by nightfall.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento. an easier to defend narrow pass. Only 14. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor.000 man Mexican army. Santa Anna's 18.

a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey. http://mexicanhistory.500 of which are sick. Joseph E.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City.hoping he will ask for terms. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19.000 dead and 3.500 under Worth to take it. which falls after a fierce battle. Americans have lost 139 killed. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.000 of his defeated troops. defended by 260 defenders under Gen. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City. Americans lose 116 killed.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col. Santa Ana flees Mexico City.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4. Six cadets fight to the death. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle. 2.500 troops. the last major defense before Mexico City. Mexican loses are 4.000 troops and 30 cannons. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco. Scott now has 14.820 .000 troops.Bravo. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3.000 captured. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today.(Boy Heros). Scott sends 3.. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 50 of which are cadets. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo.and is left with 5. 30 out of 69 are executed.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired.

Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.sailor Owen Edgar. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war.com http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe. Since 1960.Nevada. 1876 July 31 last of 18.S. Book now! www. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory. Goldline.5 million in claims by U. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War. citizens. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill. citizens against Mexico.CaliBaja. A couple of days of severe rioting follows.Utah.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Free Investor Kit.Colorado. in Coloma. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena. America takes California.000) were to be treated as U.HolidayInn. Anaya become interim president.S.Arizona and New Mexico.

1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost.com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www.org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 . Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods.Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war.Shopping. Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term. www. He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. http://mexicanhistory. To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears. this huge class of people was not educated.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.Metin2.Info.pestilence and death. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .

paid little or no taxes and paid low wages.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. Madero was unusual for his period. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. He didn't drink or smoke. Oct 11 Madero.often led by Villa himself. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Madero joined by other local leaders. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. better known as Pancho Villa. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Francisco Madero. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz.

500 under Madero. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. Madero enters city.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Madero refuses. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz.. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga. Diaz offers to resign.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. let’s see if he can ride it. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty. April 3.

Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. Nov 9 In Texas. Pascual Orozoco.once an ally of Villa. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support.000 in the north. Madero turns to Gen. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest. supported by powerful hacienda landowners.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata. Slow to take action on land reform . Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory. raises a well equipped army of 6. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen. He plans to march on Mexico City.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen.

Diaz freed. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. forcing him to flee to the US. Revolt fails and Leon is executed. Brig. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. Huerta defeats Orozoco. April 26 Col.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .5. 300 killed around presidential palace. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Mexican Revolution Timeline order.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. Gen Felix Diaz.400 men.

Using these tactics he created a 200. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community.The press. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men.. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters.which had been free under Madero. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .Huerta sees this as a chance to become president.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. limiting church power.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement . Lane recalled. Huerta is supported by conservatives. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane. Huerta would become temporary president. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857. In reality Huerta ordered the murders.000 none to loyal army. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez. Jose Suarez and cabinet. Vice Pres.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe.who murder him. http://mexicanhistory. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him.bull fights and walking on the streets. Feb 24 The Gov. 100 Madero supporters are executed.New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man. Gen. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. 500 civilians killed. of Coahuila. Huerta seizes Madero. In the next election. Soon others launch rebellion.

with the secret support of the United States.killing 100 federal troops..shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga.000 men. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. The northern armies of Villa. Several hundred executed. 12. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. City taken. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. Federal train blown up.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. all federal officers executed. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. March 26 Venustiano Carranza.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. federals round up civilians.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . calling his forces the Constitutionalists. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. a politician and rancher from Coahuila. On March 26. 1913. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. all federal officers executed. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe.

Enters US to try to reenter Mexico.S. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory. Villa became a folk hero in the U. Sniper fire continues.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans.000 marines land. leading to his resignation on July 15.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila .Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .S. American Rear Adm.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed.. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . Huerta goes into exile in Europe. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916. 400 more Americans are sent ashore. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property.Eventually 3. There was a considerable concentration of U.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico. Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released.300 sailors and 2. The Mexican commander refuses.Snipers open fire on Americans. through such writers as John Reed. 4 Americans killed.

Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 and many supplies. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. who lose 2. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. abandoned by Villa and Zapata.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms. who departs for Veracruz. Their combined armies of 50. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly.000 march through city.

US cuts off arms supplies to Villa. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire.000 man army. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI.barbed wire and machine guns. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.Villa loses 4. http://mexicanhistory. angering him.is unable to defeat Zapata .000 cavalry against Obregon's 9.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .400 cavalry and 14.000 cavalry. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.000 causalities and retreats north.5.500 infantry. 6. Despite using terror tactics.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 taken prisoner.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over. known as the general who never won a battle .000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches .000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20.Hill succeeds him. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.500 horsemen and 6. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.Villa has 8.

Retreats with only 1. New Mexico with 500 riders. Approved on Feb 17.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Villa losses many of his remaining 5. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train.equal pay for men and women.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro.000 followers. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans. 400 desert Villa.child labor prohibited. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory.30.000 man army occupies every major town in the state. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos. workers allowed to form labor unions. with air support. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3.400. 1917 It allows freedom of religion.000 men to pursue Villa.000 in late April.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines. Takes much booty and gives speech.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train. has 9.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6.south or east will be contested.

Huerta gives a 25. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz.. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. by which time the U. had declared war on Germany. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. Obregon harassed.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving.killing 200. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. flees Mexico City.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Following Zapata's death. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. but murders him while he is sleeping. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. Gov. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta. the ambassador to Mexico. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez.S. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty.believing he would become his puppet..000 followers.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon. March many Obregon supporters arrested. Supporters. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. including Villa rally to his side. http://mexicanhistory.

Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price. An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory. but large scale fighting is over.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated. Huerta flees Mexico. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful