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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

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http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
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pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. Arizona.A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell .Eventually. always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on . The presidios (military towns). California. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs . Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. almost all of the Aztec empire.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed . all were to have a main plaza. eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection .Colonial Mexico 1519 . church . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito. A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . Utah and Colorado . the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies . The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power .In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas.org/colonial.Large cities such as Oaxaca. There were 62 viceroys in New Spain. New Mexico.Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly.Provincial towns were organized by royal decree. sometimes there would be advanced warning .1821 MexicanHistory. The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. along with such regions as Colina. Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces . The Indians.

The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico. who were still viewed as a menace. Augustin's City of God . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians . A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V.His successor. The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. it's continuation. the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century.Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule .the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy.Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . led by Tenamaxtli .org/colonial.Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41). Charles V took this charge seriously.1821 MexicanHistory. leaving the area undermanned . Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ .Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524.org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. monastic life and humble character . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty . King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor.Colonial Mexico 1519 . with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs . Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems. The Indians. that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. the most serious revolt of the times . http://mexicanhistory. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing . Dominicans and the Augustinians .

The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts . This was the open chapel or capilla abierta. Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . By 1540. The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe.Nine million were baptized by 1537. They built fortess missions across New Spain . The Catholic reverence for saints. which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. http://mexicanhistory. with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices . For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . 50 such churches had been built .1821 MexicanHistory.000 Indians a day .org/colonial. often being the first Europeans to explore an area .org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country.Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily .

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles . Phillip II ( r 1556 . Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . the Florentine Codex. Charles V was dead. the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language .The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization . The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws.In the mid 16 century. They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . In the process.org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages.org/colonial.Indians http://mexicanhistory. such as.1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain . The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems .Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain . and the new Spanish king. Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs.Colonial Mexico 1519 . 1601. Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers . Mexico. Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds .The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded .Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life.1821 MexicanHistory. which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun.

The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . The Bourbon kings. Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n. criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown .Colonial Mexico 1519 . The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment. sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla. These works did find there way into the private libraries. especially those of the Enlightenment writers. wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 . This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico. however .Crimes like adultery. with the prisoners often strangled first .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . this decree led to riots and other disturbances.org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike.The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories .org/colonial. It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) . the first in the colony was in 1574 .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes . principally in San Luis Potos .The crime of heresy. Auto de fes drew large crowds .1821 MexicanHistory.There were also quarrels with civil authorities . Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory. who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . Juan de Palafox.In New Spain.

Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop .1695 ). At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period . Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans.org/colonial.1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . The Social Classes a Mestizo baby. persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. Creoles could not hold royal office . . la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 . Cholos. by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). http://mexicanhistory. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights . persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent.Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 . most of these returned to Spain .1700 ) . be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ).org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. Indians and African slaves .1821 MexicanHistory. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). Mestizo. There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 .One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. Castizo. some of it in the Nahuatl language.Colonial Mexico 1519 .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. She wrote poetry.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent.Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . who taught many local artist .

The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . persons who were mixed indio and negro. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20. from piracy . After about 1560. which was due on almost everything sold.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . industry could not grow and advance. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . etc. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. Money makers such as tobacco. which fixed the price of goods and their quality .1821 MexicanHistory.. They were sometimes made into slaves.000 by 1800.org/colonial. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem .000 in the 16th century to 6. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild .Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory. tailors.There were royal taxes of all kinds on land. etc . The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo .With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent.Colonial Mexico 1519 . The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus . The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. Commerce was controlled by royal decree. ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver .The China trade was established in 1564 silks. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . Euromestizos.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. Zambos. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain. ceramics. licenses. The most hated was the alcabala. which were the wards of the church and the Crown . which went from 2 % to as high as 14%.org Mulatos. Over the years. gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced.

By the 18th century.In the early colonial period.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Such http://mexicanhistory. The restrictions.Colonial Mexico 1519 . one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . Some of the haciendas were vast. diversified economy from growing . Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . silver bar from shipwreck. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas.1821 MexicanHistory. combined with bad roads. Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. was of prime importance to Spain . Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high .org colonies and Spain itself .

Colonial Mexico 1519 . However.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . usually a week at a time . repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians . So. plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . 1549. The building material in New Spain was more colorful.There were many abuses to this system. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year.Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage.1821 MexicanHistory. except for mine labor . Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . which was abolished in the early 17th century.org/colonial.It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. http://mexicanhistory. but was modified by the new land. but few wished to. rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem .The debts were passed down from father to son . in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks.

built in the late 18th century.1821 MexicanHistory.org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style . the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu . mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines .Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575). The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.In the mid 16th century. http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory. a spanish architect ). It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times.1821 MexicanHistory. especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.org/colonial.Colonial Mexico 1519 .the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades. the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged.

Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals.built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction . built in 1585 . An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock. Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City . Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa . neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . plazasa. a more severe. http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .1821 MexicanHistory. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress.org/colonial.org As a reaction to the excess. Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years . the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana. hospitals and universities .

org Castillo de Chapultepec.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina. particularly their designs. Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 . http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org/colonial. built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war .1821 MexicanHistory.Many people consider Puebla.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs . Basilica Guadalupe. Spain in the 16th century . Chinese ceramic was soon imitated. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.

the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara. He had named a greatnephew. Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon.org/colonial. When Charles II died in 1700. Duke of Anjou.1700 ).htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory. Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. and more popularly called pulque.The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries . Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . which they called octli (later.org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . Wine was introduced early to New Spain . Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . feeble in mind and body. the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. The crown had a monopoly on pulque. which was a major source of revenue . Philippe de Bourbon.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Tequila .

org Louis XIV ) as his successor. http://mexicanhistory. the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . as Philip V. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began.The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 .The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration. replacing 200 low paid. unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents . After eleven years of bloody. Cochineal production also increased. In 1740. global warfare. He had two main concerns.org/colonial. improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . becoming the second biggest export .2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies .Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain .1821 MexicanHistory.Silver production rose from 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Under his rule Spain once again became a world power . fought on four continents and three oceans. The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown ..88 ).The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas .The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually . was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. .Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining .Colonial Mexico 1519 . the Duc d'Anjou. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco .

meaning double).Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal . worth eight reales. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed . The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . By 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 .The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules.org/colonial. or Nueva Granada. Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 . it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. http://mexicanhistory.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines . such as the Canadian dollar.King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom .Another viceroy. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. Mexico.The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'. the real de a ocho. but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins.It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n. Peru. There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana .1821 MexicanHistory.By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world .org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown . Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . another able ruler( 1789 . that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight. The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population .94 ) created the first public transportation system . meaning a double-sided token coin. Revillagigedo . or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. For example. the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . Through widespread use in Europe. a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption .79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . the national motto for Spain . Many existing currencies. The creole Count Regla. the Americas and the Far East. The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. many creoles prospered during this period in business . often refers to a seven-gram (0.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.

org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .mortgageallianceprogram.net Things to do near DC Close to DC.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates. www. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. Scoundrels.1821 MexicanHistory.fxva. Costa Rica. Dominican Rep.org/colonial. Heroes. Celts www.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory.lindenhill. Fairfax County has great attractions.Colonial Mexico 1519 . shopping & more! www.

utexas.edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .http://www.lib.

org The war for Independence 1810.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland. but not equality for all.Norwich. The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand. The lower classes.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.MilitaryHistory.The war for Independence 1810. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares.org/Independence. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far . their lot was so hard . They did rebel.

htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Latin America was.99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory. Without a true Spanish monarchy. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity .org/Independence.Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 . These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles.Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814. many creoles thought they should rule themselves. destroying many Creoles financially .org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America. The church had to call in their mortgages.. Unlike the wise Charles III. The peninsulares thought otherwise . 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout". with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 . Art Print Buy for $19. Bullfighting from.The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform .The war for Independence 1810. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars . his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies. in these years.1821 MexicanHistory.By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence . ruled by independent juntas..

Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato. Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . However. With Hidalgo at their head. the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once .However.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16. none of these charges could be proved and he was released .1821 MexicanHistory. Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . http://mexicanhistory.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them. a captain of the cavalry .The war for Independence 1810.Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8. gathering more recruits along the way. doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant . There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . 1810. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia .He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ).org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .However. her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic .org/Independence. reading proscribed books. they marched for San Miguel. They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe. who became an independence symbol.A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende.

San Luis Potosi and Valladolid .By late October the army had about 80.org/Independence. However.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . In the middle of the battle. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas.org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2.The war for Independence 1810. Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon.Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward. a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup .1821 MexicanHistory. Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City . Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces .000 rebels were killed . turning into a rout . The army retreated into Mexico City .000 marching on Mexico City .An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then . Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces . They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31. 1811. Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning . http://mexicanhistory.The rebels took Guadalajara .

By 1819.By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital .With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point .Gradually.Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare .For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination .000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1. one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2. the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed .000 around Oaxaca . Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out .The war for Independence 1810. those opposed to it were guilty of treason .They issued a Declaration of Independence.org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this . http://mexicanhistory. who had been recruited by Hildago . Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax .org/Independence.1821 MexicanHistory. The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon. retaking many towns . viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile. the Spanish viceroy.Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .After awhile only two major bands remained. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control .He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement.In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.

troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. Ironically. the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan .Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government .The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. yielded to their demands .500 men to fight Guerrero . The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. bad food. The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .The king. a virtual prioner of the army at this point. If this was not done there would be a military coup . He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. in January 1820. free speech and curbed the power of the church . . At C diz.org/Independence.1821 MexicanHistory. the Creoles found this change too liberal. A new army would be created. The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala.The war for Independence 1810.org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile. Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights. and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . led by King Ferdinand or another European prince . Spain. Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade .

and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares .The war for Independence 1810. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. 1821 . a Mexican congress would chose an emperor.1821 MexicanHistory. Mexico was independent at last . viceroy Apodaca resigned . Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico.org/Independence. One more proviso was added by Iturbide . this was to become an important point . Juan de O'Donoju. Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit . Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . On September 27. this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. the last viceroy of New Spain .After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees.org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army.O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy.

it did not accept the offer .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. After the declaration of independence on September 27. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online.March 19.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21.com www. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.BookIt.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. 1821 . as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico. 1821. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power.org/firstempire.S.com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U. General Agustín de Iturbide. would also be Emperor of Mexico.ObesityControlCenter. which in turned named him as its presiding officer .The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch . a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. Ferdinand VII.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide .com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala.ancestry.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. www. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. However. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain.

http://mexicanhistory.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. the regiment of Celaya. When Iturbide was declared emperor. Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . Honduras. President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico. Iturbide feigned reluctance.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. Court etiquette was issued. 1822 . Nicaragua. Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes .org/firstempire.org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. On July 21.In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22.The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . stage a demonstration on his behalf . 1821 . El Salvador. which included Costa Rica. hoping to promote free republican governments . Iturbide had his own troops. as Agustin I . which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico . 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . Guatemala. The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. The heir apparent was Senor Don August. There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once . Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . from California in the north to Panama . outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee . then accepted .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . the shouted ' Viva Agustin I.

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

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Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

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The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

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29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador .The York Rite masons . President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. the caudillo . led by vice president Bravo . In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. taxes and monopolies . who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war .org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . The government sought to support itself through import duties.Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 .com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828.1843 ) was a former rebel leader. but no an inspiring or talented administrator .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators . who controlled the army.After some fighting . Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US . he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain .Groupon. These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army . The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public.As Iturbide did.Mexican border . another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza . The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero.org/earlyrepublic.The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner.000 men were kept under arms.Over 50. Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president . A local military strongman emerges during these times. http://mexicanhistory. brave in battle.

This marked a return to power of the conservatives. This plan backfired . He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them. who fled the country . These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. Slaves were few in number by this time.org/earlyrepublic.They landed near Tampico. After an initial attack which failed. Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers.From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree.The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. even after the repulse of the Spanish.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero. choose this time to invade its most important former colony . All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. Reserves in Jalapa. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . the most important of which was calling up of the reserves. Santa Anna settled in for a siege . but his act increased his support among mulattos. Bustamante agreed. the Spanish general surrendered . abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . which had never recognized Mexico's independence.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . Santa Anna became extremely popular . As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level. Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy .32 - http://mexicanhistory. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . President Bustamante 1830 . which had been abandoned . The treasury by this time was also bankrupt.Guerrero set off with a force to attack them.org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria . However. mainly middle class merchants. With this victory and that off driving out the emperor.Some of the states. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion . Bustamante.

He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press. but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. Corruption was rampant . using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance . which he did in 1833.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 .Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election . Bustamante was to go into exile.org/earlyrepublic.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero .The Early Republic MexicanHistory. signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23). by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections.The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again .47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza.org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans.Bustamante.

1834.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.ancestry. Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history .com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.1843 .Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times .1842 . Mexico for fractions of the cost www. but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz . Discover Family Heroes.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.S. trained specialist treats you in Collection.com www. Britain.org Santa Anna 1794 . 1835 . a liberal politician of intellectual distinction . Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it .ObesityControlCenter.1839 . Spain.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and Texas as well as published sources.1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years. http://mexicanhistory.com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.org/santaanna. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.1841 .

The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. Yucatán. Michoacán.The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist ." or.He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built.000 acres . "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) .Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . more pejoratively. To curb the undue influence of the army.The congress was disbanded . Durango.' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90. Several of these states formed their own governments. The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 . Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms . he reduced its size and abolished military fueros .They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office . that of the church and that of the army .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna .org/santaanna. San Luis Potosí. Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.The Zacatecan militia. His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one.In order to secure power. the Republic of Yucatan.The presidential term was extended from four years to eight . Santa Anna became a millionaire . Guanajuato. the treasury was still bankrupt . Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal .000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation.Corruption was widespread. Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . led http://mexicanhistory. Nuevo León. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. the Republic of the Rio Grande. Jalisco. Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. began with two major reforms .Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos . the constitution of 1836 was enacted . Querétaro. warlord. He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. "dictator" or "strongman". The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . and the Republic of Texas. State militias were disbanded .

which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. 1835 to April 21.org by Francisco Garcia. Goliad. 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain . After two hours of combat. The first Europeans in the area.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived . was well armed with . Nacogdoches. Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . After defeating Zacatecas.000 prisoners. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker .There were small towns in the interior. on 12 May 1835.61 rifles. San Antonio.org/santaanna. Comanches and other Indian tribes . he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2. and others. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches.

the judge and commandant . By 1827 there were 12. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas.000 Americans and only around 8.000 Americans living in Texas.25 an acre in the US . Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. Life in the new land was rough. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. and. leaving his dying injunction to his son. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. but his exposure and privations had weakened him. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. at times making a night attack upon a cabin. who roved about stealing the stock. to carry out his project.Spain wished to colonize the territory. and a local militia was organized. after great exposure and privation. a Prussian officer. and was then in the service of Mexico.000 Mexicans . T.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. who had served under Frederick the Great.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and fought over land titles and for political domination. He reached home in safety. While at work they kept guard against the Indians. and he returned home. T. Austin was the supreme authority. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River.org/santaanna.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. By 1835 there were 30. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes." Gone to Texas . In 1820 he set out for Texas.000 settlers . there were only 7. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. The land titles were duly recorded.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river .In 1827. Stephen. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. Mexico became independent and Moses' son.

mostly criminals and convicts. leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all .Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. to stations in the country. Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion.Mexico increased custom duties on exports. The check immigration into Texas from America. but the societies were too different and tensions increased . which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves." was easily suppressed.S. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders . Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas .000 slaves in Texas. but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. by sending a thousand soldiers. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente. which were to be redistributed in Mexico. Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo . to take over the region. One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila .Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. called " The Fredonian War. The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. an empresario. Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. In 1830. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged .org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this .President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 . Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters .There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. This emeute. but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned .Most Americans remained Protestant. there were approximately 5. increasing the cost of trade with the US . Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. By 1836. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital. instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism.org/santaanna. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. grow which crops Mexican officials dictated .

and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. Several officers resigned.m. and Austin sanctioned it. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . He then ordered his brother-in law. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas. civilians were massacred by the thousands. Zacatecas. the Texans captured Bexar. Austin saw little choice but revolution. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. On October 1. many of the volunteers simply left. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. who was stationed in San Antonio. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. Throughout November 1835. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Unable to cross. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. As a reward. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Austin was released in July. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. The Texians refused. at 7 p. The next morning.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. and was in Texas by August. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo.m. who went to Gonzales. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. they reached the camp. negotiations were held. On September 20.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. The siege of Bexar. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . Under the Liberal banner. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. having never been formally charged with sedition.. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. Two Texian militias answered the call. http://mexicanhistory. 1835. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio.org/santaanna. and gunfire was exchanged. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. including Jim Bowie. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. and Coahuila. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. Since they had no cannon balls. under the defence of General Cos. At 3 a.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. which began on October 12. and negotiations fell through. Castañeda established a camp.

intending to capture the town from the Centralists. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed.org/santaanna. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. but his talents were not well suited for military life." No further reinforcement arrived. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. chiefly husbands and fathers. never more to leave them. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. as it came to be known. The remaining Texan army. Although the Matamoros Expedition. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. 1835. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. On November 6. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. and with no collective motivation. These men. nothing came of it. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. bringing only disaster for months to come. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ). prepared to advance towards Matamoros. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. on March 2.000. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. owning their own homes. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army. a force of about 6. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. "At dawn on the first of March. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. The expedition failed. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. Albert Martin. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. despite Austin's leadership. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. poorly led. Capt. the political and military center of Texas. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. Soon. but it marched forward. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. in a fortress doomed to destruction. hoping to sack the town. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards.org 1835. now led by General Sam Houston.

rather than a cruel one. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. always on the heels of Houston. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. making his way north following the coast of Texas. José Urrea At Goliad. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2. the rains made the roads impassable. The Mexican cavalry. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. 1836. Santa Anna's army. was something the Texans could not easily defeat.. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. March 20. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. border. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. and much animosity was aimed towards him.org/santaanna.. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds. so it was put to the torch. 1836. Overnight. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. experienced and feared. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. gave unrelenting chase. and even Great Britain and France.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. A scorched earth policy was implemented. widely known as the Goliad Massacre.together with the fall of the Alamo.S. March 27. the United States.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. brought up cannon and reinforcements. under Santa Anna's direct orders. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. Soon.

and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. which the Texans used as cover. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. but Filisola disagreed. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. mostly cavalry. waited for reinforcements. as dictator of Mexico. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness.org/santaanna. who had been wounded in the ankle. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1. Santa Anna. Houston could do nothing but follow. marched back to Mexico. General Vicente Filisola. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . but not without protests from Urrea. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. after burning Vince's Bridge. Only Santa Anna had been defeated.200 men. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. Hours before the attack. which were led by General Cos. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. and tired of running away. the Texans surged forward. An 18minute-long battle ensued. only nine Texans died. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. and he was brought before Houston. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. and put an end to the war. To the dismay of the Texans. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Without Houston's consent. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. which had proven costly and prolonged. Santa Anna. On that same day. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. catching the Mexican army by surprise. both armies met at the San Jacinto River.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. but nothing came of it. not the Army of Operations. Also. Texas. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. Numbering about 700. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico.org and race quickly towards Galveston. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory.

Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. The war continued as a standoff. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. into Texas. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . they were many revolts against the centralisation of power. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. a French soldier of fortune. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. After some time in exile in the United States. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz..The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence .org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico.org/santaanna. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. In 1838. but briefly.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . He was re-elected President. when French forces landed in Veracruz. But unknown to Santa Anna. D. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . called Manga de Clavo. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . thus. the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . and after meeting with U. one private ) on May 14. two actually formed republic besides Texas. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. occupying San Antonio.S. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. and soon after. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward.C. Nuevo León.

Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out. After the end of the Mexican-American War. ultimately.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) . The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. however. Spain. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence.C. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria. http://mexicanhistory. D.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . and the United States. Nuevo León. La Ceiba . and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. Texas .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula.In November. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. Upon this event. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority. the Republic of the Rio Grande failed. Yucatán declared its neutrality. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila.org In 1840. During this meeting.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out.org/santaanna.By 1855.

000 troops . France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . Thus began the Pastry War . With resentment ever growing against the president.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed . Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. Fearing for his life. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. or the French would demand satisfaction. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . Mexico agreed to pay.000 pesos. Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. The war with France had weakened Mexico.000 pesos in payment and when payment. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. Santa Anna tried to elude capture.org/santaanna. but France upped the ante to 800.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. This was too much for the Mexicans.org The Pastry War In 1838.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. by an army commanded by the president himself. In 1846. at war against Santa Anna.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . The French landed 3. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. Meanwhile. the United States declared war on Mexico. and the people were discontented. Veracruz. and to seize the port of Veracruz. Mexico declared war on France. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa.was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. His life was spared. turned over to authorities. and imprisoned. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory. Also. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. President Again Soon after. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). In 1842.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. a military expedition into Texas was renewed.

Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. which was tried without success. Thomas. Colombia. and two years later. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets." which helped found the chewing gum industry.org of the United States. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". This reign was no better than his earlier ones. In April 1853. Jamaica. He then lived in exile in Cuba.S. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. trained specialist treats you in Collection. 1876.S. moved to Turbaco. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. to the United States. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. on June 21. In 1851. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. He funneled government funds to his own pockets. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .ObesityControlCenter. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). penniless and heartbroken. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna. but he failed to profit from this. Discover Family Heroes. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. and he fled back to Cuba. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. the United States.org/santaanna. Colombia. the base of chewing gum. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. naval blockades. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. Thomas Adams. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. and St. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States.ancestry.

and to uphold the Government constituted by them." said he.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 .The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue. 18461848This wellwritten.1848 MexicanHistory. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory.S.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Van Buren.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. shall have proved. & GE. beyond all dispute. or the course of events. www.S. " Prudence. 4 Quotes." So Far from God: The U.TopAlarmCompanies. and maintain our present attitude.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.org/mexicanamericanwar1. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. APX Alarm. Andrew Jackson . Compare & Save. War With Mexico.org Mexican American War 1846 . 1 Form. The American president after Texas won its independence. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. was not for immediate annexation .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . at least until the lapse of time. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico . if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. President Tyler The following president. Brinks.Mexican American War 1846 . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.

he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war .Mexican American War 1846 .It was discovered by President Tyler. President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast . it joined the Union . 1845 . which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . a survey of the This History Channel special. 1845 . an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California.Prior to Polk's election. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28. There was a fear England would purchase California. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. On the 3rd March. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. The new president. as half of the Senators represented free States. the Mexican minister to the U. and that.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .1848 MexicanHistory. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution .On the 4th July. President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation .org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas.org/mexicanamericanwar1. such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 . he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. a few hours before his term of office expired. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . Texas consented to be annexed. Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle.S. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing. The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport . that what could not be effected by treaty. Texas joined the Union on December 29. Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . and the December 29.who was pro-annexation.

Oklahoma. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised.Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar .1848 MexicanHistory.000. However.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult.000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25. supported by populist newspapers.The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source. Kansas. which included parts of modern day New Mexico.org/mexicanamericanwar1. the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil .Mexican American War 1846 . $5. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power. Wyoming. In 1836." returned to the United States.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. as per the Treaties of Velasco . the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. Slidell. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River .000 or more for California . The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. and Colorado. the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty .000.

On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments. if deemed practicable and expedient. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas.Mexican American War 1846 . Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . either declared or made manifest by hostile acts. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos ." http://mexicanhistory. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. Mississippi. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border . drive them from their positions on either side of the river. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. was able to assemble a force of 6. was plotting to invade. Herrera. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. in December 14.In case of war.org/mexicanamericanwar1. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities.Louisiana.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U.000 men. with much difficulty. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera.1848 MexicanHistory. and. but instead of marching north against the invaders. your main object will be the protection of Texas .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . 1846.S.000 in all He was told. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose. Tennessee.about 4. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico . and Kentucky.

4th. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico." As there was no invasion to repel. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. and Oct. except in reference to Texas. regard you as openly committing hostilities. whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas." On approaching Point Isabel. a Mexican settlement. and for which no reason had been assigned." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that.Mexican American War 1846 . he found the buildings in flames. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. commenced his march into the Mexican territory. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. later known as Fort Brown . and the site of a Mexican Custom House. without having met with the slightest opposition. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . it would enter into no negotiation with him. Not an American. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. 1845. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. the extreme point of Texas proper. 1846. Taylor. so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. or committed any overt act of hostilities. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department.org/mexicanamericanwar1. He expelled the U. declared his willingness to fight. from which it appeared probable that. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. wrote to the Secretary.S. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. On the 12th January. particularly those of July 8th. he prudently waited for further orders. in pursuance of orders. the inhabitants must. envoy from Mexico. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and http://mexicanhistory. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas.1848 MexicanHistory.

does not appear . and retire beyond the Nueces . published in the Philadelphia Inquirer ." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground.Mexican American War 1846 . War is Declared General Taylor. it will clearly result that arms. and.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas." and requiring him within twenty. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given." Upon the Strength of this despatch. he reports." Notwithstanding the blockade. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. whereupon he determined. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. In April 1846. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. must decide the question. Congress declared war on Mexico. and Porter. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . about 25 miles from the U. the President announced to Congress and the world. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. camp . not to remain any longer idle. Pofter and one man was killed whether any. one of defence. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. It appears they separated. . Tamaulipas. to make the intended war. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. He immediately charged upon them . ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. 1846. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. "a war by the act of Mexico. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. " 16 Americans.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. Accordingly. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. drove away the men. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and thus. and arms alone." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons . what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war .1848 MexicanHistory. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank.org/mexicanamericanwar1." In this affair. 4th Infantry. reports. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. despite protests by the Mexican government . The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender.S. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. and took possession of their horses. and therefore unseen. adding. it seems. investigated an abandoned hacienda.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. on April 24 . the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. says." but the main body of about 2. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. Another letter. On May 13. Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. acting on the advice of a local guide . and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet.four hours to remove his camp.

com American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory.ancestry.apexlogistics. Try Visual Search! www.com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by Party. licensed Customs Broker will answer www. Terms Served.org/mexicanamericanwar1.Bing.org Ancestry.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .com ® Anna 1833 .com/VisualSearch National Customs Broker Call us today and an experienced.1848 MexicanHistory.World's largest online family history 47 resource.+4 Billion Records Mayan www. & More.Mexican American War 1846 .

The US. while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy . with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate . The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources . history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written.org/mexicanamericanwar2.com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory.S.Mexico had no small arm factories of its own . The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced . was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it .S. trained specialist treats you in Collection.which played a decisive role in several key The U.ancestry.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.The rifle. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Discover Family Heroes. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle .The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. including So Far from God: the U. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories .com ObesityControlCenter.S.

like a fire breathing dragon. a carbine or short musket called the dragon. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory." would be the best means of producing peace. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. General Stephen W. and the means to execute them. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. but trained in horseback riding and combat . was stationed at Washington. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive . He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army. General Scott. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. Secretary at War. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study.The President declared that in his opinion. and General Scott . hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot. as commander of the army.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. seems to have been arranged jointly.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . At this time.500 hundred men . by consultations between the President. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements.org/mexicanamericanwar2.

To take this place would. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. which had been left in care of a small detachment. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. In this defense. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. capture Point Isabel. Leaving an unfinished field-work. and continued at intervals till the 10th. and arrived on the next day. under whose direction the fort was built. and several killed and wounded. The plan was judicious. The departure of General Taylor with his army. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. who was now in command of the Mexican army. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. with his main force. Major Brown. was comparatively defenceless. under the command of Major Brown. therefore. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. and was only prevented from being carried out. Captain Hawkins. and then fall on the American army.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. The former was killed by a shell. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. . both for skill and gallantry. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. by the accidental infor. Arista saw that Point Isabel. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The army was halted. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. It appears that General Arista. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. In the mean while. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins.

General Arista or. the next day. The position was well chosen . In two hours. M. by the Americans. mostly Lancers. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery.cers were again driven back. This he did. had advanced beyond support. of the field. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. Arista. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. The Mexican cavalry.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and by other troops of that division. To remedy this. but he was in retreat. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. while the 3d. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. but was met by the Flying Artillery. The charge was gallantly made.dered Torrejon. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. now broken by successive charges. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. were on their left. Their columns. moved up the main road. might have easily been defended. when they were deployed into line. under Lt. and the battle was soon ended. dating his despatch. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. but with as little success. 4th. the army advanced by heads of columns. Ridgely. and in turn fell back on the main body. On the left wing of our army. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . At two P. " in sight of the enemy. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. however.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. M. Montero. In this firing. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. A ravine here crossed the road.tery and by the infantry on the wings. and with greater energy of body. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. The Lan. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them.The Mexican American War at a pool. The artillerymen were dispersed. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. They fled pre. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery.. general of cavalry. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. and took a new position several miles off.cipitately from the field. under the command of Col. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. to charge the American right. The Dragoons. and General La Vega taken prisoner. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. at Resaca de la Palma. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. from which he did not depart till two p. at night" This might be true . which was returned by Ridgely's bat. Ridgely. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. A battery of artillery. under Lt. says. and by the 5th Infantry.

to the left. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. in rear of the town and beyond the river. as http://mexicanhistory. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. were destined for the march to Monterey. which was regularly fortified. Mier. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. Comargo. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. both the general government at home.in-chief left Comargo. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men.ted to them. he advanced to the village of Marin. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. while the main body. the capital of New Leon . behaved well. the general. On the heights. and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. and near it other heights. and around it. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. and were occupied. and Revilla surrendered.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. and in the rear. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. numbering six thousand six hundred. In front. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. all fortified. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. and on the 5th of September. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. Being reinforced. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. or citadel. The opposite side of the city. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. Comargo. They fought gallantly. In the mean time. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace.

if practicable. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. Garland's force. The two last regiments. General Worth. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. with Bragg's Artillery. A column of six hundred and fifty men. Campbell. and they were compelled to retire.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. were with. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. to attack the lower part of the town. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. Up to this time.drawn. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. and two or three thousand irregulars. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. being wounded.other column. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. supported by the Light Artillery. the column rapidly moved. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses.vious. into the rear of which. entered the town to the right. and fired upon the redoubt. and Wood's Texan Cavalry. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. with the bayonet and the artillery. superior in numbers to the American army. to the support of General Worth. were detached to the right. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. who had advanced with it.nied the parly in its advance. advanced against the redoubt. May's Dragoons. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. with his division. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. and after another severe contest retired in good order. it is ob. who accompa. in spite of its fire. and the troops remained upon their arms. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. The army. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn .i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. The front defense here was a redoubt.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . however. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. however. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. with its cannon and ammunition. and commenced its assault on the town. This movement was executed during the evening. Tennessee. with three companies of the 4th regiment. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. pressed forward. and Davis. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. were forts also erected. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. three miles from Monterey. was ordered to the left. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. and advanced against the second battery. were both ordered forward . and Mississippi. General Butler. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs.

in arms. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). but. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. recommenced the advance. he dispatched 50 U. from St. the American army had but a short supply of provisions. from Cole and Platte counties. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success.In Northern California. 1846. Doniphan . but here a new resistance was made. stopped in San Pedro. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. from St. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace." a volunteer troop. Louis. This was the key to Monterey. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. Louis . and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. the city of Linares. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. treads upon the territory of this republic. and the terms were unusually favorable to them.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . M.org/mexicanamericanwar2. during this day. Worth and his Division. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. sailing south to San Diego. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. but General Taylor made no important movement in front. " The Saclede Rangers. For this concession there were strong reasons. on the morning of the 23d. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. after some negotiation. two companies of light. under Colonel Alexander W. and carried several fortified heights. gave a new face to affairs.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. was one to move against. in their defence. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. two provinces. defeated the enemy. and San Fernando de Prezas .artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). That evening (at 9 p. The Surrender of Monterey. charges. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. To this the Mexican chief replied. and the Mexicans confined. General Taylor. The main part of the capitulation was. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. Kearney. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . to fire upon the American positions . on the 13th of October. while Gar. Marines.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . but always unsuccessfully. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. believed to be favorable to peace. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American.The Mexican American War town. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. Missouri. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. and take possession of. At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. The guns of the Citadel continued. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. Besides al! this.S. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. When Stockton's forces. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. California and New Mexico. then in command of the Mexican army. The houses were fortified.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W.

they fought the Battle of La Mesa.S. Iowa Territory. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. forces.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Arizona and the Sonora desert. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States. General Stephen W. near San Pedro. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. He promised the U. forces continued to arrive in California. banded together to defend their land. 1847. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. On January 12.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. led by U. California. The next day. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25. [24] linking up with Frémont's men.600 men. 1847. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. 1847. Col. Col. Other U. [25] and the next day.S. With U. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. On January 28.000 men. Navy Captain William Mervine. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. on December 6. marched north from San Diego on December 29. Meanwhile. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. led by José Mariá Flores. California. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. Philip St. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed.S. fought as Californio Lancers. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. Lt. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. he reneged again and seized the presidency. after being appointed commanding general. January 9. Later. U. On January 13. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. however. Then. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. and the Californios. That marked the end of the war in California. January 1848. 1846. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. 1846. On March 15. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. Jonathan D. Stockton. 1847.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. 1847.S.S. Kearny. 14 U. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. 1847. Marines were killed. with 4. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. Taylor. The rancho vaqueros. left too small a force in Los Angeles. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! .S. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon.S. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. October 7 through October 9. had http://mexicanhistory. their re-supplied. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. 1847.000 . however. combined force.

The Mexican army was routed. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. Lee. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott. U.S. army. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. he attacked the next morning. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City.000 were taken prisoner.org/mexicanamericanwar2. 1847. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. George Meade. the U. Santa Anna withdrew that night. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north. about half of whom were civilian. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea. The U. troops were routed. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. http://mexicanhistory.S. Although by then aware of the positions of U.S. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. Grant. Polk distrusted Taylor. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. Instead of taking the main road.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road.600 mounted dragoons ahead. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city.S. during which some U. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. army suffered 400 casualties. Included in the invading force were Robert E.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. along which he expected Scott to appear. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. Ulysses S. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. weapons and horses near the walled city. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. troops.S. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland.500 healthy troops. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. Furious fighting ensued.000 casualties and 3.S. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. Scott had sent 2. troops suffered 80 casualties. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions.400 men. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. However.000 men in a tired state.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. During the siege.S. A group of 12. Santa Anna flanked the U. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded.

forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E. However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city.The Mexican American War On the same day.S. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung. Lee.org/mexicanamericanwar2. http://mexicanhistory. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. Twiggs agreed. 1847. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . U.

Caught between two fronts. forces were about to kill him.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and there was a lull in the battle.. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. Juan Escutia. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. To the southwest. apparently falling from above . President Polk tried to recall Trist. including the cadets. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. ended the war and gave the U. A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. signed on February 2." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. established the U. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico .S. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense.S. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. Vicente Suarez. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.S.S. Johnston. One by one they fell. and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. Flag over the castle.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. Pérez was killed. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate.S. Lasting throughout most of the day. 211 Union Battalion. undisputed control of Texas. but was unable to communicate with him .S. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. and the first wave ascended the walls. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. 277 Mina Battalion. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. "From the Halls of Montezuma. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. when one was left (Juan Escutia). and General Juan N. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. 115 Queretaro Battalion. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. and the U. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. also known as the Halls of Montezuma. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city.S. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. The scaling ladders arrived. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. Newman S. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca.The efforts of the U. forces. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. the fighting had been severe and costly. and cadets Agustin Melgar. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city. some as young as 13 years old. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. he grabbed the Mexican flag. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. who took over 90% casualties. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . At 08:00.org/mexicanamericanwar2. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl. Before he could withdraw.. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. but his troops managed to raise the U. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City.

Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. Utah.S. A leading U. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US .S. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla.S. By doing so.S.000—less than half the amount the U. citizens.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U.S. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time. The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla .org/mexicanamericanwar2.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory. In return. and Wyoming. with the 15 million already spent.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Mexico received US $15. Nevada.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California . politicians that had opposed the war from the start. New Mexico. and parts of Colorado. Arizona.000. agreed to assume $3. newspaper. especially among U.

while the liberals (puros) refused .The leader of the young. This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state .com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet. Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor.CaliBaja. Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico .mortgageallianceprogram.).This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez . the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. democratic state .S. 1854 . sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca.which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution .com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. the neighboring states of Morelos. The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. Costa Rica. After over a year of guerrilla warfare. www. which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1.org/Ayutla.ObesityControlCenter. http://mexicanhistory. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice . The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president .In Guerrero. The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise.org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Dominican Rep. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . Michoacan .

freedom of speech. They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction .For the first two years. delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals . Comonfort becomes President www.The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions . but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power .HumanEvents.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . press. The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war . the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church .this conflict led to the vicious war of reform. In the new constitution. Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan.com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms . the Plan de Tacubaya. President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned. The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term . While freedom of religion was not declared. Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals .org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot .org/Ayutla. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals .Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws .The civil war was very vicious . The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez.The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. http://mexicanhistory. The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla .

htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .To get some breathening space for the economy to revive.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.However.Juarez won the presidental election of 1861.HumanEvents.On October 31.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City . 6.com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory.org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . 1861. which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties . when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico. The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant . In december. 1861. Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought .By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives.France. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives .org/Ayutla. Spain. Spain and England withdrew their troops . Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country.The conservative President.Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts. Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt . some over fifty years old . under the leadership of Napoleon III.The new president chose a more lenient policy.But the biggest problem was yet to come. Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France. With the War of the Reform over. this was not to be .The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts. and 64 million of this was owed to the British . but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies .000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz. sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World .

He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota. Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie. America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27. he was determined to make France great again . the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions .Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory. western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory. Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal .org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 .org/French.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Vera Cruz.000 to Mexico .1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico .As mentioned before.

The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months .000 reinforcements .The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness . The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462. where around 4.org/French.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .On May 5. Napoleon ordered 30. under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever.000 French.It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again . the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo . 1862.The French bombarded Puebla. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla. The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy .

French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion . who had a wooden hand.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .org/French.He was proclaimed Maximilian I. which of course approved him . 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives . Emperor of Mexico on April 10. http://mexicanhistory. General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida . 1864. 1863.Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces. met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived.In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico .The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867. that of Camaron on April 30.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle .He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people . map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3. They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange .Here.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time.A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army.On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves . 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou.

General Grant ordered 42. http://mexicanhistory. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . religious toleration . equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . The emperor . Chihuahua.The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. The liberals.He even named Jose Fernando.The French.org/French. however. and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him.After the downfall of the Confederacy. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua. and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. a Mason. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor . This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. which was not the case . religious freedoms. However. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces. considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support .The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865. creating a succession issue.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. which had never recognized Maximilian's government . Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. as secretary of foreign affairs . After the fall of the Confederacy. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives. was to lead to the emperors own death . General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. Sonora and Baja. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. After its fall. the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . but nothing came of it . the republicans only held four states. however.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies. This decree. French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . Guerro. a moderate liberal.

the last french soldier left on March 16. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. Portirio Diaz.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867.It also introduced French ideas. Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. talked him out of it.The battle began on Feb 19. However on May 15. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies . saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. but his wife.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . 1867. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days . who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca. Over 50. However. Tampico. Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 .He was executed by firing squad on June 19. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion .000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. Monterey. who urged the emperor to join him. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope. Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression .org/French. before he could carry out this plan. fashion and culture into Mexico . It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak .During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. along with Miramon and Mejia . Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate.However. Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future . The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .

Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . purchase and print your auto policy online. www.com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online. sanbornsinsurance.com www.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife . Home Revolution of Ayutla.org/French.com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory.ancestry.fiestamericanagrand.

Costa Rica. www. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 . sanbornsinsurance. Juarez immediately set about making economic. Dominican Rep. The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention .org/RestoredRepublic.S. There was still antagonisms from the conservatives. the rurales was established to check banditry. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s .org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.Despite this. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. http://mexicanhistory. purchase and print your auto policy online. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz .com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 .Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.ObesityControlCenter. Schooling was made mandatory. political and educational reforms. Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.mortgageallianceprogram. and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz .

the rurales. an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors . In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway. in contrast with the US which had over 30.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative.000 miles .To secure the roads. Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory. Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy .Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment . The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat. a rural police force was established.org/RestoredRepublic. especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep .Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .

Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . where he defeated Diaz easily .The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time . Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. beginning the Mexican muralist movement .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867.the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes. http://mexicanhistory. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts .When the ballots were counted. Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico . Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 . but he through this effort 1.600 miles off telegraph line was put up . A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. who had the support of the military and conservatives . and Porfirio Diaz. none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress.org/RestoredRepublic.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . 1871. Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army . Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871. The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy .

Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16. 1876. This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory. 1876. following the pattern of Juarez. Lerdo was reelected on July 24.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government.org/RestoredRepublic. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 . with a small majority and amid charges of fraud.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .

the main engine of the economy.Farming methods had changed little from colonial days .com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www. The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.ancestry. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears . Free trial.' During his 33 year rule. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.who was a Mestizo.com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) . Mexico was still troubled by banditos . of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side.org/Diaz. still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades . Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory.Despite the efforts of the liberals mining.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .MegWhitman.ObesityControlCenter. Like Juarez before him. Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales .org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. www.com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Mexico entered the industrial age .

Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling . made economic changes such as changing tariffs.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . At the end of his first term. In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge . Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims .During his administration. first to allow two terms in office. the Mexican treasury was running in the black .Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez. so he cut the salaries of government officials . Díaz had the constitution amended. http://mexicanhistory. President Gonzalez 1880 . but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term .Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction. secretary of the treasury.The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . but the strain was too much for the treasury . For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing .Jose Limantour. The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth . and then to remove all restrictions on re-election. who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . the railway from Mexico City to El Paso.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government.org/Diaz.By 1890.These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877.84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country.

000 Pesos in 1908. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico.Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines.000. Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society . who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions . Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. In 1910 life expectancy was 30. threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination. By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . such as silver and cooper mines . The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15.000.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years.000 Pesos in 1877 to 85. and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877. The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost . France and Germany .He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons.000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness . Elections were held. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest . Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune . Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size . became much more productive . Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive .Diaz was advised by cientificos. manipulated by the powerful .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule.silver production increased from 24. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves . They promoted science. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power . Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving .org/Diaz. which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. in contrast to 50 in the US at the time .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . but they were shams for the most part. Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. It seemed a http://mexicanhistory.16 percent of the population was homeless .Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly .Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance .The press was tightly censored.

Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work . This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907.Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief .Like many powerful leaders before. they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes . http://mexicanhistory.The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz . he had overstayed his welcome . Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell . Now.The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good .By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed. who often worked in appaling conditions . such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua .In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %. Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato. The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight . some advocating violent overthrow. They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .org/Diaz.

Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. however. Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well. In a 1908 interview with the U.Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections.When the official results were announced by the government. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . Despite Reyes silence. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero . decided to run for president again . This caused aroused widespread anger. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. He thoght political. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. http://mexicanhistory.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule.Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. They organized a revolutionary party. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. After this.Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico .such as the Flores Magon brothers . journalist James Creelman.S. Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio. Despite what he had told Creelman. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. In St. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses .Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement .org/Diaz. wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections . an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz.

Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government . There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years.In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. On May 10. yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him . brings the US into the conflict .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion. Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . the outnumbered federal commander surrendered .Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . others towns such as Tehuacan.org/Diaz. In Chihuahua.BookIt. His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great . afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez.Diaz had been overthrown. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command . In 1915.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. Afterwards. 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them.the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting.Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.On Jan 2. The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . At the last minute. but the revolution had just started . Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www. Díaz died in exile in Paris. Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero .

com panchovillastories.org/revolution. anger was simmering over the injustice of decades. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. Pancho Villa. a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women .To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). President Diaz. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday. However. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months.ancestry. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended .Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury.com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster.org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . Now on DVD www. But underneath. Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution .net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. below in Mexico. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation .

" Diaz. this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years. Trains were often used as weapons themselves. . many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. Most large companies were foreign owned. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .org/revolution. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. but solely upon the army . The election of 1910 provided a spark. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people. started by Diaz himself.

By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush . but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. commonly known as Zapatistas. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head. 1879–April 10. Madero campaign. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . However. He neither drank or smoked. Emiliano Zapata (August 8.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .Famous for their cavalry charges.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. Previously. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). A ladron steals from his neighbors. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico. from federal forces. 1878 – July 20. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. Madero was an unusual person for the times. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21.on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. banditos. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South).often led by Villa himself. and then return home to spend most of the year farming.org/revolution. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. http://mexicanhistory. As a result. when 1910 came. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile .1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. but was never caught.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed.

htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Now let's see if he can control it. on 31 October of that year. His nephew. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. Porfiro Diaz.In April the forces of Madero. Madero promoted him to colonel.S. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon.org/revolution. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. After being wounded in Ojinaga. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. Francisco de la Barra. from federal forces. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. 1911 – February 18. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. remarkably. the ambassador to the U. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . The Madero Presidency November 6. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution.He was killed on Aug 30. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. would serve as interim president.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua.

such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . During this time. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. some of them conservative. but the government had no money with with to pay them. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known.which had been gagged since Diaz. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. this infuriated Zapata. Leon de la Barra.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . Zapata Some.He gave out government contracts to family businesses. to important posts. Madero allowed freedom of the press. On October 1. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. the secretary of foreign relations. however. 1911 Modero won the national election . became the interim president . Educational reformers were also disappointed . It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . It is not without significance. However.Madero appointed family members. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself. both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. which undermined the reforms he advocated . Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . to many this looked like old style corrupt government . even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory.org/revolution. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast.

000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Huerta in charge of the army . convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces . http://mexicanhistory. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts .org/revolution. Reportedly. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.and on March 3 went into open revolt.Orozco. supported by Villa.S. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform.The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size . Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions . Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor. committed suicide . and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution.000 army. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. who had reached an agreement with Madero. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets. but this showed how weak the new government was . Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen.On August 8 Madero orders Gen. from which Villa later escaped. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. Jose Salas. Gen.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion. In his Plan Orozquista. Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U..

Modero. led mostly by supporters of Diaz . on Oct 12.org/revolution.Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. feeling compassion for Diaz. Reyes. yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz. the nephew of Porfirio. an action which would cost him his life .Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender . 1912 led by Felix Diaz.The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. did not order his execution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. and together they plotted a coup .

1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan.bull fights and walking on the streets. Huerta is supported by conservatives.On Feb 21. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels . the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . not all did .They of course declared a plan. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers.The press. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ). The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt.For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. Mustering some five thousand men.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. which had no social reform goals. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . were slaughtered in the streets. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day . 1913.However. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . many of them women and children. Using these tactics he created a 200. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed .Reyes .In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . powerfully fortified. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed. The American ambassador.000 none too loyal army Soldaderas .which had been free under Madero. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end. just the ouster of Huerta. the Plan de Guadalupe. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north. broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free. On Feb 17. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders .It is still not known if Diaz.And so Mexico had three presidents in one day .org/revolution. Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison . Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . near Mexico City.

htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .000. The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army .The convention exposed the differences between the fighters. 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta . It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction. The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention .They were celebrated in folk songs.000. Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed. Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation.Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states . in order to pacify the country. then only numbering about 50. In 1914. Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . Political assassination was also used . Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas.The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. http://mexicanhistory.Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250.In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president .The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began . against the wishes of Carranza.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados. decided Huerta would have to go . while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . much of which was done under forced conscription. huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico. Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. the major ports and most large cities . The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace .As his military position began to crumble.The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. such as La Adelita . The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez .In early 1914. the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot. More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. The Americans. Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred . often fought with their husbands as well .The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them . American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico. which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south .org/revolution. under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. Initially.By March and April. The convention chose.This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US . and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent . 1914 .

Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists. Villa lost an estimated 4. seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914. War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon. who had never been defeated in a major battle . Villa attacked with an estimated 25. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 . Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry. while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . http://mexicanhistory. By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed .000 killed.000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire. None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges . In early April. who had fled to Nuevo Leon.this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . Carranza.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. the battle of Celaya . This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa.org/revolution.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair.

killing 18 Americans . who were pro-Villa.There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops.The power of the church was limited.Education was to be secular. who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians . The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency. The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored .org/revolution. 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico. which he won in March. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election.The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica. The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present.On Jan 9. Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes.The clamor for intervention was immediate . Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property . with stronger executive control. 1916.On March 16. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . New Mexico. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. 1916. Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . 1917 . After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. who held a majority and voted in major reform articles . no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed .

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

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Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

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Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner.KausforSenate. In the election of 1928.Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings . but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . Callas became more conservative as time wore on.. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts. Communists and Chinese. Stop lockstep liberalism! www.34 (PRI).The government withdrew its support for unions.com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory.Obregon and Callas 1920 .com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] . There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury . The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s.supported by Callas.org/1920s. a fascist group attacked Jews . in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government .

Habla Español www. the CTM. Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army .com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas. 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home . By his first term he had redistributed 49. which endeared him to the people . the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos . Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule .000. Paracho & SofiaMari.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed . and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History.adultjewishlearning. Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US .40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell.org/cardenas. Some cooperative projects were started. Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns .000 acres.As he had in Michoacan.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad).The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www. With Callas' support. think he would be able to control him as a puppet . http://mexicanhistory. such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton .He did not use bodyguards. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education . Lowest Price.org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . a Governor of Michoacan.By 1935. Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July.when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas .Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution.RoyaltyClearinghouse.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli.PlayMusic123. www. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. As before. The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army.

Home Obergon.000.40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. However. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 . Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. the Peso weakened and the economy worsened . Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts .The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived. Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. and as production declined the national debt rose .Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. who won the 1940 election . he threw his support behind Avila Comacho. This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution .The US. Oil income was a major source of income for the government. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . In the election of 1939.000 in 1930 .org/cardenas.While this move was popular. In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million .The matter was sent to an arbitration board. He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America.As the depression went on.Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco . the new American president.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . it hurt the economy. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry. 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico.

The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming . who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier.46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith. every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write . Avila Comacho. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war . on a variety of fronts. Less land was redistributed.Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered .000 Mexican workers in America . Under the slogan' Each one teach one'.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .15.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course . afraid of more socialization.com/LA http://mexicanhistory. However.org/camacho. on May 14 and May 24. The conservatives.000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . threw his support behind secretary of war.Groupon. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly . Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www. promoted Juan Andreu . and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners.Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . Cardenas. More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. a well known revolutionary .46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions . By the time the war ended there were over 300.There was not much support for joining the War.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . not the ejidos and fostering private ownership.That day after Pearl Harbor. Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce. World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians. however.

The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.org/camacho.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .

htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . this is the story of Pablo Acosta.2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Great price. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .S.ObesityControlCenter.Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 . Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway.com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs. 1940s.Women were allowed to vote in 1952 . irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 .52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .org 1947 .Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .nmhu.2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com Miguel Aleman 1947 .Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico .org/aleman. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico.Mexican History 1947 .The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 . www. the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory.

64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents . one of the most modern in the world atthe time .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory. the issue of birth control was skirted around . all was not well . the urban population surpassed the rural population . cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.In 1960.Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J. much to the chagrin of the US . he did not undertake and new large projects . Because of corroption.000.' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952.F. Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities . some of the largest housing 100. strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools . there were no books on the bookshelves.Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated. nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock. Money for books had been 'diverted.However. Adolfo Mateos 1958.In response. but being a Catholic country.Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over.The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.Mexican History 1947 . Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground . He continued land redistribution.Strong economic growth continued.2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration .K. implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .org/aleman.and fewer than half of school age children went to school .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .000 a people poured into the cities . There was large scale corruption. Ruiz Cortines 1952 . The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area .Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects. Communists were not tolerated and arrested .While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City . The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment .000 people .

70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%. http://mexicanhistory. the army used tear gas and clubs .Mexican History 1947 . Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes.In July 26.In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics . the following clash led to some deaths. which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot . Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 . several hundred people were killed .The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns. and the tourist trade greatly increased .But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s .org/aleman. However it started.In the following days there were more riots. On August 27. After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband.Diaz ordered troops into the buildings .2008 until his death in 1970 .and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail . 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution. there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in . barricading streets and burning buses .On October 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 .For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets. 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. sometimes with federal troops being called in . Huge demonstrations were held on many universities .Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI.

By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged .82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession .Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan. Robberies and kidnappings . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. he tried to order price controls on basic items . Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. became president in 1970 .2008 Despite this. to make exports more competitive.Many started to go to America illegally.Caught in the inflation of the early 70s. During his period.." "excessive overseas borrowing.Since 1973. http://mexicanhistory.org/aleman. started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down .Mexican History 1947 . and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. 1976.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption. the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976. underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . about 70.Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico. In September.76 Echeverría. The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl . former secretary of the interior. One of the largest. The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 ." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor).In September.¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. By 1974. Wages were low and workers conditions were bad . Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . This caused the ruling party. the bane of other Latin American countries. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco. the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years. to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad. 1976.He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control .000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Luis Echeverría 1970 .The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. at least in terms of its economic policies.

000 were left homeless . a 8.Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year. The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars . There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF . the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982.The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar . The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out . He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 . and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs. crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years .Public spending was cut by one third . with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo.86 During his tenure. fraud and strong arm election tactics . a process that continued under his successors.Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . the economy only made weak progress.org/aleman.1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7.2008 In 1974. by the end of the Lopez administration.Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments. On Sept 19.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s.000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage . increased 100% in price . Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development .In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports .More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars .The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated . foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions . suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation .Despite the oil boom.Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread. http://mexicanhistory. 1985 .Mexican History 1947 . Miguel de la Madrid 1982 .Mexico could not meet its debt repayments.Over 100. huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco. for example. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment.3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10. During de la Madrid's presidency.

but reports of the national and international media . forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . Salinas' chosen sucessor. EZLN. Indian abuse and its own government .Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade .It was led by The president responded with military repression. and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement .Mexican History 1947 . Also in 1994. Carlos Salinas . Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 .Some progress was made with political corruption as well. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . http://mexicanhistory.org/aleman. started in Chiapas against corruption. was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate.He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos . The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings. and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections .The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%.But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. and established a new relationship between State and Church. masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising .1994 In the election of 1988. the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution.2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party.

which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system.2% during Fox's administration.Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo.org/aleman. a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office .Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved . http://mexicanhistory. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico . approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8.Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico.Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 .2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president . and countries in Central America. China. maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources. Ernesto Zedillo 1994 .2 percent in 2002. Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change.He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court. Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . Vicente Fox . Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses. however economy grew at a slow pace . Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords . Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul.2000 Within days of taking office.He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor. In 1997 he moved to Ireland.Mexican History 1947 . Vicente Fox 2000 .During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia . putting the country in an economic tailspin . behind Cortes and Diaz . known as the December Mistake.In 2000. Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history.GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2. In spite of opposition within his party. the Peso suddenly collapsed .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. and led to an economic recesssion .

On September 5. but a choice between "the past and the future.58% for Calderón over his closest contender. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. 2006. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization.present On July 6. 2006.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .org/aleman.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right. and authoritarianism.Mexican History 1947 . liberalization. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. market control of the economy.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 ." In his interpretation. state control of the economy. expropriation. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. resulting in a narrow margin of 0. However.

2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .org/aleman.Mexican History 1947 .

profiles.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines.500 Indus civilization 2.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.com Mexico! AmoLatina.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.S.500 BC 5.000 BC 7. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. Find Your Sweetheart in www.000 Large animals vanish.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.500 BC 5.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U.000 - 2.ancestry. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1.000 5. Baja 7.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.org/timeline.000 BC 11.500 Knossos founded 2.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.000 Archaic era 1.

com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf.org/timeline.com salsa.ObesityControlCenter. AmoLatina. purchase and print your auto policy online.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory.S. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.elwired.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U. El Tajin. sanbornsinsurance.

Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown. Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay. Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .org/timeline. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence.

1846. reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857.org/timeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. president can only serve one term. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. Nuevo León.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. September 27. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 .Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. modeled after the one of 1824. 1846. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled. 1821 . Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory.

first to allow two terms in office.org/timeline. hundreds killed by naval fire. blockade demanding repayments of debt. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857.Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. who had Madero jailed . Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico.Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. Diaz revolts again. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. Maximilian executed. French troops stay. England and France land troops. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City . Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. England and Spain depart. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. has the constitution amended. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain. angry at not getting US recognition . widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. church power limited.

Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .org/timeline. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 . Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR. known as the December Mistake. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. major dams built.BookIt. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president. which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. later known as PRI. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed .

000 Mexicans .ObesityControlCenter. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence . replaces it with a new centralist constitution.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Mexico for fractions of the cost www. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. Many states. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco. trained specialist treats you in Collection.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. including Texas revolt. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas. The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded.com www.ancestry. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. By 1835 there were 30.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. Mexico http://mexicanhistory. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico.S. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Discover Family Heroes.000 Americans and only around 8.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Mexico orders halt to American immigration.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty.

S.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. who is overthrown. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found.Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it.such as former President Martin Van Buren. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. The mutineers select Gen. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island. Polk http://mexicanhistory.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 1841 from a cold. 1845 U. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. President John Tyler.

July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .S. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.500 regulars have gathered.. Mexico. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. on the transport Alabama.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U.S.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen. Dec2 . had never ratified these treaties. Louisiana into Texas with 1. By late Oct 3. Nov 29 Former U. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. Coahuila. and Mexico . Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico .500 troops. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'. however. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna. but had been parts of Tamaulipas. gives interim President Herrera. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. but regains power. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U.

declared President of Mexico. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . considers this an invasion of Mexican territory.000 men. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. Taylor refuses.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. Arista reaches Matamoros. but is not authorized to attack. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness. March 8 Gen. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. assembles a force of 6.S. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol.200 men.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera. April 2 Gen.Jose Maria Castro. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2.S. killing 16 U. April 25 a 1. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen. Francisco Mejia.Col. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory.000 men under his command. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen. Mejia has 3. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours.

July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U.S.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president.Mexican American War Timeline command. May 13 U.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. overrunning the Mexican artillery.S.300. 39 Americans killed.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House. Arista resigns command to Gen. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. Nuevo Leon. Mexican losses 200 killed.losing many men in the desert.Jose Maria Ortega. Maj. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor. border set at the 49th parallel. http://mexicanhistory. Aug 5 Gen. 6.Arista with 3. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros. Taylor attacks his center. which later becomes Brownsville.300 confronts Taylor's 2. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. incident. Gen. Americans have 9 killed. Arista retreats toward Linares.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire.S.

htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . leaving 4. Americans suffer 120 killed. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles. the last Mexican stronghold in California. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan.645 troops. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7. Aug18 Gen.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran.200 regulars and 3.S.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight.500 man army in four months.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory. Mexicans 700 casualties.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace. Winfield Scott. forcing them to surrender.called the Black Fort by the Americans.000 Mexican regulars and 23. to be led by Gen.700 for garrison duty. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3. Jan 13 Lt.which is defended by a formidable citadel. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City. Ampudia asks for terms. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship. gathering a 21. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen.Richey. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U. no Americans killed. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6.000 militia.000 volunteers.

1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento.Special Cavalry Division.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans. California is renamed San Francisco. Mexicans lose 300 killed. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4. Only 14. 3. Siege of Veracruz begins. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva.000 Mexican prisoners taken. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena. Taylor retires toward Monterrey.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line.000 man Mexican army.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic.Americans lose 63 killed. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. March 21 10. Robert E. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20. Santa Anna's 18. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues.General Santa Anna.600 soldiers land by nightfall. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry. most in a 800 man cavalry charge. an easier to defend narrow pass.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg.800. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City.. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.8. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. Mexicans lose 1.500 desertions. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !'). 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12. March 9 American landing at Veracruz. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4.

Joseph E. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle.000 dead and 3. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion. 2..org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.500 under Worth to take it. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.hoping he will ask for terms.500 of which are sick.820 . Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.and is left with 5.Bravo.000 troops. the last major defense before Mexico City. Americans have lost 139 killed.000 captured.000 troops and 30 cannons. Mexican loses are 4. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. Americans lose 116 killed. Scott now has 14.500 troops. 30 out of 69 are executed. Six cadets fight to the death. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. 50 of which are cadets. which falls after a fierce battle. defended by 260 defenders under Gen. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col. Santa Ana flees Mexico City. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3.000 of his defeated troops. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today. Scott sends 3. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City.(Boy Heros).000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired.

Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill. Goldline.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws. Anaya become interim president. citizens against Mexico. 1876 July 31 last of 18. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3.Colorado.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Book now! www.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.CaliBaja. Free Investor Kit.com http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon.sailor Owen Edgar. Since 1960. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed.Nevada. citizens.S.HolidayInn.000) were to be treated as U.Arizona and New Mexico.Utah. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena.S. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport.5 million in claims by U. in Coloma. A couple of days of severe rioting follows. America takes California.

Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost.com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution.Info. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www. many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876.com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7.pestilence and death. this huge class of people was not educated. www.Shopping. http://mexicanhistory. Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .Metin2.org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 .com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.

paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. He didn't drink or smoke. Madero was unusual for his period. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. 1911 http://mexicanhistory.often led by Villa himself. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising. Oct 11 Madero. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. Francisco Madero. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. better known as Pancho Villa. Madero joined by other local leaders. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion.

303 unarmed Chinese massacred.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. Diaz offers to resign. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz.500 under Madero.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. Madero enters city. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. April 3. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. let’s see if he can ride it. Madero refuses.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales.. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders.

000 in the north.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Pascual Orozoco. Madero turns to Gen. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Slow to take action on land reform . burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero.once an ally of Villa.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas. Nov 9 In Texas. He plans to march on Mexico City. raises a well equipped army of 6. Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest. supported by powerful hacienda landowners. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata.

is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. forcing him to flee to the US. Brig. Diaz freed. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. Gen Felix Diaz.Mexican Revolution Timeline order.5. Huerta defeats Orozoco.400 men. 300 killed around presidential palace.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. April 26 Col. Revolt fails and Leon is executed.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .

In reality Huerta ordered the murders. 500 civilians killed. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane.New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. of Coahuila. Jose Suarez and cabinet. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement .The press. Lane recalled. limiting church power..who murder him. Vice Pres. In the next election. Huerta would become temporary president. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.bull fights and walking on the streets. Soon others launch rebellion. Gen. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters. Huerta is supported by conservatives. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. http://mexicanhistory. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez. Feb 24 The Gov. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers.which had been free under Madero. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him. 100 Madero supporters are executed. Huerta seizes Madero. Using these tactics he created a 200.000 none to loyal army.

Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. with the secret support of the United States. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. Federal train blown up. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . all federal officers executed. 12. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. Several hundred executed.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. calling his forces the Constitutionalists. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. federals round up civilians.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. all federal officers executed. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga.000 men.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe. The northern armies of Villa. 1913.. City taken. a politician and rancher from Coahuila. On March 26. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5.killing 100 federal troops. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua.

. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory. through such writers as John Reed.S. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York. Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released.Eventually 3. There was a considerable concentration of U.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed.Snipers open fire on Americans.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.S. The Mexican commander refuses. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. Sniper fire continues.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property. 4 Americans killed. Villa became a folk hero in the U.300 sailors and 2.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico.000 marines land. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz. 400 more Americans are sent ashore. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . American Rear Adm. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. leading to his resignation on July 15.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila .000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry. Huerta goes into exile in Europe.

Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. abandoned by Villa and Zapata. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. who lose 2. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government. who departs for Veracruz. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms.000 march through city.000 and many supplies. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. Their combined armies of 50.

barbed wire and machine guns. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults.000 cavalry. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI. angering him. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches .000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20. US cuts off arms supplies to Villa. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico.000 causalities and retreats north.500 horsemen and 6. 6.000 cavalry against Obregon's 9. known as the general who never won a battle . Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over.000 man army.Villa has 8.is unable to defeat Zapata . Despite using terror tactics.Villa loses 4. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US.500 infantry. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire. http://mexicanhistory.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.400 cavalry and 14.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Hill succeeds him.000 taken prisoner. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.5.

Villa losses many of his remaining 5.000 in late April.30.000 man army occupies every major town in the state.south or east will be contested.400.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . with air support. workers allowed to form labor unions. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3. New Mexico with 500 riders.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans.equal pay for men and women. 1917 It allows freedom of religion. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. 400 desert Villa.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM.000 followers.000 men to pursue Villa. Approved on Feb 17. has 9. Retreats with only 1.child labor prohibited. Takes much booty and gives speech. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off.

A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train. the ambassador to Mexico. Gov. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 .. March many Obregon supporters arrested. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez. including Villa rally to his side. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty. Supporters. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide.Following Zapata's death. http://mexicanhistory.000 followers.killing 200. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas.. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. Huerta gives a 25.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10. but murders him while he is sleeping. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. Obregon harassed.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. by which time the U.S. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas. flees Mexico City.believing he would become his puppet. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. had declared war on Germany. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca.

An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Huerta flees Mexico. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated. Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price. but large scale fighting is over.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory.

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