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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

Maps of Mexico

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

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http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
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htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office .Large cities such as Oaxaca. A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. New Mexico. Utah and Colorado . The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . The Indians. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs .Eventually. the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . all were to have a main plaza. Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces . pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. Arizona. The presidios (military towns). There were 62 viceroys in New Spain. sometimes there would be advanced warning . along with such regions as Colina. The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory.A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern .1821 MexicanHistory. wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly.Provincial towns were organized by royal decree. always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito.Colonial Mexico 1519 . The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 .org/colonial. Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed . Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . almost all of the Aztec empire. church . Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies .Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . California.In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas.

They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. leaving the area undermanned . http://mexicanhistory. which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ . King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor.Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area .the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy. led by Tenamaxtli . Charles V took this charge seriously. The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes . A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs .Colonial Mexico 1519 . The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41). The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. it's continuation.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . who were still viewed as a menace. that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. The Indians. a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems. Augustin's City of God .His successor. the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century.1821 MexicanHistory. The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing .org/colonial. Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians .Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making .Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. monastic life and humble character . the most serious revolt of the times . Dominicans and the Augustinians .

Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . http://mexicanhistory. 50 such churches had been built . For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .Colonial Mexico 1519 . The Catholic reverence for saints.org/colonial.Nine million were baptized by 1537. often being the first Europeans to explore an area . The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts . This was the open chapel or capilla abierta.org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country.1821 MexicanHistory. By 1540.000 Indians a day .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . They built fortess missions across New Spain .

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake.The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds .1821 MexicanHistory. Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain .Colonial Mexico 1519 .In the mid 16 century. One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles .Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . In the process. Phillip II ( r 1556 . Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization . The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems .The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . the Florentine Codex.org/colonial. the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language . Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned . Mexico.Indians http://mexicanhistory. Charles V was dead.1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls . Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers . They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws.org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages. Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. and the new Spanish king. Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain . 1601. who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life. such as.

Auto de fes drew large crowds . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . These works did find there way into the private libraries. Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The Bourbon kings. criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster .1821 MexicanHistory. the first in the colony was in 1574 . Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n.org/colonial.There were also quarrels with civil authorities . however .Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown .Colonial Mexico 1519 . this decree led to riots and other disturbances.Crimes like adultery. Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines. The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico.The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters . wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 .org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike.The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla. especially those of the Enlightenment writers. The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . with the prisoners often strangled first . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting . principally in San Luis Potos .In New Spain.The crime of heresy. Juan de Palafox. These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment. which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) .

Indians and African slaves .1700 ) . The Social Classes a Mestizo baby. persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent.Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . She wrote poetry.1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. Cholos. http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory. At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 . la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 . some of it in the Nahuatl language.org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . who taught many local artist . wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Colonial Mexico 1519 .org/colonial. persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent. by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . Creoles could not hold royal office . Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo. most of these returned to Spain . The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans. . Mestizo.1695 ).One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ). Castizo.

This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. etc. Zambos. Money makers such as tobacco. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem .The China trade was established in 1564 silks. which were the wards of the church and the Crown .org Mulatos. silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies .One example of this is the olive and wine industry. Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory. The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . from piracy .Colonial Mexico 1519 . tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver .000 in the 16th century to 6.There were royal taxes of all kinds on land. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . which was due on almost everything sold. In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. They were sometimes made into slaves. Commerce was controlled by royal decree. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20.org/colonial..1821 MexicanHistory. etc .000 by 1800. ceramics.Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries. licenses. tailors. Over the years. The most hated was the alcabala. After about 1560.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . persons who were mixed indio and negro. industry could not grow and advance. Euromestizos. which fixed the price of goods and their quality .With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians.

These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century .org/colonial.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org colonies and Spain itself . Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. diversified economy from growing .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy.In the early colonial period.1821 MexicanHistory. Such http://mexicanhistory. The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . By the 18th century. Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . was of prime importance to Spain . Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. Some of the haciendas were vast. The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. combined with bad roads. Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . The restrictions. Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . silver bar from shipwreck.

It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks. a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . but few wished to.org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer .Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage. However.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. The building material in New Spain was more colorful. but was modified by the new land. usually a week at a time . repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians . which was abolished in the early 17th century. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year.Colonial Mexico 1519 . in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . 1549. So. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . except for mine labor .1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.There were many abuses to this system. http://mexicanhistory.The debts were passed down from father to son .

org/colonial. mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines . http://mexicanhistory. The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575). considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style .1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . built in the late 18th century. the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen .org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu . The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.Colonial Mexico 1519 .In the mid 16th century.

org/colonial. a spanish architect ). the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged. especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.1821 MexicanHistory. alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times.

the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa . University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.Colonial Mexico 1519 . plazasa. Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock.org As a reaction to the excess.In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress.1821 MexicanHistory. a more severe. Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years . Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City .org/colonial. Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. hospitals and universities .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830. An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City .built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction . Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals. http://mexicanhistory. built in 1585 .

Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons . Chinese ceramic was soon imitated. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.org Castillo de Chapultepec. built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war . particularly their designs.1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. Spain in the 16th century . http://mexicanhistory.Many people consider Puebla. Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Basilica Guadalupe.

Wine was introduced early to New Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him.org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . Duke of Anjou. When Charles II died in 1700. but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries .The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory. Philippe de Bourbon. and more popularly called pulque. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . feeble in mind and body.org/colonial. He had named a greatnephew. Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara.1821 MexicanHistory. the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. which was a major source of revenue . Tequila . which they called octli (later.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon. The crown had a monopoly on pulque.1700 ).

org/colonial. In 1740. . the Duc d'Anjou.. replacing 200 low paid. as Philip V. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco .Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining .88 ). Under his rule Spain once again became a world power . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining .The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. becoming the second biggest export .2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . Cochineal production also increased. global warfare. Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies .The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas . Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 . the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty . Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began.org Louis XIV ) as his successor. The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown .1821 MexicanHistory. unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents . fought on four continents and three oceans. http://mexicanhistory.Silver production rose from 2. After eleven years of bloody.Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain . was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. He had two main concerns.The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually .The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration.

org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . another able ruler( 1789 . the real de a ocho.It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. many creoles prospered during this period in business . Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines .By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world . or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight.Colonial Mexico 1519 .org/colonial. such as the Canadian dollar. http://mexicanhistory. the Americas and the Far East. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins.94 ) created the first public transportation system . United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . Many existing currencies. meaning double).79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'.The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . or Nueva Granada. these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown . The creole Count Regla.Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes. often refers to a seven-gram (0.1821 MexicanHistory.Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . the national motto for Spain . There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana . By 1810.The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules. it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. Through widespread use in Europe. The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population . the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Revillagigedo . Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 . The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n. but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . meaning a double-sided token coin. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . Mexico. worth eight reales. For example. Peru.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain.Another viceroy. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .

Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory.org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.

Dominican Rep.net Things to do near DC Close to DC.1821 MexicanHistory. Scoundrels.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates. Heroes.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org/colonial.mortgageallianceprogram.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory.org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821.fxva.lindenhill. Celts www. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.Colonial Mexico 1519 . www. Fairfax County has great attractions. shopping & more! www. Costa Rica.

lib.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .http://www.utexas.edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.

org The war for Independence 1810.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain . Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares.org/Independence.1821 MexicanHistory. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland.MilitaryHistory. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far . but not equality for all.The war for Independence 1810.Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. They did rebel. The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions. their lot was so hard .Norwich. The lower classes.

htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 . his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies. Without a true Spanish monarchy.org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America.. The church had to call in their mortgages. Bullfighting from. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity .99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory. These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles.org/Independence. destroying many Creoles financially . 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout".Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 . many creoles thought they should rule themselves. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars .The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform .By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence . Latin America was. in these years..The war for Independence 1810. Unlike the wise Charles III.1821 MexicanHistory. Art Print Buy for $19.Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814. ruled by independent juntas. The peninsulares thought otherwise .

Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . none of these charges could be proved and he was released . reading proscribed books.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them.org/Independence.He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . http://mexicanhistory. Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . With Hidalgo at their head. 1810.However. they marched for San Miguel.The war for Independence 1810.Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia . Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16. doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant .org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato . 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory. In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe. There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once . who became an independence symbol. a captain of the cavalry .A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende. her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic . However.However. gathering more recruits along the way.

000 marching on Mexico City .By late October the army had about 80.org/Independence.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup . Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon.000 rebels were killed . Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning . Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces .Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward. The army retreated into Mexico City . They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31.The war for Independence 1810. San Luis Potosi and Valladolid . 1811. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas.An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then . http://mexicanhistory. He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City . However. Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .1821 MexicanHistory. Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2. In the middle of the battle.The rebels took Guadalajara . turning into a rout .

They issued a Declaration of Independence.Gradually.000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1.For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination .With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point .He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms. Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax .By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital . the Spanish viceroy. http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory.org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this . Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out .Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state . The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon. who had been recruited by Hildago .Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare . those opposed to it were guilty of treason .By 1819. the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed . retaking many towns . Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control . one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2.The war for Independence 1810. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement.org/Independence.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .After awhile only two major bands remained. viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile.In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.000 around Oaxaca .

htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government . free speech and curbed the power of the church . The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan . Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights. . Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2. Ironically. This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos.500 men to fight Guerrero . and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez .org/Independence. yielded to their demands . the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy.The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. in January 1820.1821 MexicanHistory. Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala. Spain.org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile.Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . If this was not done there would be a military coup . the Creoles found this change too liberal. The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. led by King Ferdinand or another European prince .The war for Independence 1810. A new army would be created.The king. Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. bad food. The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. At C diz. a virtual prioner of the army at this point.

One more proviso was added by Iturbide . this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba .The war for Independence 1810. Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit .org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army. Juan de O'Donoju.O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico.1821 MexicanHistory.org/Independence. unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory.After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico. Mexico was independent at last . if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy. a Mexican congress would chose an emperor. the last viceroy of New Spain . 1821 . On September 27. this was to become an important point . viceroy Apodaca resigned .

htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .ObesityControlCenter.March 19. 1821 .com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. However.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico.BookIt. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com www.The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch . General Agustín de Iturbide. a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain. which in turned named him as its presiding officer .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21.com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power.ancestry. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide . Mexico for fractions of the cost www.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. www. Ferdinand VII. 1821.S. it did not accept the offer .org/firstempire. After the declaration of independence on September 27. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. would also be Emperor of Mexico.

1821 . They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . Iturbide had his own troops.In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . which included Costa Rica. Court etiquette was issued.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . from California in the north to Panama . 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . When Iturbide was declared emperor. Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . then accepted . The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. Guatemala.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee .Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. The heir apparent was Senor Don August. the regiment of Celaya. Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . El Salvador. Honduras. On July 21. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . http://mexicanhistory. 1822 .The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. hoping to promote free republican governments . stage a demonstration on his behalf . Iturbide feigned reluctance. but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22.org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico . There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once .org/firstempire. Nicaragua. as Agustin I . President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico.

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

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Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

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The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

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29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name. the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army .The York Rite masons .000 men were kept under arms.org/earlyrepublic. brave in battle. but no an inspiring or talented administrator . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war . another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza .After some fighting .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . led by vice president Bravo .Over 50.The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner.Mexican border . who controlled the army. taxes and monopolies . These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited . The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public. he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain .1843 ) was a former rebel leader.org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. the caudillo . Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president . who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US .As Iturbide did. http://mexicanhistory. In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader .Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 . The government sought to support itself through import duties.com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador . A local military strongman emerges during these times.Groupon. gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna .

but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . which had never recognized Mexico's independence. As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. which had been abandoned . such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight .32 - http://mexicanhistory.This marked a return to power of the conservatives. choose this time to invade its most important former colony . Santa Anna became extremely popular . mainly middle class merchants. Bustamante. Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level.The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion.Some of the states. The treasury by this time was also bankrupt. who fled the country . Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. Reserves in Jalapa. The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. even after the repulse of the Spanish.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas .They landed near Tampico.org/earlyrepublic. Slaves were few in number by this time. Bustamante agreed. but his act increased his support among mulattos. Santa Anna settled in for a siege . the most important of which was calling up of the reserves. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero. abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes . He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain.From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree. Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion . Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy . However.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . This plan backfired . called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them. After an initial attack which failed. President Bustamante 1830 . as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . the Spanish general surrendered .org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria .Guerrero set off with a force to attack them.

which he did in 1833.Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election .47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory. using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance .org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero .org/earlyrepublic. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections. Bustamante was to go into exile. Corruption was rampant . Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 . but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero.The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again . signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23).Bustamante.The Early Republic MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza.

1839 .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.1841 .He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times . http://mexicanhistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico. Spain.S.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.1842 . Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history .1834.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Discover Family Heroes. but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz .com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.com www.Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.ancestry. trained specialist treats you in Collection.org Santa Anna 1794 .org/santaanna. Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it . Mexico for fractions of the cost www. 1835 .1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years. Britain. and Texas as well as published sources.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.ObesityControlCenter. a liberal politician of intellectual distinction .1843 .

org/santaanna. Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one. more pejoratively. To curb the undue influence of the army. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . Nuevo León. The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 . Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal . warlord. Michoacán.The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . "dictator" or "strongman".org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. led http://mexicanhistory. The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90. that of the church and that of the army .In order to secure power. His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . and the Republic of Texas.000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation. The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna .Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . Santa Anna became a millionaire . "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) . Querétaro. Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms . Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist ." or.He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. Yucatán.The presidential term was extended from four years to eight . His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. the Republic of Yucatan. San Luis Potosí. State militias were disbanded . Jalisco.000 acres .' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . began with two major reforms .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .The congress was disbanded . the treasury was still bankrupt .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the Republic of the Rio Grande.The Zacatecan militia. Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. he reduced its size and abolished military fueros .Corruption was widespread. the constitution of 1836 was enacted . Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. Guanajuato. Durango.The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . Several of these states formed their own governments.They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office . He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief.

1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. The first Europeans in the area.org by Francisco Garcia. Goliad. was well armed with .org/santaanna. or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours. Comanches and other Indian tribes .There were small towns in the interior. Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory.000 prisoners. After defeating Zacatecas.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Nacogdoches. San Antonio. and others. on 12 May 1835. After two hours of combat.61 rifles.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain . 1835 to April 21.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker . he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2.

New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s.25 an acre in the US . While at work they kept guard against the Indians.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .000 Americans living in Texas. and he returned home.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. leaving his dying injunction to his son.org/santaanna. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. there were only 7. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River.In 1827.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1.Spain wished to colonize the territory.000 Mexicans . T. In 1820 he set out for Texas.000 Americans and only around 8. He reached home in safety. a Prussian officer. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. The land titles were duly recorded. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. and a local militia was organized.000 settlers . and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas. to carry out his project. By 1835 there were 30. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. By 1827 there were 12. Mexico became independent and Moses' son." Gone to Texas . but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . at times making a night attack upon a cabin.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. and was then in the service of Mexico. and fought over land titles and for political domination. and. T. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. who roved about stealing the stock. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. Life in the new land was rough.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. who had served under Frederick the Great. Austin was the supreme authority. after great exposure and privation. the judge and commandant . Stephen. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river . but his exposure and privations had weakened him.

but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . by sending a thousand soldiers. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila.Mexico increased custom duties on exports.Most Americans remained Protestant. called " The Fredonian War. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . increasing the cost of trade with the US . leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823. but the societies were too different and tensions increased . but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters . but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila .000 slaves in Texas. grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. The check immigration into Texas from America. to take over the region." was easily suppressed. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards.Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 .org/santaanna. there were approximately 5. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened .Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. In 1830. By 1836. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . This emeute.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo . they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this . this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. which were to be redistributed in Mexico. The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all .S. to stations in the country.President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders . mostly criminals and convicts. Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. an empresario.

but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio.. Under the Liberal banner. The next morning. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state.m. The Texians refused. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad. Castañeda established a camp.m. at 7 p. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. having never been formally charged with sedition. Unable to cross. which began on October 12. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . On September 20. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. http://mexicanhistory. many of the volunteers simply left. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. and Coahuila. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. As a reward. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. At 3 a. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. Since they had no cannon balls. and Austin sanctioned it. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. including Jim Bowie. and negotiations fell through. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. Austin saw little choice but revolution. The siege of Bexar. Austin was released in July. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . He then ordered his brother-in law. under the defence of General Cos. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. and was in Texas by August. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. who went to Gonzales. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Several officers resigned. negotiations were held.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. On October 1. Two Texian militias answered the call.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. Throughout November 1835. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas. the Texans captured Bexar. Zacatecas.org/santaanna. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. they reached the camp. who was stationed in San Antonio. 1835. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. and gunfire was exchanged. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. civilians were massacred by the thousands.

Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . poorly led. The remaining Texan army. the political and military center of Texas. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. On November 6.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. Although the Matamoros Expedition. chiefly husbands and fathers. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ). Albert Martin. nothing came of it. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. never more to leave them. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. on March 2. bringing only disaster for months to come. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. These men." No further reinforcement arrived. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. but it marched forward. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. Soon.000. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. 1835. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. but his talents were not well suited for military life. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. hoping to sack the town. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. owning their own homes. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. Capt. a force of about 6.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.org/santaanna. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had.org 1835. as it came to be known. in a fortress doomed to destruction. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. The expedition failed. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. "At dawn on the first of March. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. despite Austin's leadership. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. and with no collective motivation. now led by General Sam Houston.

Santa Anna's army. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day.org/santaanna. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. 1836. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. gave unrelenting chase. 1836. rather than a cruel one. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. border. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. Overnight.. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. experienced and feared. March 27. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. the United States. Soon. making his way north following the coast of Texas.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. A scorched earth policy was implemented.S. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. and much animosity was aimed towards him. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. brought up cannon and reinforcements. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans.. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. the rains made the roads impassable. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds. José Urrea At Goliad. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. March 20. always on the heels of Houston. and even Great Britain and France.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . was something the Texans could not easily defeat. The Mexican cavalry. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. so it was put to the torch. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory.together with the fall of the Alamo. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. under Santa Anna's direct orders.

General Vicente Filisola. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. Hours before the attack. which the Texans used as cover. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. mostly cavalry. On that same day. Also. Without Houston's consent. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. as dictator of Mexico.org and race quickly towards Galveston. To the dismay of the Texans. the Texans surged forward. but Filisola disagreed. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. but nothing came of it. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. and put an end to the war. Numbering about 700. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1. Santa Anna. who had been wounded in the ankle. not the Army of Operations.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. but not without protests from Urrea.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. after burning Vince's Bridge. and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. only nine Texans died. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. which were led by General Cos. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. and he was brought before Houston. and tired of running away. Santa Anna. both armies met at the San Jacinto River. catching the Mexican army by surprise. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. which had proven costly and prolonged. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. Texas. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. marched back to Mexico. waited for reinforcements. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack.org/santaanna.200 men. An 18minute-long battle ensued.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. Houston could do nothing but follow.

S. and soon after. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. a French soldier of fortune. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. occupying San Antonio. the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . He was re-elected President. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.org/santaanna. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . thus. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. into Texas. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . two actually formed republic besides Texas. Nuevo León. After some time in exile in the United States.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. called Manga de Clavo. In 1838. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. one private ) on May 14. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. and after meeting with U.org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . but briefly. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. The war continued as a standoff. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. D..htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .C. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. when French forces landed in Veracruz. But unknown to Santa Anna. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico.

the Republic of the Rio Grande failed.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out. Yucatán declared its neutrality. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . Nuevo León.C. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. Upon this event. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt.org In 1840.In November. La Ceiba . Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. During this meeting. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. ultimately. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. Texas .By 1855. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo.org/santaanna. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. and the United States. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. After the end of the Mexican-American War. Spain. D. http://mexicanhistory. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. however.

Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee .000 pesos. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed .000 pesos in payment and when payment.000 troops . with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. His life was spared. President Again Soon after. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. Thus began the Pastry War . the United States declared war on Mexico. a military expedition into Texas was renewed. or the French would demand satisfaction. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. but France upped the ante to 800. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory.org The Pastry War In 1838. In 1842. Santa Anna tried to elude capture. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. turned over to authorities. and to seize the port of Veracruz. by an army commanded by the president himself. Mexico agreed to pay. Also. This was too much for the Mexicans. at war against Santa Anna. Meanwhile. The French landed 3. Veracruz. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. and imprisoned.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. The war with France had weakened Mexico. Mexico declared war on France. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . In 1846. and the people were discontented. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power.org/santaanna. With resentment ever growing against the president. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital.was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. Fearing for his life. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico.

As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. which was tried without success. the base of chewing gum. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. the United States. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. but he failed to profit from this. Colombia. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later.S. penniless and heartbroken. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. trained specialist treats you in Collection.ancestry. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. He then lived in exile in Cuba.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory. He funneled government funds to his own pockets. This reign was no better than his earlier ones.org/santaanna. and he fled back to Cuba. 1876.org of the United States. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government.ObesityControlCenter. Discover Family Heroes. Jamaica. and St. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . naval blockades. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna. moved to Turbaco. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters." which helped found the chewing gum industry. Colombia. In 1851. In April 1853. on June 21. and two years later. Thomas Adams. Thomas. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness".S. to the United States. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.

President Tyler The following president." So Far from God: The U.S.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. & GE. Compare & Save.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.1848 MexicanHistory. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory. was not for immediate annexation . and maintain our present attitude. 4 Quotes.TopAlarmCompanies. Brinks.The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue. if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government.S. War With Mexico. or the course of events. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. 18461848This wellwritten. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas . 1 Form. Andrew Jackson . " Prudence.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. APX Alarm. shall have proved.org/mexicanamericanwar1." said he. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof.org Mexican American War 1846 . The American president after Texas won its independence. www.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . at least until the lapse of time.Mexican American War 1846 . and to uphold the Government constituted by them. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico . comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. beyond all dispute.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . Van Buren.

Texas consented to be annexed. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California. he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . and that.1848 MexicanHistory.S. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28. a survey of the This History Channel special. could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. On the 3rd March. as half of the Senators represented free States. Texas joined the Union on December 29. it joined the Union . Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle.No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions.org/mexicanamericanwar1. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution .Mexican American War 1846 .Prior to Polk's election. The new president. 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war . President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast .It was discovered by President Tyler. 1845 . There was a fear England would purchase California. a few hours before his term of office expired. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. and the December 29.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 .org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. 1845 .On the 4th July. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing. The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. that what could not be effected by treaty. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport . President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.who was pro-annexation. which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . the Mexican minister to the U.

the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto. considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule.The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source.1848 MexicanHistory.000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25. $5. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . supported by populist newspapers. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory.org/mexicanamericanwar1. the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty . Slidell.Mexican American War 1846 ." returned to the United States. as per the Treaties of Velasco . and Colorado. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico).000 or more for California . However.Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil . Wyoming. the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary .000. In 1836.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power. which included parts of modern day New Mexico. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar . the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . Kansas. the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River .000. Oklahoma.

Tennessee. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas.In case of war.000 men.Mexican American War 1846 . 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico . the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms .about 4.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .000 in all He was told. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force. will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos . was plotting to invade. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose. Mississippi. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border . your main object will be the protection of Texas . 1846.org/mexicanamericanwar1.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. but instead of marching north against the invaders. drive them from their positions on either side of the river.Louisiana. and Kentucky. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country. if deemed practicable and expedient. with much difficulty. and. in December 14. was able to assemble a force of 6. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments.1848 MexicanHistory.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. Herrera.S." http://mexicanhistory.

1848 MexicanHistory. envoy from Mexico. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. 1845. he prudently waited for further orders. He expelled the U. and Oct. and http://mexicanhistory. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. particularly those of July 8th. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that.org/mexicanamericanwar1. regard you as openly committing hostilities. commenced his march into the Mexican territory. 4th. except in reference to Texas." On approaching Point Isabel. without having met with the slightest opposition. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions.Mexican American War 1846 . wrote to the Secretary. and the site of a Mexican Custom House.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. he found the buildings in flames.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . a Mexican settlement. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . the inhabitants must. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. or committed any overt act of hostilities. from which it appeared probable that. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. it would enter into no negotiation with him. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression. declared his willingness to fight. the extreme point of Texas proper. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. Taylor. in pursuance of orders." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. 1846. and for which no reason had been assigned. On the 12th January.S.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. later known as Fort Brown . Not an American." As there was no invasion to repel. whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions.

Pofter and one man was killed whether any. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. on April 24 . Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank. " 16 Americans.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. Congress declared war on Mexico. he reports. Accordingly. Another letter.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot." Upon the Strength of this despatch. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. not to remain any longer idle. Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons . General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. Tamaulipas. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill." but the main body of about 2." Notwithstanding the blockade. . published in the Philadelphia Inquirer . and retire beyond the Nueces ." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. adding. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. about 25 miles from the U. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. reports. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. drove away the men. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .Mexican American War 1846 . to make the intended war. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. it will clearly result that arms. ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande." In this affair. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men.S. says. War is Declared General Taylor. In April 1846. one of defence. it seems. 1846. On May 13. and took possession of their horses. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 ." and requiring him within twenty.1848 MexicanHistory. and arms alone. camp . does not appear . appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. acting on the advice of a local guide .four hours to remove his camp. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. It appears they separated. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED.org/mexicanamericanwar1. investigated an abandoned hacienda. and thus. and. whereupon he determined. The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. despite protests by the Mexican government . announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. "a war by the act of Mexico. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. and Porter. and therefore unseen. He immediately charged upon them . the President announced to Congress and the world. 4th Infantry. must decide the question. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war ." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago.

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while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy . including So Far from God: the U. was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it . in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories . Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' .ancestry. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned .S. Discover Family Heroes. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .which played a decisive role in several key The U. The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced . War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written.org/mexicanamericanwar2.org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time. The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources . with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate .com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy.The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle .S. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.The rifle.The US.Mexico had no small arm factories of its own .S.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory. trained specialist treats you in Collection.com ObesityControlCenter.

a carbine or short musket called the dragon. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. seems to have been arranged jointly. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive . General Stephen W.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. like a fire breathing dragon. by consultations between the President. as commander of the army. At this time.The President declared that in his opinion.500 hundred men . hosted by Oscar de la Hoya. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army. but trained in horseback riding and combat . He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. General Scott. and General Scott ." would be the best means of producing peace. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. Secretary at War. was stationed at Washington.org/mexicanamericanwar2.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. and the means to execute them. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory.

both for skill and gallantry. under the command of Major Brown. and was only prevented from being carried out.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. The former was killed by a shell. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. therefore. To take this place would. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. capture Point Isabel. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. The army was halted. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. It appears that General Arista. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. by the accidental infor. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. and arrived on the next day. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. Leaving an unfinished field-work. was comparatively defenceless. Captain Hawkins. and several killed and wounded.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. which had been left in care of a small detachment. Major Brown. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. who was now in command of the Mexican army. Arista saw that Point Isabel. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. and continued at intervals till the 10th. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. under whose direction the fort was built. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. In the mean while. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. and then fall on the American army. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. . and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. In this defense. The departure of General Taylor with his army.org/mexicanamericanwar2. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. with his main force. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. The plan was judicious.

Their columns.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The artillerymen were dispersed. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. The Lan. moved up the main road. to charge the American right. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. A ravine here crossed the road. at Resaca de la Palma. and with greater energy of body. The Mexican cavalry. and the battle was soon ended. M. M. A battery of artillery. In this firing. mostly Lancers. dating his despatch.dered Torrejon. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. under Lt. In two hours..cipitately from the field. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. under the command of Col. by the Americans. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. It was here that this officer became so distinguished.The Mexican American War at a pool. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. They fled pre. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. To remedy this. " in sight of the enemy. the next day. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. at night" This might be true . and by the 5th Infantry. were on their left. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. and in turn fell back on the main body. The charge was gallantly made. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. of the field. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. says. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. General Arista or. but with as little success. however. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. The Dragoons. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. Arista. At two P. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. the army advanced by heads of columns. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. from which he did not depart till two p. Ridgely. now broken by successive charges. and by other troops of that division. but he was in retreat. This he did.cers were again driven back. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. On the left wing of our army. might have easily been defended. and took a new position several miles off. Montero. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. had advanced beyond support. under Lt.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. when they were deployed into line. but was met by the Flying Artillery. 4th. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory.tery and by the infantry on the wings. The position was well chosen . He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. while the 3d. Ridgely. and General La Vega taken prisoner. general of cavalry.

the capital of New Leon . and around it. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. Comargo. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. Mier. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. while the main body. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. in rear of the town and beyond the river. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. and were occupied. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. and Revilla surrendered. Comargo. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. and in the rear.ted to them. and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . all fortified. which was regularly fortified. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. behaved well. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. numbering six thousand six hundred. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. both the general government at home.org/mexicanamericanwar2.in-chief left Comargo. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. In the mean time. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. the general. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. Being reinforced. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. were destined for the march to Monterey. In front. On the heights. They fought gallantly. as http://mexicanhistory. and near it other heights. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. to the left. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. or citadel. he advanced to the village of Marin. The opposite side of the city. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. and on the 5th of September. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan .

it is ob. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. Garland's force. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. with the bayonet and the artillery. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. General Worth. and Mississippi. Tennessee. This movement was executed during the evening. Up to this time. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. to the support of General Worth. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. The two last regiments. and Davis. the column rapidly moved. however.nied the parly in its advance. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. General Butler. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. pressed forward. The front defense here was a redoubt. who accompa. to attack the lower part of the town. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded.other column. in spite of its fire. if practicable. supported by the Light Artillery. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. The army. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. May's Dragoons. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. were forts also erected. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. was ordered to the left. and two or three thousand irregulars. and after another severe contest retired in good order. entered the town to the right. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. and fired upon the redoubt. who had advanced with it.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. however. with his division. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. were with. into the rear of which. advanced against the redoubt. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. were both ordered forward .org/mexicanamericanwar2. and they were compelled to retire. three miles from Monterey. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . A column of six hundred and fifty men.drawn. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. and commenced its assault on the town. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. with its cannon and ammunition. were detached to the right.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and Wood's Texan Cavalry. and the troops remained upon their arms. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. being wounded. and advanced against the second battery. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. superior in numbers to the American army. Campbell. with Bragg's Artillery.vious. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. with three companies of the 4th regiment.

The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. Worth and his Division.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. under Colonel Alexander W.In Northern California. defeated the enemy. When Stockton's forces. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. This was the key to Monterey. The main part of the capitulation was. M. Doniphan . from Cole and Platte counties. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. sailing south to San Diego. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. gave a new face to affairs." a volunteer troop. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. and carried several fortified heights. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. on the 13th of October.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. two provinces.org/mexicanamericanwar2. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. but always unsuccessfully. Missouri. then in command of the Mexican army. recommenced the advance. That evening (at 9 p. during this day. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . and the Mexicans confined. in their defence. on the morning of the 23d. The houses were fortified. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. to fire upon the American positions . under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. in arms. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. from St. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. Kearney. was one to move against. Louis. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. he dispatched 50 U. General Taylor. stopped in San Pedro. and San Fernando de Prezas . 1846. the American army had but a short supply of provisions." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. Besides al! this. from St. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . and take possession of. while Gar. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. two companies of light. At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. charges. the city of Linares. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The guns of the Citadel continued. treads upon the territory of this republic.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). For this concession there were strong reasons. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. but General Taylor made no important movement in front. but. The Surrender of Monterey. California and New Mexico. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. Marines. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . " The Saclede Rangers. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. To this the Mexican chief replied.S. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. Louis . after some negotiation. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. but here a new resistance was made. believed to be favorable to peace.The Mexican American War town.

All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. banded together to defend their land. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25.S. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. with a squadron of 139 dragoons.S.S. on December 6. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. near San Pedro. Iowa Territory. U. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. Col. after being appointed commanding general. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States. Marines were killed. Jonathan D. Later. 1846. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. left too small a force in Los Angeles. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. led by José Mariá Flores.000 . January 9.S. On January 12. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. That marked the end of the war in California. The rancho vaqueros. however. [25] and the next day. Kearny. their re-supplied. had http://mexicanhistory. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. Lt. Meanwhile. Taylor. combined force. 1847. The next day. On March 15.000 men. Stockton. With U.600 men. Arizona and the Sonora desert. On January 28. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! .S.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . 1847. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. 14 U. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. Col. October 7 through October 9. with 4. General Stephen W.org/mexicanamericanwar2. marched north from San Diego on December 29. he reneged again and seized the presidency. He promised the U. Then. California. Philip St. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed.S. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. forces continued to arrive in California. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. January 1848.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. forces. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. 1847. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. On January 13. and the Californios. led by U. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. California. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. Other U.S. 1847. 1846. Navy Captain William Mervine. 1847. 1847. 1847. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. fought as Californio Lancers. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. however.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi.

and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. side began to fall victim to yellow fever.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Instead of taking the main road. during which some U. During the siege.600 mounted dragoons ahead.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista.000 men in a tired state. George Meade. about half of whom were civilian.S. A group of 12. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . while the Mexicans suffered over 1. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. Polk distrusted Taylor. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. Ulysses S. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea.500 healthy troops. Scott had sent 2. The Mexican army was routed. Although by then aware of the positions of U. Santa Anna withdrew that night. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico.000 were taken prisoner. he attacked the next morning.S. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City. army. Santa Anna flanked the U. weapons and horses near the walled city. troops suffered 80 casualties. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. the U. Furious fighting ensued. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery.400 men. Grant.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House.S. troops were routed. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. troops.S.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege.S. http://mexicanhistory. army suffered 400 casualties. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott. U.S. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. The U. Included in the invading force were Robert E. 1847. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. However. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. along which he expected Scott to appear. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Lee.000 casualties and 3.

forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11.S. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E. Lee. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . U. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung. Twiggs agreed. 1847.The Mexican American War On the same day. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco.org/mexicanamericanwar2.

Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. the fighting had been severe and costly. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. ended the war and gave the U. when one was left (Juan Escutia). The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. forces were about to kill him. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point. and General Juan N. Flag over the castle.S. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. To the southwest. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews.S. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. Caught between two fronts. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. At 08:00.org/mexicanamericanwar2. signed on February 2. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward.. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. 277 Mina Battalion. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. he grabbed the Mexican flag. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. undisputed control of Texas. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . and the castle's garrison of 100 men.S. apparently falling from above . and the U. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city. Lasting throughout most of the day. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city.The efforts of the U. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. and there was a lull in the battle. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW.. and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery.S. 115 Queretaro Battalion. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. some as young as 13 years old. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist.S. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. Vicente Suarez. "From the Halls of Montezuma. Pérez was killed. who took over 90% casualties. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. Before he could withdraw. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U. but his troops managed to raise the U. The scaling ladders arrived. and cadets Agustin Melgar. but was unable to communicate with him .S. President Polk tried to recall Trist. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. forces. One by one they fell." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle.The battle had been a significant victory for the U.S. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. Johnston. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. and the first wave ascended the walls.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Juan Escutia. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. also known as the Halls of Montezuma. 211 Union Battalion. established the U. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. including the cadets. Newman S.

Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. A leading U. Utah. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time.S. newspaper.S. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time. with the 15 million already spent.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. Arizona. Mexico received US $15. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US . Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla. and parts of Colorado. In return.S. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory. The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla . New Mexico. and Wyoming. especially among U.000—less than half the amount the U. By doing so.S. agreed to assume $3. Nevada.000. citizens. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. politicians that had opposed the war from the start.org/mexicanamericanwar2.S.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River.

www. This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state .The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma. democratic state .The leader of the young. who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet.In Guerrero.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice .S. sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .). Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital.One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. 1854 . insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state .mortgageallianceprogram. Costa Rica.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico .which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution .org/Ayutla.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca. which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular. After over a year of guerrilla warfare.org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Dominican Rep. The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. http://mexicanhistory.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1. while the liberals (puros) refused .ObesityControlCenter. the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law. the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support . The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise. Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor. Michoacan .CaliBaja.This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez . the neighboring states of Morelos.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt .

The civil war was very vicious .HumanEvents.For the first two years.The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. http://mexicanhistory. assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus. In the new constitution. The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861.The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power . While freedom of religion was not declared. Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan. press. the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term . delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals . The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla . President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned. freedom of speech.this conflict led to the vicious war of reform.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals . These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction .org/Ayutla.org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor . dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez. Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals .The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions . The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war . Comonfort becomes President www. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) .The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms . the Plan de Tacubaya.Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws . They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church .

Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City . With the War of the Reform over. and 64 million of this was owed to the British . Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought .France.The new president chose a more lenient policy. this was not to be . some over fifty years old .HumanEvents.org/Ayutla. which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . In december. 6. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant . under the leadership of Napoleon III. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives .org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion .To get some breathening space for the economy to revive. Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country.On October 31.By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. 1861. but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies . Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt . Spain and England withdrew their troops .Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts. Spain. Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France.The conservative President. 1861. sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World . England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz.But the biggest problem was yet to come. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico.The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts.However.com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory.Juarez won the presidental election of 1861.

As mentioned before. western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory.1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king . America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27. the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions . Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal . Vera Cruz.org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 . Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie.org/French. he was determined to make France great again .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .000 to Mexico .He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota.

org/French.000 French.000 reinforcements .It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again .On May 5.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla.The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462.The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi. The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo .The French bombarded Puebla. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. Napoleon ordered 30. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months . under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory. where around 4. The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy . 1862.

They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange . General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida .The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte. that of Camaron on April 30. French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people .He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people .On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time. 1863.Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves .A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle . who had a wooden hand. met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived. which of course approved him . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion . 1864.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Emperor of Mexico on April 10.He was proclaimed Maximilian I. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives . 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou. map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3.org/French. http://mexicanhistory.In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico .Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867.Here.

however. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . Chihuahua.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. which was not the case . but nothing came of it .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. The emperor .Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua. However. The liberals.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees .The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. which had never recognized Maximilian's government . the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . the republicans only held four states. religious toleration . General Grant ordered 42. and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class. http://mexicanhistory. a Mason. Sonora and Baja. After the fall of the Confederacy. American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration.He even named Jose Fernando. General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. After its fall. religious freedoms. as secretary of foreign affairs . the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support . This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives.The French. Guerro. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor .After the downfall of the Confederacy.org/French.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies. The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. This decree. however. a moderate liberal. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. was to lead to the emperors own death . creating a succession issue.

Tampico. before he could carry out this plan. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future . Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. who urged the emperor to join him.However. Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression . Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 .org/French. Monterey. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion . who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . Over 50. along with Miramon and Mejia . the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia. 1867. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. However.During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days .The battle began on Feb 19. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. However on May 15.000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak .He was executed by firing squad on June 19. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. Portirio Diaz.During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia. but his wife.the last french soldier left on March 16. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. talked him out of it.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies . The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops.It also introduced French ideas. fashion and culture into Mexico .

com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online. purchase and print your auto policy online.com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com www. Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina. sanbornsinsurance.ancestry. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.fiestamericanagrand. www. Home Revolution of Ayutla.org/French.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .

Schooling was made mandatory.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.ObesityControlCenter. the rurales was established to check banditry.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Despite this. Costa Rica.org/RestoredRepublic. Dominican Rep. Juarez immediately set about making economic. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz . political and educational reforms. Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . There was still antagonisms from the conservatives.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . purchase and print your auto policy online. www. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.mortgageallianceprogram. sanbornsinsurance. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 .com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. http://mexicanhistory. and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention .S.org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.

especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep . Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory. a rural police force was established. The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country .Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative.Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment .org/RestoredRepublic. in contrast with the US which had over 30. the rurales.To secure the roads.000 miles . In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway. Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy .Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors .

When the ballots were counted. who had the support of the military and conservatives . who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October . and Porfirio Diaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected .The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time . beginning the Mexican muralist movement .org/RestoredRepublic.the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes. A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts .600 miles off telegraph line was put up .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867. but he through this effort 1. none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. 1871. Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. http://mexicanhistory. Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army .Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 . where he defeated Diaz easily . Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871. Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico .

Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. 1876.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . following the pattern of Juarez. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud. by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 . 1876. Lerdo was reelected on July 24.org/RestoredRepublic. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16.

com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www. Like Juarez before him. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory.ancestry. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U.ObesityControlCenter. of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales . still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org/Diaz.MegWhitman.Farming methods had changed little from colonial days .who was a Mestizo.com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) . The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . www. Mexico was still troubled by banditos . Free trial. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records.seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury. Mexico entered the industrial age .Despite the efforts of the liberals mining. Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it .S.' During his 33 year rule. the main engine of the economy.

the Mexican treasury was running in the black .The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . http://mexicanhistory.Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez.84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country. At the end of his first term. and then to remove all restrictions on re-election.These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth . secretary of the treasury. Díaz had the constitution amended. the railway from Mexico City to El Paso. but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . who won the election with a large majority in 1880 .Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government. In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge .Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . but the strain was too much for the treasury . Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction.Jose Limantour. made economic changes such as changing tariffs. first to allow two terms in office. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims . switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption .org/Diaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .By 1890. Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term .During his administration. For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing . so he cut the salaries of government officials . President Gonzalez 1880 .

Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive . By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico. from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15.000 Pesos in 1908.org/Diaz. Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size .silver production increased from 24. The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost .000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness . France and Germany . and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877.He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion.The press was tightly censored.000.000 Pesos in 1877 to 85. in contrast to 50 in the US at the time . but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule.16 percent of the population was homeless .Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . such as silver and cooper mines . Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. became much more productive . who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. The army was moderized and observers were sent to America.Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. manipulated by the powerful . which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . but they were shams for the most part. Elections were held.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves . Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions . Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest . Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune . It seemed a http://mexicanhistory.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power . They promoted science.000. Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving .Diaz was advised by cientificos. In 1910 life expectancy was 30. From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination.

the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief . some advocating violent overthrow.Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. who often worked in appaling conditions . they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes .org/Diaz. Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . he had overstayed his welcome . This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907. They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers . Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell .By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed.Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua . The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight .In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %.The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work . Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato. Now.Like many powerful leaders before.The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz .

Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico . Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year.When the official results were announced by the government. however. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. They organized a revolutionary party.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections. although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy. an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz.S. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses . decided to run for president again . After this. Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections . They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. http://mexicanhistory.Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio.Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. Despite what he had told Creelman. Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. He thoght political. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero .The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León.such as the Flores Magon brothers . This caused aroused widespread anger. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . In a 1908 interview with the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .org/Diaz. Despite Reyes silence. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. journalist James Creelman. In St.

the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command . Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government . Afterwards. but the revolution had just started . brings the US into the conflict .the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years.In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . On May 10.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. At the last minute. Díaz died in exile in Paris. In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion. Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels .On Jan 2. In 1915. Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero .BookIt. others towns such as Tehuacan.Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great . yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him . The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso.Diaz had been overthrown.org/Diaz. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. the outnumbered federal commander surrendered . Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . In Chihuahua.Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.

net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended . anger was simmering over the injustice of decades.Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana. However. below in Mexico.ancestry. And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch. a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women .org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Now on DVD www. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico.org/revolution. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional.com panchovillastories.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months. President Diaz. But underneath. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution . Pancho Villa.To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.

Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.org/revolution. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9. started by Diaz himself. The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. Trains were often used as weapons themselves. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . Most large companies were foreign owned.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years." Diaz. The election of 1910 provided a spark. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. . this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. but solely upon the army .

1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. http://mexicanhistory. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time.Famous for their cavalry charges. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. Emiliano Zapata (August 8. but was never caught. 1878 – July 20. but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. when 1910 came. commonly known as Zapatistas. As a result. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush .on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile . A ladron steals from his neighbors. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos . Previously.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . 1879–April 10. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed.org/revolution.often led by Villa himself. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South). He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. He neither drank or smoked. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). and then return home to spend most of the year farming. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. Madero campaign. from federal forces.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. However. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. banditos. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . Madero was an unusual person for the times.

Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. Porfiro Diaz. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City.S.org/revolution.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. from federal forces. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. Now let's see if he can control it. 1911 – February 18. remarkably. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. The Madero Presidency November 6.In April the forces of Madero. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. After being wounded in Ojinaga. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and. Madero promoted him to colonel. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. would serve as interim president. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. the ambassador to the U.He was killed on Aug 30. His nephew. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. on 31 October of that year. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Francisco de la Barra. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. and in early 1911 to brigadier general.

Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . However. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. however. became the interim president . It is not without significance. During this time. both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory. 1911 Modero won the national election . Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry .The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . Zapata Some. but the government had no money with with to pay them. Leon de la Barra. but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. which undermined the reforms he advocated .He gave out government contracts to family businesses. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876. Educational reformers were also disappointed . to important posts.which had been gagged since Diaz. the secretary of foreign relations. Madero allowed freedom of the press. Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself. this infuriated Zapata. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. to many this looked like old style corrupt government .such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement.org/revolution. some of them conservative. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. On October 1. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast.Madero appointed family members.

Prisoners were commonly executed by all side. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets. and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution.org/revolution. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces . Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. http://mexicanhistory.Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Reportedly. In his Plan Orozquista.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions .The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes .. but this showed how weak the new government was . In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size .S. who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. from which Villa later escaped. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . Jose Salas.On August 8 Madero orders Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .000 army. supported by Villa. Huerta in charge of the army .and on March 3 went into open revolt. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. who had reached an agreement with Madero. Gen. committed suicide .Orozco. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion.

feeling compassion for Diaz. Reyes.org/revolution. did not order his execution. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. led mostly by supporters of Diaz . and together they plotted a coup .Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender .Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz. 1912 led by Felix Diaz.The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. on Oct 12. Modero. the nephew of Porfirio.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . an action which would cost him his life .

Reyes . near Mexico City.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Huerta is supported by conservatives.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison .org/revolution. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . were slaughtered in the streets. Using these tactics he created a 200. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops .For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . many of them women and children. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day . On Feb 17.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ). but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north.which had been free under Madero.It is still not known if Diaz. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders .On Feb 21.In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation.bull fights and walking on the streets. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed . just the ouster of Huerta. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. the Plan de Guadalupe. Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua.000 none too loyal army Soldaderas . powerfully fortified. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed.And so Mexico had three presidents in one day .However. The American ambassador. Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . Mustering some five thousand men. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels .They of course declared a plan. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. which had no social reform goals. not all did . 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. 1913. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .The press. The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free. and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition.

which would force the owners to sell some of their lands .In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters .The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them .The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began . and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent .org/revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .000. then only numbering about 50. huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico.They were celebrated in folk songs. This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred . 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May.Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250.As his military position began to crumble. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez . Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself .Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta . while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . decided Huerta would have to go . Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed. The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot. much of which was done under forced conscription. The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president . Initially. Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson. Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south .Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states . The Americans. In 1914. under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. http://mexicanhistory. The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army .000. Political assassination was also used . It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction. in order to pacify the country. Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico.The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention .The convention exposed the differences between the fighters.The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. often fought with their husbands as well . against the wishes of Carranza.In early 1914. such as La Adelita . The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21. American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. 1914 .This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US .By March and April. Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas. The convention chose. the major ports and most large cities . Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados.

Villa lost an estimated 4. By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . who had fled to Nuevo Leon.org/revolution.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .000 killed. by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges .this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . the battle of Celaya .000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire. roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed .The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair. seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914. http://mexicanhistory.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists. None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other . Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry. Carranza. War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon. who had never been defeated in a major battle . This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. Villa attacked with an estimated 25. In early April. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 .

who held a majority and voted in major reform articles . Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance. which he won in March.There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . killing 18 Americans .The clamor for intervention was immediate .On Jan 9. New Mexico. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms .Education was to be secular. Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election. with stronger executive control. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. 1917 . who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians .On March 16. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico. 1916.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. who were pro-Villa. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. 1916.org/revolution. The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property .The power of the church was limited.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857. The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present. Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed .The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes.

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

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Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

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com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent.The government withdrew its support for unions.supported by Callas. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio.Obregon and Callas 1920 . In the election of 1928.Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR. but Rubio won under allegations of fraud .KausforSenate. in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government . Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] .com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings . Communists and Chinese. Stop lockstep liberalism! www.. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts. The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s. There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury . a fascist group attacked Jews . Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Callas became more conservative as time wore on.34 (PRI).org/1920s.

The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home .40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule . such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton . the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .As he had in Michoacan. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education . Habla Español www. As before.The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.He did not use bodyguards. Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns . Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US .com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union . Paracho & SofiaMari. which endeared him to the people . a Governor of Michoacan. Some cooperative projects were started. http://mexicanhistory. Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.PlayMusic123. www. With Callas' support.000. the CTM.Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution. Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . By his first term he had redistributed 49.org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli.org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas .000 acres. and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History. Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad). Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed .org/cardenas. think he would be able to control him as a puppet .com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas.By 1935.RoyaltyClearinghouse.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .adultjewishlearning.Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos . Lowest Price.

Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. the new American president. The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico . he threw his support behind Avila Comacho. Oil income was a major source of income for the government. Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. it hurt the economy. who won the 1940 election . This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution .The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". In the election of 1939. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts . However. Home Obergon. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor.Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . the Peso weakened and the economy worsened .As the depression went on.Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco . deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .000 in 1930 .The US.000. In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million . He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America. which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory.40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15.While this move was popular. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 .The matter was sent to an arbitration board.org/cardenas. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936. and as production declined the national debt rose . Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived.

every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write . The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming . More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership. and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners.46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica. afraid of more socialization.That day after Pearl Harbor.Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions. on May 14 and May 24. Under the slogan' Each one teach one'. on a variety of fronts.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered . The conservatives. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly . a well known revolutionary .Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions .com/LA http://mexicanhistory.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .15.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course .There was not much support for joining the War. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war .000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war.Groupon. threw his support behind secretary of war. Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] . Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . however.org/camacho.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Cardenas. Less land was redistributed. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .000 Mexican workers in America . promoted Juan Andreu . By the time the war ended there were over 300. However. Avila Comacho. World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians.

org/camacho.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .

the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory. www.ObesityControlCenter.org 1947 .nmhu.com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs.2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 .Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Mexican History 1947 .Women were allowed to vote in 1952 .The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 . this is the story of Pablo Acosta. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Great price.52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway.S.Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .com Miguel Aleman 1947 . 1940s. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .org/aleman. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico.edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .

000 a people poured into the cities .America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents .58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .In 1960.Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated. implemented new social welfare and rural education programs . nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock. Money for books had been 'diverted. Because of corroption. he did not undertake and new large projects .000 people .F. all was not well . much to the chagrin of the US .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory.000. He continued land redistribution.Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J. the urban population surpassed the rural population . there were no books on the bookshelves. Communists were not tolerated and arrested . but being a Catholic country. Ruiz Cortines 1952 . There was large scale corruption. Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground .Strong economic growth continued. strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools . one of the most modern in the world atthe time .While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.In response.Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects. cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.Mexican History 1947 .2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area .However. Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities . Adolfo Mateos 1958.Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City . some of the largest housing 100. the issue of birth control was skirted around .org/aleman.Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over. The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment .K.' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952.and fewer than half of school age children went to school .

and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail .Mexican History 1947 .In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics .For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets.The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns. there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in . After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband. which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot .In July 26. Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 . http://mexicanhistory. barricading streets and burning buses . several hundred people were killed . Huge demonstrations were held on many universities .In the following days there were more riots. the following clash led to some deaths. and the tourist trade greatly increased . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes. On August 27. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 .But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s .Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI.70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%. Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings . the army used tear gas and clubs .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . sometimes with federal troops being called in .org/aleman.On October 2.2008 until his death in 1970 . 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. However it started. 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution.

He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control .Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico. 1976. underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings .Many started to go to America illegally. During his period. The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%." "excessive overseas borrowing. the bane of other Latin American countries. 1976. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods . The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 . to make exports more competitive.2008 Despite this. he tried to order price controls on basic items . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%.76 Echeverría.Mexican History 1947 . Wages were low and workers conditions were bad .000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras. former secretary of the interior. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years.Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan.In September. the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor).Since 1973. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco. By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged .. Luis Echeverría 1970 . maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly. about 70. and responsibility for devaluations of the peso.¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him. In September.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession . Robberies and kidnappings . the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976. http://mexicanhistory. to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad. started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down . Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. By 1974. became president in 1970 . This caused the ruling party.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption. One of the largest. at least in terms of its economic policies.The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns.org/aleman.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Caught in the inflation of the early 70s.

2008 In 1974.Despite the oil boom. suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation .Mexican History 1947 .Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments. Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s. by the end of the Lopez administration. fraud and strong arm election tactics . He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 . During de la Madrid's presidency.86 During his tenure. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread. The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars .Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF . increased 100% in price .Over 100. with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo.Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up. the economy only made weak progress. http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982. 1985 .Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years . On Sept 19.The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated .org/aleman. a process that continued under his successors. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment.Public spending was cut by one third . huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco.Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year.The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar . a 8.000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage .In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports . foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10. Miguel de la Madrid 1982 .000 were left homeless .Mexico could not meet its debt repayments.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars .1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7. and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs. Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development . for example. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out .

and established a new relationship between State and Church. Indian abuse and its own government .2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake. Salinas' chosen sucessor.Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party. Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War. the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Some progress was made with political corruption as well. masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising . EZLN. http://mexicanhistory.It was led by The president responded with military repression. was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement .1994 In the election of 1988.org/aleman.Mexican History 1947 . In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. but reports of the national and international media .He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting.But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. started in Chiapas against corruption. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos . and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections . Also in 1994. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs.The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings. Carlos Salinas . Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes .

In spite of opposition within his party. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico .2 percent in 2002. In 1997 he moved to Ireland. putting the country in an economic tailspin .GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2. and led to an economic recesssion . The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo. Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change. Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia .Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. however economy grew at a slow pace . behind Cortes and Diaz .In 2000.2% during Fox's administration. the Peso suddenly collapsed .2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office .Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 . Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history. maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.Mexican History 1947 .Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. known as the December Mistake. China. approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8.2000 Within days of taking office. Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . Vicente Fox 2000 . and countries in Central America.org/aleman.2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president . http://mexicanhistory.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system. Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico. the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Ernesto Zedillo 1994 .Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses.He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor.Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved . Vicente Fox .He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico.

resulting in a narrow margin of 0. but a choice between "the past and the future.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . liberalization.present On July 6. and authoritarianism. 2006. state control of the economy. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization.Mexican History 1947 . López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . 2006. expropriation." In his interpretation. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador.org/aleman. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right.58% for Calderón over his closest contender. market control of the economy. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. However.On September 5.

2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.org/aleman.Mexican History 1947 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .

350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U. profiles.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.ancestry.org/timeline.500 Knossos founded 2.com Mexico! AmoLatina.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs.500 Indus civilization 2.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.500 BC 5. Find Your Sweetheart in www.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.000 BC 11. Baja 7.000 Large animals vanish. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .000 - 2.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.000 Archaic era 1. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1.500 BC 5.000 BC 7.000 5.S.

Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf. El Tajin.org/timeline. sanbornsinsurance. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. purchase and print your auto policy online.elwired.com salsa.ObesityControlCenter.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521.S. AmoLatina. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.

Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence.Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown.org/timeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay.

1846. September 27. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba.org/timeline. Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. president can only serve one term. modeled after the one of 1824. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled. reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. 1821 . Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . 1846. Nuevo León. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain.

Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa.Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. England and Spain depart. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. French troops stay. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City . first to allow two terms in office. angry at not getting US recognition .org/timeline. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . blockade demanding repayments of debt. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. church power limited. Maximilian executed. England and France land troops. Diaz revolts again. has the constitution amended. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. hundreds killed by naval fire. who had Madero jailed .Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain.

economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed .2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www. known as the December Mistake. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 . which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats. later known as PRI.Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .org/timeline. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR.BookIt. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. major dams built.

The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded. The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico.S. replaces it with a new centralist constitution.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty. Discover Family Heroes.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico. trained specialist treats you in Collection.000 Mexicans . Mexico for fractions of the cost www.com www. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas. By 1835 there were 30.ancestry. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.000 Americans and only around 8. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence .Mexico orders halt to American immigration.ObesityControlCenter.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Many states. Mexico http://mexicanhistory. including Texas revolt. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle.

such as former President Martin Van Buren. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. 1845 U. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico.Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 1841 from a cold.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .S. who is overthrown. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state. President John Tyler. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. Polk http://mexicanhistory. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. The mutineers select Gen.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it.

500 troops. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule. Mexico.500 regulars have gathered.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup. however. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna.. Coahuila. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. gives interim President Herrera. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. Dec2 .Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. By late Oct 3. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River.S. had never ratified these treaties.S. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas. but had been parts of Tamaulipas. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. but regains power. on the transport Alabama. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Nov 29 Former U. and Mexico . Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president. Louisiana into Texas with 1.S.

Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen. Arista reaches Matamoros.200 men. Taylor refuses.000 men. Mejia has 3. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande.Jose Maria Castro. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. declared President of Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. March 8 Gen. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory.000 men under his command. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. April 25 a 1. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans. assembles a force of 6.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness. killing 16 U.S. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. April 2 Gen. Francisco Mejia.Col. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. but is not authorized to attack.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera.S. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2.

Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire. incident. Nuevo Leon.Arista with 3. Arista retreats toward Linares. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House.S. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. which later becomes Brownsville. Taylor attacks his center. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. Mexican losses 200 killed. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande. Arista resigns command to Gen. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U.Jose Maria Ortega.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. overrunning the Mexican artillery. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor.Mexican American War Timeline command. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara.300. Gen. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros.losing many men in the desert. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army. Americans have 9 killed. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. 6. 39 Americans killed.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line. Maj. border set at the 49th parallel. Aug 5 Gen. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities. http://mexicanhistory.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. May 13 U.S.300 confronts Taylor's 2.S. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire.

700 for garrison duty.000 Mexican regulars and 23. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen.000 volunteers. the last Mexican stronghold in California. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory. Winfield Scott. leaving 4. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.645 troops.200 regulars and 3. Aug18 Gen. gathering a 21. to be led by Gen. forcing them to surrender. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3.S.which is defended by a formidable citadel.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles. no Americans killed.called the Black Fort by the Americans.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace. Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U. Ampudia asks for terms. Jan 13 Lt. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting.000 militia.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Americans suffer 120 killed.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. Mexicans 700 casualties.Richey.500 man army in four months. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge.

1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Taylor decides to fall back with his 4. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. Mexicans lose 300 killed. March 9 American landing at Veracruz. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !'). Jan 30 – Yerba Buena.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Mexicans lose 1.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda.500 desertions. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor. California is renamed San Francisco. most in a 800 man cavalry charge. 3.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks.General Santa Anna. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa.Americans lose 63 killed. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12. Siege of Veracruz begins. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry.Special Cavalry Division.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans.800. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. Santa Anna's 18.000 Mexican prisoners taken. Taylor retires toward Monterrey. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila.000 man Mexican army..Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. Robert E. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg. Only 14. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2. March 21 10. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois.600 soldiers land by nightfall. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City. an easier to defend narrow pass.8.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City.

Scott sends 3. 30 out of 69 are executed. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey. http://mexicanhistory.820 .000 of his defeated troops.(Boy Heros). June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans. Joseph E. the last major defense before Mexico City.500 under Worth to take it. Americans lose 116 killed.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City. defended by 260 defenders under Gen. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. Santa Ana flees Mexico City.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo.500 of which are sick. Americans have lost 139 killed. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. Scott now has 14. 2. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.000 captured. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4.and is left with 5. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there.000 troops.500 troops. which falls after a fierce battle.000 troops and 30 cannons. 50 of which are cadets. Six cadets fight to the death.000 dead and 3. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. Mexican loses are 4.Bravo.hoping he will ask for terms. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired.

Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80.Nevada.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport.S. in Coloma. Since 1960. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena. Anaya become interim president. Book now! www.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. America takes California.Utah. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City.000) were to be treated as U. Free Investor Kit.com http://mexicanhistory. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws. citizens.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .5 million in claims by U. citizens against Mexico. 1876 July 31 last of 18.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3. A couple of days of severe rioting follows.sailor Owen Edgar.Arizona and New Mexico.Colorado. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.HolidayInn. Goldline.CaliBaja. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.S.

many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war. Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term.org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 .Shopping.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once.Info.com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. www.Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. this huge class of people was not educated. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www. http://mexicanhistory. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.Metin2.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .pestilence and death.

paid little or no taxes and paid low wages.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. He didn't drink or smoke. better known as Pancho Villa.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Oct 11 Madero. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. Madero joined by other local leaders. Madero was unusual for his period. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Francisco Madero. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed.often led by Villa himself. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua.

June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. Diaz offers to resign.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero.500 under Madero. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. let’s see if he can ride it. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. April 3. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Madero refuses. Madero enters city. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders..

burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .once an ally of Villa. Nov 9 In Texas. He plans to march on Mexico City.000 in the north. Madero turns to Gen. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata. Slow to take action on land reform . Pascual Orozoco.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. supported by powerful hacienda landowners. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. raises a well equipped army of 6. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.

Mexican Revolution Timeline order.5.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. Huerta defeats Orozoco.400 men. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens. April 26 Col. Brig. Gen Felix Diaz. 300 killed around presidential palace. Revolt fails and Leon is executed. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City. forcing him to flee to the US.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. Diaz freed.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2.

the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. Vice Pres. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. Using these tactics he created a 200.The press. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement . 100 Madero supporters are executed.000 none to loyal army. Huerta seizes Madero.bull fights and walking on the streets. Feb 24 The Gov. Huerta would become temporary president. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857. Huerta is supported by conservatives.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.which had been free under Madero. Lane recalled. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Gen.. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . Jose Suarez and cabinet. of Coahuila.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. Soon others launch rebellion. 500 civilians killed. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . http://mexicanhistory.New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. In reality Huerta ordered the murders.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president. In the next election. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's.who murder him. limiting church power. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters.

March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. The northern armies of Villa. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. 12.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga.000 men. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. federals round up civilians. 1913. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. calling his forces the Constitutionalists. a politician and rancher from Coahuila. On March 26.killing 100 federal troops. Federal train blown up. City taken.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians .. was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. Several hundred executed. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. with the secret support of the United States. all federal officers executed. all federal officers executed.

000 marines land. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12. 400 more Americans are sent ashore.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10.300 sailors and 2. There was a considerable concentration of U. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute.S. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property. American Rear Adm. Villa became a folk hero in the U. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila .126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed. 4 Americans killed. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine.Snipers open fire on Americans. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . through such writers as John Reed. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz.Eventually 3.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. Huerta goes into exile in Europe. Sniper fire continues.S. The Mexican commander refuses. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory.. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released. leading to his resignation on July 15. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico.

Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza.000 and many supplies.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. who lose 2. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City. Their combined armies of 50. who departs for Veracruz. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president. abandoned by Villa and Zapata. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president.000 march through city.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City.

known as the general who never won a battle .500 infantry.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.500 horsemen and 6.000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20.Villa has 8. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI.000 taken prisoner. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire.barbed wire and machine guns. angering him. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over.5. 6.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 man army.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches . US cuts off arms supplies to Villa. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US.is unable to defeat Zapata .Villa loses 4.000 cavalry against Obregon's 9.000 causalities and retreats north. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.Hill succeeds him.000 cavalry.400 cavalry and 14. http://mexicanhistory.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president. Despite using terror tactics.

100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train. New Mexico with 500 riders. Retreats with only 1.000 followers.equal pay for men and women. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos. 400 desert Villa.000 men to pursue Villa. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3. Approved on Feb 17.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen. 1917 It allows freedom of religion.400. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro.000 man army occupies every major town in the state.child labor prohibited. has 9.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City.000 in late April.30. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6.south or east will be contested. workers allowed to form labor unions. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Takes much booty and gives speech. with air support.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM. Villa losses many of his remaining 5. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo.

1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. http://mexicanhistory. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Obregon harassed. March many Obregon supporters arrested. had declared war on Germany. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. flees Mexico City.000 followers. including Villa rally to his side. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty.S. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . Huerta gives a 25. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia.. the ambassador to Mexico.Following Zapata's death. Gov. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon.killing 200.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train. Supporters. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez..Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny.believing he would become his puppet. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta. but murders him while he is sleeping. by which time the U. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta.

Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory. Huerta flees Mexico. An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . but large scale fighting is over.

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