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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
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Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

Maps of Mexico

Mexican coins

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Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

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Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

Big Hat Curio... Art Print

http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

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Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
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The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern .Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East .In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas. always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on . The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs . The presidios (military towns). California. Arizona. New Mexico. In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 .Colonial Mexico 1519 . wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly. sometimes there would be advanced warning .org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. along with such regions as Colina.Provincial towns were organized by royal decree.Large cities such as Oaxaca.A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 .1821 MexicanHistory. In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. almost all of the Aztec empire. Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces . Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies . There were 62 viceroys in New Spain. The Indians. The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . church . eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office . Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito. all were to have a main plaza. Utah and Colorado .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony .Eventually. Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed .org/colonial.

The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. it's continuation.1821 MexicanHistory. The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing . and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians . the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century.They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold.the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy. leaving the area undermanned . Augustin's City of God . vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41). Charles V took this charge seriously. http://mexicanhistory. King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor.org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Dominicans and the Augustinians . led by Tenamaxtli .Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes . who were still viewed as a menace. monastic life and humble character . with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org/colonial. which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ .Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area . that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems. The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico. Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans. A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . The Indians. Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . the most serious revolt of the times .Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war .His successor. Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time .

1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Nine million were baptized by 1537. with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .org/colonial.Colonial Mexico 1519 . The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts . often being the first Europeans to explore an area . She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe. which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. The Catholic reverence for saints. They built fortess missions across New Spain .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . This was the open chapel or capilla abierta.org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country. By 1540.000 Indians a day . http://mexicanhistory. 50 such churches had been built .

such as. These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization .Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language .Colonial Mexico 1519 . 1601. In the process. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles . which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery . Charles V was dead. Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned .org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages.1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls .org/colonial.The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . and the new Spanish king. Phillip II ( r 1556 .Indians http://mexicanhistory. The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life. Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers .1821 MexicanHistory. Mexico. Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain . The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws.In the mid 16 century. They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . the Florentine Codex. Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds .Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun.

Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes .In New Spain. Auto de fes drew large crowds .org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike. after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting .Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain . The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) .1821 MexicanHistory. this decree led to riots and other disturbances.The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters .There were also quarrels with civil authorities . with the prisoners often strangled first . principally in San Luis Potos . however . especially those of the Enlightenment writers.The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla. sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.Crimes like adultery. This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico. the first in the colony was in 1574 .org/colonial. wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 . Juan de Palafox. The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 . Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n. Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory. These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment.Colonial Mexico 1519 . These works did find there way into the private libraries. criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .The crime of heresy. The Bourbon kings.

Colonial Mexico 1519 . be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ). most of these returned to Spain . The Social Classes a Mestizo baby.Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . She wrote poetry. Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. Indians and African slaves . persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent.1695 ). . persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent.Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 . The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 .org/colonial. Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo.org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). http://mexicanhistory. persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 . some of it in the Nahuatl language.1700 ) .1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop .One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . Creoles could not hold royal office . who taught many local artist . Mestizo.1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period . Castizo. Cholos.

000 in the 16th century to 6. ceramics.org Mulatos.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . which was due on almost everything sold. licenses.1821 MexicanHistory. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20. Commerce was controlled by royal decree.org/colonial.Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries.There were royal taxes of all kinds on land.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain. Money makers such as tobacco. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory. etc.000 by 1800. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . from piracy . persons who were mixed indio and negro. etc . After about 1560. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians. tailors. The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem .Colonial Mexico 1519 .. which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos.With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus . introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . which were the wards of the church and the Crown . silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . industry could not grow and advance. ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . Zambos.The China trade was established in 1564 silks. which fixed the price of goods and their quality . The most hated was the alcabala.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. Euromestizos. They were sometimes made into slaves. Over the years.

Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . Such http://mexicanhistory. where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. The restrictions. The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org colonies and Spain itself . bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however.1821 MexicanHistory. silver bar from shipwreck. Some of the haciendas were vast. one family ranch covered over 11 million acres . These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century .In the early colonial period. was of prime importance to Spain . combined with bad roads.org/colonial.Colonial Mexico 1519 . By the 18th century. Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas. Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . diversified economy from growing . Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops.

The building material in New Spain was more colorful. except for mine labor . thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. However.The debts were passed down from father to son .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil .org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . So. rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . usually a week at a time . http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage. in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks.There were many abuses to this system.It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. 1549. but was modified by the new land. the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.org/colonial. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. which was abolished in the early 17th century.1821 MexicanHistory. but few wished to. repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians .

considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style .org/colonial. built in the late 18th century. The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 .1821 MexicanHistory. mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines .In the mid 16th century. the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen . The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu . The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575). http://mexicanhistory.org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic.

Colonial Mexico 1519 . a spanish architect ). It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times. especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera.the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades.1821 MexicanHistory.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged. alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.

Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years .org As a reaction to the excess.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa .In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. hospitals and universities .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830. http://mexicanhistory. built in 1585 . An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City .org/colonial.built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock. plazasa. a more severe. Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals.1821 MexicanHistory. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City . the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana. University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org/colonial. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons .Many people consider Puebla.Colonial Mexico 1519 . particularly their designs. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .1821 MexicanHistory. Chinese ceramic was soon imitated.org Castillo de Chapultepec. http://mexicanhistory. Basilica Guadalupe. Spain in the 16th century . built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war . Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 .

The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . Tequila .org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay . but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries . and more popularly called pulque.org/colonial. The crown had a monopoly on pulque. Duke of Anjou. Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . which they called octli (later. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 .1700 ). Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Philippe de Bourbon. which was a major source of revenue . the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. Wine was introduced early to New Spain . Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. He had named a greatnephew. the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. When Charles II died in 1700. feeble in mind and body.1821 MexicanHistory. Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon.

Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began.org Louis XIV ) as his successor. fought on four continents and three oceans.Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain .1821 MexicanHistory.The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining . The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown . improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . http://mexicanhistory.. Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies .org/colonial.The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually .Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. Under his rule Spain once again became a world power . as Philip V. After eleven years of bloody.Silver production rose from 2. the Duc d'Anjou.2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. In 1740. replacing 200 low paid.The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . becoming the second biggest export . Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 .Colonial Mexico 1519 . the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 . . Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty .88 ). Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general . He had two main concerns. unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents .Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining . global warfare. Cochineal production also increased.The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas .

such as the Canadian dollar. By 1810. worth eight reales. many creoles prospered during this period in business . it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857.The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . or Nueva Granada.Colonial Mexico 1519 .79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal . United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. the national motto for Spain . meaning double). There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana . Revillagigedo . The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n. or the eight real coin) is a silver coin.Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes.1821 MexicanHistory. The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . another able ruler( 1789 . The creole Count Regla. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population . Through widespread use in Europe.The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules.org/colonial. Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins. the real de a ocho. often refers to a seven-gram (0. http://mexicanhistory. Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos .org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period .94 ) created the first public transportation system . Many existing currencies. but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . meaning a double-sided token coin. Peru. was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines . The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight. The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 .Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown . New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . For example. the Americas and the Far East.225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . Mexico.Another viceroy. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world .King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'.

org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org/colonial.1821 MexicanHistory.

org/colonial. Costa Rica. Scoundrels.mortgageallianceprogram. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. Fairfax County has great attractions. Dominican Rep. Heroes.Colonial Mexico 1519 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . shopping & more! www.fxva.lindenhill. www.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory. Celts www.org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates.net Things to do near DC Close to DC.1821 MexicanHistory.

utexas.lib.jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .http://www.edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.

where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions.MilitaryHistory.The war for Independence 1810.1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland.Norwich. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. The lower classes.1821 MexicanHistory. their lot was so hard . but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far . http://mexicanhistory.org/Independence. but not equality for all. They did rebel.org The war for Independence 1810.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

many creoles thought they should rule themselves.. with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 . events in Europe caused it to be a necessity . destroying many Creoles financially . These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles. ruled by independent juntas. Latin America was. The church had to call in their mortgages.org/Independence.The war for Independence 1810. in these years. Unlike the wise Charles III. Art Print Buy for $19.1821 MexicanHistory.. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars . Bullfighting from.By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence .99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory. 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout".Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814.The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform .Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . The peninsulares thought otherwise . his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies. Without a true Spanish monarchy.org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America.

Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement . 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once . http://mexicanhistory. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia .org/Independence. reading proscribed books.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them. who became an independence symbol. In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe.1821 MexicanHistory.org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende. There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City .However.Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16.Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8.The war for Independence 1810. they marched for San Miguel. With Hidalgo at their head. none of these charges could be proved and he was released . They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . gathering more recruits along the way. doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant .However. However. Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic .He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ). 1810. a captain of the cavalry . Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato.

He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City . turning into a rout .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2. Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces .The war for Independence 1810.000 marching on Mexico City . Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning .An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then . 1811.By late October the army had about 80. San Luis Potosi and Valladolid . They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31. In the middle of the battle. However.1821 MexicanHistory.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup .The rebels took Guadalajara . Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces . a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas.000 rebels were killed . Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon.org/Independence. The army retreated into Mexico City .Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward.

For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination .org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this . one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2.1821 MexicanHistory. retaking many towns .By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital .He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms.org/Independence.000 around Oaxaca .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . who had been recruited by Hildago . The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon. Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out . those opposed to it were guilty of treason . Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control . the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed . http://mexicanhistory.With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point .In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.They issued a Declaration of Independence.Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare . the Spanish viceroy. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement. Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax .After awhile only two major bands remained.By 1819.Gradually.The war for Independence 1810.Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state . viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile.000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1.

Spain. yielded to their demands .org/Independence.The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country. Ironically.The king. troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. the Creoles found this change too liberal. Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala.org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . free speech and curbed the power of the church . the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan . Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2. The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . At C diz.The war for Independence 1810. This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos. A new army would be created. led by King Ferdinand or another European prince . . bad food.Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade . the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. in January 1820. The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government . If this was not done there would be a military coup .500 men to fight Guerrero . a virtual prioner of the army at this point.1821 MexicanHistory. Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights.

a Mexican congress would chose an emperor.org/Independence. 1821 . Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit . unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares . On September 27.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. Juan de O'Donoju. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army. Mexico was independent at last .org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain.1821 MexicanHistory.The war for Independence 1810. Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. this was to become an important point .O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico. if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico. One more proviso was added by Iturbide . Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy. the last viceroy of New Spain . and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico. this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. viceroy Apodaca resigned .

com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. However. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices.The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Ferdinand VII. trained specialist treats you in immigration records online. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power. which in turned named him as its presiding officer . 1821. After the declaration of independence on September 27.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide .com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. 1821 . it did not accept the offer . www. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico.ancestry.S.BookIt. a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war.com www. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain. would also be Emperor of Mexico. General Agustín de Iturbide.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.ObesityControlCenter.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .org/firstempire.March 19.

hoping to promote free republican governments . 1822 .org/firstempire. outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee . President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico.In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . then accepted . When Iturbide was declared emperor. Honduras. from California in the north to Panama . Nicaragua. El Salvador. There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once .org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. as Agustin I . 1821 . Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . Iturbide feigned reluctance. which included Costa Rica. the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. http://mexicanhistory. the regiment of Celaya. Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long .Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor . stage a demonstration on his behalf . They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico . but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . Iturbide had his own troops. The heir apparent was Senor Don August. and the Mexican state of Chiapas . On July 21.The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . Court etiquette was issued. Guatemala.The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers.

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

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Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

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The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

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The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

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The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader . President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. but no an inspiring or talented administrator .000 men were kept under arms. Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president .Mexican border .Over 50. Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US .The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner. In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well.com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. A local military strongman emerges during these times. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador . the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army . taxes and monopolies . another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza . gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . brave in battle. he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain .org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . the caudillo .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war . who controlled the army. These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero. The government sought to support itself through import duties.After some fighting .org/earlyrepublic.1843 ) was a former rebel leader. http://mexicanhistory.Groupon. led by vice president Bravo .The York Rite masons .As Iturbide did.Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators . who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited .29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name.

Some of the states. Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . Bustamante. The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country. As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. After an initial attack which failed. Santa Anna settled in for a siege . the Spanish general surrendered . such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight .32 - http://mexicanhistory.org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards. even after the repulse of the Spanish.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. The treasury by this time was also bankrupt.From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero. These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. Reserves in Jalapa. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution . Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. choose this time to invade its most important former colony . Slaves were few in number by this time. Bustamante agreed. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . the most important of which was calling up of the reserves. He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . which had been abandoned . Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion .org/earlyrepublic. which had never recognized Mexico's independence. The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain. This plan backfired . mainly middle class merchants.They landed near Tampico. However. President Bustamante 1830 . called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them. who fled the country . Santa Anna became extremely popular . abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes .This marked a return to power of the conservatives. Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy .Guerrero set off with a force to attack them.The Early Republic MexicanHistory. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . but his act increased his support among mulattos.

signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23). Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza. Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 .The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again . but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance . Bustamante was to go into exile.Bustamante.Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election .org/earlyrepublic. which he did in 1833. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press.org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero . Corruption was rampant .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory.The Early Republic MexicanHistory.

but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz .1834.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times .com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.1841 . Discover Family Heroes. and Texas as well as published sources. Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.com www.ancestry.org/santaanna.1843 .1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years.1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. trained specialist treats you in Collection.1839 . Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history . Britain. http://mexicanhistory. a liberal politician of intellectual distinction . 1835 . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org Santa Anna 1794 .ObesityControlCenter. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.S.1842 . Spain.

To curb the undue influence of the army. He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief. Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church . Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . began with two major reforms . Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one.He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483.000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. the Republic of Yucatan. such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna . Durango. San Luis Potosí. Jalisco.In order to secure power. Santa Anna became a millionaire . more pejoratively.org/santaanna. Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas. Tamaulipas and Zacatecas. The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos .org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. the Republic of the Rio Grande." or. The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90.Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . State militias were disbanded . he reduced its size and abolished military fueros . Nuevo León. Several of these states formed their own governments. "dictator" or "strongman".000 acres .They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office .Corruption was widespread. the constitution of 1836 was enacted . The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . led http://mexicanhistory.The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests .Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power . warlord. Querétaro.The presidential term was extended from four years to eight .The Zacatecan militia.The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. Michoacán.The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal . Yucatán. the treasury was still bankrupt . Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms . Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist . Guanajuato. that of the church and that of the army . The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 .' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico .The congress was disbanded . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) . and the Republic of Texas.

on 12 May 1835. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches. was well armed with . After defeating Zacatecas.org/santaanna. 1835 to April 21.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Nacogdoches.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker . the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3.61 rifles.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. The first Europeans in the area. San Antonio. Goliad. Comanches and other Indian tribes . or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2. and others.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain . After two hours of combat.There were small towns in the interior. which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours.org by Francisco Garcia.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived .000 prisoners.

000 settlers . While at work they kept guard against the Indians." Gone to Texas . and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . He reached home in safety.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts. The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands.25 an acre in the US . New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas. leaving his dying injunction to his son. Stephen. the judge and commandant . and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. and. to carry out his project.org/santaanna. and he returned home.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. there were only 7. who had served under Frederick the Great. Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and a local militia was organized.Spain wished to colonize the territory. and was then in the service of Mexico.000 Americans and only around 8. after great exposure and privation. T.000 Americans living in Texas. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. By 1827 there were 12. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river . Life in the new land was rough. The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas. The land titles were duly recorded. and fought over land titles and for political domination. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River. By 1835 there were 30. but his exposure and privations had weakened him. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas.In 1827. Mexico became independent and Moses' son. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler. Austin was the supreme authority. but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. a Prussian officer. T.000 Mexicans . who roved about stealing the stock. In 1820 he set out for Texas. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony. at times making a night attack upon a cabin.

One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila . Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities.org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. This emeute. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. to stations in the country.Mexico increased custom duties on exports. this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 . grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism. even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish . which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. there were approximately 5. but the societies were too different and tensions increased .org/santaanna. by sending a thousand soldiers.Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823. mostly criminals and convicts. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente.Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . By 1836.S. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters . The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened ." was easily suppressed. Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society. Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas . increasing the cost of trade with the US . They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. called " The Fredonian War. whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. In 1830. but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned .Most Americans remained Protestant. which were to be redistributed in Mexico. to take over the region. The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . an empresario. the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all . but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U. The check immigration into Texas from America. Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this . they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo .000 slaves in Texas.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . Growing cotton was lucrative at the time.

Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. Castañeda established a camp. Since they had no cannon balls. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and gunfire was exchanged.org/santaanna. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad..m. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. At 3 a. including Jim Bowie. As a reward. and was in Texas by August. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. under the defence of General Cos. On September 20. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Under the Liberal banner.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . On October 1. at 7 p. The next morning. the Texans captured Bexar. The siege of Bexar. 1835. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. The Texians refused. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. Several officers resigned. they reached the camp. negotiations were held. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. who went to Gonzales. Austin was released in July. civilians were massacred by the thousands. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. Zacatecas. Unable to cross. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. many of the volunteers simply left. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. Austin saw little choice but revolution. and Coahuila. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels.m. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party .org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan. and Austin sanctioned it. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . and negotiations fell through. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt. http://mexicanhistory. He then ordered his brother-in law. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. having never been formally charged with sedition. Two Texian militias answered the call. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. Throughout November 1835. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. which began on October 12. who was stationed in San Antonio.

1835. despite Austin's leadership. a force of about 6. chiefly husbands and fathers. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. Although the Matamoros Expedition. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. but his talents were not well suited for military life. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men.org/santaanna. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. The expedition failed. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.000. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. The remaining Texan army. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. and with no collective motivation. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. now led by General Sam Houston. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. but it marched forward. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies." No further reinforcement arrived. as it came to be known. owning their own homes. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. never more to leave them. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. These men. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. nothing came of it. Albert Martin. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. the political and military center of Texas. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ).1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. in a fortress doomed to destruction. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region.org 1835. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. bringing only disaster for months to come. hoping to sack the town. Soon. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. On November 6. on March 2. "At dawn on the first of March. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. Capt. poorly led.

border. The Mexican cavalry. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. Overnight. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. and even Great Britain and France.together with the fall of the Alamo. brought up cannon and reinforcements.S. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. Soon. rather than a cruel one. José Urrea At Goliad. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. and much animosity was aimed towards him. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. experienced and feared. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. March 20. Santa Anna's army. 1836.. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. gave unrelenting chase. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. widely known as the Goliad Massacre. always on the heels of Houston. making his way north following the coast of Texas. A scorched earth policy was implemented.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros. under Santa Anna's direct orders. 1836. so it was put to the torch.org/santaanna. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. the United States. the rains made the roads impassable.. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. March 27.

Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. To the dismay of the Texans. Without Houston's consent. Santa Anna. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. Santa Anna. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. as dictator of Mexico. both armies met at the San Jacinto River. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. An 18minute-long battle ensued. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. and tired of running away. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. Hours before the attack. but not without protests from Urrea. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. who had been wounded in the ankle. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. waited for reinforcements. which the Texans used as cover. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. and put an end to the war. not the Army of Operations. but Filisola disagreed. after burning Vince's Bridge. mostly cavalry. Also. and he was brought before Houston.org and race quickly towards Galveston.org/santaanna. only nine Texans died. catching the Mexican army by surprise. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. Texas. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. Numbering about 700.200 men. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. which were led by General Cos. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. Houston could do nothing but follow. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. marched back to Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. General Vicente Filisola. On that same day. the Texans surged forward. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. but nothing came of it. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. which had proven costly and prolonged. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1.

htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. president Andrew Jackson in 1837.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. called Manga de Clavo. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . into Texas. two actually formed republic besides Texas. After some time in exile in the United States. but briefly. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico.org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner. the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . and after meeting with U. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. and soon after. they were many revolts against the centralisation of power.S. Nuevo León. But unknown to Santa Anna. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll.org/santaanna. The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas . When Santa Anna returned to Mexico. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. The war continued as a standoff. D. He was re-elected President. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. thus. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. In 1838. occupying San Antonio.The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . a French soldier of fortune. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . when French forces landed in Veracruz. one private ) on May 14..C.

when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . Upon this event. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. D.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Spain.C. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress. After the end of the Mexican-American War. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. however. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. http://mexicanhistory. The proposal received serious attention in Washington. and the United States. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 . but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. La Ceiba . When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .By 1855. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. Yucatán declared its neutrality.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life. representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula.org In 1840. The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. Nuevo León. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority. 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6. ultimately. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded.The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) . Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. During this meeting.org/santaanna. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . the Republic of the Rio Grande failed.In November. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. Texas . a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande.

turned over to authorities. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa.org/santaanna.000 pesos.000 troops . but the dictator was exiled to Cuba.was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. President Again Soon after. a military expedition into Texas was renewed. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. With resentment ever growing against the president. the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande. Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory. Santa Anna tried to elude capture. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . This was too much for the Mexicans. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. Veracruz. His life was spared. and to seize the port of Veracruz. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). In 1846. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico. and the people were discontented. The war with France had weakened Mexico. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. or the French would demand satisfaction. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. but France upped the ante to 800.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . by an army commanded by the president himself.000 pesos in payment and when payment. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. and imprisoned. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero. Meanwhile.org The Pastry War In 1838.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . the United States declared war on Mexico. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government. Mexico agreed to pay.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. Fearing for his life. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed . but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. Mexico declared war on France. The French landed 3.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. In 1842. at war against Santa Anna. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. Thus began the Pastry War . Also.

penniless and heartbroken.ObesityControlCenter. the United States. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. to the United States. and he fled back to Cuba. This reign was no better than his earlier ones. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. naval blockades. He funneled government funds to his own pockets. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Colombia. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. Thomas.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.S. on June 21. Discover Family Heroes.org of the United States. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. and St. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty. and two years later.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. but he failed to profit from this. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna. moved to Turbaco. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion." which helped found the chewing gum industry.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory.S. trained specialist treats you in Collection.ancestry.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Thomas Adams. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase). That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. Colombia. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. which was tried without success. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives.org/santaanna. In 1851. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. He then lived in exile in Cuba. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. Jamaica. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. the base of chewing gum. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. 1876. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. In April 1853.

1 Form.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . APX Alarm.org/mexicanamericanwar1. and to uphold the Government constituted by them. if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government. or the course of events. shall have proved. Andrew Jackson . Van Buren. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas .Mexican American War 1846 . The American president after Texas won its independence.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. Compare & Save. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory. www.org Mexican American War 1846 .TopAlarmCompanies. & GE.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.S. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . beyond all dispute.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U." said he. President Tyler The following president.S. at least until the lapse of time. was not for immediate annexation . Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico .1848 MexicanHistory." So Far from God: The U. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. and maintain our present attitude. Brinks.The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue. 18461848This wellwritten. " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. War With Mexico.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory. comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. " Prudence. 4 Quotes. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.

and the December 29. California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 . 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war .It was discovered by President Tyler. As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress.who was pro-annexation. 1845 . the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.Prior to Polk's election. that what could not be effected by treaty. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . On the 3rd March.org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress. President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . the Mexican minister to the U. it joined the Union . he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera . a survey of the This History Channel special. Texas consented to be annexed. an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California.No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport . The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28.Mexican American War 1846 .1848 MexicanHistory.On the 4th July. Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle.org/mexicanamericanwar1. he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government . which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. as half of the Senators represented free States. and that. 1845 . There was a fear England would purchase California. The new president. President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast . The Border Question http://mexicanhistory. Texas joined the Union on December 29.S. a few hours before his term of office expired. Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing.

Wyoming.1848 MexicanHistory. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera. and Colorado. $5. Kansas. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory. Slidell.Throughout Spanish and Mexican history. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River . The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . Oklahoma. the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .org/mexicanamericanwar1.000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25.000. the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty . They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. In 1836.000 or more for California . The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar . supported by populist newspapers. the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto. as per the Treaties of Velasco .The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source." returned to the United States. which included parts of modern day New Mexico. However.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico .000.Mexican American War 1846 . Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil .

you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. Herrera.000 men." http://mexicanhistory.Mexican American War 1846 .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . but instead of marching north against the invaders.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2.000 in all He was told. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos .Louisiana. Mississippi. was able to assemble a force of 6. 1846. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. drive them from their positions on either side of the river. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama. On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments. and Kentucky. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country. Tennessee. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border . with much difficulty. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force.S. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas.In case of war. was plotting to invade. your main object will be the protection of Texas . in December 14. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose.about 4.org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U.org/mexicanamericanwar1.1848 MexicanHistory. and. but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico . disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas. if deemed practicable and expedient.

He expelled the U.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .S. in pursuance of orders. he found the buildings in flames. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande. wrote to the Secretary. regard you as openly committing hostilities. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. later known as Fort Brown . I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. Taylor. and http://mexicanhistory. 1845. a Mexican settlement. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that. whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. or committed any overt act of hostilities." On approaching Point Isabel. envoy from Mexico. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. Not an American. it would enter into no negotiation with him. commenced his march into the Mexican territory.org/mexicanamericanwar1. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him. particularly those of July 8th. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. and the site of a Mexican Custom House. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . except in reference to Texas. and Oct." As there was no invasion to repel. On the 12th January. 4th. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. from which it appeared probable that. without having met with the slightest opposition.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. the extreme point of Texas proper.1848 MexicanHistory. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. the inhabitants must. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. he prudently waited for further orders. declared his willingness to fight. and for which no reason had been assigned. 1846.Mexican American War 1846 ." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas.

General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. Accordingly. and retire beyond the Nueces . coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed ." and requiring him within twenty. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. "a war by the act of Mexico. Congress declared war on Mexico. Another letter." but the main body of about 2. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. about 25 miles from the U." Notwithstanding the blockade.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. Pofter and one man was killed whether any. camp . does not appear . it seems. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground. or to assume the offensive on this side of the river. 4th Infantry. . reports.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war . Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained. the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . It appears they separated. War is Declared General Taylor. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter. to make the intended war. and thus. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. " 16 Americans. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. 1846. and took possession of their horses. it will clearly result that arms. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED.Mexican American War 1846 .four hours to remove his camp. on April 24 .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. He immediately charged upon them . he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank. On May 13. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. and Porter.org/mexicanamericanwar1. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. he reports. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. says. the President announced to Congress and the world. published in the Philadelphia Inquirer . one of defence. adding." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons .S.1848 MexicanHistory. not to remain any longer idle. whereupon he determined. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. drove away the men. The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros. despite protests by the Mexican government . ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. Tamaulipas. and arms alone. and. and therefore unseen. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. In April 1846." In this affair. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. acting on the advice of a local guide ." Upon the Strength of this despatch. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. investigated an abandoned hacienda. must decide the question.

Try Visual Search! www.Mexican American War 1846 .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .1848 MexicanHistory.org/mexicanamericanwar1.com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by Party.ancestry.com ® Anna 1833 .org Ancestry.com American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory.Bing. licensed Customs Broker will answer www. Terms Served. & More.World's largest online family history 47 resource.com/VisualSearch National Customs Broker Call us today and an experienced.apexlogistics.+4 Billion Records Mayan www.

trained specialist treats you in Collection.S.which played a decisive role in several key The U. while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced .org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.S.com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy.com ObesityControlCenter. The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle .S.The US. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops. The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources . with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate . source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Discover Family Heroes.The rifle.Mexico had no small arm factories of its own .org/mexicanamericanwar2.The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory. was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it . Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' . in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . including So Far from God: the U. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets.ancestry.

by consultations between the President. General Stephen W. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico.The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study. but trained in horseback riding and combat . hosted by Oscar de la Hoya." would be the best means of producing peace. was stationed at Washington. and General Scott . He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. were almost utterly unknown in the United States. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements. seems to have been arranged jointly. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot.org/mexicanamericanwar2. like a fire breathing dragon. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo.500 hundred men . as commander of the army. At this time. General Scott. a carbine or short musket called the dragon.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Secretary at War. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive . looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. and the means to execute them.The President declared that in his opinion. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory.

which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. The army was halted. under the command of Major Brown. and continued at intervals till the 10th. 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. with his main force. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. In this defense. thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. both for skill and gallantry. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. and was only prevented from being carried out. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. It appears that General Arista. and several killed and wounded. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. under whose direction the fort was built. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. get in the rear of General Taylor's army.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. The departure of General Taylor with his army. by the accidental infor. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. Major Brown. . and then fall on the American army. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. was comparatively defenceless. which had been left in care of a small detachment. Leaving an unfinished field-work. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. and arrived on the next day. The plan was judicious. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. therefore. Arista saw that Point Isabel. The former was killed by a shell. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. capture Point Isabel.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. who was now in command of the Mexican army. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. To take this place would. In the mean while. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. Captain Hawkins.

" in sight of the enemy. might have easily been defended. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. under the command of Col. now broken by successive charges. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. M. Ridgely. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. The charge was gallantly made. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. The Dragoons. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. by the Americans. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. To remedy this. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. while the 3d. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. however. from which he did not depart till two p. 4th.. the next day.org/mexicanamericanwar2. under Lt. when they were deployed into line. In this firing. and by the 5th Infantry. In two hours. The artillerymen were dispersed. of the field. and by other troops of that division. M. Montero.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Ridgely. under Lt. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. A battery of artillery. and with greater energy of body.tery and by the infantry on the wings. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. They fled pre. at night" This might be true . and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. and in turn fell back on the main body. Their columns. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. the army advanced by heads of columns. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. The position was well chosen .dered Torrejon. to charge the American right.The Mexican American War at a pool. At two P.cipitately from the field. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. had advanced beyond support. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. but was met by the Flying Artillery. General Arista or. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. The Lan. and General La Vega taken prisoner. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. and the battle was soon ended. were on their left. but with as little success. mostly Lancers. dating his despatch. says. general of cavalry. On the left wing of our army. at Resaca de la Palma. but he was in retreat. Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged.cers were again driven back. Arista. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. The Mexican cavalry. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. and took a new position several miles off. moved up the main road. and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. A ravine here crossed the road. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. This he did.

leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. or citadel.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard. and in the rear.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . They fought gallantly. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. as http://mexicanhistory. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. he advanced to the village of Marin. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. the general. and around it. were destined for the march to Monterey. which was regularly fortified. Comargo. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. both the general government at home. Mier. behaved well. In the mean time. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August.org/mexicanamericanwar2. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front. The opposite side of the city. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. Being reinforced. all fortified. in rear of the town and beyond the river.in-chief left Comargo. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. and were occupied. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. and near it other heights. and Revilla surrendered. while the main body. to the left. the capital of New Leon . and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. The Mexicans lost many prisoners. On the heights. and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. and on the 5th of September. Comargo. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. numbering six thousand six hundred. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre.ted to them. In front. More than three months were consumed in these preparations.

commanded by Colonels Mitchell. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. it is ob. however. and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops. three miles from Monterey. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. The two last regiments. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. and Davis. and advanced against the second battery. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. who accompa. and fired upon the redoubt. and two or three thousand irregulars. with his division.nied the parly in its advance. however. They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. who had advanced with it. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. and commenced its assault on the town.drawn. and the troops remained upon their arms. May's Dragoons.other column. supported by the Light Artillery. were forts also erected. being wounded. pressed forward. advanced against the redoubt. with the bayonet and the artillery. General Worth. and Wood's Texan Cavalry. Garland's force. and Mississippi. to the support of General Worth. The front defense here was a redoubt.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. with its cannon and ammunition.vious. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. were with.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second.org/mexicanamericanwar2. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. with three companies of the 4th regiment. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . entered the town to the right. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. Up to this time. if practicable. Tennessee. into the rear of which. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. The army. During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. superior in numbers to the American army. were both ordered forward . Campbell. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an. was ordered to the left. in spite of its fire. were detached to the right. and they were compelled to retire. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort. This movement was executed during the evening. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. to attack the lower part of the town. A column of six hundred and fifty men. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . and after another severe contest retired in good order. General Butler. the column rapidly moved. with Bragg's Artillery.

the American army had but a short supply of provisions. from Cole and Platte counties. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. then in command of the Mexican army. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . two provinces. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. in arms. two companies of light. under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. to fire upon the American positions . and San Fernando de Prezas . M. and carried several fortified heights. but General Taylor made no important movement in front. defeated the enemy. At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. Louis . and the Mexicans confined. Marines. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. The houses were fortified. California and New Mexico. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. When Stockton's forces. from St. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. during this day. and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. Louis.org/mexicanamericanwar2. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. on the 13th of October. treads upon the territory of this republic. and take possession of. he dispatched 50 U. after some negotiation." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. Doniphan . stopped in San Pedro. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received. sailing south to San Diego. Besides al! this. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. 1846. under Colonel Alexander W. General Taylor. Missouri. from St. in their defence. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . charges. End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. " The Saclede Rangers. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. Worth and his Division. believed to be favorable to peace. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. but always unsuccessfully.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers).' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. The main part of the capitulation was. on the morning of the 23d." a volunteer troop. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. Kearney. That evening (at 9 p. while Gar. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country. A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . the city of Linares. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. This was the key to Monterey. but. and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles. was one to move against. gave a new face to affairs. The guns of the Citadel continued. To this the Mexican chief replied. The Surrender of Monterey. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .The Mexican American War town.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d.S. For this concession there were strong reasons. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. recommenced the advance.In Northern California. but here a new resistance was made.

were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. Jonathan D. General Stephen W. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! . On March 15. The rancho vaqueros. Iowa Territory.S. forces continued to arrive in California. Philip St. forces. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. on December 6. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City. January 9. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. 1847. led by José Mariá Flores.S. he reneged again and seized the presidency. Then. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States. they fought the Battle of La Mesa.S. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. Stockton. Meanwhile. Later. and the Californios. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. their re-supplied. Lt. 1846. 1847. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. led by U. The next day. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed.S. fought as Californio Lancers. January 1848. Navy Captain William Mervine. U. with 4. He promised the U. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. That marked the end of the war in California. however.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Other U. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. 1847. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. however. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. [25] and the next day. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. On January 13. On January 28. banded together to defend their land. left too small a force in Los Angeles. near San Pedro. 1847. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico. Taylor. had http://mexicanhistory. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. 1846. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California.S. Arizona and the Sonora desert.S. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines.000 men. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. combined force. Marines were killed. Col. Col. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government.000 . that if allowed to pass through the blockade. October 7 through October 9. With U. 1847. Kearny. marched north from San Diego on December 29. 14 U.600 men.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete.S. California. 1847. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. 1847. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. after being appointed commanding general.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . California. They were a force the Americans had not prepared for. On January 12. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8.

setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans.S.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. http://mexicanhistory. army.000 men in a tired state. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. he attacked the next morning.S. troops suffered 80 casualties. about half of whom were civilian. The U. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. Santa Anna flanked the U. during which some U. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north. weapons and horses near the walled city. During the siege. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8.S. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions. George Meade. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. The Mexican army was routed. 1847. Ulysses S. Grant. Lee. Furious fighting ensued. the U. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City .000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista.000 were taken prisoner. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. army suffered 400 casualties.400 men. Although by then aware of the positions of U. Instead of taking the main road.S.S. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. A group of 12.S.000 casualties and 3.600 mounted dragoons ahead. troops. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea. Polk distrusted Taylor. However. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. troops were routed. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C.S.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista.500 healthy troops. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U. Included in the invading force were Robert E. Santa Anna withdrew that night. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.org/mexicanamericanwar2. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. Scott had sent 2. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. along which he expected Scott to appear. U.

The Mexican American War On the same day. Lee. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St. U. Twiggs agreed. 1847. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E.S. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. http://mexicanhistory. those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . The deserters were court martialed and many were hung. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec.org/mexicanamericanwar2. However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco.

The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. Lasting throughout most of the day. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City.S. 211 Union Battalion. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. 115 Queretaro Battalion. Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. and General Juan N. forces were about to kill him. the fighting had been severe and costly. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .S. President Polk tried to recall Trist. and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive.S. Newman S. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city. established the U. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. including the cadets.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. Caught between two fronts. undisputed control of Texas. 277 Mina Battalion. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U. To the southwest.S. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. some as young as 13 years old.. but his troops managed to raise the U. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. signed on February 2. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale. In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. Vicente Suarez.S. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. and there was a lull in the battle. he grabbed the Mexican flag. "From the Halls of Montezuma. Flag over the castle. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. Johnston. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. At 08:00. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. who took over 90% casualties. when one was left (Juan Escutia)." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. but was unable to communicate with him . 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. also known as the Halls of Montezuma. The scaling ladders arrived. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. Pérez was killed. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk.S. ended the war and gave the U. Juan Escutia. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. One by one they fell. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy. Before he could withdraw.org/mexicanamericanwar2. forces. and cadets Agustin Melgar. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca. and the U. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy".The efforts of the U. apparently falling from above . A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. and the first wave ascended the walls.. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge.S.

and parts of Colorado. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. citizens. with the 15 million already spent. A leading U.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla . Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US . newspaper. New Mexico.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory.000—less than half the amount the U.S. and Wyoming.S.S. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. agreed to assume $3. In return. politicians that had opposed the war from the start.Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million.000. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time. especially among U. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U. Utah. Mexico received US $15. By doing so.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California .S. Arizona.org/mexicanamericanwar2.S. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River. Nevada.

The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma. Michoacan .One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state .The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico . The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez . while the liberals (puros) refused .Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state .This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war .which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution .). the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . Dominican Rep. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1. who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president .com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. http://mexicanhistory. the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . democratic state .ObesityControlCenter. 1854 . Costa Rica. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital. After over a year of guerrilla warfare. sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .mortgageallianceprogram.org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support .S. the neighboring states of Morelos.org/Ayutla. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca. which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.CaliBaja. www. Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.The leader of the young.In Guerrero.

Comonfort becomes President www. press.The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824.org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor .org/Ayutla. freedom of speech. President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned.The civil war was very vicious . the Plan de Tacubaya. Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals . the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church . http://mexicanhistory. Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez. The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861. declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) . These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction .The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution. They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. While freedom of religion was not declared. The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla .HumanEvents. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power .com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms .For the first two years.Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws .this conflict led to the vicious war of reform.The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions . assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus.Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot . The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war . The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. In the new constitution. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals . delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term .

which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France. Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .HumanEvents. this was not to be . some over fifty years old . Spain. but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies . With the War of the Reform over. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico.But the biggest problem was yet to come.The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts. 6. sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World . The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant . and 64 million of this was owed to the British .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .The conservative President. 1861. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers .000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz.The new president chose a more lenient policy.On October 31. England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties .org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion . Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City .Juarez won the presidental election of 1861. Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www.By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives.However. Spain and England withdrew their troops .To get some breathening space for the economy to revive.Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts.France. 1861. under the leadership of Napoleon III. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . In december. Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.org/Ayutla.com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory. Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives .

000 to Mexico .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory. the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions .1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico . Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie.org/French. Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal .As mentioned before. western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory.He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota. he was determined to make France great again .Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king . America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 . Vera Cruz.

for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . where around 4.The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza.The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory.On May 5.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6.It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again .000 French. The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy . under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever. The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .org/French. Napoleon ordered 30. 1862.000 reinforcements .The French bombarded Puebla. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla. the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo .

In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico . General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida .org/French. French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people .The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte.On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time. met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived. 1863. They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange .Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces. who had a wooden hand. 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou.He was proclaimed Maximilian I. http://mexicanhistory. 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives .Here. map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3. Emperor of Mexico on April 10.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle .Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves . 1864.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion . which of course approved him .He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people .A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army. that of Camaron on April 30.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867.

However.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . After the fall of the Confederacy.The French. considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support . across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes.Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. Chihuahua. French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865.org/French. General Grant ordered 42. and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him. After its fall. He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy. creating a succession issue. as secretary of foreign affairs . a Mason. which was not the case . The emperor . the republicans only held four states. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms. The liberals. had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. was to lead to the emperors own death . but nothing came of it . Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. Sonora and Baja. equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . however. American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration.After the downfall of the Confederacy.The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies.He even named Jose Fernando. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865. a moderate liberal. religious toleration . This decree. the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor . Guerro. however. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees .000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. http://mexicanhistory. This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . religious freedoms. which had never recognized Maximilian's government .

On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression .During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion . the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia.The battle began on Feb 19.000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. talked him out of it.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies . saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 . 1867. 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. Over 50. However on May 15.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .However.During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. who urged the emperor to join him. He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future . but his wife. the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory. Portirio Diaz. before he could carry out this plan. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope.It also introduced French ideas. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca. The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong . 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days .He was executed by firing squad on June 19. who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate. It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak .org/French. fashion and culture into Mexico . Tampico. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. Monterey. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . However. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . along with Miramon and Mejia .the last french soldier left on March 16. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured .

purchase and print your auto policy online.org/French.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife . Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina.ancestry.com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. sanbornsinsurance. www.fiestamericanagrand.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online.com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Home Revolution of Ayutla.com www.

Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. the rurales was established to check banditry.org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. sanbornsinsurance.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection. Schooling was made mandatory. Costa Rica. and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . Dominican Rep. Juarez immediately set about making economic.ObesityControlCenter. The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention . purchase and print your auto policy online. Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 .S. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.org/RestoredRepublic. http://mexicanhistory.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. political and educational reforms. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz .mortgageallianceprogram. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 . There was still antagonisms from the conservatives. www.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.Despite this.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.

org/RestoredRepublic. especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep .Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative. Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory. the rurales. Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .000 miles .Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment . an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors . Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy . a rural police force was established. Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress . in contrast with the US which had over 30.Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country .To secure the roads. The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat.

none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867. Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained.When the ballots were counted. and Porfirio Diaz. but he through this effort 1.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. http://mexicanhistory. Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army . Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada.org/RestoredRepublic. who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October . Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico . who had the support of the military and conservatives .the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes. in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. 1871. Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 .600 miles off telegraph line was put up .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled. Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. beginning the Mexican muralist movement .The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested . where he defeated Diaz easily . The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy .

This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco . 1876. Lerdo was reelected on July 24. 1876.Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud.Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army. Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 . Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . following the pattern of Juarez.org/RestoredRepublic. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16.

Mexico entered the industrial age . The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.org/Diaz.Farming methods had changed little from colonial days . agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. the main engine of the economy.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades .ancestry.who was a Mestizo. of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side.com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records.' During his 33 year rule.com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www.com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) .seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury. Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it . Like Juarez before him.MegWhitman.ObesityControlCenter.Despite the efforts of the liberals mining.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory. www. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales . Free trial.S. Mexico was still troubled by banditos .

but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . Díaz had the constitution amended. Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term . the railway from Mexico City to El Paso.Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won .By 1890. made economic changes such as changing tariffs. first to allow two terms in office.84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country.During his administration.Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez. switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . and then to remove all restrictions on re-election. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims .Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling . http://mexicanhistory. In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government. For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing . but the strain was too much for the treasury .These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth . President Gonzalez 1880 . who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction. so he cut the salaries of government officials .org/Diaz.The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties . the Mexican treasury was running in the black . At the end of his first term.Jose Limantour. secretary of the treasury.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .

Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly .org/Diaz. Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive .Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . became much more productive . Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico.000 Pesos in 1877 to 85.16 percent of the population was homeless . France and Germany . From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule. but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society . The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost .Diaz was advised by cientificos. Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving . which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination.000. It seemed a http://mexicanhistory. In 1910 life expectancy was 30.The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15. They promoted science. Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune . Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size .000. manipulated by the powerful .000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness . Elections were held.000 Pesos in 1908.He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion. such as silver and cooper mines . but they were shams for the most part.silver production increased from 24. Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions . The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. in contrast to 50 in the US at the time . By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877.The press was tightly censored.

some advocating violent overthrow. They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers . Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes . http://mexicanhistory.The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good . The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers.org/Diaz. Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato.By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed.In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %.Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them .The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz .Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907. Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell .Like many powerful leaders before. Now.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief . who often worked in appaling conditions .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight . such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua . he had overstayed his welcome .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work .

He thoght political. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah. They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. they went further inland into the US for safety to St. although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy. wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections .Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. They organized a revolutionary party. an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León. Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. Despite Reyes silence. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio.Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates. journalist James Creelman. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. On his release and subsequent flight to the US. In a 1908 interview with the U.S.org/Diaz. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero . This caused aroused widespread anger. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses .Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe.Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico .such as the Flores Magon brothers . decided to run for president again . http://mexicanhistory. however. Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . In St. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year. Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. Despite what he had told Creelman. After this.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well.When the official results were announced by the government.

Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels .BookIt. Díaz died in exile in Paris. Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero . In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez.Madero changed his mind and called of the attack.On Jan 2.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso. In Chihuahua. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years. In 1915.Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . On May 10. the outnumbered federal commander surrendered .the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion. At the last minute. Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government .Diaz had been overthrown. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command . His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great .In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . Afterwards. but the revolution had just started . yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him . 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack. Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . brings the US into the conflict . others towns such as Tehuacan.org/Diaz.

com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . anger was simmering over the injustice of decades.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution . However. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory.com panchovillastories.Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended . a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women . revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land. But underneath. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . President Diaz. a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster. And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org/revolution. Pancho Villa. everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana. Now on DVD www.net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive.To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910. below in Mexico. who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch.Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months.ancestry.

" Diaz. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. Trains were often used as weapons themselves. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.org/revolution.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. Most large companies were foreign owned. while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9. The election of 1910 provided a spark. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people. .000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. started by Diaz himself. In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. but solely upon the army .

He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. However.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time. 1879–April 10. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South). Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. but was never caught. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. A ladron steals from his neighbors. but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. Emiliano Zapata (August 8. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. As a result. from federal forces. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. Previously. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run.1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush .Famous for their cavalry charges.often led by Villa himself.He became a general of the army that formed in that state. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .org/revolution. http://mexicanhistory. commonly known as Zapatistas. banditos.on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile . Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. 1878 – July 20. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. when 1910 came. and then return home to spend most of the year farming.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. Madero came from a rich hacienda family. 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). He neither drank or smoked.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head. Madero was an unusual person for the times. Madero campaign. was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy.

Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. Madero promoted him to colonel. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico.In April the forces of Madero. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. the ambassador to the U.org/revolution. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910. Now let's see if he can control it.He was killed on Aug 30. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet. would serve as interim president. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City. Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government. from federal forces. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. Francisco de la Barra. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds . The Madero Presidency November 6. Porfiro Diaz. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger. His nephew. 1911 – February 18. on 31 October of that year.S. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . After being wounded in Ojinaga.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. remarkably.

Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. During this time. but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. however.which had been gagged since Diaz. 1911 Modero won the national election .He gave out government contracts to family businesses.Madero appointed family members. Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. but the government had no money with with to pay them. some of them conservative. Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known. Educational reformers were also disappointed . Madero allowed freedom of the press. It is not without significance. this infuriated Zapata. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . to many this looked like old style corrupt government . and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. became the interim president . Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. On October 1.org/revolution.such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement. Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . However. to important posts.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Leon de la Barra. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory. which undermined the reforms he advocated . the secretary of foreign relations.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers.The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned. Zapata Some. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast.

000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Gen. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size . committed suicide . Huerta in charge of the army . who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez .and on March 3 went into open revolt. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion. In his Plan Orozquista. but this showed how weak the new government was . Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions .Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution.000 army. Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. who had reached an agreement with Madero. supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets..Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U.org/revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor. Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. supported by Villa. Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. Reportedly. By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform .S.On August 8 Madero orders Gen. http://mexicanhistory.Orozco. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces . from which Villa later escaped. Jose Salas.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander.

htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Reyes. led mostly by supporters of Diaz .The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz. and together they plotted a coup . on Oct 12.Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender . 1912 led by Felix Diaz. Modero. the nephew of Porfirio.org/revolution.Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. did not order his execution. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory. feeling compassion for Diaz. an action which would cost him his life .

Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day . Huerta or someone else ordered the murders . which had no social reform goals. the Plan de Guadalupe.Reyes . Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal.which had been free under Madero. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians.However. powerfully fortified. Huerta is supported by conservatives. just the ouster of Huerta. Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua. but over six thousand helpless non-combatants.org/revolution.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. were slaughtered in the streets.It is still not known if Diaz. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels . near Mexico City. not all did . the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed. On Feb 17. The American ambassador. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ).000 none too loyal army Soldaderas . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed .In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior . 1913. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Using these tactics he created a 200. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. many of them women and children. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora.The press. The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta .They of course declared a plan.On Feb 21.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison .And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city. broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free.Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy. and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. Mustering some five thousand men.bull fights and walking on the streets. The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory.

In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. decided Huerta would have to go . It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction. much of which was done under forced conscription.This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US .Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250.As his military position began to crumble. Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south . Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas.000.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados.The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them . Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city . the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot. The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21. Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed.Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states . then only numbering about 50. 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. the major ports and most large cities . American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson. which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention .By March and April. often fought with their husbands as well . http://mexicanhistory. Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president . The Americans. 1914 . while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war . against the wishes of Carranza. but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. Initially.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta . such as La Adelita . Political assassination was also used .The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began .They were celebrated in folk songs. The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army .org/revolution.The convention exposed the differences between the fighters. By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . In 1914.The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8. The convention chose. Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez .The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. in order to pacify the country. Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico. despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson.000. The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred . Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico. and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent .In early 1914.

roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua. the battle of Celaya .org/revolution.this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . http://mexicanhistory.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 . by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . who had never been defeated in a major battle . who had fled to Nuevo Leon. Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry. seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists. Villa lost an estimated 4.000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . Villa attacked with an estimated 25. This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon.By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed .000 killed. Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa. Carranza. In early April. while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other .

485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present.Education was to be secular. with stronger executive control. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes. The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency.org/revolution.The clamor for intervention was immediate . Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance. no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed .On Jan 9.000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . 1916.President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people. Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops. 1917 .On March 16. Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw.The power of the church was limited.The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica. which he won in March. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. New Mexico. 1916.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike . killing 18 Americans . who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians . Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua .There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . who held a majority and voted in major reform articles .Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored . Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property . the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms . The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory. After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917. who were pro-Villa.

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

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Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

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The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

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Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

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Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner. Communists and Chinese. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR.Obregon and Callas 1920 .34 (PRI). The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] . in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government . There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury .com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts. former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings . In the election of 1928.org/1920s.supported by Callas.The government withdrew its support for unions. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory. but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . a fascist group attacked Jews . Callas became more conservative as time wore on..KausforSenate. Stop lockstep liberalism! www.

adultjewishlearning. The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army.RoyaltyClearinghouse.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time.40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell. Paracho & SofiaMari. the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . By his first term he had redistributed 49. which endeared him to the people .Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution.com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas.As he had in Michoacan.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .By 1935. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education .com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www. With Callas' support. Some cooperative projects were started.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed .Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos . Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July. http://mexicanhistory.000 acres. Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . a Governor of Michoacan. Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad).He did not use bodyguards. Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home .000. and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History. Habla Español www.org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli. think he would be able to control him as a puppet . Lowest Price. the CTM. Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns . As before.PlayMusic123.org/cardenas. www. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule . Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union .The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton .

However. 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission.The US. Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 . He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. Home Obergon. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory.While this move was popular. who won the 1940 election . which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million . but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. the new American president. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain.000. Oil income was a major source of income for the government.Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco . Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies.org/cardenas. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936.000 in 1930 .Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions. He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America.40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15. it hurt the economy. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico .The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .The matter was sent to an arbitration board.As the depression went on. the Peso weakened and the economy worsened .The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention. he threw his support behind Avila Comacho. This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution . and as production declined the national debt rose . the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived. In the election of 1939.

However. threw his support behind secretary of war.000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war. every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write .15.org/camacho.Groupon.Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions . promoted Juan Andreu . Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers .The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . on a variety of fronts. World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians. afraid of more socialization. Cardenas. Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce.Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines . not the ejidos and fostering private ownership.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith. Avila Comacho.000 Mexican workers in America .There was not much support for joining the War. The conservatives. More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. a well known revolutionary . By the time the war ended there were over 300. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier.Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered .com/LA http://mexicanhistory. Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www.That day after Pearl Harbor.46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica.Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course . however. on May 14 and May 24. and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly . Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] . The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming . Less land was redistributed.org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . Under the slogan' Each one teach one'.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.org/camacho.

1940s.edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming .ObesityControlCenter.com Miguel Aleman 1947 .org 1947 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Great price.Women were allowed to vote in 1952 . Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico .Mexican History 1947 . www.2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs.nmhu.2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 .The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .org/aleman.Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .S. the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory. this is the story of Pablo Acosta.

K.Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory. cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman. one of the most modern in the world atthe time . much to the chagrin of the US .000 a people poured into the cities .Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over. The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment . strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools . Communists were not tolerated and arrested . Adolfo Mateos 1958.F.org/aleman.However. Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities .Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated.In 1960.While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines. Money for books had been 'diverted.000. implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents .Mexican History 1947 . he did not undertake and new large projects .Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City . the issue of birth control was skirted around .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .In response. Ruiz Cortines 1952 . the urban population surpassed the rural population . all was not well . there were no books on the bookshelves. He continued land redistribution.America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico . The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area .2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects. There was large scale corruption.' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952. nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock. some of the largest housing 100. but being a Catholic country.Strong economic growth continued.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration .The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32.Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J. Because of corroption. Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground .000 people .and fewer than half of school age children went to school .

http://mexicanhistory. 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution. barricading streets and burning buses .2008 until his death in 1970 . After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband. Huge demonstrations were held on many universities .70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%. sometimes with federal troops being called in .In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics . Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot . there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings . Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli . Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes.Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI.Mexican History 1947 .org/aleman.For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets. the army used tear gas and clubs . 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco. several hundred people were killed . the following clash led to some deaths.The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns. However it started.But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s . and the tourist trade greatly increased .In the following days there were more riots. On August 27.and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail . Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 .In July 26.On October 2.

started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down ." "excessive overseas borrowing. This caused the ruling party.Mexican History 1947 .The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns.Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico.Caught in the inflation of the early 70s. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly.org/aleman.In September. Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. Luis Echeverría 1970 . the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods . http://mexicanhistory.Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan.¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco. One of the largest. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad. 1976. former secretary of the interior. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. he tried to order price controls on basic items . and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. In September. Wages were low and workers conditions were bad .Since 1973. During his period. to make exports more competitive. the bane of other Latin American countries.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . Robberies and kidnappings .Many started to go to America illegally.. The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 . By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged . the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence.000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption. at least in terms of its economic policies.76 Echeverría. The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl . 1976.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession . about 70. became president in 1970 .He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control ." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor).2008 Despite this. By 1974.

86 During his tenure.Public spending was cut by one third . a process that continued under his successors. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar . the economy only made weak progress. On Sept 19.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars . foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions .Over 100. Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out . and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs.Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread. The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10.000 were left homeless . crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years . for example. He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 .Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF . huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged . fraud and strong arm election tactics . Miguel de la Madrid 1982 . by the end of the Lopez administration.Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year. a 8.Mexico could not meet its debt repayments. he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment. http://mexicanhistory.Despite the oil boom. with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo. the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982.000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Mexican History 1947 .The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated .In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports .Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up.org/aleman. increased 100% in price .2008 In 1974.Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments. Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development . suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation .1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7. During de la Madrid's presidency. 1985 .

It was led by The president responded with military repression. In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. EZLN.2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake.Mexican History 1947 . http://mexicanhistory. masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising .Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade .But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party. the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement . but reports of the national and international media .The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata. The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . Indian abuse and its own government .He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . Also in 1994.1994 In the election of 1988.Some progress was made with political corruption as well. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos . Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes . and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections . Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate. Salinas' chosen sucessor.org/aleman. and established a new relationship between State and Church. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War. Carlos Salinas . started in Chiapas against corruption.

Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo.Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 . In spite of opposition within his party. Vicente Fox 2000 .Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. and countries in Central America. US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses.GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2. however economy grew at a slow pace . known as the December Mistake.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords .In 2000. maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources.org/aleman. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico . Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history. http://mexicanhistory. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system. Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico. In 1997 he moved to Ireland. Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change.2 percent in 2002. Vicente Fox . a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico. behind Cortes and Diaz . putting the country in an economic tailspin .2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul. the Peso suddenly collapsed .Mexican History 1947 .He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia .2000 Within days of taking office.He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor.2% during Fox's administration. Ernesto Zedillo 1994 . Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . and led to an economic recesssion . the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú. approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8. Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . China.Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved .

However.On September 5. the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . liberalization. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. 2006. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization." In his interpretation.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . resulting in a narrow margin of 0. expropriation. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount.58% for Calderón over his closest contender.org/aleman. state control of the economy. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization. and authoritarianism.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right.present On July 6. market control of the economy. 2006.Mexican History 1947 . but a choice between "the past and the future.

2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.org/aleman.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .Mexican History 1947 .

com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.000 Archaic era 1.000 BC 11.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines.000 BC 7.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online.com Mexico! AmoLatina.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.500 BC 5.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.500 Knossos founded 2.500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.000 5.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1.org/timeline. Find Your Sweetheart in www.S.500 Indus civilization 2. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.ancestry.500 BC 5.000 Large animals vanish. Baja 7.000 - 2.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs. profiles.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco. purchase and print your auto policy online.org/timeline.elwired.ObesityControlCenter.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. sanbornsinsurance.com salsa. AmoLatina. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf. El Tajin.S.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521.

Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .org/timeline. Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence.Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown. Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31.

Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. 1846. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. 1846.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled. Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain. September 27. reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23.org/timeline. Nuevo León. modeled after the one of 1824.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila. 1821 . president can only serve one term. French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence.

but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. French troops stay.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. hundreds killed by naval fire. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. first to allow two terms in office. widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa.org/timeline. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. blockade demanding repayments of debt. Maximilian executed. has the constitution amended.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City .Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz. angry at not getting US recognition .Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. England and Spain depart. England and France land troops. church power limited. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain. Diaz revolts again. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon. who had Madero jailed .

major dams built. later known as PRI. which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed .htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.BookIt.org/timeline. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 . gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. known as the December Mistake. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR.

Discover Family Heroes.ObesityControlCenter.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.com www.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico. trained specialist treats you in Collection.com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco. Many states. The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded. replaces it with a new centralist constitution.000 Mexicans .000 Americans and only around 8. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle. including Texas revolt.Mexico orders halt to American immigration. The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Mexico http://mexicanhistory.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas.S.ancestry. By 1835 there were 30. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence .htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .

1841 from a cold.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state. The mutineers select Gen. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it. 1845 U. President John Tyler. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. Polk http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found. Polk (49) becomes president of the US.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island.S. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba.such as former President Martin Van Buren. who is overthrown. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico.Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico.

Mexico. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. By late Oct 3. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River. and Mexico . Nov 29 Former U. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. had never ratified these treaties.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna.500 troops. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico . on the transport Alabama. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .S.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. but had been parts of Tamaulipas. however. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. gives interim President Herrera.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen.S. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. Coahuila. Louisiana into Texas with 1. Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. Taylor http://mexicanhistory. but regains power.S. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule. Dec2 . Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup.500 regulars have gathered. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president.

Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen. killing 16 U.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. March 8 Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .Jose Maria Castro. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness. Arista reaches Matamoros. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team. April 25 a 1.000 men under his command. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory.200 men.S. but is not authorized to attack. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory.S. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory.Col. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. Francisco Mejia. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C. Mejia has 3. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande. April 2 Gen. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera. Taylor refuses. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen.000 men. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen. assembles a force of 6. declared President of Mexico. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans.

Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. Arista resigns command to Gen.Jose Maria Ortega.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line.S. 39 Americans killed. Aug 5 Gen. Maj. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House. which has been abandoned by the Mexican army.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic.S. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Taylor attacks his center.300. Americans have 9 killed. border set at the 49th parallel. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U. Gen.300 confronts Taylor's 2. incident. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. 6. Mexican losses 200 killed. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U.Mexican American War Timeline command. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. Nuevo Leon. Arista retreats toward Linares. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas. which later becomes Brownsville. overrunning the Mexican artillery.Arista with 3.losing many men in the desert. http://mexicanhistory. Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities. May 13 U.S. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire.

Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U.200 regulars and 3. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. to be led by Gen.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .000 militia. the last Mexican stronghold in California. Winfield Scott.645 troops. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6. leaving 4.000 volunteers. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles. Mexicans 700 casualties.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship.Richey. no Americans killed.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory.500 man army in four months.which is defended by a formidable citadel. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms.000 Mexican regulars and 23.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7. Jan 13 Lt. Ampudia asks for terms.called the Black Fort by the Americans. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles.700 for garrison duty.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. gathering a 21. Americans suffer 120 killed. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi. Aug18 Gen. forcing them to surrender. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen.S.

Special Cavalry Division. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues.8. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry.800. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg.000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor.General Santa Anna. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12. Siege of Veracruz begins. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4. most in a 800 man cavalry charge. 3. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois..000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City. Taylor retires toward Monterrey.600 soldiers land by nightfall.500 desertions.000 Mexican prisoners taken.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. Santa Anna's 18.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento. Mexicans lose 1.Americans lose 63 killed.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. Mexicans lose 300 killed. March 21 10. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20. an easier to defend narrow pass. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. Robert E. Only 14. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic. Army Corps of Engineers Capt.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.000 man Mexican army. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City. March 9 American landing at Veracruz. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !').800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda. California is renamed San Francisco.

Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col.000 troops and 30 cannons. the last major defense before Mexico City. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion.000 of his defeated troops.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4. 2. Santa Ana flees Mexico City.000 captured. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City.and is left with 5.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements. Americans lose 116 killed.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Joseph E.000 troops.500 troops.000 dead and 3. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19. Six cadets fight to the death. Scott sends 3. 50 of which are cadets.820 . Scott now has 14. defended by 260 defenders under Gen. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired. Americans have lost 139 killed. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco. Mexican loses are 4.Bravo. Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle.(Boy Heros). http://mexicanhistory.. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3.500 under Worth to take it.hoping he will ask for terms.500 of which are sick. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. which falls after a fierce battle. 30 out of 69 are executed. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec.

citizens.S. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City.000) were to be treated as U. Since 1960. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.Utah. California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws. Free Investor Kit. Book now! www. America takes California.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.sailor Owen Edgar.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe. Goldline. citizens against Mexico. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena.CaliBaja. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war.Colorado. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery.Arizona and New Mexico. 1876 July 31 last of 18.5 million in claims by U.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory.com http://mexicanhistory. in Coloma.S. A couple of days of severe rioting follows.HolidayInn. Anaya become interim president.Nevada.

To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low .Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 . He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876. Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost.com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www.Metin2. www. Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term.com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears. many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war.Info." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.Shopping.pestilence and death. http://mexicanhistory. this huge class of people was not educated.

Oct 11 Madero. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. Madero was unusual for his period. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi.often led by Villa himself. Madero joined by other local leaders. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. Francisco Madero.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. better known as Pancho Villa. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. 1911 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua.declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. He didn't drink or smoke.

May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. Madero enters city.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero. let’s see if he can ride it. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president.500 under Madero. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz. Diaz offers to resign. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo.. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. April 3. May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. Madero refuses. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga.

Nov 9 In Texas. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. raises a well equipped army of 6. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest.once an ally of Villa.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support. Madero turns to Gen. Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero. Pascual Orozoco. Slow to take action on land reform .000 in the north. supported by powerful hacienda landowners.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. He plans to march on Mexico City.

Diaz freed. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. Huerta defeats Orozoco. Revolt fails and Leon is executed. Brig. is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2.Mexican Revolution Timeline order.400 men. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. 300 killed around presidential palace. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Gen Felix Diaz.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory.5. April 26 Col. forcing him to flee to the US.

Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission . Lane recalled. Jose Suarez and cabinet. Gen. http://mexicanhistory. Using these tactics he created a 200.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .. of Coahuila. In reality Huerta ordered the murders.which had been free under Madero. 500 civilians killed. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement . Huerta seizes Madero. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. Feb 24 The Gov. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.000 none to loyal army.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. 100 Madero supporters are executed.bull fights and walking on the streets. Huerta is supported by conservatives. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta.The press. Vice Pres. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. limiting church power. In the next election. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane.who murder him. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. Soon others launch rebellion.New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's. Huerta would become temporary president.

was forefront in the opposition against Huerta. with the secret support of the United States.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. 12. April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga. all federal officers executed. Several hundred executed. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . On March 26.killing 100 federal troops. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez. The northern armies of Villa. a politician and rancher from Coahuila. 1913.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon.. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5.000 men. City taken. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another . Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Federal train blown up. federals round up civilians. all federal officers executed. calling his forces the Constitutionalists.

000 marines land.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed. 400 more Americans are sent ashore.Eventually 3.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. through such writers as John Reed. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz.300 sailors and 2.S. There was a considerable concentration of U. American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila . Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine. Villa became a folk hero in the U. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off. Sniper fire continues. The Mexican commander refuses. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916. leading to his resignation on July 15.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12.Snipers open fire on Americans. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry. 4 Americans killed. Huerta goes into exile in Europe. Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. American Rear Adm. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution . Enters US to try to reenter Mexico. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute..S.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10.

Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president. who departs for Veracruz. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa. Their combined armies of 50.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. abandoned by Villa and Zapata.000 march through city. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government. Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12.000 and many supplies.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. who lose 2. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president.

org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.5.his days as a leader of a large northern army are over. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . http://mexicanhistory. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico.Villa has 8. known as the general who never won a battle . Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI. US cuts off arms supplies to Villa.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19.000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20.000 man army.barbed wire and machine guns.000 taken prisoner.000 cavalry.500 horsemen and 6. angering him.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches . Despite using terror tactics. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults. 6.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.000 causalities and retreats north.500 infantry.Hill succeeds him.is unable to defeat Zapata .000 cavalry against Obregon's 9.400 cavalry and 14.Villa loses 4.

Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west.000 followers. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3. Approved on Feb 17. Takes much booty and gives speech.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off.000 men to pursue Villa. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train. 1917 It allows freedom of religion. Villa losses many of his remaining 5. New Mexico with 500 riders.000 man army occupies every major town in the state. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo.child labor prohibited.000 in late April. Retreats with only 1.south or east will be contested. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6. workers allowed to form labor unions. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus. 400 desert Villa. Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .30. has 9.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. with air support. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro.400.equal pay for men and women. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory.

http://mexicanhistory. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.killing 200. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta. Obregon harassed. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty. Huerta gives a 25. the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez.believing he would become his puppet.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta. Supporters. including Villa rally to his side. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz.S. the ambassador to Mexico.Following Zapata's death.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza. flees Mexico City. March many Obregon supporters arrested. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. but murders him while he is sleeping.000 followers. had declared war on Germany. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese.. Gov. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. by which time the U.. Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train.

Huerta flees Mexico. but large scale fighting is over. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years. An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .

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