Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.

org

Web
Google Search

MexicanHistory.org

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1713
True Colonial blinds from the company that makes them for Colonial Williamsburg
www.shutterblinds.com

Mexico Obesity Doctor U.S. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost
www.ObesityControlCenter.com

Single Mexican Women Marry One of These Single Women Neighbors will Envy You!
AmoLatina.com

Encomiendas Government in New Spain Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia Corregidores Exploration Mixton War The Church The Spanish Inquisition Religious Disputes Virgin of Guadalupe Cultural Life Social Classes Economy Colonial Architecture Mexico City Colonial ceramics Tequila , Pulque and Wine Bourbon Reforms Mexican Colonial Coins

Map of New Spain, click to see

Colonial Mexico: A Guide to Historic Districts and Towns This is a great book on the "silver cities' of mexico. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide

video on Mexican colonial cities

While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . With little preparation, Spain found itself a ruler a faraway land many times larger than itself and much more populated .How was it to control and convert such a land that was over two months away by sea ? The Encomiendas

Maps of Mexico

Mexican coins

http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

Books on Colonial Mexico

The Spaniards renamed Tenochititlan 'Mexico City' and rebuilt it as the capital of Nueva Espana ( New Spain ). Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. The system interfered with Spain's control of the new colony and led to rebellions when Spain tried to reform the system in the 16th century when friar Bartolome de Las Casa convinced the crown to introduce the ' New Laws ' granting freedom to Indians unjustly enslaved and easing labor requirements. There was much opposition to this by the Spaniards in Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Some, such as Alonso de Avila, argued for independence from Spain with the son of Cortes, Don Martin to made king . Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . .Despite the stories of fabulous wealth, the number of Spanish colonists was low. By 1560 there were barely 20,000 Spaniards in Mexico . The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. 20,000 had arrived by 1553 .Many Filipinos and Chinese entered on the Manila galleons, possibly as many as 6,000 by the 17th century .

Government in New Spain

www.BookIt.com Ads by Google

Imperial Spain coat of Arms Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain in 1522 and he moved energetically to explore new lands and develop the economy .Cortes brought the first stocks of cattle to Mexico as well as sheep and goats and introduced European plants . He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood .

Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 152426 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. Enemies of Cortes spread rumors that he cheated the crown. When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Charles V, while impressed with the gallant nature of Cortes, desired to appoint his own viceroy

Big Hat Curio... Art Print

http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

Colonial Mexico 1519 - 1821 MexicanHistory.org

in place of the rough adventurers in New Spain and did not reappoint Cortes governor, but made him a marquis with a large estate to get him out of the way . Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia In 1524 Charles created the Council of the Indies ( "Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias" ) to oversee all aspects of the colonies and acting in his name . The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. The viceroyalty was to administer a vast territory from California to Panama, Caribbean islands and the Philippines . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. The audiencia was to keep an eye on the viceroy for the king .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies.

Buy for $19.99

Search For Posters!
Go

Guzman In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .

Zumarraga Meanwhile, the first bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga arrived in 1527 .Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. Guzman, fearing his days were numbered by the reports of Zumarraga to the Crown , set off to conquer Michoacan to get back in the good graces of the Crown .Guzman treated the Indians savagely, but explored as far as southern Sonora and conquered a large area .In 1538 he went to Spain to answer the charges against him and spent the rest of his life there under house arrest .After the fiasco of Guzman, more care was taken to chose his replacement .Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal who was appointed judge and turned out to be a man of high quality and corrected many abuses .

Mendoza Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. He was related to the royal family . He had special orders to increase the crowns revenues and see that the Indians were better treated before they were decimated as they were in the Caribbean .He worked hard to provide stability and order . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was
http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM]

1821 MexicanHistory. church . A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north . The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . Corregidores Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . The Indians. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Mendoza appointed Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to search for Cibola and the seven cities of Gold rumored to exist in the north in 1540 . Sometimes the inspector would travel inconito. wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly. pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories Exploration By 1524. The Mixton War of 1540 -41 http://mexicanhistory. all were to have a main plaza. almost all of the Aztec empire. Utah and Colorado . always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on .Provincial towns were organized by royal decree.org given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces . In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons.Large cities such as Oaxaca.Eventually.Colonial Mexico 1519 . New Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . The presidios (military towns). the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony . Arizona. Coronado went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed .In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas.Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . Coronado set off with 336 Spaniards and hundred of Indian allies . The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power . sometimes there would be advanced warning . eventually men born in New Spain would hold this office .org/colonial. royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . There were 62 viceroys in New Spain. California.A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . along with such regions as Colina. The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs .

http://mexicanhistory. The Indians.the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy.1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . who were still viewed as a menace. monastic life and humble character . The hand of God was seen in the discovery of Mexico. which would perhaps lead to the second coming of Christ . They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar clothing . the most serious revolt of the times . a gift from God for freeing Spain from the Moslems.org/colonial. with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs . Many were influenced by the Renaissance ideas of the time . that they could create an ideal society such as Thomas More's Utopia and St. the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century. Augustin's City of God . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. The mendicant monks were respected for their vows of poverty .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule . A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition. vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41).Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area .Some of these communities became self sustaining and even prosperous with their own craft making .Colonial Mexico 1519 . leaving the area undermanned .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans.Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion. and was concerned for the physical and spiritual welfare of the Indians .His successor. The Church in Colonial Mexico The baptism of Indians began with the march of Cortes . Charles V took this charge seriously.org Tenamaxtli The expedition had one unintended consequence . Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war . Dominicans and the Augustinians . led by Tenamaxtli . it's continuation. King of Mexico and the Holy Roman Emperor. The person ultimately responsible for all the souls in the New World was Charles V.

She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 . with their holidays and elaborate religious processions were similar to Mesoamerican practices .Nine million were baptized by 1537. For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4. The country's patron saint is the Virgin of Guadalupe.1821 MexicanHistory. The Catholic reverence for saints. 50 such churches had been built .Colonial Mexico 1519 .000 Indians a day . often being the first Europeans to explore an area . They built fortess missions across New Spain .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . By 1540. which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. Virgin of Guadalupe Why was Mexico so quickly converted ? There were some similarities that made conversion easier such as the cross which was a symbol for the god of rain in Mesoamerica and the crucifixion of Christ as a symbol for sacrifice needed for rebirth . Many anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . http://mexicanhistory. This was the open chapel or capilla abierta.org/colonial. who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . The friars need churches for all these new Christians and a uniquely Mexican architectural form was created to accommodate these large numbers of new converts .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily .org Cuilapan The friars spread out into the country.

1601.In the mid 16 century. Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers . Idealistic priests and friars were replaced with materialistic clergy and the efforts by Zumarraga were overturned .The new clergy were dependent on settlers tithes and not the church . Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. which declared the Indians were humans and capable of salvation and outlawing Indian slavery .1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life.Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. Priests and civil servants were investigated on moral grounds . Charles V was dead.The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded .1821 MexicanHistory. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . the Florentine Codex. the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language . The Spanish Inquisition Luis and Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake. These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization .org/colonial.org Florentine Codex The priest became great linguists and learned the Indian languages. One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun.Colonial Mexico 1519 . The friars helped get laws passed such as the papal bull of 1537 and the New Laws.Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . such as. Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain . In the process. They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . and the new Spanish king. Phillip II ( r 1556 . Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles . Mexico.Indians http://mexicanhistory. Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain .

especially those of the Enlightenment writers. These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain . who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines. Guanajuato and parts of Michoac n.The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories . This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico.In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . These works did find there way into the private libraries.Colonial Mexico 1519 . this decree led to riots and other disturbances. principally in San Luis Potos . wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 . Cultural Life in New Spain Sor Juana de la Cruz http://mexicanhistory.org were not tried for heresy as they were considered childlike. which was punishable by burning at the stake ( auto-de-f ) . after a famous case in which an Indian faced the Inquisition for practicing old beliefs after converting . The Inquisition was not abolished until 1820 .1821 MexicanHistory.org/colonial. with the prisoners often strangled first .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown . the first in the colony was in 1574 . Juan de Palafox. however .In New Spain.There were also quarrels with civil authorities . Auto de fes drew large crowds .The crime of heresy. Religious Disputes Jesuits expelled For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes . criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit and charity in times of famine and disaster . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political dissent . The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony . The Bourbon kings.Crimes like adultery.The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla.

Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo. persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. by Miguel Cabrera What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . persons with one mestizo parent and one criollo parent.1768 ) became one of the most famous baroque painters in Mexico under the support of the church . She wrote poetry. Castizo. most of these returned to Spain . Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 .org/colonial. Creoles could not hold royal office .One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman. wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 . Indians and African slaves .Colonial Mexico 1519 .org Painting advanced in Mexico with the coming of the Flemish master Simon Pereyns in 1566. At the top was the white ruling class which made up 1 million out of the population by the end of the colonial period .1700 ) . . Cholos. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the creoles ( criollos ). There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent. Mestizo.1821 MexicanHistory.Miguel Cabrera ( 1695 .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Below them were the people of color with many different terms for the various combinations of Europeans.1695 ). who taught many local artist . Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes. la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ) The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 . some of it in the Nahuatl language. The Social Classes a Mestizo baby. The top of this group were the Spanish from Spain ( peninsulares). http://mexicanhistory. be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ).

persons of mixed peninsular and negro descent. which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating The largest class were the Indians. which was to have terrible consequences for Spain's http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Zambos. Money makers such as tobacco.Colonial Mexico 1519 .Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries. silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and produced red dye ) were royal monopolies . The were gremios or guilds for each of the crafts such as blacksmiths. industry could not grow and advance.The China trade was established in 1564 silks.000 by 1800. Many of the colonists who came to New Spain wanted to make their wealth and return to Spain. In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and . tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . which were the wards of the church and the Crown . They were sometimes made into slaves. which fixed the price of goods and their quality .org Mulatos. Euromestizos.000 in the 16th century to 6.There were royal taxes of all kinds on land.One example of this is the olive and wine industry. ceramics. which was due on almost everything sold. After about 1560.With the ' free hand ' of economics stifled. the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20. licenses. ships traveled in annual convoys for protection. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem . The most hated was the alcabala.To become a master one had to pass an examination and have ones works pass inspection by the guild . The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus . from piracy . tailors. introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . gremios Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. persons who were mixed indio and negro.1821 MexicanHistory.This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year . etc . Over the years. Commerce was controlled by royal decree. etc. The Economy of New Spain New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment .. so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export . The was also a tax on imports and exports called an almojarifazgo . Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating Indomestizos.

combined with bad roads.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century .1821 MexicanHistory. one family ranch covered over 11 million acres .org/colonial. bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy. Raising cattle had more prestige than growing crops. The vaqueros or Spanish cowboys as the gringos may call them By the end of the 16th century the encomiendas were not producing enough due to the Indian labor shortage and lack of Indians to make tribute . The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots Mining however. The restrictions. Some of the haciendas were vast.org colonies and Spain itself . Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . By the 18th century. was of prime importance to Spain . Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. silver bar from shipwreck. Such http://mexicanhistory. diversified economy from growing .In the early colonial period.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Vaqueros (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed sombreros to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . Vaqueros The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas.

in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay . which was abolished in the early 17th century.org/colonial.Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage. Colonial Architecture Casa de Montejo.1821 MexicanHistory. Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year. 1549. a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil .It was reasoned enough Indians would become laborers if they were offered fair pay. thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. repartimiento In 1549 the labor obligation was abolished and tribute forbidden for Indians .org conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . except for mine labor . http://mexicanhistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . but was modified by the new land. The building material in New Spain was more colorful. but few wished to.The debts were passed down from father to son .There were many abuses to this system. So. However. plateresque style Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico. Churches gained a fortresslike appearance because of Indian attacks. usually a week at a time . rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem .htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used .

1821 MexicanHistory. The two largest cathedrals were built in Mexico City ( 1563 ) and Puebla ( 1575). The Moorish style can be seen in the interior and domes of the Capilla Real in Cholulu . The church of Santa Prisca in Taxco.org Capilla Real In the early years building were built along gothic. built in the late 18th century.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . considered one of the best examples of the Mexican baroque style . the influence of the Spanish Renaissance began to be felt and a style known as plateresque ( silversmith ) with intricate plasterwork bagan to be seen .Colonial Mexico 1519 . mudejar ( Mooorish ) and romanesque lines . http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.In the mid 16th century.

org/colonial.org The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged. especially the super rich silver barons who built such churches as the Zacatecas Cathedral and the Santiago thatelolco in Mexico City.the sculptures of many of the incredibly intricate facades. the ultra baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera. a spanish architect ). alters and other admornments so distinctive of Mexican architecture were unknown Indians and mestizos http://mexicanhistory.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonial Mexico 1519 . It reflectes some of the exhuberence of the newly rich crillos of the times.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .

1821 MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . plazasa. An example is the Palacio de Mineria in Mexico City . Metropolitan Cathedral ( Catedral Metropolitana ) Begun in 1573 and worked on for hundreds of years .org As a reaction to the excess. Mexico City was a piece of europe in the New world with cathedrals. http://mexicanhistory.There are altarpieces here by the colonial painter Juan Correa . hospitals and universities . built in 1585 .Colonial Mexico 1519 .built on top of an Aztec temple and has been sinking since its construction . Mexico City The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City . Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock.In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana. a more severe. neoclassical style became dominant from about 1780 to 1830. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . Some of the famous sights from the colonial period in Mexico City are : The National Palace ( Palacio Nacional ) Cortes destroyed the Palace of Moctezuma in 1521 and built a palace fortress. University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.org/colonial.

1821 MexicanHistory. Colonial ceramics Talavera ceramics Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina.Colonial Mexico 1519 . built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heros of the Mexican war .org Castillo de Chapultepec. Chinese ceramic was soon imitated. http://mexicanhistory.Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons . Basilica Guadalupe. Shrine built around 1700 where the Vigin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 .Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .org/colonial.Many people consider Puebla. Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . particularly their designs. Spain in the 16th century .

the line of the Spanish Habsburgs died with him. Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . Wine was introduced early to New Spain . which they called octli (later. Duke of Anjou (a grandson of the reigning French king http://mexicanhistory. but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spainish wineries .1700 ).The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . Pulque and Wine pulque production Tequila orginated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara. The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant. who became King Philip V of Spain Charles II ( 1661 . Duke of Anjou.1821 MexicanHistory. Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . the centuries of inbreeding within the Habsburg dynasty was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. Tequila .org Guadalajara also bacame a pottery and ceramic center with the high quality of the local clay .org/colonial. feeble in mind and body.Colonial Mexico 1519 . Philippe de Bourbon. which was a major source of revenue . and more popularly called pulque. Bourbon Reforms Bourbon Reforms Philippe de Bourbon. Tequila was first produced in the 16th century. When Charles II died in 1700. The crown had a monopoly on pulque.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . He had named a greatnephew.

Mexican coins Charles III These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 .Silver production rose from 2. . http://mexicanhistory.2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. It broke up old monopolies to permit more ports such as Campeche and Progreso to compete with Vera Cruz and Acapulco . becoming the second biggest export . was confirmed as King of Spain on substantially the same terms that the powers of Europe had agreed to before the war. Jose de Galvez In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general .1821 MexicanHistory. After eleven years of bloody. He had two main concerns.org Louis XIV ) as his successor.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] . Under his rule Spain once again became a world power . the Duc d'Anjou.Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. as Philip V.. In 1740. Philip inherited a ruined Spain beacause of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty . Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies .The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas . The intendents were well paid and experienced administrators and were better able to collect taxes and tribute for the Crown . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining . fought on four continents and three oceans.org/colonial.Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain .The number of Manila galleon fleets increased to two annually .Colonial Mexico 1519 . Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. Cochineal production also increased. global warfare.Taxes were lowered to encourage silver mining . replacing 200 low paid. improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers . unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents .The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. the fleet system was suspended as the threat of piracy decreased and abolished by 1789 .88 ).The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration.

the Americas and the Far East. The creole Count Regla. The word doubloon (from Spanish dobl n. or Nueva Granada. was the wealthest man in Spain from his silver mines . as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8 reales coins. The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 . the Sanchez Navarro family ranch was the size of Portugal .Creole ranchers and merchants also made fortunes.Yet little was reinvested in New Spain .225 troy ounce) gold coin minted in Spain. Mexico. worth eight reales. For example. another able ruler( 1789 . By 1810.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org/colonial. such as the Canadian dollar. The race class system remained entrenched depite the egalitarianism of the Enlightenment and the countries wealth remain concentrated in the white population . meaning a double-sided token coin. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions. the national motto for Spain . The country was extremely over regulated and taxed .Another viceroy.Colonial Mexico 1519 .The new intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before .org Antonio de Bucareli The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . Peru. often refers to a seven-gram (0. Through widespread use in Europe. many coins have ' Plus Ultra ' Latin for 'further beyond'.1821 MexicanHistory.King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . Revillagigedo . United States dollar and the Chinese yuan. the reforms benefited the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles . The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight. New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies . http://mexicanhistory.The pillar in the early coins represents the pillars of Hercules.It was legal tender in the United States until an Act of the United States Congress discontinued the practice in 1857. but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain . or the eight real coin) is a silver coin. many creoles prospered during this period in business .79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosprity . it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. Many existing currencies.94 ) created the first public transportation system .By the 18th century New Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world . Resentment toward the privileges toward the peninsulares and their Old World condescension grew and the creoles thought of themselves more and more as americanos . The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms. meaning double). Mexican Colonial Coins The first coins were minted in New Spain in 1536 . There were many other creoles who made fortunes in silver mining such as Count Bassoco and Count Valenciana . these Creoles were awarding titles by their donations to the Crown . the real de a ocho. a ranchero needed a permit to to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497.

htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .Colonial Mexico 1519 .1821 MexicanHistory.org The Pillar type coins were produced in Mexico from 1536 to 1572 The shield type were produced from 1572 to 1734 The Waves and pillar type were produced from 1651 to 1773 The Milled pillar type was produced from 1731 to 1772 http://mexicanhistory.org/colonial.

lindenhill.net Things to do near DC Close to DC.htm[5/20/2010 2:41:16 AM] .org The milled pillar bust types were produced from 1771 to 1821. www. Heroes.org/colonial.1821 MexicanHistory. you can see the Bourbon fleur-de-lis Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. Fairfax County has great attractions.com Maryland Chesapeake Bay Eastern Shore settlers in 1600's Pirates.fxva. Costa Rica.Colonial Mexico 1519 .mortgageallianceprogram. Scoundrels. shopping & more! www. Dominican Rep. Celts www.com Home Cortes: Retreat(NocheTriste) June 1520 Defeats Aztecs August 1521 Modern View of Cortes War for Independence 1810 -1821 http://mexicanhistory.

jpg[5/20/2010 2:42:49 AM] .edu/maps/atlas_mexico/new_spain_viceroyalty.http://www.lib.utexas.

org/Independence. Most Creoles wished to change the system so that they could have equality with the peninsulares. http://mexicanhistory. where there was a broad groundswell at indignation at English abuses and taxation without representation.1821 MexicanHistory. The lower classes. only a few conspired for independence in New Spain .MilitaryHistory. There were some military officers kept out of the highest ranks by virtue of being born in New Spain rather than the motherland.org The war for Independence 1810. The most radical were the parish priests who saw the suffering of their Indian parishioners firsthand.Norwich.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.Edu Ads by Google The Mexican Wars for Independence This perceptive history paints Mexico's 1810–1821 struggle for independence Unlike in America. Merchants and civil servants exposed to ideas of the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .The war for Independence 1810. but not equality for all. the Indians and mixed castes had nothing much to lose. their lot was so hard . They did rebel. but these rebellions were not organized enough to spread far .1821 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon Congress of Chilpancingo Spain Plan de Iguala Independence Army revolt in www.

By 1810 many secret societies were formed by creoles to fight for independence .. his son Charles IV ( 1788 1808 ) exploited the wealth of the colonies..Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808 1814. in these years. Without a true Spanish monarchy.1821 MexicanHistory.org/Independence. Latin America was.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . The church had to call in their mortgages. 5 9 62 482200451 It all begtan with a "shout". destroying many Creoles financially .99 Search For Posters! Go http://mexicanhistory. many creoles thought they should rule themselves. These church funds were sources of credit for Creoles. The most ruinous decision was to take the charitable funds of the church to help pay for European wars .The war for Independence 1810.Uprisings against Charles IV in Spain forced him abdicate in favor of his son in 1808 .org Charles IV Despite a lack of fervor for radical change as in France and America. Bullfighting from.The Inquisition was used to spy against and try those who agitated for reform . Unlike the wise Charles III. events in Europe caused it to be a necessity . The peninsulares thought otherwise . Art Print Buy for $19. ruled by independent juntas. with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calling on the people of New Spain to fight for their independence There was more turmoil in Spain when Napoleon forced the Spanish Bourbons into exile and place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1808 .

Hidalgo rang the church bells and summoned his parishioners and delivered his famous grito ( cry ) de Dolores on September 16.Allende introduced him to his revolutionary coterie and planned an uprising for December 8.The war for Independence 1810. Next they took Celya and then marched on Guanajuato. he lost his position as a rector at the collage of San Nicolas in Morelia . they marched for San Miguel.A few years later he met the revolutionary Ignacio Allende.They started to pillage and Hidalgo could not control them. none of these charges could be proved and he was released .org/Independence. a captain of the cavalry . However. They took San Migual without trouble and the local militia joined the rebels . who became an independence symbol.org Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla One of the first to call for independence was priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guanajuato .However. the plot was discovered and they decided to strike for independence at once .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . 1810. gathering more recruits along the way. 1810. In response to his call ' Viva Guadalupe ! ( after the Virgin of Guadalupe. doubting the veracity of the virgin birth and the infallibility of the pope and considered the king a tyrant . Ignacio Allende He became the priest in the city of Dolores in 1803 . There the peninsulares gathered in a makeshift fortress and decided to wait for aid from Mexico City . With Hidalgo at their head. Until he delivered his speech he was a minor figure in the revolutionary movement .He became a bishop in 1778 and was investigated by the Inquisition in 1800 for questioning the celibacy of priests ( he had a mistress ).1821 MexicanHistory. reading proscribed books.However. http://mexicanhistory. her humble clothes contrasting with the richly decorate virgin of the secular church ) The crowd shouted Death to the peninsulares ! The initial response was enthusiastic .

An immediate attack on Mexico City might have taken the city and brought independence then .By late October the army had about 80. The army retreated into Mexico City . Hidalgo and Allende felt strong enough at this time to split their forces .Hidalgo and Allende took what was left of their forces and retreated northward. Within a month they had taken the important silver mining town of Zacatecas. turning into a rout . Their decapitated heads hung of the walls where the Spaniards were slaughtered at Alhondiga de Granaditas for 10 years as a warning .1821 MexicanHistory.Over Allendes objection he decided to retreat into toward Guadalajara and the Spanish forces under General Felix Calleja began to regroup .000 rebels were killed . Hidalgo had taken heavy losses and was short of ammunition . San Luis Potosi and Valladolid . Battle of Puente de Calderon The Spanish army engaged them at Puente de Calderon.The rebels took Guadalajara .org Alhondiga de Granaditas It never came and over 500 peninsulares were killed holding out in the Alhondiga de Granaditas (public granary) and 2.org/Independence. http://mexicanhistory.000 marching on Mexico City . He was also hesitant to let the mod lose on Mexico City .The war for Independence 1810. Site of the battle of Monte de las Cruces The professional army was defeated by sheer numbers at Monte de las Cruces . In the middle of the battle. They were betrayed and captured in the Texas territory and executed for treason by firing squad on July 31.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . However. 1811. a Spanish cannon shot hit a rebel ammunition wagon and the resulting explosion caused a panic in the rebel army and thousands of rebels broke rank and ran.

Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was able to report to king Ferdinand that the situation was under control . http://mexicanhistory.org/Independence. the Spanish viceroy.1821 MexicanHistory. the Spanish army gathered strength and broke the encirclement.For the next 5 years the movement was little more than guerrilla fighting by a number of independent bands without coordination . those opposed to it were guilty of treason .Morelos organized his soldiers into small bands that carried out guerrilla warfare . one led by Guadalupe Victoria with about 2. viceroy Apodaca Meanwhile.With his execution the Independence movement reached its lowest point . The movement was continued under the mestizo priest Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.000 troops around Puebla and Vicente Guerrero with about 1. Government monopolies should also be done away with and replaced with a 5% income tax . retaking many towns .org Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon The popularity of the Independence movement waned after this .By 1819.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] .After awhile only two major bands remained.Gradually. Congress of Chilpancingo Morelos then held a congress in Chilpancingo to discuss the plans for the nation once the Spanish were driven out . the rebel army dwindled and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed .By 1813 they won enough territory to encircle the capital .The war for Independence 1810.He offered a pardon for all who would lay down their arms.They issued a Declaration of Independence.000 around Oaxaca . who had been recruited by Hildago .In their constitution that declared that suffrage should be universal and that slavery and the caste system should be abolished.Catholicism would remain the official religion of the state .

A new army would be created. troops who had assembled for an expedition to America were angry over infrequent pay. This was a much more conservative plan than that of Morelos.500 men to fight Guerrero . and began to support Independence and secretly meet with the former colonel Agustin de Iturbide to be their leader to insur a more conservative government . Ironically. At C diz. yielded to their demands . the Army of the Three Guarantees to enforce the plan . the Creoles found this change too liberal. The Spanish troops demanded that the king should abide by the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 which affirmed the sovereignty of the people. Iturbide marched his force toward those of Guerrero and instead of fighting him asked for a meeting and peace if he could dictate the terms . Guerrero agreed and on Feb 24 they issued the Plan de Iguala.1821 MexicanHistory.Colonel Rafael Riego declared himself in revolt and thousands of troops followed . The revolution of http://mexicanhistory. The Creoles convinced the viceroy to reinstate him in the army . the major points of which were that: independent Mexico would be a constitutional monarchy. Colonel Iturbide Plan de Iguala In 1820 viceroy Apodaca placed colonel Iturbide in charge of 2. and poor quarters and mutinied under the leadership of Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nu ez . If this was not done there would be a military coup . Spain. King Ferdinand had been gathering a powerful fighting force to quell the more serious Independence movements in South America . He resigned from the royal army after being accused of corruption. free speech and curbed the power of the church .The Catholic Church would remain the only official church in the country.org King Ferdinand VII Army revolt in Spain Meanwhile.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . led by King Ferdinand or another European prince .The king. Creoles and peninsularies would have equal rights. in January 1820. bad food.The war for Independence 1810. . a virtual prioner of the army at this point.org/Independence. Iturbide had fought against the rebels for nearly a decade .

viceroy Apodaca resigned . a Mexican congress would chose an emperor.1821 MexicanHistory. this was to become an important point . Home Colonial Mexico 1519 1713 First Mexican Empire 1821 http://mexicanhistory. Priests spoke in support of it from the pulpit . Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria and the army.org/Independence. After so many years of fighting and over 300 years of Spanish rule. Mexico was independent at last . Juan de O'Donoju.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:23 AM] . the last viceroy of New Spain .org Hidalgo and Morelos never gathered support from the conservative upper classes of New Spain. and accepted the Plan de Iguala and signed a treaty at Cordoba . One more proviso was added by Iturbide . this plan could and military units and common people began to defect to the Army of the Three Guarantees. Indepence Celebration in Mexico City Independence The Crown was not ready to give up New Spain and appointed a new viceroy. On September 27. Even many Spanish in Mexico supported the plan since they saw a future for themselves in Mexico. unlike the earlier more radical plans that demanded death or exile of the peninsulares . if no European leader was available to become the emperor of Mexico.O'Donoju became convinced that Spain could not hold on to Mexico.After many cities fell to the Army of the Three Guarantees. 1821 .The war for Independence 1810.

a Mexican-born criollo ( Creole ) who originally fought for the pro-Spanish royalists but switched his allegiance to the insurgents in the final phases of the war.org The First Mexican Empire and Agustín de Iturbide .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. 1821 . trained specialist treats you in immigration records online.Primer Imperio Mexicano July 21. General Agustín de Iturbide. 1821. 1823 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.ancestry. Iturbide knew he had to move quickly if he wanted to seize supreme power. Ferdinand VII. but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices.The Congress was still independent and some members of it wanted to form a republic and decreed that no member of the military could hold political office in order to forestall Iturbide 's attempt at becoming monarch .ObesityControlCenter. named a provisional Junta to rule the country. After the declaration of independence on September 27. www. which in turned named him as its presiding officer .com Immigration Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Search the World's largest library of U. However.March 19.BookIt. would also be Emperor of Mexico. it was the intention of Congress to establish a commonwealth whereby the king of Spain.com Agustín de Iturbide As provided by the Plan de Iguala.org/firstempire. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. as Spain was eyeing to retake Mexico.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.com www. it did not accept the offer .com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory.S.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] .

as Agustin I . 1821 . Iturbide's eldest son and his other brothers and sisters were made princesses and princes . hoping to promote free republican governments . http://mexicanhistory. The heir apparent was Senor Don August.Iturbide was now emperor of a huge empire. Guatemala. then accepted .The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory. They fired muskets and firing rockets in the air. President Madison was initially eager to extend diplomatic recognition to Mexico. which intimidated Congress into naming him the constitutional emperor of Mexico . Court etiquette was issued. but recognized the Empire of Mexico in December 22. Iturbide feigned reluctance. 1822 . Iturbide had his own troops. from California in the north to Panama .htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM] . the regiment of Celaya. On July 21.org/firstempire. which included Costa Rica. the shouted ' Viva Agustin I. and the Mexican state of Chiapas .org Coin of Emperor Agustin I On May 18. When Iturbide was declared emperor. Nicaragua. The old Captaincy General of Guatemala was also in the empire. Madison felt this ' empire ' couldn't last long . stage a demonstration on his behalf . 1822 Iturbide was crowned emperor .In June Congress declared the position to be hereditary . There they demanded their general declare himself emperor at once .The following morning Iturbide appeared at Congress with many of his followers. outraging republican factions who found it undignified to be forced to kiss the emperor's hand on bended knee . Emperor of Mexico !' and marched onto Iturbide's home with a mob which had followed them . Honduras. El Salvador.

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

The economy of the Empire The empire was on very shaky foundations. The war for independence had caused much damage to Mexico, especially the important silver mines, dropping from $26,000,000 minted in 1809 to only $6,000,000 being minted in 1821 .Iturbide and his supporters thought replacing the peninsulares who ended up with most of the capital during the colonial days would rectify the ills of the economy . They underestimated the amount of debt incurred during the war of independence, around 75,000,000 pesos and how it would strangle the economy . The extravagant regime expenses far exceeded its revenue and could only get loans at high rates . The government forced loans from the church and confiscated money from citizens . More paper currency was printed with the consequent inflation .In order to get the Spanish to agree to leave Mexico, Iturbide agreed to let the Spaniards, who nearly all left, to take the value of their land holding in hard currency, which seriously depleted the currency reserves . As many as 20% of adult males were unemployed . Much of the revenue that was raised went to Iturbide's salary and his military cronies, almost nothing was invested in restarting the economy .

www.BookIt.com Ads by Google

Vera cruz with the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa The economy began to stagnate and there were increasing criticism against the regime .Some members of Congress conspired against the emperor , but they were betrayed and arrested . Despite this there were more and more protests against an imperial form of government for Mexico by members of Congress .On October 31, Iturbide dissolved Congress in the face of heated criticism .

Santa Anna The self proclaimed leader of the antimonarchists was the commander of Vera Cruz Antonio Lopes de Santa Anna .Santa Anna was sent to Vera Cruz to drive out the last

http://mexicanhistory.org/firstempire.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM]

The First Mexican Empire 1821 MexicanHistory.org

remaining Spanish troops in Mexico in the harbor fortress of San Juan de Ulloa. The Spanish did not leave the fortress till 1825 .On Dec 1, 1822 Santa Anna proclaimed a republic in Vera Cruz .Soon, the old revolutionaries Vicenta Guerrero, Guadalupe Victoria and Nicolas Bravo had joined the movement . Iturbide appointed Jose Antonio Echaverri in charge of the imperial force to attack Santa Anna .Ironically, Echaverri proved as loyal to Iturbida as Iturbide had been to the Spanish viceroy .Echaverri joined Santa Annas' forces . On February 1, 1823, Santa Anna and the other members of his movement announced the Plan de Casa Mata.The key points of the plan were that Mexico would become a republic and Catholicism was to be the sole religion of Mexico. Iturbide would not be recognized as emperor . Realizing he no longer had support, Iturbide abdicated his throne in February 1823 and left first to Italy and then went to London . In 1824 he heard rumors that the restored Spanish king, Ferdinand VII was about to undertake a reconquest of Mexico .Iturbide offered his services to the Mexican republic to fight the Spanish, but the national congress, mindful of the lessons of Napoleon's return refused this offer and passed a law that he would be guilty of treason and executed if he returned . However, Iturbide, unfortunately, did not wait for a reply from Mexico and departed England on May11, 1824 with his family and retainers . He landed at Tampico and was recognized by the military commander there, Gen. Garza, who pretending friendship, but betrayed him .The Tamaulipas legislature met and decided it must enforce the order set by the national congress and he was executed by a firing squad . The sentence was carried outb at Padilla, July 19th, 1824, less than a week from the time of his landing on the coast, and before an appeal could be made to the general Government at Mexico . Before his execution he declared ' Mexicans ! Even in this act of my death I recommend to you to love our fatherland and observe our holy religion..I die for coming to assist you, and I die happy because I die with you ." The empress .Madame Huarte de Iturbide died in Philadelphia in 1861 . Home
War for Independence 1810 -1821 Early Mexican Republic 1822-33

http://mexicanhistory.org/firstempire.htm[5/20/2010 2:46:46 AM]

The Early Republic MexicanHistory.org

Web
Google Search

MexicanHistory.org

The Early Republic 1823 - 1833 The Early Mexican Republic The new Constitution President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero 1829 The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 President Bustamante 1830 - 32

The new Constitution After the collapse of the empire, Mexico was ruled by three military men : Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete, all military men . Elections were held to chose congressmen for the new constitutional congress .After the election the new congress met on November 27, 1823 to draw up a constitution . Soon two factions emerged as to whether Mexico should be federalist or centralist. The federalist were more liberal and the centralists more conservative and they were to tranfer power from each other in a bloody manner in the early republic period in Mexico . The centralist found support among the hacendados , the military and the clergy . The federalist were supported by liberal Creoles ( crillos ) and metizos who drew inspiration from the French and American revolution and the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 . The centralists argued that the conditions in America were too different from those of Mexico to be used. There was no history of the democratic process and exchange political ideas that happened in the north . One spokesman said Mexico had " ...buckled for 300 years under the weight of an absolute monarch...we are like children barely out of diapers.." However, the long history of imperial rule and the recent disastrous Mexican empire won the federalist faction when the Constitution of 1824 was draw up and the Estados Unidos Mexicanos was organized as a federal republic of 19 states and four territories . The Central American countries had declared their own independence in 1823 . There were three branches of government as in the United States to balance power : executive, legislative and judicial . The legislature was to be bicameral, with the upper house as the Senate and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies . Each state was represented by 2 senators and one deputy for every 80,000 residents . The president and vice president were to be elected by the state legislatures for a 4 year term . The Catholic church regained its monopoly on the spiritual life of Mexicans . The president could become a dictator in times of emergencies. The clergy and military were granted the old Spanish exemption of fueros from civil trials.There was to be a free press and free speech . Indian tribute was abolished . During this period the factions attached themselves to Masonic lodges where they could meet in secret . The conservatives met at Scottish Rite lodges and Liberals meet at York Rite lodges . President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29

http://mexicanhistory.org/earlyrepublic.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM]

Jos Miguel Ram n Adaucto Fern ndez y F lix )and Nicolas Bravo as vice president .The elections results showed Pedraza as the winner. Bravo was exiled to Ecuador .Groupon. The liberals charged that they had lost due to army intimidation of the legislators . These were insufficient to pay the huge debt the republic inherited .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .The Early Republic MexicanHistory.Over 50. but no an inspiring or talented administrator . These economic troubles and growing factional disputes led to an armed revolt against the president in 1827. http://mexicanhistory. taxes and monopolies . he spent more on the military than revenues could sustain . The liberal decided to revolt and chose Santa Anna as their leader .Mexican border .com/LA Ads by Google The new presidential elections were held in September of 1828. the caudillo . who had served in Victoria's cabinet as secretary of war . some report him as honest and unassuming and willing to meet with the public. The liberal candidate was Vicente Guerrero.1843 ) was a former rebel leader.As Iturbide did. who controlled the army. President Vicente Guerrero 1829 www. another rebel hero and the conservative candidate was Manuel Gomes Pedraza .After some fighting . In foreign relations the Victoria administration did well. who drew upon the conservatives of the Scottish Rite ( he was the Grand Master ) lodges for support . brave in battle. gathered around the president and the revolt was suppressed by General Santa Anna . The government sought to support itself through import duties.000 men were kept under arms. led by vice president Bravo .Guadalupe Victoria ( 1786 .org/earlyrepublic. the president elect declined the position and Guerrero became president and Santa Anna was given control of the army .The York Rite masons . Many foreign countries ( except Spain ) recognized Mexico including the Unites States and the Sabine river was accepted as the eastern boundary of the US .29 )chosen was Guadalupe Victoria ( real name.org Guadalupe Victoria The first president ( 1824 . A local military strongman emerges during these times.

The exiles had convinced Barradas that Mexico was eager to return to Spanish sovereignty. called for a reduction of the emergency powers and asked vice president Bustamante and Santa Anna to lead them. which had been abandoned . the Spanish general surrendered . but the capital was taken over by rebel supporters after he left and he retired to his farm in Tixtla . He foreshadowed future populists moments by inviting the poor to his birthday party . The treasury by this time was also bankrupt. President Bustamante 1830 .They landed near Tampico. Bustamante agreed. As yellow fever and lack of supplies took its toll. Slaves were few in number by this time. which had never recognized Mexico's independence. mainly middle class merchants. After an initial attack which failed.org Guerrero was a much more active president than Victoria . the most important of which was calling up of the reserves. choose this time to invade its most important former colony . Reserves in Jalapa. The Spanish Invasion of Mexico 1829 Spain. All remaining Spaniards were to be expelled from Mexico . but his act increased his support among mulattos.000 troops departed from Havana in July 1829 under the command of General Isidro Barradas . Guerrero was undone by the fear of a president with dictatorial powers after the emergency had passed and the fear of the upper classes of increased power of the lower classes leading to anarchy .32 - http://mexicanhistory. Guerrero's administration did not long outlast the Spanish invasion .Guerrero set off with a force to attack them.This marked a return to power of the conservatives. Bustamante. However. Guerrero placed Santa Anna in charge of repulsing the invasion. Guerrero's old supports were removed from office in many places and on the state level.Some of the states. Santa Anna settled in for a siege . The expedition included many of the Spaniards exiled in 1827 who wanted to return to the country.org/earlyrepublic.King Ferdinand VII sent an expedition of 3. and the Spaniards did not receive the support they expected from within Mexico . who fled the country . even after the repulse of the Spanish. This plan backfired . These factors led the Senate to declare Guerrero ' morally incapable' to rule and the minister of war ordered all officers to agree to the Plan of Jalapa of the conservative faction . such as Michoacan raised troops to fight the coup and Guerrero returned to fight . With this victory and that off driving out the emperor. as this was the kind of act federalism was supposed to prevent and caused resentment of the state officials to the coup . Spanish imports were seen as a threat to the economy and the poor cotton farmers. with army support was able to defeat the forces of Guerrero. who portrayed himself as a defender of the constitution .From August 1829 to December he ruled by emergency decree. Santa Anna became extremely popular .The Spanish were allowed to go home and the invasion touched off reprisals against the few reaming Spaniards.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] . abolishing slavery and other reforms to help the lower classes .The Early Republic MexicanHistory.

The Early Republic MexicanHistory. but he was no better able to revive the economy than Guerrero. using secret police and bullying the congress into compliance . which he did in 1833.47 Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande http://mexicanhistory. by which G mez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections.Santa Anna gathered his forces and overthrew Bustamante and was elected president in the 1833 election .Bustamante.The public was roused against Bustamante and Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to become the ' savior ' of Mexico again . Santa Anna and G mez Pedraza.But the incident which caused the greatest public outcry was the execution of Guerrero . Bustamante was to go into exile.org Bustamante cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated foreign loans. He also undertook many repressive acts against the liberals such as curtailing the freedom of the press. Home First Mexican Empire 1821 Santa Anna 1833 . signed the conventions of Zavaleta (December 21-23). Corruption was rampant .org/earlyrepublic.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:03 AM] .

Discover Family Heroes.org Santa Anna 1794 .1876 1833 Election Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Santa Anna becomes Centralist Changes of Santa Anna Revolt of Texas Land Grants to Americans Outlaws Settlers discontent with Mexico Mexican Reaction Fighting Begins Gonzales Capture of Bexar Battle of the Alamo Goliad Houston retreats San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War Republic of Rio Grande The Pastry War President Again Exile and Death Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.ObesityControlCenter. 1835 .1844 and 1847 ) occasions over a period of 22 years.ancestry. Lone Star Nation A well-written history of the Texas Revolution and the events leading up to it . and Texas as well as published sources. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. http://mexicanhistory.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . trained specialist treats you in Collection.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.com Revolutionary War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.com Santa Anna of Mexico Drawing on archives in Mexico.com www.The vice presidency went to Valentin Gomez Farias.org/santaanna.He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive ( 1833 multiple times . a liberal politician of intellectual distinction . Fowler supplies a much-needed corrective to existing impressions of Santa Anna with this balanced and well-written work Library Journal 1833 Election Santa Anna ( full name Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ) won the election of 1833 as a liberal with the largest majority in history . Britain. Spain.Santa Anna chased after the presidency for at least a decade.1839 .S.1841 .1842 . but once he had it he soon wearied of it left the day to day running of the country to his vice president while he retired to his estate of Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz .1843 .1834.

led http://mexicanhistory. Querétaro. Michoacán.' His busts and statues were to be found throughout Mexico . Nuevo León. State militias were disbanded .org/santaanna.org Valentin Gomez Farias Reforms of Valentin Gomez Farias Farias. Education was to be taken out of the hands of the church . Guanajuato.He threw gala balls and had opera houses and theaters built. the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states. that of the church and that of the army . the Republic of the Rio Grande. Santa Anna cast away his former liberal ways and became a conservative centralist . the constitution of 1836 was enacted . warlord.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . To curb the undue influence of the army. Billy Bob Thornton Gran Teatro de Santa Anna The old constitution of 1824 was done away with and a new one. began with two major reforms .The University of Mexico was closed down because its faculty was made up entirely of priests . His official title was ' his most serene highness ' and he also styled himself the " Napoleon of the West . The total wealth of the church was estimated at 180 million pesos . in which only those with a certain level of income could vote or hold office . more pejoratively. He declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and set about to build a caudilloist state ( It is usually translated into English as "leader" or "chief.The old federalists states were redrawn into larger military districts governed by political bosses loyal to Santa Anna. Tamaulipas and Zacatecas.000 and even though the country suffered under excessive taxation.000 acres . and the Republic of Texas. The Church was told it should limit its sermons to spiritual matters . Army and other conservative groups banded together against these reforms .Corruption was widespread. such as the Gran Teatro de Santa Anna .The mandatory payments of tithes were made illegal . Santa Anna becomes Centralist The Church .Santa Anna was moving to concentrate power .In order to secure power. the treasury was still bankrupt ." or.The Zacatecan militia. "dictator" or "strongman".The congress was disbanded .Nuns and priests were permitted to foreswear their vows . "Caudillo" was the term used to refer to charismatic populist leaders among the people ) . Several states went into open rebellion after these acts of Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas.They appealed to Santa Anna who agreed to led the movement against his vice president and rescinded all of Farias reforms and dismissed him from office . the Republic of Yucatan. Durango. Several of these states formed their own governments. Yucatán.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. The Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws) were enacted. The presidency changed hands 36 times between 1833 and 1855 . His land holdings by 1845 totaled 483. Santa Anna became a millionaire . Changes of Santa Anna The Alamo 2004 Dennis Quaid. he reduced its size and abolished military fueros . Jalisco. San Luis Potosí.The presidential term was extended from four years to eight . The army grew larger at this time to a standing army of 90.

San Antonio. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack Zacatecas for forty-eight hours. which dated from the time of the early Spanish colonization. Goliad.61 rifles.000 prisoners. After defeating Zacatecas.org by Francisco Garcia. Nacogdoches. or which had grown around the Missions established by the Franciscan friars for the conversion and civilization of the Indians . he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas Revolt of Texas October 2.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The first Europeans in the area. 1835 to April 21.The territory was far from Mexico City a few settlers arrived .org/santaanna.584 square miles ) was one of the northern colonial provinces of New Spain . and others. the Franciscan missionaries and early Spanish settlers in the early to mid 1700s faced attacks by Apaches.753 caliber British 'Brown Bess' muskets and Baker . was well armed with . 1836 \ Throughout the colonial period the vast territory of Texas ( 268. Stephen Austin Land Grants to Americans http://mexicanhistory. Comanches and other Indian tribes .There were small towns in the interior. on 12 May 1835. the Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3. After two hours of combat.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.

The outlaws of the neutral ground organized themselves into bands.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and a local militia was organized.This was followed by a large influx of Americans entered Texas attracted by the cheap land ( ten cents an acre ) compared with $1.25 an acre in the US . the judge and commandant . The settlers created a code of laws for the administration of justice and the settlement of civil disputes. who roved about stealing the stock. but his exposure and privations had weakened him. The Mexicans did nothing to protect or govern the colony.000 settlers . but by the aid of the Baron de Bastrop. Austin was the supreme authority." Gone to Texas .org/santaanna. By 1827 there were 12. While at work they kept guard against the Indians. Steven Austin was granted the same right and after advertising for settlers in New Orleans led 300 ( later called the ' old 300') families to settle a grant on the Brazos river . Austin's petition was forwarded to the central government. On the route he was robbed and stripped by his fellow-travelers.000 Mexicans .Spain wished to colonize the territory. and in 1826 commenced http://mexicanhistory. there were only 7. In 1820 he set out for Texas. after great exposure and privation. or murdering and scalping some solitary herdsman or traveler.Fraudulent debtors who had chalked on their shutters the cabalistic letters " G. to carry out his project. he reached the cabin of a settler near the Sabine River. and in 1821 granted Moses Austin permission to settle as an empresarios with around 300 Catholic families in Texas. and fought over land titles and for political domination. T. and was then in the service of Mexico. Mexico became independent and Moses' son.Colonists were also given a 7 year exemption from taxes. The land titles were duly recorded. and commenced his preparations for removal to Texas. leaving his dying injunction to his son. He was at first coldly received by Governor Martinez of San Antonio. at times making a night attack upon a cabin. and. he obtained a favorable hearing on his proposition to settle a colony of emigrants from the United States in Texas.000 Americans living in Texas.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Life in the new land was rough. He reached home in safety. New Orleans was abuzz with talk of the leagues of land that Mexico was giving to those who would colonize in Texas. T. and he returned home. who had served under Frederick the Great. Outlaws Many criminals from Mexico and the United Staes fleed to eastern Texas to escape justice . a Prussian officer.000 Americans and only around 8. and he died from the effects of a cold in his fifty-seventh year. By 1835 there were 30. Stephen. subsisting for twelve days on acorns and pecan nuts.In 1827.org Mexican Land Grant At the beginning of the 1800s.

Bustamente also began preparations by making Texas a penal colony. the most famous of which was that of John Long of Tennessee who invaded Texas with a private army and seized Nacogdoches and declared himself president of the Republic of Texas . but most settlers were not permitted to grow it and those that did were sometimes imprisoned . instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism.There were a number of filibustering expeditions from the United States into Texas to set up an independent. The Texans choose independence and chose David Burnet as president and Zavala as vice president . Mexican Reaction The Mexican government had reasons to be anxious about the growing American population in Texas .org/santaanna. In 1830. Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the Catholic Church. One of the major grievances against Mexico by the Texans was that it was an appendage to the state of Coahuila . which was mostly by Americans from the south with slaves. but not independent from Mexico and to have its own capital.President Adams and President Jackson had offered to buy the territory . Settlers discontent with Mexico The Mexican government believed the Americans could be integrated into Mexican society.Long's army was later defeated by the Mexicans. There were eventually given 3 representatives in the state legislature ( out of 12 ) buy were easily outvoted by Coahuilans on important matters . but as other citizens of Mexico were required to do.org a war against the Mexican authorities under the leadership of Hayden Edwards. but the societies were too different and tensions increased .Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. this was not approved and he wrote an angry letter to a friend. Fighting Begins http://mexicanhistory. Appellate courts were located in faraway Saltillo . Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U.Many Americans began to argue that they should separate from Mexico. The most active of these was Lorenzo de Zavala. to stations in the country. president Guerrero enacted the emancipation proclamation in 1829 .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Mexican colonization of Texas was encouraged . which seemed to suggest Texas should succeed from Mexico.000 slaves in Texas. mostly criminals and convicts. The American settlers could not grow what crops they wished. an empresario. leader of the Mexican Congress in 1823. This emeute." was easily suppressed. all future immigration from America was forbidden by president Anastasio Bustamente. Most Americans converted their slaves into indentured servants for life to get around this .Most Americans remained Protestant. called " The Fredonian War. Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion. The check immigration into Texas from America.The Americans wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila . grow which crops Mexican officials dictated . they were also supported by many Mexican liberals. Austin and his colonists taking part with the Mexican authorities.S. increasing the cost of trade with the US . although thousands continued to pour in through the porous borders . and the Mexican garrisons were strengthened . whose contract had been annulled on account of the conflicts which had arisen between the claims of his colonists and the original Mexican inhabitants and squatters. which were to be redistributed in Mexico. to take over the region. there were approximately 5. The Americans were also becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. The final straw for Americans in Texas was Santa Anna's' annulment of the Federal Constitution of 1824 and feared they would lived under a tyrant with no representation at all . The letter was intercepted and he spent 18 months in prison . even though they could go through the motions of being Catholic if questioned by Mexican officials and few bothered to learn Spanish .Mexico increased custom duties on exports. Growing cotton was lucrative at the time. but it event drew more support in the US for acquiring Texas . by sending a thousand soldiers. By 1836. Steven Austin traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government.

Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales. he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny. He then ordered his brother-in law. Unable to cross. the Texans captured Bexar. Thus the war had begun Capture of Bexar ( San Antonio ) General Martin Perfecto de Cos Next. The siege of Bexar. General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad. On September 20. and Coahuila. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles. http://mexicanhistory. Austin saw little choice but revolution. The next morning. negotiations were held. were on the whole loyal to Mexico before and few were members of the independence party . who was stationed in San Antonio. to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels.Most American settlers in Texas or Texicans. and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin.org Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan.m.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men. Since they had no cannon balls. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt.m. Under the Liberal banner. imprisonment of Austin and the news of what had happened at Zacatecas a majority supported the independence movement . and Austin sanctioned it. As a reward. under the defence of General Cos. the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons.org/santaanna. and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. including Jim Bowie. Zacatecas. they reached the camp. Two Texian militias answered the call. having never been formally charged with sedition. but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. and gunfire was exchanged.. At 3 a. Gonzales Colonel Domingo Ugartechea. and negotiations fell through. promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. many of the volunteers simply left. at 7 p. But after the annulling of the Constitution of 1824. On October 1. ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. Several officers resigned. Throughout November 1835. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo. civilians were massacred by the thousands. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. General Martin Perfecto de Cos. who went to Gonzales. which began on October 12. and was in Texas by August. Castañeda established a camp. Austin was released in July. The Texians refused. they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve. 1835.

Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and with no collective motivation.org 1835. Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. but his talents were not well suited for military life. bringing only disaster for months to come. but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 . hoping to sack the town. which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry. Although the Matamoros Expedition.1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. Soon. a force of about 6. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar. intending to capture the town from the Centralists. The remaining Texan army. in a fortress doomed to destruction.org/santaanna. prepared to advance towards Matamoros. would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. On November 6. to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors. The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico. perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250. Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. owning their own homes. The expedition failed. 1835. The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army. the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans. The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. Capt. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. was Santa Anna's initial objective The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. on March 2. one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ). poorly led. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army. Albert Martin. but it marched forward. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas. with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony. "At dawn on the first of March.000. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico. and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations." No further reinforcement arrived. The army suffered hundreds of casualties. Goliad http://mexicanhistory. voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong. the political and military center of Texas. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies. These men. arriving in Texas months before it was expected. chiefly husbands and fathers. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces. nothing came of it. passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause. never more to leave them. now led by General Sam Houston. despite Austin's leadership. as it came to be known.

About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday. border. 1836. which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries. Santa Anna's army. thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution Houston retreats Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. March 27. thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. the United States. Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column http://mexicanhistory. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds. "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. Houston ordered a retreat towards the U. which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. under Santa Anna's direct orders. widely known as the Goliad Massacre.. experienced and feared.together with the fall of the Alamo. branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas. always on the heels of Houston.org General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros.S. A scorched earth policy was implemented. and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day. 1836. March 20. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man. the rains made the roads impassable. gave unrelenting chase. was something the Texans could not easily defeat. Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . making his way north following the coast of Texas. Soon. The Mexican cavalry. so it was put to the torch. and many settlers also fled in the same direction. rather than a cruel one.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. and even Great Britain and France. Overnight. brought up cannon and reinforcements. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2.org/santaanna. and much animosity was aimed towards him. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men.. José Urrea At Goliad. Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans. denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers.

marched back to Mexico. Texas. Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle. and he was brought before Houston.org/santaanna. Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. the Texans surged forward. catching the Mexican army by surprise.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . and tired of running away. as dictator of Mexico. swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1. Houston could do nothing but follow. Hours before the attack. noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. the Texas Army demanded to make an attack.200 men. and put an end to the war. Santa Anna. mostly cavalry. but not without protests from Urrea. but nothing came of it. which were led by General Cos. which the Texans used as cover. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. a skirmish was fought between the enemies. To the dismay of the Texans. but Filisola disagreed. only nine Texans died. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico. Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg. both armies met at the San Jacinto River. Treaty of Velasco http://mexicanhistory. Without Houston's consent.org and race quickly towards Galveston. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass. Also. felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Santa Anna. Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant. Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down. but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. An 18minute-long battle ensued. immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war.' Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans. the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. Battle of San Jacinto On April 20. elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him. who had been wounded in the ankle. General Vicente Filisola. and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness. which had proven costly and prolonged. Numbering about 700. after burning Vince's Bridge. Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops. noting the state of his tired and hungry army. waited for reinforcements. Only Santa Anna had been defeated. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21. where members of the Provisional Government had fled. On that same day. his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. not the Army of Operations.

the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . into Texas. Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila. and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande . when French forces landed in Veracruz. In 1838. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead.. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. After some time in exile in the United States. but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. But unknown to Santa Anna.S. He was re-elected President. Santa Anna was sent to Washington. one private ) on May 14. When Santa Anna returned to Mexico. occupying San Antonio. but briefly. The war continued as a standoff. he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll. his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory.C. Republic of Yucatán and the Mayan Caste War 1847 . The public treaty was that he would not take up armes against the republic of Texas .htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] .The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. and soon after. two actually formed republic besides Texas. the Mexican government deposed him in absentia. Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight. and after meeting with U. Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas . they were many revolts against the centralisation of power. a French soldier of fortune. Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss. Nuevo León.1849 Flag of the Republic of Yucatán http://mexicanhistory. he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz. D.org/santaanna. president Andrew Jackson in 1837. Mexico Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande After Santa Anna annuled the Federalist constitution of 1824. called Manga de Clavo. thus.org Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto With Santa Anna a prisoner.

In November. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6. Texas .The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida. Upon this event. the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army . 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. however. Cult of the speaking Cross When the Mexican-American War broke out. and the United States. with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain. http://mexicanhistory. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America. Nuevo León.By 1855. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila. a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control.C. offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant . ultimately.This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life.the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government. The proposal received serious attention in Washington.In 1847 the so-called "Caste War" (Guerra de Castas) broke out. During this meeting. declaring independence effective 1 January 1846. no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula. many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) . representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt. After the end of the Mexican-American War. the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán. and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848. Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt.org In 1840. the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. the Republic of the Rio Grande failed. and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. Republic of Rio Grande 1840 The Republic of Rio Grande flag On January 17.org/santaanna. but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century . Spain. but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria. Yucatán declared its neutrality. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence. La Ceiba . The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 .: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. D.

Fearing for his life. but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. This was too much for the Mexicans. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. but the dictator was exiled to Cuba. Thus began the Pastry War . the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero. by an army commanded by the president himself. In 1846.Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. Santa Anna once again stepped down from power.Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee . Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay. Santa Anna tried to elude capture. With resentment ever growing against the president. The war with France had weakened Mexico. Mexico declared war on France.000 pesosfor the cost of the blockading fleet. and to seize the port of Veracruz. but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico.The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600. with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation. and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. His life was spared. a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital. at war against Santa Anna. President Again Soon after.000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed . turned over to authorities. In 1842. and the people were discontented. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives http://mexicanhistory. and imprisoned. a military expedition into Texas was renewed. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency. Also.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. or the French would demand satisfaction.000 pesos in payment and when payment. AntiSantanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780–1853). the United States declared war on Mexico. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury.000 troops . to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa.org The Pastry War In 1838. France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time.org/santaanna. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600. Exile and Death His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire. The French landed 3. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán. Meanwhile.000 pesos. Veracruz. Mexico agreed to pay. who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua .was not received blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4. Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. but France upped the ante to 800.

and two years later. 1876. pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. moved to Turbaco. and St. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion. which was tried without success.htm[5/20/2010 2:47:45 AM] . In 1851. on June 21. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. to the United States. In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. Thomas Adams. and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". but he failed to profit from this. The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power. with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. and he fled back to Cuba. naval blockades. Thomas. This reign was no better than his earlier ones. conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets. sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase)." which helped found the chewing gum industry.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army.S.org/santaanna. He then lived in exile in Cuba. he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. the base of chewing gum. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States. Home Early Mexican Revolutionary War Records Republic Largest Online US Military Records 1822-33 www. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna.ObesityControlCenter. Colombia. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later.org of the United States. since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters. by 1855 even his conservative allies had had enough of Santa Anna.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. He funneled government funds to his own pockets.com Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 http://mexicanhistory. In April 1853. he was invited back by rebellious conservatives.Santa Anna Texas Revolution MexicanHistory. Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty.ancestry. Jamaica. he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts. Discover Family Heroes. Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. Colombia. the United States. penniless and heartbroken.S. Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston. trained specialist treats you in Collection. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting.

Brinks. also felt America was not ready to go to war with A Glorious Mexico over Texas .TopAlarmCompanies.1848 The Situation after the Independence of Texas The Border Question Not so secret Negotiations Mexican President Overthrown Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Taylor on the Rio Grande The Thornton Affair War is Declared Get 4 Free Alarm Quotes From ADT. War With Mexico. was not for immediate annexation .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . 18461848This wellwritten. the ability of that country to maintain their separate sovereignty. 1 Form. Many congressmen believed that annexing Texas too soon would led to war with Mexico . www.The matter of Texas admission to the United States also became Defeat: Mexico and Its War with embroiled in the slavery issue. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U. President Tyler The following president. and maintain our present attitude. APX Alarm. If Texas was admitted to the Union it would become a slave state and northern states opposed its annexation and the Whig party in the north the United States http://mexicanhistory. 4 Quotes. shall have proved. Andrew Jackson . " seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof. at least until the lapse of time. beyond all dispute. or the course of events. and to uphold the Government constituted by them." So Far from God: The U. Compare & Save." said he.S. & GE.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. " Prudence. Van Buren.1848 MexicanHistory.Mexican American War 1846 .com Prelude to the Mexican American War The Situation after the Independence of Texas The United States recognized the independence of Texas in 1837 . if not till Mexico or one of the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new Government. The American president after Texas won its independence.org/mexicanamericanwar1.org Mexican American War 1846 . comprehensive history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.S.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

as half of the Senators represented free States. and chronicles the fighting from its inception to its conclusion with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo American manifest destiny But more support for annexing Texas and other territories was growing.1848 MexicanHistory. President Polk ordered army troops to the border and sent navy ships to the Mexican coast . California in 1842 for a day before returning it took Mexican rule . The Border Question http://mexicanhistory.It was discovered by President Tyler. such a majority was at present unattainable and was proved when the measure failed in June 1844 . On the 3rd March. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28.Prior to Polk's election. It required a majority Mexican War of two-thirds of the Senate to annex a foreign territory in accordance with the from a Mexican perspective provisions of the Constitution . 1845 and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war . a survey of the This History Channel special. 1845 . it joined the Union .No time was lost by Tyler in making the choice offered to him by the joint resolutions. Texas joined the Union on December 29.who was pro-annexation. he made one last effort at peace by sending John Slidell to try to negotiate with Mexican president Jose Joaquin Herrera .org/mexicanamericanwar1. Texas consented to be annexed. and that.org were nearly united in their opposition to the annexation of Texas. There was a fear England would purchase California.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . President James Polk In 1844 James Polk won the presidency on a platform that included annexation . lodged a formal protest and asked for his passport . and the December 29.Mexican American War 1846 . could as well be performed by a joint resolution of the two houses of Congress. the Mexican minister to the U. Not wishing to be labeled a war eagle. the American Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones seized Monterey. he dispatched a messenger to the American agent in Texas to propose the resolution of annexation to the acceptance of the Texan Government .S. that what could not be effected by treaty. 1845 . As soon as the joint resolution annexing Texas passed the Unites States Congress. president John Tyler introduced an annexation resolution to Congress.On the 4th July. a few hours before his term of office expired. The new president. an under this mistaken belief that Britain actually had purchased California. which passed the House of Representatives in January 1845 and the Senate in the next month . Such a resolution required only a bare majority in each branch . hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.

the new government publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas. However. supported by populist newspapers. Oklahoma. They based this on the facts that when Texas was under Mexican rule.000 or more for California .000 was offered for the New Mexico territory and $25.000.org The matter of prime importance was the boundary dispute between western Texas and Mexico . Rebellion was threatened if President Herrera negotiated with the Americans to sell Mexican soil .000. the Mexican government had allowed some Americans settle in the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande and that when Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his troops after his defeat and capture at San Juncinto. Mexican President Overthrown http://mexicanhistory. convinced that Mexico should be "chastised. The Americans also claimed the right of self defense against Indian raids from Indians that were said to inhabit the disputed area . considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera Not so secret Negotiations Slidell also carried secret instructions to try to purchase California ( Mexican Alta California ) and the remainder of New Mexico (Nuevo M xico). the western border of the Texas territory had been the Nueces River .The Texans claimed the Rio Grande to its source. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power.1848 MexicanHistory. Kansas. $5. In 1836.org/mexicanamericanwar1. Slidell. Military opponents of President Jos Joaqu n de Herrera." returned to the United States. the Mexican government never formally accepted the treaty . and Colorado.Mexican American War 1846 .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . Wyoming. which included parts of modern day New Mexico. he withdrew them across the Rio Grande. the Congress of the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as the western boundary . The Mexican press soon found out these secret details and when it became common knowledge in Mexico it caused an uproar . as per the Treaties of Velasco .Throughout Spanish and Mexican history.

On the following day he was named president of Mexico by a junta of notables he had assembled from heads of governmental departments. He ordered General Zachary Taylor into the disputed area on August 30 with the seventh regiment of infantry and three companies of dragoons ( Dragoon is the traditional name for a soldier trained to fight on foot but who transports himself on horseback ) ans militia from Alabama.000 in all He was told. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to the border Zachary Taylor's army in Corpus Christi President Polk still needed a stirring casus bell for popular support for the war and wanted a show of force to help in the negotiations of Slidell to buy Califorina instead of having to resort to arms . if deemed practicable and expedient. take and hold possession of Metamoras and other places in the country.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . will be regarded by the Executive as an invasion of the United States and the commencement of hostilities. you may in your discretion cross the Rio Grande. and Kentucky.Paredes entered Mexico City on January 2.000 men.org/mexicanamericanwar1. Tennessee.Louisiana. was able to assemble a force of 6.S. and. with much difficulty. Mexico having thus commenced hostilities. was plotting to invade. your main object will be the protection of Texas .1848 MexicanHistory. in December 14. disperse or capture the forces assembled to invade Texas.about 4. drive them from their positions on either side of the river. either declared or made manifest by hostile acts. 1846. and crossing the Rio Grande with a considerable force. defeat the junction of troops uniting for that purpose." http://mexicanhistory.Mexican American War 1846 . but the pursuit of this object will not necessarily confine your action within the territory of Texas. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potos . 1845 he rose in revolt of President Herrera. Paredes was infuriated that Herrera would even allow the American envoy into Mexico .org Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga While the U. " The assembling of a large Mexican army on the borders of Texas. Herrera. the Mexicans could not unite in the face this danger and continued their old patterns of conservative-liberal strife. This was put under the command of the ultra-conservative General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and sent to the north to San Luis Potos to reinforce Mexican troops along the border . Mississippi.In case of war. but instead of marching north against the invaders.

S. wrote to the Secretary. instead of proceeding immediately to the Rio Grande agreeably to his instructions. he found the buildings in flames. he met " small armed parties of Mexicans who seemed disposed to avoid us. the inhabitants must.The very next day peremptory orders were sent to Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande to try to provoke the Mexican forces in Laredo or Matamoros General Taylor. except in reference to Texas. and for the melancholy consequences of these they who have been the invaders must be answerable in the view of the whole world. he prudently waited for further orders. to make a forward movement to the Rio Grande without authority from the war department. After proceeding through the desert about one hundred miles. The new Mexican president Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was not intimidated by this show of force. opposite Matamoros and started constructing a fort known as Fort Texas. not a Texan was to be found South of Corpus Christi. the first dispatch was received from Slidell in Mexico. and for which no reason had been assigned. 1845. stopped at Corpus Christi at the mouth of the Nueces. it would enter into no negotiation with him.org/mexicanamericanwar1. "Mexico having as yet made no positive declaration of war. the extreme point of Texas proper. although the Mexican Government had not yet refused to receive him. later known as Fort Brown . whatever professions of peace 'you may employ. so long as his army " shall remain in the territory of Tamaulipas. and the site of a Mexican Custom House. and as his march into the Mexican territory in time of peace would be an act of aggression. and http://mexicanhistory. Taylor. an invasion of which no notice had been given to the Government of Mexico. regard you as openly committing hostilities. a Mexican settlement. At the same time he received a protest from the " Prefect of the Northern District of Tamaulipas'' against his invasion of a territory " which had never belonged to the Texas. The protest concluded with assuring Taylor that.1848 MexicanHistory. in pursuance of orders. I do not feel at liberty under my instructions. 4th. On the 12th January. or committed any overt act of hostilities. Not an American. planted his standard on the bank of the Rio Grande and placed a battery of eighteen pounders one the east bank of the Rio Grande.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . without having met with the slightest opposition. It had been hoped that Mexico would agree to sell California in exchange for the claims against Mexico . particularly those of July 8th." On approaching Point Isabel. declared his willingness to fight.Mexican American War 1846 . envoy from Mexico. He expelled the U." Taylor on the Rio Grande On the 28th March. 1846. and Oct." As there was no invasion to repel.org General Zachary Taylor General Taylor. from which it appeared probable that. commenced his march into the Mexican territory.

thus cutting off all communication with Metamoras by sea. '" If you insist on remaining upon the soil of the department of Tamaulipas. discovered a small body of Mexicans on the summit of a rising ground.49 Americans were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros.org/mexicanamericanwar1. " Hostilities may now be CONSIDERED AS COMMENCED. says. " Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States.He therefore resorted to an expedient which would compel Ampudia to fire the first shot. Five days after our arms had thus threatened and insulted Metamoras. whereupon he determined." but the main body of about 2. not to remain any longer idle. Tamaulipas. the very day on which' he informs the Secretary that the relations between himself and the Mexicans remained the same. he reports. about 25 miles from the U.Mexican American War 1846 . and Porter. Mexico officially declared war on July 7 . . one of defence. published in the Philadelphia Inquirer . and therefore unseen. drove away the men. announces to the Cabinet the attainment of the long desired result. Accordingly. and capture and destroy any such parties that they might meet. must decide the question.org sent thousands of troops to the city of Matamoros." As Taylor had been sent to Tamaulipas expressly to produce this very result. reports." There were two American armed vessels at Brazos Santiago. Pofter and one man was killed whether any. " It will at any rate compel the Mexicans to withdraw their army from Metamoras where it cannot be sustained.000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrej n were on the other side of the hill. after mentioning the affair in the words we have given. were authorized by me a few days since to scour the country for some miles with a select party of men. including Captain Seth Thornton were killed and an unknown number of Mexicans were killed . 1846. complaining that his advance to the Rio Grande had ' not only insulted but exasperated the Mexican nation. He immediately charged upon them ." In this affair. On May 13. investigated an abandoned hacienda. or how many Mexican lives were sacrificed. he appointed General Mariano Arista as commander of the Army of the North to fight the Americans. coming up captured the assailants after a battle of a few hours. ' engaged with a very large force of the enemy. Lieutenants Dobbins of the 3d Infantry. " with a view to check the depredations of small parties of the enemy on this side of the river. and that Lieutenant Porter at the head of his own detachment surprised a Mexican camp. acting on the advice of a local guide . the Mexicans did not attack Taylor . and took possession of their horses. " 16 Americans. on April 24 . despite protests by the Mexican government . The Thornton Affair His next letter of 26th April. Another letter.1848 MexicanHistory. what was to be known as the Thornton Affair occurred which gave Polk his cause for war . or to assume the offensive on this side of the river." Notwithstanding the blockade.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] . and retire beyond the Nueces . appear to have been surrounded and compelled to surrender. "a war by the act of Mexico. and when not a single shot had been fired by the latter. according to the wishes of the Cabinet. it seems. 4th Infantry. has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. and immediately addressed a letter to the American General. and these he ordered to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande. and. the President announced to Congress and the world. In April 1846. does not appear . War is Declared General Taylor." Upon the Strength of this despatch. General Ampudia reached the city with reinforcements. Taylor wrote "that a party of dragoons sent out by me on the 24th instant to watch the course of the river above on this bank. adding. It appears they separated. it will clearly result that arms. camp . Home Santa Mexican http://mexicanhistory. he took occasion of this letter to hasten the desired crisis. after a short affair in which some sixteen were killed and wounded. and thus. to make the intended war. Congress declared war on Mexico.four hours to remove his camp." and requiring him within twenty.S. and arms alone." It appears that Captain Seth Thornton the commander of the party of with 70 dragoons .

apexlogistics.com ® Anna 1833 .htm[5/20/2010 2:48:12 AM] .ancestry.com Caste War Republic of Rio Grand President Photos at Bing™ Sort Presidents by Party.org/mexicanamericanwar1.org Ancestry. Terms Served.Mexican American War 1846 . Try Visual Search! www. & More. licensed Customs Broker will answer www.Bing.+4 Billion Records Mayan www.com/VisualSearch National Customs Broker Call us today and an experienced.World's largest online family history 47 resource.com American War 1846-47 http://mexicanhistory.1848 MexicanHistory.

com ObesityControlCenter.which played a decisive role in several key The U. The Mexican military lacked a professional officer corps and its army was in great want of resources . including So Far from God: the U. trained specialist treats you in Collection.org/mexicanamericanwar2.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .The rifle.com Comparisons of Mexico and America At the outset of the war Mexico had a population of 7 million and a bankrupt and stagnant economy. in contrast had a professional officer corps and the most advanced artillery. history of the war takes into account the political and diplomatic dimensions as well as the military.The US. and had to make do with obsolete European discards A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States The Mexican American War from a Mexican perspective http://mexicanhistory.com Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.S. American Flying Artillery Both sides used smoothbore muskets. The contrast between the armies was even more pronounced .org The Mexican American War Comparisons of Mexico and America American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico Gen Taylor in Matamoros Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Preparations for the invasion of Mexico The March on Monterey Battle of Monterey Surrender of Monterey Conquest of New Mexico and California Return of Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista Siege of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle of Chapultepec Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsen Purchase Civil War Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U. War With battlesThe violence of the war and its unjust nature was very tramatic to Mexican pride and is still a Mexico This well-written. source of resentment for Mexicans today which can be seen in the Reconquista movement in comprehensive Mexico to recover the lost Mexican territories . Army horse artillery or ' flying artillery ' . Mexican soldiers were often fed and cared for by their women who followed the troops.ancestry. while the US had a population of 20 million and a dynamic and growing economy . Lack of medical services meant the wounded often had to be abandoned . The army had antiquated short range artillery and solders often only fired their guns for the first time in battle .Mexico had no small arm factories of its own . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. with its spiral grooved bore was much more accurate .The Mexican American War Web Google Search MexicanHistory.S. was expensive and the US Army was slow to adopt it .S. Discover Family Heroes. Mexico for fractions of the cost www. but the frontiersman's rifle of the time.

were almost utterly unknown in the United States. The whole detail of the physical and social condition of Mexico. before even a general of the army could make prudent military arrangements.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .The name probably derives probably from the dragoon's primary weapon. Secretary at War.The Mexican American War Early photograph of American dragoons entering Saltillo. " the immediate appearance in arms of a large and overpowering force. The American strategy called for a three pronged offensive . a carbine or short musket called the dragon. hosted by Oscar de la Hoya.The President declared that in his opinion.500 hundred men . and the means to execute them. engaged in arranging and superintending the various staff duties of the army. and General Scott . by consultations between the President. Dragoon were soldiers trained to fight on foot. General Scott." would be the best means of producing peace. but trained in horseback riding and combat . seems to have been arranged jointly. At this time. and that information on these topics had to be obtained by inquiry and study.org/mexicanamericanwar2. like a fire breathing dragon. The Army of the Center under Doniphan would was ordered to northern http://mexicanhistory. He would be naturally consulted on the plans to be formed. General Stephen W. was stationed at Washington. looks at the war from the perspective of both countries Map of the Mexican American War The plan of the campaign in Mexico for the year 1846. Kearny would leave from Fort Leavenworth with the army of the West and occupy New Mexico and California with 1. as commander of the army. American Plans for the Invasion of Mexico The MexicanAmerican War This History Channel special.

thought the time had arrived for a decisive blow. it was ascertained that a large body of the Mexican army had crossed the river (Rio Grande) above. Gen Taylor in Matamoros Three days after the Thornton affair. and then fall on the American army.The Mexican American War Mexico and the Army of Occupation would head for Mexico City under Zachary Taylor. which had been left in care of a small detachment.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and the defense was vigorously continued by Captain Hawkins. Arista saw that Point Isabel. In the mean while. The departure of General Taylor with his army.org/mexicanamericanwar2. and continued at intervals till the 10th. The army was halted. In this defense. The plan was judicious. a heavy bombardment was commenced from the batteries in Matamoras. and leave it isolated in the heart of the enemy's country. and by whose skilful conduct the defenses were increased and strengthened during the siege. which had just fought the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. and was only prevented from being carried out. was comparatively defenceless. under whose direction the fort was built. . Captain Hawkins. 3 and that another corps was about to cross below. the depot of large quantities of provisions and military munitions. The plan of Arista was to cross the Rio Grande. and the men refreshed http://mexicanhistory. who was now in command of the Mexican army.mation brought to General Taylor by one of Thornton's party sent in by the Mexican commander ! Battle of Palo Alto Death of Major Ringgold at Palto Alto. with his main force. and several killed and wounded. It appears that General Arista. therefore. General Taylor was convinced that the object ol attack was Point Isabel. had assembled in all about eight thousand men at Matamoras. and arrived on the next day. the camp of Captain Walker's Texan Rangers was surprised. by the accidental infor. under the command of Major Brown. Leaving an unfinished field-work. Captain Mansfield was an engineer officer. and at noon the enemy was discovered drawn up in battle array upon a prairie three miles from the Palo Alto. At five in the morning of the 3d of May. The former was killed by a shell. get in the rear of General Taylor's army. furnished the enemy in Matamoras with the opportunity for a safe attack on Fort Brown. when the defenders of the fort were relieved. both for skill and gallantry. with Lowd's and Bragg's companies of artillery. and being well advised of the strength of the American forces. This was between Point Isabel andMatamoros. he marched for Point Isabel on the 1st of May. The capture of Captain Thornton's party had also emboldened the Mexican troops. both cut off the supplies of Taylor's army. who was an officer of the ' flying artillery' was one of the 5 Americans who died in the battle The next day (the 8th) the march was resumed. The siege of Fort Brown was raised by the arrival of the victorious army of Taylor. To take this place would. and garrisoned by the 7th infantry. and Captain Mansfield were greatly distinguished. and where a large depot of provisions invited the enemy. capture Point Isabel. Major Brown.

from which he did not depart till two p. and by other troops of that division. To remedy this. A battery of artillery.org/mexicanamericanwar2. attacks of the Mexicans were met by Duncan's battery. and the retreat during the night of the Mexicans. The Dragoons cut through the enemy. however. This ravine was occupied by the Mexican artillery. but was met by the Flying Artillery.cers were again driven back.. In this firing.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . Again a Mexican division of Lancers charged.The Mexican American War at a pool. dating his despatch. On the left wing of our army. and were rapidly http://mexicanhistory. and 5th Regiments of Infantry deployed on either flank to support it and act as skirmishers. the army advanced by heads of columns. The Mexican cavalry. to charge the American right. but with as little success. The continuous fire of artillery disordered and drove back the enemy's columns. and were forced back by the destructive discharges of artillery. The Dragoons.dered Torrejon. the Mexican cannon were well managed by Generals La Vega and Requena. were unable to bear the continued and well-directed fire poured upon them by both infantry and artillery. In two hours. the American army came in sight of the Mexican array. moved up the main road. They fled pre. 4th. and never was there a more complete demonstration of the superior skill and energy of that Arm of service. The Lan.tery and by the infantry on the wings. at night" This might be true . The artillerymen were dispersed. mostly Lancers. Ridgely. Arista. A ravine here crossed the road. This he did.cipitately from the field. Their columns. The combat on our side was chiefly carried on by artillery . Ridgely. general of cavalry. while the 3d. and General La Vega taken prisoner. at Resaca de la Palma. It was necessary to dislodge them and this duty was assigned to Captain May of the Dragoons. the next day. and took a new position several miles off. when they were deployed into line. and by the 5th Infantry. The regiments of infantry now charged the Mexican line. and died in a few days The battle terminated with the possession. and under cover of its smoke the Americans advanced to the position just occupied by the Mexican cavalry. The position was well chosen . and with troops better skilled in the use of artillery. of the field. might have easily been defended. M. The dispositions of our troops were soon made. It was here that this officer became so distinguished. M. under Lt. but he was in retreat. says. The action commenced by the fire of the Mexican artillery. and in turn fell back on the main body. till the Mexican cannon opened upon them. which was returned by Ridgely's bat. Montero. He who was the life and leader of the Light Artillery. MAJOR RINGGOLD was in this engagement mortally wounded. under Lt. under the command of Col. and on either side it was skirted with dense thickets. Battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor had encamped on the field of battle. The charge was gallantly made. now broken by successive charges. and the battle was soon ended. by the Americans. " in sight of the enemy. poured forth its rapid and deadly fire on the enemy. and with greater energy of body. were on their left. At two P. and the effect began to be severely felt on the American lines. had advanced beyond support. At this period the prairie grass was set on fire. and Ringgold's Light Artillery on the right. as conducted by the accomplished graduates of West-Point. General Arista or.

he advanced to the village of Marin. leaving that town garrisoned by about two thousand men. and on the 5th of September. in rear of the town and beyond the river.in-chief left Comargo. the Mexican villages of Reinosa. The March on Monterey A small portion was assigned to garrisons. The opposite side of the city. Battle of Monterey Monterey The city of Monterey is situated in the valley of the San Juan . The Mexicans lost many prisoners. and Revilla surrendered. Mier. Above the Saltillo road was a height upon which was the Bishop's Palace. works were erected which commanded the valley and the approaches from the north. and about two thousand yards in front and below the Bishop's Palace. Here the various divisions which were to compose the particular army of General Taylor were gradually concentrated. In front of the city was the Cathedral Fort. In front. with which some nations are fortunately gifted. who discovered strong bodies of the enemy in front.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .org/mexicanamericanwar2. rise the mountain ridges of the Sierra Madre. or citadel. Comargo. after the battle of Resaca de la Palma. and ceased not their flight till they either crossed or were overwhelmed in the waters of the Rio Grande. Worth reached Ceralvo about seventy miles on the 25th of August. the capital of New Leon . all fortified. Comargo. where the entire army was in a few days concentrated under the command of General Taylor. by the natural influence of climate and the artificial developments of science.The Mexican American War pursued by the American rearguard.ted to them. and were occupied. Preparations for the invasion of Mexico From the period at which the American army occupied Metamoras. and the officers of the army on the Rio Grande. and around it. as http://mexicanhistory. and were only conquered by that union of physical strength and superior skill. a town about one hundred and eighty miles above the mouth of the Rio Grande. was the point selected as the depot of supplies. In these engagements neither cowardice nor feebleness was attribu. which was regularly fortified. numbering six thousand six hundred. were busied with preparations for an advance into the interior of Mexico. and at that point sent out reconnoitering parties. while the main body. to the left. behaved well. On the 20th of August General Worth began his march for Monterey. In the mean time. were destined for the march to Monterey. both the general government at home. the general. More than three months were consumed in these preparations. Being reinforced. On the heights. The Rio Grande was assumed as the military base-line of operations. and near it other heights. although the real base was necessarily the Mississippi. The entire army of General Taylor consisted of about nine thousand men. and in the rear. the road from Ceralvo and Marin entered the town. They fought gallantly.

and the troops remained upon their arms. The two last regiments. It was then that General Taylor ordered up the 4th Infantry. This movement was executed during the evening. advanced against the redoubt. with Bragg's Artillery. was ordered to make a detour to the right turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace take a position on the Saltillo road and. entered the town to the right. and fired upon the redoubt. Garland's force. and Wood's Texan Cavalry. and on the 19th of September arrived at Walnut Springs. In the afternoon of the 20th of September. were detached to the right. into the rear of which. three miles from Monterey. and they were compelled to retire. and Davis. and Colonel Garland was again ordered forward with an.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and the garrison under his command consisted of about seven thousand regular troops.other column. Siege of Monterey Both the natural and the artificial defenses of Monterey seem to have been very strong. however. Campbell.org/mexicanamericanwar2. to attack the lower part of the town.drawn. The brigade of General Quitman (Tennessee and Mississippi) pushed on. with General Butler and Colonel Mitchell. Tennessee. no important success had been obtained against the lower http://mexicanhistory. was ordered to the left. May's Dragoons. and after another severe contest retired in good order. On the morning of the 21st the main battle came on. General Butler. and advanced against the second battery. pressed forward. to the support of General Worth. In the mean while the Ohio regiment. and the Volunteer regiments from Ohio. Notwithstanding this strong garrison. however. and there were barricades in the streets of the city. Up to this time. and commenced its assault on the town. The front defense here was a redoubt. The last companies being in front were received with a deadly fire. which killed or disabled one-third of the men. who accompa.nied the parly in its advance. with the bayonet and the artillery. if practicable. and with the aid of Captain Backus's company (on the roof of a house) captured the fort.vious. The point of attack was designated by Major Mansfield. and Mississippi. being wounded. carry the enemy's works in that quarter. General Taylor thought it possible to carry the place by storm. Monterey was then under the command of General Pedro Ampudia. with its cannon and ammunition. Notwithstanding this neither the extant of the defenses nor the garrison within them seem to have been known to the American army previous to its arrival in front of the city. it is ob. the column rapidly moved. having met with no more serious resistance than that of skirmishing parties of Mexican cavalry. The guns of the first battery were turned upon the second. just beyond the range of the enemy's shot. and two or three thousand irregulars. were both ordered forward . superior in numbers to the American army.The Mexican American War the Americans approached. supported by the Light Artillery. were forts also erected. with three companies of the 4th regiment. commanded by Colonels Mitchell. with his division. but the fire was so severe that the regiment was withdrawn . During the night two 24-pounder howitzers and . They were compelled to pass several streets trenched and barricaded. A column of six hundred and fifty men. General Worth. were with. Here it was opposed by entrenched streets and barricaded houses.i ten-inch mortar were placed in battery against the citadel. The army. Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions. in spite of its fire. On one of these the company of Captain Backus succeeded in getting. who had advanced with it.

At night General Taylor ordered a large part of Twiggs' and Butler's Divisions back to Walnut Springs a portion remaining to guard the battery in the ravine. and that the forces of the United States would not advance beyond that line before the expiration of eight weeks. Marines. The houses were fortified.The Mexican American War town. which had bivouacked on the Saltillo road. but. The firing continued during the 23d the Americans having possession of the greater part of the city. The Mexican cavalry had also made severa. recommenced the advance. and the terms were unusually favorable to them. two companies of light. 1846. Louis . and our troops actually dug through from house to house ! On the upper side of the city. On the same day (the 2 1st) Worth's Division had advanced to the right. while Gar. M. chiefly to the Citadel and Plaza. The American loss in this battle was (killed and wounded) four hundred and eighty-eight. Besides al! this.org/mexicanamericanwar2." Conquest of New Mexico and California Immediately after the opening of hostilities in the valley of the Rio Grande. of which notice has been taken in preceding chapters of this work. Worth and his Division. had rendezvoused at Fort Leaven-worth . and the Mexicans confined. He immediately ordered General Quitman to enter the place . and carried several fortified heights. or until the orders or instructions of the respective governments should be received.' The command of this expedition had been vested in General Stephen W. charges. The guns of the Citadel continued. The Mexicans marched out with their arms. " The Saclede Rangers. For this concession there were strong reasons. but always unsuccessfully. during this day. Doniphan . End of the armistice The War Department did not choose to continue the armistice . under Captains Augney and Murphy sixteen hundred and fifty-eight men in all. The Surrender of Monterey. The force entered Los Angeles unresisted on August 13. In communicating this notice to General Santa Anna. found nearly all the works in the lower part of the city abandoned. The main part of the capitulation was. under Colonel Alexander W.) General Ampudia sent in propositions to General Taylor which. then in command of the Mexican army. and that each party should be at liberty to resume hostilities. and the capture of the Bishop's Palace. but here a new resistance was made. It is known as the Siege of Los Angeles.S. General Taylor took occasion to suggest the idea of an honorable peace. Missouri. That evening (at 9 p. defeated the enemy. stopped in San Pedro. two provinces. in their defence. Kearney. to fire upon the American positions ." a volunteer troop. from St. and take possession of. the American army had but a short supply of provisions. sailing south to San Diego. with twelve six-pounders and four twelve-pound howitzers. and San Fernando de Prezas . he dispatched 50 U. but General Taylor made no important movement in front. and the force under his command embracing the First regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers. the nearly http://mexicanhistory. and two companies of infantry (volun-teers). A change of government had just taken place in Mexico. Mexican General José Castro and Governor Pío Pico fled further south into loyalist Mexico. when the Palace and the guns of both were turned upon the enemy below. Worth's Division had also gained a lodgment. treads upon the territory of this republic. directed General Taylor lo give notice that the armistice should cease. retreat of Mexican troops At dawn of the 22d. was one to move against. believed to be favorable to peace. in arms. " You should banish every idea of peace while a single North American. General Taylor. gave a new face to affairs. five troops of the First regiment United States dragoons . To this the Mexican chief replied. resulted in the surrender and evacuation of Monterey. the city of Linares. and to have reduced the citadrl of Monterey would have cost the lives of many men.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and General Ampudia concentrated his troops in the heart of the city. after some negotiation. and the most energetic measures had been adopted to insure its early departure and its ultimate success. a large portion of whom fell in the attacks of the 21st on the lower town. from Cole and Platte counties. Louis.artillery {Captains Weighiman' s and Fischers). California and New Mexico. that the Mexican troops should retire beyond a line formed by the Pass of Rinconada. This was the key to Monterey. among the expeditions which were organized by the Federal authorities. and were one hundred and eighty miles distant from their depot. on the 13th of October. The turning of the enemy's position by Worth. in the northern part of the eneraj^'s country.land's command held the captured redoubt on the enemy's extreme right. The height above the Bishop's Palace was stormed and taken . from St.In Northern California. When Stockton's forces. on the morning of the 23d.

on December 6.The Mexican American War bloodless conquest of California seemed complete.S.org/mexicanamericanwar2. The next day. finally reached California after a grueling march across New Mexico. forced the American garrison to retreat in late September. and fought in a small battle with Californio Lancers at the Battle of San Pasqual near San Diego. 1847. Gen Taylor's reply to Santa Anna's demand for surrender On February 22. with 4. Stevenson’s Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers of about 900 men started arriving in California. Arizona and the Sonora desert. in a few months he had assembled an army of 25. forces. turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846. 1846. Jonathan D. The rancho vaqueros. they fought and defeated a Californio force of about 300 men under the command of captain-general Flores. U. forces continued to arrive in California. [25] and the next day.S. Lt. He promised the U. banded together to defend their land. their re-supplied. Stockton. Meanwhile. however. fought as Californio Lancers. [24] linking up with Frémont's men. the last significant body of Californios surrendered to U. January 9. he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the United States.000 men. the famous Mormon Battalion commanded by fellow dragoon. That marked the end of the war in California. Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City.He began to revtalize the army at San Luis Potosi. Other U. they fought the Battle of La Mesa. the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed. Philip St.600 men. led by José Mariá Flores. left too small a force in Los Angeles. after being appointed commanding general. On March 15.S. near San Pedro. Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20. had http://mexicanhistory. 1847.S. where 22 of Kearny's troops were killed. however. Kearny's command was bloodied and in poor condition but pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule" Hill near present-day Escondido. 1846. 1847. Marines were killed. Col. combined force. Return of Santa Anna The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico.S. 14 U. California.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . With U. 1847. 1847. On January 28.000 . forces totaling 607 soldiers and marines. 1847. Navy Captain William Mervine. that if allowed to pass through the blockade. Kearny. More than 300 reinforcements sent by Stockton. Later. All of these men were in place when word went out that gold was discovered in California. Then. were repulsed in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. George Cooke arrived at San Diego after making a remarkable march from Council Bluffs. On January 12. Battle of Buena Vista Tell Santa Anna to go to hell ! . They were a force the Americans had not prepared for.S. On January 13. January 1848. California. in the decisive Battle of Rio San Gabriel. The Californios besieged the dragoons for four days until Commodore Stockton's relief force arrived. acting on their own and without help from Mexico. with a squadron of 139 dragoons. October 7 through October 9. entering the Los Angeles area on January 8. he reneged and offered his services to the Mexican government. he reneged again and seized the presidency. Col.S. Army Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and some army units arrived in Monterey. General Stephen W. 1847. and the Californios. marched north from San Diego on December 29. Taylor. Iowa Territory. led by U.

weapons and horses near the walled city. Ulysses S. army suffered 400 casualties. President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott.000 casualties and 3.org/mexicanamericanwar2. which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea.S. Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8. while the Mexicans suffered over 1. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. http://mexicanhistory. Scott had sent 2. army. 1847.S. and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege.S. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. side began to fall victim to yellow fever.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . about half of whom were civilian. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12. Included in the invading force were Robert E. along which he expected Scott to appear. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. Although by then aware of the positions of U. However.600 mounted dragoons ahead. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3. while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass. George Meade.000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies.The Mexican American War entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. Santa Anna flanked the U. Grant. while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions. leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico.S. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15. to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. troops suffered 80 casualties. and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. Having suffered discouraging losses and word of upheaval in Mexico city. a force of 70 troopships approached Veracruz and two days later began to bombard the city with the goal of taking Mexico City . Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. U. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force. The U. and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. troops were routed. Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. Furious fighting ensued.000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road.S. Polk distrusted Taylor. Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north.Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance. during which some U. whom he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. the U. The Mexican army was routed. setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. Santa Anna withdrew that night. A group of 12. Instead of taking the main road.000 men in a tired state.S. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U.000 were taken prisoner. Lee. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign Siege of Vera Cruz On March 7. but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg. and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis. During the siege.S. troops. he attacked the next morning.500 healthy troops. near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo.400 men. while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded.

another army attacked the Convent of Churubusco. The Battalion fought until their last shot was spent and surrendered . Lee. However Army engineers were still interested in the southern approaches to the city. Twiggs agreed. Most of Scott's officers favored the attack from the south including Major Robert E. http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . those that were not had the letter 'D' branded on their checks . U. Scott was in favor of attacking Chapultepec and only General David E. Scott officially declared the attack would be against Chapultepec. A young Captain Pierre Beauregard gave a text book speech that persuaded General Pierce to change his vote in favor of the western attack.The Mexican American War On the same day. who felt a kinship with Catholic Mexicans and were subject to discrimination in the US army . in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey. which was defended by troops under Pedro Anaya as well as the St. 1847. forces had managed to drive the Mexicans from their positions near the base of Chapultepec Castle guarding Mexico City from the west. General Winfield Scott held a council of war with his generals and engineers on September 11. The deserters were court martialed and many were hung. Battle of Chapultepec On September 8.org/mexicanamericanwar2. Patrick Battalion of of US deserters of mostly Irish descent.S.

forces were about to kill him. The Mexicans retreated at night down the causeways leading into the city. A gradual slope from the castle down to the Molino del Rey made an inviting attack point. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. when one was left (Juan Escutia). and the first wave ascended the walls. Following Captain Mackenzie's storming party were three assault columns from George Cadwalader's brigade of Pillow's division.000 men (832 Total including 250 10th Infantry. 40 Marines led Captain Casey's storming party followed by James Shields' brigade of volunteers north towards Chapultepec. 27 Toluca Battalion and 42 la Patria Battalion with 7 guns) to hold the hill including 200 cadets. The castle sat atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill which in recent years was being used as the Mexican Military Academy.S. He understood that Chapultepec Castle was an important position for the defense of the city..S. the fighting had been severe and costly. General Shields was severely wounded when his men poured over the walls. but his troops managed to raise the U. ambitous for a larger slice of Mexico of Mexico than he had originally detailed to envoy Trist . In his memoirs Santa Anna branded Terrés as a traitor and made him the scapegoat for the defeat at Mexico City. In a fit of rage Santa Anna slapped General Terrés and relieved him of command for losing the Belén Gate. 211 Union Battalion. Quitman's division against the southeast of the castle. the "Child Heroes" or Heroic Cadets. The cadets are eulogized in Mexican history as the Los Niños Héroes. Before he could withdraw. Bravo was taken prisoner by Shields' New York volunteers. The Marine Corps also remembers this battle with the "blood stripe" on the dress blues uniform of NCOs and Officers. forces. 300 from de Batallón de San Blas under command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl. George Pickett (later famous for "Pickett's Charge" and the Battle of Five Forks during the American Civil War) was the first American to top the wall of the fort. and the castle's garrison of 100 men. Every member of Quitman's staff had lost their lives in the close fighting on the causeway. and the U. To the southwest. ended the war and gave the U. Lasting throughout most of the day.The efforts of the U.The battle had been a significant victory for the U. Juan Escutia. Newman S. The scaling ladders arrived. the bombardment was halted and Winfield Scott ordered the charge. Colonel Trousdale's column supported by Lieutenant Thomas J.S.The Americans began an artillery barrage against Chapultepec at dawn on September 12.org/mexicanamericanwar2.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] . and the rest of Shields' men halted in the face of Mexican artillery. Jackson's artillery faced superior numbers of Mexicans in a spirited defense. "From the Halls of Montezuma. apparently falling from above . Again the storming party stalled while waiting for ladders. Marines in this battle and subsequent occupation of Mexico City are memorialized by the opening lyrics to Marines' hymn. Chapultepec Castle was only defended by 400 men. Johnston. 277 Mina Battalion. Pillow was quickly hit in the foot but ordered the attack forward.-Mexican border of http://mexicanhistory. who took over 90% casualties. Pérez was killed. he grabbed the Mexican flag. 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. On the left were the 11th and 14th regiments under Colonel William Trousdale. showing Juan Escutia wrapped in the flag. Their names were: teniente(lieutenant) Juan de la Barrera." is a reference to the Chapultepec Castle. including the cadets. According to the military records at the General National Archives in Mexico City. and on the right were the remaining 4 Voltigeur companies under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. The heaviest losses occurred during Quitman's attack on the Belén Gate. At 08:00. Scott organized two storming parties numbering 250 hand picked men. The second storming party under Captain Silas Casey would lead John A. Andrews's column followed Mackenzie out of the Molino and cleared a cypress grove to their front of Mexican troops as Trousdale and Johnston moved up on the flanks. In fact so many ladders arrived that 50 men could climb side by side.Los Niños Héroes During the battle. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo President Polk. 115 Queretaro Battalion. signed on February 2. President Polk tried to recall Trist. A monument stands in Chapultepec Park commemorating their courage.. established the U. but was unable to communicate with him . Caught between two fronts. The attack stalled when Mackenzie's men had to wait for storming ladders to arrive. It was halted at dark and resumed at first light on September 13. General Bravo ordered a retreat back to the city. Santa Anna lost General Bravo as a POW. wrapped it around himself and jumped off the castle point. and there was a lull in the battle. One by one they fell.S. Generals Twiggs and Shields had both been wounded as well as Colonel Trousdale.S. and General Juan N. six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death against superior U. and the Voltigeurs soon planted their flag on the parapet. and cadets Agustin Melgar. It is said that the American commander saluted the cadaver of Escutia wrapped in the Mexican flag. in the center were 4 companies of the Voltigeur regiment under Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews. General Nicolás Bravo however had less than 1.S. Several Mexican cadets wrapped themselves around Mexican flags and jumped from the walls disregarding height to prevent the seizure of the Mexican flag from the attackers. some as young as 13 years old. Flag over the castle. A moving mural decorates the ceiling of the palace. undisputed control of Texas. Vicente Suarez. Santa Anna watched disaster befall Chapultepec while an aide exclaimed "let the Mexican flag never be touched by a foreign enemy". Francisco Marquez and Fernando Montes de Oca.The Mexican American War Antonio López de Santa Anna was in command of the army at Mexico City.S. There were supporters in Mexico and the US who thought the US should annex all of Mexico . The first party under Captain Samuel Mackenzie would lead Gideon Pillow's division from the Molino east up the hill. also known as the Halls of Montezuma. Clarke's brigade brought new momentum to the fight on Pillow's front.

S.000—less than half the amount the U. Utah.S. politicians that had opposed the war from the start. and Wyoming.org/mexicanamericanwar2. citizens. and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California. By doing so. with the 15 million already spent.25 million in debts that the Mexican government owed to U. and parts of Colorado. Arizona.The Mexican American War the Rio Grande River. the Whig Intelligencer sardonically concluded that The Gadsen Purchase By 1853. Mexico received US $15. Santa Anna alienated the liberal opposition that he found himself exiled for the eleventh and last time.The US wanted the Mesilla Valley in lower New Mexico and Arizona to build a new railroad in California .S. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 http://mexicanhistory.Santa Anna agreed to sell the land for $10 million. newspaper. Nevada. New Mexico. especially among U. Santa Anna decided the treasury could only be saved by selling more Mexican territory to the US . In return. agreed to assume $3. Home Prelude to the Mexican American War 1846-4 Revolution of Ayutla.htm[5/20/2010 2:48:46 AM] .S. The acquisition was a source of controversy at time.S.000. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities—and the U. A leading U. The liberals proclaimed the Revolution of Ayutla .

http://mexicanhistory.which sought to remove Santa Anna and convening a constituent assembly in order to draft a federal constitution . The moderates ( moderados) favored compromise.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico. socially motivared intellectuals was Benito Juarez .org Revolution of Ayutla Mexico Obesity Doctor U.com The outcome of the Mexican American War with the loss of half of Mexico's territory shocked the Mexicans into seeking a new direction to perserve the country .The Revolution of Ayutla brought together some of the most creative minds in Mexico .S. insisting he be called His Most Serene Highness and creating an even more centralized state . while the liberals (puros) refused . www. the special courts for members of the clergy and military and make them go to civil courts for cases dealing with civil or criminal law.org Web Google Search MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . After over a year of guerrilla warfare. Oaxaca and Nuevo Leon joined the revolt . Dominican Rep. a Zapotec Indian from Oaxaca.org/Ayutla. The army garrisons in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi denounced Santa Anna. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.One of the first acts was to abolish the fueros. The last straw with the old order came with Santa Annas selling yet more Mexican territory with the Gadsen Purchase in 1853 . This began the peroid known as the Reform as the liberals began to dismantle the old conservative state . which set about to dismantle the old military and church led conservative state and bring about a new secular.In Guerrero. sought to reduce the power of the church while Ponciano Arriaga wanted drastic land reform and Ignancio Comonfort was a moderate on most issues .CaliBaja.mortgageallianceprogram.Alvarez tried to balance these various interests in his cabinet. The Revolution of Ayutla was named after The Plan of Ayutla announced in the town of Ayutla on March 1.Ignacio Comonfort became secretary of war and Benito Juarez secretary of Justice . Michoacan . 1854 .). who went into exile in August 1855 and Alvarez rode into Mexico City in trimuph and became provisional president . Costa Rica.Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory. Alvarez becomes President Almost as soon as Alvarez entered the capital. democratic state .ObesityControlCenter.This brough them into conflict with those who supported the old order and eventually led the country to civil war . Juan Alvarez rose against the Santa Anna regime with widespread peasant support . Juan Alvarez Santa Anna returned to power in a coup in 1852 and sought to fashion himself the new Mexican emperor. the liberal coalition began to fall apart over the fueros law. the neighboring states of Morelos.The new liberal government ushered in a new era known as the Reform ( La Reforma.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www.The leader of the young.

The Constitution of 1857 was modeled after the one of 1824. Comonfort becomes President www.this conflict led to the vicious war of reform. but was able to free Juarez and other liberals while he still hels some power .Liberals in the provences declared their support for the new Constitution and Reform laws . President Comonfort was unable to resolve the issue and resigned. dissolved the Congress and arrested Juarez. delegates met to draft a new constitution and was debated between the moderates and liberals . Priests who refused sacraments to liberals were shot as were doctors in conservative held areas who treated liberals . The army declared Zuloaga the new president and Juarez managed to escape where the liberals declared him president and started a three year war .org/Ayutla. They would be heretics if they did so in the eyes of the church and traitors if they did not in the eyes of the state . declared by the conservative general Felix Zuloaga and a junta of conservative genrals and clergy who led a coup (golpe) . the Plan de Tacubaya. http://mexicanhistory. In the new constitution. the better trained conservative army won most of the major engagements with the liberals .For the first two years. The War of the Reform 1857-61 ( La Guerra de Reforma de México ) Felix Zuloaga The subsequent War of the Reform raged in Mexico from 1858 to 1861.The church was not happy with this and issued decrees attempting to nullify the new constitution and threatened excommunication for those who sought to purchase church property at auctions .HumanEvents. press. Like most Mexican Wars this one began with a plan. While freedom of religion was not declared.The pressing conflict for most Mexicans was wether to swear allegiance to the new Constitution.Captured prisoners on both sides were often shot .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] . assembly and education were declared as was habeas corpus.The liberals established their capital in Veracruz where they could gather custom duties and arms . freedom of speech. The Constitution of 1857 had more liberal declarations than the one of 1824. These holding would be put up for sale at a public auction . The 1857 Constitution ( Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857 ) In accordence with the The Plan of Ayutla . the major difference being that the legislature was to be unicameral instead of bicameral to make it stronger in case of dictatorship and the president was to be limited to one four year term .org but gave up and named Comonfort his successor .The civil war was very vicious . the Catholic Church was not declared to be the state church .com Ads by Google Ignacio Comonfort In 1856 President Comonfort issused a law prohibiting the Church from owning property not directly related to its operations to break up the vast landholding of the church .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.

1861. when it became apparent that the French sought to conquer Mexico. this was not to be .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:12 AM] .But the biggest problem was yet to come. followed by seven hundred British soldiers and two thousand French . Juarez inhereted a bankrupt country. but the liberals were divided on what punishment should be given to their enemies . The sale of church lands had not brought in as much income as was hoped and the economy was stagnant .By 1860 the war began to favor the liberals with the leadership of the generals Ignacio Zargoza and Jesus Ortega and infighting among the conservatives. Miramon had borrowed heavily as well from the half brother of Napoleon III of France.The Mexicans still owed 80 million in foreign debts. With the War of the Reform over. sought to use the opportunity of the crisis and the American Civil war to establish a colony in the New World . Juarez repudiated the debts of the conservatives .org/Ayutla.HumanEvents.France.com Ads by Google French Intervention Second Mexican Empire1864-7 http://mexicanhistory. Home Mexican American War 1846-47 www. some over fifty years old . Spain. but this did not satisfy the foreign bankers . Juarez declared a two year moratorium on payment of the foreign debt .The new president chose a more lenient policy.In late 1861 the liberals won a victory against the conservative general Miramon at San Migual Calpulalpan and the liberal army entered Mexico City .Revolution of Ayutla MexicanHistory.000 Spanish troops landed at Veracruz. 6.Mexico's foreign creditors began clamoring for repayment of debts. In december. under the leadership of Napoleon III. England and France agreed to the Convention of London which declared an occupation of the Mexican coast until their claims were satisfied through custom duties . Mexico needed peace to rebuild after the devastation it had wrought . Spain and England withdrew their troops .On October 31.Juarez won the presidental election of 1861.The conservative President. and 64 million of this was owed to the British .org Benito Juarez The liberals nationalized church lands and declared freedom of religion .However.To get some breathening space for the economy to revive. which angered to more radical liberals and kept the new government in a state of turmoil . 1861.

Napoleon III convinced the Austrian archduke Maximilian von Habsburg that the Mexican people would welcome him as a king .000 to Mexico .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Web Google Search MexicanHistory. the Spanish and British withdrew their troops when they learned of the French intentions .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .1867 Coins of the Second Empire of Mexico Napoleon III and his plans for Empire Napoleon III had a more grandiose plan than debt collection when he sent troops to The Crown of Mexico . he was determined to make France great again .As mentioned before. Urged on by his own dream of emulating the great Napoleon and his Spanish Mexico:Maximilian wife Eugenie. Joan canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to make another great Haslip engineering feat like the Suez Canal .He also wished to build a and His Empress Carlota.org/French. America was too involved with its own Civil War to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 27. Vera Cruz. western that takes place in the Second Empire in Mexico The Battle of Puebla The French defeat at Puebla http://mexicanhistory.org French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864 .

000 reinforcements . 1862.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire The French marched on from the coast to Mexico City under the command of Charles Latrille. The French expected the Mexicans to retreat in the face of an aggressive assault and attacked recklessly.On May 5.It was a year before the French army was prepared to march again .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .The French bombarded Puebla. under the command of General Jesus Ortega after the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza of typhoid fever.The Mexicans dug in at Puebla and heavily fortified it under General Ignacio Zaragoza. The French expected to be welcomed by the conservatives and the clergy .The French army under Marshal Elie Forey took Mexico City on May 31 after the Juaristas evacuated north to San Luis Potosi. the Mexican forces managed to drive back the French to Veracruz and the date became the major Mexican Celebration of Cinco de Mayo .org/French. Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife Marie Charlotte Upon hearing of the disaster at Puebla.500 Mexicans troops faced off against around 6. The French ran low on ammunition and many of their troops were weakened by sickness .000 French.The Mexicans lost 83 men while the French lost 462. where around 4. for days and forced it to surrender after a siege of two months . Captain Jean Danjou The Battle of Camaron http://mexicanhistory. Napoleon ordered 30.

He declared a free press and declared a general amnesty to win the support of the people . which of course approved him .French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire One battle at this time.On June 12 they arrived in Mexico City after paying his respects to the Virgin of Guadalupe at the Basilica of Guadalupe . 1864. http://mexicanhistory. map of operations during the French Intravention in Mexico Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico On June 3.Before Maximilian left Europe he met with Napoleon and it was agreed that Maximilian would pay the salaries of the French troops which would remain in Mexico until 1867.The executive triumvirate was made up of General Juan Almonte.Maximilian agreed if this was accepted by the Mexican people themselves . that of Camaron on April 30. French Legionnaires The Administration of the Emperor Ferdinand and his wife Marie arrived in Veracruz in May of 1864 where they were coldly welcomed by the local people . 1863 the french commander selected a provisional government of 35 conservatives . 60 legionnaires under the command of Captain Jean Danjou. They surrendered and freed in a prisoner exchange . General Mariano Salas and Bishop Pelagio Labastida . in the state of Veracruz became one of the most famous in the annals of the French Foreign Legion .htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .In October 1863 a delegation of Mexican conservatives visited Ferdinand Maximilian in Europe and made an offer for him to become the emperor of Mexico .org/French. Emperor of Mexico on April 10. met a force of roughly a thousand Mexican guerrillas where they fought until only five legionnaires and Captain Jean Danjou survived.An imperial court was established at Chapultepec Castle .Once a week he opened the castle to the public to hear the concerns of the people and toured the provinces. 1863. who had a wooden hand.He was proclaimed Maximilian I.A plebiscite was held in Mexico under the control of the French Army.Here.

Sonora and Baja. He sought to use the clergy as civil servants and pay salaries in order to do away with tithing and fees . Marshal Bazaine defeated Porfirio Diazin Oaxaca after a six month siege. religious freedoms. The Emperor issues the Black Decree In October 1865. which was not the case . However. the republicans only held four states.He even named Jose Fernando. http://mexicanhistory. General Joseph Shelby and his men rode south into Mexico to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian. who declined to accept the exConfederates into his armed forces.Maximilian consorted with prostitutes. He drafted a new constitution which provided for a hereditary monarchy.Within a few days two Juarista generals were captured and shot. the emperor refused to suspend the Reform Laws that would return church lands and even levied forced loans against it . equality under the law and did away with debt peonage . religious toleration .Three thousand Union veterans joined the >Juarista army and the Mexican coast was blockaded. This decree. but nothing came of it .The French. There would be no courts-martial or pardons by the emperor . a Mason. however. for the most part were not impressed by these actions and Maximilian only succeeded in alienating them both liberals and conservatives.After the downfall of the Confederacy. French forces then forced his small army further north to modern day Ciudad Juarez across the border from El Paso . After its fall. which had never recognized Maximilian's government . The liberals.000 men under Sheridan to Brownsville. This was solved by adopting the grandson of the first emperor of Mexico. as secretary of foreign affairs . and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding class. creating a succession issue. considered himself an enlightened despot and in addition to this hoped to gain Mexican liberal support .org/French. Secretary of State Seward began applying pressure on Napoleon III and allowed Juaristas to purchase arms in the US . however. and Carlota out of fear of catching a disease refused to sleep with him.The empire was its strongest from 1864 to 1865. Chihuahua.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire French bombard Alcapulco To the dismay of his conservative allies.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . the emperor did grant them land for an American colony in Mexico. across the river from the imperial army under the command of Tomas Mejia and it looked as if the US would invade Mexico on behalf of the Juaristas. The emperor . Dark Days for the republicans Juarez withdrew to San Luis Potosi and then to Chihuahua. American Support for Juarez and a Confederate Offer Juarez realized he need more support and sought aid from the Lincoln administration. a moderate liberal. Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration – such as land reforms.The emperor then issued the infamous Black Decree decree mandating the death penalty for all captured armed Juaristas. the emperor believed Juarez had fled to the US . was to lead to the emperors own death . had trouble pacifying the country due to guerrilla warfare and the French were hated in much of the country for their drastic counter guerrilla actions. Guerro. General Grant ordered 42. After the fall of the Confederacy.

It also introduced French ideas. Tampico. the power of the church and conservatives was broken and a sense of Mexican nationalism began to grow . He was also popular and even venerated by some of the Mexican population and it was feared they might rally around him in the future .During the summer the republicans captured Saltillo. Durango and later in the year Guadalajara and Oaxaca.a member of the imperial cavalry betrayed the emperor and opened a gate to the beseigers and Maximilian was captured . who escaped his captors after the fall of Oaxaca. She would travel to Europe herself to talk with Napoleon and to the Pope. The end came in the city of Queretaro where the last of the French troops in Mexico were marching to Veracruz to leave Mexico under Marshal Bazaine. fashion and culture into Mexico .000 Mexicans had lost their lives fighting the French and the country was devestatedafter a decade of warfare. it was a vindication for the republicans and the Constitution of 1867. It was also felt that Maximilian might return and would make the new government look weak . Liberalism became associated with independence from foreign aggression . 1867 on the Hill of Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) together with his Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía. However. took command of the army of the East and defeated a conservative army outside Mexico City and put the capital under siege . Reasons for the Execution of the Emperor Juarez decided that the emperor would be tried by court-martial. the lack of a central authority for so long increased http://mexicanhistory. but his wife. but to no avail and later suffered an emotional collapse. Napoleon began to withdraw his troops in late 1866 and urged Maximilian to abdicate.He was executed by firing squad on June 19. Portirio Diaz. Harper's Weekly Downfall of the Emperor Juarez and his army assumed the offensive in the spring of 1866 . The emperor is Betrayed Maximilian took command of a few thousand Mexican imperial troops but was surrounded by a republican army four times as strong . who urged the emperor to join him.The battle began on Feb 19. However on May 15. This left Maximilian in a dangerous position and considered abdicating his throne. 1867 and the defenders held of the republicans for almost a hundred days . Over 50.org/French. Monterey. the Empress Pleads With these considerations and the rising power of Prussia. and the emperor's death decree of 1865 that had executed so many left little room for compassion . saying he must maintain Hapsburg dignity. 1867.However.the last french soldier left on March 16.On May 11 he decided to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. before he could carry out this plan. talked him out of it.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire Napoleon withdraws Troops.Two days late diaz captured Mexico City from the conservative armies .During the remainder of her life (1867-1927) she believed herself still to be the empress of the Mexicans execution of Maximilian and Generals Miguel Miramon and Tomás Mejia.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] . along with Miramon and Mejia .

Home Revolution of Ayutla. Find 25% off at Fiesta Americana Grand PLUS Your Sweetheart in Mexico! free daily breakfast for two AmoLatina.fiestamericanagrand. www.ancestry.com/summer Immigration Records Search the World's largest library of immigration records online.com www. purchase and print your auto policy online. 1857 Constitution War of the Reform 1857-61 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote.org/French.com Hottest Mexican Women Authentic Mexican Getaway Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire regionalism and banditary which would lead to future domestic strife . sanbornsinsurance.com Restored republic 1867-76 http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:49:42 AM] .

www. Juarez immediately set about making economic. http://mexicanhistory. Juarez's Third Term Juarez entered Mexico City to jubilation on July 15.ObesityControlCenter. Dominican Rep. political and educational reforms. Juarez won the presidential election an was sworn in late 1867 .org/RestoredRepublic.S. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. but it did not break out into civil war as it had in the 1860s . Juarez and his followers spent the next decade trying to consolidate their victory and implement the reforms of the Constitution of 1867 . There was still antagonisms from the conservatives. The previous terms could be argued to have been an emergency situation since it was during the French Intervention .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] .Despite this.com Mexico Obesity Doctor U.com The modern history of Mexico begins with the liberal victory of 1867.The 1857 Constitution limited the president to one four year term and did not permit reelection. and immediately called for a presidential election and announced himself a candidate for a third term against General Jesus Ortega and General porfirio Diaz . sanbornsinsurance. purchase and print your auto policy online.com Mortgage Alliance Program Residential Loans & Cash Out Mexico.Restored Republic 1867-76 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. a railway was built between Veracruz and Mexico City and to increase commerce a rural police force. the rurales was established to check banditry. Schooling was made mandatory. Juarez sought to lessen the political conThere was still some unrest among the peasants for land rights that flared into rebellion in Nayarit under Manuel Lozada and in Oaxaca by the brother of Porfirio Diaz .org Restored Republic 1867-76 Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. Costa Rica.mortgageallianceprogram.

an by 1869 they contributed to the stability of the countryside and repaired Mexico's image of a land of lawlessness to foreign investors . The land between the cities was quite rugged and was a geat engineering feat. Repairing the Infrastructure Metlac Bridge One of the most important projects of the era was the development of the Mexico City Veracruz railway which was finished in 1872. Juarez smoothed the way for the Ferrocarril Mexicano or Mexican Railway Company because he believed in the importance of the raiway to the country was greater than politicsdespite objections to it in Congress .Roads were improved and telegraph lines went up all over the country .To secure the roads. the rurales.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . especially the bridging of the Metlac River chasm that was 900 feet wide and 375 feet deep . Matias Romero was named secretary of the treasury who developed a plan for the development of the transportation system and exploiting Mexico's mineral resources rather than industrialization to rebuild the economy .000 miles . in contrast with the US which had over 30.org/RestoredRepublic.Tariffs and taxes were reformed to encourge investment . In 1860 Mexico only had 150 miles of railway. a rural police force was established.Restored Republic 1867-76 rurales The Juarez administration focused on rebuilding the economy and creating a stronger educational foundation for Mexico .Despite being majority owned by an arch conservative. Educational Reforms http://mexicanhistory.

1871.Two of his former supporters ran against him Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada. Juarez decided to run for a fourth term against the advice of many friends on the law of the Constitution of 1857 .Restored Republic 1867-76 In 1867. who was then chief justice of the Supreme Court became acting president till new elections could be held in October .the former secretary of foreign relations who had the support of the professional classes and the upper classes. In recation to this Diaz announced his Plan de la Noria and rose in revolt against Juarez for violating the Constitution on November 8. none of the candidates had the required majority and according to the Constitution of 1857 the matter must be decided by Congress. Both Diaz and Lerdo attacked Juarez for violating the Constitution of 1857 and the election was hotly contested .When the ballots were counted.Many murals extolling these new ideas were painted on the school walls themselves. The Lerdo Presidency Sebastian Lerdo Lerdo continued the polices of Juarez and streesed the need for peace and order to promote the economy . in which the Juaristas held power and Juarez was reelected . and Porfirio Diaz. beginning the Mexican muralist movement . but he through this effort 1. Juarez died in office of a heart attack on July 19. A Senate was added to the legislature in 1875 and Lerdo thought this would add his centalization efforts . Juarez appointed a commission to reorganize the education system of Mexico .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term By the presidental election of 1871.org/RestoredRepublic. 1872 and Sebastian Lerdo de Eejada.The curriculum was changed to place more encourage science and math and primary education was made obligatory and free for the first time . http://mexicanhistory. Lerdos had a goal of connecting all state captials to Mexico City by telegraph was not attained. who had the support of the military and conservatives .Between 1870 and 1874 the number of schools doubled. A raiway was planned to connect Mexico and the US and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. where he defeated Diaz easily . Diaz was not able to gather much support and the army Diaz raised was quickly defeated by the federal army .600 miles off telegraph line was put up .

Lerdo sought a second term in spite of the Constitution of 1857 .Diaz again raised his banner of rebellion with his Plan de Tuxtepec and again raised an army. Home French Intervention Second Mexican Empire18647 Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910 http://mexicanhistory. He had made himself unpopular by the means he took to secure his reelection. 1876. This left Mexico City wide open and Lerdo fled to America on a steamer from Acapulco .Restored Republic 1867-76 Battle of Tecoac In 1876. This time he had more support and his army defeated a federal army in Tlaxcala at the Battle of Tecoac on November 16. with a small majority and amid charges of fraud.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:16 AM] . Lerdo was reelected on July 24. following the pattern of Juarez. 1876. by his disposition to limit state rights in favor of a strongly centralized government.org/RestoredRepublic.

org Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Mexico Obesity Doctor U. www. The era of Porfirio Díaz’s government from 1876-1911 is known as the Porfiriato and its motto was ' Order and Progress.MegWhitman. Mexico entered the industrial age . Free trial.ancestry. still had not recovered from the choas of the preceding decades .com California is losing jobs Sacramento is drowning in red ink facing another mammoth 2010 deficit www.Theses Diaz delt with forcefully and had the leaders executed shortly after capture and greatly increased the power of the rurales .ObesityControlCenter.seized over control of Mexico in 1876 that had an empty treasury. Porfirio Diaz Paul Garner A new biography of the controversial Mexican dictator who was toppled by the 1910 Revolution http://mexicanhistory.com/ Diaz When Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915) ( full name: José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ) .Farming methods had changed little from colonial days .S. agraian revolts and revolt in favor of the ousted President Lerado on the US border .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . Diaz felt the key to modernizing the country was to pacify it so foreigners would invest in it . Mexico was still troubled by banditos . of Mixtec and Japanese ancestry on his mother's side. the main engine of the economy.who was a Mestizo.' During his 33 year rule. huge foreign debts and a large bureacracy whose salaries were in arrears .org/Diaz.Despite the efforts of the liberals mining.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 Web Google Search MexicanHistory. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. Like Juarez before him.com US Immigrant Ship Records Discover your ancestry by searching immigrant ship records.

The Return of Diaz and economic Progress Diaz continued his moderization drive and the country had great economic growth .Diaz ran again for president in 1884 and easily won . Texas was inaugurated and the Banco Nacional de México was founded He felt he could not cut back on foreign repayment and railroad construction.Diaz reduced the number of civil servants to ease the burden on the treasury and tried to stimulate trade and crack down on smuggling . the railway from Mexico City to El Paso. Diaz was true to his ' no-reelection ' pledge and did not seek another term . who won the election with a large majority in 1880 . switching Mexico to the gold standard and getting more favorable foreign loans for Mexico and reduced corruption . Díaz had the constitution amended. secretary of the treasury. first to allow two terms in office. Diaz came to an agreement with the Americans and agreed to repay over 14 million in claims . President Gonzalez 1880 . At the end of his first term. http://mexicanhistory. so he cut the salaries of government officials .The administration of Gonzalez was accused of corruption and graft and Gonzalez himself was accused of sexual improprieties .Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 video of life in Mexico during the Porfiriato (Spanish) Within several years of taking power most European and Latin American countries recognized Diaz's government.Jose Limantour.By 1890.During his administration. but the strain was too much for the treasury .org/Diaz. but the US held out The US had several claims against Mexico over debts and banditos crossing into US territory . and then to remove all restrictions on re-election.84 Gonzalez lost his right arm during the sieges of Puebla in 1867 Gonzalez strove to modernize the country. For once Mexico had a peaceful transfer of power and foreign governments began to believe Mexican politics was maturing .These raids almost led to war with the US in 1877. made economic changes such as changing tariffs.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . the Mexican treasury was running in the black . In the future he would not be bothered by his former ' no-reelection' pledge .Diaz threw his support behing Manuel Gonzalez.

From 1892 onwards Díaz's perennial opponent was Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda. who lost every election but always claimed fraud and considered himself to be the legitimately elected president of Mexico. Hunger The hacendado owners used their vast tracts of land to grow export crops.Peasant uprisings became common and were put down mercilessly . The Price of Peace and Economic Progress Diaz kept the country free of civil war but at a cost . in contrast to 50 in the US at the time .16 percent of the population was homeless . Many farmers were forced into debt peonage to survive .The Yanqui Indians of Sonora battled the government for years.000 Pesos in 1877 to 85. but many of the cientifico advisors saw the indians as unteachable and a drag on society .000 by 1911 and greatly helped transform the country from its backwardness .The press was tightly censored.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . and by 1910 their was less maize produced than in 1877. Land Grab The effects of the Díaz regime were greatly felt in agrarian land reform and land was increasingly concentrated into the hands of the privileged. They promoted science. In 1910 life expectancy was 30. but were finally defeated and forced to work on large plantations as chained slaves .Diaz had the laws changed to be more favorable to foreign investment and the mines. Soldiers were given modern uniforms and more modern weapons and the army was reduced in size . The army was moderized and observers were sent to America. Prices increased and many Mexicans started starving . from 400 miles of rail in 1876 to 15. such as silver and cooper mines .satirizing life among the upper classes There was a marked increase in railroad construction during Diaz's rule.000. generals were shifted from one military zone to another to keep them from amassing political power .silver production increased from 24.He kept himself in power through a skillful use of persuasion.Diaz was advised by cientificos.org/Diaz. became much more productive .000. who promoted a scientific based social Darwinistic agenda. which large oil fields in Tampico and Tuxpan being exploited and soon Mexico was one of the largest petroleum prducers in the world . By 1910 only 2 percent of the population held title to land . France and Germany .000 Pesos in 1908. After the turn of the century oil exploration began in earnest .Land was confiscated from orginal owners and land much land seized from the church reform laws or deemed 'public' land was sold to Diaz favorites for a pittance . Elections were held.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 one of Jose Posada calaveras(skull) cartoons. manipulated by the powerful . It seemed a http://mexicanhistory. but they were shams for the most part. threats and intimidation and strong arm tactics of the rurales and federal army and even assassination. Only 10 percent of the Indian communities held land. Diaz himself did not seem to amass a personal fortune . Powerful Mexicans who cooperated with the Diaz regime were rewarded with lucrative contracts and concessions .

By the early 1900s there were three national opposition groups formed.Some Hacienda owners amassed vast landholding. This painting by Alfaro Siqueiros shows Diaz trampling the Constitution The Economic Depression of 1907-08 The slowing US economy and high inflation cause the economy to fall into a depression by 1907. the laissezfaire policies of the Porfiriato did little to provide relief .In some areas wages fell 20% while living expenses increased 80 %.Like many powerful leaders before. They joined the poor and the Indians in demanding government change in increasing numbers . he had overstayed his welcome .org/Diaz. Under Porfirio Díaz laws had been implemented which gave foreign investors the title of large sections of land and concentrated land holdings and many of the poor were forced off their land . they were suffering as foreign banks tightened credit and the government raised taxes . Downfall of the Porfiriato There were cracks showing in the pax Porfiriato.Foreigners also were given ownership of large areas of Mexican resorces in order to develop them . such as Don Terrazas in Chihuahua .The educational reforms Diaz promoted also helped bring about the Porfiriato downfall as a greater number of the educated and members of the growing middle class were insulted of the charade of democracy under Diaz .The middle and upper classes supported the Porfiriato when the economy was good . Prices for the basics of life were increasing while wages remained the same or fell . who often worked in appaling conditions . some advocating violent overthrow. The new economic expansion did not trickle down and wages remained low for workers. Now.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 waste to educate them or better their plight .The high mortality among the Indians was seen as Social Darwinism at work .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . http://mexicanhistory.

Many liberals supported the governor of Nuevo León.S.Town after town responded to the call of Viva la Revolucion ! The guerrilleros were supported in the countryside as well.The poor were rounded up as to not offend the foreigners who came to the celebration. Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe.such as the Flores Magon brothers . On his release and subsequent flight to the US. In September he would be 80 as well as the 100th anniverary of Mexican Independence and huge celebrations were held in which more was spent than for education that year.Louis where they continued to publish Regeneracion and smuggled it into Mexico which helped fuel the anti-Diaz movement . an upper class politican who was affected by the plight of the peons under the dictator Porfirio Díaz. Despite Reyes silence. They organized a revolutionary party. not social reform would solve the nation's problems and social and land reforms were not part of his platform . Bernardo Reyes as a candidate for the presidency. so that Reyes was not in the country for the elections.org/Diaz. Madero did not like Diaz's dependence on foreign capital and the growing domination of American businesses .htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] . decided to run for president again . In a 1908 interview with the U. They were forced into exile an went to San Anontio. Diaz began plans for his last hurrah.Madero became involved in politics and ran for president of an Anti-re-electionist party as Diaz himself had done so long ago . Louis in 1906 they issued a plan which resounded with many Mexicans who launched strikes throughout Mexico . however. they went further inland into the US for safety to St.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 The Regeneracion By the early 1900s there was more opponents to Diaz's rule.Modero was a member of the upper class whose family owned large estates.Diaz had him jailed on trumped up charges at San Luid Potosi during the election in 1910 with many other anti reelectionists throughout Mexico . http://mexicanhistory. where Diaz sent an assassin to silence them. In St. Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would step down and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency. After this. Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously. which called for the nation to rise in revolt on November 20. wrote the influential book on the presidential succession and argued that Mexico should return to the Constitution of 1857 with free press and free elections .When the official results were announced by the government. The 1910 Election Madero Francisco Madero . Madero issued his Plan de San Luid Potosi from San Antonio. This caused aroused widespread anger. He thoght political. journalist James Creelman. who published Regeneracion which exposed the excesses of the Diaz government. Despite what he had told Creelman. although Bernardo Reyes under the orders of Díaz never formally announced his candidacy.

On May 10.On Jan 2.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. Durango and cuatla fell to the rebels . At the last minute. Home Restored republic 1867-76 Mexican Revolution 1910-20 www. In late 1911 Orozco and Villa convinced Madero that the rebels should use most of their force to take Ciudad Juarez. others towns such as Tehuacan.the press began to turn against Diaz and many federal troops began deserting. the outnumbered federal commander surrendered . brings the US into the conflict .org/Diaz.htm[5/20/2010 2:50:48 AM] .BookIt. There was tremendous economic advance during the Diaz years. In Chihuahua.Diaz had been overthrown. 1911 the rebels destroyed a large federal army sent against them. the rebellion continued to grow under the leadership of Pascual Orozco and local leaders such as Pancho Villa placed themselves under his command .Madero changed his mind and called of the attack. After the victory at Ciudad Juarez. Mexico was racked by 10 years of fighting known as the Mexican Revolution where successive leaders tried to create a stable government . afraid stray shells might land in nearby El Paso. Orozco ignored this order an launched an attack.In the following Treaty of Ciudad Juarez Diaz agreed to resigned and left for France . Díaz died in exile in Paris. yet there is no Ciudad Diaz today or even a street named after him . The progress enjoyed by the upper classes came at the expense of the masses . but the revolution had just started . Afterwards. Diaz realized his time was over and sent negotiators to talk with Madero . His rule became associated with social and political abuses that were too great .Madero was angery at Orozco for ignoring his order and did not give him a position in his cabinet and showed that the coalition was falling apart . In 1915.Diaz and the Porfiriato 1876-1910 rebels fire on federal positions at Ciudad Juarez Diaz was not prepared to give up and sent army units all across Mexico to control the rebellion.

a sense of of the national pride and appreciation of Mexican culture called mexicanidad and a greater respect for women . who had rules Mexico with an iron fist since 1876 was soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the start of the Mexican War of Independence against Spain and Diaz's 80th birthday.org/revolution. everything seemed well on the surface in the pax porfiriana. Haley's Comet appeared over Mexico. revolutionaries Yaqui Indians of northern Mexico who have been captured after uprising against unjust seizure of their land. land was redistributed and unions were permitted to protect the rights of the workers . And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2003)Antonio Banderas as Pancho Villa http://mexicanhistory. Conditions such as these lead to the Mexican Revolution .Yucatan where they faced a life expectancy of 6 months.The Mexican Revolution Web Google Search MexicanHistory.net Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. However. Now on DVD www.com panchovillastories. below in Mexico.Photo from the muckraker book Barbarous Mexico by John Kenneth Turner Feudalism and debt peonage was ended .Yanqi Indians made up a large part of the army of Obregon and fought with a desperate fury. anger was simmering over the injustice of decades.ancestry. Pancho Villa documentary video on the Mexican Revolution by the Mexican government In May of 1910.org The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) 1910 -1920 Time Line of the Mexican Revolution Immigration Records Pancho Villa Documentary Search the World's largest library of Explore the life and times of immigration records online.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick).com Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution The Revolution from 1910 -20 was very devastating to Mexico. Leaders of the world heaped praise on the industrial progress and political stability brought about by Diaz. An estimated 2 million were killed But it also A detailed history destroyed the privileges of the Creoles and the virtual caste system gave rise to the mestizo nation . a traditional Indian portent of war and disaster. President Diaz. Lavish celebrations were held on the elegant Reforma Boulevard and half a million Mexicans came to watch. Pancho Villa. Sold as debt peons slaves to the infamous henequen (for rope and twine) plantations in the Valle Nacional. But underneath. It was cheaper to buy more Indian slaves than to keep them alive. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.

Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . In an 1908 interview with the American James http://mexicanhistory. . while professing to respect the progressive institutions which Juarez. Trains were often used as weapons themselves. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.org/revolution. but solely upon the army . Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. started by Diaz himself. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods.000 miles of railroad tracks laid during the Diaz years. Most large companies were foreign owned. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks. The growth of railroads lead to a property bubble and Indians and farmers were tricked out of their land and the ommunial egidos (shields) lands which had existed since the Spanish Conquest. federal soldiers Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. packed with explosives and sent off as rolling torpedoes to destroy enemy trains and positions. turned Mexico into a dictatorship and the constitutional government to a government which no longer depended for its sovereignty on the will of the people. The election of 1910 provided a spark. Farmers went into debt peonage as they were tricked out of their land. Both Federal and revolutionary armies made good use of 9.Decades of injusticeonly needed a spark to explode.The Mexican Revolution Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages.often working on their former farms that had been taken by the haciendas.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . this huge class of people was not educated and systematically cheated of their land." Diaz.

from federal forces. but was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor.1910 with the usual vote stuffing and intimidation. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi. Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz. Diaz had Madero thrown in jail on trumped up charges and won the election of June 21. Emiliano Zapata (August 8. Madero ran for president and too the dismay of Diaz. when 1910 came. Previously. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America. Madero came from a rich hacienda family.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. commonly known as Zapatistas. However. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. Villa stood 6 feet tall and was a well built 200 pounds. the press was controlled by Diaz and no one would run against him. 1919) Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos . Madero campaign.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] .often led by Villa himself. His birth name was Doroteo Arango and took the name Pancho Villa to honor a fallen bandit leader. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. was a vegetarian followed his own spiritual form of religion and wanted peaceful change through democracy.Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. crossing the country on trains giving speeches quickly gained momentum. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head. 1879–April 10. but was never caught. and a federalist officer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush . http://mexicanhistory. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. He neither drank or smoked. Madero was an unusual person for the times. the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South). 1923) A mestizo bandito ( Mexicans distinguish between banditos and ladrones (thieves). he claimed he would not run for office in 1910 and would even allow opposition parties to run.most noticeable feature were calculating eyes according to those that met him. A ladron steals from his neighbors. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. banditos.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring . Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile .He became a general of the army that formed in that state. and then return home to spend most of the year farming.Famous for their cavalry charges.he decided to run for re-election anyway and any rivals were suppressed. started as a bandit making raids on wealthy cattle ranches in northern Mexico. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion !. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz.on the other hand rob from the rich) who became the commander of the División del Norte (Army of the North ). 1878 – July 20. He took an interest in politics and in 1908 wrote a book calling for free elections in Mexico. By May 10 Pancho Villa (June 5.org/revolution. As a result.The Mexican Revolution Creelman. Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time.which tapped into the growing anti-Diaz sentiments of the time. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north.

Orozco was particularly upset with Madero's failure to create a series of social reforms that he promised at the beginning of the revolution. During this time the unconnected anti-hacienda rebellions led by Pancho Villa in the north and Zapata in the south grew in strength. the ambassador to the U. By May 10th this city had fallen in bitter house to house fighting watched by Americans across the river in El Paso and rebellions against Diaz break out throughout the country.S. Madero called for an uprising against Díaz in 1910. Madero promoted him to colonel. it was rocked by a major earthquake killing over 200. Huerta's troops defeated the orozquistas in Conejos. 1915 in Texas while trying to return to Mexico. Orozco was forced to flee to the United States.He was killed on Aug 30. Francisco de la Barra. Madero entered Mexico City in early June to cheering crowds .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . On 10 May of that year Orozco and his subordinate general Pancho Villa seized Ciudad Juárez After Díaz's fall. Rellano and Bachimba finally seizing Ciudad Juárez.org/revolution. Porfiro Diaz. Crowds on the Zocalo ( main square ) in Mexico City chanted 'Death to Diaz!" By May 21 Diaz's offer to resign is accepted by Madero. After being wounded in Ojinaga. Would this be an end to the bloodshed. on 31 October of that year. Felix Diaz will come into the picture soon. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez. Diaz sent armies to Morelos to deal with Zapata and to the north to attack Villa. There was another portent as the earlier Haley's Comet.In April the forces of Madero. while there he drew up his Plan of San Luis Potosi and called for Mexicans to rise up against Diaz. Orozco was an enthusiastic supporter and. 1913 Modero had unleashed a tiger.Madero escaped to America and was able to reenter Mexico after Villa seized Chihuahua. Now let's see if he can control it. remarkably. The Madero Presidency November 6. Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship. on his way to exile http://mexicanhistory. His nephew. and in early 1911 to brigadier general. Madero was jailed in San Luis Potosi.On 3 March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Madero's government. from federal forces. was placed in command of the revolutionary forces in Guerrero municipality. Madero ordered Victoriano Huerta to fight the rebellion. 1911 – February 18. would serve as interim president.In the USA he met with Huerta in New York to make plans to retake Mexico. these promotions were earned without any kind of military knowledge or military training. Diaz goes into exile in France and dies four years later.The Mexican Revolution Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) When Francisco I. Almost as soon as Madero stepped off the train in Mexico City.

The Mexican Revolution Map showing locations of major areas of activity during the Mexican Revolution After Diaz resigned. When he became president he was besieged with demands from all side and found the Revolution meant different things to different people and the more radical elements were displeased by his moderate steps at reform . became the interim president . to many this looked like old style corrupt government . Madero seemed to think once democracy was established other pressing problems. but the government had no money with with to pay them. On October 1. 1911 Modero won the national election . but Medero only appointed a commission that did not come to much . Some argued that the new administration represented neither the principles of the Revolution nor even the theoretical reformism of Francisco Madero himself. During this time.which had been gagged since Diaz. some of them conservative. even though Madero opened more schools he did not have enough funds to make more http://mexicanhistory. Zapata and his forces in Morelos were ordered to disband and President Barra sent General Victoriano Huerta to see that it was done . It is not without significance. such as Zapata wanted land reform to break up the hacendados. that in the later years of the Diaz regime Japan made strenuous but unavailing efforts to obtain a naval base on the Mexican coast. and that more than four hundred Japanese veterans fought in the ranks of Madero's army. to important posts.such as land reform could be solved by mutual agreement.who consider the hacienda owners as thieves that stole the land. Zapata Some. however. while many thousands of them who applied for enlistment were only refused by the revolutionary authorities out of deference to the prejudices of the Mexican volunteers. However. It represented simply the private interests of the Madero clan. They pointed to the fact that throughout this regime not a single measure was instituted tending toward the amelioration of the vast evils endured by the people since the Diaz cuartelazo of 1876.org/revolution.He gave out government contracts to family businesses. Madero came to the decision that the hacienda owners must be paid for their hacienda lands. Madero allowed freedom of the press.These two came in conflict and Zapata blamed Madero for the attack. the secretary of foreign relations. Discontent with Madero and Rebellion The labor reformers were also disappointed and strikes continued. this infuriated Zapata.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Diaz himself was of Japanese ancestry . Possible Japanese plans in Mexico To what extent the rising power of Japan was involved in Mexico during these years will probably never be absolutely known. Educational reformers were also disappointed . both the liberal and conservative papers began to criticize him for lack of action and letting the economy flounder. which undermined the reforms he advocated . Leon de la Barra.Madero appointed family members.

On August 8 Madero orders Gen. Jose Salas. In his Plan Orozquista. Huerta was able to defeat Orzco's forces and Orzco was forced to flee to the U.and on March 3 went into open revolt.Orozco planned to march on Mexico City Orozco amassed a large army and the federal army was defeated at Rellano and its commander. In November Zapata declared his Plan de Ayula and recognized Orozco as head of the rebellion which grew in size . Orozco became resentful at Madero's failure to name him to the cabinet or a state governorship and the slow pace of land reform . who was angry that Modero replaced him as vice president for Jose Suarez and by Jan the forces of Gomes had taken Cuidad Juarez . Modero was attacked for corruption and putting too many relatives into high positions .000 army. who had reached an agreement with Madero. Huerta Madero was also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. from which Villa later escaped. In some cases prisoners were lined up 2~3 deep to save on bullets. and later accused Villa of stealing a horse and insubordination and had Villa sentenced to execution.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. http://mexicanhistory. but he did not have mach support and he surrendered to federal forces .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Orozco in turn rose against Madero with a well equipped 6. A third rebellion was launched by Emilio Gomez. Prisoners were commonly executed by all side. convinced the Gomez forces to give up their fight. By Aug 10 Huerta orders Zapatas arrest and he flees into the countryside. Former General Reyes also launched a rebellion..The Mexican Revolution sweeping changes . Knowing this fate many chose to fight to the death Modero place Gen. supported by Villa.S. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. committed suicide .Modero soon found himself facing revolts on many fronts . supported by the powerful Terraza and Creel hacienda families of northern Mexico who feared land reform. but this showed how weak the new government was . Huerta saw Villa as an ambitious competitor. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education.Orozco.org/revolution. Huerta in charge of the army . Gen. Reportedly.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1. Villa was standing in front of a firing squad waiting to be shot when a telegram from President Madero was received commuting his sentence to imprisonment.

yet another rebellion broke out in Veracruz.Diaz and his forces later were forced to surrender . led mostly by supporters of Diaz . an action which would cost him his life . did not order his execution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Reyes.org/revolution. feeling compassion for Diaz. and together they plotted a coup . on Oct 12.The Mexican Revolution Villa after being given a last minute reprieve by Madero from execution by Huerta More rebellions Felix Diaz Then. the nephew of Porfirio.Diaz was sent to prison in Mexico City close to Gen. Modero. 1912 led by Felix Diaz. Coup against Modero Decena Tragica http://mexicanhistory.

On Feb 21.It is still not known if Diaz. Huerta's regime was harsher and more brutal than Diaz's.The Mexican Revolution video of the Decena Tragica On February 9. the Plan de Guadalupe.Lascurain then resigned and Huerta became president as there was no vice president . The practised mili-tary on both sides received little hurt. were slaughtered in the streets. On Feb 17. where Poncho Villa took control of the anti-Huerta forces and Sonora.For the next 10 day or Decena Tragica as it is known in Mexico. This was the signal for a general uprising of the troops stationed in the city. the Felicistas started what was in reality a sham battle with the government troops. And indeed it was as Huerta threw his lot in with the rebels . but over six thousand helpless non-combatants. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. 1913. The other maer coup leaders were and Gen. From that moment the cuartelazo was in full command of the situation. Modero sent Huerta to command his troops . Coahuila Governer Venustiano Carranza did not recognize the new government and neither did the Governers of Chihuahua. seeing no hope for land reform with Huerta or the rebels to the north. where Alvaro Obregon took control of anti-Huerta forces there with an army made up off Yaqui Indians. Modero and Suarez were killed while being transferred to prison .In order to give his rule some legality Modero was forced to resign and Pedro Lascurain was sworn in as president with Huerta made secretary of the interior .which had been free under Madero. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . Huerta is supported by conservatives. Modero summoned Huerta and asked how long this would continue and Huerta assured him it would over the next day .Madero came to an agreement with the rebels in the American Embassy and the agreement is known as the Pact of the Embassy.bull fights and walking on the streets.Women in the Army http://mexicanhistory. For days a raking fire from the opposing forces swept the city from end to end.Reyes .And so Mexico had three presidents in one day . The hard drinking Huertaoften goes from bar to bar at night and his aides must track him down to sign papers. Mustering some five thousand men.They of course declared a plan.000 none too loyal army Soldaderas . At the head of several battalions Felix Diaz marched on the arsenal.However.The press. Zapata in Morelos in the south also rebelled under the banner of Tierra y Libertad ( Land and Liberty ). not all did . Reyes was killed by a machine gun burst and Diaz took control and retreated with his forces. Huerta jailsed110 members of Congress and 100 Madero supporters are executed.org/revolution. 1913 the students of the Military Academy of Tlalpan. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. powerfully fortified. just the ouster of Huerta. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Henry Wilson wanted an end to the civil war since it was bad for American business interests and was against Modero since he taxed oil production . The Dictatorship of Huerta 1913 -14 Within a few days federal generals and state governors began to pledge support to Huerta . which had no social reform goals. Mexico City was engulfed in battle in which thousands of civilians were killed . and equipped with practically inexhaustible supplies of ammunition. Huerta or someone else ordered the murders . broke into the prison where General Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz were confined and set them free. where the garrison received him with enthusiasm. Using these tactics he created a 200. Three Presidents in One Day Huerta Madero was arrested by General Blanquet and later vice president Suarez was arrested as well . many of them women and children. near Mexico City. The American ambassador.

The Mexican Revolution Woman had traditionally follwed their husbands in armies of Mexico to fed and care for them .This was reversed by an infusion of militery aid from the US . and the tempo of the Revolution became even more violent . The first order of business for Huerta was to restore peace . This heavy handed act led to outrage among the Mexicans and America stores in the country were looted and other anti-American acts occurred . Wilson gave orders for the occupation of Vercruz and hundred of lives were lost in securing the city .The convention exposed the differences between the fighters. Huerta decided he needed to greatly enlarge his army. 1914 . then only numbering about 50.Huerta ordered ultimately ordered the army enlarged to 250. the major ports and most large cities . Huerta was successful against the revolutionaries in the north and south .Huerta issued worthless paper currency as did the rebels in the north and south and in other states .org/revolution. Soon the prisons were full of political prisoners. By 1913 there were over 20 different paper currencies in Mexico . against the wishes of Carranza. despite the action the American ambassador Henry Wilson.The years following this were even more chaotic and the country descended into anarchy as the battles between the revolutionaries for power began .000. American Occupation of Vercruz President Wilson.By March and April. http://mexicanhistory. in order to pacify the country. The economy began to suffer as Huerta packed many working men into the army . decided Huerta would have to go . The Zapatistas Villistas wanted land reform and Indian rights. but Huerta tried to make some improvements despite the situation. More funds were allocated to education and to improve the lot of the Indians. under Wilson imposed an arms embargo after taking Veracruz. It is easy to label Huerta's regime as a conservative reaction. the rebels to the north announced that all federal soldiers who were captured would be executed on the spot. Those that followed the revolutionaries into battle were called soldaderas. huerta controlled two thirds of Mexico. Huerta muzzled the press and a network of secret informers was employed. while the Carrancistas and Obregonistas were more concerned with adhering to the Constitution and it was obvious that this was a calm before the country was engulfed in another civil war .In early 1914 ordered an American fleet to patrol Mexican waters . much of which was done under forced conscription. such as La Adelita . Villas' troops marched to Mexico City to install Gutierrez . The US learned that the German ship Ypiranga would arrive in Veracruz with arms for Huerta on April 21. Initially. The convention chose.He increased the taxes on the lands of the hacendados.000.They were celebrated in folk songs. Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . which would force the owners to sell some of their lands . In 1914. Political assassination was also used .The economic and military situation of Huerta became untenable and Huerta decided to resign on July 8.Increasing protests against Huerts's rule by the legislature and both houses were dissolved by Huerta .As his military position began to crumble. Many of these soldiers surrendered or were of such poor quality as to be useless . The Constitutionalists in the morth still received military aid from the US . often fought with their husbands as well .The US also refused to recognize Huerta's government. The Americans. First he tried supporting the rebels in the north and when this was not enough he decided on military intervention . 1913 the rebels in the north and south were scoring important victories against Huerta In May. Huerta was half Huichol Indian himself . Venustiano Carranza decided that a convention should be held of all revolutionary factions at Aguascalientes to decide on a provisional president of Mexico.In early 1914.

By now there were many who claimed to be president: Eulalio Gutierrez. http://mexicanhistory. None of these governments recognized the currency or laws of the other .org/revolution.this battle weakened Villa and led to his eventual defeat . Villa lost an estimated 4. War of the Generals Battle of Celaya The northern generals-Obregon.The Mexican Revolution Villa in throne chair. This chaotic situation was cleared somewhat by the most famous battle of the revolution. The Constitutionalists were gaining the upper hand and the US decided to back the Constitutionalists by giving Carranza diplomatic recognition in October 1915 . Carranza. who had fled to Nuevo Leon. seated next to Zapata at theit meeting at Xochimilco In December 1914. who had never been defeated in a major battle . by this time World War I was ragging and Obregon noted in battle reports how barbed wire stopped cavalry charges .000 killed. Here Obregon engaged Pancho Villa.Carranza and Villa claimed they wanted to reestablish the constitution of 1857 and were sometimes called the Constitutionalists.000 and his forces were cut down by Obregon machine guns while they tried to surmount the barbed wire. Villa and Zapata meet for the first time in Xochimilco and agreed upon their disdain for Carranza ' middle class' revolutionaries and agreed to support each other . By early 1915 civil war was raging in many states and Eulalio Gutierrez abandoned Mexico City which Obregon took unopposed . Villa attacked with an estimated 25. while Obregon only lost over a little over a hundred killed . the battle of Celaya . Pancho Villas major strength was his cavalry.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . In early April. roque Garza by the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa in Chihuahua.

The power of the church was limited. who had sought diplomatic recognition from the US for years was incensed and began to attack US civilians . The Carranza Presidency http://mexicanhistory. no Villistas or Zapatistas were allowed .org/revolution. Carranza's position grew stronger and it was decided to have another convention to draw up a new constitution. with stronger executive control. The new constitution guaranteed universal education for all and not just for the children of the wealthy and middle class as had been done in the Diaz years. After this he was ordered to withdraw slowly north and did not leave Mexico until Jan 1917.Workers were allowed to unionize and go on strike .President Wilson sent a small expedition of 6. who held a majority and voted in major reform articles . New Mexico. 1917 .Education was to be secular.The clamor for intervention was immediate .000 troops under General John ' Black Jack' Pershing into northern Mexico.The delegates met a Queretaro and Carranza drafted a constitution similar to that of 1857. The new Constitution drawn up in Queretaro provided the principles that govern Mexico to the present.On March 16. Carranza began to get nervous about having American troops in Mexico and ordered Pershing to withdraw.On Jan 9.There was to be an eight hour workay and a six day workweek and a minimum wage . which he won in March. The Constitution of 1917 Mexican teachers trained in America during the Carranza presidency. 485 Villistas invaded America and attacked the town of Columbus. the delegates seeing it as a historic block to many reforms .htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM] . but signed it in order to have enough support to become president in the next election.The Mexican Revolution one of the many children soldiers used by all sides in the Revolution Pancho Villa. Carranza agreed to the constitution with great reluctance. 1916. who were pro-Villa. Pershing was not ready to retreat and continued south where he clashed with Carrancista troops. Villistas murdered 15 American mining engineers at in Chihuahua . killing 18 Americans . 1916. Only nationals or foreigners who declared themselves Mexican could own property . Pershing could not locate Villa and recieved no help for the local people. Not wanting to lose control of this convention as he had at Aguascalientes. This was unacceptable to the radical reformers led by Francisco Mugica.Lands illegally seized during the Porfiriato were to be restored .

The Mexican Revolution

Carranza

When Carranza took office in May, 1917, there was still civil war raging and the economy was in shatters .The paper currency was worthless. Gold and copper production, the main engine of the economy, were down over 50% since the Revolution .The transportation system was wrecked and food shortages drove up the price of food .Carranza had no plan to fully enforce the new Constitution, only a little land was redistributed, and that was mostly from his political enemies . Strikes were put down by the army. while World War I was still going on , and Carranza received a proposal by Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary, for German help in retaining the land lost in the Mexican American War if Mexico entered into a formal alliance with Germany .Carranza, realizing this was a pipe dream, turned the offer down, but did maintain neutrality in the Great War . The Zapatistas were of course angry over the slow pace of land reform and stayed in revolt. Carranza sent federal troops under General Pablo Gonzales into Morelos who took many Zapatista towns but was unable to Zapata. The campaign there was some of the most violent of the Revolution . Zapata was assassinated in April 10, 1919 by Colonel Guajardo of the federal army, who pretended to defect to the Zapatista cause .While rid of one adversary, Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rose in revolt in Sonora and began marching with an army on Mexico City .In May, Carranza was forced to flee Mexico City as this army approached and he was assassinated by one of his own guards in Tlaxcalantongo.Villa's power in the north was greatly weakened and he went into retirement in 1920. He was assassinated in 1923 .There is debate as to when the revolution ended, as far as major military action, it ended with the death of Carranza. An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people are estimated to have been killed during the Revolution. Obregon became president in 1920 and set about reconstructing the country . Home
Diaz and the Porfiriato 18761910

Meet Mexican Ladies Beautiful Mexican Women Seeking Love & Marriage. Join Free Now!
www.MexicanCupid.com

Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less
www.CaliBaja.com

Mexican Furniture Rustic Furniture Manufacturers Hacienda furniture disscounts
www.santaferustic.com

Obergon, Callas and the The Cristero War 1920-1934

http://mexicanhistory.org/revolution.htm[5/20/2010 2:51:59 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Web
Google Search

MexicanHistory.org

Mexico in the 1920s
Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico!
AmoLatina.com

Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less
www.CaliBaja.com

Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. Stop lockstep liberalism!
www.KausforSenate.com

The Obregon Presidency 1920 - 24

Alvaro Obregon, lost his right arm in 1915 in the battle of Santa Rosa Obregon was elected president in 1920 and set to work to implement the 1917 Constitution. The beginning of his administration coincided with the economic slump that followed WWI . Unemployment was high in the vital mining industries and there was widespread hunger . The price of oil remained stable and by 1921 Mexico was the worlds third largest producer of petroleum which was a large source of government revenue .

Jose Vasconcelos To implement reforms in education, Obregon named Jose Vasconcelos as secretary of education. Vasconcelos open many rural school and tried to integrate Indians into mainstream Mexican society .Under Vasconcelos Diedo Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros began painting their famous murals to educate the public on the reforms of the Revolution .Under Article 3 of the new Constitution , education was to be secular and free at the primary level . This was difficult to do since the state did not have the funds or educators to educate all Mexican children , and even though Vasconcelos and Obregon were anti-clerical, they allowed some church schools since they were better than no education at all .

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Man Masters the elements Diego Riveria 1927 Fresco at Chapingo

Diego's work depict the past oppression of indians and the lower classes. The works of Siqueiros are also leftist in nature, depicting the oppressors in an ugly manner . Union membership also grew greatly during the Obregon administration . The main labor union, CROM rose from 50,000 members in 1920 to an estimated 1,2000,000 by 1924 . Obregon started a modest land redistribution of the haciendas in order not to stall the fragile economy and by 1924 had redistributed about 3,000,000 acres .

Americans and especially the American oil interests were upset by Article 27 of the new constitution that specified that only Mexicans or Foreigners who declared themselves Mexicans could have sub-soil and land rights . Because of this, President Harding withheld recognition to Mexico from 1920 to 1923 .In 1923 Obregon and the Mexican senate were able to make a 'work-around' to relieve American concerns and recognition was extended in 1923 . Rebellion

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Adolfo de la Huerta

The political landscape had not completely calmed down since the Revolution and the question of the 1924 presidential election as Obregon chose Plutarco Calles as his successor . Callas, a known radical caused the conservatives, military men and church groups to launch a revolt led by Adolfo de la Huerta which only lasted a few months. Calles won the election of 1924 and was to remain Mexicos president until 1934 . President Plutarco Callas

Plutarco Callas Callas had a radical reputation and landowners feared for their land, church leaders feared a greater lost of power and the industrialists feared higher workers wages .From the beginning Callas let it be known that he would not follow the cautious and moderate policy of Obregon. He was the most strong willed president since Diaz and became more dictatorial over time, not afraid to use the army against enemies and to jail them .The world economy was over the postwar slump and the Mexican economy revived as well .Callas redistributed 8,000,000 acres between 1924 and 1928 and instituted agrarian reforms and irrigation projects to boost agriculture .Wages rose through Callas' support of unions. Callas continued Obregon's educational policies and stressed teaching Spanish to Indians to bring them into Mexican society .A Department of Public Health was started to improve sanitation , give out vaccinations and inspect markets and restaurants . The Cristero Rebellion

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

Obregon and Callas 1920 - 34

Cristeros Unlike Obregon, who decided not to strongly enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Constitution of 1917, Callas decided to do so which had violent consequences .In 1926 , the archbishop of Mexico, Jose Mora y del Rio, declared Catholics could not accept the Constitution of 1917. Angered, Callas struck back by outlawing religious processions and closing church schools , monasteries and convents . On July 31, 1926 the archbishop declared a religious strike which lasted 3 years .Catholic leaders in Jalisco, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and Michoacan began to organize the faithful against the government will the rallying cry of Viva Cristo Rey ! .government outposts were attacked, government teachers were killed and government schools were burned down .In April a train was dynamited by the Cristeros killing over a hundred .The war became more violent as soldiers declared they would kill one priest for each teacher killed and looted churches .The rebellion weakened and gradually wound down, but there were still some outbreaks as late as 1928 .In 1929 a peace was worked out with the church agreeing to stop religious instruction in schools and to register priests. The government agreed that it would respect the integrity of the Church and not try to outlaw it .Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. There were 4,500 priests before the rebellion,by 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government The Assassination of Obregon The Constitution of 1917 had recently been revised to provide for a six year presidential term and legal re-election .Under these circumstances, Obregon ran again and won the election of 1928, however, he was never to assume office. He was assassinated on July 17, 1928 by Jose de Leon Total, a Cristero supporter who considered the assassination to be divinely inspired .There was great public interest in his trial and he was sentenced to death . 1928 - 34 , Callas the Maximato There were three presidents after the assassination, but they were puppets of Callas , who named himself the Supreme Boss ( Jefe Maximo ) to keep order. Callas created an political party the PNR ( Partido Nacional Revolutionario ) which would control Mexican politics for years to come and today is known as Partido Revolucionario Institucional

http://mexicanhistory.org/1920s.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM]

The Red Scare reached Mexico in the late 20s and early 30s. Callas became more conservative as time wore on. in order to forestall future coups against the civilian government . former education secretary Jose Vasconcelos ran against the Callas puppet Pascual Ortiz Rubio. Stop lockstep liberalism! www. In the election of 1928. Home Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles. a fascist group attacked Jews .htm[5/20/2010 2:52:32 AM] . Vasconcelos ran under the old 'no re-election' banner.KausforSenate. There were widespread accusations of corruption in the government and many former radicals were disgusted by the 'millionaire socialists' who lived in luxury .com Tired of Barbara Boxer? Boxer has a Democratic primary opponent. but Rubio won under allegations of fraud . Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.The government withdrew its support for unions.34 (PRI).Callas gave the military great power withing the PNR. Communists and Chinese..Obregon and Callas 1920 .supported by Callas.org/1920s. After a large demonstration The Communist Party was outlawed in 1930 and the Gold Shirts. by 1928 there was much less land redistribution and rural school openings .com Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 http://mexicanhistory.

which endeared him to the people . a Governor of Michoacan.40 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.40 Sell Oil & Gas Royalty We can help you make an informed decision on whether or not to sell.Cardenas established the Banco de Cedeito Ejidal to help fiance projects for ejidos . Cardenas also worked to stregthen the labor unions and weed out the corruption of the major union CROM by forming a new union .The lands were sometimes worked by an individual or by the community. Cardenas made moves to make himself supported by the army as well such as raising army pay and improving army education .adultjewishlearning.org/cardenas.000.By 1935. 1934 Cardenas cut his own salary in half and did not move into the presidential palace but kept his own home .000 acres. www. think he would be able to control him as a puppet . Cardenas decreed the end of the use of capital punishment ( usually in the form of a firing squad).Cardenas decided he would not be a Callas' puppet and would proceed with the reforms of the Revolution. such asLaguna ejido which grew cotton . Cardenas felt strong enough in his position to start removing Callas supporters from high posts and in the army . Cardenas was able to carry the 1933 PNR convention and was elected in July.By the 1940s more than half of Mecicos cultivated land was held by the ejidos and the large haciendas no longer existed . Callas sent into Exile In the Spring of 1936 Cardenas had Callas and his supporters arrested and sent on a plane to exile in the US . The major factor that let Calles' control the last few presidents was his control of the army. As before.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] .org Mexican bajo sexto 3070%Off Gabbanelli.This became the presidential residence of Los Pinos. Some cooperative projects were started.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . Paracho & SofiaMari.com Cardenas Calles decided to throw his support behind Cardenas.when Callas realized what Cardenas was doing he openly criticised Cardenas . Habla Español www.PlayMusic123. http://mexicanhistory. With Callas' support. Cardenas often met with common people to hear their concerns . By his first term he had redistributed 49.com Jewish Studies Center NYC Jewish Study at Skirball Center Browse Our Courses Catalog www.RoyaltyClearinghouse.As he had in Michoacan. Lowest Price. Cardenas was determined to fulfill the Revolutions pledge to redistribute land which had ceased under Calles' rule . and Chapultepec Castle was converted into into the National Museum of History. Capital punishment has been banned in Mexico since that time. the CTM.He did not use bodyguards.org The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 . the redistributed land did not go to individuals but to the community ejidos .

40 Mexico was better able to weather the Great Depression with its oil income and had cash resevers of around $15. Home Obergon. It is often said that Lázaro Cárdenas was the only president associated with PRI who did not use the office to make himself wealthy. the country burned up its reserves and as exports dived.htm[5/20/2010 2:52:53 AM] . In the US there was outrage and some called for intervention. Foreigners were afraid to invest in Mexico as did many wealthy Mexicans. also refused to sell the Mexicans spare parts .Cárdenas allowed thousands of Spanish refugees enter Mexico after the defeat of Republican Spain by Franco .org/cardenas.000. Franklin Roosevelt had a policy of nonintervention in politics south of the border and the matter went to a commission.Land redistribution slowed down after 1938. he threw his support behind Avila Comacho.As the depression went on.While this move was popular. Cardenas was aware of the devastation the Spanish Civil War was causing Spain. Nationalization of the Oil Companies In 1936. who won the 1940 election . The foreign oil companies refused to comply Cardenas ruled they were in contempt and on March 18. deciding Mexico needed to move in a more conservative stable direction. which ruled Mexico should pay the US companies 24 million . This move was extremely popular with the Mexican people and huge celebrations were held and it was the high water mark of the Revolution . Cardenas established PeMex to manage the oil industry.The Presidency of Lazro Cardenas 1934 .The railway Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México was also nationalized in 1938 and put under a "workers administration". and decided to moderate his course to prevent the same from happening in Mexico . Oil income was a major source of income for the government. Mexican oil workers went on strike against low pay and better working conditions against the foreign oil companies. Callas and the The Cristero War 19201934 Camacho World War II http://mexicanhistory. He retired to a modest home by Lake Pátzcuaro and worked the rest of his life supervising irrigation projects and promoting free medical clinics and education for the nation's poor. but started in a weak position since many of the technicians and engineers had left . it hurt the economy. 1938 Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves and expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. However. the new American president.The US.The matter was sent to an arbitration board.000 in 1930 . the Peso weakened and the economy worsened . Lázaro Cárdenas died of cancer in Mexico City in 1970 . and as production declined the national debt rose . In the election of 1939. He also continued to speak out about international political issues and in favor of greater democracy and human rights in Latin America. which ruled that the oil companies should increase wages by one third and improve working conditions.

Cardenas.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] . Avila Comacho. on a variety of fronts. Home 1947 2008 Post war economic Boom Ads by Google and Bust Cardenas and Oil Nationalization 1934-40 www. The conservatives. who was relatively unknown and called the ' Unknown Soldier. every literate person from the president on down was to instruct one or more illiterate s to read and write . a well known revolutionary . World War II members of the 201 squadron After the Germans attacked the Russians.the government of Comacho followed a pro-Allied course .Property owned by Axis owners were seized and a secret radio station relaying information to u-boats was discovered .org The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . afraid of more socialization. By the time the war ended there were over 300. on May 14 and May 24.Groupon. Mexican tankers were torpedoed by German submarines and Comacho declared war .com/LA http://mexicanhistory. Mexico provided many materials to the allied war effort and Mexican industry developed greatly .Squadron 201 of the Mexican airforce was sent to the Japanese theater where the saw action in Taiwan and the Philippines .Industrial expansion was encouraged by creating a government owned bank to help finance new industries and well as tax exemptions . and emphasis was placed on giving land to individual owners.46 and World War II Web Google Search MexicanHistory.15.' He was known to be much more conservative than Cardenas and openly professed his faith.000 Mexican workers in America .The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 . Mexican workers were allowed to enter America to supliment the depleated workforce.org/camacho. More emphasis was placed on private initiative in education. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . Less land was redistributed.Camacho won the election of 1940 and took the reforms of before into new directions. Under the slogan' Each one teach one'. The leaders in the PRM felt they needed a more conservative leader with a possible world war luming .That day after Pearl Harbor. However. promoted Juan Andreu .46 and World War II Camacho Many predicted Cardenas would give his support to Francisco Mugica.000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war. threw his support behind secretary of war. not the ejidos and fostering private ownership.There was not much support for joining the War. however.

The Presidency of Avila Camacho 1940 .46 and World War II http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:14 AM] .org/camacho.

52 Miguel Aleman was the first civilan president since Carranza .edu Mexico Obesity Doctor U. this is the story of Pablo Acosta. Postwar Mexico was prosperous and booming . www.ObesityControlCenter. 1940s.Mexico had a healthy surplus after the war and Aleman launced a number of large public works projects such as the Morelos and Falcon Dams helped increase agricultural output .com Miguel Aleman 1947 . good shots of 1940s Mexico Drug Lord:The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin An expose of the connections between crime and government in Mexico.Pemex built new refineries and pipeline and doubled its production from 1946 to 1952 .Women were allowed to vote in 1952 .org 1947 . irragate vast tracts of land and tripled Mexico's electrical capacity by 1952 . the notorious scar-faced Mexican drug lord http://mexicanhistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina.org/aleman. Great price. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Mexican History 1947 .nmhu. Mexico: Biography of PowerA History of Modern Mexico 18101996 video of the Pan-American Highway.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .The railway was modernized and the Mexican segment of the Pan-American Highway was finished in 1951 .2009 Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com You can afford college New Mexico Highlands University Great programs.Aleman used his influence to help bring the 1968 Olympics to Mexico .S.2008 Web Google Search MexicanHistory.

In 1960. much to the chagrin of the US .Mateos maintained diplomatic relations with Cuba after Castro took over.000 people .However. Money for books had been 'diverted. Mateos added an amendment to the Constitution to make it easier for opposition parties to gain ground . He continued land redistribution. all was not well . but being a Catholic country.K.Many young Mexicans identified with the young Mateos (47) much as young Americans of this generation did with J.Mexican History 1947 .Almost as soon as he left office he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma http://mexicanhistory.Afraid that Aleman may have overtaxed the economy with his huge projects.000.Industry was given incentives to locate away from Mexico City . implemented new social welfare and rural education programs .htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .While he was more leftist leaning than Cortines.Criticism of the one party system continued to grow during the Mateos administration as the electorate grew sophisticated.2008 The main library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.and fewer than half of school age children went to school .000 a people poured into the cities .64 Mateos was one of Mexico's most popular postwar presidents . there were no books on the bookshelves.org/aleman. he did not undertake and new large projects . Ruiz Cortines 1952 .' The Mexican Mafia A new University City was built to house the National University in 1952. Because of corroption.The population of Mexico had doubled in 30 years to 32. the urban population surpassed the rural population . cover with murals by Juan O'Gorman.America was able to count on Mexican support in the Cold War and loans from the Import-Export Bank flowed into Mexico .In response. the issue of birth control was skirted around . The Chamizal border issue with the US was solved where the Rio Grande had changed course south by returning the land to question to Mexico and making a concrete lined channel in the area .Strong economic growth continued. There was large scale corruption. strikes were supressed by the army and the pay of teachers was so low that there were not enough to staff the new schools . The Mexican economy continued to do well and a devaluation of the Peso in 1953 helped stabilize the country and bring in more investment . Large housing projects were started to deal with house the numerous people flocking to the cities . Communists were not tolerated and arrested . nationalized foreign utility concessions and movie industries by buying controlling stock.F.58 Cortines began to confront the problem of corruption of the past administration . Adolfo Mateos 1958. some of the largest housing 100. one of the most modern in the world atthe time .

In September students occupied many buildings and threatening to disrupt he Olympics .and 500 demonstratoers were put in jail .Diaz had fired the reform minded president of the PRI. several hundred people were killed .The army claimed they were fired upon and opened up with their machine guns. which was met with riot police and erupted into a large street riot .In July 26. 1968 another strike was called for at Tlatelolco.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .org/aleman. and the tourist trade greatly increased . After the rally ended and the demonstrators failed to disband. barricading streets and burning buses . there was a huge demonstration of half a million people and the government moved tanks and troops in . http://mexicanhistory. the army used tear gas and clubs . the following clash led to some deaths. Tlatelolco massacre Mexico won the bid to host the summer games of 1968 . 1968 leftist students gathered to celebrate the anniverary of the Cuban Revolution. Students at the National University were the first to organize protests and many university campuses exploded in violence and strikes. sometimes with federal troops being called in .70 Ordaz was a conservative with an agenda that favored business and the economy grew 6%.Mexican History 1947 . However it started.For two weeks bands of students roamed the streets. On August 27. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 .Diaz ordered troops into the buildings .2008 until his death in 1970 .On October 2.But he is most remember for his supression of civil liberties during the turbulent late 60s . Huge demonstrations were held on many universities . Carlos Madrazo and annulled elections where oposition parties won mayoral elections in Tijuana and Mexicalli .In the following days there were more riots.

the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%. Luis Echeverría 1970 .org/aleman. By 1974." "excessive overseas borrowing. maquiladoras have also accounted for nearly half of Mexico’s export assembly. In September. the bane of other Latin American countries.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . at least in terms of its economic policies. The government was forced to recognize it and it was named Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl .¡Defenderé el peso como un perro! – "I will defend the peso like a dog!" It earned him the nickname 'El perro' (The dog) and having people barking at him. Wages were low and workers conditions were bad . about 70. By the 1970s the population of the bodertowns such as Ciudad Jarez surged .76 Echeverría." galloping inflation (which continued with his successor). 1976. and responsibility for devaluations of the peso. the Peso was devaluated 60 % and a month larer it was devlued a further 40%.He was one of the first presidents to give an endorsement of birth control .Raw materials from US factories were assembled by low wage workers and exported duty free to Mexico. to gradually lose prestige at home and abroad. One of the largest.His opponents internationally and domestically accused López Portillo of "rampant corruption.Many started to go to America illegally. On Oct 1969 on the anniversary of Tlatelolco.Mexican History 1947 . to make exports more competitive. outside Mexico City had a population of 2 million in the 1980s. During his period.In September. http://mexicanhistory. became president in 1970 .000 Mexicans worked in 450 maquiladoras.82 Jose Portillo came to power during the jump in oil prices during the oil embargo and the sudden world oil glut that sent Mexico into recession . former secretary of the interior. 1976. he tried to order price controls on basic items . started in Mexicoby guerrilla groups and there was insurrection in Guerrero that took a year to put down . underground groups set off bombs at government offices and government buildings . This caused the ruling party.Caught in the inflation of the early 70s. Jose Lopez Portillo 1976 . Echeverría was unable to remake the state led economic miracle of the postwar years.Since 1973. the Olympic Games themselves were free of violence.The unemploed went to the big cities and started squatter towns. The official bracero prgoram ended in 1964 .Despite this and the building of a booming tourist industry in the Yucatan.2008 Despite this. Robberies and kidnappings . the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976.. Ordaz launched the Border Industrialization Program in which maquiladoras established next to the border that assembled goods .

1 earthquake devastated Mexico City and the next day a 7.2008 In 1974. Plans were made to make Mexico self-sufficient in food production and billions of dollars were invested in rural development .Despite the oil boom. the economy only made weak progress.000 and caused more than $4 billion in damage . a process that continued under his successors. Miguel de la Madrid 1982 . a 8. for example. with the rising oil prices after the OPEC embargo. the trade deficit approached 12 billion dollars and was 18 % of the GDP by 1982.Madrid's The goverment was slow to respond and grassroot movement sprang up. The US federal Reserve and the IMF stepped in to bail Mexico out . Even thought the economy contracted an estimated 6% yearly in the 80s.More loans were necessary to deal with the problem and the national debt soared to 96 billion dollars . He joined the removed protective tarrifs from mamy products to be able to join the GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1986 . increased 100% in price .Mexico renegotiated its debts and had to commit 53% of the federal budget to repayments.Madrid was not as free as his predeccors to manage the economy with the restrictions placed by the world Bank and the IMF . he introduced liberal economic reforms that encouraged foreign investment.Inflation increased on an average of 100% a year. During de la Madrid's presidency.Madrid's popularity was severly damaged .The Peso was devalued again and fell from 80 to 155 Pesos to the dollar .3 earthquake hit and killed at least 10.Public spending was cut by one third .86 During his tenure.org/aleman.Mexican History 1947 . The total debt climed to 80 billion dollars .Over 100. and widespread privatisations of outdated state-run industries and reduction of tariffs. foreign investors and banks were encouraged to invest in Mexico again by the government actions . 1985 . fraud and strong arm election tactics .Price controls were lifted on thousand of commodities and bread.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . http://mexicanhistory.The oil prices fell and the economy was devestated . huge new oil reserves were found in Chiapas and Tabasco. suddenly Mexico was a wealthy nation . by the end of the Lopez administration. On Sept 19.Mexico could not meet its debt repayments. There were now violent protests against the PRI for corruption.000 were left homeless .In 1982 oil made up 78% of imports . crushed by the huge debt from the oil boom years .

Salinas' chosen sucessor. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas on the new FDN party. which had been severely damaged after the Cristero War.But vote counting was interrupted by a mysterious computer failure. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos . masked ELZN fighters In 1994 a new Zapatista uprising . and established a new relationship between State and Church. the anarchist commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution. forcing a change in government policy and a negotiatin through the church . Indian abuse and its own government .org/aleman. Also in 1994. was believed to have gotten more votes than the PRI candidate. Carlos Salinas .1994 In the election of 1988.Salinas tranformed Mexico's state dominated economy into one of private enterprise and free trade . started in Chiapas against corruption. http://mexicanhistory.Some progress was made with political corruption as well. but reports of the national and international media .Mexican History 1947 . Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988 . EZLN.The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .2008 Hoping to regain the popularity lost after the earthquake.It was led by The president responded with military repression. the high point of which was the NAFTA agreement .He reformed the Clerical Laws which had forbidden Catholic priests from voting. and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. Madrid started a policy to deal corruption and the demands people always faced for mordidas or bribes . and the conservative opposition party PAN was premitted to win some elections . Luis Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana . In the end Salinas won with barely over 50%. The new laws also allowed the Catholic churches to own their own buildings.

Some allege that the huge prices paid during the privatization shows drug money was involved .Many Mexicans feel corruption has bankrupted the country. http://mexicanhistory.During Salinas' term drug trafficing grew into a huge business after the UD crackdown on shipments from Columbia . Foreign ad Mexican investors withdrew billions from Mexico. Zedillo was able to make some headway against Mexico's crime lords .He replaced en masse the notoriosly supreme court.2000 Within days of taking office.Mexican History 1947 . the government owned provider of telecommunications service and placed the owner of the newly formed company into the name of a formerly unknown person by the name of Carlos Slim Helú. Since globalization has contributed to the competition and advent of low-cost offshore assembly in places like Taiwan. the Peso suddenly collapsed . Vicente Fox 2000 .2% during Fox's administration. maquiladoras in Mexico have been on the decline since 2000: According to federal sources. In 1997 he moved to Ireland.Because of large scale corruption and the assassination of Ruiz Massieu which led to the arrest of Salinas brother Raul.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . known as the December Mistake.2008 He has been vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office . The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo. a political coalition formed by the National Action Party and the Ecological Green Party of Mexico.Vicente Fox was one of the few Presidents to avoid a major economic upheaval during office. Fox secured his candidacy representing the Alliance for Change. Ernesto Zedillo 1994 . Vicente Fox decided to run for President of Mexico. Raul Salinas is estimated to have $300 million abroad . Debts repaments was reduced to 29% of the GDP and the economy grew 5 %in 1991 . US president Bill Clinton granted a $50 billion loan to Mexico. and countries in Central America.2006 Fox was Mexico's first non=PRI president .In 2000.Salinas privatized Telmex and 400 other state owned businesses. which does not have an extradition treaty with Mexico . In spite of opposition within his party. and led to an economic recesssion .He reformed politics so that power was peacefully transferred to a non PRI successor. China.GDP growth dropped to an average an average of 2.2 percent in 2002. approximately 529 maquiladoras shut down and investment in assembly plants decreased by 8. however economy grew at a slow pace .org/aleman.Salinas and his advisors pursued a policy of allowing the Peso to become highly overvalued and led to a run on the Peso in December 1994 . which helped in one of Zedillo's intiatives to rescue the banking system. behind Cortes and Diaz . Vicente Fox . putting the country in an economic tailspin . Salinas has become one of the most reviled figures in Mexican history.

Mexican History 1947 . 2006. and authoritarianism. PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. while "the future" would represent the contrary: privatization. resulting in a narrow margin of 0. López Obrador and his coalition alleged irregularities in a number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. and political freedom http://mexicanhistory. However.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] . market control of the economy. expropriation.58% for Calderón over his closest contender.present On July 6." In his interpretation. state control of the economy. moving toward "the past" would mean nationalization.unanimously declared presidentelect by the tribunal Calderón has also stated that the challenge is not between the political left or right.On September 5. 2006. but a choice between "the past and the future.2008 Felipe Calderon 2006 . the Federal Electoral Institute announced the official vote count in the 2006 presidential election. liberalization.org/aleman.

2008 Home Camacho World War II Mexican history time line http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:53:45 AM] .org/aleman.Mexican History 1947 .

500 1400 1200 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 Pre-Classic era 800 700 600 500 814 Carthage Founded 700 776 1st Olympic Games 750s Height of Assyria 752 Rome founded End of Assyrian Empire 563 Buddha born 551 Confucus born 559 Cyrus founds Persian Empire 480 Battle of Thermopylae 460 Age of Pericles 323 Alexander dies at 500 Oldest Zapotec writing Height of Olmec Culture 400 400 300 http://mexicanhistory.000 Large animals vanish.500 BC 5. Lake 1760 Shang Dynasty China Texcoco 1.500 BC 5. Find Your Sweetheart in www.000 Sea divides Britain from Europe 3100 1st Egyptian Dynasty 2700 Great Pyramid built 2.com Pre-Columbian History TimeLine Time 40.000 BC 7.750 Hammurabi 1304 Rameses the Great Terracing and chinampas (floating gardens) earliest ballcourts found in Paso de la Amada Beginning of Olmec Culture 1300 Rameses the great 1232 Israelites in Canaan 1122 Zhou Dynasty China 1050 Dorians invade lower greece 900 San Lorenzo abanonded by Olmecs.org/timeline. profiles.000 - 2.Timeline of Mexican History Web Google Search MexicanHistory.ancestry. La Venta becomes Olmec center Oldest Olmec writing found 1.000 BC 11.500 Indus civilization 2.org Mexican History Time lines Mexico Obesity Doctor U.com Mexico! AmoLatina.350 Sumerian empire Pottery appears founded 2200 Xia Dynasty China 1850 Stonehenge started 1300 Tlatilco figurines.000 Archaic era 1.S. less rainfall evidence of agriculture at Tehuacan Agriculture beings in Middle East Walled city of Jericho World Neanderthal man dies out 8.500 era name Pre-agricultural era Mexico Last Ice Age oldest human remains found in Mexico 11.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost ObesityControlCenter.000 5.500 Knossos founded 2.500 year old skull Landbridge to Siberia goes underwater Mural Art. Baja 7.com Immigration Records Hottest Mexican Women Search the World's largest library of Browse 100s Photo & Video immigration records online.

Timeline of Mexican History Decline of Olmecs 200 100 0 100 200 300 150 Cholula Pyramid started Height of Teotihuacan civilization 150 AD Pyramid of the Sun constructed Babylon Han Dynasty 250 26 BC Mayan Classic Age 450 Roman Empire 400 Classic Era 476 AD 900 rise of Xochicalco.com Hottest Mexican Women No BP Bailout Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.com Year 1517 1518 1521 1522 1524 Mexico Cordoba expedition Americas Europe Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses Asia C o l o n i a l Juan de Grijalva expedition Cortes leaves Cuba for Mexico 1521.elwired.com salsa.org/timeline. the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered Cortes was appointed governor and captain general of New Spain Council of the Indies created http://mexicanhistory.S. Cholula 650 Teotihuacan sacked rise of Zapotecs in Oaxaca 632 Death of Muhammad 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Post Classic Era 900 Toltec Empire dominates much of central Mexico 1100 981 Vikings in Greenland 1066 Hastings 1st Crusade 1215 Magna Carta 1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan 1428 Aztec Empire 1521 Inca Empire Mongol Empire 1453 Fall of Constantinople Columbus After Arrival of Spanish TimeLine Mexico Obesity Doctor U.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . Find Demand BP pay back every dime spent Your Sweetheart in Mexico! cleaning up their mess in the Gulf. AmoLatina.ObesityControlCenter. El Tajin. purchase and print your auto policy online.org/o/20059/p/dia/act Sanborns Mexico Insurance Quote. trained specialist treats you in Mexico for fractions of the cost www. sanbornsinsurance.

Constitution Silver production rises to 27 million Pesos Louisiana Purchase Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon invades Spain Argentina independent Paraguay.Timeline of Mexican History 1527 1531 1533 1536 1537 1540 1541 1546 1547 1560 1563 1564 1571 1588 1610 1619 1624 1642 1644 1692 1695 1697 Audiencia est in New Spain M e x I c o vision of the Virgin of Guadalupe Mexico City University founded first coins minted in New Spain the New Laws outlaw indian slavery Coronado searches for Cibola Mixton War of 1540 -41 Chichimeca War Mayan War against Spanish for 20 years ships travel in annual convoys for protection cathedral in Mexico City started Trade with China Established Spanish Inquisition in Mexico till 1820 Battle of Lepanto defeat of Spanish Armada Santa Fe colony founded Jamestown. Virgina founded Virginia becomes a crown colony English Civil War Qing dynasty begins Salem witch trials Sor Juana de la Cruz dies last Msyan kingdom of Canek capitulates Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession Britain granted asiento to supply slaves to the Spanish America French and Indian War till 1763 Peter the Great in Europe N u e v a E s p a n a 1700 Bourbon Reforms start under Philip V of Spain 1713 1750s paintings of Miguel Cabrera 1762 1764 1767 1769 Jose de Galvez in New Spain Jesuits expelled Missions est in California Stamp Act Rousseau publishes Social Contract Cook in Pacific 1773 1775 1785 Castillo de Chapultepec built Boston Tea Party American Revolution starts US Constitution signed Washington first president French Revolution begins English Convicts sent to Australia 1787 1789 1803 1804 1808 1810 1811 1813 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence) Miguel Hidalgo executed by firing squad on July 31.org/timeline. 1811 Jose Marcia Morelos issues a Declaration of Independence. Venezuela independent War between the US and Britain 1814 Napoleon exiled to Elba http://mexicanhistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .

reforms conataining power of church and military War of the Reform starts army declares Zuloaga the new president Liberals under Juarez win the War of the Reform. Juarez first Indian president American Civil War 1857 1861 R http://mexicanhistory. Texas joins the Union Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga overthrows Herrera Mayan Caste War. September 27. modeled after the one of 1824.org/timeline. Nuevo León. 1846Battle of Monterrey Feb 23 Battle of Buena Vista Sept 12 Battle of Chapultepec Revolutions throughout Europe Gold discovered in California Communist Manifesto Taiping Rebellion Starts Crimean War 1846 1847 1848 Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1852 1853 1854 1855 W a r W a r o f Santa Anna returned to power in a coup Gadsen Purchase Plan of Ayutla to remove Santa Anna Santa Anna defeated and exiled.Battle of Palo Alto September 21–23. Congress declared war on Mexico May 8. Juan Alvarez president Constitution of 1857. rejoins Mexico in 1843 Mexican states of Coahuila. 1846. and Tamaulipas declare federal republic with Laredo as the capital Hong Kong given to UK Santa Anna exiled to Cuba. 1821 . French blockade Monore Doctrine issued 1824 1829 1830 1833 1835 1836 1838 Carlist Wars in Spain Opium War 1840 1842 1845 S a n t a A n n a M e x i c a n A m Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Santa Anna returns to Mexico May 13. president can only serve one term.32 Santa Anna pres Revolt of Texas Pastry War. Iturbide marched into the capital with Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Peru independent Victoria and the army Iturbide declares himself emperor of Mexico Santa Anna Plan de Casa Mata to oust the emperor 1823 E a r l y R e p u b l I c Iturbide goes into exile Central America leaves Mexico Iturbide returns to Mexico and is executed 1st pres of Mexico President Guadalupe Victoria 1824 -29 President Vicente Guerrero Spanish invasion of Mexico President Bustamante 1830 . Colonel Iturbide joins the rebels 1821 e m p I r e Mexican Independence from Spain.Timeline of Mexican History 1815 Morelos executed Battle of New Orleans Waterloo 1820 coup in Spain.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . 1846.

angry at not getting US recognition . widespread anger at the US Huerta resigns Carranza holds convention at Aguascalientes Eulalio Gutierrez as provisional president Divid by land reformers Zapatista and Villa and Constitutionalists Carranza and Obregon Obregon takes Mexico City as Gutierrez flees Battle of Celaya Obregon defeats Villa US recognizes Carranza Villa. kills 15 Americans in Mexico and attacksColumbus. church power limited. Lerdo becomes president Senate was added to the legislature Franco-Prussian War 1900 1890 1898 1908 P o r f i r i a t o Lerdo runs for and wins presidency again. but does anyway Francisco Madero runs against Diaz.1911 Manuel Gonzalez president Banco Nacional de México was founded Diaz wins pres again. Diaz becomes pres over with fraud. England and Spain depart. Plutarco Callas and Adolfo de la Huerta rise in revolt Carranza assassinated by own guard while fleeing Obregon becomes president Russian Revolution 1919 1920 http://mexicanhistory. England and France agreed to the Convention of London Spain. foreigners not allowed to own land Carranza elected president Zapata assassinated by federal army Alvaro Obregon.htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] .Veracruz railway finished Juarez dies in office. French troops stay. Diaz launches 'no re-election' revolt Mexico City . Maximilian executed. blockade demanding repayments of debt. Napoleon III wants empire French defeated at Puebla 1867 F r e n c h French install Maximilian as emperor Gettysburg French withdraw from Mexico. and then to remove all restrictions on reelection growing opposition to Diaz's rule Mexican treasury has a surplus Spanish-American War Diaz announces he will not seek re-election. public anger Madero issuses call for Revolution on November 20 Beginning of the Mexican Revolution Boer War Ford begins assemble line production Japan annexes Korea Boxer rebellion 1910 1911 M e x I c a n R e v o l u t I o n Ciudad Juarez surrenders to the rebels Orozco and Villa Diaz resigns Modero wins election Orozco rebels against Modero Felix Diaz rebels in Veracruz Coup starts against Modero on Feb 9 Decena Tragica in Mexico City Gen Huerta changes sides Modero arrested and murdered Huerta becomes president Coahuila Governer Carranza does not recognize Huerta Huerta greatly enlarges army Americans occupy Veracruz.Timeline of Mexican History e f 1862 1863 Starts Spain. who had Madero jailed . first to allow two terms in office. New Mexico Pershing ordered into Mexico to catch Villa. Constitutional Republic restored Cuban rebellion against Spain Meiji era starts in Japan . has the constitution amended.org/timeline. defeats a federal army in Tlaxcala. great industrialization 1871 1872 1875 1876 1880 1884 Juarez Runs for a Fourth Term despite no re election article of the Constitution of 1857. leaves in 1917 emptyhanded WWI starts Qing Dynasty overthrown 1913 1914 First Battle of the Marne 1915 Zimmermann Telegram 1917 Constitution of 1917. Diaz rules in an era known as the Porfiriato 1876 . hundreds killed by naval fire. England and France land troops. Diaz revolts again.

htm[5/20/2010 2:54:46 AM] . major dams built. and led to an economic recesssion Vicente Fox first non PRI president 1994 .BookIt. Callas rules till 1934 through puppets Callas creates national party PNR. which holds power till the 2000 Lindbergh flies across Atlantic Cardenas president Cardenas starts major land redistribution Callas forced into exile Hitler becomes Fuher Mao's Long March 1936 Cardenas nationalizes foreign oil companies PeMex founded Spanish Civil War 1939 1940 1942 1946-50 1954 Comacho becomes president Mexico declares war on Axis after tankers sunk by u-boats.Timeline of Mexican History 1921 1923 Mexico is the world's 3rd largest oil producer Villa assassinated America recognizes Mexico Obregon supports the CRON union Adolfo de la Huerta leads short lived revolt Radical reformer Plutarco Callas becomes president Facism Starts in Italy 1924 1926 1928 1934 C r I s t e r o s W a r Cristeros War begins.com Ads by Google http://mexicanhistory. population control urged Oil boom years Oil prices sink. University City Women allowed to vote Revolution in Argentina WWII starts Korean War Dien Bien Phu falls 1959 1968 1970-76 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico City Olympics Echeverría president nationalization of banks. Mexican Air force fights in Pacific Aleman president. known as the December Mistake. gov fights church ends 1934 Obregon assassinated. economic crisis foreign debt crisis Castro takes over Cuba China Cultural Revolution Coup in Chile 1976-82 1985 Mexico City earthquake 1988-94 Salinas president free market and private enterprise policies Zapatista uprising Drug trafficing grows Peso overvalued NAFTA signed Zedillo president the Peso suddenly collapsed . later known as PRI.2000 2000-2006 Mexican-American War Timeline Mexican Revolution Timeline www.org/timeline.

The Mexicans hoped this to help control raids by Commanches and stop possible expansion into the area by the United States by integrating these new settlers into Mexican society. Discover Family Heroes. but Americans continue to cross the border to settle.000 Americans and only around 8. 1835 Mexican land grant Many Americans come to settle in Texas.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.Mexican government deposed him in absentia and disavows his treaty. Many states. 1836 Oct 2 Texians revolt against Mexico. By 1835 there were 30.com 1821 The New Republic of Mexico grants lands in the sparely populated Texas state on the condition settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship.ancestry. Mexico http://mexicanhistory. Find Your Sweetheart in Mexico! AmoLatina. replaces it with a new centralist constitution. Mexico for fractions of the cost www.Mexico orders halt to American immigration. President Santa Anna abolishes the federal constitution of Mexico.ObesityControlCenter. including Texas revolt.Mexican American War Timeline Web Google Search MexicanHistory.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . trained specialist treats you in Collection. fearing they would live under a tyrant with no representation.com www. March 6 Fall of the Alamo April 26 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco. which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and recognizes Texas independence . The militias of Mexican states ordered to be disbanded.S.000 Mexicans .com Mexican American War Timeline Hottest Mexican Women Browse 100s Photo & Video profiles.org War of 1812 Records Mexico Obesity Doctor Largest Online US Military Records U.

who were afraid Texas would become a slave holding state.S. Jose de Joaquin de Herrera as president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .Mexican American War Timeline still regards Texas as part of Mexico. 1841 from a cold. Polk http://mexicanhistory.such as former President Martin Van Buren. 1838 Pastry War Santa Anna becomes a hero fighting the French ( 1838 Pastry War) and losing part of his leg to shellfire and re-elected president. where he plots his return as his hero Napoleon did from Elba island. 1845 March 1 United States Congress votes to annex the Republic of Texas 1845 March 4 Expansionist James K.but is too weak by internal disturbances to try to regain it. One of the goals of his administration is acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico. The mutineers select Gen. The main interest was San Francisco Bay as an access point for trade with Asia. a month after delivering a two hour inaugural speech on a cold and rainy day) wishes to annex Texas to gain prestige for a new political party he wished to found.Polk claims the Rio Grande as the Pres. The Texan claim to the Rio Grande boundary had been omitted from the annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate. who has become president after the death of president Harrison (who died on April 4. The Senate rejects an annexation treaty due to antislavery forces. 1845 Republic of Texan $10 Feb 28 Congress annexes Texas in a joint resolution. who is overthrown. Polk (49) becomes president of the US. 1845 U. President John Tyler. 1844 Dec 6 in Mexico City troops rise against Santa Anna. June 3 Santa Anna exiled to Cuba.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.

500 regulars have gathered. Chihuahua and Nuevo Mexico . which were signed by Santa Anna while he was a prisoner in Texas. regarded by Mexico as the Mexican-Texas border. but regains power. March 28 Mexican Senate breaks off negotiations. Sept 15 Interim president Herrera wins election and becomes president. The disputed area had never been a part of the viceroy of Texas under Mexican rule.. and Mexico .500 troops. on the transport Alabama. By late Oct 3. July 31 Taylor camps with army at Corpus Christi near the mouth of the Nueces River. March 6 Mexican ambassador in Washing requests passport-Mexico regards Texas as a breakaway province July 4 Anglo-Americans in Texas accept U. When Mexican President JoseJoaquin de Herrera considers receiving Slidell in order to peacefully negotiate the problem of Texas annexation. Louisiana into Texas with 1. authority to raise troops and prepare for war. Nov 29 Former U. gives interim President Herrera. but had been parts of Tamaulipas. terms for annexation Pres Herrera July 22-23 Polk orders Gen.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Mexicans considered this an insult to national honor. Zachary Taylor to depart Fort Jessup. Congressmen John Slidell arrives at Veracruz to try to negotiate with the Mexican government'.he was accused of treason and deposed by followers of Santa Anna. however. Coahuila.S. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. Taylor http://mexicanhistory.Mexican American War Timeline 1845 boundary between the U.Polk reinstates the Monroe Doctrine and calls for western expansion Gen.Americans base claims on the Treaties of Velasco. Dec2 . Mexico.S. had never ratified these treaties.S. He is authorized to offer $25 million for the disputed Rio Grande border area in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.

Mariano Arista appointed in command of the Army of the North to confront the Americans April 11 Gen.Jose Maria Castro. Taylor reaches the Rio Grande. assembles a force of 6.Mexican American War Timeline Dec 14 Herrera. Francisco Mejia.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . killing 16 U.S. April 2 Gen.S.200 men.600-strong Mexican cavalry detachment under Gen. Arista reaches Matamoros. soldiers in what later became known as the Thornton Affair after Captain Thornton who was in 1846 http://mexicanhistory. considers this an invasion of Mexican territory. Mejia has 3. April 25 a 1. but is not authorized to attack.000 men under his command. Taylor erects a camp named Fort Texas with 2.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Taylor ordered to return to Corpus Christi within 24 hours. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosíi but instead of marching north against the invaders. The Mexican commander in Matamoros. declared President of Mexico. Fremont approaches Monterey with a 60 man survey team. Taylor is authorized to move south into disputed territory. March 8 Gen. Fremont entrenches on Gavilan (Mount Fremont) and is surrounded by a 350 man force under Gen. Taylor refuses. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol. March 5 Federally commissioned explorer John C.Paredes 1846 1846 Jan 1 Yucatan declareds its independence from Mexico and its neutrality in the war with the United States Jan 2 General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga enters Mexico City. Fremont retreats after four days under cover of darkness.000 men. Feb 10 –Mormons begin their migration west from to the Great Salt Lake. Flag of the Yucatan Republic ( 1841-1848) 1846 1846 March 28 Gen. in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera. patrol that had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande at Carricitos. is ordered to leave California by Mexican authorities after stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. Dec 29 Texas becomes the 28th state of the United States Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with the United States Gen.Col.Torrejon attacked a 70-man U. This was put under the command of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and ordered north to fight the Americans.

Mexicans withdrawl by evening with 400 casualities. June 12 America reaches compromise with Britain over Pacific Northwest with the Canadian-U. 1846 May 8 Resaca de la Palma Gen. overrunning the Mexican artillery. Jacob Brown killed by shellfire.Mexican American War Timeline command. 40-2 in the Senate after learning of the Carricitos. Taylor attacks his center. Revolts against Parede in Guadalajara. Fort Texas renames Fort Brown in his honor. incident. May 17 Taylor crosses Rio Grande and takes Matamoros. May 13 U.S. Arista retreats toward Linares. Mexicans retreat across the Rio Grande.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Mexican losses 200 killed.S. American 'flying artillery' wreak havok on Mexican lines. Maj. 1846 May 7 Battle of Palo Alto. May 19 blockade of Tampico starts 1846 May 20 Blockade of Veracruz starts. Arista resigns command to Gen. July 7 Mexican Congress declares war on the U.300. http://mexicanhistory. which later becomes Brownsville.S. 6.Arista deploys his forces in an empty lake bed with his army in a narrow line. border set at the 49th parallel.Arista with 3. 39 Americans killed. Mexican cavalry charge under Torrejon who are disperesed by accurate fire.300 confronts Taylor's 2. Gen. Aug 5 Gen.000 man Mexican government army arrives to besiege Guadalajara 1846 1846 July 4 American settlers in California declare themselves independent of Mexico and establish 'Bear Flag" Republic. Americans have 9 killed.Jose Maria Ortega. Congress declares war on Mexico 173-14 in the House.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . which has been abandoned by the Mexican army. 1846 May 3 Mexican artillery opens heavy fire against Fort Texas.losing many men in the desert.Jose Mariano Salas deposes Paredes as president. Nuevo Leon.

000 volunteers.called the Black Fort by the Americans. Sept 28 Santa Anna departs Mexico City to San Luis Potosi. the Mexican commander Ampudia has 7.700 for garrison duty.500 man army in four months. Aug18 Gen. Winfield Scott. the plans are forwarded to Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi.The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting in the Mexican-American War in California 1847 http://mexicanhistory. Aug 19 Taylor marches toward Mier and Camargo with 3. Sept 23 Californio guerrillas under Servulo Verda attack a 48 man American garrison in Loa Angles. Dec 2 Santa Anna inaugurated as president Dec 25 El Paso taken by Doniphan. Americans suffer 120 killed.645 troops.Washington believes he will help conclude a peace. Mexicans 700 casualties. gathering a 21.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline.000 militia.Taylor is killed trying to buy provisions in Villagran. Ampudia asks for terms.000 Mexican regulars and 23. decides to transport another army to Veracruz to attack Mexico City. leaving 4. Mexican army allowed to march out with arms. Sept 15 Santa Anna enters Mexico City to great reception Sept 19 Taylor arrives at Monterrey with 6.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Nov 13 Taylor occupies undefended Saltillo Nov 30 The U.Kearny occupies Santa Fe without a fight. forcing them to surrender.Mexican American War Timeline Aug 16 Santa Anna returns to Veracruz after exile in Cuba on a British ship.S. Mexican lose 100 in cavalry charge. who is carrying Scott's campaign plans to Gen.200 regulars and 3. no Americans killed. Jan 13 Lt.Richey. to be led by Gen. Sept 24 Most of Monterrey in American hands after fierce house to house fighting. the last Mexican stronghold in California.which is defended by a formidable citadel. Dec 26 Taylor arrives at Brazos de Santiago (near BrownsvilleTexas) Dec 28 Stockton and Kearny with 600 men attack Flores with 450 men and retake Los Angles.

Robert E.400 Mexican force of the Sacramento River north of Chihuahua City. Americans lose 267 killed with 1. California is renamed San Francisco. Santa Anna prepares to attack Taylor's positron at Coahuila. Mexicans lose 300 killed. an easier to defend narrow pass.000 appear and sends a surrender order to Taylor. A flanking maneuver and frontal assault breaks the Mexican line. Feb 20 a 400 American recon unit spots 4.500 desertions.General Santa Anna. Indecisive firefights for high ground ensues.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 Jan 28 Santa Anna decides to attack Taylor after learning of his deminished strength from the captured plans.000 man Mexican army.Americans lose 63 killed. who rejects it ( 'Tell Santa Anna to go to hell !').8. was compelled to ride off without his artificial leg.000 raw troops and 43 field pieces on the National Highway to Mexico City to block the American advance. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. March 28 Veracruz surrenders 1847 April 14 Battle of Cerro Gordo Santa Anna deploys 12.000 survive the grueling desert march to Encarnacion. March 21 10.600 soldiers land by nightfall.500 return with Santa Anna to San Luis Potosi. Lee discovered a mountain trail around Santa Anna's position Mexican troops retreat in panic. Taylor decides to fall back with his 4. March 9 American landing at Veracruz.. Santa Anna's 18.000 Mexican prisoners taken. Jan 30 – Yerba Buena. most in a 800 man cavalry charge.800 troops to Buena Vista Hacienda.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .000 Mexican cavalry in advance of Santa Anna's army at Hediona Ranch and ride back to warn Taylor.Special Cavalry Division. 1847 1847 Feb 22 Battle of Buena Vista Shortly after sunrise. Only 14. America lose one killed and occupy Chihuahua City. American force entering Mexico from El Paso of 924 under Doniphan attacks 2.800. Mexicans lose 1. The vanguard is the San Patrico Company of Irish-American deserters of a 20.Santa Anna orders a retreat at night toward Agua Nueva. 3. Taylor retires toward Monterrey.The flying artillery breaks up Mexican attacks. 1847 1847 http://mexicanhistory.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. caught off guard by the Fourth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry. Siege of Veracruz begins. which was captured and is still displayed in Illinois. April 20 American army enters deserted Jalapa. 1847 Feb 28 Battle of Sacramento.

Americans have lost 139 killed. Americans lose 116 killed. Aug 7 Scott begins offensive against Mexico City.Mexican American War Timeline 1847 April 21 Santa Anna arrives at Orizaba and begins to reassemble 4.000 captured. Scott now has 14. The San Mateo Convent is taken with some of the San Patrico Battalion.and is left with 5.000 dead and 3.820 . Mexican loses are 4. Mexican guerillas surround American garrison there.000 troops and 30 cannons. Joseph E.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] . Johnsons troops have unfurled American flag atop the castle. http://mexicanhistory.000 of his defeated troops.. 50 of which are cadets. Aug 19 Americans have breakthrough at San Geronimo.000 troops. Six cadets fight to the death. Sept 12 Scott orders to bombardment of the hilltop castle of Chapultepec.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. The next day the lower defenses are overcome in a fierce hand to hand struggle. May 15 Scott's army enters Puebla with no opposition 1847 May 28 Scott has lost 3. defended by 260 defenders under Gen.to few to attack Mexico City and wait for reinforcements.Bravo. 2. 30 out of 69 are executed. Aug 10 Mexican fortify El Penon Hill with 7. Aug 20 Santa Anna flees back to Mexico City.500 under Worth to take it. July 8 Scott is reinforced at Puebla by 4. one jumping to his death holding the Mexican flag and are known as los Ninos Heros today. a surprise attack kills 700 Mexicans.Scaling ladders are brought up and by 9:30 AM Col. which falls after a fierce battle. Scott sends 3. Sept 7 Americans learn Mexicans have fortified a strong position at Molino del Rey.(Boy Heros). Santa Ana flees Mexico City.500 of which are sick. Mexicans flee across river at Churubusco and Coyoacan.hoping he will ask for terms.500 troops.000 volunteer militia as the terms of their enlistment has expired. the last major defense before Mexico City. Aug 22 Scott grants Santa Anna a truce. forcing the American garrison to leave by July 19. June 14 Perry in a squadron of steamers takes Villahermosa in Tobasco.

California Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed.S.com http://mexicanhistory.CaliBaja.5 million in claims by U.org/MexicanAmericanWarTimeline. Since 1960. Goldline. Mexico loses 55% of its pre war territory. Nov 11 elections held in unoccupied parts of Mexico.000) were to be treated as U. citizens. Anaya become interim president. Oct 8 Santa Anna ordered to turn over military command to Rincon and prepare to stand trial for his conduct of the war.Mexican American War Timeline Sept 14 Scott's army enters Mexico City main square by noon. (2/3 if Texas is included) America pays $15 million in compensation and assumes responsibility for $3. Sept 15 Santa Anna resigns in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de le Pena y Pena.300 American troops depart Mexico Santa Anna dies in obscurity in Mexico City.Arizona and New Mexico.Utah. Free Investor Kit.HolidayInn. Santa Anna regroups at Guadalupe. Buried at Tepeyac Cemetery. Book now! www. Nov 10 Mazatlan is taken after Mexican garrison withdraws.com Holiday Inn Plaza Dali Excellent rates in Mexico City 2 miles from the airport. near Guadalupe Hidalgo 1929 Last veteran of Mexican-American War.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:20 AM] .Colorado. America takes California. citizens against Mexico. A couple of days of severe rioting follows.com Assemble It In Mexico Let CaliBaja Manufacturing Assemble Your Product For Less www. 1848 Jan 24 gold discovered at Sutter's Mill. 1876 July 31 last of 18. dies Home Invest in Gold: Learn How Gold Delivered to Your Door.Mexicans living in lands ceded ( about 80. in Coloma.Nevada.S.sailor Owen Edgar.

www. http://mexicanhistory. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . Diaz had quickly modernized Mexico at great cost.1920 History Deals on History Compare History prices www.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Diaz was a general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7. many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war." Following the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labor and their belief in social Darwinism. many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas.com/MiddleEastPeaceEfforts Sharpen Your Blade Exercise yourself in Eastern fights and become Master of the Sword! www.com April 20 Hailey's Comet appears.Info. Sept 27 Porfirio Diaz proclaimed president for his eighth term.Shopping. this huge class of people was not educated.com Middle East Peace Efforts Get Middle East Peace Efforts Info Access 10 Search Engines At Once. He was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876. To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods.Mexican Revolution Timeline Web MexicanHistory.pestilence and death.org Google Search Mexican Revolution Time line Revolución Mexicana 1910 .Metin2. Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the gov payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.

Madero joined by other local leaders. Nov 19 Madero enters border into Mexico after Villa captures Chihuahua. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode. 1911 Jan 30 Orozoco attacks federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez. better known as Pancho Villa.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying Viva Villa ! Viva la Revolucion ! Famous for their cavalry charges. Madero and Villa meet for the first time. 1911 http://mexicanhistory. Madero was unusual for his period. Oct 11 Madero. Pascual Orozoco launches uprising in Chihuahua. Francisco Madero. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. was a vegetarian and practiced a spiritual form of religion. Garrison relieved by federal troops 3 days later. head of antireelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. He didn't drink or smoke. Feb 13 Revolutionary Jose Luis Moya occupies Durango Feb 26 Moya's band captures town of Zacatecas 1911 March 6 Madero forces attacks federal garrison at Casa Grandes and driven off with 100 out of 800 followers killed.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1910 Most large companies were foreign owned. including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. Nov 20 Madero calls for an uprising.often led by Villa himself. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .declared the election to be illegal and urged a rebellion against Diaz.

Mexican Revolution Timeline 1911 March 24 Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. June Earthquake kills 207 in Mexico City. June 22 Orozoc's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters. May 7 Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico. Diaz 'Madero has unleashed a tiger. Orzoco and Villa lay siege to Ciudad Juarez.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. April 3. Madero refuses. Madero enters city. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner Tierra y Libertad !' ( Land and Liberty. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Diaz years. Madero and Villa can now supply their forces with modern weapons. Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas.. May 21 Cuernavaca is taken by Zapata. let’s see if he can ride it. Diaz resigns and boards German liner Ypiranga.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . May 10 federales in Ciudad Juarez surrenders. May 14 Torreon is taken by revolutionaries. May 25 Rioting in Mexico City. soon Orzoco and Villa leave Madero.500 under Madero. May 13 Orzoco and Villa demand some federal officers be executed. Foreign Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra becomes interim president.Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero. Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Diaz."' Diaz dies in Paris four years later.') March 26 Moya captures Ciudad Lerdo. 303 unarmed Chinese massacred. Diaz offers to resign. 1911 http://mexicanhistory.

supported by powerful hacienda landowners. Pascual Orozoco. angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas. Aug 31 Huerta orders Zapata's arrest.once an ally of Villa. Madero turns to Gen. raises a well equipped army of 6. Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education. Slow to take action on land reform . Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Zapata flees into the countryside Nov 6 Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Orozoco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station April 12 Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends http://mexicanhistory.Mexican Revolution Timeline Aug 8 Gen. He plans to march on Mexico City. revolutionary leader Emilio Vazquez Gomes calls for revolt against Madero Nov 25 Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands.insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support.Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozoco. Nov 9 In Texas. Nov 27 Zapata disavows support for Madero for not giving land to peasants Feb 15 Gen.000 in the north.000 federal troops and forces Zapata to demobilize part of his peasant army. burning several Zapatista towns March 3 Orozoco rises against Madero. Hacienda owners pressure Madero to subdue Zapata.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1.

is arrested 1913 1913 Feb 9 Decena Tragica ' Ten Tragic Days' (Feb 9-18) Felix Diaz and Gens. Diaz freed. Gen Felix Diaz. forcing him to flee to the US. Huerta defeats Orozoco. 300 killed around presidential palace. raises conservative revolt against Madero in Veracruz. Revolt fails and Leon is executed.Madero reappoints Huerta as military commander.000 civilians killed General Mondragon 1913 http://mexicanhistory. Huerta order Ruiz and all rebel cadets executed by firing squad. 1912 Oct 16 Nephew of Porfiro Diaz. April 26 Col.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Brig. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City.5.Mondragon and Ruiz mutiny against Madero with 2.Mexican Revolution Timeline order.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .400 men.

New president Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. Announces the Plan of Guadalupe. In the next election. Huerta turns Madero's brother Gustavo over to Diaz's men. Huerta would become temporary president. 100 Madero supporters are executed. Huerta would see to it that Diaz was elected.Huerta sees this as a chance to become president.which had been free under Madero. Huerta government claims that bodyguards were forced to shoot Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez. Using these tactics he created a 200. Venustiano Carranza rebels against Huerta. 500 civilians killed.The press. Huerta jails 110 members of Congress. Gen. Soon others launch rebellion. Feb 22 Madero is murdered. Huerta seizes Madero.while Huerta would remain as the military strong man. All males between 15 and 40 were obliged to serve in the army in areas under Huerta's control and many were gathered at bar. calling for the overthrow of Huerta and the restoration of the Constitution of 1857. Jose Suarez and cabinet. With support of US Ambassador Henry Lane.who murder him. of Coahuila.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Feb 24 The Gov. the Catholic Church (which lost land and power in the last century) and the American business community. In reality Huerta ordered the murders. limiting church power. Felix Diaz is shipped off to Japan on a diplomatic mission .000 none to loyal army. Vice Pres. Huerta and Diaz come to an agreement . Huerta's regime harsher and more brutal than Diaz's.bull fights and walking on the streets.. Huerta is supported by conservatives.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1913 Feb 11 Artillery duel breaks out with mutineers. during a failed rescue attempt by Madero's supporters.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. is again gagged as it was in Diaz's time. Lane recalled. http://mexicanhistory. He despises Madero and has long planned to overthrow him.

City taken. Nov 23 Federal force defeated at Tierra Blanca by Villa close to Ciudad Juarez.shooting prisoners routine on all sides Oct 14 Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City Nov 15 Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. all federal officers executed. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . April 21 Zapata besieges Huerta garrison at Cuautla. calling his forces the Constitutionalists. Federal train blown up. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua. all federal officers executed. which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions. federals round up civilians.000 under Villa attacks http://mexicanhistory. April 15 Obregon defeats Huerta forces along US border. 1914 Dec 8 Villa occupies Chihuahua City Jan 10 Huerta forces defeated at Ojinaga. May 13 Obregon stops federal advance at Santa Rosa May 30 Zapata declares war on Huerta. was forefront in the opposition against Huerta.killing 100 federal troops. March 12 Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5.. The northern armies of Villa. with the secret support of the United States. 12. returns to Mexico and raises army against Huerta. Several hundred executed. March 22 Second Battle of Torreon. March 13 Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Huerta and captures Nogales. a politician and rancher from Coahuila.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. On March 26.Mexican Revolution Timeline March 9 Villa escapes from prison in El Paso. March 26 Venustiano Carranza. March 17 Orozoco becomes brigadier in Huerta's army. end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua. Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe. 1913.000 men. Villa defeats federal force at San Andres Sept 29 Villa captures Torreon. Obregon and Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another .

126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed..htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . American forces remain most of the year May 4 Obregon besieges Mazatlan May 14 The movie The Life of General Vila . Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property.000 strong federal garrison and drives them off with heavy loses 1914 April 5 Villa defeats 12. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916. leading to his resignation on July 15.000 marines land. Villa became a folk hero in the U.Mexican Revolution Timeline 10.S. 4 Americans killed. starring Villa himself ( now believed to be lost) opens in New York. 1914 1914 http://mexicanhistory. There was a considerable concentration of U.Snipers open fire on Americans. 400 more Americans are sent ashore. Huerta goes into exile in Europe. American Rear Adm. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry.Pancho Villa's División del Norte(Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico. The great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters. through such writers as John Reed.Arms and supplies from Germany to Huerta cut off.sent to Mexico by Metropolitan Magazine. Americans sailors detained by Huerta soldiers and released.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.300 sailors and 2. The Mexican commander refuses.000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colomias April 8 Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos April 9 Tampico Affair Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. Sniper fire continues. April 14 Wilson orders Atlantic Fleet to Mexico 1914 April 21 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute. 1914 April 26 Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans.Eventually 3.S. June 10 Battle of Zacatecas Toma de Zacatecas (Taking of Zacatecas) One of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution .

Nov 23 last American troops leave Veracruz. who departs for Veracruz. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara August 15. August 20 Army of Obregon enters Mexico City. Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. Nov 6 The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognizes Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape.Guiterrez appoints Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. abandoned by Villa and Zapata.000 troops Jan 15 Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara Jan 28 Obregon reenters Mexico City. begins to distribute land to peasants Sept 22 Villa refuses to acknowledge Carranza as president. Nov 12 Zapata declares war on Carranza Nov 18 Villa and Zapata advance on Carranza. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. 1915 War of the Generals Jan5 Obregon takes Puebla City with 12.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1914 June 25 Battle of Orendain Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Huerta forces. 1915 Dec 1 Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilico in Mexico City. March 10 Obregon departs Mexico City 1915 http://mexicanhistory.000 march through city.000 and many supplies. Carranza makes a triumphal entry into Mexico City and becomes president. Álvaro Obregón signed a number of treaties in Teoloyucan in which the last of Huerta's forces surrendered to him and recognized the Constitutional government. Sept 14 Zapata breaks with Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms. Their combined armies of 50. who lose 2. Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .

500 horsemen and 6. angering him. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire.Villa has 8. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI. Zapatista coin June 2 Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues. April 16 Obregon occupies Salamanca June 1 Battle of Trinidad Villas masses 19. Villa's forces exhaust forces in repeated assaults.Argentina and other Latin American countries recognize Carranza as president.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] .000 cavalry.000 taken prisoner. known as the general who never won a battle .his days as a leader of a large northern army are over.000 causalities and retreats north.500 infantry. Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez.barbed wire and machine guns.Hill succeeds him.400 cavalry and 14.000 cavalry against Obregon's 9.000 man army.000 infantry has decisive victory over Villa's 20. July 6 Obregon resumes command of the army August Orozco murdered in El Paso Oct 19 US. http://mexicanhistory. 6.Villa loses 4. June 5 Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state June 24 Huerta and Orozco are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico.000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches .org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.5. US cuts off arms supplies to Villa.Mexican Revolution Timeline 1915 April 6 Battle of Celya Obregon army of 6.is unable to defeat Zapata . Despite using terror tactics.

400.000 followers. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos.000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off. 1917 It allows freedom of religion. Takes much booty and gives speech.gaining more recruits Sept Zapata threatens Mexico City. killing 16 Americans 1916 March 9 Villa enters US and raids town of Columbus.killing 400 Nov 23 Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats Dec Carranza holds constitutional convention at Queretaro.many civilians executed July 6 Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista Aug 1 Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in Mexico City Sept 16 Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM.south or east will be contested.child labor prohibited. seizes water pumping station and destroys rail lines. March 15 Pershing enters Mexico 3.000 man army occupies every major town in the state.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Gonzales overrun main Zapatista headquarters at Tlaltizapan. 400 desert Villa.equal pay for men and women. 100 Villistas killed and 18 Americans. has 9.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. Villa losses many of his remaining 5. June 20 Carrizal Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison 74 Mexicans and 10 Americans killed May 2 Carrancista Gen.000 in late April.then retreats Nov Zapatistas blow up train. with air support. Nov 18 inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo. May 15 Felix Diaz joins Oaxaca's separatist movement and is defeated June Gen.Mexican Revolution Timeline Nov 1 Villa with 6. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero July Carranza informs Pershing that further penetration west. 1916 Jan 16 Villa's forces attack train. Approved on Feb 17.30. The government had the right to redistribute land 1916 http://mexicanhistory.000 men to pursue Villa. workers allowed to form labor unions. New Mexico with 500 riders. Retreats with only 1.

Zapata flees into mountains with a few followers April 6 Zapata killed by troops of Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny.000 acre estate July 20 Villa and six bodyguards are ambushed while driving. Obregon harassed.S. departs Jan 7 Villa raids Santa Rosalia.Mexican Revolution Timeline Dec Zapatistas regain control of most of Morelos Dec Villa surprises garrison at Torreon.. May 1 Carranza officially becomes president after election Oct many town in Morelos fall to Carrancistas.Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14. killing 2 generals and causing a third to commit suicide. Gov. 1917 Jan 16 Zimmermann Telegram German offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase. taking national treasury ( 5 million in gold and silver) and 10.A dynamite laded train smashes into the lead train. flees Mexico City. April 13 Obregon calls for uprising against Carranza.believing he would become his puppet. May 7 Carranza flees to Veracruz. including Villa rally to his side. http://mexicanhistory. March many Obregon supporters arrested.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] 1918 1919 1920 1920 1920 . the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart June Villa captures Juarez. Zapatista army weakened by outbreak of Spanish influenza. but murders him while he is sleeping. by which time the U. Villa killed Nov 30 Obregon elected president Nov 30 De la Huerta Uprising Huerta accuses Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. of Sonora is made interim president 1920 July 22 Villa telegraphs Huerta requesting amnesty. driven off by US troops June 1 Obregon announces he will run for president Carranza's term of office almost over and cannot run again because of declaration of 'no reelection' He throws his support behind Ignacio Bonillas. Huerta gives a 25. May 24 Adolfo de la Huerta. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta.000 followers. executing 300 prisoners and Chinese. Supporters.killing 200. Carranza retreats with 100 followers. Meets guerrilla leader Rodolfo Herrero who professes loyalty.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline. the ambassador to Mexico..Following Zapata's death. had declared war on Germany. Zapata retakes Cuernavaca.

An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution. Huerta flees Mexico.htm[5/20/2010 2:55:54 AM] . Minor revolts and mutinies in following years. but large scale fighting is over. Find Modern Air Combat Looking for Modern Air Combat? Get quality products at discount! best-price.com/Modern+Air+Combat http://mexicanhistory.Mexican Revolution Timeline Jan 24 Battle of Eseranza Huerta forces defeated.org/MexicanRevolutiontimeline.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful