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All the TV transmitters have the same basic design. They consist of an exciter followed by power amplifiers which boost the exciter power to the required level.

The exciter stage determines the quality of a transmitter. It contains pre-corrector units both at base band as well as at IF stage, so that after passing through all subsequent transmitter stages, an acceptable signal is available. Since the number and type of amplifier stages, may differ according to the required output power, the characteristics of the pre-correction circuits can be varied over a wide range.

Vision and Sound Signal Amplification

In HPTs the vision and sound carriers can be generated, modulated and amplified separately and then combined in the diplexer at the transmitter output. In LPTs, on the other hand, sound and vision are modulated separately but amplified jointly. This is common vision and aural amplification. A special group delay equalization circuit is needed in the first case because of errors caused by TV diplexer. In the second case the intermodulation products are more prominent and special filters for suppressing them is required. As it is difficult to meet the intermodulation requirements particularly at higher power ratings, separate amplification is used in HPTs though combined amplification requires fewer amplifier stages.

IF Modulation
It has following advantages Ease of correcting distortions Ease in Vestigial side band shaping

Induction Course (TV) IF modulation is available easily and economically

Power Amplifier Stages

In BEL mark I & II transmitters three valve stages (BEL 450 CX, BEL 4500 CX and BEL 15000 CX) are used in vision transmitter chain and two valves (BEL 450 CX and BEL 4500 CX) in aural transmitter chain. In BEL mark III transmitter only two valve stages (BEL 4500 CX and BEL 15000 CX) are used in vision transmitter chain. Aural transmitter chain is fully solid state in Mark III transmitter.

Constant Impedance Notch Diplexer (CIND)

Vision and Aural transmitters outputs are combined in CIN diplexer. Combined power is fed to main feeder lines through a T-transformer.


The block diagram of BEL 10 kW TV Transmitter (Mark-II) is shown below in fig. 1 .

Fig. 1 Block Diagram of BEL 10kW TV Transmitter (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)729,(DC481) STI(T) Publication 136 003/IC(TV)/2001

High Power TV Transmitter

System Description of Exciter The block diagram of Exciter is given in fig. 2.

Fig. 2 Block Diagram of TV Exciter (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)734,(DC486) Video Chain The input video signal is fed to a video processor. In VHF transmitters LPF, Delay equalizer and receiver pre-corrector precede the video processor. Low Pass Filter : Limits incoming video signal to 5 MHz Delay Equalizer : Group delay introduced by LPF is corrected. It also pre-distorts the video for compensating group delay errors introduced in the subsequent stages and diplexer. Receiver pre-corrector : Pre-distorts the signal providing partial compensation of GD which occurs in domestic receivers. Both the delay equaliser and receiver precorrector are combined in the delay equaliser module in Mark III version.

DP/DG Corrector
This is also used in the exciter preceding LPF (mark III) for pre-correcting the differential gain and differential phase errors occurring in the transmitter. Video Processor The block diagram of video processor is given in fig. 3. Functions Amplification of Video signal Clamping at back porch of video signal.

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Induction Course (TV) Clamping gives constant peak power. Zero volt reference line is steady irrespective of video signal pattern when clamping takes place otherwise the base line starts an excursion about the zero reference depending on the video signal.

Fig. 3 Block Diagram of Video Processor (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)735,(DC487) Vision Modulator The block diagram of Vision modulator is given in fig. 4 and schematic diagram is shown in fig. 5 Functions Amplification of Vision IF at 38.9 MHz. Linear amplitude modulation of Vision IF by video from the video processor in a balanced modulator.

IF Amplifier IF is amplified to provide sufficient level to the modulator. It operates as an amplitude limiter for maintaining constant output. Modulator A balanced modulator using two IS-1993 diodes is used in the modulator. Band pass amplifier Modulated signal is amplified to 10 mW in double tuned amplifier which provides a flat response within 0.5 dB in 7 MHz band.

Fig. 4 Block Diagram of Vision Modulator (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)736,(DC488) STI(T) Publication 138 003/IC(TV)/2001

High Power TV Transmitter

Fig. 5 Schematic Diagram of Vision Modulator (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)737,(DC489) VSBF and Mixer : The block diagram of VSBF and Mixer is given in fig. 6. It consists of following stages : VSB filter ALC amplifier Mixer Helical Filter Mixer Amplfier

Fig. 6 Block Diagram of VSBF Mixer (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)738,(DC490) VSB Filter Surface Acoustic wave (SAW) filter provide a very steep side band response with high attenuation outside designated channel. It has a linear phase characteristic with a low amplitude and group delay ripple. (Fig. 7.) STI(T) Publication 139 003/IC(TV)/2001

Induction Course (TV)

Fig. 7 Block Diagram of V.S.B.Filter (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)739,(DC491)

ALC Amplifier
Automatic level control is provided to maintain the exciter output level constant. Mixer : ANZAC type MD 108 is used as mixer. Helical Filter : to attenuate harmonics by at least 30 dB (similar to the one in aural section). Mixer Amp. : Provides 34 dB gain. Output is + 15 dBm. Local Oscillator The block diagram of Local Oscillator is given in fig. 8. It supplies three equal outputs of + 8 dBm each at a frequency of fv + fvif. This unit has 3 sub units. (1) (2) fc/4 oscillator : Generates frequency which is 1/4 of desired channel frequency. Fine freq. control is done by VC1. LO Mixer/Power divider : Here the above fc/4 frequency is multiplied by four to obtain channel frequency of fc and then mixed with fvif. Power divider is also incorporated to provide three isolated outputs of equal level.

Visual Transistorised Power Amplifier (VTRPA) VSBF & Mixer output is amplified by VTRPA which is highly linear and also sufficient to drive valve stages. It is a 5 stage amplifier 2 N 3375 for the first three stages. 2 N 3632 for the four stage and BLW 75 for the final stage. All stages are biased for class A operation. In Mark II later versions only 3 stages are used. 1st Stage IInd Stage IIIrd Stage (1) (2) (3) CA 2870 B CD 3400 CD 3101 Hybrid amplifier. 2 W driver Output 10 W

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High Power TV Transmitter The amplifier is air cooled by two AC fans fixed to the rear of the unit.

Fig. 8 Block Diagram of Local Oscillator (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)740,(DC492)

Aural Modulator The aural modulator unit consists of audio amplifier, VCO, mixer and APC. The block diagram of Aural modulator is given in fig. 9.

Fig. 9 Block Diagram of Aural Modulator (Mark-II) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)741,(DC493)

Audio Amplifier
A balanced audio signal at + 10 dBm from studio is converted to unbalanced signal by audio transformer T4. The output of this is taken through potentiometer to the input of Hybrid Audio Amp BMC 1003. A 50 micro second pre-emphasis is also provided.

This is a varactor tuned oscillator. Its frequency can be varied by coil L4. Transistor TR17 forms the oscillator. VCO output is frequency modulated by the audio signal. Output level is 0 dBm.

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Induction Course (TV)

VIF signal from IF osc. and aural IF from VCO are injected at the base of TR1. The mixer output is 5.5 MHz. This is processed, divided to produce a square pulse at 537 Hz. For phase comparison reference pulses are derived from TCXO oscillating at 1.1 MHz after suitable division. The phase difference develops error voltage if the freq variation is present. This voltage is applied to VCO to correct frequency when PLL is unlocked due to freq. shift. AURAL MIXER This is similar to vision mixer which translates AIF at 33.4 MHz to aural carrier frequency. This unit consists of --(i) (ii) (iii) Mixer Helical filter Mixer amplifier

Aural Transistor power Amplifier (ATRPA) ATRPA raises the power of Aural carrier to 20 watts. There are four stages giving a 23 dB gain. The transistors used are 2N3856, 2N3375, 2N3632 and BLW 93. The unit is cooled by two small fans fixed at the rear side of ATRPA.

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High Power TV Transmitter


A block diagram of BEL 10 kW TV Transmitter is shown in Fig. 10. It consists of : a) b) c) d) e) 10 kW Transmitter MK-III. Input Equipment Rack Monitoring Equipment Rack Control Console Indoor Co-axial Equipment comprising of : U-link Rack with U-link panel A and B, T-Transformer and 10 kW Dummy Load. Aural Harmonic Filter. CIN Diplexer Aural Notch Filter and Band Pass Filter. f) g) Antenna system with junction box, feeder cables etc. Power distribution equipment.

Fig. 10 Block Diagram of 10kW TV Transmitter (Mark-III) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)742,(DC494)


1. 2. 3. 4. Microprocessor based control system with provision to change over to a back up control system. Completely solid state aural transmitter. Elimination of 5F valve stage in vision chain. 130 W solid state vision amp. as driver to 7F stage. 143 003/IC(TV)/2001

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Induction Course (TV) 5. 6. Standby exciter with easy change over. Safety Features a) b) c) d) e) f) Rear door interlock. U-link interlock Temperature protection to solid state PA's. Overload protection. Cavity temperature warning. Contractors wired in such a way that transmitter can be switched on in particular sequence only.


Power supply unit consists of :1. 2. 3. Stabilizer Dimmerstat Power Distribution Cubical (PDC).

Stabilizer in conjunction with dimmerstat and control circuit in PDC maintains the voltage input to XTR at constant preset value say 415 V, 3 Phase.

Dimmerstat is a variable auto transformer with servo motor driver. It is connected in parallel with input mains. It adds or subtracts required voltage from mains voltage to maintain constant O/P voltage. Dimmerstat can be operated from power distribution panel in manual or auto mode. Auto mode control CKT compares the O/P voltage with preset value and operates the servo motor of dimmerstat to maintain constant O/P voltage. In manual mode, raise or 'lower' push buttons are used. POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL (PDP)

Power Distribution Panel (PDP) Houses

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Control circuit. Meter and Switches to monitor input and output voltages. Switch to select one of phase voltages as reference. Change over switch to by-pass AVR. Phase Sequence Meter. 415/200 V Transformer. ACBs. 144 003/IC(TV)/2001

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High Power TV Transmitter


Dual Driver 1) 2) 3) 4)

Has got two identical sections. Each capable of delivering 10 W. Gets 28 V power supply through relay in 80 W AMP. Sample of output is available at front panel for RF monitoring. Provides A DC output corresponding to sync peak out put for vision monitoring unit. Thermostat on heat sink is connected in series with thermostat or 80 W AMP and provides thermal protection. (Operating temp. 70oC.)

Fig. 11 TX. Block Diagram (Mark-III) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)745,(DC497)

Fig. 12 Aural PA Chain (Mark-III) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)727,(DC479)

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Induction Course (TV)

Fig. 13 Vision Chain of Exciter (Mark-III) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)749,(DC501)


The transmitter control unit performs the task of transmitter interlocking and control. Also it supports operation from control console. The XTR control unit (TCU) has two independent system viz. 1. 2. Main control system. (MCS) Back-up Control System (BCS)

Functions performed by MCS (Main Control System) XTR control Interlocking RF monitoring Supporting operation from control console Three second logic Thermal protection for 1 kW and 10 kW vision PAs Thermal protection for 130 Watt vision PA and Aural XTRa Mimic diagram

Functions performed by BCS (Backup control system) Transmitting control Interlocking

The block diagram of the TCU (Transmitter control unit) indicates the connectivity of TCU with control console and the control elements of the transmitter. Commands are inputs through the key board. The control elements are controlled in accordance with the programme fused in the EPROMS. Only while operating from the MCS (Main Control System), the interaction with TCU is supported through a LCD display unit. The LED bar display board showing the status information, is used by both the MCS and BCS (Back up Control Unit). STI(T) Publication 146 003/IC(TV)/2001

High Power TV Transmitter

Fig. 14 Block Diagram of Tx. Control Unit (Mark-III) Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)787,(DC539) Main Control System (MCS) The MCS consists of the following : 1. Mother Board with the following PCBs. CPU BIT I/O Interlock Interface Board (IIB). Analog I/O Board (AIO) Control Interface Board (CIB) Analog Receiver Board (An Rx) Rectifier and Regulator Board (RRB mcs) Key Board LED Bar Display Board Relay Board LCD Display Unit Transformers T1 and T2. + 5V/3A. Power Supply Unit.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

LIST OF COMMANDS Module Commands

80 W 1 80 W 2 200 W STI(T) Publication ON/OFF ON/OFF ON/OFF Vision chain - do Aural chain 147 003/IC(TV)/2001

Induction Course (TV) 400 W 1 400 W 2 400 W 3 ON/OFF ON/OFF ON/OFF

After issuing the ON command the YES key should be pressed to switch on the corresponding unit.

Blower Filament Tx Standby Tx ON/OFF ON/OFF ON/OFF ON/OFF

Exciter Selection
Ex Main Ex Stby ON ON

RF Monitoring Selection Commands


Mode control keys

Local Console

Other Keys
Show error Alarm Reset Clear To display the Error To reset the alarm to normal To clear the LCD Display cancel the commands before pressing the Enter key.

Details of PCBs in TCU

1. CPU Board consists of Z80 CPU Key Board Controller RAMS EPROMS - (Programs are fused in these chips) RTC (Real Time Clock) PIO (Parallel Input/Output) 148 003/IC(TV)/2001

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High Power TV Transmitter 2. Memory and Device Decoders Clock Circuits Address and Data Buffers BIT I/O BOARD PIO (Parallel Input/Output) to read the status of the Transmitter and control the various elements. SIO (Serial Input Output). CTC (Counter Times Circuits). IIB (interlock Interface Board) Opto Couplers - for reading station Back up RAM 20 mA current loops for communication between MCS and control console using ICS 4100 & 4200 CIB (Control Interface Board) Opto Couplers - for controlling the control elements of the Tx. Decoder for RF Monitoring Driver Transistors. Analog Input / Output Used for 400 W 2 thermal information RRB MCS Generates the required power supplies for Main Control System. Relay Board The control outputs of MCS or BCS is connected to the Relay Board.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

This has 5 relays to switch on the contractors. Relay K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 Function Switches on Blower Contractor Switches on Fil/LT Contractor Switches on HT for 8F Switches on Aural Contractor Used for checking Rear door interlock.

Switch S1 select the interlock and Relay power supplies either from MCS or BCS.

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Induction Course (TV)


TV Antenna System is that part of the Broadcasting Network which accepts RF Energy from transmitter and launches electromagnetic waves in space. The polarization of the radiation as adopted by Doordarshan is linear horizontal. The system is installed on a supporting tower and consists of antenna panels, power dividers, baluns, branch feeder cable, junction boxes and main feeder cables. Dipole antenna elements, in one or the other form are common at VHF frequencies where as slot antennae are mostly used at UHF frequencies. Omni directional radiation pattern is obtained by arranging the dipoles in the form of turnstile (Fig.15) and exciting the same in quadrature phase. Desired gain is obtained by stacking the dipoles in vertical plane. As a result of stacking, most of the RF energy is directed in the horizontal plane. Radiation in vertical plane is minimized. The installed antenna system should fulfil the following requirements : a) b) It should have required gain and provide desired field strength at the point of reception. It should have desired horizontal radiation pattern and directivity for serving the planned area of interest. The radiation pattern should be omni directional if the location of the transmitting station is at the center of the service area and directional one, if the location is otherwise. It should offer proper impedance to the main feeder cable and thereby to the transmitter so that optimum RF energy is transferred into space. Impedance mismatch results into reflection of power and formation of standing waves. The standard RF impedance at VHF/UHF is 50 ohms.


Fig. 15 Turnstile Antenna and its Horizontal Pattern Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)754,(DC506) High Power TV Transmitting Antenna System

In the High Power TV Transmitting antenna system, half wave dipole elements are mounted on the four faces of a square tower of suitable dimension for getting an approximate omni directional horizontal radiation pattern. If radiation in any particular direction is not desired, the panels are left out in that direction. Dipole elements, supported by quarter wave line are backed by screened reflector to keep the radiation out of tower. The position of the panels are slightly offset from the center-either clockwise or anti clockwise as shown in fig.16 for achieving wide band impedance STI(T) Publication 150 003/IC(TV)/2001

High Power TV Transmitter match. Required number of panels are stacked vertically at a spacing of nearly half wave length to provide desired gain. Panels thus stacked are divided into two groups upper half is called the upper bay and the lower half as lower bay. The constitution of antenna panels and feeding arrangements are described in the following paragraphs.

Fig. 16 Mounting of Antenna panels Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)756,(DC508)

Constitution of Antenna panels An antenna panel, BEL make band I, as shown is Fig. 17 consists of a reflector, two half wave dipole elements, a balun, a set of parallel feeders and a variable capacitor. A branch feeder (72 ohms) from one of the output port of the junction box feeds two dipole elements through balun and parallel feeders.

Fig. 17 Antenna Panel - Band I & III Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)755,(DC507)

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Induction Course (TV)

Band III antenna panel, as shown in fig. 17(b), consists of a reflector, four dipole elements, two baluns a set of parallel feeders, two variable capacitors, a power divider and two branch feeder cables of 72 ohms impedance each. Variable capacitors are shunted across the parallel feeders to tune out the reactive impedance of the dipole elements. The power divider located on the rear of the reflector has two 72 ohms output points to which one end of the branch feeder cable is connected. Each branch feeder cable feeds two dipole elements through balun and parallel feeder as in the case of Band I Panels. Input port of the power divider has 50 ohms impedance and the same is connected to one of the port of the junction box through 50 ohms branch feeder cable. Impedance match between the input and output port of power divider is achieved by tapering method. Junction Box Two nos. of junction boxes made from coaxial elements are located at suitable position at the tower. The junction box has one input terminal and a number of output terminals. The number of the later depends upon the no. of antenna panels in each bay. Input port of the junction box for Band I and Band III has impedance of 50 ohms but the output port for band-I has impedance of 72 ohms and that of Band-III is 50 ohms. Branch feeder cables Two sets of branch feeder cables, connect the antenna panels. One set has the length L and other set's length is L + quarter wave length. The number of such cables in each set are half the total nos. of antenna panels. This condition applies when equal no. of panels are mounted on each face of the tower. The impedance of branch feeder cable is 50 ohms for band III and 72 ohms for Band-I. Feeding Arrangement For obtaining an omni directional horizontal radiation pattern, quadature-feeding technique is employed. Each panel as shown in fig. 18 is excited by equal amplitude of current but with 90 degree phase difference with respect to adjacent panel in a particular sequence i.e. clockwise or anti clockwise. This is realized by connecting branch feeder cables of L and L + quarter wavelength. (L = Wave length of center frequency corresponding to operating channel) in the correct sequence. Branch feeder cables from one junction box feed all the antenna panels constituting upper bay and those from second junction box feed the panels constituting the lower bay. The input port of the both junction boxes, as shown in the schematic 4 is connected by two separate main feeder of equal electrical length, which carry equal RF energy from the transmitter. In case of fault with one of the junction box, antenna panels in one bay or one of the main feeder cable itself, half of the power can be descipated into dummy load situated in the transmitting building. Full power may also be radiated by connecting transmitter output to one of the main feeder only and thereby through antenna panels of one bay. Necessary provision for routing the RF Energy as desired, is made at U-link panels in the transmitting hall.

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High Power TV Transmitter Beam tilt As explained in the previous paragraph the upper bay antenna panels may be called as antenna system No. 1 and those of the lower bay as antenna system No. 2. If the electrical length of the two main feeders feeding RF energy to the two junction boxes are equal, the antenna system 1 & 2 are excited by equal amplitude and in phase current and the resultant main beam is directed to the right angle to the direction of the arranged elements. But in order to have better signal strength in the fringe areas, considering curvature of the earth it is necessary to direct this main beam to be tangent to the earth, for this, main beam is required to be tilted slightly lower than the horizontal direction. This method is called the beam tilt. This is realized by exciting the lower bay elements with the current, which is lagging in phase compared to the current, which feeds upper bay. The relation between the phase difference and tilt obtained is given by Delta = 2 x ( 22 ) x d x Sine of angle thita ( 7 ) x Lambda

where d = Thita = Delta =

distance between center points of upper and lower bay of antenna Beam tilt angle Phase difference

Fig. 18 Feeding Arrangement 4 Stacks Ref. Drg.No:-STI(T)753,(DC505)

The required phase difference is obtained by increasing the length of the lower feeder by L. 'L' is given by STI(T) Publication 153 003/IC(TV)/2001

Induction Course (TV)

L a m b d a ( 7 ) x d e lta x 2 x ( 2 2) The optimum degree of beam tilt depends on the antenna height. L =

Pressurization of feeder cables Semi flexible main cables feeding RF energy to junction boxes and branch feeder cables are required to handle large power. For stability and to prevent the change of characteristic impedance due to moisture absorption, the same are pressurized at suitable pressure by sending dry air from the dehydrator installed in the transmitter building. The operation of dehydrator is automatic. Connectors are tightened properly and then sealed by a sealing agent to avoid in-different contact and prevent seepage of moisture. Indifferent contact and moisture would cause reflection resulting into ghost and high VSWR. It may even lead to RF spark, damaging cable and connectors. Radiation Pattern and Gain The horizontal and vertical radiation pattern are shown in fig. 19 and 20. The total gain depends upon the type of the antenna panel and no. of stacks as given in table-1.

Fig. 19 Typical Horizontal radiation pattern Ref. Drg. No:-STI(T)760,(DC512)

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High Power TV Transmitter

Table - 1 Power gain referred to half wave dipole

Type TR4C1 TR8C1 TR12C1 TR16C1 TR24C1 Band - I Stacked No. of Stages Panels 1 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 6 24 Power gain (dB) 2.5 5.0 6.8 8.0 9.8 Type TR4C3 TR8C3 TR12C3 TR16C3 TR24C3 Band - III Stacked No. of Stages Panels 1 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 6 24 Power gain (dB) 5.0 7.5 9.5 10.5 12.5

Each panel of Band I has 2 dipole aerials ( 2 elements) VSWR a) At fV (vision-carrier) b) At fA sound carrier

Each panel of Band III has 4 dipole aerials (4 elements) 1.03 for Band I 1.05 for Band III 1.1

Fig. 20 Typical Vertical radiation Pattern Ref. Drg. N:-STI(T)761,(DC513)

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