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Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

Faculty Details
Name of the Faculty Designation Department : : : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR Professor /Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering

Course Detail
Name of the Course Batch Branch Semester Title of the subject Subject code : : : : : : B.E 2009-2013 ECE V ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING GE 2211

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STATUS PAPER 1. Name of the Faculty 2. Subject 3. Subject Code: 4. Branch 1. TARGET a) Percentage Pass b) Percentage I Class : 100% : 90% : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : GE 2211 : B.E (ECE)

2. COURSE PLAN Please write how you intend to cover the contents: Coverage of units by lectures, guest lectures, design experiments, demonstration of models, model preparation, roleplay or by assignments etc. 3. METHOD OF EVALUATION a) CIAT-1 b) CIAT-2 c) CIAT-3

Signature of the Faculty

Signature of the HOD

Signature of Principal

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GUIDELINES TO STUDY THE SUBJECT
1. Name of the Faculty 2. Subject 3. Subject Code 4. Branch 4. Guidelines to study the subject   Basic Knowledge to understand what constitutes the environment Knowledge of knowing the precious resources in the environment : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : GE 2211 : B.E (ECE) 

The role of human being in maintaining a clean environment  Knowledge of solving and minimizing global warming and pollution control  knowledge of knowing how to maintain ecological balance and preserve biodiversty i

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COURSE OBJECTIVE 1. Name of the Faculty 2. Subject 3. Subject Code 4. Branch Aim:

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

: DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : GE 2211 : B.E (ECE)

The aim of this course is to create awareness in every engineering graduate about the importance of environment, the effect of technology on the environment and ecological balance and make them sensitive to the environment problems in every professional Endeavour that they participates.

S.No Objective 1
To know the types of environment, natural resources, role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.

Outcome A- An ability to apply knowledge of environmental science
and engineering

D-An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams E - An ability to identify, and solve environmental
problems

H-The broad education necessary to understand the impact
of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context

2

To know the basics knowledge, types of ecosystem and values of biodiversity.

A- An ability to apply knowledge of environmental science
and engineering

D-An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams E - An ability to identify, formulate, and solve
environmental problems

H-The broad education necessary to understand the impact
of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context

3

To understand the causes, effects and control measures of different kinds of pollutions.

A- An ability to apply knowledge of environmental science
and engineering

D-An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams E - An ability to identify, formulate, and solve
environmental problems

H-The broad education necessary to understand the impact
of engineering solutions in a global, economic,

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4
To know the unsustainable to sustainable development, urban problems related to energy, environmental ethics, wild life protection Act.

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

environmental, and societal context

A- An ability to apply knowledge of environmental science
and engineering

D-An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams E - An ability to identify, formulate, and solve
environmental problems

H-The broad education necessary to .understand the impact
of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context

5

To have a sound knowledge of population growth, population explosion, human rights, role of information technology in environment.

A- An ability to apply knowledge of environmental science
and engineering

D-An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams E - An ability to identify, formulate, and solve
environmental problems

H-The broad education necessary to understand the impact
of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context

Signature of the Faculty

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COURSE OUTCOME
1. Name of the Faculty 2. Subject 3. Subject Code 4. Branch : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : GE 2211 : B.E (ECE)

4. The expected outcome of the subject is  S.No 
Outcomes of the course 

Applicable Out come of the subject

A B C

An ability to apply knowledge of environmental science and engineering An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical and safety, Manufacturability and sustainability

¥

D E F G H

An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams An ability to identify, formulate, and solve environmental problems An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility An ability to communicate effectively The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context

¥ ¥

¥

J K

A knowledge of contemporary issues An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice

¥

4. Objectives-outcome relationship Matrix

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Objectives
To know the types of environment, natural resources, role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. To know the basics knowledge, types of ecosystem and values of biodiversity. To understand the causes, effects and control measures of different kinds of pollutions. To know the unsustainable to sustainable development, urban problems related to energy, environmental

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

A ¥

B

C

D ¥

E ¥

F

G

H ¥

I

J

K ¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

`

¥

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ethics, wild life protection Act. To have a sound knowledge of population growth, population explosion, human rights, role of information technology in environment.

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

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COURSE SCHEDULE 1. Name of the Faculty 2. Subject 3. Subject Code 4. Branch : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : GE 2211 : B.E (ECE)
GE2211 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING LTPC 3003

AIM The aim of this course is to create awareness in every engineering graduate about the importance of environment, the effect of technology on the environment and ecological balance and make them sensitive to the environment problems in every professional endeavour that they participates. OBJECTIVE At the end of this course the student is expected to understand what constitutes the environment, what are precious resources in the environment, h to conserve these ow resources, what is the role of a human being in maintaining a clean environment and useful environment for the future generations and how to maintain ecological balance and preserve bio-diversity. The role of government and non-government organization in environment managements. UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 14 Definition, scope and importance of environment ± need for public awareness ± concept of an ecosystem ± structure and function of an ecosystem ± producers, consumers and decomposers ± energy flow in the ecosystem ± ecological succession ± food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids ± Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)± Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity biogeographical ± classification of India ± value of biodiversity: consumptive use,productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values ± Biodiversity at global, national and local levels ± India as a mega-diversity nation ± hot-spots of biodiversity ± threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts ± endangered and endemic species of India ± conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and exsitu conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds Field study of simple ecosystems ± pond, river, hill slopes, etc. UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 8 Definition ± causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclearhazards ± soil waste management: causes, effects and control measures of municipalsolid wastes ± role of an individual in prevention of pollution ± pollution case studies ± disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field study of local polluted site ± Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural. UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES 10 Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people ± Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems ± Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, casestudies ± Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture andovergrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies ± Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. case studies ± Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification ± role of an individual in conservation of natural resources± Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.

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Field study of local area to document environmental assets± river / forest / grassland / hill / mountain. UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 7 From unsustainable to sustainable development± urban problems related to energy ± water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management ± resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies ± role of nongovernmental organization- environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions ± climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. ± wasteland reclamation ± consumerism and waste products ± environment production act ± Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act ± Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) act ± Wildlife protection act ± Forest conservation act ± enforcement machinery involved in environmental legislation- central and state pollution control boards- Public awareness. UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 6 Population growth, variation among nations ± population explosion ± family welfare programme ± environment and human health ± human rights ± value education ± HIV / AIDS ± women and child welfare ± role of information technology in environment and human health ± Case studies. TOTAL= 45 PERIODS TEXT BOOKS: 1. Gilbert M.Masters, ³Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science´, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education ,2004. 2. Benny Joseph, ³Environmental Science and Engineering´, Tata McGraw -Hill, New Delhi, 2006. REFERENCES: 1. R.K. Trivedi, ³Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards´, Vol. I and II, Enviro Media. 2. Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, ³Environmental Encyclopedia´, Jaico Publ., House, Mumbai, 2001. 3. Dharmendra S. Sengar, ³Environmental law´, Prentice hall of India PVT LTD, New Delhi, 2007. 4. Rajagopalan, R, ³Environmental Studies-From Crisis to Cure´, Oxford University Press (2005)

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COURSE SCHEDULE 1. Name of the Faculty 2. Subject 3. Subject Code 4. Branch : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : GE 2211 : B.E (ECE)

S.No

Description

Duration(Date) From To 29.07.11

Total no. of period 14

I Unit

UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND 07.07.11
BIODIVERSITY-Definition, scope and importance of environment ± need for public awareness concept of an ecosystem ± structure and function of an ecosystem ± producers, consumers and decomposers ± energy flow in the ecosystem ± ecological succession ± food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids ± Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) ± Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity ± biogeographical classification of India ± value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values ± Biodiversity at global, national and local levels ± India as a megadiversity nation ± hot-spots of biodiversity ± threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts ± endangered and endemic species of India ± conservation of biodiversity: Insitu and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds Field study of simple ecosystems ± pond, river, hill slopes, etc. UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIO -Definition ± causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards ± soil waste management: causes, effects and control measures of municipal solid wastes ± role of an individual in prevention of pollution ± pollution case studies ± disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field study of local polluted site ± Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.

II Unit

02.08.11

17.08.10

10

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UNIT III- NATURAL RESOURCES
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people ± Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems ± Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies ± Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies ± Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. case studies ± Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification ± role of an individual in conservation of natural resources± Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. Field study of local area to document environmental assets ± river / forest / grassland / hill / mountain. UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMEN-From unsustainable to sustainable development ± urban problems related to energy ± water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management ± resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies ± role of non-governmental organization- environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions ± climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies.± wasteland reclamation ± consumerism and waste products ± environment production act ± Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act ± Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) act ± Wildlife protection act ± Forest conservation act ± enforcement machinery involved in environmental legislation central and state pollution control boards- Public awareness.

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

18-08-11 07-09-11 10

IV Unit

08.09.11

22.09.11

9

V Unit

UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMEN-Population growth, variation
among nations ± population explosion ± family welfare programme ± environment and human health ± human rights ± value education ± HIV / AIDS ± women and child welfare ± role of information technology in environment and human health ± Case studies.

23.09.11

07.10.11

7

Total number of instructional periods available for the course: 50 Periods

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SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION UNIT-I

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

Subject Branch & Section

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : B.E (ECE) : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : 2011

Subject handled by Year

UNIT I

ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
1

Date

Concept of an ecosystem structure and function producer consumers and decomposers Energy flow in the ecosystem Ecological succession Food chains. Food webs ecological pyramids Introduction types characteristic features structure and function Forest ecosystem Grassland ecosystem & Desert ecosystem Aquatic ecosystem, Introduction to Biodiversity Definition genetic species and ecosystem diversity Productive use, social ethical aesthetic and option values Biodiversity at global national and local level India as mega diversity nation Hot spots of biodiversity threats of biodiversity habitat loss poaching of wild life Man-wildlife conflicts endangered and endemic species of India Conservation of biodiversity In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity Power point presentation Summarization-PPT Power point presentation Summarization-PPT

07.07.11

2 3 4 5 6 7

08.07.11 12.07.11 13.07.11 14.07.11 15.07.11 19.07.11

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

20.07.11 21.07.11 22.07.11 26.07.11 27.07.11 28-07-11 29-07-11

Total number of periods -12

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SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION UNIT-II

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

Subject Branch & Section

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : B.E (ECE) : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : 2011

Subject handled by Year

UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLUUTION

Date

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Definition causes, effects and control measures of air pollution Water pollution soil pollution Marine pollution, Noise pollution, Thermal pollution Nuclear hazards Solid waste management Causes effects Control measures of urban and industrial wastes Role of an individual in prevention of pollution Pollution case studies Disaster management Flood earthquake cuclone and landslides

02.08.11 03.08.11 04.08.11 09.08.11 10.08.11 11.08.11 16.08.11 17.08.11

Total number of periods -8 CIAT ±I Starts -5-08-2011

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SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION UNIT-III

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

Subject Branch & Section

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : B.E (ECE) : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : 2011
TOPIC TO BE COVERED UNIT III Date

Subject handled by Year
Sl.No

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES
1 2

Definition scope and importance of environment Need for public awareness, forest resources Uses and overexploitation deforestation Water resources and uses Over utilization of surface and ground water Mineral resources use and exploitation use and exploitation, case studies Food resources world food problem fertilizers pesticides Energy resources Types of energy sources uses Land resources land as a resource, degradation soil erosion
Man induced land slides, desertification

18.08.11

19.08.11 23.08.11

3 4 5 6 7 8

24.08.11 25.08.11 26.08.11 30.08.11 02.09.11

9

06.09.11

10

Role of individual in conservation of natural resources Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles

07.09.11

Total number of periods -12 CIAT ±II for UNIT II,III(1.5 Units)-Starts- 09-09-2011

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SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION UNIT-IV

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

Subject Branch & Section

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : B.E (ECE) : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : 2011
UNIT IV

Subject handled by Year

SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
1 2 3 4

Date

Unsustainable to sustainable development urban problems Water conservation rain water harvesting watershed management Resettlement and rehabilitation of people problems and concerns Case studies Environmental ehtics issues and possible solutions Climate change gobal warming Acid rain ozone layer depletion Environment production act Air act and Water act Forest conservation act issues involved Public awareness

08.09.11 13.09.11 14.09.11 15.09.11

5 6 7

20.09.11 21.09.11 22.09.11

Total number of periods -7

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SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION UNIT-V

Course File Year : 2010 Sem. : EVEN

Subject Branch & Section

: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &ENGINEERING : B.E (ECE) : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR : 2011

Subject handled by Year

UNIT V

Date

HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
1 2 3

Population growth variation among nation Population explosion Family Welfare programme Environment and human health Human rights Value education HIV/AIDS Women Child Welfare Child Welfare

23.09.11 27.09.11 28.09.11

4

29.09.11

5

Role of Information technology in environment and human health Case studies Environmental ethics issues and possible solutions Case studies

30.09.11

6 7

04.10.11 07-10-11

Total number of periods -7 CIAT 3- 2 Units (4&5) starts- 17-10-2011 University Exam starts-03-11-2011

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Individual Time Table ± III Semester
Name of the Faculty Designation / Dept Theory 1 / Dept Theory 2 / Dept Practical 1 / Dept. : : : : : DR. K.SENTHIL KUMAR Prof / Mechanical

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Environmental science and engineering Engineering Chemistry ± I / CIVIL Engineering Chemistry Lab ± I / CIVIL

Third Semester ± ECE
HR DAY/TIME MONDAY TUESDAY EVS EVS EVS EVS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

09.10-10.00 10.00-10.50 11.05-11.55 11.55-12.45 01.35-02.25 02.25-3.15 03.30-04.20 04.20-05.00

WEDNESDAY THURDAY FRIDAY

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: SUSTAINABILITY, STEWARDSHIP AND SOUND SCIENCE I. The Global Environmental Picture. What are we facing? a) Population growth and increasing consumption per person. b) Degradation of soils. c) Global atmospheric changes. d) Loss of biodiversity.

Fig. 1.5 World population started a rapid growth phase in the early 1800s and has grown sixfold in the last 200 years. It continues to grow by nearly 88 million people per year.

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Fig. 1.7 The zero baseline represents the 1950D1980 global average. Note the cooling effect of the Mount Pinatubo, in the Philippines, volcanic eruption in 1991. Global temperatures quickly recovered setting a new record in 1995. II. Three Unifying Themes: Having a long-term relationship with the natural world.

A. What is Sustainability?

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1. Sustainability can be defined differently depending upon the individual's perspective. a. Economist's definition: Will growth be sustained? Is the process efficient? Are resources being wasted? b. Ecologist's definition: Is the ecosystem sustainable? Are we using resources at a rate that is faster than can be produced in nature? c. Sociologist's definition: Are the social structures sustainable? Is there social cohesion? Are resources distributed in a manner that is socially sustainable? 2. What is Sustainable Development? a. Like the definition of sustainability, sustainable development differs by perspective. b. Some individuals believe that sustainable development is an oxymoron. These individuals are basing their understanding on current development practices and assumptions that are not sustainable from an environmental perspective.

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Fig. 1.9 Sustainability, stewardship, and sound science represent three vital concepts that must be embraced by our society These concepts must be employed in the development of env ironmental public policy and private environmental concern. Fig. 1.10 The concerns of sociologists, economists, and ecologists must intersect in order to achieve sustainable solutions in a society. B. Stewardship.

1. Justice and Equity. 2. Define Environmental Racism. An example: In the early 1980s The California Waste Management Board was very concerned about its ability to site municipal landfills. It contracted with a consulting firm to help it determine how to be more successful in siting landfills. The consultant's report suggested siting landfills in poor and minority neighborhoods because these individuals were less apt to know how to go about stopping the building of a landfill in their neighborhood. C. Environmentalism 1. Historical Environmental Movement a. John Muir and Hetch Hetchy Valley b. The National Park System Yellowstone National Park 2. Modern Environmental Movement a. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson resulted in the movement to reduce exposure to a wide variety of chemicals; chemistry was no longer seen as only beneficial. b. The Ban the Bomb movement grew into the anti-nuclear power movement. In the 1960s the Sierra Club supported the building of nuclear power plants because of the air pollution produced by the then-most-common type of electric generating plant coal. Friends of the Earth was formed by the individuals in the Sierra Club who disagreed with the building of nuclear power plants. 3. Environmentalism Acquire Critics.

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a. In the 1980s the Wise-Use movement began in the western USA. b. Organized opposition to the Endangered Species Act began. III. Science. A. What is Science?

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1. Science seeks to acquire and explain factual knowledge, not just belief and opinion. 2. Science restricts itself to considering objects and events that can be observed in an objective way. Although religion, ethics, and emotions are important, they cannot be observed in an objective fashion, so they are outside the realm of science. B. Scientific Method: a process of gaining knowledge; a hierarchical ordering of knowledge from innumerable observations to a few universal laws. 1. Based on observation and facts. 2. Subject to verification by researchers.

Fig. 1.16 The process leading to theory formation, natural laws, and concepts is a continual interplay between observations, experimentation, hypothesis formulation, and further refinement.

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C. Experimentation 1. Hypothesis testing. 2. Controlled experiments: explain the difference between a controlled and an uncontrolled experiment. D. Theories. 1. Theories are consistent with current observations and unify observations (facts) into an understanding of the big picture. Theories help explain our observations. 2. Theories suggest further research/observation to be done. 3. Some theories are better than other theories. Better theories fit the facts better and provide a better understanding of how the world works.

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4. Examples: a. Theory of atomic structure. b. Theory of evolution. c. Theory of natural selection. d. Theory of descent by modification. e. Theory of punctuated equilibrium. f. Theory of relativity. E. Natural Laws.

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1. Laws are based on the idea that matter and energy do not behave randomly. 2. What is the difference between a theory and a natural law? Unlike a theory, laws are not subject to further articulation; there are not facts needing resolution. There are no questions left. 3. Examples: a. Law of gravity. b. Law of conservation of matter. c. First law of thermodynamics. d. Second law of thermodynamics. F. Scientific Controversies. 1. No controversy exists when a question has been asked many times and the same answer has been obtained repeatedly. When clear-cut answers exist, no controversy exists. 2. Controversy exists when: a. Data are limited. b. New observations are made. c. Interpretations of data differ. d. Cultures differ (Western medicine and Eastern medicine). e. Funding sources are not perceived to be objective (American Tobacco Institute).

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IV. Sound versus Junk Science. A. Sound Science and the Scientific Community. 1. The Peer Review Process. B. Junk Science. 1. Selective presentation of results. 2. Politically motivated distortion of scientifically sound papers.

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3. Attribution of false information to a respected researcher or research organization. C. Evaluating Science. 1. What are the basic observations (facts) underlying the conclusions (theory)? 2. Can the observations be satisfactorily verified? 3. Do the conclusions follow logically from the observations? 4. Does the conclusion account for all observations? 5. Is the conclusion or predicted outcome supported by the community of scientists with the greatest competence to judge the work? If not, it is highly suspect.

ECOSYSTEMS: UNITS OF SUSTAINABILITY I. What are Ecosystems? A. Ecosystems are the biotic and abiotic factors in a specified area that interact with
one another.

1. Understanding the interaction of the biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
can help us to see why particular human activities may be a problem for human survival.

2. Example: The loss of ozone in the stratosphere increases the quantity of UV
radiation on the surface of the planet. In the same way that humans experience

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sunburn from too much sun exposure, so do plants. Excessive UV may damage or destroy plant protein and DNA, killing the plant.

B. Plants and animals interact with their abiotic environment. Attempts are made by
the plant or animal to reduce or increase the quantity of an abiotic factor.

1. Aspens have a waxy coating on their bark to reduce the quantity of sunlight
absorbed.

2. Desert plants have hair-like structures to reduce the quantity of sunlight
reaching the leaf surface.

3. Pine trees have needle-like leaves that reduce the quantity of heat lost during
the winter.

Fig. 2.2 Ecosystems are not isolated from one another. One ecosystem blends into the next through a transitional region, an ecotone, hich w contains many species common to the two adjacent systems.

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Fig. 2.3 An ecotone may create a unique habitat with specialized species not found in either of the ecosystems bordering it.

II. The Structure of Ecosystems. A. Feeding Relationships. 1. Trophic Categories. a. Producers create organic molecules proteins, lipids and carbohydrates- by
capturing light energy and combining the captured energy with inorganic molecules. · · Differentiate between organic and inorganic. Differentiate between natural and synthetic.

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Fig. 2.4 The producers in all major ecosystems are green plants.

b. Consumers feed on producers and would not exist without producers.
· · · Primary consumers (herbivores) Secondary consumers (carnivores) Omnivores are both herbivorous and carnivorous.

c. Detritus feeders and decomposers
· Detritus feeders can be primary (feed directly on detritus) or secondary (feed on those who eat detritus). Generally detritus feeders can be described as those who consume dead plants and animals, feces, etc. · Decomposers are primary detritus feeders.

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Fig. 2.5 Water and the simple molecules found in air and in rocks and soils are inorganic. The complex molecules that make up plant an d animal tissues are organic

Fig. 2.9 What an organism feeds on is described as a trophic relationship. Trophic types include producers and consumers

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2. Trophic Relationships: a. Food chains: feeding pathways
· · Food chains are a description of who eats whom. Predator-prey and host-parasite describe specific feeding relationships.

b. Food webs: complexes of feeding relationships. c. Trophic Levels or Feeding Levels
· · · All producers belong to the first trophic level. All herbivores (primary consumers) are on the second trophic level. All primary carnivores (secondary consumers) are on the third trophic level.

Fig. 2.12 A food web refers to all the trophic (feeding) connections among species within a community.

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Fig. 2.12 This figure shows trophic relationships within a m arine community.

3. Biomass and Biomass Pyramid a. All organic matter can be defined as biomass. b. All biomass can be arranged into a feeding relationship with the producers on the
first trophic level.

c. On average, 10% of the energy from one trophic level moves to the next trophic
level. (This is due partly to the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics.) At each trophic level most of the organisms are not consumed, portions of organisms consumed pass through the consumer undigested, and energy is released to the environment as high potential energy is converted to low potential energy.

d. Because so little energy can be transferred between trophic levels, it is necessary
that the first trophic level contain the greatest number of organisms, and the subsequent trophic levels contain fewer and fewer organisms. Limitations on the

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transfer of energy between trophic levels creates the biomass pyramid.

e. If organisms (humans) eat high on the biomass pyramid (trophic levels 3, 4, 5, etc.),
then fewer organisms can be supported than if organisms eat lower on the biomass pyramid.

Fig. 2.13 This is a graphic representation of the biomass (total mass of organisms) at successive trophic levels has the form foa pyramid.

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Fig. 2.14 The movement of nutrients (blue arrows) and energy (red arrows) and both (brown arrows) through the ecosystem.

B. Nonfeeding Relationships 1. Mutually Supportive Relationships: mutualism. 2. Competitive Relationships a. How are competitive relationships reduced?
· · Habitat Niche: resource partitioning

b. What happens when competition is not reduced?
Competitive exclusion principle

c. Abiotic factors.

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Fig. 2.17 Five species of North American warblers reduce the competition among themselves by feeding at different levels and on differe nt parts of the trees.

C. Limiting Factors A myriad of limiting factors define the viability of life. Basic items include temperature, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and precipitation. Only one limiting factor need be out of its optimum range to cause stress for an organism. 1. Optimum Levels a. Each factor necessary for survival has an ideal range. 2. Zones of Stress a. Each factor has a range of values that are above or below the ideal but not outside
the range allowing survival.

3. Limits of Tolerance a. Each factor has an upper and a lower limit beyond which the organism cannot
survive.

4. Range of Tolerance

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a. Each factor has a range of values that includes the zones of stress and the optimum

levels. These values do not include the upper or lower limits beyond which the organism cannot survive.

D. Law of Limiting Factors - Quantities of any single factor above or below optimum levels necessary for organism growth, reproduction, or survival will limit growth, reproduction, or survival. 1. Synergistic effects: The interaction of two or more factors cause an effect greater
than the sum of effects produced when each factor acts alone.

Fig. 2.18 For every factor influencing growth, reproduction, and survival, there is an optimum level. Above and below the optimum, theris e increasing stress, until survival becomes impossible at the limits of toler ance.

III.. Global Biomes A. The Role of Climate

1. Climate versus Weather

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a. Climate the average temperature over time

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b. Weather the daily variations in temperature and precipitation

2. Temperature and precipitation combine to create the world's biomes. 3. Describe how ecosystems change as temperature and precipitation change. a. Vary temperature while precipitation is held constant (Moderate rainfall:
cold = cool desert, warmer = grassland)

b. Vary precipitation while temperature is held constant (Cold temperature: little
rain = tundra, more rain = cool desert, more rain = spruce/fir forest).

Fig. 2.19 This map represents biomes of North America and South America.

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Fig. 2.19 This map represents biomes of Africa, Europe and Asia.

B. Microclimate and Other Abiotic Factors 1. Light Intensity: south-facing versus north-facing hillside. 2. Soil Type a. pH b. Salinity c. Sand, clay, silt 3. Topography C. Biotic Factors 1. Shading of One Plant by Another 2. Chemical Produced by One Plant May Limit Growth of Another Plant 3. Presence of Herbivores tasty plants are consumed first. D. Physical Barriers

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Fig. 2.20 Moisture is generally the overriding factor determining the type of biome that may be supported in a region. Given adequate moisture, an area will generally support a forest. Temperature, however, determines the kind of forest. Fig. 2.21 Decreasing temperatures that result in the biome shifts occur both with increasing latitude (distance from the equator) and increasing altitude.

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Fig. 2.22 Abiotic factors such as terrain, wind, and type of soil create different microclimates by influencing temperature anmoisture in d localized areas.

IV. Implications for Humans A. Three Revolutions 1. Neolithic Revolution a. Development of agriculture b. Required permanent or long term settlements and specialized skills c. Allowed for the initial increase in human population reliable food. 2. Industrial Revolution a. Created the modern world b. Energized by fossil fuels (initially timber) c. Resulted in the concentration of waste products d. Created even greater increase in human population size because of the
specialization of the workforce and the replacement of animal/human power with fossil fuels.

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3. Environmental Revolution a. Need to create sustainable human systems b. Need to create systems in which waste products are not concentrated (pollution),
and wastes are resources.

Fig. 3.10 The same principle of storage and release of potential energy applies to ecosystems.

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CHAPTER 3 ECOSYSTEMS: HOW THEY WORK Matter, Energy and Life

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Fig. 3.1 From a biological point of view, the three most important gases of the lower atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon diox ide.

Fig. 3.2 Water consists of molecules, each of which is formed by two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom (H2O). In wate r vapor, the molecules are separate and independent.

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Fig. 3.5 The organic molecules making up living organisms are larger and more complex than the inorganic molecules found in the environment. Glucose and cystine show this relative complexity.

Fig. 3.3 The atoms of most elements gain or lose one or more electrons, becoming negative -) or positive (+) ions. The ions are held together ( by an attraction between positive and negative charges.

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Fig. 3.6 Biological systems include levels of complexity begi nning with atoms and molecules and broadening up to the biosphere.

Fig. 3.7 Kinetic energy is energy in one of its active forms. Potential energy refers to systems or materials that have the potential release to kinetic energy.

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Fig. 3.8 Any form of energy can be converted to any other form, except heat energy. Heat is a form of energy that flows from one system or object to another because the two are at different temperatures. Therefore can only be it transferred to something cooler.

III. Energy A. First Law of Thermodynamics: "Energy is neither created nor destroyed;
it only changes form." It can be related to: "You can't get something for nothing" or "There is no such thing as a free lunch".

B. Second Law of Thermodynamics: "Systems will go spontaneously in one
direction only toward increasing entropy." It can be described as:" It takes energy to get energy" or "In any energy conversion, you will end up with less usable energy than you started with" or "If you think things are confused now, just wait" or "Everything moves in the direction of increasing disorder".

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Fig. 3.9 When glucose is burned, heat is released, and the atoms become more disordered, showing increasing entropy. The fact that woo d will burn but not form spontaneously is an example of the second law of thermodynamics.

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Fig. 3.11 Breaking down some of the glucose to provide additional chemical energy, producers combine the remaining glucose with certain nutrients from the soil to form other complex organic molecules that the producers then use for growth.

Fig. 3.13 Only a small portion of ingested food is used for growth and repair. A larger amount is used in cell respiration to providenergy. e

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IV. Principles of Ecosystem Function and Energy Flow in Ecosystems A. Energy Source 1. The ultimate source of energy on our planet: the sun. 2. The first basic principle of ecosystem sustainability: "For sustainability,
ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy.' Our planet is sustainable as long as the sun exists. Ecosystems do not use energy at a faster rate than that available from the sun. (The same cannot be said for humans because of our rate of fossil fuel consumption.)
Fig. 3.15 This figure shows energy flow through Trophi Levels in a Grazing Food Web. Each trophic level is represented as biomass boxes c and the pathways taken by the energy flow are indicated with arrows.

B. Nutrient Cycles:
Energy flows but nutrients cycle. The molecules in an organism will eventually be found in another organism.

1. Carbon Cycle: Changing the location of this element is the primary issue in global
warming. We are moving carbon from where it has been stored (fossil fuels) to the

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atmosphere, where it acts to reduce the amount of heat reradiated to space. · The rate of movement (flows) between pools can be slow or fast depending upon the nature of the pool.

Fig. 3.16 Boxes in the figure refer to pools of carbon, and arrows refer to the movement, or fluxes, of carbon from one to another. pool

2. Phosphorus Cycle: Changing the location of this element is one of the primary
reasons for the increased nutrient load in aquatic ecosystems. We move phosphorus from where it has been concentrated, e.g., in guano, and deposit it on soil (or in consumer products), where it is released to water. · The rate of movement (flows) between pools can be slow or fast depending upon the nature of the pool.

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Fig. 3.17 This figure shows the movement of phosphates through an ecosystem.

3. Nitrogen Cycle: Changing the location of this element is the other reason for the
increased nutrient load in aquatic ecosystems. (Nitrogen and phosphorus are limiting factors in aquatic ecosystems.) · The rate of movement (flows) between pools can be slow or fast depending upon the nature of the pool. · The flow of nutrients into Chesapeake Bay (primarily nitrogen) has been cited as the primary reason for the outbreak of Physteria.

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Fig 3.18 This figure shows the movement of nitrogen through an ecosystem.

4. The second basic principle of ecosystem sustainability:
" For sustainability, ecosystems dispose of wastes and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements."

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Fig. 3.20 Arranging organisms by feeding relationships and depicting the energy and nutrient inputs and outputs of each relationship sh a ow continuous recycling of nutrients in the ecosystem, a continuous flow o energy through it, and a decrease in biomass. f

IV. Implications for Humans 1. Ecosystems are an excellent role model for humans. 2. Some examples of nonsustainable human actions: fossil fuel use, not
returning the nutrients remaining in human sewage to soil, high meat consumption levels of the industrialized countries, energy use in homes, consumer goods.

Fig. 3.21 To get one pound of beef requires an expenditure of 16 pounds of feed. Said another way, the grain consumed to support one person eating meat could support 16 persons eating the grains directly.

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Fig. 3.22 This figure shows one way nutrient flow in a human society.

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CHAPTER 4 ECOSYSTEMS: POPULATIONS AND SUCCESSION II. Population Dynamics A. Population: "all the members of a given species in a given area" B. Biotic Potential versus Environmental Resistance 1. Biotic Potential - reproductive rate 2. Environmental Resistance - biotic and abiotic factors limiting population size a. Recruitment the ability to survive environment resistance factors and
become part of the breeding population.

b. Replacement level: when recruitment is just enough to replace the adults.

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3. Reproductive Strategies

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a. High biotic potential and low recruitment bacteria, flies, rabbits b. Low biotic potential and high recruitment humans, elephants, primates C. Growth Curve: how biotic potential and environmental resistance combine to cause a
population to grow or decline.

1. J-curve: before environmental resistance factors kick in to reduce population size 2. S- curve: a balance between environmental resistance and biotic potential a. Population equilibrium - deaths equal births

Fig. 4.2 The J-curve (blue) demonstrates population growth under optimal conditions, with no restraints. The - curve (green) shows a S population at equilibrium.

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Fig. 4.4 A stable population in nature is the result of the interaction between factors tending to increase population (biotic potenti and al) factors tending to decrease population (environmental resistance).

D. Carrying Capacity: "The maximum population of an organism that a given habitat
will support without the habitat being degraded over the long term." This is the upper limit on the size of a population.

E. Density Dependence and Critical Numbers 1. The density of a population influences how much impact certain environmental
factors will have on continued population growth. These factors are called

density-dependent factors. a. Food is a density dependent factor; the more individuals competing for the
same food source, the more difficult it is to get food.

2. The impact of some environmental factors is not dependent on the density of the
population. These factors are called density-independent factors.

a. Density-independent factors include an unusual heat wave or hard freeze. If a

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particular limiting factor moves outside an organism's range of tolerance, then the organism dies irrespective of how many there might be in the population. A spill of pesticides into a river (as happened on the upper Sacramento River in the early 1990s because of a train accident) resulted in the sudden death of the river ecosystem that was not related to the population size of any species.

3. Critical Number - the minimum number of organisms necessary for a species to
survive.

a. If the number of organisms drops below the critical number, extinction is
almost certain.

b. As a population nears its critical number density independent factors become
very important. A single fire, hurricane, toxic chemical spill, housing development, or logging operation could eliminate the species.

c. The most difficult aspect of this concept is that we do not know the critical
number for most species. To determine the critical number for a species we must need to know its biotic potential, all its environmental resistance factors, the range of possible values for each of the factors, the possible interactions among the factors, etc.

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III. Mechanisms of Population Equilibrium A. Predator-Prey and Host-Parasite Dynamics 1. The interaction between predator and prey and host and parasite keeps both
populations in balance. As the population size of the prey or host increases, the population size of the predator or parasite increases because there is more food. As the predator or parasite population increases, the number of prey or hosts declines because the predator or parasite has eaten them.

2. The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone had results that nobody anticipated.
Changes included increased riparian habitat plant diversity (elk, to protect themselves from wolves, spend less time along rivers and more time in the trees), increased song bird numbers and type (elk no longer trample riparian plants, and bird habitats have returned), and increased raptor numbers (wolves have decreased coyote population, causing an increase in the rodent population, which has provided raptors with more

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food).

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B. Introduced Species - examples abound: islands are perfect for explaining how
specialized and isolated ecosystems are especially vulnerable. An introduced species is one that has no (or few) predators and the other species in the ecosystems have not had time to adapt to the habitats and niches it might provide. It will take many hundreds or t thousands of years for species to adapt to the habitats and niches provided by the invader.

C. Territoriality 1. The territory size is determined by the amount of space needed to successfully
raise offspring. Territory is important when resources are limited.

2. Birds use song to announce territory. Physical conflict is unimportant in avian
species.
Fig. 4.5 This figure shows wolf and moose populations on Isle Royale from 1955 to 2000.

D. Plant-Herbivore Dynamics 1. Herbivores consume plants and therefore keep the size of a plant population
in check. (This is one of the mechanisms in plant competition.) If there are too many herbivores, the herbivores can consume the plants faster than the plants can reproduce. This is called overgrazing.

2. "For sustainability, the size of consumer populations is controlled so that
overgrazing or overuse does not occur" the third basic principle of ecosystem

sustainability. E. Competition between Plant Species 1. Habitats and niches reduce the competition between plants. Different
combinations of soil types, moisture, temperature, light, etc., produce different

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habitats and niches. Plants (and other organisms) have adapted to different biotic and abiotic requirements.

2. Competition between plants is limited when plants release chemicals to inhibit
the growth of other plants, when grazers reduce the population of plants, when parasites, viruses, and other plant pathogens reduce the vigor, reproductive capacity, or life span of plants.

3. Mutualism reduces competition. Epiphytes live on the branches of trees and
the epiphyte is thought to provide nutrients captured by rainfall to the trees.
Fig. 4.11 In 1944, a population of 29 reindeer was introduced onto St. Matthew Island where they increased exponentially to about 6,000 and then died off due to overgrazing.

III. Mechanisms Producing Biodiversity A. Ecological Succession: the transition from one biotic community to another

1. Because different niches and habitats form during the transition from one
biotic community to another, circumstances are favorable for the existence of a large number of species.

2. "Ecological succession is not a matter of new species developing, or even
old species adapting, to new conditions. It is a matter of populations of existing species taking advantage of a new area as conditions become favorable." The beginning stage:

a. Primary succession
· If an area has not been occupied by organisms previously, the initial invasion and progression from one biotic community to the next is called primary succession. · Soil and soil organisms do not exist prior to the beginning of this

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successional process.

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b. Secondary succession
· If an area has been previously occupied by organisms and something has occurred to leave only the bare soil, then the invasion and progression from one biotic community to the next is called secondary succession. · Soil and soil organisms exist prior to the beginning of this successional process.

c. An artificial construct the climax ecosystem
· Succession does not go on indefinitely. A stage is reached during which there is not continued change. The species are in dynamic balance with one another and with the physical environment. · · The major biomes are descriptions of climax ecosystems. In any climax ecosystem there are other, earlier, stages of succession present. Without the presence of these earlier stages, species would be lost and ecosystems could not recover from disturbances.

B. Ecosystem Disturbance 1. Disturbances provide habitat for a wide array of species. In any area, all
stages of succession are likely to be represented because of large and small disturbances.

2. Fire - a necessary factor for diverse number of species a. Certain species e.g., the fire pines, are dependent on fire. Without fire their
cones do not open, and the bare ground necessary for seed germination does not exist.

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b. Other species are adapted to fire conditions. Manzanita will sprout rapidly
after a fire as long as its extensive root system has not been damaged. The wetter portions of the Great Plains were dependent on fire to maintain the grasslands.

c. Fire helps maintain a balance among species (in a forest, fire favors pines,
lack of fire favors broadleaf trees) or may release nutrients that have not decomposed because of arid conditions.

d. Creates pockets of secondary succession. 3. Hurricanes in southern Florida the Everglades depend on the periodic
hurricanes for the continued existence of the mangrove. Plant species that compete with the mangrove are reduced during a hurricane. Pockets of secondary succession are created.

4. Disturbance can be a problem when a species is close to its critical number. If
humans have caused a population to decrease close to its critical number and a density independent disturbance event occurs, then a species can become extinct.

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Fig. 4.15 A plant species may experience a population explosion as it invades a open area. If it dies back and is held down by a herbivory, n space is opened up for a second invader, which may experience the same fate.

Fig. 4.17 Reinvasion of an agricultural field by a forest ecosystem occurs in the stages shown.

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Fig. 4.18 Ponds and lakes are gradually filled and invaded by the surrounding land ecosystem.

IV. Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Systems A. Equilibrium Systems 1. "Equilibrium theory is the view that ecosystems are maintained by
balances between species."

2. The mechanisms of population equilibrium are thought to create this
balance between species in an ecosystem.

3. As a biotic or abiotic factor increases (or decreases) then species that
exploit that biotic or abiotic factor increase (or decrease), resulting in a decline (or increase) in the biotic or abiotic factor and the balance re-establishing itself.

B. Non-equilibrium Systems 1. Disturbance events are non-equilibrium events.

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2. Disturbance events are important in structuring ecosystems; organisms
are removed, populations are reduced and opportunities for other species are created.

V. Fourth Principle of Ecosystem Sustainability A. For sustainability, biodiversity is maintained. B. This derives from three concepts: 1. "The most stable population equilibria are achieved by a diversity of
natural enemies."

2. "Simple systems, especially monocultures, are inherently unstable." 3. "Most or all succession depends on a preservation of biodiversity, and
succession underlies the ability of an ecosystem to recover from damage."

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CHAPTER 5 ECOSYSTEMS AND EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE I. What is Evolution? Evolution is the change in the gene pool over time. A. What is the Gene Pool.

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1. It is all the various genes in a species B. What is a gene?

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1. A gene is the sequence of bases on DNA that code for a protein 2. What is DNA? a. Deoxyribonucleic acid consists of:
· · · deoxyribose (a sugar with one oxygen) phosphate base - purines: adenine and guanine - pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine

b. The three molecules that constitute DNA are called nucleotides and because
nucleotides repeat themselves throughout the DNA molecule, DNA is called a polymer.

c. The DNA molecule consists of two strands of the repeating deoxyribose,
phosphate, and base sequence. The bases in one strand match with predicatable bases on the opposite strand of the repeating nucleotides (adenine, thymine and guanine, cytosine).

d. Two double-stranded DNA molecules combine to form a chromosome. C. What is a Chromosome? 1. Chromosomes comprise two DNA molecules (two double-stranded helixes). 2. Each chromosome contains many genes. 3. Different species have different number of chromosomes. The human female has
23 homologous pairs of chromosomes, whereas the human male has 22 homologous

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chromosomes and 1 nonhomologous chromosome.

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D. What is a Gene? 1. A gene is a sequence of bases on DNA that code for a specific protein. Genes
specify proteins and proteins determine everything else.

2. Genes determine a. Physical traits, e.g., height, body build, and hair color b. Metabolic traits, e.g., allergies and ability to process alcohol c. Growth and Development, e.g., onset of puberty and menopause E. If genes are found on the DNA, and humans all have the same kind of genes, then why
don't we all look identical?

1. Alleles: are the different forms in which a gene can be found. The different forms
of an allele are slightly different base sequences for the gene. Each human has, except for men on their one nonhomologous chromosome, two alleles for each gene; one allele comes from each parent.

a. Blood Type: There are three alleles that code for different sugars or no sugar.
An individual can be aa, ao (type A blood), bb, bo (type B blood), ab (type AB blood), or oo (type O blood). [The o allele is recessive; it does not code for a sugar.]

F. How are New Alleles Created? 1. Mutations a. Spontaneous - no known reason b. Ultraviolet radiation c. X-rays

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d. Some chemicals, e.g., chromium, nitrosamines, acetylaminofluorene
ethylnitrosourea, diethyl sulfate

2. The process is random and can occur anywhere along the chromosome or on any
chromosome.

G. The gene pool is all the different alleles of each gene and all the genes that exist in a
population.

H. This means that evolution is the change in the types of alleles of a gene over time,
which expands the gene pool.

1. Although the creation of new alleles is a random process, evolution is not a random
process.

2. Evolution is a result of environmental factors.

Fig. 5.2 In each generation, the shortest legged pups are selected as parents of the next generation. The lines represent the variation in leg length for a generation. As thisprocess is repeated, the desired feature is gradually developed.

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Fig. 5.4A The five categories listed at the left are the basic essentials for the continuation of every species. Each feature of every species can be seen in terms of an adaptation that ena the species to meet its need in one or more of these categories. bles

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Fig. 5.4B In each case, a multitude of features will accomplish the same function. Thus, a tremendous diversity of species exists, each adapted in its own special way. Fig. 5.5 Specific proteins determine and control physical structure, metabolism and other hereditary attributes of the organism.The DNA molecule is constructed so that it can be chemically replicated, and the coded information may be passed on.

Fig. 5.6A The gene for eye color has two common alleles: one for brown eyes, and one for blue eyes. Matings with different combinations of these alleles are shown.

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Fig. 5.6B The gene for eye color has two common alleles: one for brown eyes, and one for blue eyes. Mati with different combinations of ngs these alleles are shown.

II. What is the Evidence Supporting the Theory of Evolution? A. Selective Breeding

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1. Darwin's Pigeons

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2. Domestic Animal Breeding - dogs, cats, cows, horses, chickens, turkeys B. Selective Environmental Pressure 1. Antibiotic Resistance 2. Pesticide Resistance 3. Over 500 fruitfly species in Hawaii developed from two species 4. Darwin's Finches C. Fossil Record D. DNA Record
Fig. 5.7 Selective pressure shows the process of natural selection favoring giraffes with longer necks.

Fig. 5.9 population spread over a broad area may face selective pressures. If the population splits so that interbreeding among the subpopulations does not occur, the different selective pressures may result in the subpopulations evolving into new species.

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Fig. 5.11 The similarities among these birds attest to their common ancestor. Selective pressures to feed on different foods have cause d modification and speciation in adapting subpopulations.

III. Evolution is a Response to Environmental Change (or the absence of a species in a particular niche) A. The movement of planet's plates (Theory of Plate Tectonics) is an example of substantial environmental change that produced a wide array of species occupying similar niches and habitats. B. Species respond to environmental change in different ways. 1. Adaptation (by evolution) for: a. coping with abiotic factors - polar bear's heavy fur, leaf drop in summer by
desert plants

b. obtaining food - a frog's tongue, broad plant leaves, different mouth parts of
insects

c. escaping predation - thorns on plants, warning colors on insects, carapace of
tortoise d. pollination - flower color, quantity of pollen or nectar, insect mouth parts

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e. finding/attracting mates - deer antlers, peacock tails, bright colors of male
songbirds

f. seed dispersal - wings, hooks

2. Migration a. A species will migrate if it can. The new environmental conditions must be
conducive.

3. Extinction C. What determines if a species will be able to survive change? 1. Rate and degree of environmental change 2. The genetic variability within the species 3. Biotic potential 4. Size of organism 5. Specialization to a given habitat and/or food supply (generalists versus specialists) 6. Geographic distribution

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Fig. 5.16 This is a summary of factors affecting the survival of species when the environment changes.

Fig. 5.17 This figure shows the 14 major tectonic plates making up Earth's crust. The arrows in the figure indicate million years of 20 movement.

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Fig. 5.18A Similarities of rock types, the distribution of fossil species, and other lines of evidence indicate that 225 million yearsgo all the a present continents were formed into one huge land mass that we now call Pangea. a

Fig. 5.18B Slow but steady movement of the tectonic plates over the intervening time caused the breakup of Pangaea and brought the continents to their present positions.

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Fig. 5.21A Contrasting the geological time scale with a single year gives anappreciation for the relative amount of time taken for various evolutionary stages. Note that two -thirds of the time is taken in the development of cells; then the pace quickens. The first vertebrates do not appear until November 22.

Fig. 5.21B Contrasting the geological time scale with a single year gives an appreciation for the relative amount of time taken for various evolutionary stages. Note that two -thirds of the time is taken in the development of cells; then the pace quickens. Humans arrived in th last 8 e hours.

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CHAPTER 6 THE HUMAN POPULATION I. The Population Explosion A. Current world population: 6 billion people (October 1999)

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B. Putting the numbers in perspective: 1. Each time your heart beats, 3 more people are added to the world 2. Each time a person dies, 2.8 babies are born C. Causes of population growth: a. Better recruitment resulted from declining infant mortality rates b. Mortality rates decline:
· Improvement in agriculture increased production and better food distribution and storage · Public health measures improved sanitation practices, clean drinking water, mass inoculations

Fig. 6.1 For most of human history, population grew slowly, but in modern times it has suddenly "exploded."

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Fig. 6.2 Declining fertility rates in the last three decades have resulted in a decreasing rate of growth. However, absolute numbersre still a adding 80 million per year.

II. Different Worlds A. Rich Nations 1. Decreased birth rates 2. Low to negative growth rates 3. Increased consumption rates per person 4. Negative environmental impact due not to numbers but affluence. 5. Consequences of affluence a. Greater contribution per person to global pollutants carbon dioxide,
ozone depletion chemicals

b. Food consumption high on biomass pyramid fewer people can be
supported

c. Waste production high fuel inefficient transportation, throwaway
consumer goods.

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B. Poor Nations

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1. Moderate birth rates (these rates have decreased in the last 20 years) 2. Moderate to high growth rates 3. Low consumption rates per person 4. Negative environmental impact due to numbers not affluence 5. Consequences of population size a. Subdividing farms and intensifying cultivation b. Opening up new lands for agriculture c. Migration to cities d. Illicit activities e. Emigration and immigration f. Impoverishment of women and children

Fig. 6.3 This figure shows nations of the world according to gross national product per capita. The population in millions of various regions is also shown by magenta lines and numbers.

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Fig. 6.4 Developing countries represent a larger and larger share of worldpopulation because of higher populations and higher birth rates.

Fig. 6.7 This figure shows the growth of some major world metropolitan areas. Since 1965, cities in the developing world have grown phenomenally, and a number of them are now among the worl largest. d's

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Fig. 6.9 The diagram shows the numerous connections between unchecked population growth and social and environmental problems.

III. Dynamics of Population Growth A. Population Profiles 1. Age Structure of Population relative numbers of young, middle age and old B. Population Projections 1. Total fertility rate 2. Replacement level fertility 3. Birth rates and death rates (infant and childhood mortality) 4. Doubling time C. Variation of Population Projections by Country 1. Population projections for a more developed country 2. Population projections for a less developed country

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Fig. 6.10 The age structure of the U.S. population, showing the effects of major shifts in fertility.

Fig. 6.11 This figure shows projected world population according to three different fertility scenarios. UN projections of the futureorld w population, using different total fertility rates.

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Fig. 6.12 This figure shows a population profile representative of a hig ly developed country, Denmark. h

Fig. 6.13 Projections shift drastically with changes in fertility. Contrast the 1988 projection, based on a fertility rate of 1.8, with 1993 the projection, based on the increased fertility rate of 2.13.

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Fig. 6.14 Even if the total fertility rate in Kenya immediately dropped to 2, the number of births (hatched inner portion of the bottom bars) two would still greatly exceed the number of deaths because so few persons are in the upper age groups. Fig. 6.15 This figure shows population profiles for developed and developing countries, projected to the year 2025.

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D. The Demographic Transition 1. Epidemiologic transition a. Pattern of change in mortality factors b. Decline in death rates 2. Fertility transition a. Pattern of change in crude birth rates b. Decline in birth rates worldwide 3. Phases of demographic transition a. The demographic transition is a description of the correlation observed in
developed countries between economic development and decreased fertility rates. There may be other, equally effective means of reducing fertility rates.
Fig. 6.16 The epidemiologic transition and the fertility transition combined to produce the demogr aphic transition in the developed countries over many decades.

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Fig. 6.17 Crude birth rates and crude death rates are shown for major regions of the world. A dividing line separates countries at or well along in the demographic transition from those apparently stuck in the middle of the transition.

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CHAPTER 7 ADDRESSING THE POPULATION PROBLEM I. Why Does Fertility Decline? A. Demographic Transition 1. As the economic level of a country increases, death rates decline. 2. Later, as the economic level continues to increase, fertility rates decline.

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B. Other Factors Influencing Family Size 1. Are children perceived as an economic asset or liability? a. Are children needed for security in one's old age? b. Do children contribute to the family income?

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c. Do children require expenditures of money until they reach adulthood or
finish college?

2. Is infant and childhood mortality high? a. If you have a low expectation that a particular child will survive to
adulthood, are you more or less likely to have another child?

b. If you want to raise a child, the overall desire to have children is not
going to end if a child dies. Although you can't replace the dead child, you can have another child.

3. Is education accessible? Education does two things to fertility rates: a. While one is in school typically does not begin raising a family. b. Education increases the number of economic opportunities. One
is not as dependent upon offspring for survival. Children become less of an economic asset and more of an economic liability as income increases.

4. Is education accessible to all? a. If education is accessible only to men, then women begin to have
children at an early age.

b. Obtaining education reduces the number of years that a woman has to
bear children. If you are in school until age 22, then it is likely that you will not have your first child until at least age 23. (In the U.S., the current average age of first birth is 23.)

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c. Access to education increases job/career opportunities for women.
When being a mother is not the only socially acceptable occupation, women choose to have fewer children.

5. Are contraceptives available? a. The desire to reduce family size will not be successful if contraceptive are
not available.

b. Contraceptives need to be socially acceptable. Women and men have to
agree to their use.

c. Data indicate many people wishing to limit family size cannot due to lack
of contraceptive availability.

Fig. 7.3 There is a weak correlation between income and lower total fertility. Factors that affect fertility more directly are health education care, for women, and the availability of contraceptive information and services.

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Fig. 7 4 In developing countries-especially Africa-women do most of the work relating to care and maintenance of the family, including heavy farming tasks.

Fig. 7.6 More than any other single factor, lower fertility rates are correlated with the percent of the population using contraceptiv es.

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Fig. 7.7 Poverty, environmental degradation, and high fertility rates become locked in a self -perpetuating vicious cycle.

Fig. 7.8 In developed countries, the decrease in birth rates proceeded soon after and along with the decrease in death rates,osvery rapid population growth never occurred.

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Fig. 7.8b In developing countries, both birth and death rates remained high until the mid 1900s. Then a steep decline in death rates wa s caused by the rapid introduction of modern medicine, whereas birth rat remained high, causing very rapid population growth. es

II. Traditional Development Techniques A. Promoting the Development of Low-Income Countries 1. Emphasizing large development projects. B. The Results of Large Development Projects 1. Debt Crisis 2. Wealth Concentration

C. World Bank Reform

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Fig. 7.10 Loans aimed at promoting development have caught many countries in a debt trap.

III. A New Model for Development A. Social Modernization: a strategy that does not rely on the economic development of a
whole country.

B. Social Modernization Focus: the individual. C. To succeed with this model one must include 1. Improved access to education, including that of women 2. Improve the health of individuals, especially of women 3. Increased access to and desire for family planning 4. Enhanced income of families so that children are no longer an asset 5. Improved resource management so that people can obtain life necessities
without environmental degradation.

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Fig. 7.14 Five main aspects of enhancing the well being of the poor are mutually supporting and dependent on one another as illustrated. -

Fig. 7.15 Countries with low adult female literacy rates have high fertility rates.

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Fig. 7.16 Programs that improve the educational and economic status of women have longterm benefits, including lower fertility. -

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III. Losing Ground: What is Erosion? A. Erosion is the movement of soil, especially topsoil, by wind or water from one
place to another.

1. It takes 200-1000 years to make 2.5 cm of soil. To not lose more soil than is
created, erosion rates need to average less than 5 tons/year.

2. The rate of erosion on undisturbed land is less than 1/4/ton/acre/year. 3. Erosion rates on cultivated land.

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a. Farmland: 7.6 tons/acre/year in the United States and Europe or 13.7-17.8
tons/acre/year in Asia, Africa, and South America.

b. Annual erosion rates for agricultural land worldwide are 18 to 100 times faster
than renewal rates.

B. Not all erosion is bad. The dust spewed into the air does settle. This dust is the source
of minerals and nutrients for some ocean ecosystems (can also be the cause of overnutrification), and dust can stimulate cloud formation. The dust also contains soil organisms that are deposited onto islands.

IV. What Leads to Bare Soil and Erosion? A. Overcultivating B. Overgrazing C. Construction D. Deforestation E. Salinization F. Waterlogging V. What Happens after Soil Erosion? A. Loss of soil fertility. B. Sedimentation - eroding soils fills reservoirs, streams, estuaries, and bays. C. Desertification - the process whereby the water holding capacity of soil is greatly
diminished and a desert is formed.

CHAPTER 8 SOIL AND THE SOIL ECOSYSTEMS I. Why do we Care about Soil Erosion? A. Erosion adversely affects soil therefore adversely affects plants, and plants are the

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base of the food chain.

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B. Soil and Plants 1. Soil provides three essential factors a. Water and water-holding capacity
b. Mineral nutrients and nutrient-holding capacity

c. Aeration 2. Two additional conditions soil provides for plants a. Relative acidity b. Salt content

Fig. 8.3 Soil production involves a dynamic interaction among mineral particles, detritus, and members of the detritus food web.

C. Soil Characteristics 1. Soil profiles 2. Soil classes

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3. Soil textures II. The Soil System - What is the Soil Ecosystem? A. Components 1. Soil Textures 2. Detritus 3. Humus 4. Soil Organisms

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Fig. 8.4 This figure shows major horizons from the surface to the parentmaterial in an idealized soil profile.

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Fig. 8.5 Relative proportions of sand, clay and silt are represented on each axis. Major soil classes are indicated on the triangle.ercent of P sand, clay or silt is represented on each axis.

B. What happens when the soil system is working well? 1. Topsoil buildup - humus 2. Water and nutrient holding capacity 3. Aeration 4. Soil workability C. What happens when the soil system is not working well? - mineralization.

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Fig. 8.7 In addition to the amountand frequency of precipitation, the size of this reservoir depends on the soil's ability to allow water to infiltrate, hold water, and minimize direct evaporation.

Fig. 8.8 A host of organisms, major examples of which are shown here, feed on detritus and burrow through the soil forming a humus-rich topsoil with a loose clumpy structure.

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Fig. 8.13 Topsoil must be recognized as a dynamic balance between detritus additions and humus forming processes, and the breakdown and loss of detritus and humus. If ad ditions of detritus are not sufficient there will be a gradual deterioration of the soil. Fig. 8.15 As wind erosion removes the finer particles, the larger grains and stones are concentrated on the surface.

Fig. 8.17 Deforestation, overgrazing and overcultivation result in the degradation of soils in every region of the world.

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Fig. 8.21 Throughout the world, overcultivation, overgrazing and deforestation are causing soil degradation in vast areas.

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CHAPTER 9 WATER: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE AND HUMAN USE I. Unique Properties of Water A. Water has Unique Properties 1. Superior Solvent 2. High Melting and Boiling Point 3. High Heat Capacity 4. High Heat of Vaporization 5. Capillary Action (from high surface tension and high wetting ability) 6. Liquid Water Density Greater than Solid Water II. Water Cycle A. A global cycle by which water flows through terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments. B. Helps purify and distribute water around the planet. C. The cycle 1. Evaporation - energy input (evaporative cooling), the purification process 2. Condensation - energy released (heat is being moved around the planet) 3. Precipitation - air temperature, removal of pollutants from the atmosphere.

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Fig. 9.1 Freshwater constitutes only 0.77% of the total Earth's water.

Fig. 9.3 The Earth's fresh waters are replenished as water vapor enters the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration from vegetation, leaving salts and other impurities behind. As precipitation hits the ground, note that three additional pathways are possible.

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Fig. 9.4 As warm, moist air is cooled, the amount of water it can hold decreases. Cooling air beyond the point where relative humidity (RH) reaches 100% forces excess moisture to condense, forming clouds. Further cooling and condensation results in precipitation.

Fig. 9.5a Moist air from the equator rises, dropping its moisture. The now-dry air descends at 30 degrees north and south latitude producing deserts.

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Fig. 9.5b A cell is a tube of circulating air girdling the planet. The six Hadley cells on either side of the equator indicating general vertical airflow patterns.

Fig. 9.5c This figure shows global trade wind patterns as a result of Earth's rotation. Because of the earth's rotation, the Coriolis Effect occurs which deflect winds from going straight north or south.

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Fig. 9.6 Moisture-laden air in a trade wind cools as it rises over a mountain range, resulting in high precipitation on the windward slopes. Desert conditions arise on the leeward side as the descending air warms and tends to evaporate water from the soil.

Fig. 9.7a This figure shows precipitation patterns in North and South America. Note the high rainfall in equatorial regions and the regions of low rainfall to the north and south.

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Fig. 9.7b This figure shows precipitation patterns in North and South America. Note the high rainfall in equatorial regions and the regions of low rainfall 30 degrees to the north and south. III. Where Does Water Go during the Water Cycle?

A. Precipitation results in water infiltration and runoff 1. Water Infiltration a. Gravitational water b. Capillary water 2. Most Gravitational Water Results in Groundwater a. Groundwater b. Water table B. Runoff C. Floodplain D. Watershed

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Fig. 9.8 In this figure, 1. The contribution of water from the oceans to the land via evaporation and then precipitation; 2. Movement of water from the land to the oceans via runoff and seepage; and 3. The net balance of water movement between terrestrial and oceanic regions. IV. Human Impacts on the Hydrologic Cycle

A. Changing the Earth's Surface 1. Urbanization 2. Overgrazing 3. Overcultivation 4. Deforestation 5. Pavement B. Polluting the Water Cycle 1. The solution to pollution is not dilution. C. Overdrawing Water Resources 1. Why are shortages inevitable with our current use patterns? 2. What are the ecological consequences of overdrawing surface water?

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3. What are the ecological consequences of overdrawing groundwater? a. Diminishing surface water b. Land subsidence c. Salt water intrusion

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Fig. 9.10 Human activities introduce pollution into the water cycle at numerous points as shown.

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V. Sources and Uses of Freshwater A. Quantitative Concerns B. Qualitative Concerns C. Consumptive versus Nonconsumptive Use D. How is Water Used? 1. Agriculture 2. Industry 3. Residential Fig. 9.11 A dry-climate, less-developed region uses most of its water for irrigation, whereas moist-climate, industrialized countries (e.g., Europe) require the largest percentage for industry (from World Resourc Institute, es "World Resources 1998-99.")

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Fig. 9.13a Water is often taken from a river or reservoir, sent to the treatment plant, used, and returned after waste treatment.

Fig. 9.13b 1) chlorine is added to kill bacteria, (2) alum (aluminum sulfate) isadded to coagulate organic particles, and (3) the water is put into a settling basin for several hours to allow the coagulated particles to settle. It is then (4) filt red e through sand.

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Fig. 9.14 Droughts occur on an average of every 20 years and may reduce normal water flows by 70%. Therefore no more than 30% of the average surface-water flow can be counted on to be continuously available.

Fig. 9.16 Pumping up water from the Ogallala aquifer has made this arid region of the United States into some o the f most productive farmland in the country.

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Fig. 9.18a Where aquifers open into the ocean, fresh water is maintained in the aquifer by the head of fresh water inland.

Fig. 9.18b Excessive removal of water may reduce the pressure, so that salt water moves into the aquifer. VI. How Do We Obtain More Water?

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A. Dams and Water Division Projects B. Conservation 1. Irrigation 2. Urban C. Technological Solutions 1. Desalinization 2. Cleanup of Polluted Water VII. Managing Stormwater A. Reducing Flooding B. Decreasing Streambank Erosion C. Decreasing Water Contamination from Pollutants on Paved Surfaces D. Streamside Ecology - Stop and Remove Channelization

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Fig. 9.21 Curves, in this figure, are for similar storms on Brays Bayou in Houston, Texas, before, during, and after development in the early 1950s. Note the increasing height of the surge occurring with the storm and the decreasing volume of flow that occurs later in the cycle.

Fig. 9.22 Different regions of the world vary in their ability to obtain safe fresh water.

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III. Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine A. Who and How Many Are Affected? B. Where Do They Live? C. How Does Lack of Food Affect People 1. Famine 2. Malnutrition and Undernutrition a. Kwahiorkor b. Marasmus D. Population Density, Acres of Crop Land, and Food Availability 1. The number of people per cultivated acres is not related to food availability. 2. Cash is necessary if you don't grow your own food. As long as food is bought and
sold in a society with great income differences, hunger is not related to the number of people per cultivated acre, who grows the food, or who works the fields but how much

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money a person has to purchase food.

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Fig. 10.3 This graph demonstrates two phenomena: the long -term rise in yields and the effects of droughts in 1970, 1973, 1980, 1983, and 1988. (8000 kg/hectare=3.5 tons/acre).

Fig. 10.7 (a) Changes in per capita food production by region (1961 = 100). (b) World per capita grain production, 1950 -1998

CHAPTER 10

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THE PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD I. The Production and Distribution of Food A. Subsistence Agriculture 1. Slash and Burn

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B. The Transformation of Traditional Agriculture to Modern Agriculture 1. Shift From Animals to Machines 2. Increase in Acreage Cultivated (can do more with fewer people) 3. Use of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides 4. Use of Irrigation 5. Refrigerated Transport (can sell what you could grow) 6. High Yield Crop Varieties C. Green Revolution 1. Two Choices - only one possible a. Increase production of glucose by altering process of photosynthesis. b. Decrease calories plants put into nonfood portion of plant. 2. Decreased Calories Plants Put into Nonfood Portion of Plant a. Decreased root mass
· Plants dependent upon irrigation and fertilizers

b. Decreased plant height
· Plants dependent upon herbicides

3. Decreased Genetic Diversity
a. Few varieties of crops species grown b. Increased susceptibility to insects and disease

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D. Biotechnology 1. Allows Crossbreeding of Genetically Different Plants 2. Can Select Desired Characteristics

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E. Prospects for Increasing Food Production Using Existing Practices II. Food Distribution and Trade A. Patterns in Food Trade

Fig. 10.10 The Food Guide Pyramid indicates what foods will provide adequate nutrition and keep weight under control. Suggested numbers of servings are given as a range, because energy requirements vary for people depending on their size, age and level of activ ity.

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Fig. 10.12 The Sahel is a band of dry grasslands that stretches across the continent. The map shows the countries where civil wars and droughts have recently brought on serious famines.

IV. Building Sustainability Into Agriculture - Developed versus Developing Countries A. For sustainability, ecosystems dispose of wastes and replenish nutrients by recycling all
elements.

B. For sustainability, ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy. C. For sustainability, the sizes of consumer populations are maintained so that overgrazing
or other overuse does not occur.

D. For sustainability, biodiversity is maintained.

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CHAPTER 11 WILD SPECIES: BIODIVERSITY AND PROTECTION I. What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is the diversity of living things found in the natural world. II. Why Care About Biodiversity? A. Instrumental Value 1. Ecosystem Sustainability 2. Sources of Agriculture, Forestry, Aquaculture, and Animal Husbandry 3. Sources of Medicine 4. Recreational Value 5. Aesthetic Value 6. Scientific Value 7. Commercial Value - ecotourism B. Intrinsic Value 1. Do species other than humans have inherent rights? III. The Decline of Biodiversity

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A. Cause of Biodiversity Loss 1. Physical Alteration of Habitat a. Conversion b. Fragmentation c. Simplification 2. The Population Factor 3. Pollution 4. Exotic Species 5. Overuse

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Fig. 11.9 Fully one-third of over 20,000 species of plants and animals surveyed were found by biologists to be at risk of extinction.

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Fig. 11.10 Species introductions, habitat destruction and hunting have brought about the majority of known animal extinctions sin 1600. ce (From World Conservation Monitoring Centre.)

Fig. 11.12 Uncertainty about the extent of species becoming extinct is reflected in the width of the species curve.

IV. Consequences of Biodiversity Loss

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A. Keystone Species

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B. Loss of Natural Habitats and the Goods and Services They Provide. V. Steps to Protect Biodiversity A. Attitude - people have to care B. Endangered Species Act - 1973 C. Convention on Trade in Endangered Species D. Convention on Biological Diversity

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CHAPTER 12 ECOSYSTEMS AS RESOURCES I. Why Do We Want to Use Resources Sustainably? A. Resources provided by ecosystems sustain life. B. There are a limited number of resources in an ecosystem. C. Ecosystems are limited in their ability to cycle resources. II. Ecosystems and Their Goods and Services A. The Goods (Resources) a. Wood: buildings, paper, furniture b. Food: meat, grains, vegetables, fruits, oils

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c. Minerals: phosphorus and nitrogen (for farming), copper (electrical wire),
aluminum (cans, cars), iron, silver, gold, platinum, titanium

d. Fuel: wood, petroleum, dung, alcohol e. Clothing: cotton, rayon, nylon, polyester, fur, leather f. Plastics: petroleum, trees (rayon) B. The Services 1. Maintenance of Hydrologic Cycle: water infiltrates soil and is absorbed
by plants. Water evaporates from soil or evapotranspires from plants. Evaporated water condenses in the atmosphere and falls to the earth as precipitation. Flooding is prevented by the functioning of dynamic ecosystems because precipitation is absorbed by the ecosystem and slowly released.

2. Modification of Climate: Water absorbs a considerable amount of energy
from the sun as it evaporates. This energy is released when the water condenses. Heat is moved around the planet in water.

3. Erosion Control and Soil Building: Plant and detritus control erosion by
absorbing the impact of precipitation, and make a greater surface area available for the absorption of water. Plants, animals, and microorganisms found in terrestrial ecosystems create soil.

4. Maintenance of Oxygen and Nitrogen Cycles: Photosynthesis releases
oxygen. Nitrogen fixing microorganisms in the soil maintain soil fertility.

5. Waste Treatment: Water is a universal solvent. Many water-soluble pollutants
(sediments, excess nutrients) are removed from the water in wetlands.

6. Transformation of Toxic Chemicals: Microorganisms transform many toxic
chemicals, both organic and inorganic, into harmless products. [The opposite is

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true also. The Minamata Bay disaster resulted when inorganic mercury was released in industrial effluent and transformed by microorganisms into organic mercury.]

7. Pest Management: Predators for the organisms we consider pests exist. When
predators are maintained, pest management is provided by ecosystems.

8. Carbon Storage and Maintenance of the Carbon Cycle: Carbon is cycled
through the atmosphere, biomass, and soil. The biomass of the forest contains 500 billion metric tons of carbon more than is found in the atmosphere. Even more carbon is found in the organic matter of soil
Fig. 12.4 Worth more than $100,000 a year for just one acre, these services are lost when wetlands are bulkheaded and converted for vacation homes.

B. Monetary Benefit of Ecosystems 1. A 1997 study estimated that the world's ecosystems provide $33 trillion worth of
goods and services per year.

2. One acre of wetlands does the equivalent of $100,000 per year of water purification
and fish propagation services.

3. We undervalue the services of ecosystems because their services are provided free
of charge.

4. We notice the services when they are gone: a. The eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay is a result of wetland loss and an increase
in the added nutrients within its watershed.

b. Flooding in Bangladesh is a result of deforestation in India; consequently, the
monsoons cause great loss of human life and devastation of crops.

III. Patterns of Use of Natural Ecosystems

A. Consumptive versus Productive Use 1. In consumptive "people harvest natural resources in order to provide for their

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needs for food, shelter, tools, fuel and clothing."

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2. "Productive user refers to the exploitation of ecosystem resources for economic
gain."

B. "A natural ecosystem will receive protection only if the value society assigns to its
natural function is higher than the value the society assigns to exploiting its natural resources."

1. This is a conflict between individual gain from and societal loss of the goods and
services provided by an ecosystem.

2. This conflict also occurs between those who use public land for private gain
(ranchers, loggers, miners, etc.) and those who want the ecosystem conserved in a way that produces the greatest good for the largest number of organisms (humans included.)

C. Maximum Sustained Yield (MSY): "The highest possible rate of use that the
system can match with its own rate of replacement or maintenance."

1. How does MSY works?
At low population size the rate of population growth will increase because the environmental resistance factors are low. At low population size, the rate of population growth will increase until environmental resistance factors begin to limit population size. This point is MSY. As the population size becomes larger than the MSY, the rate of growth population decreases and the number of individuals that can be extracted does not increase.

2. MSY is the point where the highest rate of recruitment can occur. The highest
rate of harvesting can occur at the point where the highest recruitment occurs.

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3. The difficulty with MSY is determining it. We typically do not know the point at
which the highest recruitment occurs.

4. For example, North Sea cod were overfished because we do not understand MSY.

Fig. 12.8 Maximum sustainable yield occurs not at the maximum population level, but rather at a lower, optimal population level.

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Fig. 12.12 This figure shows the global fish catch and fish farming equals worldtotal for 1950-97

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Fig. 12.10 In the U.S. only 17% of wood is used for fuel.

Fig. 12.14 This method of harvesting groundfish has been compared to clearcutting forests because of degradation of the bottom. -

D. Tragedy of the Commons: When a resource is held in common or by no one, it is
known as a commons.

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1. Grasslands (grazing, mining) 2. Coastal and open ocean (fishing, mining)
3. Groundwater (urban and agricultural use)

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4. Woodlands and forests (logging, mining) IV. Ecosystems Under Pressure

A. Forests and Woodlands 1. Threat: Total Removal 2. Consequences: loss of biomass, reduced productivity, reduced biodiversity, soil
erosion, changed hydrologic cycle, loss of carbon dioxide sink

B. Ocean Ecosystems 1. Threat: Overexploitation 2. Consequences: Reduced productivity and reduced biodiversity C. Grasslands 1. Threat: Total Removal 2. Consequences: Loss of biomass, reduction in biodiversity, loss of carbon dioxide
sink, changed hydrologic cycle, and soil erosion V. Solutions

A. Private Ownership of Land B. Regulation of Commerce (national parks and wildlife refuges, etc.) C. Land Trusts D. Preservation E. Conservation VI. When We Have Gone Too Far Restoration Ecology A. Restoration Ecology: Repairs a damaged ecosystem so that normal functioning

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returns and the native flora and fauna are again present.

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B. Difficulties 1. Lack of Knowledge 2. Disturbed Soils 3. Accumulated Pollutants 4. Exotic Species Have Achieved Dominance C. Examples: 1. Prairie Restoration at Fermi Labs, Illinois 2. Wetlands Restoration at Stone Lake on the Consumnes River, California 3. Riparian Habitat Restoration by the Nature Conservancy along the Sacramento
River, California

VII. Public and Private Land in the United States A. Federal, State and Local Land 1. What do they provide us? 2. Who benefits from them? 3. Why do we have them? B. Private Land 1. Land Trusts 2. Individual Owners 3. Corporate Owners

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Fig. 12.16 Because the East and Midwest were settled first, federallyowned lands are concentrated in the West and Alaska. -

Fig. 12.17 The National Park is the center of a much larger ecosystem receiving attention from the Greater Yellowstone Coalition.

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Fig. 12.13 This figure shows cod landings from Georges Bank, 1982 -96.

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CHAPTER 13 ENERGY FROM FOSSIL FUELS I. Energy Sources and Uses A. Energy Sources 1. Primary and secondary energy sources 2. Basic production of electricity - boil water to produce steam to turn turbines to
generate electricity

a. What is the local source of electricity? b. When are the peak loads of electricity and for what purpose? c. Is electricity a clean energy source? How is electricity produced? B. Matching Sources to Uses

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Fig. 13.2A The development of energy sources has in large part supported the development of civilization. Fig. 13.2B The development of energy sources has in large part supported the development of civilization.

Fig. 13.4 Note how the mix of primary sources has changed over the years and how the total amount of energy consumed has continued to grow. Note also the skyrocketing increase in use of oil after World War II (1945) as the private car became common.

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Fig. 13.6 Electricity is produced commercially by driving generators with a) steam turbines, b) gas turbines and c) water turbines Fig. 13.6 Electricity is produced commercially by driving generators with a) steam turbines, b) gas turbines and c) water turbines

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Fig. 13.7 Electrical demand fluctuates daily, weekly and seasonally. A variety of generator types must be employed to meet baseload, intermediate and peakload electricity needs.

Fig. 13.9 Only major energy pathways are shown in this figure. Note that end uses are connected to primary sources in specific ways. so Al note the large percentage of energy that is wasted as a large portion of the energy con sumed is converted to heat and lost.

II. What are Fossil Fuels?

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A. How Are Fossil Fuels Formed B. What Are the Fossil Fuel Reserves? 1. Coal several (400) hundred years 2. Natural Gas at least a 50 year supply in the United states 3. Oil about a decade until supplies peak

C. How Are Supplies Estimated? 1. Educated Guess Based on Geologic Formation. 2. Knowledge of where fossil fuels have been found in the past D. Why Do Our Estimates of Supply Vary? III. Oil The Most Important Fossil Fuel in the American Economy A. Declining U.S. Reserves and Increasing Importation 1. The Oil Crisis of the 1970s a. Adjusting to Higher Prices b. Victims of Our Success B. Problems of Growing U.S. Dependency on Foreign Oil 1. Costs of Purchase 2. Risk of Supply Disruptions 3. Resource Limitations C. Environmental Consequences 1. Production: local ecosystems damage possible 2. Transport: oil spills cause local and regional ecosystem damage 3. Use: photochemical smog, particulates, acid precipitation, carbon dioxide

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Fig. 13.10 Coal, oil, and natural gas are derived from biomass that was produced many millions of years ago. Deposits are finite and, nce si formative processes require millions of years, they are nonrenewable.

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Fig. 13.11 Maximum production from proven reserves invariably declines, but since there is always some oil remaining, there is no "running out" as such.

Fig. 13.12 U.S. production and demand for oil have fluctuated, as have prices and dependence on imports.

Fig. 13.13The cost (upper curve) fluctuates sharply with delivered price of foreign oil (lower curve) and amount imported.

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Fig. 13.14 After the oil crisis of the 1970s, the U.S. became less reliant on foreign oil. But since the mid -1980s, consumption of foreign oil has been rising continuously.

Fig. 13.16 Oil production in a region follows a bell -shaped curve. The evidence indicates that world oil production will peak some time in the next decade.

IV. Coal

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A. Large Reserves B. Fossil Fuel of Choice Before the 1940s 1. Coal was substantially curtailed in the 1940s.

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C. Environmental Consequences 1. Production: ecosystem damage, reclamation difficult, acid mine runoff,
mine tailings, erosion, black lung, radon

2. Transport: energy intensive because of weight and number of train cars
needed

3. Use: fossil fuel with largest source of carbon dioxide and greatest quantity of
contaminants, large volume of waste, acid precipitation

Fig. 13.17 With reserves of at least 462 billion metric tons, and a 400 year supply, coal is our most abundant fossil fuel.

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Fig. 13.19 This figure shows carbon emissions per capita from fossil fuel burning for selected countries.

Fig. 13.20A Fossil fuel is used to generate electricity at a power station. Additional fuel provides heat and hot water on site.

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Fig. 13.20B In cogeneration, heating needs are provided by the heat lost from an onsite power-generating system. -

V. Natural Gas A. Substantial Reserves B. Possibly a Transition Fuel between fossil fuel and alternative energy sources. C. Environmental Consequences 1. Production: local ecosystem damage possible if oil or coal is part of the deposit 2. Transport: can be explosive 3. Use: produces the least air pollutants of all the fossil fuels VI. Sustainable Energy Options A. Conservation 1. The largest single source of energy available 2. Proven ability to perform 3. Disadvantages a. Expense borne at the individual level

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b. Not appealing to many because it does not involve the building of new power
plants or fancy equipment

B. Development of Non Fossil Fuel Energy Sources

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CHAPTER 14 NUCLEAR POWER: PROMISE AND PROBLEMS I. Nuclear Power Current and Future Status A. Number of power plants today: 442 worldwide with 45 under construction. B. Nuclear power generates about 17% of the world's electricity. C. Why is the number of power plants declining in most countries? 1. Economics a. More costly than estimated

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b. Costs have increased so that in 1993 dollars it is as expensive as solar for
generating electricity

2. Opposition a. Radiation can lead to damaged DNA b. Costs
Fig. 14.4 In 1997, those countries lacking fossil fuel reserves tended to be the most eager to employ nuclear power. (Data from Interna tional Atomic Energy Agency.)

Fig. 14.2 Since the early 1970s, when orders for plants reached a peak, few utilities call for new plants, and many have canceled earlier ed orders.

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II. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

A. Mining 1. Human Health Concerns a. Miners b. General public: tailings used as landfill; living near tailing piles 2. Environmental Concerns B. Enrichment C. Fuel Element Fabrication

D. Nuclear Power Plants 1. Difference between fission and fusion 2. What is a chain reaction? 3. Radioactive Products/Daughter Products 4. Radioactive Emissions

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a. Radioactive particles:
· · Alpha particles Beta particles

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b. Electromagnetic radiation
· Gamma rays

5. Radioactive Decay and Half-Lives 6. How does a Power Plant Operate? a. Water moderator b. Neutron-absorbing material c. Fuel rods - approximately one-third replaced each year d. Heat transfer system e. Cooling system f. Redundant safety systems

Fig. 14.5 Nuclear energy is released by (a) fission, the splitting of certain large atoms into smaller atoms, or (b) fu the fusing together of sion, small atoms to form a larger atom. In both cases, some of the mass of the starting atom(s) is converted to energy.

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Fig. 14.6B This figure shows a self-amplifying chain reaction leading to a nuclear explosion. Since two or three high-energy neutrons are produced by each fission, each may cause the fission of two or three additional atoms

Fig. 14.7 In the core of a nuclear reactor, a large mass of uranium is created by placing uranium in adjacent tubes, called the fuel ements. el The rate of the chain reaction is moderated by inserting or removing rods of neutronabsorbing material (control rods). -

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Fig. 14.6C In a sustaining chain reaction, the extra neutrons are absorbed in control rods so that amplification does not occur.

Fig. 14.8 The double-loop design isolates the pressurized water from the steam -generating loop that drives the turbogenerator.

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E. Waste Products: What Are They? 1. Low level wastes 2. High level wastes F. Reprocessing of Wastes G. Waste Disposal 1. High Level a. All fuel rods are still in cooling ponds at commercial nuclear facilities b. Yucca Mountain c. Concerns
· · · Geological active area Intrusion of water Distances for wastes travel

2. Low Level

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a. Each state/region is to develop a facility b. Controversy

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c. What do we do with medical wastes from nuclear medicine if no site is
acceptable?

H. Plant Decommisioning 1. Options a. Entombing b. Mothballing c. Dismantling 2. Costs
Fig. 14.9 The nuclear power option assumes perfect containment of radioactivity and the availability of some method for waste storagend a disposal.

Fig. 14.10 Nuclear fission results in the production of numerous unstable isotopes, the radioactive wastesThey give off potentially damaging . radiation until they regain a stable structure.

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Fig. 14.11 This figure shows (a) A substance with a halflife of one year, starting with 24 units; (b) the same substance starting with 48 units; (c) a substance with a half-life of two years. (Note that decay of a radioisotope never equals 100%.)

III. Accidents A. Chernobyl B. Three Mile Island C. Local Facilities 1. Rancho Seco 2. Browns Ferry 3. Diablo Canyon IV. Comparison of Coal versus Nuclear for Electricity Generation

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Fig. 14.14 Advanced light water reactors have many safety features.

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CHAPTER 15 RENEWABLE ENERGY I. Principles of Solar Energy A. Where Does it Originate? B. How Much Solar Energy Reaches the Earth?

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II. Direct Solar A. Water Heating 1. Passive Solar a. Benefits · · b. Costs · · Economic Environmental Economic Environmental

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c. What is passive solar's future? 2. Active Solar a. Benefits · · b. Costs · · Economic Environmental Economic Environmental

c. What is active solar's future? B. Space Heating 1. Passive Solar a. Benefits b. Costs c. What is passive solar's future?

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2. Active Solar a. Benefits b. Costs c. What is active solar's future?

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Fig. 15.4 A mix of sources of renewable energy provided 7.6% of the nation's energy use in 1997.

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Fig. 15.5 Equal amounts of energy are found in the visible-light and infrared regions of the solar spectrum.

Fig. 15.6 Flat-plate solar collector. As it is absorbed by a black surface, sunlight is converted to heat. A clear glass or plastic window over the surface allows the sunlight to enter but traps the heat. Air or water is heated as it passes through tubes embedded in the black surface.

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Fig. 15.7 Solar water collector. In nonfreezing climates, simple water-convection systems may suffice. If freezing occurs, antifreeze is circulated.

Fig. 15.8 Solar collectors can save homeowners on fuel bills. Air heated in the collector moves in by passive convection.

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Fig. 15.9 Large, Sun-facing windows permit sunlight to enter during winter months. Insulating drapes are drawn to hold in the heat when the Sun is not shining. Suitable overhangs, awnings, and deciduous plantings will prevent excessive heating in the summer.

Fig. 15.10 In summer, the house may be shaded with deciduous trees or vines. In winter, leaves drop, and the bare trees allow the house to benefit from sunlight. Evergreen trees on the opposite side protect and provide insulation from cold winds

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C. Electricity Production 1. Technologies a. Photovoltaic cells b. Solar through collectors c. Experiment technologies 2. Costs a. Economic b. Environmental 3. Benefits a. Economic b. Environmental

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4. What is the future of electricity production using solar?

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Fig. 15.13 Research and development has brought the price of photovoltaic cells down about 50 -fold in the past 25 years. As prices have come down, sales have increased dramatically. III. Indirect Solar

A. Hydrogen Fuel 1. How does it work? 2. Negative net energy and why solar is suggested as a source of energy 3. Prospects - What is the future? 4. Costs a. Economic b. Environmental 5. Benefits a. Economic b. Environmental B. Hydropower 1. How does it work? 2. Prospects - What is the future? 3. Costs 4. Benefits C. Wind Power 1. How does it work? 2. Prospects - What is the future? 3. Costs 4. Benefits D. Biomass Energy 1. Technologies

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a. Burning firewood b. Burning wastes c. Producing methane d. Producing alcohol 2. Prospects - What is the future? 3. Costs 4. Benefits

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Fig. 15.18 The fuel cell accomplishes the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen through stages such that their high potential energy creates an electric potential. The only byproduct is water, the same as when burning hydrogen and oxygen.

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Fig. 15.22 The total power needs for the Mason-Dixon Dairy, located in Pennsylvania, are obtained as a byproduct of cow manure, and nutrients are recycled in the process. Excess power, nearly half of what is produced, is sold to the local utility. IV. Other Renewable Energy Options

A. Geothermal Energy 1. How does it work? 2. Prospects - What is the future? 3. Costs 4. Benefits B. Tidal Power 1. How does it work? 2. Prospects - What is the future? 3. Costs 4. Benefits C. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversions

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1. How does it work? 2. Prospects - What is the future? 3. Costs 4. Benefits V. Policy for a Sustainable Energy Future

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Fig. 15.24A Direct solar heating of space and hot water, photovoltaic cells, solar trough collectors, wind power, production of hydrogen from solar or wind power offer the potential for supplying sustainable energy with a minimum of environmental impact.

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Fig. 15.24B In addition to direct and indirect solar energy sources, production of methane from animal manure and sewage sludges seem to offer the potential for supplying sustainable energy with a minimum of environmental impact.

Fig. 15.24C Additional alternative energy sources.

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CHAPTER 16 PESTS AND PEST CONTROL I. What is a Pest A. A pest is any organism that is noxious, destructive, or troublesome.

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Fig. 17.2 Non-agricultural and agricultural use isshown for the time period of 1964 -1995. (Data from Environmental Protection Agency.)

II. How Do We Respond to Pests?

A. Pesticides 1. Insecticide 2.Rodenticide 3. Fungicide 4. Acaricide

B. Classes of Pesticides

1. First Generation - Inorganics a. Metals (arsenic trioxide), Bordeaux mixture (copper sulfate, lime, and water),
sulfuric acid, Paris Green (copper arsenite), calcium arsenite

2. Second Generation - Organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, dieldren) a. Broad spectrum and persistent b. Eliminated due to environmental consequences bioaccumulation

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c. Don't know the mechanisms of action for many 3. Third Generation - Organophosphates and carbamates

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a. Typically less persistent but more acutely toxic than the organochlorines b. Primarily nerve toxins 4. Fourth Generation Life-cycle disrupters a. Target a portion of the insect life-cycle to reduce pesticide population b. May be endocrine disrupters for nontarget organisms

Fig. 17.4 Using pesticides causes selection (survival of the fittest) for those individuals that are resistant. As we continue to use esticides, we breed insects and other pests that p are increasingly resistant to the pesticides used against them.

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Fig. 17.5 Food chains exist among insects just as they do among higher animals.

Fig. 17.6 The continued use of these products demands ever-increasing dosages of pesticides, which further aggravate pest problems and produce more contamination of foodstuffs and ecosystems.

III. What Results from Using Pesticides for Pest Control?

A. Quantity Used and Monetary Impact

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B. Resource Impact - Pesticides are typically made from petroleum.

C. Crop Loss with and without Pesticide Use 1. In 1950: crop loss = 31%; in 1995 crop loss = 37% 2. Why is so much lost? a. Monoculture cropping b. Use of genetically identical plants

D. Problems Resulting from Pesticide Use 1. Pesticide Resistance 2. Pest Resurgence 3. Secondary Pest Outbreaks

4. Human Health Effects a. Acute: high dose, short term exposure, rapid onset (headache, nausea,
vomiting, respiratory failure, death)

b. Chronic: low dose, long term exposure, outcome not seen for many years
(cancer, reproductive damage, immune dysfunction)

5. Environmental Health Effects a. Bioconcentration - movement of a chemical against a concentration gradient b. Biomagnification - movement of a chemical through a food chain c. Bioaccumulation - bioconcentration plus biomagnification. This is a rare
combination but few exogenous chemicals bioconcentrate. Not only is the ability to bioconcentrate found in chemicals that can bioaccumulate but the chemical is typically fat soluble and persistent. Examples: DDT, PCBs, dioxin

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Fig. 17.8 Each successive consumer in the food chain accumulates contaminants to a higher level. The concentration of the pesticide ismagnified manyfold throughout the food chain. Organisms at the top of the food chain are likely to accumulate toxic levels.

Fig. 17.9 Like the moth shown here, most insects have a complex life cycle that includes a larval stage and an adult stage. Biological control methods recognize the different stages and attack the insect, using knowledge of its needs and life cycle.

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IV. Alternative Pest Control Methods

A. Cultural Controls 1. Cultural Control of Pests Affecting Humans 2. Cultural Control of Pests Affecting Lawns Gardens and Crops

B. Control by Natural Enemies 1. The enhancement of natural enemies for the reduction of pest population size 2. Examples: parasitic wasps, ladybugs, praying mantis, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensies)

C. Genetic Control 1. Chemical Barriers - genetically controlled production of a toxic repellant chemical
by a desirable species

2. Physical Barriers - genetically controlled production of a physical trait that reduces
or eliminates the ability of a pest to damage the desirable organism

3. Sterile Males - release sterile males to compete with wild-type males in the mating
of wild-type females

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4. Biotechnology - genetically engineering traits into species

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D. Natural Chemical Control 1. Hormones: control of development a. Juvenile hormones b. Ecdysone hormones c. Possible endocrine disrupters 2. Pheromones a. Sexual attractants b. Aggregation c. Repellents
Fig. 17.10 Part of the life cycle of wheat rust, a parasitic fungus that is a serious pest on wheat, requires that the rust infest barbe an alternative host plant. The elimination of rry, barberry in wheat-growing regions has been an important cultural control.

Fig. 17.11 This figure shows the life cycle of the parasitic wasp that uses the gypsy moth as its host.

V. Socioeconomic Issues in Pest Management

A. Pressure to Use Pesticides 1. Pesticide Treadmill

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B. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 1. Integral to sustainable agriculture 2. Includes everything from culture control, to balanced soil ecosystems

C. Organic Farming 1. It is more than not using pesticides food is grown in a sustainable manner 2. Identical with IPM, except IPM allows for the rare use of synthetic pesticides VI. Public Policy

A. Changes in U.S. Policy 1. FQPA: "The following are the major requirements of the act: a. The new safety standard is "a reasonable certainty of no harm" for substances
applied to food.

b. Special consideration must be given to exposure of young children to pesticide
residues

c. Pesticides or other chemicals are prohibited if they can be shown to carry a risk
of more than one case of cancer per million people when consumed at average levels over the course of a lifetime.

d. All possible sources of exposure to a given pesticide must be evaluated, not just
from food.

e. A special attempt must be made to assess the potential harmful effects of the
so-called hormone disrupters.

2. Pesticides in Developing Countries.

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Fig. 17.5 The objective of pest control should not be its total eradication, but keeping population below the economic threshold.

Fig. 17.16 IPM helped Indonesian rice farmers bring the brown planthopper under control, after years on the pesticide treadmill.

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CHAPTER 17 WATER; POLLUTION AND PREVENTION I. Water Pollution

A. What is Water Pollution? 1. Water pollution can be defined as "the presence of a substance in the environment
that because of its chemical composition or quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and (human) hea lth effects."

2. Biochemical/Chemical Categories of Water Pollutants a. Biodegradable

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· · Rapidly degradable (non-persistent) Slowly degradable (persistent)

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b. Nonbiodegradable

3. Legal Categories of Water Pollutants a. Non-pont-source pollutants b. Point-source pollutants 4. Pollutant Classes (These are not mutually exclusive classes) a. Pathogens b. Organic wastes c. Chemical pollutants d. Sediments e. Nutrients

Fig. 18.1 Pollution is an outcome of otherwise worthy human endeavors. Major categories of pollution and their causes are shown.

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Fig. 18.2 Point sources are far easier to identify and correct than the diffuse nonpoint sources.

II. Eutrophication - What Happens when Organic Wastes, Sediments, and Nutrients are not Controlled/

Fig. 18.5 The ecosystem of a stream differs with different sediment bedloads. This figure shows (a) Low sediment bedload and (b) High bedload.

A. What is an Oligotrophic Body of Water?

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B. What is a Eutrophic Body of Water?

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C. How do you create a Eutrophic Body of Water? 1. Nutrient enrichment 2. Increased phytoplankton growth resulting in increased turbidity 3. Loss of food, habitat and dissolved oxygen from the loss of benthic plants 4. Depletion of dissolved oxygen from decomposition of phytoplankton by
decomposers

D. How to Stop Eutrophication 1. Attack the symptoms: a. Chemical treatments b. Aeration c. Harvest aquatic weeds d. Draw water down 2. Attack the root cause: a. Control point-source pollutants b. Control non-point-source pollutants

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Fig. 18.6 Benthic (bottom-rooted) plants are submerged or emergent. Phytoplankton are single -celled or colonial floating plants.

Fig. 18.7 As nutrients are added from pollution sources, an oligotrophic system rapidly becomes eutrophic and undesirable.

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Fig. 18.9 When washings from animal facilities are flushed directly into natural waterways, they contribute significantly to eutrophica This may be avoided by collecting the tion. flushings in ponds from which both the water and the nutrients may be recycled.

III. More of Attacking the Root Cause: Sewage Treatment

A. Collection of Sewage

B. What is in Raw Sewage 1. Debris and grit 2. Particulate organic matter 3. Colloidal and dissolved organic matter 4. Dissolved inorganic matter 5. Pathogens 6. Heavy metals, pesticides, and various other toxic compounds

C. How Do We Remove These Substances from the Water? 1. Preliminary Treatment - debris and grit removed by a bar screen and grit
chamber

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2. Primary Treatment - particulate organic matter removed by primary clarifiers 3. Secondary Treatments - colloidal and dissolved inorganic matter removed by
trickling filter systems or activated sludge systems

4. Biological Nutrient Removal - dissolved inorganic matter removed by bacterial
denitrification and bacterial uptake of phosphorus

a. Can also be done inorganically by using chemical processes
· · Lime causes phosphate to precipitate as insoluble calcium phosphate Ferric chloride causes phosphate to precipitate as insoluble ferric phosphate

b. Removal of the dissolved inorganic matter is not standard treatment though it
is becoming more common

5. Final Clarification and Disinfection - eliminates pathogens 6. Discharge effluent to lake, stream, ocean

Fig. 18.11A Raw sewage moves from the grit chamber to primary treatment, where sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment (here shown as activated sludge treatment).

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Fig. 18.11B In primary treatment sludge is removed and the clarfied water then proceeds to secondary treatment. Raw sewage moves from the grit chamber to primary i treatment, where sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment.

Fig. 18.11C Raw sewage moves from the grit chamber to pri ary treatment, where sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment (here shown m as activated sludge treatment).

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Fig. 18.13 The secondary treatment, activated sludge process may be modified to remove nitrogen and phosphatewhile at the same time breaking down organic matter.

Fig. 18.16 Sewage treatment for a private home uses a septic tank and drain field. All the pipes and the tank are normally buried.

D. What Do We Do with the Sludge that Remains? 1. Most sludge is disposed of in landfills or spread on land

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a. These practices are diminishing (but need more public pressure to continue)
· · · Sludge is difficult to handle in landfills Spreading can result in water pollution, and Sludge is nutrient rich organic material that can be used as organic fertilizer ·

2. Several methods exist for treating sludge so that the pathogens are eliminated and it
is suitable as an organic fertilizer. (This assumes toxic contaminants are not present in the sludge; industrial pretreatment and sustainable homeowner practices are necessary.)

a. Anaerobic Digestion b. Composting c. Pasteurization

E. Alternative Treatment Systems 1. Gray Water 2. Using Effluents for Irrigation 3. Reconstructed Wetland Systems (Eureka, California has a fully operational wetland
treatment system.)

IV. Public Policy

A. The Landmark Clean Water Act and Reauthorization Needs 1. Continuing to Cleaning Up Our Wastes 2. Long Term Solutions: Preventing Pollution

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CHAPTER 19 HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS: POLLUTION AND PREVENTION I. What are Hazardous Substances? A. Explain Each of the Following: 1. Ignitable 2. Corrosive

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3. Reactive 4. Toxic

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B. Toxicity is an Inherent Characteristic of a Substance 1. The dose makes the poison 2. Exposure a. Ingestion b. Inhalation c. Skin Absorption 3. Elimination a. Metabolic breakdown of substance b. Excretion

C. Which Toxic Substances Are the Most Hazardous? Why? 1. Heavy Metals and Synthetic Organic Compounds 2. Persistence 3. Ease of Absorption 4. Bioaccumulation

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Fig. 20.2 At each step or in transportation between steps, wastes, byproducts, or the product itself may enter the environment, causing pollution and creating various risks to human and environmental health.

Fig. 20.3 In halogenated hydrocarbons one or more hydrogen atoms has been replaced by halogen atoms (chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine). Such compounds are particularly hazardous to health because they are nonbiodegradable and they tend to bioaccumulate. Shown here are tetrachloroethylene and1,2-dibromo ethane.

II. Management of Hazardous Wastes

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A. Output Control ("command and control" technology: What is done after the pollutant
has been produced?)

1. Deep-well Injection 2. Surface Impoundments 3. Landfills 4. Recycling 5. Incineration 6. Biodegradation B. Input Control (Pollution Prevention) 1. Substitution 2. Elimination of Use 3. Increased Efficiency 4. Closed Loops

Fig. 20.5 The concept is that toxic wastes may be drained into dry, porous strata below ground, where they mayreside harmlessly "forever." However, as the figure shows, failures can occur and allow the liquid wastes to contaminate groundwater.

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Fig. 20.6 The supposition is that only water leaves the impoundment, by evaporation, while wastes remain and accumulate the impoundment indefinitely. In reality, this method in is subject to failure, and is limited today as a shortterm measure. -

Fig. 20.7 Precautionary measures to make landfilling safe are listed. Before the 1980s, these measures frequently were not takenThough they are taken today, potentials for . failure remain.

III. Cleaning Up Waste

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A. What Do We Do with the Hazardous Waste Sites? 1. Excavate and bury elsewhere 2. Biodegradation on site (bioremediation, phytoremediation) 3. Steam clean soil 4. Groundwater remediation

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B. How Well Has Superfund Worked? 1. Evaluating Superfund 2. Brownfields

Fig. 20.10A Typical subsurface contamination from a leaking fuel tank at a gas station.

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Fig. 20.10B After leak repair, vacuum extraction causesgasoline in the soil and the water table to evaporate and removes vapors.

Fig. 20.10C Contaminated groundwater is pumped out, treated, and returned to the ground.

IV. How Do We Reduce Accidents and Accidental Exposure/ A. Underground Storage Tanks UST Legislation

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B. Transportation Department of Transportation Regulations C. Worker Protection OSHA, Worker's Right to Know D. Community Protection SARA, Title III E. Chemical Evaluation Before Use TSCA V. Policy A. Pollution Prevention and Sustainability B. Industry Effort C. Government Efforts D. Individual Efforts

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Fig. 20.12 A cement kiln is a huge, rotating "pipe," typically 15 feet in diameter and 230 feet long, mounted on an incline.

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Fig. 20.13 Numbers in place of the word on the placard, or on an additional orange panel, will identify the specific material. Placards workers, police, and firefighters to kinds alert of hazards they face in the case of accidents.

Fig. 20.14 These major laws protect workers, the public, and the environment from hazardous materials.

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Fig. 20.15 During communism in the former USSR environmental concerns took a back seat to economic development.

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CHAPTER 20 THE ATMOSPHERE: CLIMATE, CLIMATE CHANGE AND OZONE DEPLETION I. The Atmosphere

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A. Atmospheric Structure 1. Locate the troposphere, tropopause, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. 2. What is in the atmosphere? What is the chemical content of the atmosphere?

B. Troposphere 1. What are the greenhouse gases and how they act to moderate the Earth's
temperature

2. Cloud cover decreases the quantity of energy arriving from the sun.

C. Stratosphere 1. Dynamic balance between molecular oxygen and ozone.

D. Changes in Temperature as We Move Farther from Earth II. Climate versus Weather

A. Define Weather 1.Air currents move due to convection currents creating weather.

B. Define Climate 1. Climate creates the major conditions for biomes

C. How Climate Has Changed 1. Using Ice Cores and other Data to Understand Past Climate

D. How Oceans and Atmosphere Interact to Create Climate 1. Conveyor System

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Fig. 21.2 This figure shows atmospheric structure and temperature. Lefthand plot shows the layers of the atmosphere, while plot on the right shows the vertical temperature profile.

Fig. 21.3 Much of the incoming radiation from the sun is reflected back to space(30%), but the remainder is absorbed by the oceans, land, and atmosphere (70%), where it creates our weather and fuels photosynthesis.

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Fig. 21.4 Evaporation and condensation occur in rising air and precipitation results, followed by the sinking of dry ai Horizontal winds are generated in the process. r.

III. Global Climate Change

A. Data

1. Water Vapor a. Sources 2. Evaporation (increases in flat water surfaces reservoirs)

3. Methane a. Sources
· · · Microbial fermentation (landfills, wetlands, cattle) Coal and oil deposits Natural gas pipelines

b. Quantity: most important next to CO2

4. Ozone

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a. Source: combustion b. Primarily considered as respiratory air pollution

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5. CFCs and Other Halocarbons a. Sources
· · · · Refrigerants Solvents Fire retardants Pesticides

b. Quantities have been decreasing

6. Nitrous Oxide a. Sources
· · · Biomass burning Chemical fertilizers Fossil-fuel burning

b. Quantities are increasing

7. Carbon Dioxide a. Sources
· · Burning fossil fuels Deforestation

b. Quantities

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Fig. 21.5 This figure shows mean surface temperatures. The baseline, or zero point, is the 19501980 average temperature; the red line represents the five-year running average. The warming trend since 1970 is conspicuous.

Fig. 21.6 Temperature patterns of the last 160,000 years, demonstrate climatic oscillations. A cold spell occurred at start of this rec and dissipated about 10,700 years ago. ord

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Fig. 21.7 Note the connections between the oceans, indicating that some heat transported by the north Atlantic originates in the Pacifi c.

Fig. 21.8 Salty water flowing to the north Atlantic is cooled and sinks. This deep flow extends southwad and is joined by Antarctic water, where it extends into the Indian and r Pacific Oceans. Surface currents then return the water to the north Atlantic.

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Fig. 21. 9 Anthropogenic factors affect atmospheric warming and cooling; some gases promote global warming, others cause cooling.

Fig. 21.10 The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere fluctuates between winter and summer because of seasonal variation in photosynthesis. The average concentration is increasing owing to human activities, namely, burning fossil fuels and deforestation.

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Fig. 21.11 In 1996, approximately 22 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted. (From World Energy Council data.)

B. Ecological Effects of Global Climate Change

1. What Does Modeling Tell Us? a. What are the predicted impacts? b. Regional climatic changes c. Rise in sea level d. Increase in violent weather events

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Fig. 21.12 Model results with and without the effects of sulphate aerosol are compared with the actual temperature record.

Fig. 21.13 Results show the response of temperature to a doubling of greenhouse gas emissions over pre -industrial levels, with and without corrections for sulfate aerosol emissions.

C. Is Global Warming Here?

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1. Historical Record 2. Temperature records are limited to no more than 150 years

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3. Trend to be in Urban Areas (but have been reanalyzed to account for heat-island
effect, and the warming trend is unchanged)

4. Ice Records a. IPCC conclusions

D. Public Policy 1. Government Actions and the Framework Convention on Climate Change 2. Precautionary Principle IV. Ozone Depletion

A. How Does Ozone Depletion Occur? 1. Use CFC as the prototype ozone-depleting chemical and describe how ozone is
destroyed.

2. Describe the seasonal variation 3. Chlorine cycle and chlorine as a catalyst 4. The ozone layer is thinning.

B. Ozone Thinning Data 1. Initial Discovery in 1985 2. Data initially focused on Antarctica 3. NASA data on the North Pole ozone levels

C. Ecological Effects of Increased UV Radiation at the Planet Surface 1. Possible Plant Effects 2. Possible Animal Effects 3. Possible Human Effects a. Ozone alerts in Australia

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D. Public Policy 1. Montreal Protocol 2. Subsequent Amendments to Shorten the Phaseout 3. A Problem Successfully Faced

Fig. 21.15 Ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and other forms of radiation are wavelengths ofhe electromagnetic spectrum. t

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Fig. 21.16 Ozone is produced at low latitudes and lost at higher latitudes.

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CHAPTER 21 ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION I. Air Pollution

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A. What Is It?

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1. Air pollutants consist of chemicals in the atmosphere that have harmful effects on
living organisms and inanimate objects.

B. Why Do We Care? 1. We inhale 20,000 liters of air each day a. Causes 150,000 premature deaths in the world each year (53,000 in the United
States); aggravates other disease

b. Three categories of health impact:
·

Acute: pollutants bring on life-threatening reactions within a period of
hours or days; causes headache, nausea, and eye and throat irritation; aggravate preexisting respiratory conditions such as asthma and emphysema

·

Chronic: pollutants cause gradual deterioration of health over many
years, and exposures are relatively low

·

Carcinogenic: some pollutants are suspected or known human
carcinogens. Benzene, a common component of air pollution, is known as human carcinogen

c. U.S. human health costs from outdoor air pollution range from $40 to $50
billion per year (CDC).

2. Damage to Plants a. Agriculture: crop loss estimated to be about $5 billion per year b. Forests: significant damage to Jeffrey and Ponderosa Pine along entire
Western slope of the Sierra Nevada; in San Bernadino Mountains, the rate of tree growth has declined 75%

c. Plants have increased susceptibility to disease and insect pests

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3. Materials: damage to buildings, bridges, statues, books 4. Aesthetics: We don't like how it looks. We try to live in places without pollution,
thus contributing to the problem by commuting

II. Outdoor Air Pollutants A. Primary Pollutants: Sources B. Secondary Pollutants: Formation

Fig. 22.2 This is a simplified model of atmospheric cleansing by the hydroxyl radical. The first step is the photochemical destruction ozone. The second step produces hydroxyl of that reacts rapidly with many pollutants.

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Fig. 22.3 The threshold level for harmful effects diminishes with increasing exposure time. It differs for each pollutant.

Fig. 22.4A Industrial smog, or gray smog, occurs where coal is burned and the atmosphere is humid.

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Fig. 22.4B Photochemical smog, or brown haze, occurs where sunlight actson vehicle pollutants.

Fig. 22.6 (a) Normally, air temperatures are highest at ground level and decrease at higher elevations. (b) A temperature inversion is situation in which a layer of warmer air a overlies cooler air at ground level.

III. Major Air Pollutants

A. What are the Major Pollutants?

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1. Suspended Particulate Matter 2. Volatile Organic Compounds 3. Carbon Monoxide 4. Nitrogen Oxides 5. Sulfur Oxides 6. Lead and Other Heavy Metals 7. Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants 8. Air Toxics and Radon

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B. What is the History of the Major Pollutants? How Did We Get Here? 1. Gray Smog 2. Photochemical Smog

Fig. 22.12 This figure shows the prime sources of the major air pollutants.

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Fig. 22.13 Fuel combustion refers to fuels burned for electrical power generation and for space heating. Note especially the different ontributions by transportation and fuel c combustion, the two major sources of air pollutants.

Fig. 22.14 Improvements in Carbon monoxide and VOC emissions reflect Clean Air Act successes. Nitrogen oxides have not improved because little attention has bee paid to n them.

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Fig. 22.15A Nitrogen oxides alone do not cause ozone and other oxidants to reach damaging levels; reactions withthem are cyclic.

Fig. 22.15B When VOCs are present, reactions lead to accumulation of damaging compounds; ozone is the most injurious.

IV. Acid Deposition

A. Define Acid Deposition

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B. Who and What are Affected? 1. Aquatic Ecosystems 2. Forests 3. Humans and Human Artifacts

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C. Acids and Bases

D. Types 1. Wet 2. Dry

E. Formation 1. Sulfur Dioxide 2. Nitrogen Oxide

F. Sources

1. Natural a. Sulfur: volcanoes, sea spray, microbial b. Nitrogen oxides: lightning, forest fires, microbial

2. Anthropogenic a. Sulfur: power plants, industry, fossil fuels b. Nitrogen oxides: power plants, industrial fuel combustion, transportation

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Fig. 22.16 Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with the hydroxyl radicals and water vapor in the atmosphere to form th respective acids, which come back eir down either as dry acid deposition or, mixed with water, acid precipitation.

Fig. 22.17 Numbers on the pH scale below 7 are acidic, above 7 are basic.

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Fig. 22.18 Acid deposition occurs over the eastern U.S. and Canada.

Fig. 22.19 This figure shows the locations of the 50 largest sulfur dioxide emitters, all of which are utility coal -burning power plants.

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Fig. 22.20 Acids may be neutralized by certain nonbasic compounds called buffers. A buffer such as limestone (calcium carbonate) reacts with hydrogen ions as shown. Hence, the pH remains close to neutral desite the additional acid. p

G. Solutions: Reducing Emissions 1. Output Control (pollution control) a. Scrubbers b. Coal washing (uses large amount of and pollutes water) c. Fluidized bed combustion (produces a waste ash that must be disposed of) 2. Input Control (pollution prevention) a. Conservation b. Switch fuel c. Build less polluting power plants d. Cleaner burning gasoline

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Fig. 22.21 This figure shows the average car emissions from vehicles, in grams per vehicle mile traveled, from 1965 to (estimated) 200 Note numbers of vehicles on the road in 0. the United States for 1980 to 1995

V. Pollutants and Atmospheric Cleansing or "Is All Waste a Problem?"

A. Factors that Determine If You Have Air Pollution 1. Quantity of Pollutants Produced (reduced by pollution prevention) and released
(reduced by pollution control technologies) into Atmosphere

2. Volume of Space into which the Air Pollutants are Dispersed a. Inversion layers

3. Rate of Removal of Pollutants from Atmosphere a. Dilution and dispersal
· · Pollutant transport to the Arctic Pollutant transport to remote lakes and streams (also can be caused when anadromous fish return from the ocean

b. Reaction with Hydroxyl Radical

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c. Reaction of Soil Microorganisms Pollutants that Precipitate from Atmosphere

B. When is a Pollutant a Pollutant 1. Concentration 2. Threshold VI. Indoor Air Pollutants A. Types: benzene, formaldehyde, radon, cigarette smoke B. Sources: off gassing from furniture, rugs, and building materials, dry cleaning,
cleaning fluids, disinfectants, pesticides, heaters

C. Why Now and Not Thirty Years Ago? 1. Tighter buildings for energy conservation 2. More synthetic materials used in construction and furnishings 3. Unforeseen hazards discovered radon, cigarette smoke exposure for nonsmokers VI. Solutions: How to Reduce Air Pollution

A. Reducing Pollution from Transportation 1. Input Control (pollution prevention) a. Cleaner burning gasoline b. Increased fuel efficiency c. Alternative modes of transportation
· · · · Mass transit Walking Bicycling Electric vehicles

d. Decrease the number of miles driven e. Changes in land use decisions to reduce the necessity of the automobile or

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long-distance daily commutes

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2. Output Control (pollution control) a. Improve pollution control devices

B. Reducing Pollution from Electricity Production 1. Input Control (pollution prevention) a. Cleaner Burning Fuel
· · · · Switch to low-sulfur coal Switch from coal to natural gas Switch from fossil fuel to renewable energy source Switch from biomass burning to solar generated electricity

b. Increase Energy Efficiency
· · Insulation More efficient appliances

2. Output Control (pollution control command and control technologies) a. Technological fixes such as scrubbers

C. Reducing Indoor Air Pollutants 1. Change Product Manufacturing 2. Switch Products 3. Ventilation VIII. Public Policy

A. Current Situation 1. Strong Citizen Support for Decreasing Pollution ("89% of Americans believe that
both a strong economy and environmental protection can be accomplished)

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2. Need to Include Avoided Costs [from improved human, plant (horticulture,

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agriculture and forestry), and animal (agriculture and pets) health and reduced costs for building, road, and bridge maintenance] and Gained Opportunities (ecotourism when lakes are filled with fish, and forests are healthy)

3. Current policy has resulted in cleaner air in most areas of the United States 4. Current policy insufficient to protect national parks or at risk human populations
(children, elderly, and health compromised).

5. Trends are toward continued improvement.

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CHAPTER 22 ECONOMICS, PUBLIC POLICY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

I. Economics and Public Policy

A. Public Policy 1. What is Public Policy? 2. What role does public policy play in our lives?

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B. Relationships between Economic Development and the Environment 1. A healthy economy needs a healthy environment 2. What is an ecological economist?

Fig. 23.1 Some of the most serious environmental problems can be improved with income growth, others get worse and then improve, and so e problems just get worse. m

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Fig. 23.2 Land (meaning natural resources), labor and capital arethe three elements constituting the "factors of production." Economic activity involves the circular flow of money and products.

II. Resources and the Wealth of Nations

A. The Wealth of Nations 1. Natural Capital may obtain from within or from outside the country 2. Human Resources 3. Produced Assets

B. Resource Distribution 1. Disparities between Nations 2. Disparities within Nations

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Fig. 23.3 The natural environment encompasses the economy, which is constrained by the resources found within the environment.

Fig. 23.5 Developed countries have most of the world's wealth.

III. Pollution and Public Policy A. Public Policy Development: The Policy Life Cycle

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1. Recognition State 2. Formulation Stage 3. Implementation Stage 4. Control Stage

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B. Economic Effects of Environmental Public Policy

1. Costs of Policies a. Those involving little or no direct monetary cost b. Those involving costs that must be paid by some segment of society. The cost
should be borne by those benefiting from the activity that produces the pollution.

2. Impact on the Economy a. An economy stimulant b. Creates jobs c. Transfers wealth from polluters to pollution controllers and to less polluting
companies.

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Fig. 23.6 Most environmental issues pass through a policy life cycle in which an issue is accorded different degrees of political "weigt" as it moves. The final result is a policy h that has been incorporated into the society and a problem that is under control.

Fig. 23.8 Different environmental problems are in different stages of the policy life cycle in industrial societies.

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Fig. 23.9 This is an estimate of total yearly costsof pollution control in the U.S. The estimate assumes full implementation of existing regulatory laws.

IV. Methods to Evaluate Public Policy Options

A. Cost-Benefit Analysis 1. The merits of the goal are not necessarily known or accepted. In a cost benefit
analysis the attempt is to determine if the action is worth the cost.

2. Brings external costs into the equation. 3. Difficult and controversial to do because the process is filled with value judgments 4. The Costs of Environmental Regulations a. Pollution prevention rather than pollution control to reduce costs and increase
compliance

5. The Benefits of Environmental Regulations a. Attempt to quantify benefits but not easy
· · The value of human life Non-human environmental components

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B. Cost Effectiveness

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1. The merits of the goal are accepted. In a cost effectiveness analysis the attempt is
to find the least costly way to achieve the goal.

V. Progress

A. What Have We Gained through Public Policy?

1. Air Quality Improvements 2. Water Quality Improvements a. Decreased eutrophication b. Rivers that are not flammable c. Lakes that have recovered from death 3. Improved Public Health a. Decreased blood lead levels b. Decreased incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses 4. Improved Handling of Solid and Hazardous Waste

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Fig. 23.10 The cost of pollution control increases exponentially with the degree of control to be achieved. However, benefits derived om pollution control tend to level off and fr become negligible as pollutants are reduced to near or below threshold levels.

Fig. 23.11A Pollution-control strategies generally demand high initial costs. The costs then generally decline as those strategies are absorbed int the overall economy. o

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Fig. 23.11B Benefits may be negligible in the short term, but they increase as environmen and human health recover from the impacts of pollution or are spared increasing tal degradation.

Fig. 23.11C When the two curves are compared, we see that what may appear as costineffective expenditures in the short term (5 years) may, in fact, be very cost effective -10 in the long term.

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CHAPTER 18 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: DISPOSAL AND RECOVERY I. History of Solid Waste

A. Pre-World War II

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1. Consumption Patterns - little trash generated a. Food b. Transportation c. Clothing
d. Plastics (rayon)

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2. Recycling and Reuse Patterns a. Industry
- Why throw away something that can be incorporated into the product? - Consumer goods manufactured for repair not disposal

b. Consumers
- Rags purchased from consumer to make paper - Reuse common: remake clothes, make quilts, rag rugs

3. Garbage Disposal Options a. Open dumps b. Burning trash in barrels c. Private land disposal

B. World War II 1. Recycling was a patriotic duty 2. Plastics were developed and use exploded

C. Post-World War II

1. Consumption Patterns a. Current quantity of garbage generated per person is over 4 lbs per day but it
is beginning to drop

b. Composition of garbage

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c. Types of waste change since WWII

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2. Recycling and Reuse Patterns

3. Current Disposal Options a. Landfill b. Incineration

Fig. 19.2 This figure shows the composition of municipal solid waste in 1996 in the United States. (Data from EPA, Office of Solid Wast "Characterization of Municipal Solid e, Waste in the United States," 1997 edition.)

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Fig. 19.3 This figure shows the disposal of solid waste to landfills, combustion and recycling, 1996 (Data from EPA, Office of Solid Waste, "Characterization of MunicipaSolid l Waste in the United States," 1997 edition.).

II. Disposal Options

A. Landfills

1. Advantages a. Handles a large volume b. Eliminated air pollution from burning trash

2. Disadvantages a. Leachate generation and surface and ground water contamination b. Methane production c. Incomplete combustion d. Settling e. Difficult to site

3. Reducing Landfill Problems

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a. Speed decomposition by adding water
- improves economic viability of methane recovery systems

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- speeds settling and increases the quantity of waste that can be buried at the site - eases the handling of leachate by reducing the length of time needed for recovery - leachate can be used to increase moisture for decomposition

b. Site landfills away from groundwater and create liners and leachate recovery
systems

Fig. 19.5 The landfill is sited on a location above the water table. The bottom is sealed, overlaid by a layer to drain the leachate. Refuse is layered and covered wit soil, so that h the completed fill sheds water. Wells are used to monitor the groundwater.

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Fig. 19.6 This figure shows the net import and export of municipal solid waste, by state in 1992.

C. Waste to Energy (WTE) Facilities

1. Advantages a. Garbage weight and volume reduced b. Toxic chemicals are concentrated and may beeasier to handle c. No changes need in collection procedures or people's habits d. Generates electricity

2. Disadvantages a. Air pollution b. Ash is difficult to handle and maybe considered hazardous, thus requiring
special disposal

c. Expensive and difficult to site d. Demands a large quantity of waste to be generated e. Directly competes with recyclables that are combustible (paper)

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Fig. 19.7 Schematic flow for the separation of materials and combustion in a typical modern wase-to-energy combustion facility. t

III. Solutions

A. Reducing Waste

1. Benefits a. Overall energy use is reduced b. Overall resource use is reduced 2. Disadvantages a. Requires changes in human behavior

B. Recycling Wastes

1. Benefits a. Energy Conservation b. Resource Conservation 2. Disadvantages a. Requires a change in human behavior

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b. Can be confusing to the consumer c. Is not the most efficient way to reduce resource and energy waste 3. Impediments a. Lack of sorting standards b. Tax incentives to use raw rather than recycled materials c. Market: people have to buy materials made from recycled goods

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d. External costs not included in market price of goods made from raw materials
whereas some external costs have been included in goods made from recycled products resulting in higher consumer costs.

C. Composting 1. Easy to do in backyards and municipalities are beginning to do. 2. Benefits a. Saves landfill space b. Creates great fertilizer 3. Disadvantages a. Must separate yard wastes from other wastes b. Requires a change in human behavior IV. Public Policy A. LULU, NIMBY , and NIMTOO B. Siting of Facilities in Low Income and/or Minority Neighborhoods (Environmental
Racism)

C. Integrating Waste Management

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