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1. Select A Job To Be Analyzed In performing a JSA, the term job is used to describe a single task or operation an employee does as part of his or her assigned occupation. The job has a definite sequence of steps that lead to completion of a work goal. The criteria listed below represent one way to identify and prioritize jobs to be analyzed by the JSA. a. b. c. d. Accident Frequency. Jobs that statistically have the highest number of accidents reported. Accident Severity. Jobs that had an injury that resulted in lost time, or required medical treatment. Judgment and Experience. What jobs, based on your experience and understanding in the workplace, would inherently contain more hazards. Non-routine Jobs. Because these are not done often, the hazards of the job might not have been addressed or fully evaluated in developing the initial JSA.

The priority of jobs for analysis should be those that appear in more than one category. Example: materials handling is listed in the frequent accident category as one with the highest number of accidents and in the severity of accident category near the top in number of lost workdays per accident. If no job appears in more than one category, then the best judgment should be used to determine which category should exert the greatest influence. 2. Sequence of Basic Job Steps For the remainder of this discussion use the Job Safety Analysis Worksheet located at the end of this appendix. Use this worksheet as you read the rest of this section. The first column of this worksheet is the Sequence of Basic Job Steps. Select a job and list the major job steps for that particular task. The job steps should be listed in the order in which they occur. Remember, a job is a single task; therefore, the job steps are the actions taken to complete that task. 3. Identifying Hazards Associated with Each Job Step The next step is to identify and list in the second column of the worksheet the hazards that are possible in that selected job step. Some hazards are more likely to occur than others, and, some are more likely to produce serious injuries than others. Consider all reasonable possibilities when identifying hazards. Focus on three elements for hazard analysis: Environment, Equipment, and Activity. a. Environment - weather, time of day/year, type of ground, etc. Consider these questions: 1)
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Do wet/dry heat conditions create unique hazards?

2) 3)

Do the light/dark/seasonal changes/barometric changes require special considerations? Is this step of the job always performed in a certain area? If not, would other areas require additional measures for safety? Do changes in the work procedures require protective equipment? Are there chemicals in the area that could pose a danger?

4) b.

Equipment - power source, size, radius of movement potential, etc. This should be viewed in relation to working around as well as an actual equipment operator (mobile or stationary). Consider these questions: 1) Does the equipment have electrical cables, battery power, or is it powered by gasoline/diesel? Does the equipment have indicators (visible/audible) to indicate that when the power is on the equipment is operating? When the equipment is operating, does it stay within a certain known operating radius? Is the operating radius easily and constantly identifiable? Are special signals or communications between the operator and other workers needed? Does the equipment have signs posted to warn of the hazards or do the workers rely on memory?



Activity - other workers in the area whose activities intermingle with this step. Consider these questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) Can the worker be struck by anything while doing the job steps? Can the worker strike against anything while doing the job steps? Can chemicals, electricity, steam, fire, air/hydraulic pressures, etc., be contacted by the worker (where the agent moves to the victim)? Can the worker come in contact with chemicals, electricity, steam, fire, air/hydraulic pressures, etc., (where the victim moves to the agent)? Can a worker or some part of his/her body be caught on anything which projects out or up? Can a worker or some part of his/her body be caught in an enclosure or opening? Can a worker be caught between something moving and something stationary or between two moving objects? Can a worker slip, trip or fall to the same level? Can a worker above ground or floor level fall to a lower level? Can a worker be injured due to strains or sprains from overexertion by lifting, pulling or pushing?

5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

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11) 4.

Can the worker be unduly exposed to environmental conditions such as heat, cold, poor ventilation, toxic gases, fumes, mists or sprays?

Recommending Safe Job Procedures The next part of the JSA process is to develop Safety Procedures to eliminate or reduce potential hazards that have been identified. This is the third column of the worksheet. The following four points should be considered for each recommended safe job procedures: a. b. c. d. Can the physical conditions that created the hazard be changed? Can the job procedures be changed? Can the frequency of performing the job be reduced? Can personal protective equipment be used?


JSA Training Materials The U.S. Department of Labor, The National Mine Health and Safety Academy, and other Safety organizations offer a variety of materials to help in the development of a JSAs program at work site. These items are available through the Division/District SPM.

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Job Safety Analysis Worksheet Title of Job/Operation: Employee Name and Job Title: Division/Bureau/Section:

Date: Log Number: Analyst/ Date: Approved By/ Date:

Sequence of Basic Job Steps

Potential Accidents or Hazards*

Recommended Safe Job Procedures

*Codes for Potential Hazards: Struck By (SB) Caught On (CO) Struck Against Caught In (CI) (SA) Contacted By (CB) Caught Between (CBT) Contact With (CW) Fall - Same Level (FS)

Fall To Below (FB) Overexertion Exposure (E)

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