HOW TO

KN OWW LD FRUITS

MAUDE GRIDLEY PETERSON
-

Man
LOGY

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

BLACK ALDER

(Ilex verticillata)

HOW
A

TO

KNOW WILD
when Not
in

FRUITS
Gkiide to Plants

Flower

by Means of Fruit and Leaf

BY

MAUDE GRIDLEY PETERSON

ILLUSTRATED BY MARY ELISABETH HERBERT

gotk

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN &
1914
All
ri.ohtf>

CO., LTD.

reserved

COPYRIGHT,

1905,

BY THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY.
Published May, Set up and electrotyped. December, 1908; August, 1914.

1905.

Reprinted

.

-forestry.

Mam j^^.

.

.

.

;.

'.

Nortoooti
J. S.

Berwick & Smith Co. Gushing Co. Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

ttyt

SpansrttelD anfc rtie Cofoentri?
it0 inspiration
tljisf

from

totjicl)

came

t

31

tooulD

inscribe

boofe*

3434G3

"On
berries

the motionless branches of

some

trees,

autumn

hung

like clusters of coral-beads, as in those

fabled orchards where the fruits were jewels."

DICKENS,

in

Martin Chuzzlewit.

u

A wonderful thing
The one thing

is

a seed

; "

deathless forever

Forever old and forever new,
Utterly faithful and utterly true

Fickle and faithless never."

CONTENTS
PAGE

ILLUSTRATIONS

,

.

.

.

ix
xiii

INTRODUCTION

ADAPTATIONS OF FRUITS AND SEEDS FOR DISPERSAL

AND PROTECTION
DEFINITIONS

.........
.
:

.

xvii

xxv
xxvi
xxxii

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES
FAMILIES AND SPECIES
DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

Red

or Reddish Purple

3 155

Black or Dark Purple
Blue

249 287
301

Yellow

Green

White

.307

GLOSSARY

ABBREVIATIONS OF AUTHORS' NAMES
INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES

INDEX OF LATIN NAMES

.... ....
.

325
329
331

337

vii

ILLUSTRATIONS
Black Alder.
Ilex verticillata
.

Frontispiece
PAGE

American Yew.

Taxus minor

Jack in-the- Pulpit.

Ariscema triphyllum

...... ....
.
.

4
6

Wild Spikenard.

Vagnera racemosa

12

False Lily-of-the-Valley.

U

n't

folium Canadense

15 17

Clasping-leaved Twisted Stalk.
Ill-scented

Streptopus amplexifolius

Wake-robin.

Trillium erectum

Laurel Magnolia.

Magnolia Virginiana
Actcea rubra
.

Red Baneberry.

.

Common

Barberry.

Berberis vulgaris

.... .....32 ....
.

22
27

.

.

35 39

Spice Bush.

Benzoin Benzoin
Ribes oxyacanthoides

Hawthorn Gooseberry.
Dwarf Raspberry.

Purple -flowering Raspberry.

Rubus odoratus

Rubus Americanus
Rosa humilis

....
.

... ...

41 46
51

Low

or Pasture Rose.

Sweetbrier.

Rosa rubiginosa
Aronia

American Mountain Ash.

Sorbus

...... ...
A mericana
.

60
63

Red Chokeberry.
Juneberry.
Scarlet Thorn.

arbutifolia

....
* .
.

65 67

Amelanchier Canadensis
Cratcegus coccinea

Wild Yellow or Red Plum.

Prunus Americana

Wild Red Cherry. Prunus Pennsylvania Dwarf Sumac. Rhus copallina
ix

..... .84 ......
76
.
.

.70
80

88

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

Staghorn Sumac. American Holly.

Rhus

hirta

Ilex opaca

Burning Bush.

Euonymus atropurpureus Shrubby or Climbing Bittersweet. Celastrus scandens
Cornus Canadensis

Bunchberry.

...... .... .....
.

90 95

102

104
109

Flowering Dogwood.

Cornus florida

.

.

.

.111
115
122
.

Spring or Creeping Wintergreen.

Gaultheria procumbens

American Cranberry. Oxycoccus macrocarpus Nightshade. Solanum Dulcamara

Matrimony Vine.
Partridge Berry.

Lycium vulgare
Mitchella repens

Hobble Bush.

Viburnum alnifolium Tree. Viburnum Opulus Cranberry Indian Currant. Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos
Smooth-leaved Honeysuckle.
Lonicera dioica
.

..... ..... ..... .....
.

.

126 128
131

136

138
143 147 149

.

.

.

.

Trumpet Honeysuckle.
Hairy Solomon's
Seal.
Seal.

Lonicera sempervirens

.

.

.

Smooth Solomon's
Carrion Flower.

Polygonatum bijlorum Polygonatum commutatum
.

.

.

158 160

.

.

Indian Cucumber Root.

Medeola Virginiana

Smilax herbacea

Red Mulberry.
Poke.

Morus rubra
Rubus

Phytolacca decendra

Black Raspberry.

occidentalis

..... ...... ....
.

.

.162
165
175
177 182

Wild Red Raspberry.

Rubus

strigosus

.

.

.

.182
.

Low Running Blackberry. Rubus villosus Running Swamp Blackberry. Rubus hispidus
High-bush. Blackberry.

.

.

186

.

.

.

187
190

Black Chokeberry. Wild Black Cherry.
Inkberry.

Rubus nigrobaccus Aronia nigra
Prunus
serotina

.

.

.

....

194
199

Ilex glabra

204

ILL US TR A TIONS

xi
PAGE

Buckthorn.

Rhamnus

caihartica

Riverside Grape.

Vitis vulpina

..... ......
.

206 213

Virginia Creeper.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia
.

.

.

216 220 222

American Spikenard. Aralia racemosa Wild Sarsaparilla. Aralia nudicaulis
Bristly Sarsaparilla.

Aralia hispida

Tupelo. Nyssa sylvatica Black Nightshade. Solanum nigrum Viburnum acerifolium Maple-leaved Viburnum. Withe-rod. Viburnum cassinoides

Sweet Viburnum.

Low Jumper.
Red Cedar.
Blue Cohosh.
Silky Cornel.

Viburnum Lentago Juniperus nana
.

Juniperus Virginiana
Clintonia borealis

Yellow Clintonia.

..... ..... ..... .... ..... .....
.
.

....

225
227

235
238
241

245 250

.

.

.

.

.

253
256 259

Caulophyllum thalictroides

....
. .
. . . .

Cornus

Amonum

.

.

.

.

264
267

Alternate-leaved Cornel.

Cornus

alternifolia

High-bush Blueberry.

Vaccinium corymbosum

.

.

273
276

Dwarf Blueberry.

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum
Vaccinium vacillans

Low

Blueberry.

Arrowwood.

Vibernum dentatum

.....
Lonicera ccerulea
.

....
.

.

.

276 281 283

Blue or Mountain Fly Honeysuckle.

.

Low Hairy Ground

Cherry.

Physalis pubescens
.

.

295

White Baneberry. Actcea alba Poison Ivy. Rhus radicans
Panicled Cornel.

Cornus candidissima

...... ....
.

.

.

.

.312
316 319
322

Snowberry.

Symphoricarpos racemosus

....

INTRODUCTION
IF in country drive or ramble we happen upon an unknown flower, it is a comparatively easy
matter, by means of the illustrations and the color guides of the modern field books of wild

The lack of similar identify it. reference books for identifjdng a plant by its fruit was forcibly brought to my notice during
flowers,

to

Our journeyings led a drive in early autumn. us along a wooded roadway where it was no
longer the brilliance of the flowers which demanded our attention, but rather the attractive

masses of fruits.
fruits

There was one shrub bearing
colors in
different

of varying

development which was very which I did not know. I naturally wished

stages of attractive and
to

make

its

acquaintance.
field

Here the aforesaid

books failed to give

their ready aid. Any system of analysis was of no avail, as the flower which preceded this
I was surprised special fruit was unobtainable. at the meagerness of the descriptions of the
fruits

which

I read,

hoping to find

my

specimen

XIV

INTRODUCTION
It

among them.

was

this difficulty of

approach

to the identification of

scarcity of material

fruited plant, and the relating to this aspect of

my

the plant's

that suggested the present book. I have attempted to deal with those plants only which bear attractively colored fruits.
life,
;

These fruits are the more noticeable ones they do not, in most cases, develop until the blossoms have entirely disappeared and they naturally
;

into a class by themselves, being adapted for the same method of seed dispersal. The
fall
list

will

trees.

A

naturally include herbs, shrubs, and guide based on the kind and struc-

ture of the fruit will aid in determining the

family to which a plant belongs, and under each family the species are grouped by colors.

The

illustrations

will

also

aid

in

identifying

specimens. If the acquaintance of approximately two hundred plants of our northeastern section in
their fruited stage is made more accessible ; if added attention is attracted to the result of the

work

of the flower,

the cycle of the plant's

making our knowledge of life more complete, the
it

work, fragmentary though
place.

be,

may have

a

The order

of

arrangement of the Plant Fami-

IN TR Ob UCTION
lies

XV

The and arrangement of species is nomenclature The essentially that of Britton and Brown. name is the term used in Gray's additional
follows that of Engler and Prantl.
sixth
edition.

In

the

classification

of

the

Blackberries I have followed the general plan of L. H. Bailey, who has made a recent and
careful study of them. I am indebted to many a work of reference " for aid Gray's Manual," Britton and Brown's
:

Flora of the United States and Emerson's " Report of the Trees and Canada," Shrubs of Massachusetts," Card's "Bush Fruits," " Evolution of our Native Fruits," KerBailey's
"Illustrated

ner and Oliver's

"The Natural History of

Plants,"

and

others.

To

the friends
I

specimens There have been
of a

who have kindly furnished would extend my sincere gratitude.

many who, by the expression need for help such as the present book

hopes to give, or by suggestion and encouragement, have strengthened my purpose to carry on the work to its fulfillment. I hold them all
in grateful

remembrance.

ADAPTATIONS OF FRUITS AND SEEDS FOR DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION
how it suggests both the perfected fruit backward and the forward look backward over
:

THE

forward

the stages of growth which have produced it, to the stages of growth which are
it.

potential within
"

awed within me when I think great miracle which still goes on In silence round me the perpetual work Of thy creation, finished, yet renewed

My

heart

is

Of the

Forever."

BRYANT.

Miracle, indeed, it is that inclosed within the seed is the power to burst its bonds, to utilize
its

from earth and

stored food material, to gather nutriment air, to grow and to produce again
life

a seed capable of continuing the from which it has sprung.

of the species

For the development of

this,

however, certain

conditions are necessary. The have room in earth and air for

new
its

plant must

best growth.

If the seeds of a plant all started life in
xvii

the

xviii

DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION
this

immediate vicinity of the parent, and

were

continued year after year, it is easy to see that there would soon be no room for new growths. The necessity of a means of dispersal seems to
be fundamental to the fruit or seed.
fruit after fruit or seed after seed,

Examine

and the varied and adequate structures for their dissemination are found to be most interesting. The winged fruit of the maple, the tufted seed of the milkweed, and the plumed fruit of the clematis are a few of numerous examples of fruits fitted for dispersal by means of the wind. Some fruits have mechanical devices which throw their seeds to a necessarily short distance.

Have you not

violated

the

command

of

the

touch-me-not, just to see the parts of the pod curl up and throw out the seeds ? This method
of dispersal
is

is

not especially advantageous, and

It is confined to comparatively few plants. to note that these, as a rule, grow in interesting

spots sheltered from the wind, where its agency would be unavailing in scattering their seeds. Water is an agent in transporting a relatively

small

number

of fruits.

rably adapted for this the existence of the cocoanut palm on widely

The cocoanut is admimeans of dispersal, and
is

separated coral connection.

islands

interesting

in

this

DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION
Doubtless your

xix

experience with burdocks, agrimony, sticktights, and beggar ticks has been sufficiently emphatic to render unnecessary
further mention of those fruits or seeds which, fastening themselves to men and animals, are

own

Plants by them hither and thither. bearing such fruits naturally grow most profusely by the side of the road or footpath. Animals and especially birds are instrumental
carried
in scattering seeds in still another way, using a part of the fruit for food and ejecting the seeds.
It
is

this class of fruits

with which this book

is

chiefly concerned.

That seed dispersal is accomplished by the means noted above has been a matter of dispute

among

botanists, but carefully conducted experi-

ments have proved, without a doubt, that many Interbirds eject the consumed seeds unharmed. esting accounts of these are given in Kerner and
" Natural History of Plants." It has been found that while some birds grind up and destroy even the hardest coated seeds,
Oliver's
others, like the ravens

and jackdaws, destroy the soft-coated seeds while thrushes and only unharmed a large majority of blackbirds eject the seeds eaten. The small seeds pass entirely
;

through the intestinal tract while the larger
ones are separated from the pulp in the crop,

XX

DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION

the pulp passing on into the gizzard and the seeds being thrown up.
plants whose seeds are scattered by birds grow along the fence rows. The significance of this is apparent, the seed being dropped by the

Many

bird as he rested

upon the

fence.

parallel between the interdependence of the flower and the insect and that of the fruit and the bird is striking. The flower sets forth

The

honey and sometimes a surplus of pollen

for its

guests, its color decorations are arranged most effectively, while often a subtle odor is a sign of

welcome or repulse to wandering

insects.

The

bee or other insect responds to these attractions and duly regales himself. In return for the
hospitalities extended,

he serves as the flower's

messenger, bringing to the pistil of the flowerhost pollen from a neighboring bloom, or bearing away with him freshly gathered pollen grains to

upon a near-by pistil. Cross fertilization, by means of which more vigorous seeds are prodeposit

duced %

thus accomplished. Turning to the fruit, we find similar attracis

tions offered to the birds.

A

pulp

is

usually

developed for food, an odor is sometimes present, as in the case of the strawberry, grape, and
pineapple, and the different color schemes are
fascinating.

DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION

XXI

In what setting will the red fruit appear to In a green one, surely, and greatest advantage ?
the plants whose fruit ripens while the surrounding foliage is still green, or whose foliage
it is

evergreen, which usually bear red fruits. Amidst the brightly colored leafage of autumn,
is

how

effective are the blue
!

and black drupes and
fruits are

berries

Sometimes the dark-colored

borne on red stems, producing a similar result. White fruits grow usually on plants which shed
their leaves early, the white being brought into

contrast with the bare branches, or, if low plants, The with the floor covering of fallen leaves.
fruits are
etc.,

often massed in close heads, spikes,
still

rendering them

more conspicuous.

bird recognizes the sign of his especial hostelry from afar, and comes to the feast spread for him. As we have seen, he renders his host

The

a mutual
various

service,

depositing
of

its

places,

some

which

offspring in will doubtless

prove auspicious for the seed's development. Bears are fond of berries and are said to scatter
of the berry of the wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) serving as food in winter for the hungry deer.

their seed.

Mrs.

Dana speaks

Until the seeds are ripe, many features serve to protect them from destruction by the agent

afterward so useful in dispersing them.

The

xxii

DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION
sometimes even
is

fruit has a disagreeable taste, is

inconspicuous, poisonous. Some fruits, like being green, like the foliage. the chestnut, walnut, etc., have an especial protection in the surrounding involucre. Some ripe fruits have certain means of protection against foes that destroy the seed as well as

It has

no scent and

the pulp.

Mice are fond

of rose hips

and the

contained seeds, but do not venture along the thorny way by which they are reached. Fallen
cherries

are

eagerly eaten

by centipedes, but

hanging on their lengthened stalks they are comparatively safe from them.

Our knowledge

is

as yet not sufficiently detailed

to state definitely that all of the fruits described in this work are used as food by birds or animals

that scatter their seeds.

Such

fruits are included

as seem adapted for transmission in this way. do know that many of them are eaten by

We

birds and

know

also the kind or kinds of birds

Dr. C. F. Hodge, in his book, using them. " Nature Study and Life," has an interesting
table of birds

and their foods which includes a

number

Numerous investigations Birds from are being made. along various sections are sent to government experts, who, from an examination of the contents of
of these fruits.
line

this

their food tracts, are enabled to determine

many

DISPERSAL AND PROTECTION
of the foods eaten

xxiii

Observation of living birds and the foods they choose is urged. Full of meaning is the study of fruits and
their adaptations,
'

by them.

and includes
us

many

uninter-

preted problems, making that the more wood,

feel,

with Calderthe

we know,

more

impressive becomes the unknown."

DEFINITIONS
THE
with
fruit
is

the ripened ovary,

and any other parts that are
it.

contents, closely connected

its

berry is rather thin-skinned, and has its seeds loosely imbedded in soft pulpy or succuAn orange, a grape, a currant, lent material.
are illustrations.

A

drupe has for its distinguishing feature a The portion surroundstone inclosing the seed. it be fleshy, as in the peach fibrous, as may ing
;

A

in the cocoanut

or leathery, as in the walnut. has its seeds and their cartilaginous pome or bony surrounding membranes inclosed in a
;

A

fleshy mass,

which

is

times partly receptacle.
are examples.

thickened calyx or someApple, pear, and quince
..

Aggregate fruits are masses of several carpels of the same flower which, when ripe, may or may not remain fast to the receptacle on which they
are borne.

Raspberry and blackberry are familare
of

iar examples.

Multiple fruits

compact masses of the

many flowers. Pineapple ripened product and mulberry are the usual illustrations.
Accessory fruits are simple fruits which have incorporated with them, as part of their mass, the developed surroundings or supports of the Gaultheria has its capsule surrounded by pistil. thickened fleshy calyx.
XXV

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES REPRESENTED
I.
, " Ovules .

GYMNOSPER1VUE
,.
,

naked upon a scale, bract, or disk. Globose, formed by coalescence of fleshy 1 to 6 bony seeds. PINACE.E

,

PAGE OF FAMILIES AND SPECIES
scales.

.....
seed.

xxxii

Cup-shaped fleshy disk nearly inclosing bony

TAXACE^:

....

II.

ANGIOSPERMJE
ovary containing the ovules

Pistil consists of closed

and becoming the
1.

fruit.

MONOCOTYLEDONES

Stem without central pith or annual layers, but with vascular bundles scattered through them.
Leaves are mostly parallel-veined. Parts of flowers usually arranged in threes. Embryo has but one cotyledon.

FRUIT A BERRY
Growing
in close heads on fleshy stalks.

ARACE.E

.....
....
. .

xxxii

Woody

or herbaceous vines.

SMILACE.E
All others.
xxvi

xxxiii

CONVALLARIACE.E

xxxii

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES

XXvii

2.

DICOTYLEDONES

Stems have bark, wood, and pith. Leaves are net-veined.
Parts of flowers in fours or
fives.

Embryo

has two or more cotyledons.

(A) FRUIT A
I.

BERRY
PAGE OF FAMILIES AND
SPECIES

Calyx persistent.

(a) Berry

crowned with shriveled remains of calyx. GROSSULAKIACE^E
.

.

xxxvi

(6)

Calyx teeth or top of tube crowning summit of fruit. Vaccinium,Oxycoccus, and Chiogenes in VACCINIACE.E
. .

xli ' xlii

Fruit in clusters on sterns from the axils"
of the leaves.

Symphoricarpos and Lonicera in CAPRIFOLIACE.E
.

.

(c)

Calyx persistent at base of fruit and sometimes
inclosing
it.

Plumlike fruit containing 4 to 8 hard seeds. Calyx thickened.

EBENACE.E

....

xlii

Many
the

centa,

seeds arranged around an axial plawhich sometimes extends far into

cells.

SOLANACE^E
Berry
5- to 16-celled,

....
.
.

xlii

Kacemes.
each.

one seed in

PHYTOLACCACE^E

xxxiv

II.

Calyx absent,

(a)

Several-seeded.

XXV111

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES
heeds DlClOSed in
Arils pulpy. placenta in
A.TllS

PAGE OF FAMILIES AND SPECIES

Seeds covering large lateral

two rows.

Podophyllum in BERBERIDACE.E
Arils fleshy.

.

.

xxxv xxxv

ANONACE^E
Seeds not in Arils
Fruit growing in racemes. Actaea in

....

RANUNCULACE.E
(6)

.

.

xxxv
xxxiv

One- to few-seeded.
Parasitic.

LORANTHACE.E
VITACE^E
Berberis in

.

.

.

Climbing shrub.

xxxix

Sour berries in drooping racemes.

BERBERIDACE^E
Others.

.

.

xxxv
xlii

Ligustrum OLEACE^E
(B) FRUIT A
Berrylike

in

DRUPE

Drupe

I.

Calyx persistent.

(a)

Calyx teeth or top of tube crowning summit of drupe.

About 5 nutlets, flattened or somewhat three,

angled. Embryo small. Roots, bark, fruit aromatic. ARALIACE.E . .
.

.

xl

Ten small seedlike

nutlets.

Gaylussacia in
. .

VACCINIACE^E
Double drupe with calyx teeth of 2 RUBIACE.E
Juicy drupes containing borne in cymes. Sambucus in
3

.

xli

flowers.
xlii
1

....
and
.
.

nutlets

CAPRIFOLIACE^E

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES

xxix
PAGE OF FAMILIES AND

(6)

Calyx persistent at base.

SPECIES

Four to eight nutlets. ILICACE.E
Five to ten nutlets.
shrub.

....
.
. .

xxxviii

Trailing or depressed

Arctostaphylos in

ERICACEAE

.

xli

Low

evergreen shrub with leaves rolled backwards until the margins meet.

Empetrum in EMPETRACE.E
II.

.

.

.

xxxviii

Calyx absent.

THYMELEACE.E . Single nutlet. Two to four nutlets of cartilaginous texture.

.

xxxix
xxxix

RHAMNACE.E
Typical Drupes
I.

.

.

.

Calyx persistent.

(a) Calyx teeth or top of tube crowning the summit.

Small drupe with usually globose stone.
One-seeded, flattened or tumid, thin, crustaceous stone. Viburnum in

CAPRIFOLIACE.E
Dryish drupe with usually 3 nutlets. Triosteum in

.

.

CAPRIFOLIACE.E
(6)

.

.

xliii

Calyx persistent at base. Drupe borne on fleshy red pedicel.
Sassafras in

LAURACE^E
Drupes

....
....
....

xxxv

in elongated racemes. Primus serotina in

DRUPACE^E
Drupes
in loose panicles.

xxxviii

Chionanthus in
xlii

OLEACEJS

XXX

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES
PAGE OF FAMILIES AND SPECIES

II.

Calyx absent.
Globose.

Embryo

curved.

ULMACE^E

....
. .

xxxiv

Globular, with mark of stigma near base.

MENISPERMACE.E
Aromatic trees or shrubs.

xxxv

Oblong

or obovoid drupe.

Benzoin
Fleshy, globular drupe.

in

LAURACE.E

xxxv

Fleshy cotyledons.

Prunus, except P.
serotina in

DRUPACE.E

xxxviii

Dry Drupes
Exocarp covered with white wax.

MYRICACE.E
Small, 1-seeded.

....
. .

xxxiv
xxxviii

ANACARDIACE.E

(C) FRUIT A POME
Fleshy or berrylike. Two to five papery carpels, each 2-seeded.

POMACES

....

xxxvii

excepting Amelanchier

and Crataegus.
Small, 10-celled, 1 seed in each
cell.

Amelanchier in

POMACE^E
Drupe-like, 1 to 5

XXXVii

bony

carpels.

Cratsegus in

POMACES

xxxvii

(D) AGGREGATE FRUITS Cone-shaped. The berrylike seeds hanging
by a thread from each
carpel,

which
. .

opens when ripe along the back.

MAGNOLIACE.E

.

xxxiv

GUIDE TO PLANT FAMILIES

xxxi
PAGE OF FAMILIES AND
SPECIES

Ovoid head, of

2-seeded berries, each with a short curved beak at the tip.
1- to

Hydrastis in

RANUNCULACE^E
receptacle.

.

.

xxxv
xxxvii
J

Head of small drupes on spongy or juicy 1 xxxvi,
Rubus
in

ROSACES

.

Dry achenes borne on surface of enlarged
pulpy receptacle.
Fragaria in ROSACE^E

xxxvi

(E) MULTIPLE FRUITS
Achenes covered by the succulent calyx, the united spike forming a multiple fruit.

MORACE.E

....

xxxiv

(F) ACCESSORY FRUITS
Four -cleft calyx inclosing ovary and becoming berrylike in fruit.
Lepargyraea in

EL^AGNACE^E
Five-toothed

.

.

.

xxxix

calyx

inclosing

capsule
.

in

berrylike fruit.

Gaultheria in

ERICACEAE

.

.

.

xl

(G) MISCELLANEOUS
Thick seed
stalks bearing 2 naked seeds resembling drupes in their fleshy blue

coverings.

Caulophyllum in

BERBERIDACE^E
Rosa in ROSACES

.

.

xxxv
xxxvi

Bony achenes in rather fleshy calyx tube.
Somewhat
pod with
fleshy, dehiscent, 2- to 5-parted

ariled seeds.

CELASTRACE.E

.

.

xxxix

FAMILIES AND SPECIES
I.

GYMNOSPERMJE
PINE FAMILY
Blue
.
.

PINACEJE
Juniperus communis L. Juniperus nana Willd
Juniperus Virginiana L. Juniperus Sabina L
.

Common Juniper. Low Juniper.
Red Cedar. Shrubby Red Cedar.

.

.

.

TAXACEJE
Red
or Reddish Purple
.

YEW FAMILY
American Yew.

Taxus minor (Michx.) Britton

II.

ANGIOSPERMJE

(a)

MONOCOTYLEDONES
ARUM FAMILY
or Reddish Purple
Indian Turnip.

ARACE^E

Red

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Torr. Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott.
Calla palustris

L

Green Dragon. Water-arum.

Green
PeltandraVirginica (L.) Kunth.
.Green Arrow-arum.

CONVALLARIACEJE

LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY FAMILY
or Reddish Purple
.

Red

Asparagus officinalis L. Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong.
.

.

Asparagus.

Wild Spikenard.

FAMILIES

AND SPECIES

xxxiii

Vagnera trifolia (L.) Morong. Unifolium Canadense (Desf.) Greene

Three-leavr ed Solomon's Seal.

False Lily-of -the-Valley.

Disporum lanuginosum (Michx.)
Nichols
Streptopus amplexifolius(L.)DC.

Hairy Disporum. Clasping-leaved
Stalk.

Twisted

Streptopus roseus Michx. Trillium sessile L

.

.

Sessile-leaved Twisted Stalk.

Sessile-flowered Wake-robin.
.
.

Trillium nivale Riddell
Salisb

.

Early Wake-robin.
Large-flowered Wake-robin.

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.)

Trillium erectum

L
L
. .

Ill-scented Wake-robin.

Trillium cernuum

Nodding Wake-robin.
Painted Wake-robin.

Trillium undulaturn Willd.

Black or Dark Purple
Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.)

Torr

White

Clintonia.

Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong. Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.)
Ell

Star-flowered Solomon's Seal.

Hairy Solomon's
(R.

Seal.

Polygonatum commutatum

&

S.) Dietr

MedeolaVirginianaL

Smooth Solomon's Seal. Indian Cucumber Root.
Blue

Clintonia borealis

(Ait.)

Raf.

Yellow Clintonia.

SMILACEJE

SMILAX FAMILY

Red
Smilax Walter! Pursh

or Reddish Purple
Walter's Greenbrier.

....

Black or Dark Purple
Smilax herbacea L Smilax tamnifolia Michx. Smilax glauca Walt
Carrion Flower.
. .

Halberd-leaved Srnilax.

Glaucous-leaved Greenbrier.

XXXI v
Smilax Smilax Smilax Smilax

FAMILIES
rotundifolia L.

AND

SPECIES

...
. .
.

Greenbrier.

hispida

Muhl

Pseudo-China L. Bona-nox L

Hispid Greenbrier. Long-stalked Greenbrier.
Bristly Greenbrier.

(6)

DICOTYLEDONES
BAYBERRY FAMILY
White
.

MYRICACEJE
Myrica Carolinensis Mill
.
.

Waxberry.

ULMACEJE
Black or Dark Purple
Celtis occidentalis

ELM FAMILY
L
Sugarberry.

MORACE^E
Morns rubra L

MULBERRY FAMILY
Black or Dark Purple

Red Mulberry.
White

Morus alba L

White Mulberry.

LORANTHACEJE
White
Razoumofskya pusilla (Peck) Kuntze Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) Nutt

MISTLETOE FAMILY

Small Mistletoe.

American

Mistletoe.

PHYTOLACCACEJE

POKEWEED FAMILY
Black or Dark Purple
Poke.

Phytolacca decendra L.

.

.

.

MAGNOLIACE^E

MAGNOLIA FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
.
. .

Magnolia Virginian a L. Magnolia acuminata L.

Laurel Magnolia.

.

.

.

Cucumber

Tree.

FAMILIES
ANONACEJE

AND SPECIES

XXXV

CUSTARD-APPLE FAMILY
Yellow

Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.

.

North American Papaw.

RANUNCULACE^E
Red

CROWFOOT FAMILY
or Reddish Purple
.
.

Hydrastis Canadensis L. Actsea rubra (Ait.) Willd.

.

Orange Root.

.

.

Red Baneberry.

White
Actsea alba (L.) Mill

White Baneberry.

BERBERIDACEJE

BARBERRY FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple

Berberis vulgaris

L
Blue

Common

Barberry.

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.)

Michx

Blue Cohosh.
Yellow

Podophyllum

peltatum L.

.

.

.

May

Apple.

MENISPERMACEJE

MOONSEED FAMILY

Blade or Dark Purple

Menispermum Canadense

L.

.

Canada Moonseed.

LAURACEJE

LAUREL FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
.

Benzoin Benzoin (L.) Coulter

Spice Bush.

Blue
Sassafras Sassafras (L.) Karst.
.

Sassafras.

xxxvi

FAMILIES

AND SPECIES
GOOSEBERRY FAMILY

GROSSULARIACEJE

Red
Ribes oxyacanthoides L.

or Reddish Purple
. . .

Hawthorn or Northern Gooseberry.

Ribes rotundifolium Michx.

.

Eastern Wild Gooseberry.

Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. Ribes prostratum L'Her. Ribes rubrum L
.

.

.

Swamp

.

.

Gooseberry. Fetid Currant.

Red Currant.

Black or Dark Purple
Ribes Cynosbati L Ribes floridum L'Her

Wild Gooseberry. Wild Black Currant.

ROSACEJE

ROSE FAMILY

Red
Rubus Rubus Rubus Rubus Rubus
odoratus

or Reddish Purple
Purple-flowering Raspberry.
.
. .

L
.

Chamsemorus L.
strigosus Michx.

Cloudberry.

.

.

neglectus Peck Americanus (Pers.) Brit-

....
.

Wild Red Raspberry. Purple Wild Raspberry.
Dwarf Raspberry.
Virginia or Scar let Strawberry.

ton

Fragaria Virginian a Duchesne Fragaria Canadensis Michx.
.

.

Fragaria vesca Fragaria
Britton

L
(Porter)

Northern Wild Strawberry. European Wood Strawberry.

Americana

Rosa Rosa Rosa Rosa Rosa Rosa

blanda Ait
Carolina

American Wood Strawberry. Smooth or Meadow Rose.

L

humilis Marsh
nitida Willd

Swamp Rose. Low or Pasture
Dog
Rose.

Rose. Northeastern Rose.
Sweetbrier.

canina

L
L

rubiginosa

Black or Dark Purple

Rubus Rulms

occidentalis L.
villosus Ait

...

Black Raspberry.

Low

Blackberry.

FAMILIES
Rubus Rubus Rubus Rubus Rubus Rubus Rubus
hispidus L cimeifolius Pursh

AND SPECIES
.

XXX vii

.

.

nigrobaccus
nigrobaccus, var. sativus Allegheniensis Porter
.

Running Swamp Blackberry. Sand Blackberry. High Bush Blackberry.
Short Cluster Blackberry. Mountain Blackberry.

argutus Link Canadensis L

Leafy Cluster Blackberry.
Thornless Blackberry.

POMACEJE

APPLE FAMILY

Red

or Reddish Purple
.

Sorbus Americana Marsh. Sorbus sambucifolia (C.

.

American Mountain Ash.
Western Mountain Ash.

&
.

S.)

Roem
Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. Amelanchier Botryapium (L.
.

Red Chokeberry.
Shad Bush.

f .)

DC
Amelanchier Canadensis Medic
Cratsegus Crus-Galli L. Cratsegus punctata Jacq. Cratsegus coccinea L
.

(L.)

Juneberry.
.
.

.

.

Cratsegus macracantha Lodd. Cratsegus mollis (T. & G.) Scheele
Cratsegus tomentosa L.
.
.

.

.

Cockspur Thorn. Large-fruited Thorn. Scarlet Thorn. Long-spined Thorn. Red-fruited Thorn. Pear Thorn.

Black or Dark Purple
Aronia nigra (Willd.) Britton Amelanchier oligocarpa (Michx.)
.

Black Chokeberry.
Oblong-fruited Juneberry.

Roem

Yellow
Cratsegus uniflora

Muench.

.

.

Dwarf Thorn.

Green
Pyrus communis L

Malus coronaria (L.) Mill. Malus angustifolia (Ait.) Michx.
.

.

Choke pear. American Crab Apple. Narrow -leaved Crab Apple.

XXXVlil

FAMILIES

AND

SPECIES

DRUPACE^E

PLUM FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
. .

Primus Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus

Americana Marsh.
nigra Ait niaritima

Wang.

.

.

.

Pennsylvanica L.
Virginiana

f.

,

.

Wild Yellow or Red Plum. Canada Plum. Beach Plum. Wild Red Cherry.
Chokecherry.

L

Black or Dark Purple
Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus
Allegheniensis Porter
spinosa
.

Porter's
Sloe.

Plum.

pumila

L L
Ehrh

serotina

Dwarf Cherry. Wild Black Cherry.

EMPETRACEJE
Empetrum nigrum L

CROWBERRY FAMILY
Black or Dark Purple
Black Crowberry.

ANACARDIACEJE

SUMAC FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple

Rhus copallina L Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw Rhus glabra L Rhus aromatica Ait,

Dwarf Sumac.
Staghorn Sumac.

Smooth Sumac.

....

Fragrant or Sumac.
Poison Sumac.

Sweet-scented

White

Rhus Vernix L. Rhus radicans L

......

Poison, Climbing, or Threeleaved Ivy.

ILICACE^

HOLLY FAMILY

Red
Ilex opaca Ait Ilex monticola A.

or Reddish Purple

American Holly.

Gray

.

.

.

Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray Ilex l8evigata(Pursh) A. Gray

.

Large-leaved Holly. Black Alder.

.

Ilicioides mucronata (L.) Brittou

Smooth Winter Berry. Wild or Mountain Holly.

FAMILIES

AND SPECIES

xxxix

Black or Dark Purple
Ilex glabra (L.) A.

Gray

.

.

.

Inkberry.

CELASTRACE^
Red
Euonymus Americanus L.

STAFF-TREE FAMILY
or Reddish Purple
.

.

Strawberry Bush.

Euonymus obovatus Nutt. Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.
.

.

Running Strawberry Bush.
Burning Bush. Shrubby or Climbing
sweet.
Bitter-

.

Celastrus scandens L.

.

.

.

.

RHAMNACEJB
Rhamnus Rhamnus Rhamnus
cathartica L.
alnifolia L'Her.

BUCKTHORN FAMILY
Black or Dark Purple

...
. . . . .

lanceolata Pursh

Buckthorn. Lance-leaved Buckthorn. Alder-leaved Buckthorn.

VITACEJE
Black or Dark Purple
Vitis Labrusca
Vitis sestivalis

GRAPE FAMILY
L
Northern Fox Grape.

Vitis bicolor
Vitis vulpina

Michx LeConte

Summer

....

Grape.
or

Blue Grape.
Riverside

L
Michx

Sweet-scented

Vitis cordifolia

Grape. Frost or Chicken Grape.
Virginia Creeper.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)

Planch

THYMELEACEJE

MEZEREON FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple

Dirca palustris

L
Red

Leatherwood.

ELJEAGNACEJE
Canadensis

OLEASTER FAMILY
or Reddish Purple
(L.)

LepargyrsBa

Greene

Canadian Buffalo Berry.

xl

FAMILIES

AND

SPECIES
GINSENG FAMILY

ARALIACE^E

Red

or Reddish Purple
.
.

Panax quinquefolium Lo

.

Ginseng.

Black or Dark Purple
Aralia spinosa L Aralia raeemosa L Aralia nudicaulis Lo
Hercules' Club.

American Spikenard. Wild or Virginian Sarsaparilla.

Aralia hispida Vent,

....

Bristly Sarsaparilla.

Yellow

Panax trifolium

L

Dwarf Ginseng.

CORNACEJE
Cornus Canadensis Cornus florida L

DOGWOOD FAMILY
Red L
or Reddish Purple

Low

or

Dwarf Cornel.

Flowering Dogwood.

Black or Dark Purple
Nyssa sylvatica Marsh
Tupelo.

Blue
Cornus circinata L'Her.
. .
.

Round-leaved Cornel or Dogwood.
Silky Cornel. Alternate-leaved

Cornus Amonum Mill. Cornus alternifolia L f.

....
.
.
.

Cornel

or

Dogwood.

White
Cornus stolonifera Michx.
. . .

Cornus candidissima Marsh.

.

.

Cornel or Dogwood. Panicled Cornel or Dogwood.
Red-osier

ERICACEJB

HEATH FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
.

Gaultheria procumbens L.

.

Spring or Creeping Wintergreen.

FAMILIES AND SPECIES
Arctostaphylos

xli

Uva-Ursi

(L.)

Spreng

Red Bearberry.
Black or Dark Purple

Mairania alpina (L.) Desv.

.

.

Alpine or Black Bearberry.

VACCINIACEJE

HUCKLEBERRY FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
.

Vaccinium Vitis Idsea L.
Oxycoccus oxycoccus
(L.)

.

.

MacM.
(Ait.)

Small

Mountain Cranberry. or European Cranberry.

Oxycoccus macrocarpus
PerSc

Large

or

American Cran-

berry.

Black or Dark Purple
Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) T.

&G
Gaylussacia

Black or High-bush Huckleberry.

dumosa (Andr.) T.

&G
Vaccinium atrococcum (A. Gray)
Heller

Dwarf

or

Bush Huckleberry.

Black Blueberry.
Brit-

Vaccinium nigrum (Wood)
ton

Low
Blue

Black Blueberry.

Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) T.

&
Blue Tangle.

G
Gaylussacia brachycera (Michx.) A. Gray

Box Huckleberry.
Great Bilberry.

Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium csespitosum Michx. Vaccinium coryrnbosum L. Vaccinium Pennsylvanieum Lam. Vaccinium Canadense Richards. Vaccinium vacillans Kalm.
.

.

.

Dwarf

Bilberry.

.

.

High-bush or Tall Blueberry.

Dwarf Blueberry. Canada Blueberry.

.

.

Low

Blueberry.

xlii

FAMILIES

AND
Yellow

SP.ECIES

Vaccinium stamineum L.

.

.

.

Deerberry.

White
Chiogenes hispidula (L.) T.

&

G.

Creeping Snowberry.

EBENACEJE
Yellow
Diospyros Virginiana L.
. . .

EBONY FAMILY
Persimmon.

OLEACEJE
Black or Dark Purple
Chionanthus Virginica L. Ligustrum vulgare L
. .

OLIVE FAMILY
Fringe Tree.
Privet.

SOLANACEJE

POTATO FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple

Physalis Philadelphia

Lam.
.

.

Philadelphia Ground Cherry.

Solanum Dulcamara

L.

.

.

Nightshade.

Lycium vulgare

(Ait. f.) Dunal.

Matrimony Vine.

Slack or Dark Purple Solanum nigrum L Black or Garden Nightshade.
Yellow
Physalis pubescens L.
.

.

.

.

Low

Hairy Ground Cherry.

Physalis angulata

L
. .

Cut-leaved

Ground Cherry.
Cherry.

Physalis heterophylla Nees. Solanum Carolinense L.
.

Clammy Ground
Horse Nettle.

.

.

RUBIACE-ffi

MADDER FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
Partridge Berry.

Mitchella repens

L

CAPRIFOLIACE^

HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY
Red
or Reddish Purple
. . .

Sambucus pubens Michx.

Red-berried Elder.

Viburnum

alnifolium Marsh.

.

Hobble Bush,

FAMILIES
Viburnum Opulus L Viburnum pauciflorum
Trieste um

AND SPECIES
.

xliii

Pylaie perfoliatum L.
.

Cranberry Tree. Few-flowered Cranberry Tree.
Feverwort.
Coral Berry.

.

Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos
(L.)

MacM
. .

Lonicera Caprifolium L.

.

Italian or Perfoliate
suckle.

Honey-

Lonicera hirsuta Eaton
Lonicera dioica

.

.

.

L
.

Hairy Honeysuokler Smooth-leaved or Glaucous

Lonicera sempervirens L.

.

.

Trumpet

Honeysuckle. or Coral

Honey-

suckle.

Lonicera oblongifolia (Goldie)

Hook
Lonicera ciliata

Swamp
Muhl

Fly Honeysuckle.

American Fly Honeysuckle.

Black or Dark Purple

Sambucus Canadensis L. Viburnum acerifolium L. Viburnum pubescens (Ait.) Pursh Viburnum cassinoides L. Viburnum nudum L Viburnum Lentago L Viburnum prunifolium L.
.
.

.

.

.

.

American Elder. Maple-leaved Arrowwood. Downy-leaved Arrowwood.
Withe-rod.

.

.

.

Larger Withe-rod.

.

.

Nannyberry. Black Haw.

Blue

Viburnum dentatum L. Viburnum molle Michx.
Lonicera coerulea

.

.

.

Arrowwood.
Soft-leaved Arrowwood.

.

.

.

L

Blue or Mountain Fly Honeysuckle.

White

Symphoricarpos racemosus Michx
Symphoricarpos pauciflorus (Robbins) Britton

Snowberry.

Low

Snowberry.

EED OR REDDISH PURPLE

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
AMERICAN YEW
Taxus minor.
Fruit.

Taxus Canadensis

Yew
;

Family

is drupelike the hard, oval seed being nearly inbony, dark-colored, closed in a red, pulpy cup, which is the devel-

The

fruit

The drupe is solitary, oped fleshy flower disk. growing at the end or the side of the branches.
It is bracted at the base.

Leaves.

The

leaves are about half an inch
sides.

long, pointed,

and green on both

They

are arranged spirally around the branches.

Flowers.

The

flowers are mostly dioecious. fertile ones, are solitary, and the sterile ones

The

consist of a

few naked stamens.
shrub

April,

May.
crooked

This
branches.

low
It

has
in

spreading,

delights

a shaded situation,
of

especially
It is

favoring the

shelter

evergreens.
its

sometimes called Ground Hemlock from

resemblance to young hemlock growths.

The

AMERICAN

YBW
4

(Taxus minor)

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
wood
of the

5

Yew

is

tough and

elastic,

and was

used by the Indians in making their bows. It extends south to New Jersey and along the Alleghanies to Virginia. It also ranges

northward from Minnesota and Iowa.

INDIAN TURNIP.
Arisaema triphyllum

JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT
Arum Family
shining, scarlet
berries

Fruit.

Bright,'

are

crowded together in an ovoid head. Each fruit bears the tip of the stigma at the top. One or

two seeds are embedded
August.
Leaves.

in a scant, juicy pulp.

One

or

two
and

three-parted
fruit,

leaves
leaflets

usually overtop flower

The

are ovate and mostly entire.

-The leaves some-

times wither and

fall

before the fruit develops.

Flowers.

The

flowers are borne at the base

of a club-shaped spadix

which

is

nearly inclosed

in a sheathing spathe, the top portion of

which

The curves over, forming a sheltering roof. flowers are mostly dioecious, although one plant sometimes bears both staminate and pistillate
flowers.

They

are

fertilized

by small insects

6

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

which crawl around within the sheathing spathe and cover themselves with pollen.

JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT (Arissema triphyllum)

The plant has a

turnip-shaped, wrinkled, pepstarch.

pery corm, which contains much

The

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Indians are said to have cooked
it

1

for food.

markings is sometimes light green with light very variable, markings, and sometimes dark with purple
stripes.

They also cooked and ate the The color of the hood and

berries.
its

I

was

interested, one spring, to see

if

the light green spathes really did inclose male flowers and the dark ones female, as some
authorities think probable.
I gathered,

about thirty-six specimens.
ones, fourteen were pistillate

one day, Of twenty dark
six staminate.
pistillate

and
were

Of sixteen

light ones, five

and

eleven staminate. The majority seem to bear out the supposition. Another interesting matter came to my attention from the examination
of the specimens.
leaves,

Sixteen plants each had two
fifteen

and of these

were mostly

pistillate

and the other one had about as many staminate as pistillate blossoms. Of twenty specimens
with one
leaf, sixteen
pistillate.

and four

were mainly staminate Later observations tend to

show that the two-leaved specimens usually have pistillate flowers, and the one-leaved staminate.
Jack-in-the-pulpit loves rich, we"t woods, and extends as far west as Minnesota and eastern

Kansas.

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

GREEN DRAGON.
Arisaema Dracontium

DRAGON ROOT
Arum Family

The orange-red berries grow in a large ovoid head. They are one- to few-seeded. The usually solitary compound leaf Leaves.
Fruit.

has nine to eleven radiating leaflets with the The leaflets two side ones somewhat lobed.
are pointed and oblong-lanceolate. Both staminate and Flowers.
flowers usually

pistillate

grow on the same spadix.
is

upper part of the spadix

The much prolonged and

extends considerably beyond the pointed spathe.

Both spathe and spadix are green.

The range is about that of Jack-in-the-pulpit. Around the main club-shaped bulb, cluster many
tiny bulblets, producing an effect which to a strong imagination might suggest the foot and
toes of a

monster and be responsible for the

common name
leaflets are

of Dragon Root. The radiating a bit suggestive of a dragon's claws. Leaves and flowers are both green, the only bit of

gay coloring that the plant

affords appearing

in the bright fruit cluster.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

9

WATER ARUM
Calla palustris

Arum Family

The few red berries grow in an The seeds are few and inclosed oblong head. in jelly. The spa the is persistent in fruit.
Fruit.

July, August.

Leaves.

The

leaves

are

heart-shaped, and

borne on erect or spreading stems. Flowers. The flower stem is nearly as long as those of the leaves. The open, spreading
spathe has a white upper surface and is green beneath. The spadix is much shorter than the spathe, and is covered with flowers, the lower
of

which are perfect and the upper ones often
It is a

staminate.

low plant,

less

than a foot in height,
Calla.
it

and resembles the cultivated
in masses.

Spreading
often occurs

by a slender, creeping rootstock,

The rhizomes

are used by the LapIt flourishes

landers in

making a kind

of bread.

in cold bogs in Virginia, Wisconsin,

and Iowa,

and northward.

10

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

ASPARAGUS
Asparagus
officinalis

Lily-of-the-Valley Family

Fruit.

The red

berries are globose,

and about
are soli-

as large as a small huckleberry.

They

tary or in pairs, and grow on a slender, jointed stem from the axil of a scale, which is really a modified leaf. The berry is three-celled, with

two seeds

in each cell.

The calyx
leaves

lobes are at

the base of the berry. The true Leaves.

August, September.

appear as scales

From the axils, along the stem and branches. along the branches, grow three tiny threadlike branchlets which are often mistaken for leaves.
Flowers.

The

flowers are small, bell-shaped,

and greenish yellow.
jointed pedicels.

They grow on drooping,

June.

The Asparagus was introduced from Europe, and has become quite a frequent roadside escape.
very attractive in fruit, making one think of a miniature Christmas tree, with its gay
It is

decorations of

red balls.

The thick shoots
on the base
of

of

spring are edible,
large scales,

and bear the true leaves as
persist

which

the

plant until

fall.

RED OE REDDISH PURPLE

11

WILD SPIKENARD
Vagnera racemosa.
Smilacina racemosa
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family in a long racemose

Fruit.

The

berries

grow

cluster at the terminus of the leafy,

unbranched
fully ripe,

stem.

They

are globular, and

when

in late September, are

translucent

and a

dull

red in color.
iarly speckled

Before

they present a peculappearance, being whitish, with
this,

many

red dots and splashes.
is

The

flesh is thin.

three-celled, with two ovules in each, the developed berry contains but one or two large seeds. The fruits have an aromatic
flavor.

While the ovary

September.

Leaves.
stemless,

The

leaves

are

alternate,

nearly

and have tiny hairs along the entire wavy margins. Each is oval-lanceolate, with
a long, tapering point. They are so arranged the stem that the plane of the upper suralong face is nearly parallel with the drooping stem,
thus exposing
light.
it

most advantageously to the
small, white, six-parted flowers

Flowers.

The

grow

in terminal, pyramidal clusters.

May, July.

WILD SPIKENARD

(

Vagnera racemose)

12

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Both
in flower

H
The stem

and

fruit this plant lends its

attractiveness to the woodside road.
is

zigzag and

somewhat

inclined.

The rootstock

is stout.

It extends south to

Georgia and west

to Missouri

and Arizona.

THREE-LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL
Vagnera
trifolia.

Smilacina

trifolia

Lily-of-the-Valley Family

The globular berries grow in a fewfruited raceme. They are red when ripe. Leaves. The leaves are usually three in number, although two or four occasionally
Fruit.
occur.

They

are oblong, and
base.

rowed sheathing
apex.

They

taper to a narare acute at the

Flowers.

The white,

six-parted flowers are

smaller than in V.

stellata.

a smaller plant than False Spikenard casual obor Star-flowered Solomon's Seal.

This

is

A

server might
dense, but it

confuse

it

with Unifolium Cana-

be distinguished from it by the narrowed sheathing base of its leaf and its

may

six-parted flowers.

It

grows in bogs and v

et

14

HOW
in

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

woods

New

England,

New

Jersey, Pennsyl-

vania, and Michigan.

FALSE LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY. TWOLEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL
Unifolium Canadense.

Maianthemum Canadense
Family

Lily-of-the- Valley

whitish, thickly speckled with red until late in the season, when it becomes a dull red. The fruits grow in a termi-

Fruit.

The berry

is

nal cluster, and are
trifolia.

much

like those of

Vagnera

Leaves.

The

leaves are ovate to lanceolate,

There are usually with a heart-shaped base. three on the stem. two, sometimes They are
nearly so. The four-parted, small, Flowers. flowers grow in a simple raceme.
sessile or

white

The heart-shaped base
four-parted
species.

of

perianth are This is a tiny plant, growing profusely

the leaf and the " earmarks " of the

in woods,

sometimes in patches, sometimes alone.

It is quite

common throughout

southern Canada

and south to North Carolina, Iowa, and South
Dakota.

FALSE LILY-OF-THE- VALLEY (Unifolium Canadense)
15

16

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

HAIRY DISPORUM
Disporum lanuginosum
Fruit.
Lily-of-the- Valley
is

Family

The red berry

oblong or ovoid,
It is pulpy, threeIt is usually

and

is

pointed at the top.

celled,

and

three- to six-seeded.

single,

on a terminal stem.

Leaves.
pointed,
stemless.

The ovate-oblong leaves are tapersomewhat rounded at the base, and
lilylike,

They are downy beneath. Flowers. The greenish yellow,
flowers

drooping
stems.

grow on

terminal,

slender

May. The Disporum is a low, pubescent plant, with The rootstock erect, somewhat branched stems. is creeping. means " double seed," in Disporum reference to the two ovules in each cell of the
ovary.
It is

found in rich woods from Ontaria to

western

New

York, Tennessee, and Georgia.

CLASPING-LEAVED TWISTED STALK
Streptopus amplexifolius
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

Fruit.
three-celled,

The

red, globose, or oval berries are

with

many

seeds, arranged in

two

CLASPING-LEAVED TWISTED STALK (Streptopus amplexifolius)
17

18

HOW
in

TO

KNOW WILD
The

FRUITS
are

rows,

each

cell.

berries

usually

and grow on sharply bent peduncles which spring from the leaf axils. August.
solitary

Leaves.

The

ovate, light green

leaves

are

taper-pointed, heart-shaped, and clasping at the
base,

and are very smooth.

greenish white flowers almost hidden beneath the leaves. June.

Flowers.

The

are

The Twisted Stalks somewhat resemble the Solomon's Seal. They are, however, more branched.
Streptopus is Greek, meaning twisted foot or The stalk, in reference to the bent peduncles. plant is quite generally distributed over the
parts of

America north

of

North Carolina, Ohio,

Michigan, and

New

Mexico.

SESSILE-LEAVED TWISTED STALK
Streptopus roseus
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

Fruit.

The

fruit is a globose red berry, simi-

lar to that of the preceding.

This species

distinguished by Lack of bloom on the under leaf surfaces.
:

is

Hairy

leaf margins.

Purplish pink flowers.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Less abruptly bent flower stalks.
Earlier period of blooming.

19

Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon are ern limits.

its

south

SESSILE-FLOWERED WAKE-ROBIN
Trillium sessile
Lily-of-the-Valley Family

Fruit.

The

red, sternless berry

is

globular

and about half an inch long. three-celled, and many-seeded.
Leaves.

It is six-angled,

The

three whorled leaves are likeare ovate, with acute tips,

wise

sessile.

They
The

and

are often spotted with lighter

and darker green.
a dull red,

Flowers.

sessile flowers are

occasionally greenish.

They have narrow sepals

and an agreeable odor. April, May. This plant of moist woods grows in Pennsylvania and southward to Florida. Minnesota
and
petals,

and Arkansas are

its

western limits.

EARLY WAKE-ROBIN
Trillium nivale
Lily-of-the-Valley Family

Fruit. The round, flattened berry is small, about a third of an inch in diameter. It is red

20

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FEUITS
This and

and has but three rounded
Trillium fruits.
Leaves.

divisions.

Trillium erythrocarpum are the only three-angled

The berry

is

short-stemmed.

The three

ovate,

whorled leaves

are blunt at the apex,

and have short stems. and white,

Flowers.

The

flowers are small

with erect, spreading petals. March, May. This is a dwarf species, only two to five inches
high.
It grows in woods from Pennsylvania and south to Tennessee and Iowa. Ohio,

LARGE-FLOWERED WAKE-ROBIN
Trillium grandiflorum
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

Fruit.

The red berry
to

is

slightly six-angled
in length.

and from one-half inch

an inch

The

sepals persist at the base as do also the

which remain green. The berry is The globular, three-celled, and many-seeded. peduncle is sometimes three inches long.
filaments,

Leaves.

Somewhat

four-sided,

but not
are

as

broad as

Trillium erectum.
in

They
the

pointed

and nearly stemless
three.

usual

whorl of

Flowers.

The

flowers are large, with erect

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE

21

and spreading white petals that later grow pink. They grow on long, erect stems.
This
to
is

a native of rich woods from

Vermont

North Carolina, with Minnesota and Missouri

as the western

boundary of

its

range.

ILL-SCENTED WAKE-ROBIN.
Trillium erectum

BIRTHROOT
Family
is

Lily-of-the- Valley

Fruit.

The dark

red,

round ovate berry
dry stigma
is

distinctly six-angled.

A

at the

junction of each two of these angles or ridges. The persistent dry sepals and remnants of the
petals are at the base.

The

fruit is

borne on a

somewhat about an inch
long,

reclined
long.

The berry is The brown seeds are
stem.
in each cell.

numerous and horizontal
Leaves.

August.

The

leaves are broadly four-sided,

with scarcely any stems. The apex is acute. The leaves grow in a whorl of three at the
the plant stem. At the time of fruiting they are apt to be torn, faded, and

summit

of

brown.
Flowers.

somewhat

reclined

The terminal, solitary flower is and varies much in color
;

22

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

ILL-SCENTED WAKE-ROBIN (Trillium erectwri)

white, pink, dark red, yellow, and even greenish blossoms having been found. The odor is very

unpleasant.

April, June.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

23

When
roadway,

driving in early spring along a wooded
I

have found great patches of this curiously colored blossom growing near streams
or in

swampy

grounds.

I

was quite content,

however, to admire them from a distance, objecting to the odor which a closer acquaintance
entails.

This odor and the color of the flower serve
the plant

a useful purpose in attracting the

flesh fly,

which Clarence M. Weed says

is

the

most useful
of this plant.

insect in disseminating the pollen

that

of
I

which

The color of the flower resembles raw meat, and the yellow specimens saw were quite the color of fat beef.
r

This species grows as far w est as Minnesota and Missouri, and south to North Carolina.

NODDING WAKE-ROBIN
Trillium

cernuum

Lily-of-the-Valley Family
is

Fruit.

The reddish ovate berry
is

somewhat

six-angled, and

borne on a short inclined or
It
is

recurved stem.

about three-quarters of

an inch long.
Leaves.
so.

The

three leaves are sessile or nearly

They

are very similar to Trillium erectum.

24

HOW
Flowers.

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
or pink flowers have

The white

wavy-margined petals that roll backwards. They grow on a curved stem and are often hidden
beneath the leaves.
April- June.
This Wake-robin favors rich woods, and ranges from Ontario to Georgia and Missouri and west
to Minnesota.

PAINTED WAKE-ROBIN
Trillium undulatum.
Trillium erythrocarpum
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

Fruit.

quarters of

The bright red berry is about three an inch long, and is borne terminally
is
is

on a nearly erect stem. It narrow end rather pointed,

ovate, with the

obscurely three-

angled, and crowned with the persistent stigmas. Its three angles instead of six, lack of wings,

and ovate shape distinguish
Trillium fruits.

it

from

all

the other
sepals are

The three spreading

persistent at the base as are also dry
of the petals.

remnants

and scanty, and arranged horizontally.
Leaves.

The skin is thin, the pulp white and the brown seeds numerous, ovate,

The

leaves are in a whorl of three.

Each

leaf is petioled.

The stems

unite,

forming

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE

25

a triangular surface, from the center of which The leaves are broadsprings the flower stem.
ovate, with a long tapering point.

Flowers.

The recurved white
the

petals

are

marked with crimson
flowers of the genus.

stripes at the base.

This

Wake-robin bears one of

most beautiful
in profusion
in
is

The Painted Trillium grows

the Catskill and Adirondack mountains, and

found in damp woods as far west as Wisconsin and Missouri and south to Georgia.

WALTER'S GREENBRIER
Smilax Walteri
Fruit.

Smilax Family
coral-red, globose berries are in

The

umbels, growing on flattened stems which scarcely
equal the petioles in length. two- to three-seeded.
Leaves.

The

berries are

The ovate

or ovate-lanceolate leaves
sides.

are thick and green on both

They

are

somewhat heart-shaped at base, but are seldom lobed. The apex is bristle pointed. Flowers. The blossoms are brownish, and
grow
in umbels.

April- June.

26

HOW
This
is

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

the only Greenbrier in our section which bears red berries. Smilax Walteri has a

low stem, somewhat prickly below and unarmed It grows in swamps and moist places as above.
far north as

New

Jersey.

LAUREL MAGNOLIA
Magnolia Virginiana.
Magnolia glauca

Magnolia Family

Fruit.

The small

conelike fruit consists of

many coherent carpels, which are crowded upon the enlarged receptacle. When mature, the
conelike
its

mass

is

outer side.

red and each carpel splits along The one or two contained red

seeds escape, but, for a time, each remains hang-

The seeds are ing by a slender white thread. slightly bitter, but are used as food by the birds.
September, October.
Leaves.

The oval

or elliptical leaves have a

leathery appearance.

They

are light green

and

shining above and much whitened beneath. In the South, they usually remain on the tree

during the winter, falling in the spring to give
place to

new

growths.

The

petioles are short

and tapering.

LAUREL MAGNOLIA (Magnolia

Virginland)

27

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Flowers.
or. three

29
flower,

Emerson says: " The
is

two

inches broad,

as beautiful
It
is

and almost

as fragrant as a water lily."
solitary,

creamy white,
the
glossy

and terminal.
soft

June.

The

white

flowers,

amidst

green foliage, yield one of the pleasures found

among
tion

the

swamp growths
.the coast.

especially along

of early summer, The gradual transi-

from one part of the flower to another is The sepals are much like the petals interesting.
and
the stamens retain a
fruit

petal-like character.

The
is

mass

flies

the red-seed banners to at-

tract the bird carriers.

a shrub

;

comes a

tree.

In our section the plant along the Gulf of Mexico it beIt has been found as far north as
is

Cape Ann.

The bark
is

usually brown, but on

young growths

light gray.

CUCUMBER TREE. MOUNTAIN MAGNOLIA
Magnolia acuminata Magnolia Family

Fruit.

The

structure of the fruit
it

is

similar

to that of the small Magnolia, but
larger.

is

much
is

It is pink with red seeds.

The resemthe

blance of the green fruit to a cucumber cause of one of its common names.

30

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FEUITS
and

The fragrant

flowers are greenish white

rather inconspicuous, being so nearly the color of the foliage.
It occurs This plant is rare in our section. It is a in western New York and southward.

tree sixty to ninety feet high,

with brown bark.

YELLOW PUCCOON. YELLOW ROOT YELLOW INDIAN PAINT. ORANGE ROOT. GOLDEN SEAL
Hydrastis Canadensis

Crowfoot Family

Fruit.

The

fruit

somewhat

resembles

a

raspberry.

It is a small

head of one- to twois

seeded crimson berries.
blunt, and the

The head

ovoid and

fleshy carpels are tipped with curved beaks. short, There is a single roundish root leaf Leaves. and near the top of the stem are two more
leaves.

rounded

These are

five- to seven-lobed,

doubly serrate, and heart-shaped at the base. Flowers. The blossoms are borne at the top of the stem. They are greenish white and
inconspicuous.

The

sepals fall

when

the flower

RED BANEBERRY

(Actsea rubra)

32

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE
opens.

33

There are no

petals,

just

numerous

stamens and several
This
high.
is

pistils.

a low, hairy perennial about a foot Its rootstock is thick, knotted, and

yellow.

The plant grows
to

in rich

woods from

New York

Minnesota and southward.

RED BANEBERRY
Actaea rubra. Actaea spicata, Var. rubra

Crowfoot Family
Fruit.

The

cherry-colored, oval berries

grow

in terminal ovate clusters about three inches in

length.

white berry is occasionally found. Each fruit is borne on a slender stem, and has

A

a groove along one side extending from the stem to a black spot at the opposite end, the remnant
of the stigma.

and rather

The flesh of the berry is white thin. The seeds are smooth and

packed in two horizontal rows, with the points of attachment to the flesh on the grooved side.
This fruit
is

a good illustration of the developpistil.

ment

of

a simple

The

seeds differ

in

shape according to the position each occupies in the row. July, August.

34
Leaves.

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

This perennial bears two or three
leaves.

twice- or thrice-compound

The

leaflets

are often

lobed and sometimes the lower end

ones are compound. They are coarsely toothed. The small white flowers grow in Flowers. The sepals fall when terminal ovate clusters.

The stamens, protruding opens. the petals, give the raceme a feathery beyond The stigma, maturing before the appearance.
the
flower

anthers

shed

their
is

pollen,
effected

necessitates

cross

fertilization,

which

by

small bees.

This

is

with

its

a plant of the woods, and the fruit, beautiful rich coloring, brightens the
in

wooded roadside

Near by the July. are blackening, while in Sarsaparilla drupes

Wild more

open spaces the Red and the Black Raspberries
offer their delicious fruits.
Its
is

range

from Maine, south to

New

Jersey

and Pennsylvania, and westward.

COMMON BARBERRY
Berberis vulgaris

Barberry Family
scarlet berries

grow in Each clusters, which are usually drooping. has one seed, which is erect and berry commonly

Fruit.

The oblong

COMMON BARBERRY
35

(Berberis vulgaris)

36
is

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

The fruit is covered with a hard, brittle coat. It makes very acid but is eatable when cooked.
a delicious
jelly.

The

berries are eaten

by birds
tract.

and the seeds thrown up from the crop instead
of passing through the entire

digestive

September.
Leaves.

The

leaves seem to

from the

axils of the spines.

grow in rosettes They are oval to

obovate and bristly toothed. This spiny shrub generally grows in thickets and waste grounds in eastern New England,

having become thoroughly wild there. It varies in height from one to six feet. The wood and
inner bark are yellow. The spines, in groups of seven or three, are modified leaf structures and
protect, against destruction

from grazing animals,

the fresh

shoots, with their leaves or flowers,

which grow from their axils. The flowers show ingenious arrangements
protecting the pollen against
for

for

dew

or rain, and

securing

cross

fertilization.

The yellow

blossoms

grow in drooping, many-flowered racemes, and the concave petals of each bloom

thus act as a roof for the pollen borne by the

stamens which they cover. The lower third of each stamen

is

sensitive to

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

37

Both the hive bee and the the slightest touch. huinblebee come to the flower in quest of the
honey which is produced by the saffron-colored swellings on the petals and in getting it are
almost sure to touch the base of the stamens.

These spring up and cover the head and parts of the fore legs and proboscis of the bee with
pollen.
" All

down the loose-walled lanes in archin' bowers, The barb'ry droops its strings o' golden flowers, Whose shrinkin' hearts the school-girls love to try " With pins, they'll worry yourn so, boys, bimeby
!

LOWELL'S Sunthin'

in the Pastoral Line.

The peasants of Europe, long before science explained the phenomenon, declared that barberry bushes caused wheat to rust. The fungus causing wheat rust often lives but part of its life on
wheat.

There

is

one stage of

its

growth which

Its prestakes place on leaves of the barberry. ence there is manifested by groups of little " cluster cups," which orange-colored cups, called on the under surface of the leaf. grow

The

state legislature of Massachusetts, as early

as 1760, passed " An Act to

prevent

Damage

to English Grain

arising from Barberry Bushes."

38

HOW
summer

TO

ENOW
"

WILD FRUITS

There are certain grasses, however, upon which
the "
is

spore

" stage of the

wheat rust"

This stage does not need, in the spring, the intermediate host of the barberry leaf, but will grow directly on the

produced throughout the year.

young

Eradication of the barberry, therefore, while necessary, and of advantage, does not
grain.

always eradicate the trouble.

WILD ALLSPICE. BENJAMIN BUSH FEVER BUSH. SPICE BUSH
Benzoin Benzoin.
Liniera Banzoin
Laurel Family

The oval drupes are red and shining, with thin, yellow flesh and a large stone. They grow in small bunches, of from two to five, on
Fruit.
stout, short stalks.

September.
or
elliptical

Leaves.

The oval

leaves

are

short-pointed at the
base.

apex and narrowed at the
is

The under
is

surface

paler than the upper.

Yellow

the

fall color.

Flowers.

The

usually dioecious.

flowers are small, yellow, and They open before the leaves

appear in the spring. April, May. This is one of the early blooming spring
shrubs.

The

flowers

and

leaves,

especially

if

SPICE BUSH (Benzoin Benzoin)

39

40

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

bruised, have
is

an aromatic odor which, to some,

It belongs to a family very disagreeable. which includes such plants as the Camphor and Cinnamon. Its home is in damp woods. North

Carolina, Tennessee,

and Kansas

limit its south-

ern range.

HAWTHORN OR NORTHERN GOOSEBERRY
Ribes oxyacanthoides

Gooseberry Family

The reddish purple berry is round or round-ovoid, smooth, and covered with a bloom.
Fruit.

Like the other species,
at

it

keeps the dried calyx
July,

the

summit, and has similar seeds.

August.
Leaves.

The

leaves are deeply three- to five-

lobed, with the lobes toothed

and

cut.

The base
flowers
pedicels.

of the leaf is heart-shaped or wedge-shaped.

Flowers.

The greenish

or purplish

grow .in few-flowered
This
is

clusters,

on short

a low, usually smooth, shrub, with

crooked or reclined branches.
occur, they are scattered,

When
spines,

prickles
if

and the

any,
in

grow singly or in threes. wet woods as far south as

The plant grows

New

Jersey and west

HAWTHORN GOOSEBERRY
41

(Ribes oxijacanthoides)

42

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

from Newfoundland to Northwest Territory and It is also found in the Rocky British Columbia.

Mountains as far south as Utah and Colorado.

EASTERN WILD GOOSEBERRY
Ribes rotundifolium

Gooseberry Family
small, purplish, globose berry
is

Fruit.
free

The

from prickles and delicious in flavor. It is borne on a slender, smooth stem and bears the

mark

of the calyx at the tip.

The

gelatinous-

covered seeds are suspended in a pulpy mass. Leaves. The small, roundish leaves are
threevisions.

or

five-lobed,

with short and blunt
is

di-

The pubescence
is

slight

if

any, and

the leaf

shining above.

Flowers.

The

flowers are greenish, with the

lobes sometimes a dull purple.

They grow on a

short two- or three-flowered stern.

This

is

a shrub three or four feet high.
are

The
Emer-

branches

spreading,

with

short,

usually

single, spines.

The

steins are

smooth.

son says that this is the most promising of our native gooseberries for cultivation. This species prefers

mountainous
to

habitats,

and ranges

from Massachusetts

North Carolina.

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE

43

SWAMP GOOSEBERRY
Ribes lacustre

Gooseberry Family

Fruit.
is

The berry

of the of

Swamp

Gooseberry

small, about one-sixth
is is

It It

an inch through. prickly, although the bristles are weak. reddish or dark purple, and often grows
clusters.

in raceme-like
sists

at

the summit.

The dried calyx perThe seeds have crusta-

ceous coats, surrounded by gelatinous ones, and are suspended by tiny threads. The flavor is
unpleasant. Leaves.
its

One
and

July, August. characteristic of the species

is

deeply cut, five-lobed leaves.
hairy.

The
is

petioles

are slender

The

leaf

thin,

and
in

hairy along the veins beneath. The greenish flowers Flowers.

grow

many-flowered racemes, differing in this respect

from the other gooseberries.
Riles lacustre seems
to

be an intermediate

form between gooseberries and currants. The young steins are quite prickly, and the spines The older are weak and single or clustered.
branches are smooth, excepting a few axillary
spines.

The plant favors wet woods

or

swamps

44:

HOW

TO

SNOW

WILD FRUITS

from Pennsylvania north to Newfoundland, and west through British Columbia and our northern
boundary
states.

FETID CURRANT.

MOUNTAIN CURRANT PROSTRATE CURRANT
Gooseberry Family

Ribes prostratum

Fruit.

slender

The round, light red berries grow in The berries and their short racemes.
bristles.

stems are covered with glandular
bruised, they smell like
JJeaves.

When

Skunk Cabbage.

The

leaves are deeply five- to seven-

lobed.

The lobes are ovate, acutish, and doubly serrate. The leaf stems are slender. The greenish flowers grow in erect, Flowers.
slender, several-flowered racemes.

Prostrate stems, sometimes rooting, are characteristic

of this' species.

The branches have

The unpleasant prickles nor spines. odor, when bruised, of both plant and fruit is " Fetid Currant. " It responsible for the name
neither
favors cold,

wet woods, and extends south from

Labrador, especially along the Alleghanies, to North Carolina, along the Rockies to Colorado, and throughout southern Canada.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

45

RED CURRANT
Ribes rubrum.

Ribes rubrum, Var. subglandulosum

Gooseberry Family

Fruit.

The smooth, round,

in

drooping racemes,

grow and in appearance and
is

red berries

taste are similar to the cultivated currant.

very similar to the garden one, although that is probably a cultivated form of a European species. The currant

The Wild Red Currant

The native to America, Europe, and Asia. Red Currant and the Fetid Currant are the only species with red berries, and the Fetid is easily
is

distinguished by agreeable odor.
is

its

glandular bristles and disThe range of our native fruit

woods, from Labrador to Alaska and south to New Jersey, Indiana, and Minnesota.
in cold

PURPLE-FLOWERING RASPBERRY
Rubus odoratus
Fruit.

Rose Family

The tiny red drupes
readily

are

closely

packed together into a
separates

flat, close head,

which
lobes

from
and

the

broad

receptacle.

Withered

stamens

recurved

calyx

46

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

PURPLE- FLOWERING RASPBERRY (Rubus odoratus)

surround the base.
ters

on bristly stems.

The fruits grow " The " berries

in clus-

are acid.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Leaves.

47

both surfaces.

The large leaves are pubescent on They are from three- to five-lobed
Large,
purple,
roselike

and

finely toothed.

Flowers.

blossoms

grow
It

in loose clusters.
is

for

the attractiveness
fruit
is

of

the

flowers

rather

than value of
Raspberry

that

the Purple-

Flowering

known.

The

large

peculiarly colored blossoms, so like the single rose in shape, appear advantageously against " the large, soft, green leaves. Grape leaves/'

Small Boy calls them, and they are quite similar. The shrub has no thorns, but recent growths stems, leaves, and calyx are densely clothed The plant occurs in with glandular hairs. rocky woods as far south as Georgia and Ten;

nessee and west to Michigan.

CLOUDBERRY.
Rubus chamaemorus
Fruit.

BAKED-APPLE BERRY MOUNTAIN RASPBERRY
Rose Family
fruit

The

consists

of

a few small

drupes borne on a
the ripened

flat,

broad receptacle, from
ripe.

which they separate when

The

flavor of

fruit is pleasant,

being sweet and

48

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
lobes support the

honeylike.

The ovate calyx

fruit at its base.

It is yellow or amber-colored

and usually tinged with red on the surface exposed to the sun. It is solitary and borne on
a terminal stem.

Two, simple, roundish, five- to ninelobed leaves, somewhat like geranium leaves, grow on the unb ranched stems. They are serLeaves.
rate

and

alternate.

Flowers.

The blossoms

are white.

Stami-

nate flowers grow on one plant; another.

pistillate,

on

This

is

a

low

herbaceous

plant
is

without

prickles, which, in

New

England,

found along

the coast of Maine and on the highest peaks of the White Mountains. It grows quite abun-

and

dantly in Nova Scotia, Labrador, Newfoundland, in the northern part of Quebec. It flourishes in greatest profusion

even farther to the

north, being an Arctic plant in Europe and Asia as well' as in America. The northern berries are
superior in size

and
in

quality.

The Indians
berries in

Quebec cook the a sugar made from birch juice, and the
northern

dwellers in the posts of the Hudson Bay make from them a jam of rare flavor.

Company

RED OE REDDISH PURPLE

49

WILD RED RASPBERRY
(For illustration,
see

page

182.)

Rubus

strigosus

Rose Family
so-called berry
is

Fruit.
fruit,

The

an aggregate

consisting of

many

small, united drupes,

the juicy pulp arising from the outer coat of the contained nutlet. The styles are persistent over the hemispherical surface of the fruit, and the When persistent stamens surround the base.
ripe, the fruit separates

from the white, spongy,

The fruits are oblong receptacle. borne in a loose cluster, either terminally or from a leaf axil. The fruit stems are thickly
or
conical

covered with recurved

bristles.

The

fruits are

red and delicious in taste and fragrance.

July-

September.
Leaves.

The compound
and the

of three or five leaflets.

leaves are composed These are coarsely and
lateral ones are ses-

irregularly serrate,
sile.

They are rounded at base and acute at The under surface is whitish and downy. apex. The white flowers grow in loose Flowers.
clusters.

Aside from

Raspberry

is

dissemination by seeds the Suckers run spread from the root.
its

50

HOW
all

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

out in

directions

from the central root ana

It is common send up new shoots in fresh soil. to find the Raspberry growing in patches by the

roadside, along fence rows, or in corners.

Our Wild Red Raspberry

is

the ancestor of

the various cultivated varieties.

Wild Raspberry, is an intermediate form between the Wild Red It is a Raspberry and the Black Raspberry.
or Purple

White Raspberry is Eubus neglectus,

The cultivated " considered a sport."

plant with comparatively few bristles or prickles.

The fruit is borne on upright stems, is dark red, and nearly hemispherical. In cultivation the
fruit is yellow.

DWARF RASPBERRY
Rubus Americanus.
Fruit.

Rubus

triflorus

Rose Family

This fruit resembles in appearance

that of the

Low

Blackberry.
ripe,

It differs in color,

being dark red

when

and

also in the sepa-

ration of the few,
it

two

to five, grains

which com-

from the receptacle, when the fruit is pose mature. Each grain is a juicy drupe inclosing
a single hard-coated seed.
a slender stem.
July.

The

fruit is

borne on

DWARF RASPBERRY

(Rubus Awericanus)

51

52
Leaves.

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
leaves
consist
of

The

compound

from three to

five thin, nearly

smooth

leaflets.

These are coarsely and doubly serrate. The flower cluster grows on a Flowers.
ish

slen-

der stem and consists of from one to three small-

white flowers.
six

The

sepals

and petals are

often

or

seven in number, while those of

the other species number but five. This vine is ascending or trailing,

slightly

woody and hairy, but has no prickles. The fruit is borne on upright stems. It favors moist
woods, and ranges from Labrador as far south as New Jersey and westward.

VIRGINIA OR SCARLET STRAWBERRY
Fragaria Virginiana

Rose Family

The receptacle of the ripened fruit has become much enlarged, pulpy, sweet, and
Fruit.
scarlet in color
its
;

and

bears,

sunken

in pits over

surface, several achenes.
fruit.

subtends the aggregate
species are

The lobed calyx The fruits of this

stems, in

They grow on drooping small clusters, and are overtopped by
globular.

the leaves.

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Leaves.

53

The

radical leaves consist of three

leaflets which are thick and leathery. The leaflets are obtuse, bluntly The leaf stems are hairy, as toothed, and hairy.

broadly oval or obovate

are also the stipules at the base of the petioles. Flowers. The white flowers grow in small

racemes on naked, hairy stems.

They have
a

many

bright yellow stamens, which form pleasing contrast with the white petals.

This
section.

is

the

common

field

strawberry of our

The strawberries, aside from propagation by means of seeds, spread by runners, and
the plants are usually found growing in patches. Fence corners, sandy knolls, and around rocks
are
spots

which often reward our search

for

the berries.

The common

attractive color com-

bination of red and green is seen in the leaves as At the time of well as in the leaves and fruit.
fruiting
red.

some

of the leaflets are often a bright

a,

Nor do the fruits depend upon color alone as means of allurement, but send forth upon the

breezes a deliciously perfumed notice that they are ready for guests. Have you not encountered
it

and, following

its lead,

shared with the robins,
delicious

bluebirds,

and downy woodpeckers, the

54
feast
?

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS
is

The wild

flavor of the berries

beyond

the power of cultivation to produce or retain.

A

strawberry bearing white fruits grows in

the Alps. F. Virginiana

grows from

New

Brunswick

southward and as far west as South Dakota.

Frag aria Canadensis
and Brown,
leaflets are
is

or Northern

Wild Strawby Britton

berry, described as a separate species

especially a northern plant.

The

oblong or narrowly obovate, and have comparatively few teeth. The fruit is oblong or

somewhat rounded
are sunken in pits.

at the summit.

The achenes

EUROPEAN WOOD STRAWBERRY
Fragaria vesca

Rose Family
are not sunken in pits

Fruit.

The achenes

but are borne on the nearly smooth surface of the conical or hemispherical fruit. The calyx lobes are sometimes spreading, sometimes reflexed.

The

fruit cluster rises

above the leaves.

Leaves.
leaves

The

thin, light green, three-parted

grow on stems that are shorter than the

flower stems.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
This species belongs to
It is naturalized
fields

55
places.

and rocky

from Europe, and

is less

com-

mon

than Fragaria Virginiana.

Frag aria Americana, American Wood Strawberry, is by some considered a variety of Fragaria vesca, but is described by Brit ton and Brown as a distinct species. The leaflets are thinner and the fruit ovoid, or like a prolonged
cone.

The berry has a smooth, shining

surface,

looking almost as if varnished, and the achenes It is an inhabitant adhere but slightly to it.
of rocky woods,

and does not extend below PennJersey.

sylvania and

New

Oregon

is its

western

boundary.

THE ROSE
The
rose,

with

its

subtle fragrance, is blossom and in fruit
tures of structure.

dainty pink coloring, and its' a general favorite. Both in
presents interesting feaThis is one of the plants
it

that protects

its

pollen from rain

and dew by

You pitching a petal tent over the stamens. surely remember the overlapping, folded aspect of the petals in the early morning or on a
cloudy day.

The

rose produces

no honey for the

bee, but

56

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

The mass does offer a liberal supply of pollen. of carpels at the center of the flower affords a
convenient landing place for the insect and a substantial platform on which he may stand
gathering the pollen stores, which are yielded by the numerous stamens circled about.
while

During his harvesting the bee carries pollen from one blossom to the receptive stigmas of
another, and accomplishes the cross fertilization of the flower at the same time that he is gather" ing material for his bee bread." The fruit of the rose is peculiar to itself and
is

known

as a hip.

It is considered

by Gray

and by Britton and Brown

to be a fleshy calyx

cup with a contracted mouth which incloses the bony achenes. Kerner and Oliver consider the
hip as a hollow receptacle which contains carpels that are entirely distinct from the wall of the
receptacle.

at

The remnants of the styles remain the mouth of the hip, which may or may not

be surrounded by the calyx lobes. The fruits are eaten by birds and the seeds
scattered by them.

Mice, too, are fond of the

hips but

destroy the seeds instead of Some rose hips were aiding in their dispersal. from the bushes and scattered along gathered

gnaw and

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
the near-by path.

57

In the morning, these were

found to have been nibbled or eaten by the mice, while the hips on the bushes were left untouched,

having been protected by the sharp thorns and These also hinder snails and caterprickles.
pillars

from reaching and destroying the fresh
five native species quite

foliage.

There are
our section.

common

in

SMOOTH OR MEADOW ROSE
Rosa blanda
Fruit.

Rose Family

This globose, bright scarlet hip

is

generally smooth and retains the calyx lobes, which are erect on the fruit and somewhat hairy.

September.
Leaves.

The

leaflets

are

five

to seven

in

number, obtuse at the summit, narrowed at the base, and simply and sharply serrate. They

have short stems or are
are broad and dilated.

sessile.

The

stipules

Flowers.

The pink
is

flowers are solitary or in

corymbs. Rosa blanda
feet high.

a low bush not more than four

It occasionally bears a

few prickles

58

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

but entirely lacks spines, this feature being a The stems distinguishing mark of the species.
are a dark red.
It favors moist,

rocky places
Jersey and

from Newfoundland south to
west to
Illinois

New

and Ontario.

SWAMP ROSE
Rosa Carolina
Fruit.

Rose Family

The
hairs.

scarlet

pressed-globose.

hip is globose or deIt and the stem are set with

glandular

The spreading

or
;

reflexed

calyx lobes are deciduous. during the winter.
Leaves.

September

remains

The compound
usually seven.

leaves have five to

nine

leaflets,

They
at

are usually
either

narrowly oblong and

pointed

end.

They

are simply

and

finely serrate, dull green,

and pale or pubescent beneath. Even in midsummer they often become a dull reddish color,

which

js

the

regular

autumnal

shade.

The

stipules are dilated.

Flowers.

The bright pink
corymbs,

flowers usually

grow

in

seldom

solitary.

Juneborders

August. This rose of

swamps and

stream

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
suckers freely arid often grows in clumps.
is

59
It

from one to eight feet in height. The spines are stout and often recurved. Prickles fre-

The range quently occur along the stems. It throughout the Eastern United States.
one of the most

is
is

common

species.

LOW OR PASTURE ROSE
Rosa humilis
Fruit.
hips,

Rose Family

The depressed globular

or

globose

with their pedicels, are hairy and glandular. The calyx lobes are not persistent. September
persistent.

and

Leaves.

The

leaflets are

from

five to seven,

usually five. thin, acute at

They

are coarsely serrate, rather apex, short-stemmed or sessile.

The

stipules

are

narrow and

entire.

Bright

reds and orange are the autumnal colorings. The solitary or two- to threeFlowers.
clustered pink flowers have a glandular calyx

with lobed calyx lobes. May-July. The Pasture Rose is usually low, about three
feet high.

The
is

spines are slender

and

straight,
It is a

and the bush

more or

less prickly.

60

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

Low OR PASTURE ROSE
rose of dry soil
It

(Rosa humilis)

and spreads rapidly by suckers. extends south to Georgia and Louisiana, and

west to Wisconsin.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

61

NORTHEASTERN ROSE
Rosa nitida
Fruit.

Rose Family

The hip is globular, scarlet, and The calyx lobes fall. glandular hairs.
is

bears Fruit

persistent.

are usually narrowly oblong and pointed at either end. They are
leaflets

Leaves.

The

The sharply serrate, bright green, and shining. are generally broad and somewhat glanstipules dular. Bright orange and red are the fall colors.
Flowers.

The

flowers are in small clusters.

June, July.

A

marked

sign of this species

is its

red shoots

with their prickles, which are nearly as stout as It is a plant of low stature, the slender spines.
Its range is quite about two feet in height. limited from Massachusetts north to New-

foundland.

DOG
Rosa canina
Fruit.

ROSE.

CANKER ROSE
Rose Family

The

reflexed calyx lobes fall

from the

long ovoid hip, which is usually smooth. fruit is red when mature. September.

The

62
Leaves.

HOW

TO

SNOW

WILD FRUITS

The stipules
seven

are glandular

and broad.
nearly

The

five to

leaflets are quite thick,

smooth above, somewhat pubescent below, and
sharply toothed. The flowers are often light pink or Flowers.
white.

They

are

usually

solitary,

sometimes

few-clustered.
It This species is sometimes ten feet high. It is similar to the has stout spines with hooks. It has following species, but is not fragrant. It frequents been naturalized from Europe.

roadsides

south

to

New

Jersey

and

eastern

Pennsylvania.

SWEETBRIER.
Rosa rubiginosa
Fruit.

EGLANTINE
Rose Family

The ovoid hip changes from yellowish

to red in ripening.

It is usually smooth, sometimes slightly prickly with a prickly pedicel.

The calyx
Leaves.
finely

lobes usually fall.

September.

The

leaflets are

toothed.

The

usually doubly and under surface is densely

The apex is generally hairy and resinous. obtuse and the base rounded. The leaf stems
are prickly

and the

stipules are

broad and glan-

SWEETBRIER (Rosa
63

rubifjinoso)

64
dular.

HOW
The

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS
or bruised
is

foliage

when crushed

very fragrant. The blossoms are smallish but such Flowers. a wonderful
fragrance.

deep pink.

They strangely

lack

June, July. In this naturalized species,

we have

the Eglan-

tine of English fame.

The

delicious fragrance

It is very thorny, with unique. stout spines which curve downwards. Virginia and Tennessee mark its southern range.

of the leaves

is

AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH
Sorbus Americana.

Pyrus Americana

Apple Family

The bright red, berrylike fruits show externally their pome characteristics by the fiveFruit.

pointed, starlike calyx teeth at the summit.
cross section

A

shows the seeds
core.

in their five cells

around the

The

fruits

grow

in

large,

heavy

clusters.

September, October.
leaves consist of from

Leaves.

The compound
is

six to eight pairs of leaflets

with a terminal one.
leaflets are lanceo-

Their stem
late or

reddish.

The

at the tip.

oblong oval, sharply serrate, and pointed The under surface is paler than the

upper.

They

are yellow in the

fall.

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Flowers.
flat

65

The small white

flowers

grow

in

compound cymes.

May, June.

AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH (Sorbus Americana)

The Mountain Ash Tree is gorgeous in fruit. The birds, however, do not seem to care for the
fruit,

neglecting

it

if

other food
closely

is

available.

The American

species

resembles

the

66

HOW
Our

TO

KNOW WILD
is

FRUITS

European, which
lawns.

the one usually grown on native tree has a darker bark,

smoother leaves and stem, more sharply toothed
leaves,

and darker, smaller
in its growth.
is

fruit.

The

tree is

more slender

The range
tains of

from Newfoundland to moun-

North Carolina, west to Michigan and
sambucifolia

Minnesota.

Sorbus

Gray)

is

much

like

(Pyrus sambucifolia of the preceding but with

It smaller cymes and larger fruit and flowers. is a more northern tree, northern New England

limiting

its

southern range.

It

occurs

near

Lake Superior and westward.

RED CHOKEBERRY. DOGBERRY
Aronia arbutifolia.

Pyrus arbutifolia

Apple Family

The fruit grows in an erect cymelike Each pome, small and berrylike though it be, shows its resemblance to an apple in the calyx teeth and the dried stamens which it bears at the apex. A vertical section shows the " and a cross section the five cells with core,"
Fruit.
-

cluster.

their normally

two

seeds.

The

flesh is reddish or

RED CHOKEBERRY

(Aronia arbutifolia)

67

68

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

dark in color and not very thick.
fruits

The separate
and

are reddish, globose or pear-shaped,
size of

about the

a large huckleberry.

sweet but rather dry and astringent. remain long on the bushes, as birds do not seem to care for them.
Leaves.

They are They often

The margins
have
;

of the oblanceolate or

oblong leaves

fine

rounded teeth.
is

The

petioles are short

the apex

obtuse or sharply

narrowed
midrib
leaf
is is

;

and the

base, narrowed.

The upper

glandular.

The under

surface of the

the leaves change they woolly. assume dark red and orange shades.

When

Flowers.
in

The

white,

rose-shaped

flowers

grow compound downy corymbs. The chokeberry is a shrub from one
feet

to three

high,

occasionally

reaching

a

twelve feet. It is largest in swamps thickets but often grows in dry places.

height of and moist
It is

common from Nova
to Minnesota.

Scotia south, and westward

JUNEBERRY (Amelanchier Canadensis)
70

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

71

SERVICE BERRY.

JUNEBERRY.

MAY

CHERRY
Amelanchier Canadensis

Apple Family

Fruit.

The

berrylike

pomes vary

in

color

from a red

to an almost violet-blue.

They

are

covered with a slight bloom. The calyx lobes ? at the summit, inclose several dried filaments.

The ovary is five-celled with two ovules to a cell, but as the fruit develops a false partition grows between the two ovules of each cell, making the
fruit ten-celled

with one seed in each,

if all

the

ovules develop.

The

fruits are generally globose,

racemes on rather long, slender stems. They are sweet and delicious in flavor. They ripen in June hence the name of June-

and grow

in

;

berry.

Leaves.

The ovate

or

ovate-oblong leaves

are sharply toothed, rounded or heart-shaped at When young the base, and acute at the tip.

they are hairy, but become smooth. The white flowers, with their strapFlowers. shaped petals, grow in loose, drooping racemes at
the ends of branchlets.

This species

is

a tree from ten to thirty feet in

72
height.

HOW
It
is

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
and
to be

said to fruit sparingly
its

soon robbed of
robins, cedar

fruit

by the birds,

bluebirds,

birds,
I

orioles,

downy and hairy
to

woodpeckers.

have been fortunate enough

know

it

in prolific seasons,

when

the trees stood

laden with red and purplish fruits for two or three weeks.

Amelanchier is a plant which is much influenced by climatic conditions. Two apparently different types exist east and west of the
Rockies.

On

the

Rocky Mountains the two
other
until they cannot

merge

into

each

be

distinguished.

The

fresh

and dried

fruits of

one variety are

said to have been used by the Indians. Dr. Hooker says they make a pudding which is nearly equal to plum pudding. Amelanchier Botryapium, or Shad Bush, is a lower plant, sometimes a shrub. The young leaves are more woolly, the racemes shorter and thicker, and the fruit smaller, on shorter It grows in low wet stems, and more juicy.

or in

swampy woods.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

73

COCKSPUR THORN
Crataegus Crus-Galli

Apple Family
is

Fruit.

The external appearance

decidedly

that of a pome, with

sharply The seeds pointed calyx lobes at the summit. The are, however, bony, like those of a drupe.
fruit is red

its five, persistent,

and nearly globular.

September and

throughout the winter.
Leaves.

The

leaves are inversely egg-shaped,

with pointed or rounded apex. The leaf tapers toward the base, the margin of which is entire.

margin is toothed. The upper surface is smooth and shining and the lower one is paler. Yellow and red are the colors
of the

The remainder

of the fall foliage.

Flowers.

The fragrant white
tree.

flowers

grow

in irregular corymbs.

This Thorn becomes a small
slender, sharp thorns.

It

has long,
as

It is not

very

common

a native, but

is

well adapted for cultivation.

74

HOW

TO

SNOW

WILD FRUITS

LARGE-FRUITED THORN. DOTTEDFRUITED THORN
Crataegus punctata

Apple Family

Fruit.

The red

are dotted

yellow globular pomes with whitish dots. They grow on

or

dotted hairy peduncles in leafy corymbs. The bony nutlets are rounded and somewhat grooved.

The
The

flesh is

flavored.

dry and tough but rather pleasant The calyx lobes crown the summit.
abundant.
inversely

fruits are

September.

Leaves.
are acute

egg-shaped leaves or rounded at the apex and taper

The

toward the base, finally forming winged petioles. The margin above the middle is serrate. The
veins beneath are prominent and usually hairy. The leaves are rather thick and firm.

Flowers.

The white
clusters.

flowers

grow

in some-

what
downy.
This

leafy

The flower

stems

are

is

branches.

a thick spreading tree with horizontal It is not very tall. It frequently
thickets.

grows in

The bark

is

thorns are sharp and light brown.

The The Duke of
rough.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Argyle
is

75

said to

have introduced

this tree into

English gardens. The seeds of the Thorn

haws, are so hard that it requires a considerable time for In some parts of France their germination.

fruits, or

when a hawthorn hedge are fed to turkeys. The
somewhat
softened,

is

wanted, the haws

seeds are uninjured by the digestive process but the hard coats are

and germination

is

more

readily secured.
nies into Georgia

It extends

along the Allegha-

and Alabama;

Quebec and

Ontario are

its

northern limits.

SCARLET THORN
Crataegus coccinea

Apple Family

The globose or ovoid pomes grow in small clusters, two or three fruits in each. They are bright red, on slender stems, and bear The flesh is thin. The calyx lobes at the top.
Fruit.

three or four nutlets are deeply ridged along the The fruit is rather sweet and dry. Sepback.

tember, October.
Leaves.

The broad-ovate

leaves

grow

alter-

nately on slender stems which are grooved above.

SCARLET THORN

(Cratsegus coccinea)

76

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
The
leaves are
finely toothed

77

and deeply cut, almost lobed along the upper half. The outline somewhat resembles that of a White Birch leaf.

The

under
is

surface
fall

is

paler

than the upper.
white flowers

Yellow

the

color.

Flowers.

The rather

large

grow on slender stems,

in clusters.

They have

a strong, disagreeable odor. May. This is a low tree with crooked, spreading
branches, ashy gray or light brown bark, and stout thorns attaining maturity on third-year The plants like moist soil but will growths.
in pasture lands, where they form thickets, the thorns protecting them from destruction by grazing animals. In New England this thorn is

grow

generally larger than the other species.
Cratcegus macracantha has longer thorns, thicker leaves, stouter stems, and larger flowers

and

fruits.

The
mottis

leaves are sometimes doubly

serrate.

Cratcegus

varies

chiefly

from

Cratce-

gus coccinea in having hairy leaves, twigs, and leaf stems. It is about two weeks earlier.
Partridges are fond of the Thorn fruits, and when snaring the birds
little

in the good old days,

was not " prohibited by law," the bright

78

HOW
an

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

apples were used for bait.

boy," other day, the snow
;

said

elderly

man

"When to me

I

was a

only the

"we
set

used to dig narrow paths in up two sticks with a string

stretched across them, and a loop of horsehair

hanging from the string; scatter Thorn-apples Many a along the path and await results.
;

we found the next morning, unable to free himself from the horsehair loop, through which he endeavored to reach the
plump
bird have
edible fruits beyond."

PEAR THORN
Cratasgus tomentosa

Apple Family

Fruit.
like

The pear-shaped, seldom round, drupeis

pome

red or orange-red.

It is

crowned

erect calyx lobes. The flesh is thin and the seeds are bony. They are rounded, and have on the back two faint grooves. September,

by the

October, and persistent.
Leaves.

The

leaves are firm
petioles

and leathery,

and are borne on
to the base
is

which are margined

by the tapering leaves.

The margin

doubly serrate, and sometimes so deeply cut

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE
near the apex as to form lobes. surface is downy along the veins.
Flowers.
in leafy

79

The under

The

ill-scented

white flowers grow

corymbs on downy flower stems. The calyx lobes are likewise covered with down. This small tree has dark brown to gray bark
and sharp axillary thorns.
so
It
is

quite widely
is

distributed throughout the country, but

not

common

in the

Northern

states.

Central
it.

New
The

York contains

flourishing growths of

fruits cling to the tree until spring.

WILD YELLOW. OR RED PLUM
Prunus Americana

Plum Family
fleshy drupe
is

yellow or reddish, somewhat whitened with a bloom. It is globose,

Fruit.

The

with a slight depression at the tip. It grows The laterally on a stout, rather short, stem.
thick and tough, the flesh quite thick, and the stone rather smooth, with quite sharp
skin
is

edges.

August, September.

Leaves.

The ovate

leaves

are

doubly serrate.

They are nearly somewhat hairy along the veins on the lower The apex terminates in a long tip. surface.

coarsely or smooth, or

WILD YELLOW OR RED PLUM (Primus Americana)
SO

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Flowers.
leaves,

81

The white
grow
in

flowers

and

lateral

precede the sessile umbels.

April,

May.

Authorities differ

much

as to its range.

I

have known the tree along Connecticut roadsides,

especially in

state.

The

the eastern portion of the tree is small and thorny, and is

quite prolific,

CANADA PLUM. HORSE PLUM
Prunus nigra
fruit.

Plum Family

in being oblong-oval.

This plum differs from the preceding It is from an inch to one

The red or orangeand a half inches long. colored skin is tough, and the flesh clings to the
flat stone.

It is of pleasant flavor.

August.

Leaves.

The ovate

or obovate leaves are not

so sharply serrate as those of

Prunus Americana,

The apex is long-pointed nor bristle-tipped. and the base wedge-shaped or somewhat heartshaped. Flowers.

The white

in the preceding after

flowers are larger than species, and change to pink
in two- to three-

opening. flowered umbels.

They grow May.

82

HOW
This
is

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

a species of more northern range than In Canada the fruits are Primus Americana.
extensively
preserving.

marketed, being used raw or for The plant occurs in northern New

England, but has not been reported in Connecticut, and is but occasional in Massachusetts.
It flourishes in the St.

Lawrence valley and as
It follows streams,

far west as

Lake Manitoba.

grows along fences, and springs up

in thickets.

BEACH PLUM
Primus maritima

Plum Family
or

Fruit.

The purplish

red bloom-covered

drupe is globular and from one-half to one It hangs by a slender stem. inch in diameter. The stone is thin and sharp on one edge and

rounded on the other.
each end.
Leaves.

It is usually pointed at

August, September.

The ovate

or oval leaf has a rounded

base and- an acute apex. It is finely serrate. The leaves are arranged alternately. They often

have one or two glands at the base. and orange are the autumnal colors.
Flowers.
in umbels

Dark red

The white
along the

flowers
of

grow profusely
the
branches-

sides

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

83

They open May.

before

the

leaves

appear.

April,

This rather low shrub

is

a habitant of sandy

or stony beaches, and sometimes grows in waste It grows in places twenty miles or so inland.

clumps and often
are sweet

fruits
ripe,

abundantly.

when

and

in

The plums some places are

gathered and sold for preserving.

WILD RED CHERRY. BIRD CHERRY. PIN OR PIGEON CHERRY
Prunus Pennsylvanica

Plum Family
light red drupes
to
five.

Fruit.
clusters of

The small from two
leaf

grow

in

These

clusters

grow from the
of

axils

or take

the place

previous year's often occupy a leafless space of They six or more inches along the branches, with
shoots.

leaves

at

the end

of

the

leaves
fruit

above and below them.

The

slender

stem

is

in length.

from three-quarters to an inch Each cherry is globular, about the

size of a pea,

and retains at the

tip a

remnant

of the style.

The
in

flesh is thin

and

sour.

The

stone

is

large

comparison with the whole

WILD RED CHERRY (Prunus
84

Pennsylvanica)

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
fruit,
is

85
noticeable
July.

nearly

globular,

and
are

has
side.

grooves and ridges along one
Leaves.

The

leaves

oblong-lanceolate,

with pointed apex and rounded base.
are finely serrate,

They
shining

and

in

arrangement are alterare a

nate or in pairs.

They

green above and lighter beneath.
they change to a bright yellow.
are slender and grooved.

bright In

autumn
petioles

The

Flowers.

The white

cherrylike flowers

grow

in umbels of from five to eight blossoms

The Wild Red Cherry

is

a small tree from

twenty to thirty feet high. It is especially a tree of the Northern forests, but extends south-

wards along the mountains, attaining est size in the mountains of Tennessee.
found along ravines.

its

great-

It often
is

springs up abundantly over cleared lands and

George Emerson
of
hill

tells of

using the dry beds

streams as a footpath and of finding there numerous stones of the Wild Red Cherry, although there were no trees of the kind within
a considerable distance.

Water, as well as
is

birds,

seems in this case to act

in scattering the seeds.

The bark

of the tree

reddish brown with

raised, rusty-looking dots,

and has the common

86

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

cherry characteristic of peeling off in horizontal
strips.

CHOKE CHERRY
Prunua Virginiana Fruit.
size

Plum Family

of

The drupes, which are ahout the peas, grow in long drooping clusters
Each cherry
it

at the ends of leafy branches of the season's

growth.

is

borne on a short stem

It is globular or nearly equal to oval, with a thin, shiny, dark red or nearly black skin. Yellow fruits have been found. The pulp

in length.

is

yellow, juicy, and rather sweet.

The

cherries

vary much
Leaves.

in flavor, but in all cases are

more or
grow

less astringent.

July, August.

The oval or obovate

leaves

from rounded stems which are grooved on the

Two or four glands are borne upper surface. on the margins of these grooves. The leaves
are rounded or wedge-shaped at the base and The margins are sharply pointed at the apex.

sharply serrate.
is

The upper

surface of the leaf

bright green and the lower one is lighter. Flowers. The small, white, cherrylike flow-

ers

grow

in loosely flowered, erect, or spreading

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
racemes.

87

those of the

The petals are more rounded than Wild Black Cherry. April, May.
tree.

This shrub sometimes becomes a small

The

growths are found in Nebraska, Indian Territory, and Texas. The trunk rarely has a diameter of more than two or three inches.
largest

The plant
ters of

is

decorative in fruit, with
spheres.

its clus-

shining, jewel-like
is

The

fruit

of

some shrubs

quite

pleasant to the taste,

while one cherry from another will "pucker"
tongue, and roof of mouth, and set one's The skin seems to possess more teeth on edge.
lips,

of the astringent quality than the flesh.

Bluebirds, robins,
birds,

cedar birds,

crows,

king-

hairy woodpeckers, and

flickers are

fond

of the fruit.

Bears are said to aid in scatter-

As for children, how they will ing the seed. fur their tongues with bunch after bunch of the
cherries
!

It is

almost impossible to remove the

stain of this fruit

from clothing.

The Choke Cherry has an extended range from
within the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of Mexico

and across the continent. It is a familiar feature of roadside and fence-row growth and often
grows near streams.

88

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

DWARF SUMAC

(Rhus copallind)

DWARF SUMAC
Rhus
copallina

Sumac Family

Fruit.

quite

The panicle of bright red fruit is Each drupe is compressed and open.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
rather
short,

89

bearing the stigmas at the top. Gray dots are scattered over the fruits. The
is

berry

acid.

Persistent.

Leaves.
leaflets,

There are from nine to twenty-one

with noticeable wings along either side of the stem between them. This is a distinguishing feature of
the
species.

The
if

leaflets

are often entire and shine above as

polished.

The under surface is lighter and downy. In autumn the leaves become a rich' purple. Flowers. The fertile and sterile flowers are
in separate clusters, the pistillate in

much

smaller

ones than the staminate.

This sumac, like Rhus hirta, may be readily distinguished

is

pubescent, but

seemingly jointed, petioles.
is

by its winged, " The term " Dwarf
It

somewhat misleading,

as the plant sometimes

reaches a height of eighteen or twenty feet. is a beautiful shrub, growing on rocky hills.

STAGHORN SUMAC
Rhus
hirta.

Rhus typhina

Sumac Family

The small dry drupes are borne in a terminal, compound, compact cluster. Each fruit is one-seeded, has a very thin coat, and is thickly
Fruit.

90

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

STAGHORN SUMAC (Rhushirta)

covered with silky hairs.
the base.

The calyx
acid.

persists at

The

fruits

are

August, and

persistent through the winter.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Leaves.

91

The

leaves are

compound and odd-

pinnate, with from eleven to thirty-one leaflets. The petioles are red above and green below and The leaves are densely covered with hairs.
alternate.
sessile,

The

leaflets

are

oblong-lanceolate,

at the tip and sharply serrate, rounded at the base. They are paler beneath and The autumnal colors are brilliant; red, hairy.

acute

yellow, and orange.

Flowers.

The

sterile

and

fertile flower pani-

cles are usually

are

on different plants, although they occasionally on the same one. They are
June, July.
hirta
is

greenish yellow.

sometimes called Velvet Sumac, and appropriately so, for branches and stalks
are
so

Rhus

densely

coated

with soft

hairs

as

to

resemble, both to the sight and touch, a velvet

This hairy appearance, together with covering. the irregularly forked branches, somewhat re-

sembling the horns of a young stag, has given rise to its other popular name, Staghorn Sumac.
It
tree.

sometimes reaches the stature of a small

autumnal foliage is a great addition to the hills which it frequents. Sometimes a whole pasture is aglow with it.
brilliancy of its

The

For two successive springs

I

have seen

my

first

92

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
fruits

robin on the

sumac bushes, dining on the
it

which have been preserved for
winter.

through the
in

The

catbird includes

sumac drupes
is

his spring diet.

The
fall.

taste of the berries after

their exposure to the cold of winter

much

less

acid than

in

the

The bark and

leaves,

because of their astringent qualities, are useful
in tanning.

SMOOTH SUMAC
Rims glabra
Fruit.

Sumac Family

The dry drupes grow in a more open, compound cluster than those of Rhus liirta. The
nate in
smaller clusters composing the fruit panicle altermuch the same fashion as the leaves.

The calyx
which
is is

persists at the base

of each

drupe,
fruit

covered with fine red hairs.
sides.

The

rounded and flattened on two
persistent.

September,

and

Leaves.

terminal
oles.

The compound pinnate leaves, with leaflets, grow on smooth, reddish petiAuthorities differ as to the number of They
are oblong-lanceolate, sessile,

the

leaflets.

toothed, and have a long point at the apex and

rounded base.

They

are whitened beneath and

11ED OR

REDDISH PURPLE
is

98

smooth.

The

foliage

gorgeous in crimsons
flowers
in termi-

and gold
nal,

in the fall.

Flowers.

The greenish

grow

much-branched heads.
is

This

June, July. a smooth sumac which does not at-

tain the size often reached

by

its

velvet-coated
to-

brother.

The two sumacs frequently grow

Their deep roots rengether and form clumps. der them difficult of extermination. The berries
are sometimes used in dyeing reds.

FRAGRANT OR SWEET-SCENTED SUMAC
Rhiis aromatica.

Rhus Canadensis
globose, red,

Sumac Family

Fruit.

The

downy drupes

are

in short clustered spikes.

Leaves.

The compound

leaf is

a terminal, short-stalked leaflet The terminal one sessile ones.
three-cleft.

composed of and two lateral
is

sometimes

grant.
red.

The bruised leaves In autumn the leaves

are rather fraare orange and

yellowish green blossoms appear before the leaves and are borne in short

Flowers.

The

spikes.

94

HOW
This
is

TO

ENOW WILD

FRUITS

a low, straggling shrub, growing in It occurs in patches on sandy or rocky banks. and thence west to Minnesota. western Vermont
It is not poisonous.

AMERICAN HOLLY
Ilex opaca

Holly Family

Fruit.

The globular red drupes
stalks along the recent

are borne

on short

growths or from

the leaf axils, looking like big red-headed pins The remnant partly stuck into the branches.
of the stigma at the
spot.

summit appears

as a black

at

The usually four-parted calyx lobes Each drupe contains four to the base.

are
six

small nutlets, which are ribbed, veiny, or onegrooved on the back. They are somewhat tri-

angular in shape.
thin.

The

flesh is

yellow and rather

Persistent.

The thick, leathery, evergreen leaves Leaves. are shining above and paler beneath. They have large teeth which terminate in spines. They are
oval in outline, with pointed apex and pointed or

angular base. Flowers. These are usually dioecious. The small white or greenish blossoms appear in June.

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE

95

The

sterile or partly sterile

usually
solitary.

in

the

axils.

The

ones grow in clusters, fertile ones are

AMERICAN HOLLY

(Ilex opacd)

a small tree with light gray bark, lighter than that of the beech, which it some-

This

is

what resembles.

Its evergreen leaves

and bright

96

HOW
In

TO

KNOW

WILD FEUITS

persistent berries

make

the fertile tree very ornait

mental.

its

native wilds,

often presents a
is
it

weird appearance, so overhung
grayish lichens.

with

soft,

The

leaves of the lower branches have the

sharpest spines, preventing the tree's destruction by grazing animals. On the upper branches,

beyond the reach of such enemies, the spines are less prominent, and at the tip of the tree they
nearly disappear.
"
reader
!

hast thou ever stood to see
holly-tree ?
it

The The eye

that contemplates Its glossy leaves

well perceives

Ordered by an intelligence so wise

As might confound
"

the atheist's sophistries.
its

Below, a circling fence,

leaves are seen
;

Wrinkled and keen

No

grazing cattle through their prickly round Can reach to wound
;

But as they grow where nothing is to fear, Smopth and unarmed the pointless leaves appear."
.

SOUTHEY'S The Holly-Tree.

The

glossy leaves

and showy

berries

have long

been associated with the Christmas season.

The

wood
It
is

is

hard and capable of a beautiful polish. used for cabinet making, whip handles,

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

97

Our species closely resembles engraving, etc. the European Holly, differing from it in having
less glossy leaves

and duller

fruit.

Holly occurs

more or
York.

less frequently in

It is

abundant

New England and New from New Jersey along

the coast to the south, and in the Gulf States.

dependent upon sea air, and will not grow much more than a hundred miles inland.
Holly
is

Ilex monticola, or Large-leaved Holly, grows
in the Catskills

and along the Alleghanies

to

Alabama.

usually a shrub, rarely becoming a tree. It bears a reddish drupe containing ribbed The leaves are thin, deciduous, ovate, nutlets.
It
is

and sharply toothed. The fertile flowers grow on very short stems and are solitary. The sterile
ones are clustered.
f

BLACK ALDER. VIRGINIA WINTER BERRY
(For illustration, see Frontispiece.')

Hex

verticillata

Holly Family

Fruit.

The

bright, scarlet, glossy drupes are

about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The dark stigma is at the top and the persistent The pulp is yellowish, and calyx is at the base.

98

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

contains three to eight- lunate smooth nutlets. The fruits grow on short stems and are solitary
or
in
clusters.

They appear

as

if

arranged

spirally around the branches.

said to eat the berries.

The flicker is September, and clinging

long after the leaves
Leaves.

fall.

The

leaves turn black in autumn.

They

are oval or wedge-lanceolate, acute at the

apex, toothed, smooth above and hairy below, along the depressed veins.

Flowers.
flowers

The

small,

are solitary or

clustered in

polygamo-dioecious the axils.

May, June. The fence and stone-wall growth is brightened in the fall by the Black Alder with its scarlet
berries.

and
its

These are said to be eaten by flickers, growth along fence rows would suggest The bushes with the dispersal by birds.
its

berries snow-laden are a beautiful sight.

I

was
in

recognize these bright glad the windows of New York
to

wild fruits City

florists,

placed amidst fantastic orchids and customary The plant ranges Christmas decorations. the eastern part of the United throughout
States as far west as Missouri.
in
It also occurs

Nova

Scotia.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

99

SMOOTH WINTER BERRY
Ilex leevigata

Holly Family

Fruit."

The

rich orange-red drupes are larger

than the preceding and ripen earlier. They on peduncles in length equaling their grow
diameter.
Leaves.

September.

The

thin, light green, oval or

oblong

leaves have a glossy luster on either side.

The

apex
base

is

is

acute and often has a twisted point ; the The leaves are obscurely also acute.

toothed.

They are bright yellow in the fall. The small white flowers are perFlowers. fect or dioecious, and grow in the leaf axils on
slender stems.

The extent

of this species

is

from Maine

to

Its range is much the mountains of Virginia. more limited than that of the preceding plant. Its yellow

autumnal coloring

is

one distinguish-

ing feature.

100

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

WILD OR MOUNTAIN HOLLY
Ilicioides mucronata.

Nemopanthes

fascicularis

Holly Family

crimson, nearly globular, berrylike drupe grows from the leaf axil, on a The flesh red stalk, an inch or more in length.
pale

Fruit.

The

yellowish and incloses four or five faintly ribbed stony nutlets. September.
is

Leaves.

on slender stems.

The oblong deciduous leaves grow They are entire or faintly

toothed and acute or bristle-tipped at the apex. Flowers. The flowers are small, white, and
polygamo-dicecious. May, June. The long, threadlike peduncles are distinctive
features of this much-branched shrub.
It

has

an ash-gray bark. Its habitat is in damp woods along the mountains in Virginia, and northwards.
consin.
It is

found west to Indiana and Wis-

STRAWBERRY BUSH
Euonymus Americanus
Fruit.
Staff-tree

Family

opens

its

The rough, warty, crimson capsule usually five pods and discloses the

BED OR REDDISH PURPLE
scarlet arils of the seeds.

101

There are one to four
to

seeds in each
Leaves.

cell.

The

ovate
are

oblong-lanceolate,

nearly sessile, leaves
pointed apex. Flowers.

bright

green with a
in loose

The small

flowers

grow

June. cymes from the leaf axils. This is an erect shrub, sometimes six feet high. It grows along the wooded banks of streams

from

New York
is

and

Illinois,

southward.

Euonymus

obovatus,

Running

Strawberry

low and straggling. The leaves are inBush, verse egg-shaped, and grow on short stems. The
flowers are smaller

ceding species. It has a more limited range than Strawberry Bush, its southern boundaries being Pennsylvania, Indiana,

and earlier than in the preThe fruit is usually three-celled.

and Kentucky.

BURNING BUSH. WAHOO. SPINDLE TREE
Euonymus atropurpureus
Fruit.
Staff-tree

Family

The smooth fleshy pod or capsule is The three- or four-lobed and purple in color. disclose the pods open, when mature, enough to

\*

BURNING BUSH (Eiionymus atropurpureus)
102

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
bright red ariled seed.

103
long,

The

fruits

grow on

drooping stems and hang late on the branches. The fruit is said to be poisonous. October.
leaves are ovate or elliptical, pointed at the apex and pointed or blunt

Leaves.

The thin

at base.

They are finely toothed. The dark purple flowers grow Flowers.

in

few-flowered clusters on drooping stems. In New England this plant appears only as a
cultivated shrub.

York, west to Wisconsin and Nebraska, and southward, it is found In Arkansas and along the wood borders. Indian Territory it reaches tree size.

In

New

WAXWORK. SHRUBBY OR CLIMBING
BITTERSWEET
Celastrus scandens
Staff-tree

Family

The yellow or orange berrylike capsule opens and bends backward its two to
Fruit.

three valves, disclosing the scarlet arils which surround the seeds. There are three cells, with

one or two brownish oblong seeds in each. fruits grow in a loose, spikelike cluster.
tember.

The
Sep-

104

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD FEUITS

SHRUBBY OR CLIMBING BITTERSWEET

(Celastrus scandens)

Leaves.

The ovate-oblong

leaves are usually

They are pointed at the apex and at the base. in arrangement. slightly toothed and alternate

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
Flowers.
flowers often

105
pistillate

The

staminate
different

and

grow on

plants.

They

form long, loose spikes. June. The fruit of this plant is highly decorative, and
gathered before the capsule opens will develop in the house and remain in good condition
if

throughout the winter.

The woody vine

coils

upon
shall

itself,

and climbs over fences and

trees.

I

never forget the glory which a roadside The nook revealed one bright autumnal day.

dark Pine and White Birch were growing together, and winding in and out and over both

gleamed the bright berries of the Bittersweet. It was too beautiful to spoil/ and we left it
undisturbed.
It
is

grows from North Carolina
said to be rare in the

northward, but

White

Mountain country.

LEATHERWOOD. MOOSEWOOD
Dirca palustris

Mezereon Family
oval, shining, reddish drupes are

Fruit.
solitary or
fruit
flesh

The

from two to three

in a cluster.

contains a
is

thin

and tough.

compressed ovate seed. The fruit matures

Each The

rapidly and falls early.

106

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

The leaves are oval or inverse eggThe under surface is much lighter than shaped. The petiole is short. the other. The light yellow flowers appear Flowers. before the leaves. Usually three come out of
Leaves.

the same bud, with their short stalks cohering.
April.

from the toughness of its bark that this The shrub receives its name, Leatherwood.
It is

wood

is

quite brittle, but

it

is

almost impossible

to break the bark.

making with good effect. The plant grows in moist places in woods from New Brunswick to Minnesota, and south.

quality and utilized are used in basket

The Indians knew of this it for The twigs thongs.

CANADIAN BUFFALO BERRY
Lepargyraea Canadensis.
>

Shepherdia Canadensis

Oleaster Family

Fruit.
berry.

The fruit externally resembles a The fleshy, four-cleft calyx, however,
smooth nut or an achene, making the
It is yellowish
red,
insipid.

incloses a

accessory fruit drupelike.
oval,

small, and

July, August.

RED OH REDDISH PURPLE
Leaves.

107

On

short, hairy stems are borne the

ovate or .oval opposite leaves. These are entire, obtuse at apex, narrowed toward the base,
densely silvery scurfy beneath, and smoother and greener above. The scurf is often brownish.

Flowers.
cious.

The small yellow
pistillate

flowers are dioe-

The

have the ovaries inclosed

in a four-parted, urn-shaped calyx tube, closed

at the

mouth by an
It

eight-lobed disk.
is

A

low, thornless shrub

the Canadian Buf-

falo Berry.

rocky banks.

has scurfy young shoots. It likes It is a northern plant, extending

down

into

Vermont and New York.

GINSENG
Panax quinquefolium.

A r alia quinquefolia

Ginseng Family

grows in a simple umbel. The berries are bright red, and sometimes in
Fruit.
fruit

The

joined

pairs.

They

are

somewhat

flattened,

drupelike, and have two or three

seeds.

The compound leaves grow in a whorl of three. Each leaf has five leaflets, and its appearance is somewhat seldom more,
Leaves.

108

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
leaf.

like that of a
is

Horse-chestnut

Each

leaflet

ovate or obovate, thin, and sharply toothed, with a pointed apex and narrowed or rounded
base.

Flowers.
flowers

The greenish yellow, polygamous
in

grow

small,

simple umbels.
in such

July,

August.

The
for
its

root of the Ginseng

is

demand

supposed medicinal value that the plant

has become quite rare. Recently Ginseng plantations have been started to supply the demand

The Chinese, especially, prize it as a remedy for fatigue and a preventive against old The Chinese name for it is JincJien, meanage.
for the root.

ing manlike, from its fancied two-legged shape. Its range is south to Alabama and west to Minnesota, Nebraska,

and Missouri.

LOW OR DWARF CORNEL. BUNCHBERRY
Cornus Canadensis

Dogwood Family

The bright red drupes grow in a comThey pact bunch at the summit of the stem.
Fruit.

are globose and bear the calyx teeth at the tip The solitary stone is smooth and nearly globular.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

109

BUNCHBERRY (Cornus

Canadensis)

Leaves.

The upper
or

leaves are nearly stem-

less, in a whorl of four or six at the top of the

stem.

One

two

pairs

of

scalelike

leaves

110

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

sometimes occur along the stem. The leaves are or oval. entire, acute at each end, and ovate
Flowers. -

The small greenish

flowers are in

a close cluster, and surrounded by four white
bracts.

May-July.
is

The Bunchberry
fusely

among

the
It
is

reported as growing proWhite Mountains and the

Adirondacks.
"

very attractive
live

in

fruit.

But," said a

woman who was
their

exclaiming over
all

" them, the people

time don't
notice

who even know

among them

the

names and hardly

Truly, many there are who, having eyes, see not the beauties of their com-

them."

mon

environment.
Jersey, Indiana,

New

and Minnesota are the
It extends far north-

limits of southern range.

ward and westward.

FLOWERING DOGWOOD
Cornus
florida

Dogwood Family
are bright

The small ovoid drupes red and grow in small bunches.
Fruit.

They

are

ovoid and bear at the tip the calyx and the remnant of the style. The flesh is bitter and

FLOWERING DOGWOOD (Cornus

florida)

111

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
unpleasant.
neled.

113

The stone

is

smooth and chan-

September.

Leaves.

The

leaves

They The upper surface is shining and The the lower one lighter and often downy.
longed apex.
entire.

oval with a proare narrowed at the base
are

and

autumnal
crimsons.

colorings

are

rich

in

scarlets

and

Flowers.

grow
petals.

in

The inconspicuous greenish flowers heads, surrounded by a showy white

involucre of four parts, often mistaken for the

This shrub or small tree grows readily in the shade of other trees. It is showy in springtime,

with

its large white bracts surrounding the flower clusters and acting as signals to the insects that assist in the fertilization of the incon-

spicuous blossoms.

These bracts

are, in reality,

developed bud plant thrown

scales,
off

which are not

in

this

when

their protective offices

against the cold and storms of winter have been " The blossom is the " corn sign performed.
of the

New England
fall,

farmer.

In the

the red fruit clusters amidst the au-

tumnal

foliage present a fine showing.
fall,

The

fruit

lingers throughout the

and after the frosts

114

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

have somewhat changed its taste is eaten by The bitter bark is somewhat similar robins.
in its action to

Peruvian bark and
it.

is

sometimes

substituted for

The plant grows in dry woods from southern New England west to Ontario and Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.

SPRING

OR CREEPING WINTERGREEN CHECKERBERRY. BOXBERRY

TEABERRY
Gaultheria procumbens

Heath Family

Fruit.

The

with

many

actual fruit capsule is five-celled, seeds in each cell. It is like a

flattened sphere in shape,
thin.

and
is

its flesh

is

very
to
deis

This capsule, however,

nearly inclosed

in a thickened, fleshy, red calyx,

which gives

the whole the appearance of a berry.

The

veloped calyx plainly shows its five lobes. subtended- at the base by two small bracts.

It

grow on short, drooping stems from the leaf axils. They are usually The berry is dry and mealy, but has a solitary.
so-called berries

The

delightful aromatic flavor similar to the sweet
birch.

116
Leaves.

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS
thick, evergreen

The usually few,

leaves are borne at the ends of

the branches.

They

are alternate, ovate

and glossy above with

a whitened under surface.

toothed with bristle-like
short and reddish.

They are sparsely The petioles are teeth.
leaves are tender

The young

and delicious in
Flowers.

flavor.

The usually

solitary, white, nod-

ding flowers are

waxy and

vaselike.
"

When we
June

search woods and moist banks in

for the "

Young Wintergreen
still

we

are apt

to find last year's berries

lingering.

The

new

fruits ripen in the fall,

and serve during the

winter as food for the birds.

This plant is one example of red fruits contrasted with evergreen leaves. The branches grow from a creeping or

underground stem.
ous
localities.

The plant
range
is

is

found in vari-

Its

southward from

Maine and west

to Michigan.

RED BEARBERRY
Arctostaphylos Uva-TJrsi

Heath Family
in

Fruit.

The drupes grow

short clusters
fruit.

and retain the calyx at the base of each They are red, and the flesh is mealy and

taste-

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
less.

117

The

five nutlets

become inseparably united.
its

Each shows a
Leaves.

line along

back.

The

fruits

remain on the plant during the year.

The thick evergreen leaves are inThe apex is obtuse and the versely egg-shaped. base narrows to a short, downy stem. The upper leaf surface is shining and the lower one paler both are smooth. The margin is entire or hairy. The leaves are somewhat crowded towards the
;

ends of the branches.
face becomes

In winter, the upper sur-

somewhat brown and the under

one reddish.
Flowers.
pitcher-shaped
cluster.
five
len.
filled

The

drooping, flowers grow

white
in

or

pink,

a

short

end
to

The stigma matures from two

hours before the anthers shed their polThe opening of the flower is bearded or

with a "woolly thicket"
insects.

to

keep

out

winged

This evergreen
It

shrub

trails

over rocks and

abounds Alps and in sandy wastes. other mountainous sections of Europe, as well as in the northern countries of Europe and Asia.
in the
It prevails

throughout Canada and south to
Illinois,

New
Ne-

Jersey,

Pennsylvania,

Michigan,

braska, Colorado, and California.

118
Its

HOW

TO

KNOW
is

WILD

nomenclature
as Foxberry,
etc.

varied, the plant being

known

Bear's

Barren Myrtle, for grouse and partridges.

The

fruits

Grape, Mealberry, serve as food
is

The plant

used in

tanning, especially in parts of Europe, and is The Indians smoke the also used for dyeing.
leaves as a preventive against malarial disorders. It is known among them as Kinnikinic.

COWBERRY. MOUNTAIN CRANBERRY FOXBERRY
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea
Fruit.
is

Huckleberry Family

many-seeded dark red, acid, and often bitter. It is berry less than half an inch in diameter. The fruits

The

four- to five-celled,

grow

in short terminal clusters.
persistent.

August, Sep-

tember, and
Leaves.
leathery,

The evergreen leaves are thick and with somewhat shining upper faces
bristly

and paler under ones that are dotted with
black points. They are box leaves but darker.
oval and short-stemmed.

somewhat

similar

to

They

are obovate or

Flowers.

The nodding, white

or pink, bellclusters.

shaped flowers are in short terminal June.

RED
This
is

0/

'

k

REDDISH PURPLE

119

essentially a northern plant, extending

and appearing in our range in the mountains and along the coast of New England and west to the northern shore of Lake
far to the north,

Superior.

It

also occurs in

In northern Europe it is there used in making a jelly which is served with roast beef and deer flesh. It is also used
for colds
fruit

Europe and Asia. nourishes profusely, and

and

sore throats.

The

flavor of the

seems to improve towards the north, much

of

the bitterness being lost. Birds feed upon large quantities of the berries during their
migrations.
Bears,
too,

are

fond

of

them.

They uproot the bushes to get the hidden fruit near the ground. The shrub is low, only about
a foot high, with the upright branches growing from creeping stems.

SMALL OR EUROPEAN CRANBERRY
Oxycoccus Oxycoccus.
Vaccinium Oxycoccus
Huckleberry Family

Fruit.

The globose berry
often
spotted.
It

is is

red and
rather

when

young

is

smaller

than the American Cranberry,

is

acid,

and not

120

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
is

often
celled

marketed.

The berry

four- or

five-

and many-seeded.

August, September.

Leaves.
are

The
The
is

small, thick, evergreen leaves

whitened

beneath.

They

are

ovate and

entire.

The apex

margins are rolled backwards. pointed and the base rounded or

heart-shaped. Flowers.

The

pale

rose-colored,

nodding

blossoms have the corolla nearly divided into The anthers converge to four or five parts. form a cone. May- July.

The ascending branches
from
six inches to a foot

rise

to a height of

and a half from a

creeping stem which sends out roots at the nodes. Patches of cranberries are thus formed,
usually in peat bogs.
as

They grow
west
to

as far south

In Michigan. Canada they extend from Labrador to Alaska and British Columbia. They also grow in

New

Jersey and

Europe and Asia.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

121

LARGE OR AMERICAN CRANBERRY
Oxycoccus macrocarpus.
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Huckleberry Family

Fruit.

The berry

varies in shape
It
is

;

nearly

globular, ovate, or oblong. sides of the branches. It

grows from the larger than the

European Cranberry, and
has been cultivated.
four- or five-celled,
ber, October.
It is

is

the species which red when ripe, acid,

and

several-seeded.

Septem-

Leaves.

The

leaves are similar to those of

the preceding species, but are oblong and obtuse at the apex.

Flowers.
clusters.

The nodding pink
is

flowers

grow

in

June August.
larger
it,

This variety

and stronger than the
in

It peat bogs. grows throughout the north and in the states as far south as North Carolina and west to

preceding and, like

grows

Minnesota.
It

was
still

first

region

cultivated in Cape Cod, which holds the highest reputation as a cran-

berry section.

Cranberry plantations have been

also established in

New

Jersey and Wisconsin.

122

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

123

Eight hundred thousand bushels are estimated to represent a year's production of cultivated The wild Cranberries are also Cranberries.

marketed.

One plantation employs a thousand

pickers,

who camp
ing.
:

in tents or cabins during the harvest-

Bailey thus describes the pleasures of the workers " This picking time is a sort of a long and happy picnic all the happier for being a

busy one.

The

year to year. change and the novelty, and they must come near to nature in the sweet and mellow October
days.
lot

pickers look forward to it from They are invigorated by the

Those of our readers who have cast their

with hop-pickers, or
in

clearings

who have camped in the blackberry time, or who have
swamps,

joined in the excursions to huckleberry

can know something of the cranberry picker's Yet I fancy that one must actually experiences.
pick the cranberries in the drowsy Indian sum-

mer

to

know

fully

what cranberry picking

is

like."

Evolution of our Native Fruits.

124

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

PHILADELPHIA GROUND CHERRY
Physalis Philadelphia

Potato Family
all
is

Fruit.

Like
berry

the

other fruits of
in
fills

this

genus the
calyx.

inclosed

the

When
it

even opens
fruit calyx

ripe, the berry at the mouth.
its

enlarged the calyx or

The undeveloped

ten angles and is depressed about the stem. The berry is reddish or purple, It grows on a slender quite large, and pulpy.

shows

stem from the leaf
are flattened.

axil.

The numerous

seeds

Leaves.

The ovate

to ovate-lanceolate leaves

usually slant toward the base. They are entire or slightly wavy. are smooth or a trifle They

hairy above. Flowers.

The

flowers are yellowish

brown

with purplish centers. July-September. This annual is nearly smooth and is tall and upIt ranges from Rhode Island to Georgia right.

and Texas and west to Minnesota and Nebraska.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

125

NIGHTSHADE.
Solanum Dulcamara
Fruit.

BITTERSWEET
Potato Family

The oval
sides of

berries

grow

in

clusters

from the

In ripening, the berries change from green through yellow and
the stem.

orange to a bright red, often making a brilliant
array of colors in the cluster.

The

berries are

translucent with a thin skin, red pulp, and seeds arranged around an axial placenta.
five-pointed, starlike calyx
is

many
The

at the base of the

berry, which
itself.

borne on a stem about as long as The general consensus of opinion seems
is

to be that the berry

is

poisonous, especially
It

if

eaten in any quantity.

begins to ripen in
vines.

July and hangs long upon the
Thoreau, in describing this

fruit,

Solanum Dulcamara
which grow
in

berries

are

says another
:

"

The
kind

drooping clusters.

I

do not

know any

clusters

more graceful and beautiful
.

than these drooping cymes of scented or translucent, cherry-colored, elliptical berries.
.
.

Yet
look

they

are

considered
. .
.

poisonous

;

not

to

at surely.

But why should they not be
it

poisonous

?

Would

not be bad taste to eat

NIGHTSHADE (Solanum Dulcamara)

126

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
these berries which are ready to sense
"
?

127

feed

another

Leaves.

The lower leaves

are heart-shaped

and the upper ones have two lateral lobes at the These lobes are sometimes separated from base.
the leaf, forming two lateral are entire and alternate.
leaflets.

The

leaves

Flowers.

The

blue, five-parted, wheel-shaped

flowers are rendered attractive by the contrast of

the blue corolla with the yellow conical group of stamens in the center.

The Nightshade
from
lection of
it
is,

is

a climbing vine, sometimes

five to six feet long.

My

most vivid

recol-

as seen

from a bridge, growing

over a small tree by the side of the river. The tree seemed hung with the graceful, decorative It is a member of the family which clusters.
includes such cultivated plants as the potato and

egg plant.
It

was introduced from Europe.

It

grows by

the side of

streams, around houses, and some-

times trails over the stone walls by the roadsides.

MATRIMONY VINE (Lycium
128

vulgare)

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

129

MATRIMONY VINE
Lycium vulgare
Fruit.
Potato Family
berries are soli-

The oval orange-red

tary or few in the leaf axils. They are small, with the calyx persistent at the base.
Leaves.
ceolate

The small

leaves are oblong or lan-

and taper into a short stem.

The mar-

gins are entire.

Flowers.
are solitary or

The purplish two to five in

or greenish flowers

the leaf axils.

In cultivation, this woody shrub is trained over trellises. When growing wild, it trails in masses over any handy support.
are
Its
is

branches
usually

long and drooping.
It

The vine
as

smooth.

often occurs

an escape from

cultivation.

PARTRIDGE BERRY
Mitchella repens

Madder Family
scarlet berrylike fruit is really a

Fruit.

The

double drupe, bearing at the summit the teeth of Each ovary is four-celled the two flower calices.

with one ovule

to a cell,

and some fruits have four

130

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD
;

FRUITS
but often some of

hard nutlets to each flower
the ovules do not develop.

The

fruit is edible

The pulp is white and tasteless. The berries remain on the vines for a mealy. long time, and it is quite common to find flowers, fruit, and even tiny green fruits at the same
but rather
time.

Leaves.

The round-ovate

or

heart-shaped,

shiny

leaves

vary from light to dark green.
veinings.

Some have prominent white
grow
in pairs on short stems

They

Flowers.

and are evergreen. The flowers grow in pairs and are

united by their ovaries.

They

are very dainty

with their white linings of soft fine hairs at the throat and an outside coloring of pink. They
also

have a delicate fragrance. This vine and its near relative, the Quaker

Ladies, are our northern representatives of the family which includes such tropical plants as
coffee

and cinchona, the

latter yielding quinine.

Mitchella repens, besides belonging to our range, grows in the forests of Mexico and Japan. It

frequents dry woods, especially pine forests, and trails its vines in masses around the foot of trees,

the base of rocks, and over
carpeted space.

a pine needle The contrast of the green vine

many

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
and
its

133

bright berries with the brown of the needles is so charming that one wonders that it

has not been copied for our indoor carpetings. A low glass dish filled with wood earth and containing a root or two of Ebony Fern, a little Rattlesnake Plantain, and a few vines of the Partridge Berry will serve all winter to shut-ins as

a most delightful reminder of the woods. The plant is named for Dr. John Mitchell, an
early Virginian botanist.

RED-BERRIED ELDER
Sambucus pubens. Sambucus racemosa
Honeysuckle Family

Fruit

The red

berrylike

drupes grow in

compact pyramidal clusters. Each fruit is globular and crowned with remnants of calyx and
style.

The

inclosed
five.

seedlike

nutlets

number

from three to
Leaves.

June.
leaves are

The opposite
and

compound
These

with

five to

seven ovate-lanceolate
acute.

leaflets.

are finely toothed

Flowers.

The

small

cream- white

flowers,

with their pale yellow stamens, grow in com-

pound pyramidal cymes.

April,

May.

134

HOW

TO

KNOW
I

WILD FRUITS

For two weeks
Elder bears.

success, for the bright

had been looking, without red berries which this

almost in despair over securing a specimen, I chanced to be trolleying in the vicinity of Mt. Tom, when my eye suddenly caught a gleam of red against a rocky background. I knew at once that it was my
coveted prize. Fortunately a switch was near, car waited there I was able to and while the

When

hurry back, get my specimen, and resume my This especial plant w as growing out journey. In general, it is found in of a wall of rock.
r

rocky woodlands and has a wide rang'e from New Brunswick south to Georgia and westward A variety with white across the continent.
berries
is

said to

have been found in the Catskill

Mountains.

The shrub grows from two to twelve feet The older stems are brown and warty. high.
In blossom and in fruit the plant may be readily distinguished from the Common Elder, and at other times the brown pith in the young shoots
serves as a determining
feature.

The

fruited

shrub,

at a

distance,

looks something like

a

sumac.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE

135

HOBBLE BUSH. WAYFARING TREE
Viburnum
alnifolium.

Viburnum lantanoides

Honeysuckle Family
Fruit.

The

large ovate drupes are coral-red,

turning later almost black.
oblong-oval nut, which is grooved on both sides.

Each contains an obtusely pointed and The drupes grow in
green,

scanty clusters.
Leaves.

The leaves

are large, light

heart-shaped, abruptly pointed, sharply toothed, and have rusty wool on the veins beneath.

In the
shades.

fall

the leaves turn to red and orange

Flowers.

The

flowers are in broad,

showy

cymes with larger, showy, usually around the margin. May.

sterile flowers

The

reclining

branches of this shrub often

take root, making loops which "trip the way" Hobble Bush " is a name which is farer."
suggested by the appearance of the plant with its looping branches. It grows in low, moist

woods from

New Brunswick

to

Ontario

and

south to Pennsylvania and in the mountains to

North Carolina.

\
HOBBLE BUSH (Viburnum
alnifolium)

136

CRANBERRY TREE (Viburnum

Opidus)

138

BED OR EEDDISH PURPLE

139

CRANBERRY TREE.
Viburnum Opulus
Fruit.

GUELDER ROSE
Honeysuckle Family

beautiful globose drupes grow in terminal cymes. They are bright red when ripe,

The

having changed from green to greenish yellow and yellowish red. The separate fruits are
about the
size of

Choke

Cherries.

the calyx teeth. are fleshy and inclose a flat stone with a thin crustaceous coat. The stone is without furrows or
are traces of

At the The fruits

tip

The fruit is acid and a trifle bitter. August, and persistent. The leaves are opposite. They are Leaves.
grooves.

strongly three-nerved and three-lobed.

They

are

sparingly toothed, being usually entire along the margins of the sinuses. The developed leaves
are dark green above and paler beneath. red or purple are the autumn colors.

Dull

Flowers.

The white

flowers

grow

in a flat

cyme.
tral,

The marginal ones are larger and neuthe central ones smaller and perfect. June,
is

July.

This

In the spring,

an interesting and attractive shrub. it bears its showy white flower

140
clusters,

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

with their margins of large flowers,
blooms.

"just for show," to attract the roving insect to
the
encircled

By

cultivation

of

the

European form, the central flowers have been
changed
to large neutral ones like those at the

margin, the flower head has become spherical, and the Snowball Tree of the garden is the reThe wild shrub not only yields a graceful sult.
bloom, but
erect
is

most attractive
of
brilliantly

in fruit,

with

its

clusters
lose

colored

drupes.

These
frost,

somewhat

of

their

brilliancy after

The

fruits

but are conspicuous throughout the winter. make a good jelly and an agreeable

sauce.

The plant extends north from Pennsylvania to New Brunswick and west to Michigan, South Dakota, and Oregon.

FEW-FLOWERED CRANBERRY TREE
Viburnum pauciflorum
Honeysuckle Family

This species

is

fewer flowered than the precedflowers.

ing and lacks the marginal neutral
fruit clusters are small.

The

The drupes

are light

red and contain

flat,

scarcely grooved stones.

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
It

141

grows in cold mountainous woods nearly throughout Canada, in New England, and Pennsylvania,

and in the Rockies

in

Colorado and

Washington.

WILD OR WOOD TINKER'S WEED. IPECAC. WILD COFFEE. HORSE GINSENG. FEVERWORT
Trioateum perfoliatum

Honeysuckle Family

Fruit.

The

rather

dry orange

or

scarlet

drupes are borne at the junction of leaf and The long lobed calyx remains plant stems.
attached to the fruit summit.

The drupes are covered with fine hairs and inclose three bony
nutlets.

Leaves.

The

leaves

are

ovate to

broadly

oval, acute at the apex, abruptly or gradually

narrowed at the base, and stemless or united
about

They are soft pubescent beneath and somewhat hairy above. The purplish brown flowers are Flowers.
June. usually clustered. This is a coarse hairy

the

stem.

Canada and New and Alabama.

growing from England southward to Iowa
herb,

142

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

INDIAN CURRANT.

CORAL BERRY

Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos. Symphoricarpos vulgaiis

Honeysuckle Family
Fruit.

The

fruit

varies

in

ripening from
at the

coral-red to reddish purple.

It is small, ovoid-

globose,
mit.

and bears the calyx teeth
is

sum-

is dry, mealy, there are four cells, and, although the seeds are but two in number, two ovules
;

The skin
;

thin

the flesh

and insipid

being abortive.

The

seeds are white

and hard.
axils of

The

berries

grow

in clusters

from the

most of the
the winter.
Leaves.

leaves.

The

fruits persist

during

The

entire oval or ovate leaves are

on short stems and opposite. They are a dull green and somewhat hairy beneath. They are
usually obtuse both at apex and base.

Flowers.
are

The pinkish
hairy
at

bell-shaped

flowers

somewhat
is

the

throat.

They

grow

in clusters in the leaf axils.

July.

This plant
sists after

most

prolific in fruit,

which per-

the leaves have dried and fallen.

The

clusters extend nearly the

length of

the stem

and bend

it

with their weight.

INDIAN CURRANT (Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos)
143

144

no w TO KSO\V WILD FRUITS
in

Jersey and Pennsylvania, along the banks of the Delaware

The plant grows wild

New

York, and west to Dakota. It reaches Georgia and Texas on the south. often cultivated and sometimes escapes.
River, in

New

It
is

AMERICAN WOODBINE. ITALIAN PERFOLIATE HONEYSUCKLE
Louie era Caprifolium.

OR

Louie era grata

Honeysuckle Family
Fruit.

The red

berries are in a sessile termi-

nal cluster, subtended by a united pair of leaves. The calyx teeth crown the summit of the several-

seeded fruit.
Leaves.

The two
their

or three upper pairs are

united

by

bases.

The lower ones

are

without stems or have very short stems. are obovate or oval and entire.
Flowers.

They

The fragrant flowers are whitish with purple tubes. They are strongly twolipped.

New Jersey and Pennsylvania are the northern limits of this climbing vine in its wild state.
It is often cultivated,

and sometimes

escapes.

EED OR REDDISH PURPLE

145

HAIRY HONEYSUCKLE
Louie era hirsuta

Honeysuckle Family
in short termi-

Fruit.

nal spikes. arid the berry
Leaves.

The red berries grow The calyx teeth are
is

at the

summit

several-seeded.

The leaves are large and have hairy and under leaf surfaces. The base is margins rounded or narrowed and the apex obtuse. One or two upper pairs have united bases, the others
are stemless or have very short stems.

Flowers.
in short

The orange-yellow blossoms grow interrupted spikes. They are two-lobed

and the tube
leaves
It

is clammy-pubescent. July. This twining shrub is a coarse species, with

large

flowers.

and hairy branches, leaves, and grows from Maine to Pennsylvania,
Michigan and Minnesota.

and west

to

SMOOTH-LEAVED OR GLAUCOUS HONEYSUCKLE
Lonicera dioica. Lonicera glauca

Honeysuckle Family
Fruit.

The
of

berries

form a compact

cluster,

composed

a series of usually three whorls.

146

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
owing to

The whorls are more

or less imperfect,

the nondevelopment of some of the berries. The cluster is borne on a short terminal stem.

Each

fruit

is

several-seeded and has persistent

calyx teeth

at

the

summit.

The

berries

are

without stems.

They vary

in color

from orange

to red, the red ones being the ripest.

They

are

covered with a bloom.
color to

the

skin.

The pulp is similar in The berry is translucent.

July, August.

Leaves.

from two
of

leaves are mostly oblong and to three inches in length. The bases
to

The

the

one

four upper

pairs

are

united.

The leaves not united by their bases are stemless. The terminal pair varies in shape from oblong
to oval,

and with

its

rich green coloring forms a

most attractive setting for cluster which it surrounds.
are entire

the bright

berry

The
is

leaf

margins
terminal

and the under surface

whitened.
in

Flowers.
clusters.
*

The

flowers

grow

They

are greenish yellow, sometimes

The tube expands into two tinged with red. lips, the lower one narrowed and the upper one broader and four-lobed. The inside of the tube,
the style, and the bases
hairy.
of

the

filaments

are

SMOOTH-LEAVED HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera

dioica)

H7

148

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

This twining vine is from three to five feet in length, and is a most attractive feature of the

wooded roadside
ries

in July,

when

the brilliant ber-

The gleam from their green background. from New England plant has a northern range
and Pennsylvania.

TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE. CORAL HONEYSUCKLE
Lonicei a sempei virens

Honeysuckle Family
bright,

Fruit.

The

translucent,

shining,

coral-red berries bear the tiny calyx teeth at

the

summits.

They
in

are

ovoid

and

severalless

seeded
fully

and grow

a spike of more or

developed whorls, somewhat separated from

There are usually three or four of these whorls with sometimes a solitary berry at
each other.
the top. August-October. Leaves. The entire leaves are smooth and
are whitened on the under surface.
in pairs, with the bases of the

They
from

are

upper pairs joined.
this

The flower and

fruit clusters proceed

united pair of leaves. They are evergreen at the south and deciduous at the north.

TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE

(Lonicera sempervirens)

149

150

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

The long trumpet-shaped flowers They are red or grow in interrupted spikes. The humming bird is one of the yellowish.
Flowers.
principal agents in securing the cross fertiliza-

tion of the flowers.

Here
that
is

April-October. another of our wild climbing vines Flowers and beautiful in cultivation.
is

fruit often occur together well into the fall.

It

grows in copses in Massachusetts

and Connecticut,

southward and west to Nebraska.

SWAMP FLY HONEYSUCKLE
Lonicera oblongifolia

Honeysuckle Family

Fruit.

The reddish

or purple ovoid berries

on long slender stems. They are usually distinct, but occasionally become some-

grow

in pairs

what

united.

The oval-oblong leaves do not have hairy margins. They are nearly smooth on both
Leaves.
sides

when

the leaves are mature.

Flowers.
is

The greenish yellow
a bog or

pair of flowers
axils.

borne on a slender stem from the leaf

This

is

swamp

shrub growing in

RED OR REDDISH PURPLE
northern

151

New England and New

York, and

west to Minnesota.

AMERICAN FLY HONEYSUCKLE
Lonicera ciliata

Honeysuckle Family

Fruit.

Two

globular or ovoid

red

berries

are borne on the

the leaf angles. the base, and each bears at the

same stem, which grows from The berries are not united at

summit minute
several-seeded.

calyx

teeth.

The

berries

are

The

bracts at their bases are minute.

June.

The thin, light green leaves are oblong-ovate, somewhat rounded or heart-shaped at the base and acutish at the apex. They are
Leaves.

opposite and have hairy margins.

yellowish green, five-lobed flowers grow in pairs on a slender stem. This is a straggling shrub from three to five
feet high.

Flowers.

The

The stems

are brownish.

in rocky

woods from

New

It grows Brunswick to Penn-

sylvania and west to Minnesota.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
WHITE CLINTONIA
Clintonia umbellulata
Lily-of-the-Valley Family

Fruit.

The berry
seeds.

of the

White Clintonia

is

black, not quite so large as that of the Yellow,

and has few

at the top of

grow in umbels the hairy stem, which sometimes
fruits

The

bears also a single small leaf. Leaves. The leaves are oval or oblong, with The stalks of the two to four hairy margins.
leaves sheathe the base of the flower stem.

Flowers.

The
is

flowers are white, often speck-

led with green or purple.

They

are fragrant.
rich

This

species

confined to

woods in
to

the Alleghany Mountains from
Georgia.

New York

155

156

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

STAR-FLOWERED SOLOMON'S SEAL
Vagnera
stellata.

Smilacina stellata

Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

Fruit.
cluster.

The few

berries

grow

in a terminal

They

are,

according
later

to

Mathews,

becoming dull red. Gray says they are blackish, and Britton and
spotted at first

and

Brown

that

they are

green

with

six

black

stripes, or black.

the fruits of

They are rather larger than Wild Spikenard, quite hard and

opaque.
Leaves.
slightly

The oblong-lanceolate leaves are The apex is acute or blunt. clasping. The white
starlike flowers

The

leaf is flat or a trifle concave.

Flowers.

grow

in a small terminal raceme.

a smaller species than V. racemosa, seldom growing over a foot high. Its rootstock
is is

This

rather- slender.

It favors
It

banks of streams

and moist meadows.

extends south to

New

Jersey and west to Kansas, and, according to Britton and Brown, to California.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

157

HAIRY SOLOMON'S SEAL
Polygonatum biflorum
Fruit.
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

The berry
It is

is

nearly black, with a

bloom.

pulpy, three-celled, with
cell.

one or

two seeds

The stigma is at the summit. The berries grow on slender, drooping stems from the axils, and are solitary, or two in
in each

a cluster, rarely three.
Leaves.

August, September.

The

light green leaves are oblong-

ovate, alternate,

and

sessile.

They

are parallel-

The under ridged and acute at the apex. surface is whiter and hairy. The pale green flowers look like Flowers.
hanging in drooping clusters of from one to three flowers from the leaf axils. May. The scars left on the thick horizontal roottassels

where the stalks of preceding years grew, give rise to this plant's common name, Solomon's Seal. These marks, which are indicative
stocks,
of the age of

the root, are somewhat like the

impression of a
low,

wax

seal.

This

is

a graceful,

wood

plant, with a curving

stem and droop-

ing flower and fruit clusters.

HAIRY SOLOMON'S SEAL (Polygonatum
158

biflorum)

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

159

SMOOTH SOLOMON'S SEAL
Polygonatum commutatum.

Polygonatum giganteum

Lily-of-the-Valley Family

This globular berry is also nearly black with a bloom. It is larger than the preFruit.

ceding, in keeping with the larger proportions of the species. The clusters vary in the number of
their fruits

from one to

six.

These grow on
leaf axils.
cell

long, stout, drooping stems

from the
one

The berry
Leaves.

is

three-celled,

sometimes

containing six seeds.

The

August, September. large leaves are ovate and

They are smooth throughout, partly clasping. rather darker green than the smaller species and
somewhat paler beneath.

The yellow

fall leaves

contrast well with the dark berries.

Flowers. The drooping jointed peduncles bear two to eight large, greenish, bell-shaped flowers. June.

The
high,

tall,

stout stalks, sometimes seven feet
their
large,

with

spreading,

gracefully

curved leaves and the numerous nodding clusters of black balls are imposing additions to the flora
of

moist roadsides.

They

also

abound along

SMOOTH SOLOMON'S SEAL (JPolygonatum commutatum)
160

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
streams.

161

The

species

grows as far west as the

Rocky Mountains.

INDIAN CUCUMBER ROOT
Medeola Virginian
Fruit.
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

The dark purple
of

berries are borne at

the summit

plant on upright stems. They are globular, usually three or four in numThe mark of ber, three-celled, and few-seeded.
the

the style is at the tip. September. The leaves are in two whorls. Leaves.

The
stem

lower whorl

is

borne about

midway

of the

and

consists of

from

five to nine obovate-lanceo-

late leaflets,

which are stemless,
is

parallel-ribbed,

and netted-veined.
of

The upper whorl,

at the top

usually of three, occasionally more, smaller ovate leaflets.

the

stem,

Flowers.

The greenish yellow

flowers are

borne on drooping stems and are often nearly hidden beneath the upper whorl of leaflets. They are like small lilies and have recurved
perianths,
six

recurved

reddish

stamens, and

three recurved stigmas.

June.

The flowers on their drooping stems are often tucked under the upper leaflets, which serve as

INDIAN CUCUMBER ROOT (Medeola Virginiana) 162

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
umbrellas for them.

163

the plant is fruiting the stems become erect, and, in the fall, when the

When

crowning leaflets and fruit with dull reds, serve as signals to stems, tinged the birds that harvest time has come.
berries are ripe, the

The horizontal tuberous rootstock is a characteristic feature. It is white, and similar in taste
to a cucumber.

u Its white tuberous root

is

crisp

and tender,

and leaves
cucumber.

in the

mouth distinctly the taste of Whether or not the Indians used it
know."

as a relish I do not

BURROUGHS.

CARRION FLOWER
Smilax herbacea

Smilax Family
flattened globose berries

Fruit.

The

grow

in

more or

less full

rounded

clusters.

They

are

borne on long peduncles, sometimes six or even These stems grow from the eight inches long.
axils of single leaves or

from the

axils of leafy

branches, which themselves spring from the leaf axils. The berries are black with a bloom w^hich
is

The flesh is thin, and often decidedly blue. the berry variable in the number of its seeds,

164:

HOW
to
six.

TO
It

KNOW
is

WILD FRUITS

two

normally three-celled, with
August, September.
alternate leaves are seven

two seeds
Leaves.

in each cell.

The simple

to nine ribbed

and are netted veined.

usually round-ovate. times bristle-pointed,

shaped or obtuse.
pair
of

They are The apex is acute, someand the base is heartThe leaves are entire. A
the leaf
stem.
lighter than the upper.

tendrils

proceed from
is

The under
Flowers.
in

surface

The

dioecious greenish flowers

grow

from twenty- to forty-flowered clusters. They are ill-scented, like " a dead rat in the wall," as
Thoreau describes
it.

They are

fertilized

by

insects, especially carrion-loving ones.
is neither woody nor thorny. means of the numerous tendrils it climbs By over any and every support it may encounter. The spherical clusters of bluish black fruits are

The main stem

very attractive about the middle of August. They are a frequent sight amidst the roadside
flower tangles, and flourish along streams and
in moist places.
sota,

They range east from Minneand Texas to the Atlantic. Missouri,

CARRION FLOWER (Smilax herbacea)

165

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

167

HALBERD-LEAVED SMILAX
Smilax tamnifolia Smilax Family
fruit is a berry similar to that

Fruit.

The

of the Carrion Flower, but smaller.

The

clusters

are rather small and the peduncles shorter than
in preceding species.

The berry

is

from one- to

three-seeded.

Leaves.

The

leaves are broad at the base

and
leaf,

narrow decidedly about the middle of the

making the base almost
leathery,

lobed.

They

are thick,

and green on both

sides.
its

This, like several other smilax species, has

northern range in dry or sandy portions of New It extends south to South Carolina and Jersey.
Tennessee.
lar stems
It is

unarmed, and usually has

circu-

and branches.

GLAUCOUS-LEAVED GREENBRIER
FALSE SARSAPARILLA
Smilax glauca

Smilax Family

Fruit.
bels

The globose black

berries

grow

in

um-

on flattened peduncles, which are rarely twice the length of the petioles. The umbels spring

168

HOW
leaf

TO

ENOW WILD
The

FRUITS
is

from the
incloses

axils.

flesh

thin and

from one to three large

seeds.

Sep-

tember.

vary in width. They are conspicuously whitened beneath. The apex is rather obtuse but ends in a sharp point.
Leaves.

The oval

leaves

The
near

petioles are rather short

and bear
are

tendrils

their

bases.

The

leaves

somewhat
flowers

persistent.

Flowers.
are
dioecious.

The small greenish yellow
is

There are from six to twelve
borne on

blossoms in the flower umbel, which a flattened stem.

This woody vine sometimes bears scattered The stem is circular. prickles, sometimes none.
It

grows in thickets from Massachusetts to Florida and extends west to Texas, Missouri,
*

and Indiana.

GREENBRIER.
Smilax rotundifolia

CATBRIER.

HORSEBRIER
Smilax Family
berries are

The globular blue-black covered with a bloom. They grow
Fruit.

in

umbels
in

on a flattened stem, which seldom exceeds

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
length ,that of the petiole.
three-seeded.

169
one- to

They are

September and often

persistent.

Leaves.

The

leaves are ovate or round-ovate,

somewhat heart-shaped or rounded at the base, and abruptly pointed at the apex. They are leathery, shining when mature, green on both
Tendrils grow from the leaf stems and are modified forms of stipules.
sides, entire,

and smooth.

yellowish green, dioecious flowers grow in rather small clusters on short cluster-stems. April-Jane.
Small,

Flowers.

This Greenbrier
ish

is

green stem
as

is

common. Its yellowround and the branches are
quite
It

somewhat four-angled.
long
forty
feet,

sometimes grows as
is

and

generally

armed

throughout with stout prickles. It grows in moist places from New England to Georgia

and as

far west as Minnesota.

HISPID GREENBRIER
Smilax hispida

Smilax Family

Fruit:

The

bluish black berries are in umbels,

borne on stems that are over twice as long as the
leaf stems.

They

are one- to three-seeded.

170
Leaves.

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
leaves are thin, green

The egg-shaped

on both

sides,

rounded or slightly heart-shaped at

the base, and pointed at the apex. The umbels are composed of flowers Flowers.

somewhat

larger than those of the Catbrier.
is

distinguished by the long black bristles which densely cover the lower portion of

This vine

the stem.

The upper portion
is

is

generally un-

armed.
It

Connecticut

its

northern boundary.

grows

in moist thickets.

LONG-STALKED GREENBRIER
Smilax Pseudo-China
Smilax Family

Fruit.

The umbels

of black berries
leaf axils.

flattened stems

from the

grow on They are

quite full, bearing eight to sixteen berries in a
cluster.

The peduncles
petioles,

are considerably longer

than the
long.

being from one to three inches
firm, almost leathery leaves are

Leaves.

The

green on both sides. They are ovate or sometimes nearly lobed at the base. The apex is acute or bristle-pointed, and the edge is sometimes roughened with fine bristle-like teeth.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

171

Flowers. -- The flowers are dioecious and grow
in full-flowered clusters

on long flattened stems.

July.

Long-stalked Greenbrier, as the
bears
its

name

indicates,

flowers and fruits on long stems.

These

are

more than twice as long as the petioles. The main stem is circular and sometimes armed with
straight prickles along
its

lower part.

Most

of

the plant
section

is

unarmed.

It belongs to our southern

Jersey to Florida and west to Indiana and Missouri. It favors dry sandy soil.

from

New

BRISTLY GREENBRIER.
Smilax Bona-nox

STRETCH BERRY
Smilax Family

Fruit.

These berries are black with a bloom.
are borne on a flattened stern about

The umbels

twice the length of the leaf stem. The berry Its pulp is usually has but one large seed.
elastic,

hence the name Stretch Berry.

Leaves. or often

The

much broadened

leaves are round, heart-shaped, at the base and nar-

rowed midway of their length, giving a someThe what two-lobed appearance to the base.
apex
is

bristle tipped,

and the margin and mid-

1Y2

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

rib are often spiny.

The upper and lower surThe stems faces are both green and shining. The leaves cling long to are tendril-bearing.
the vines.

Flowers.
quite full

The
umbels.

dioecious

flowers

grow

in

April-July.

The prickles on this vine are few, short, stiff, The circular stem and the and scattered.
angular branchlets are both green. It has been reported in Massachusetts, and extends from

New

Jersey to Florida, Texas, and Missouri.

and west to

Illinois,

HACKBERRY. SUGARBERRY
Celtis occidentalis

Elm Family
solitary drupe
is

Fruit.

The

as a pea.

about as large It grows from the leaf axil on a
at

drooping stem.
the stigma
purple.
is

The calyx is persistent, and the tip. The ripe fruit is dark
large.

The

flesh is rather thin
is

and the stone
persistent.

and very sweet, September, October, and

Leaves.

The two

sides of the leaf are quite

unlike, one being

much broader

at the base than

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
the other, which looks as
if

173
it

a piece of
is

had

cut off obliquely. The apex The margin is toothed except at Autumnal coloring is yellow.

been

pointed. the base.

This tree
Its fruit is

is

similar to

an elm

in appearance.

much

The

trees

appreciated by the winter birds. which I have seen have been much

disfigured
leaves.

by numerous
range
is

insect

galls

upon the
river

Its

in

woods and along

banks, in

New England

southward and west to

Minnesota.

RED MULBERRY
Morus rubra
Mulberry Family

Fruit. The fruit seems at first glance to resemble a Blackberry in structure. It differs, however, in being the product of a spike of several flowers instead of the development of

several carpels of the
rate
fruit

same

flower.

Each

sepasur-

consists

of

an achene or nut

rounded by the calyx lobes which have become Each achene bears at the summit the juicy.
tips of the

two

styles.

Only one

of the

two
or

ovaries of the flower develops.
collective fruit

The multiple

formed by the crowding together

174
of-

HOW

TO

KNOW
is

WILD FRUITS

about an inch long, is It grows on a short sweet, juicy, and edible. The stem, usually from the axil of the leaf.
the separate fruits
fruit in ripening

changes from green to red to
leaves are variable in shape but

dark purple.
Leaves.

July.

The

are usually heart-ovate.
are

often

lobed.

On young shoots they The margins are coarsely
surface
is

toothed.

The upper

be

smooth or
Flowers.

lighter.

The rough. Yellow is the autumnal color.

shining and may lower surface is

A tree

sometimes bears both stami-

nate and pistillate clusters of flowers, and sometimes but one kind. few pistillate flowers

A

are occasionally found in the staminate flower
spikes.

The Red Mulberry is the only species native to America. The tree does not usually attain a
great
size,

but sometimes reaches a height of
feet.

from sixty to seventy
sippi rivers.

The

finest trees are

to be foun'd along the lower Ohio

and the

Missis-

Florida and west to Kansas and Nebraska.

They range from Massachusetts to The

leaves do not serve successfully as food for silk-

worms.

These flourish best on the White Mul-

berry leaves.

An

interesting feature occurs in

RED MULBERRY (Morus

rubrd)

175

176

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

connection with the pollination of the flowers. At the precise time that the anthers are ready
to open, the filaments uncoil like a spring

and

throw the pollen upon the breezes.

POKE. SCOKE. GARGET. PIGEON BERRY
Phytolacca decendra

Pokeweed Family
berries

grow in long The berries lateral racemes opposite the leaves. are like a sphere flattened vertically and are
Fruit.

The dark purple

from

five- to twelve-celled.

one vertical seed.

Each The berry is

cell

contains

filled

with a

crimson

juice.

The calyx

persists at the base.

September.
Leaves.

The

large coarse leaves are often

veined with purple. Flowers. The five sepals are white or pinkish and surround the conspicuous green ovary.^

The

corolla
is

This

lacking. a large rank

is

roots are poisonous but

cooked in early summer considered almost equal

large the young plants are " for Greens," and are
perennial.
to

The

Asparagus.

The

sturdy plants often occur along the roadside, and I have seen a rocky hillside pasture overgrown

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
with them.
the berries.

177

Birds of several different kinds eat

POKE (Phytolacca

decendra)

"Pokeweed

is

a native American, and
"
!

what a

lusty, royal plant it is

BURROUGHS.

178

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

CANADA MOONSEED
Menispermum Canadense
Fruit.

Moonseed Family
is

nearly straight, and has In the development of the stigma at the apex. the fruit an incurving takes place, bringing
the

The ovary

stigma

mark near

the base

of

the fruit.

This gives the stone the form of a crescent or ring; hence the name Moonseed, because of
its

crescent shape.

The stone

is

flattened later-

ally,

and

is

wrinkled and grooved.
one-seeded,
in

The drupes
black with
a
re-

are

globose-oblong,

bloom.

They grow
Frost

loose
in

clusters

and

semble
clusters,

Grapes

however, grow from

appearance. the leaf

The
axils

instead of opposite them. Leaves.

The

leaves

are

September. broad-ovate with

usually three to seven lobes. They are heartshaped at the base, and have a pale under surface. The leaf stem is slender and usually

attached within the edge of the leaf. Flowers. The small, greenish white, dioecious
flowers

grow

in loose clusters

from the

leaf axils.

June, July. This woody

climber, sometimes

twelve

feefc

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
long,
is

179

readily distinguished from a grapevine,

which

it

position

somewhat resembles, by the of flower and fruit cluster.

axillary
It
is

common
Arkansas.

along streams south to Georgia and

WILD GOOSEBERRY
Ribes Cynosbati

Gooseberry Family

Fruit.

The

brownish

red

berry

usually

smooth, grows singly. and has numerous seeds with crustaceous coats
inclosed in gelatinous ones.

It is prickly, occasionally

The

seeds are sus-

pended by tiny threads

in a

pulpy mass.

The

berry bears at the summit the shriveled remains The flavor is good, but the sharp, of the calyx.

awl-shaped prickles are objectionable.
Leaves.

August.

The

three- to

five-lobed leaves are
is

alternate or clustered.

The base

and the lobes are incised or

serrate.

heart-shaped, One or
of the

more spines are usually found at the base
petioles.

greenish flowers grow singly or in a few-flowered raceme. This is a low shrub of rocky woods from New
bell-shaped

Flowers.

The

Brunswick south, especially along the mountains,

180
to

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD
It extends

FRUITS
west to Manitoba

North Carolina.

and Missouri.

WILD BLACK CURRANT
Ribes floridum

Gooseberry Family

The drooping racemes bear smooth, round-ovoid berries with a linear bract at black,
Fruit.

The dried calyx is at the base of each pedicel. the top of each fruit. Each berry is manywith the seeds attached by tiny threads seeded,
to

two opposite lateral placentae. The watery and insipid. July, August.
Leaves.
are characteristic.

fruit is

Tiny resinous dots on the leaves

The

five to

seven lobes of

each leaf are doubly toothed. The large whitish flowers grow in Flowers.
drooping, loosely-flowered, bracted, and racemes.

downy

This shrub

is erect,

from three to

five

and reaches a height of feet. It is found in woods

from Nova Scotia south to Virginia and west to Kentucky, Iowa, and Nebraska.

182

SLACK OR DARK PURPLE

188

BLACK RASPBERRY.
Rubus
occidentalis

THIMBLE BERRY
Rose Family

drupes are packed in diminishing circles about the elongated receptacle, forming a flattened hemispherical,
small,

Fruit.

The

black,

juicy

aggregate fruit. This separates when ripe from the receptacle and the reflexed calyx lobes at the
base.

Each drupelet

is

woolly near

its

points of

its

The remainder of contact with other drupelets. The fruits surface is smooth and shining.
grow
in small terminal clusters.
set

are

with recurved prickles.
flavor.

The peduncles The fruit is
leaflets to

sweet and delicious in
Leaves.

July.

There are usually three

each compound leaf. The two lateral ones have short stems. Scattered prickles are on the leaf
stems.

The

leaflets are

much whitened

beneath,

coarsely doubly toothed, and acutely pointed. Flowers. The white blossoms grow in ter-

minal corymbs. Pull off one of the fruits from the receptacle, slip it over the tip of the little finger, and see if
not a veritable " finger cap," worthy of its name Thimble Berry. The plant yields, each
it

is

184

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FEUITS

year, beside the fruiting stems, gracefully curved leafy shoots, which will be the fruit-bearing portion of next year's growth.

The Kaspberry has

been generally cultivated. In its native haunts it is found drooping over rocks, growing in clumps about decaying stumps
or trees

and in fence rows.

BLACKBERRIES

The Blackberry group seems
difficult of exact classification.

to be especially

L. H. Bailey, in " The Evolution of our Native his book on

which are recognizable even by a non-expert, and I have departed somewhat from Britton and Brown's classification to adopt Bailey's more recent
Fruits/'

names

certain varieties

nomenclature and divisions.

He

separates,

first,

the Blackberries from the

Trailing Blackberries, or Dewberries. The Dewberries are distinguished by their trailing habit of growth, their custom of rooting

and by the few scattered flowers in the flower cluster, the central one of which
from the
blossoms
tips,
first.

The Blackberry

fruit,

in general, is a collec-

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
tion

185

of

small

drupes, which remains attached

when ripe
it is

to the juicy white receptacle

on which

borne.
principal Dewberries are

Our

two

in

number

:

Low Running
Blackberry.

Blackberry and Running Swamp

LOW RUNNING BLACKBERRY
Rubus
villosus.

Rubus Canadensis
fruit

Rose Family
clusters.

Fruit.
It
is

The

grows in small

The usually hemispherical drupelets are large, juicy, and rather sour until
or ovoid.

fully ripe,

when they
is

are quite sweet.

At

the

base of each fruit

the calyx, from which the
it falls,

berry separates

when

leaving

many

dried

stamens visible in the calyx cup. The leaves have three to seven Leaves.
oval or ovate leaflets, which are sharply doubly toothed. They are quite thick and large. Leaflike

bracts

grow on the flower and the

fruit

clusters.

This

is

the

common Dewberry

of the north,

and

is

a frequent roadside trailing vine.
is

The

species

very variable. The rich dark reds of its

fall leaves,

spreading

186

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

over stone walls, rocks, roadsides, and pasture lands, and contrasting with the yellow of the

Golden-rod and the blue of the Aster, are important factors in the autumnal color scheme.

The Rubus

villosus,

that

was

named and

described in 1789, has long been taken by bot-

Low RUNNING BLACKBERRY
anists

(Rubus

viilosus)

to

be the

High-bush
personally

Blackberry.

In

1898,

Bailey,

after

examining the
villo-

specimens described

by Aiton as Rubus

sus, decided that they were specimens, not of the High Blackberry but of the northern Low

Blackberry or Dewberry. To this plant, then, the name Rubus viilosus rightfully belongs.
"

For my taste the blackberry-cone, Purpled over hill and stone."
WHITTIER'S Barefoot Boy.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

187

RUNNING SWAMP BLACKBERRY
Rubus hispidus
Fruit.
black.
It

Rose Family
fully

The
is

ripened

fruit

is

nearly

small, consisting of but few grains.

RUNNING SWAMP BLACKBERRY (Rubus

hispidus)

The

berries

are borne on leafless stems which

are often bristly. Leaves.
leaflets

August.
small, usually three, obovate

The

at

are smooth, coarsely toothed, and blunt the tip. They are shining and firm and

appear evergreen.

188

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
and white,
grows not

Flowers.

The

flowers are small
cluster.
is

with few in the

The

fall

foliage

brilliant.

It

only in swamps, but in sandy places as well.

The

Blackberries, aside from their

more

erect

growth, are distinguished by their denser flower clusters, the lower or outer flowers of which are
the
first to develop and also by their habit of " " " sucker " spreading instead of tip spreading.
;

SAND BLACKBERRY
Rubus
cuneifolius

Rose Family
fruit is rather small

Fruit.

The
It

but sweet

and

solid.

grows

in small short clusters
berries.

with
July,

leaves often growing below the

August.
Leaves.

The compound
five
leaflets,

leaves

consist

of

from three to

which are obovate,

obtuse, toothed, and quite thick. They are dull green above, whitened and woolly beneath.

Flowers.

The white

or pinkish flowers

grow

in short, usually terminal clusters of

few

flowers.

This

is

a low variety, from one to three feet

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
high.
It is stiff

189
prickles.

and armed with stout
soil.

It favors

sandy

Of the High-bush Blackberries, Bailey makes Rubus nigrobaccus, Rubus arthree divisions
:

Professor Porter gutus, and Rubus Canadensis. also describes another form which Bailey is inclined to accept as a separate one,
gheniensis, or

Rubus

Alle-

Mountain Blackberry.

COMMON OR HIGH-BUSH BLACKBERRY
Rubus nigrobaccus.
Fruit.

Rubus

villosus

Rose Family

These so-called berries are oblong,

seedy, firm,

and sweet.
five

They grow

in

long

loose clusters, the lower berries usually ripening
first.

The

long,

narrow calyx lobes are
July, August.

reflexed at the base.

The leaflets are three or five in number. Each has a distinct stem, the terminal The leaflets are one having the longest stalk. and coarsely serrate. The underovate, pointed, leaf surface is hairy and glandular. The large white flowers are borne Flowers. in long clusters. Each pedicel is long and forms
Leaves.

HIGH-BUSH BLACKBERRY (Rubus nigrobaccus)
190

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
a broad angle with the axial stem. steins are hairy and glandular.

191

The

flower

High Blackberry are furrowed, often recurved, and bear stout, hooked
prickles.

The stems

of the

They
the

are

This

is

common

sometimes ten feet high. High Blackberry, and is

found in woods and along country roads and fence rows. Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas are its
western limits and the North Carolinian Mountains its southern.

Through a confusion

in the identification of

early specimens, the name Eubus villosus has been applied to the High-bush Blackberry instead of to the Low Blackberry, which Gray
calls

Rubus Canadensis.

This latter term, how-

ever, belongs to the Thornless Blackberry.

The
title,

Low

Blackberry must bear
villosus ,

its

rightful

Rubus

and

this leaves the

High Blackit

berry without a name.

Bailey has christened

Eubus nigrobaccus. The variety sativus, Short Cluster Blackberry, has rounder fruits, that grow in short clusters. The drupelets are loose and large. The leaflets are broader and the apex blunter.
This
is

the

common High
It
is

Blackberry of the
the type.

open

fields.

not

so tall as

192

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

MOUNTAIN BLACKBERRY
Rubus
Allegheiiiensis

Rose Family
dry,

Fruit.

The drupelets are small and
fruit,
is

and

form a long, narrow

with tapering top.

The

flavor

spicy.

teeth and long drawnout apex are distinctive features. This species has reddish branches and leaf

Leaves.

The smaller

stems.
tain

It is considered

by some

to be a

moun-

form

of

Rubus

nigrobaccus.

LEAFY CLUSTER BLACKBERRY
Rubus argutus
Fruit.

Rose Family

This species

is

distinguished

by a

shorter, leafy fruit cluster.

The leaflets are smaller and narsomewhat rigid, nearly smooth, and rower,
Leaves.

coarsely serrate.
It is a

lower species than R. nigrobaccus,

stiff,

straight,

and nearly smooth or quite

so.

It is

distinctly a southern species, taking the place there which is occupied in the north by R.

nigrobaccus.

It has a

wide range.

BLACK OR DARE PURPLE

193

THORNLESS BLACKBERRY
Rubus Canadensis
Fruit.

Rose Family
fruit ripens late

The

and

is

sweeter

than the other blackberries.
This species is distinguished by smooth leaves and stems and its usual lack of thorns. The
leaves are long, narrow,
nation.

The

leaf

and have a long acumistems are long and slender

and the
It

stipules are long.

grows as far south as North Carolina.

BLACK CHOKEBERRY
Aroma
nigra.

Pyrus

arbutifolia, Var.

melanocarpa

Apple Family

This plant is smoother than Aronia arbutifolia, but the chief difference is in the fruit,
this

pome being

larger,

more
in

juicy,

and black

in color.

The shrub often grows

the vicinity of

Huckleberry Bushes, and the two fruits someI well remember what resemble each other.
the cautions which as a child I received against mixing the two, the Chokeberry being con-

BLACK CHOKEBERRY (Aronia
194

nigra)

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
sidered

195

them

I distinguished between poisonous. " by the red juice or flesh of the Dogas

berry/'

we
in

called
its

it.

So strong was
"
qualities,

my
that,
its

early

belief

"
killing

despite the testimony of several books as to

sweetness, pleasant flavor,

etc., I

confess I test
is

them rather same as that

gingerly.
of the

The range

nearly the

Red Chokeberry.

OBLONG-FRUITED JUNEBERRY
Amelanchier oligocarpa

Apple Family
is

Fruit.

The pear-shaped pome

dark purple,

and covered with a thick bloom.
Leaves.
at

The thin oblong leaves are narrowed each end and often acute. They are sharply
There are few, one to four,
blos-

toothed.

Flowers.

soms

in a raceme.

The

pedicels are rather long

and

slender.
is

a low, nearly smooth shrub, growing in wet places in Ontario, New England, and

This

along the shores of Lake Superior.

196

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

PORTER'S PLUM
Prunus Allegheniensis

Plum Family
is

Fruit.

The dark purple globose drupe
an inch
in diameter.

small, only about half

It

has a bloom.

The flavor is pleasantly acid. stone has a groove on one side and a slight elevation on the other. August.

The

Leaves.
leaves

The
finely

lanceolate

or

ovate-oblong

are

toothed,

and often have a

long pointed apex. The flowers resemble those of Prunus Americana.

a low tree or straggling shrub of the Alleghany Bluffs. It seldom bears thorns.

This

is

SLOE.
Prunus spinosa
Fruit.

BLACKTHORN
Plum Family
is

The globose drupe
It
is

about half an

inch in diameter.

black, with a bloorn,

and grows singly or in pairs from the sides of the branches. The stone has one sharp edge. Leaves. The ovate or oblong leaves are
obtuse at the apex and narrowed at the base.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
They
are

197

sharply

toothed

and smooth when

mature.
Flowers.

The white
April,

flowers are solitary or

two

in a cluster.

May.

This thorny shrub was introduced from Europe,
sides

and often occurs

an escape along roadfrom Massachusetts to New Jersey and
as

Pennsylvania.

Plum, is thorny, and has hairy leaves and stems.
variety,
imititia,

A

Bullace

less

SAND CHERRY. DWARF CHERRY
Primus pumila

Plum Family
are about half an inch

Fruit.

The drupes

long and are dark red or, when fully ripe, black. The flesh is rather They are without bloorn.
thin

and the stone

is

large

and ovoid.

cherries are solitary or in small clusters.

The The

shrub usually fruits abundantly. are sweet and edible. August.
Leaves.

The

cherries

The leaves

are obovate-lanceolate,

with a narrowed base.

They

are deep green

above

and

paler

beneath.

The

margin

is

toothed with the exception of a short distance

198

HOW

TO

KNOW
is

WILD FRUITS

at the base,

which

entire.

The

leaves change

to a deep red in

autumn.
in few-

Flowers.

The white blossoms grow

flowered clusters.

This trailing or prostrate shrub sends up erect branches which are sometimes four feet high.

The plant sends out suckers

freely, arid spread-

It grows in sandy ing thus soon forms clumps. the eastern coast south to New places along

Jersey.

It also occurs

along the shores of the

Great Lakes.

WILD BLACK CHERRY. RUM CHERRY
Prunus serotina

Plum Family
black

Fruit.
clusters at

The

drupes grow

in

loose

the ends of leafy branches. Many of the flowers do not develop, and the cluster
often has a scraggly appearance. In ripening the fruits change from green through yellowish The separate red, red, and dark red to black.
cherries are

spherical
is

A

tiny depression
is

and flattened vertically. at the summit and the
the base.
pedicels or reddish and yellow

persistent calyx

at

The

are short.

The

flesh is

rather thin.

It is sweet,

and although some-

\

WILD BLACK CHERRY (Prunus
199

serotina)

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
what
bitter

201

has a

pleasant

flavor.

August,

September.
Leaves.
their

The dark green

glossy leaves, with

whitened

under surfaces, are alternate,

and usually ovate or oval-lanceolate. The apex is pointed and the base rounded or narrowed.

The teeth The upper

are so incurved as to appear blunt. surface of the leaf stem is grooved

and bears two or more small glands near the base of the leaf. Yellow is the autumnal color.
Flowers.

The small white

flowers

grow

in

long, loose racemes.

May. June.

sometimes grows to a height of The branches and bark eighty or ninety feet. of the young trees are reddish brown. The
tree

The

trunks of the older trees are almost black and
the bark
is

scaly.

The wood
It
is

is

hard and has a

beautiful close

grain.

red and darkens

with age, does not shrink nor warp, and is used for cabinet work and the inside finishings
of houses.
It is

becoming

scarce.

The

cherries

are used in flavoring brandies and other intoxiBoth bark and fruit are ingredients in cants.
certain medicines.

The

tree

is

common

through-

out the eastern part of the

United States and

extends west to Dakota, Kansas, and Texas.

202

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

BLACK CROWBERRY
Empetrum nigrum
Fruit.
lar,

Crowberry Family
is

The black drupe

berrylike, globu-

and

incloses six to nine seedlike nutlets with

a seed in each.
the stigma
is

The calyx
at

is

at the base

and

the

apex.

solitary in the leaf axils.
edible,

The drupes are They are juicy, acid,

and serve

as food for the Arctic birds.

The edges backward
Leaves.

linear-oblong leaves roll their
until

they meet.

They

are

dark green, thick, obtuse, and crowded along the branches. Evergreen.
Flowers.
small

The purplish
solitary in

dioecious flowers are

and

stamens are

much

the upper axils. exserted.

The
to the

The Black Crowberry appears south
England, in northern
California.
It

coast of Maine, the higher mountains of

New

New

York, Michigan, and

Asia.
leafy,

It is a

is a native also of Europe and much-branched shrub, low, densely

and grows

in thick beds.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

208

INKBERRY.
Ilex glabra

EVERGREEN WINTER BERRY
Holly Family

berrylike black drupe is about a It is usually quarter of an inch in diameter. solitary in the leaf axils, with the calyx at the
Fruit.

The

base and the

mark

of the stigma at the summit.

The

six seedlets are smooth.

The leathery evergreen leaves are The apex is obtuse wedge-lanceolate or oblong. or acute and sometimes few-toothed. The remainder of the margin is entire. The upper surface is dark green and shining and the lower
Leaves.

one paler and dotted with black.
Flowers.
flowers

The

small

dioecious

or

perfect

grow

in the leaf axils.

They

are borne

on slender stems.

June.

This slender evergreen shrub is from two to It has long been cultivated in six feet high.

England, but with us occurs mainly in a wild It grows near the coast from Nova Scotia state.
to Louisiana.

INKBERRY

(Ilex gldbra)

204

SLACK OR DARK PURPLE

2Qh

BUCKTHORN
Rhamnus
cathartica

Buckthorn Family

The berrylike drupes grow in clusters. They are globose, somewhat flattened, black, and The pulp and juice of the fruits are a shining. The three or four inclosed nutpeculiar green. lets are grooved. The drupes are bitter and
Fruit.

nauseating. Leaves.

August.

The

leaves are broadly ovate with
veins,

prominent,

They

sometimes hairy, are finely toothed.

beneath.

The small greenish flowers are dioacious. They appear a little later than the leaves. May, June.
Flowers.

This

is

a shrub or small tree ten or fifteen

feet high.

The lower branches, while

leafy, are

stiff and end in sharp points, really the purposes of thorns. serving The berries were formerly used in medicines

short

and

as a purgative, but are so severe in their action

that their use in this direction
to veterinary practice.

is

now
is

confined

yielded green dye the ripe berries, a purple dye by the over-ripe by fruit, a yellow dye by the fresh bark, and a

A

brown one by the dried bark.

206

HO W TO KNOW WILD FRUITS

BUCKTHORN. (Rhamnus

cathartica)

The plant is an escape from hedges in New England and the Middle States, and was intro-

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
duced originally .from Europe. of northern Asia.

207

It is also a native

LANCE-LEAVED BUCKTHORN
Rhamnus
lanceolata

Buckthorn Family

fruit.
nutlets.
It

This berrylike drupe has two grooved is black and shining. The fruits

are in the leaf axils, sometimes in clusters of

two or

three.

Leaves.

The

leaves

are

oblong-lanceolate.

On

the flowering shoots the leaf apex is often The leaves are finely toothed and someobtuse.

what hairy on the veins beneath. Flowers. The yellowish green blossoms are
solitary or clustered in the leaf axils.

May.

The

Lance-leaved

Buckthorn
hills

banks of streams and on
vania southward.

grows along from Pennsyl-

It is a tall, thornless shrub.

ALDER-LEAVED BUCKTHORN
Rhamnus
alnifolia

Buckthorn Family

Fruit.

The black

berrylike drupes are some-

what pear-shaped.

They

are fleshy and inclose

208
three

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

grooved nutlets. They grow from the axils of the lower leaves on shoots of new
growth.

The broadly ovate leaves are dark green when fully grown. They are acute at the apex and the margin is bluntly toothed. The veins on the lower surface are very promiLeaves.
nent.

The greenish flowers dioecious and grow on short stems axils. May, June.
Flowers.

are

mostly
leaf

in the

a low thornless shrub which grows in swamps, with New Jersey for its southern limit in our section.

This

is

NORTHERN FOX GRAPE
Vitis

Labmsca

Grape Family
fruit is

Fruit.
in size of

The

very variable in color,

and

in flavor.

separate berries and of the cluster, Purplish black is the common

color but ripe reddish

and greenish
is

fruits

are

found.

usually rather small. The berries are large, with a thick skin, tough They drop readily pulp, and large, thick seeds.
cluster

The

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

209

when
"

ripe.

They are
taste

sweet, with a

somewhat
variable

"

musky
Leaves.

and odor.
leaves are

September.
likewise
;

The

sometimes nearly entire in outline and broadly heart-shaped, sometimes three-lobed near the top,

and sometimes

five-lobed.

sharply tipped teeth.
large,

The

leaves are thick

The margins have and

with a green, nearly smooth upper surface and an under surface thickly covered with whitish or

brownish wool.

Flowers.

The inconspicuous

flowers are somepistillate.

times perfect, sometimes staminate or The fertile racemes are compact.

This luxuriant vine climbs by means of its tendrils, which are modified flower peduncles,
over rocks and walls, and from tree top to tree It is our most common grape top in the forest.

and the one from which many cultivated forms, such as the Catawba, Concord, and Worden have
sprung.
jellies

Its berries are considered the best for

and are
delicious

also

valuable for grape juice.
is

This
favor.

beverage

justly

growing in

nutriment, containing as much nitrogenous matter as milk. The scurfy covering of the branches, stalks,
It is rich in

and

tendrils, together

with the presence of ten-

210
dril

HOW
or flower

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
each
leaf,

cluster
features.

opposite

are

distinguishing
shreds.
It occurs in

The bark

peels off in

New England and

along the Alle-

ghanies to central Georgia.

SUMMER GRAPE
Vitis aestivalis

Grape Family
berries are

medium-sized, onethird to one-half inch in diameter. They are
Fruit.

The

dark blue or black with a bloom.
the flesh tough sometimes sweet and
;

The skin is sometimes dry and puckery,
juicy,

always lacking the
;

musky

flavor of

Vitis Idbrusca

and the seeds

are small.

The

clusters

are rather long, with

long stems.
Leaves.

September.

The

large

leaves,

thickish

mature, are angled or three- to five-lobed.

when The

openings between the lobes are deep or broad

and open.. The base
leaves are

is

heart-shaped.

The young

shining above and have tufts of brown down on the lower surfaces. The older
leaves are dull green above and with the distinguishing brown woolly tufts along the veins.

Flowers.

The

flower cluster

is

long and loose.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

211

This vine, like the preceding, is one of vigorous growth, and has given rise to several cultivated
varieties.

distinguished by its brown woolly masses on the leaves and by the absence of tenIt
is

dril or inflorescence opposite

each third leaf. " Evolution of our Native Fruits," Bailey, in his
its

York, and Long Island to central Florida and west
gives

range as Chenung County,

New

through southern Pennsylvania to the Mississippi

and Missouri.
It
is

especially a southern grape,
is

whose place

in

the north

represented by the next plant, Vitis bicolor, which is considered by Gray a variety of Vitis cestivalis but as a separate species by Bailey

and by Britton and Brown.

BLUE GRAPE
Vitis bicolor

Grape Family

Fruit.

The

clusters are usually long, with a

long peduncle. The berries are purple, with a dense bloom, medium in size, and sour in taste.

The

seeds are small.

September.

Leaves.

The

large, usually three- to five-lobed

leaves have not as deeply notched teeth as those

212
of

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

distinguishing feature is the thick blue bloom on the under surface of the
Vitis cestivalis.
leaf.

A

It loses this

toward

fall,

but does not have

the brown woolly masses of the

Summer

Grape.

The petioles and tendrils are The young growths, as well

long.

as the under leaf

surface, are usually covered with the distinguishThe vine grows along streams ing blue bloom.

and on banks from

New York

to .Illinois

and

to

mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.

RIVERSIDE OR SWEET-SCENTED GRAPE
Vitis vulpina.

Vitis riparia

Grape Family

This
(the

species

differs

from

Vitis

cordifolia

following species)
:

chiefly in the following

particulars

The berries are thickly covered with The seeds are small. The fruit blue bloom. clusters are much-branched and often compound. These show deeper and more frequent Leaves. lobes. The veins and angles are often hairy. The blossoms are very fragrant. Flowers.
Fruit.

They grow

in smaller, denser clusters.

This has a range from

New

Brunswick

to

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

213

RIVERSIDE GRAPE

(

Vitis vulpina)

North Dakota, Kansas, and Colorado, south to West Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas. It is the
source of

some cultivated

species

;

Elvira, Clinton,

and

others.

214

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

FROST OR CHICKEN GRAPE
Vitis cordifolia

Grape Family
berries are
cluster.

Fruit.

The small round
the loose-branched

numerare

ous

in

They

black with a slight bloom, have a thick skin, or two medium-sized scant pulp, and one
seeds.

They

are

sour,

but improve in flavor
are usually undivided,

after being frosted.

October, November.

Leaves.

The

leaves

but sometimes are
or
angles.

They
teeth.

suggestive of three lobes are coarsely toothed with

sharp-pointed

The
and

apex
the

is

generally
is

long

and

pointed,

base

heart-

and shaped. the lower one green and usually smooth, with occasionally fine hairs along the veins.
leaf surface is shiny

The upper

Flowers.

The flower cluster

is

long, branched,

and many-flowered.
the true Frost Grape, and is a vine of luxuriant growth, the trunk sometimes be-

This

is

coming a foot or two in diameter. It grows in moist thickets and along streams from New

England to central and southward.

Illinois,

Missouri, Nebraska,

VIRGINIA CREEPER (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

216

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
\

217

VIRGINIA CREEPER.

WOODBINE

AMERICAN IVY
Parthenocissus quinquefolia.

Ampelopsis quinquefolia

Grape Family
Fruit.

The globular berry

is

slightly

de-

It is dark blue or nearly pressed at the tip. black when mature, is two-celled, with one or

two largish seeds thin and inedible.
Leaves.

in

each

cell.

The
grow

flesh

is

The

berries

in loose

red-stalked clusters.

October.
leaves are borne on

The compound

The five to seven long channeled red stems. leaflets are in a whorl at the apex of the leaf
stalk.

They

are

variable

in

shape,

oval

or

and are coarsely toothed along the The stems are short apex half of the margin. and the apex is long and acute. The leaves early assume their red, crimson, and purplish
elliptical,
fall colorings.

Flowers.
flowers

The
in

reddish

or

greenish
their

small
inconof

grow

cymes.

Despite

spicuous

appearance
is

and

apparent

lack

odor, they are visited

Virginia Creeper

by many bees. a vine which has been

218

HO W TO KNOW WILD FEUITS
cultivated.
It

much

grows rapidly, and covers
supports offered it. climbs tree trunks
It

house yalls and

various

When growing wild, it and covers stone walls, fences, and rocks.

supports itself by means of the small disks at the ends of the tendrils. The fall coloring is brilliant. Its five leaflets are a feature distinguishing
it

from the Poison Ivy, which has
habits
of

somewhat

similar

growth.

The

latter's leaflets are

but three in number.

ANGELICA TREE.
Aralia spinosa

HERCULES' CLUB
Ginseng Family

berrylike drupes are fiveThe lobed and bear the styles at the summit.
Fruit.
fruits
is

The black

grow in large terminal clusters. The flesh thin. The fruits hang on the trees during the
Leaves.

winter.

The

leaves

are

doubly or

triply

The leaflets are compound and very large. ovate, thick, and serrate. They are dark green
above
prickly.
fall

and

paler

beneath.

The

petioles
is

are

Dark red with

traces of yellow

the

coloring.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
Flowers.

219

The small white

flowers

grow

in

umbels, some of which form a large panicle. In the south, this plant is said to become tree of fifty feet in height. In our section, a

a small tree or large shrub. The branchless stems often grow in groups, bearing

however,
their

it is

compound leaves in clusters at the The general effect is somewhat like a top. palm. The stems and leaves are thorny. The
large
flowers, like those of the Spikenard, are late in ap-

Southern pearing and the fruit matures rapidly. New York is the northern limit, although it is
often cultivated
escapes.

farther

north and sometimes

AMERICAN SPIKENARD.
Aralia racemosa

INDIAN ROOT
Ginseng Family

Fruit.
fruits is

The
grow

large
of

raceme-like

cluster

of

composed

numerous umbels.

Smaller

The berry is dark purple or reddish brown, small, gobular, five-seeded, and crowned with tiny calyx teeth,
clusters

in the leaf axils.

through which the styles project.
like the roots, are aromatic.

The

berries,

September.

Leaves.

The

leaves are large

and compound,

220

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

AMERICAN SPIKENARD

(Aralia racemosa)

Each has a main stem and two opposite
branches.

lateral

Three to

five leaflets,

a terminal one

BLACK OE DARK PURPLE
and the others
stems.
in pairs,

221
of the

grow on each

The

leaflets are

sometimes lobed.

They

are usually heart-shaped and sharply and doubly toothed. The point is long and sharp, and the base is heart-shaped. The veins on the lower
surface are hairy.

Flowers.
flowers form

The

small,

greenish,

umbelled
or

long terminal spikes

smaller

spikes in the leaf axils.

July, August.

Along

the

wooded

roadsides,

the greenish

white flowers appear about the time that the Golden-rod begins to blossom. The fruit follows
in

haste;
is

and the

plant, with its tiny glassy
of

spheres,

bloom.
Its

more noticeable than in its period The berries are used as food by birds.

range is from New Brunswick to Georgia and west to Minnesota.

WILD OR VIRGINIAN SARSAPARILLA
Aralia nudicaulis

Ginseng Family
fruit is

Fruit.

which

is

borne on a naked scape, shorter than the leaf stalks. There is

The

usually one large cluster of fruits at the top of the scape. This cluster is often composed of

222

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

WILD SARSAPARILLA

(Aralia nudicaulis)

two small

clusters borne

on short stems.

From

this central cluster radiate,

on longer stems, one

BLACK OE DARK PURPLE
or more smaller clusters of fruits.

223
clusters

The

The them are berrylike drupes composing At the top globular and about the size of peas.
black
of each
is

are compact and globular in appearance.

with

its

visible the opening of the calyx tube, minute teeth. Projecting through and

beyond

this are the five styles.

five-celled,

with one nutlet in

The drupe is each cell. The
five-celled

green fruits are ridged,
structure externally
;

showing the

but

when

ripe the drupes

are

nearly smooth. July, August. Leaves. There is usually one, sometimes there

are two, long stalked,
leaf

compound

leaves.

Each
leaflets

has three divisions of five to seven

each.

These are finely toothed and acute at the

apex. Flowers.

The
in

flowers

are

greenish white,

and are borne

umbels composed of from three
root serves as a substitute for

to seven clusters of bloom.

The aromatic

the South American Sarsaparilla. Bluebirds are recorded as eating the fruit. It favors damp
to

woods, and extends south from Newfoundland North Carolina and west to the Dakotas.

224

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

BRISTLY SARSAPARILLA.
Aralia hispida

WILD ELDER
Ginseng Family

Fruit.
like
fruit

The dark

blue, almost black, berry-

When the drupes are usually five-seeded. is green, or the berry somewhat dry, it
its

The five parts very distinctly. styles protrude through the persistent calyx tube Several umbels on very at the top of the fruit.
shows
five

slender smooth pedicels grow at the the plant stem. August.

summit

of

The leaves are twice pinnate, with ovate leaflets. These are finely toothed, long sharply acute at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, and hairy on the veins beneath.
Leaves.

Flowers.

The tiny white
clusters.
is

flowers

grow

in

nearly hemispherical This Sarsaparilla

distinguished by the bristles which are scattered along the stem. It

grows from one to two feet high, and frequents rocky and sandy places. It extends south to North Carolina.

BRISTLY SARSAPARILLA (Aralia hispida)

225

226

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

TUPELO.
Nyssa sylvatica
Fruit.

SOUR GUM.

PEPPERIDGE
Dogwood Family

The

fruit

clusters

slender stems from the leaf

grow on long axils. They rarely
the bluish

contain more than two or three of

The flesh is thin and acid, black ovoid drupes. and the bony stone grooved. The drupes serve as food for birds. October.
Leaves.

The

leaves are a soft glossy green

above, with a paler, somewhat hairy under surface. They vary in shape from lanceolate to

oval and obovate.

They

are often entire, some-

times notched, with large teeth near the apex. Flowers. Sterile and fertile flowers usually

grow on different trees, but sometimes on the same tree. They are yellowish green. The sterile flowers grow in several-flowered clusters, and the fertile ones are solitary, or in a close
whorl of a few blossoms.
stalks

They grow on
tree,

short

which elongate in fruit. This is an ornamental, rather small
foliage.

with

an attractive

Its

branches are rather

The wood splits low, horizontal, and quite close. with difficulty on account of its twisted fibers.

TUPELO (Nyssa
227

sylvatica)

228

HOW
is

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
for the tree.

Tupelo
still

the

Indian

name

An

interesting tradition in connection with the tree

around slavery days. It was customary to use a log of the Sour Gum as the back log for the rousing Christmas fire. As
clings

long as the

fire lasted,

was suspended.
slaves

work on the plantation Prompted by the characteristic
by the colored
race, the
it

love of leisure possessed

would cut a large log

in the fall, sink

under water, and leave it there until near Christmas, when they would raise it and carry it in
with the other Christmas
fuel.

Full of water,

it

burnt a long time, and the slaves enjoyed a cor-

The tree ranges respondingly long vacation. from New England west to Michigan, and south
to Florida

and Texas.

ALPINE OR BLACK BEARBERRY
Mairania alpina

Arctostaphylos alpina

Heath Family
Fruit.
juicy.
lets,

The globose drupes are black and They inclose four or five separate nutone-seeded.

each

They grow

in

small

clusters.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
Leaves.

229

The leaves

are deciduous, toothed,

and

inversely

egg-shaped,

with

conspicuous

veinings.

Flowers.

The white
is

ovoid flowers have a
in terminal racemes.

narrow

throat.

They grow

This Bearberry
tains of

an Arctic mountainous shrub
It also occurs in the

around the world.

moun-

New England

and Canada.

It is de-

pressed, not half a foot high.

BLACK OR HIGH-BUSH HUCKLEBERRY
Gaylussacia resinosa

Huckleberry Family

Fruit.

The
short

black, shining, berrylike drupes

grow

in

racemose

clusters.

The calyx

teeth are plainly visible. cross section of the fruit near the base shows the circular arrange-

A

ment

of the ten nutlets around the core.

This

core tapers toward the summit, being somewhat

cone-shaped.
Leaves.

July, August.

thick green leaves are covered with resinous dots. They are entire and have
short petioles. They vary from oblong to oval, and are obtuse or acutish. purplish red is one of the most noticeable of its fall colorings.

The

A

230

P1OW TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
or pink bells

Flowers.

The reddish

grow

in

short one-sided racemes.

There are several varieties with berries
ing from the type
; ;

differ-

some, pear-shaped some, and some, black with a bloom. bluish Gaylussacia resinosa is the Huckleberry com;

monly what

for sale.

The

flesh is

harder than that

of the Blueberries, but the

hard nutlets are some-

objectionable.
!

Huckleberries and milk

What

recollections
!

of childhood the combination recalls
robins, cedar birds, crows,

Bluebirds,

and blue jays share

with mortals a liking for the berries. The Huckleberries contribute an important
share to the beauty of the autumnal display of
colors.

Great purplish patches on pasture

hill-

sides are visible for a considerable distance.

The species extends as and west to Minnesota.

far south as Georgia,

DWARF OR BUSH HUCKLEBERRY
Gaylussacia dumosa

Huckleberry Family

berrylike drupes, with their ten seedlike nutlets, are small, watery, and insipid.

Fruit.

The

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE

231

They are black and shining, without bloom, and grow in an open bracted cluster. July, August. The thick leaves are green on both Leaves. sides, shining when old, and resinous. They
are nearly or quite stemless, and often slightly downy. The apex is obtuse or acute, and ends
in a sharp point.

Flowers.

The racemes

of

white,
in loose

red bell-shaped flowers racemes. June.

grow

pink, or bracted

The
of

fruit

of

this

account.

The plant

is

variety is not of much the principal member
It

grows in sandy swamps along the coast from Newfoundland to Florida and Louisiana.

the genus

southward.

LOW BLACK BLUEBERRY
Vaccinium nigrum
Fruit.
Huckleberry Family
is

The berry The

black and has no bloom.

July.

Leaves.
oblanceolate.

leaves are oblong, obovate, or
are nearly sessile
is

They

and

finely

toothed.

The apex

acute and the base narsurface
is

rowed or rounded.

The under

pale

and whitened.

232

BOW
The

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
white and
bell-

Flowers.
shaped.
of
.

The

flowers are

bell is

rounder than the blossom

F. Pennsylvanicum.

Only a few flowers ap-

pear in the cluster. This is sometimes considered as a variety of F. Pennsylvanicum, and often grows with it. It
differs

from

it

in

having a rounder,
is

bell-like blos-

som and

in the black bloomless fruit.

Vaccinium atrococcum
as a variety of
F.

sometimes considered

corymbosum, which is described in the blue section. The stems and under leaf surfaces are downy. black and lack bloom.

The

berries are

FRINGE TREE
Chionanthus Virginica
Olive Family

The purple oval drupes grow in loose They are covered with a bloom. The four-parted calyx is persistent at the base and the style is at the tip. The dry flesh contains one stony seed. The skin is thick. Leaves. The ovate or obovate-lanceolate
Fruit.
clusters.

leaves have stout, hairy stems. They are entire, and sharp or rounded at the apex. The under

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
hairy along the veins. turn yellow in the fall.
surface
is

233

The

leaves

Flowers.
rative

The white
hanging

flower clusters are deco-

among

the green foliage.

The four

nar-

row

petals,

like fringes, give the

common

name

to the plant.

The Greek, Chionanthus, meaning snow and
blossom, refers to the white flowers.
or small tree,
is

This shrub,

native as far north as

New

Jer-

sey and

southern

Pennsylvania,

and

extends

southward to Florida and west to Texas, ArIt grows along the banks kansas, and Kansas.
of streams.
It is often cultivated at the north.

PRIVET
Ligustrum vulgare
Olive Family

Fruit.

one- to
panicles.

The shining black berries are from two-seeded. They grow in terminal

Leaves.

The

leaves are deciduous with us,

but in the south of Europe are evergreen. are entire and very smooth.
Flowers.

They
are
in

The small white
and
bark
are

flowers

terminal panicles.

The

leaves

astringent.

In

234

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FEUITS

Belgium and

in other parts of Europe, the small

twigs are powdered and used for tanning leather. The juice of the berries is used in dyeing. This
It a hardy shrub from six to eight feet high. has been naturalized from Europe. It is often
is

used for hedges.
Privet

Some

of its old English

names

are Primwort, Skedge,
is

and Skedgwith. reported growing on the walls of

Cologne Cathedral, the seeds obviously having been deposited there by bird agencies.

BLACK OR GARDEN NIGHTSHADE
Solanum
iiigrum

Potato Family

Fruit.
in

Smallish, black, globular berries

grow

drooping clusters

from the

side of the stems.

Their pedicels are slender, and the five-parted The berries are smooth calyx is at the base.

and contain many thin, flat seeds. Leaves. The ovate leaves usually have one side which is slightly longer than the other.

They are wavy-toothed,
stems.

thin,

and have thin

Flowers.

The

five-lobed white flowers

grow

in lateral clusters.

July-September.

BLACK NIGHTSHADE

(Solatium nigrum)

286

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

the roadside and in waste places, the Black Nightshade occasionally appears. It is a rather

By

low spreading annual.

AMERICAN ELDER.
Sambucus Canadensis
Fruit.

SWEET ELDER
Honeysuckle Family

Large, full, flat, drooping clusters of purplish or almost black drupes grow at the ends of the branches. Usually, five small nutlets and
purplish juice are the contents of each fruit. The calyx teeth and stigma are visible at the

summit.
Leaves.

August, September.

The compound

leaves are opposite.
are coarsely and

Their five to eleven leaflets grow on short stems,

and are oblong or ovate.

They

sharply toothed, the teeth sometimes hooked. The under surface is lighter than the upper, and The tip is acute and the base rounded, hairy.
acute, or heart-shaped.

Flowers.

The

small, whitish, fragrant flowers

compound cyme. In July, this blossoming shrub delights both the sense of sight and that of smell as one passes
along the roadway bordered by
it.

grow

in a flat

In the

fall,

tiLACK OR

DARK PURPLE

237

at school-opening season, the drooping clusters
of fruit are a feast for the eye
;

are sometimes
;

used for pies and homemade wine and furnish material for the country boy's ink bottle, much to
the distress of his school ma'am.
is

Professor

Budd

responsible for the statement, that
acid,

with the

addition of an
Elderberries
berries.

make

vinegar or lemon juice, as good a pie as Huckle-

The new growths are smooth and green, and
the older stems are grayish, with raised dots. The pith is white, distinguishing this Elder from the Red-berried, which has a brown pith. It is a common plant of the United States and Canada.

MAPLE-LEAVED VIBURNUM OR ARROWWOOD. DOCKMACKIE
Viburnum aceriiolium
Fruit.
Honeysuckle Family

oval in

The smallish drupes are somewhat shape, with two opposite sides flattened.
tip.

They
black
stone

are pointed at the

They
is

when
is

ripe.

The

flesh

are nearly thin and the

doubly convex, with one ridged surface The and the other one slightly two-grooved.

238

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

MAPLE-LEAVED VIBURNUM (Viburnum
fruits are

acerifolium)

borne in a terminal
stems.

flat

cluster,

on

reddish

downy

Late August, September,

and

persistent through the winter.

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
Leaves.

239

The

leaves are in pairs, with tiny

stipules at the base of the stems.

surface of the leaf
is soft,

is

lighter

The under than the upper, and

to

The shape varies from oval The leaves are unsomewhat three-lobed.
with down.
flower
cluster
consists
of

evenly toothed. The Flowers.

perfect, small, white, or cream-colored blossoms.

May, June.
This
is

a low shrub, seldom exceeding six
It is quite readily distinguished

feet in height.

by the resemblance

of its leaves to those of the

Red Maple.

grows on the border of woods south to North Carolina and west to Michigan and Minnesota.
It

DOWNY-LEAVED ARROWWOOD
Viburnum pubescens
Fruit.
clustered.

Honeysuckle Family

The dark purple oval drupes are The flesh is thin and the stone is

two-grooved on each surface. August. The ovate leaves are stemless or Leaves.
nearly
so.

They

are coarsely toothed
is

and acute

at apex, or sometimes the point

long drawn

240
out.

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
is

The under

surface

soft

with down.

Purple and red are the foliage colors of autumn, which contrast with the dark berries.
Flowers.
in an

The abundant white

flowers

grow

open cyme.
or nearly sessile, leaves and their pubescence are characteristics of this low
sessile,

The
soft

It extends branching shrub of rocky woods. It south along the Alleghanies to Georgia. ranges west to Minnesota and Iowa.

WITHE-ROD
Viburnum cassinoides
Fruit.

Honeysuckle Family

The

borne on red

globose or ovoid drupes are stems. The cluster presents a

most attractive appearance with light green, pink, and blue-black fruits in various stages of
ripening.

The dark drupes are covered with a The minute calyx and stigma soft blue bloom. The flesh is quite abundant persist at the tip. and sweet. The stone is flat, with a slight hollow on one side and a convex surface on the
other.

Late August, September.

Leaves.

on flattened

The thickish opposite leaves grow petioles, which nearly encircle the

WITHE-ROD (Viburnum

cassinoides)

a

241

BLACK OR DARK PURPLE
smaller branches.

243

Brown

circular

dots appear

on the upper surface of the leaf along the midvein, and are scattered about on the under
surface.
tip.

The

leaf

is

usually ovate, with a blunt

The

teeth are fine
is

and somewhat rounded,
entire.

or the margin

sometimes

Flowers.

and and

full.

The flower cluster is quite large The whitish flowers are small, perfect,
June.
rather straggling, and has an The twigs are somewhat bark.
is

five-parted.

The shrub
ash-colored

scurfy

and
is

dotted.

The

slender

last

year's

sometimes used in binding sheaves. growth It is a swamp plant, and extends south to New
Jersey and west to Minnesota.

LARGER WITHE-ROD
Viburnum nudum
Honeysuckle Family

usually a larger species than Viburnum cassinoides, and has a southern range extending

This

is

from

The leaves Jersey south to Florida. are more prominently veined than in the precedand sometimes scurfy above.

New

ing,
is

The margin

generally entire.

244

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

SWEET VIBURNUM. SHEEPBERRY NANNY BERRY
Viburnum Lentago
Fruit.

Honeysuckle Family
are crimson, before ripen-

The drupes

ing to a dark blue or black, and the two colors The fruits often mingle in the fruit cluster.
are covered with bloom, are drooping,
clusters

have slender red

stalks.
is

and the The calyx tube,

with the projecting stigma,

at the summit.

The
is

fruit is rather large

and

edible.
is

The stone
grooved on

flattened, has a blunt point, and both sides. September, October.

Leaves.
pointed,

The broad oval leaves are sharpclosely toothed.

and are sharply and
stem
is

The

leaf

In the

fall

usually winged or margined. the leaves are deep red or marked

with orange.
Flowers.

The small white

flowers

grow

in

terminal cymes. The numerous yellow anthers give the 'flower a yellowish appearance, May, June.

This small tree has rusty, scurfy, scale-like bark, especially on the young shoots. Its foliage
is

good, and the flower clusters large and showy.

SWEET VIBURNUM (Viburnum
245

Lentago)

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FftUlTS

It occurs quite frequently in

streams from Canada to

woods and along Georgia, and west to

Minnesota and Missouri.

BLACK HAW.
Viburnum prunifolium
Fruit.

STAG BUSH
Honeysuckle Family

-The dark blue, nearly black, oval

The drupes are borne in a few-fruited .cluster. The oval fruits are whitened with a bloom.
stone
is

flat

on one

side

and a

trifle
is

curved on

the other.
after

The

flavor of the fruit

improved

having been frosted.

September.

Leaves.
at

The oval the apex and finely

leaves are usually obtuse

toothed.

green above and lighter on short stems which are sometimes winged. The cream-white flowers grow in a Flowers.
flat-topped cluster.

They are dark beneath. They grow

May.

This ^Viburnum, like the Sweet Viburnum, sometimes reaches the stature of a tree. It is

found from Connecticut to Florida, and extends west to Michigan, Kansas, and Texas.

BLUE

BLUE
COMMON JUNIPER
Juniperus communis
Pine Family

Fruit.

The

until the second year,

berrylike cones do not develop and often remain on the

branches some time after ripening. When fully ripe, in the fall of the second year, the fruits
are dark blue with a bloom.

They
berry

are usually
is

three-seeded.

The

flesh of the

dry and

mealy.

The

seeds are slow in germinating, re-

The fruit develops from quiring two years. three fleshy scales, united from their bases nearly
to the tips,

and inclosing three ovules.
in a

When
with
center.

ripe, the tips of the scales are still visible,

lines

from each joining
is

common

The berry
is

much

It nearly stemless and axillary. used in making gin, an infusion of the

berries being

added to

distilled grain.

Leaves.

The

short, stemless,

sharp-pointed

leaves are arranged in whorls of three.
are bright green

They
sur-

and shining on the lower
249

Low JUNIPER

(Juniperus nana)

250

BLUE
face,

251

and channeled and whitened on the upper one. The whitened appearance of the upper surface
is

due to a thin layer of wax, which covers

and

protects,

from dew and

rain, the stomata,

or openings, of the air passages.

Flowers.
ers

The

st animate

and

pistillate flow-

grow May.

in

aments on separate

plants.

April,

Juniperus communis is an erect shrub or small tree, common to the northern portions of Europe, In the latter continent it Asia, and America.

extends as far south as

New

Jersey,

Pennsyl-

vania, Nebraska, Michigan, and along the Kockies to New Mexico.

Juniperus nana (Juniperus communis, var. alpina of Gray) is distinguished from the preceding by a growth in low circular patches. These spread over waste rocky hillsides and are eradicated with difficulty. The leaves are

somewhat

stouter and less spreading than those

of Juniperus

communis.

252

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

RED CEDAR
Juiiiperus Virginiana

Pine Family

Fruit.

and wider
triangular

fruits are globular or flattened " " a at the top, giving the berry " " The so-called is outline. berry

The

formed by the coalescence of fleshy scales, the tips of which are indicated by tiny projections on the fruit. It grows on a straight peduncle

and
flesh

contains
are

one or two seeds.

Seeds

and

aromatic.

October, November, and

persistent.

Leaves.

The

leaves are of

r the younger trees they are arranged loosely along the branches.

two kinds. On often aw l-shaped and
These

together with short, scale-like, overlapping leaves crowded closely
also appear
trees,

on older

together.

Flowers.
usually 'on

The
The

sterile

and

fertile flowers are

different

trees,

sometimes on the

same

tree.

flowers are small

and grow

in

terminal aments.

April, May. The Red Cedar is a shrub or tree with reddish brown bark, which peels off in shreds on the older growths. The wood is whitish or red, and

BLUE

253

RED CEDAR
(Juniperus Virginiana)

has a pleasant, persistent odor.

It is

used for

pencils, small boxes, fence posts, and sometimes

254
pails.

HOW
It is

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

very durable, but has been used so
it is

extravagantly that

now

expensive.

The

Cedar seeds are scattered by birds, and the

trees often

grow along fence rows.
magnitude in

their greatest

They reach swamps and low

grounds of the south, but are common throughout the United States. In the north, they grow

on dry

hills as well as

near swamps.

SHRUBBY RED CEDAR
Juniperus Sabina

Pine Family

Fruit.

The

fruit

differs

from that

of

the

Red Cedar in being borne on recurved stemlike branches instead of on erect ones.
The
leaves are of

two kinds,
is

similar to those

of the preceding species.

a prostrate, sometimes creeping shrub, seldom more than four feet high; It grows on the borders of swamps or on

The Shrubby Red Cedar

rocky banks in northward.

New England

to Minnesota,

and

YELLOW CLINTONIA

(Clintonia borealis)

256

BLUE

257

YELLOW CLINTONIA
Clintonia borealis
Lily-of-the- Valley

Family

Fruit.
in
color.

The ovoid berry is almost a pure blue It is many-seeded. The umbel of

fruit

grows at the top of an erect stem. August. There are two to four shiny, oval or Leaves.

oblong, light green leaves, with their stalks acting as a sheath for the base of the scape.

Flowers.

The

ing flowers grow May, June.

three to six, greenish, droopat the summit of the scape.
in honor

The plant
Clinton,

is

named
It

of

De Witt
State

who was

a governor of

New York

and a

naturalist.

a foot in height.
creeping.
It is

grows from six inches to The rootstock is slender and

found in woods from Labrador to North
Its

Carolina.

western limit

is

Minnesota.

BLUE COHOSH.
Caulophyllum tbalictroides
Fruit.

PAPOOSE ROOT
Barberry Family
is

The

fruit resembles a drupe, but
fleshy.

a

naked seed with the outer coat

There

258

HOW
these

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

are originally

two seeds

in the developing ovary.

grow they burst their membranous and continue growth as pairs of naked covering The fruit is blue with a bloom, globular, seeds.

As

and borne on short stout
in raceme-like clusters.

stalks.

The

fruits

grow

one large leaf at the top of the stem and sometimes a smaller one near the
Leaves.

There

is

base of the flower.

parted and the

leaflets

The compound leaf is thricehave two or three lobes.

They
small,

are coarsely toothed.

Flowers.

The

flowers are yellowish green,
April,

and in racemes.

May.
is

This herb of early growth appears, in rich

woods, in April. bloom-covered.

When
It
is

young, the whole plant

more common
far south as

to the west-

ward, and extends as

South Carolina.

SASSAFRAS
Sassafras sassafras

Sassafras officinale

Laurel Family

Fruit.

The

fruit

is

an oval dark blue drupe.

This

fits

into a red hollow cup,

which

is

thick-

ened calyx and fleshy stem.

The calyx

teeth

BLUE COHOSH (Caulophyllwn
259

thalictroides)

BLUE
scallop the edge of the cup.
is

261

The

flesh of the

rather thin and the stone large. drupe cotyledons are large and fleshy. The fruits

The
grow

singly or in small clusters from the base of the season's shoots. The fruit is eaten by birds, but
is

unpleasantly spicy. August. Leaves. On the mature trees, oval leaves

predominate.
;

The young

shoots

bear

oval

leaves leaves with a lobe at one side, looking like the thumb of a mitten or three-lobed
;

leaves, with two lateral lobes and a terminal one. The hollows of the lobed leaves are

rounded.

The

young leaves are reddish but

become dark green above with a lighter lower surface. The leaves and twigs are mucilaginous.
Yellow and orange are the
Flowers.
ers
fall colors.

The greenish yellow

dioecious flow-

many-flowered racemes. Sassafras and Spice Bush are our only repre-

grow

in drooping

sentatives of a large family that, in the tropics,

include

plants that

yield

and

several

differently

scented

cinnamon, camphor, The woods.

Laurel or

Bay

Tree, whose leaves were used by

the ancients in

making wreaths with which

to

crown
family.

their heroes, is also a

member

of

this

262

HOW

TO

SNOW
is

WILD FRUITS

Aromatic bark

a

common

characteristic.

The bark and roots are ingredients in root beer, and from the bark of the roots oil of sassafras is made. The bark of the Sassafras is much cracked and roughened. Emerson says that, in the southwestern parts of the country, the dried leaves of the Sassafras are much used for flavoring
soups.

Columbus
of

is

said to

have increased his

own hope

being near land, and to have quieted the mutinies of his crew, from catching whiffs of the strong fragrance of the Sassafras.
Sassafras roots were a part of the
first

cargo to

from Massachusetts to England. At that time they were much prized for supposed
be
sent

medicinal properties. The wood is when seasoned is tough and light.

brittle,

but

The

trees

grow rapidly and spread by suckers, often formThe range is through the Missising thickets. sippi valley and eastward.

ROUND-LEAVED CORNEL OR DOGWOOD
Cormis circinata

Dogwood Family

Fruit.

or white.

The small drupe is very light blue The fruit develops sparingly and the

BLUE

263

The stone is nearly cymes are not very full. It is aromatic globose and somewhat ridged. and bitter. September.
Leaves.

The

leaves are nearly round, some-

times even broader than long. The apex is acute and the base rounded or heart-shaped. The under
surface

densely hairy and has prominent veins. The white blossoms are rather Flowers.
is

large and in full-blossomed cymes.
cels are

The

pedi-

somewhat
is

hairy.
its

This shrub

quite spreading in
Its

habit,

and

from three
broad.
rocks.

to ten feet high.

branches are

green and warty.
It

The

leaves are distinctively

grows

in the shade

and often among
to Virginia.

It extends

from Nova Scotia

SILKY CORNEL.
Cornus

KINNIKINNIK
Cornus sericea

Amonum
Dogwood Family

Fruit.

green to the calyx teeth persistent in a depression at the The flesh is whitish and the stone summit.
noticeably
ridged.

The drupes vary in ripening from They are globular, with pale blue.

The

fruits

grow

in a flat

SILKY CORNEL (Cornus Amonum) 264

BLUE

265

terminal cluster. The peduncles and pedicels are reddish and clothed with soft down. Late

August, September.
Leaves.

The

simple,

opposite
is

leaves

are

ovate or
base
is

elliptical.

The

tip

pointed and the

rounded or often uneven, one side being The stems and under longer than the other. leaf surfaces are downy, sometimes rusty.
flowers.
flat

The small white
June.
is

flowers

grow

in

compact cymes.

This shrub
Its

erect

and somewhat spreading.

green bark has a reddish tinge and in winter the branches become purplish. The branchlets,
stems, and lower leaf surfaces are finely woolly. It is one of the latest of the family to blossom

but fruits

in

company with the Panicled

Cornel,

the two often forming hedges along the fence rows and highways. It is very decorative in
fruit,

and

is

being more
It

and more used

by

landscape
sively as

gardeners.
far west as

the

grows quite Dakotas and south

exten-

to the gulf.

266

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

ALTERNATE-LEAVED CORNEL OR

DOGWOOD
Cormis
alternifolia

Dogwood Family
in

Fruit.

The small deep blue drupes grow

an irregularly branched drooping cyme. PedunThe flesh of cles and pedicels are a deep red.
the

drupe

is

scanty,

a pithy texture.
is

white or pinkish, and of There is but one stone, which

The style usually two-seeded. projects through the minute calyx tube, at the summit of the fruit. The drupe is tenaciously
globose and
bitter.

It ripens in early

August, being one of

the

Dogwoods to fruit. Leaves. The alternate leaves usually grow in clusters at the ends of the branches. They are entire or minutely toothed, and ovate or oval. The pointed apex is long drawn out and the base is rounded or acute. The upper surface is shining and dark green the lower one, whitfirst
;

ened and covered with fine hairs, especially along
the
veins.

The veins

are

prominent on the

under surface, looking like tiny cords running The petiole has a grooved through the leaf. upper surface. Yellow or yellow and scarlet are
the fall colors.

ALTERNATE-LEAVED CORNEL (Cornus

alternifolid)

267

BLUE
Flowers.
flowers

269
white,
four-parted

The

small,

grow
is

in broad loose cymes.

June.

a pretty shrub or small tree, distinguished from the other Dogwoods by its alternate This
leaves.
Its flower clusters, too, differ, the second-

ary stalks growing alternately instead of starting from the same point. The leaf clusters are

broad and

flat,

and

so arranged as to

form a green
of the fruit

background for the red and black
cluster.
is,

This

Dogwood

fruit, bitter

though

it

serves as food for the birds.

It is

common

from

New

Brunswick to Minnesota and as far

south as Georgia.

BLUE TANGLE. TANGLEBERRY. DANGLEBERRY
Gaylussacia frondosa

Huckleberry Family
loose clusters of berrylike

Fruit.

The long

The drupes are characteristic of this species. separate fruits are rather large, dark blue with a
white bloom, globose, and sweet with a slight The calyx teeth crown the summit. acidity.

The

fruits

ripen

late

and are rather

scarce.

July, August.

270
Leaves.

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

The

short-petioled leaves are thin,

large, pale green,

whitened and resinous on the

under surface, and oval to inversely egg-shaped.
Flowers.

son says,

"

The greenish pink bells, as Emerhang dangling on slender strings,

from one to three inches long." These stems are bracted, and the raceme-like flower cluster is long

and

loose.

May, June.
England,
the

In

New

Dangleberry grows

mostly along the coast. It extends south to Florida and Louisiana and west to Ohio. It
prefers

moist

ground,
is

and

the fruit

in

the

warmer

locations

of

improved quality.

BOX HUCKLEBERRY
Gaylussacia brachycera

Huckleberry Family

Fruit. The light blue, berry like drupes grow in short clusters. They have ten seedlike nutlets.

The evergreen leaves are thick and and lack the resinous dots common to leathery, the rest of the genus. They are oval, and the margins have rounded teeth and are somewhat
Leaves.
rolled

backwards.

The

leaf

stems are very short.

SLUE
Flowers.
flowers

271
or

pink bell-shaped on very short pedicels, in short grow

The white

racemes.

May.

This low shrub, scarcely exceeding a foot in height, has a limited range, occurring in dry

woods from Delaware and Pennsylvania
ginia.

to Vir-

GREAT BILBERRY
Vaccinium uliginosum
Fruit.
Huckleberry Family

bloom-covered, globular usually grow singly or in clusters of from two to four. They are four- or five-celled,
blue,

The

berries

sweet, and not very abundant.

July, August.

Leaves.
fully

The oblong

or obovate leaves,

when

grown, are thick, bright green above and
beneath.

paler

They

are

entire

and nearly

stemless.

Flowers.

The
a

solitary or few-clustered pink

flowers have their parts mostly in fours.

This

is

low

tufted

shrub

with

many

branches.

It inhabits the

New England and New

mountain heights of York, the shore of Lake
It is

Superior, and thence northward to Alaska.

272
also

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
of

found in the northern countries

the

Eastern Hemisphere.

DWARF BILBERRY
Vaccinium caespitosum
Fruit.
Huckleberry Family
is

The berry
It

globular and blue, with
It is five-celled.

a bloom.

has a sweet flavor.

The

fruits usually

grow

singly in the leaf axils.

August.
Leaves.
ovate,

The smooth shining leaves are with small blunt teeth. The petioles The white or pink

ob-

are

very short.
Flowers.
shaped.
is mainly a mountain or cold country and grows to a height of from four shrub, inches to two feet.

flowers are bell-

This

HIGH-BUSH OR TALL BLUEBERRY
Vaccinium corymbosum
Fruit.

Huckleberry Family
differ

--The

berries

much
some

in

color,

some

varieties bearing shiny black berries,

black with a blue bloom, and

blue.

some The

BLUE

273

HIGH-BUSH BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium corymboswri)

size

of the berry

is

alsc variable.

The

berries

grow

in a cluster at the end of a short, nearly

274
leafless

BOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
growth.

branch of

last year's

The calyx

teeth are noticeable at the

Some
acid.

berries

summit of the berry. are very sweet and others rather

Leaves.
entire.

July, August. In the typical form the margins are

After the time of flowering, the leaves broaden without increasing in length. They are
oval or elliptical-lanceolate. The under surface short.

The
is

petioles

are

paler

than the

upper and Flowers.
ish,

be smooth or hairy. The blossoms are white or pinkcylindrical, and somewhat narrowed at the

may

throat.

They grow in short racemes. The High Blueberry grows to a height
four
to

of

from
shrub.

ten

feet.

It

forms a bushy

the older branches the bark roughens and comes off in shreads. The leaves add their
scarlet

On

and orange colorings

to the brilliancy of

the

autumnal swamp
as far north as

foliage.

These

berries

Newfoundland, west to While reachMinnesota, and south to Virginia. their most luxuriant growth in swamps, ing

grow

they are also abundantly found in old pastures.

276

BLUE

277

DWARF BLUEBERRY
Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum
Fruit.
Huckleberry Family

The globular blue berries are covered They grow in clusters at the ends The five calyx teeth are very of the branches. Each berry contains many small prominent. seeds and is usually ten-celled. June, July. Leaves. The oval-lanceolate leaves are stemless and acute at both ends. The teeth are minute and bristle-like. Each surface is shining,
with bloom.
but the lower one
is lighter green than the upper. In autumn are alternate in arrangement. They they change to red colorings and fall early.

Flowers.

The white
a dwarf

bell-shaped flowers

grow

in few-flowered racemes.

rough green branches, which are thickly covered with tiny It is the earliest of the white, raised dots.
shrub,

This

is

with

Blueberries to ripen, growing usually in rather exposed positions. It favors a thin, sandy soil,

and especially frequents dry pine woods. It has a sweet and delicious flavor and such tiny seeds
that
it is

a

much more
It

pleasant berry to eat than

the Huckleberry.

is soft,

however, and easily

278
bruised,

now

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

which prevents its being largely marketed. George Emerson says it is suitable for drying, and then forms a good substitute for
currants, for use in cakes, etc.

The

cluster of

ripening fruit presents an attractive color combination, with its green, pink, red, and blue berries.

is

Vaccinium Canadense, or Canadian Blueberry, similar to the preceding, but has leaves

which are

have entire margins.

downy.
August.

downy on both sides and which The branchlets are also The fruit ripens later in July or
It

has a more northern range, being most abundant in Canada. It is also found
along the mountains, south to likes moist woods and swamps.
Virginia.
It

LOW BLUEBERRY
Vaccinium vacillans
Fruit.

Huckleberry Family
berries of this shrub are borne

The

in raceme-like clusters at the
leafless twig.

end of a nearly

ble

at

The calyx teeth are plainly visithe summit. The fruit when ripe is
It is

blue,

with a bloom.

slightly

more acid
good

than

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum but of

BLUE
flavor.

279
later

The

berries ripen

than the pre-

ceding.

July, September.

The leaves are oval or obovate, dull green above and glaucous beneath. They are
Leaves.

narrowed or rounded at the base, and have The apex is acute and ends in short stems.
a short bristle.
so,

The margin is entire or nearly In the fall and the leaves are alternate.

the foliage changes to deep reds. The pink or greenish bell-shaped Flowers. blossoms are somewhat contracted at the mouth.

They grow
height.
soil

in clusters.

This shrub varies from one to four feet .in
It is stiff

and

erect.

It grows, in light

along the wood borders and shaded roadfrom New Hampshire west to Michigan, and south to Carolina and Missouri. The plant
sides
is prolific,

and when

all

the berries in the cluster

have

ripened the fruit

may

be stripped

off

by

handfuls.

ARROWWOOD
Viburnum dentatum
Fruit.

Honeysuckle Family
fruits

The
calls

are

blue,

dark

lead,

Emerson

them,

but when gathered or

280

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

They are oval, overripe become bluish black. with calyx teeth and stigmas at the pointed tip.
The
flesh

one side
other,

and the stone rounded on and with a rather deep groove on the
is

thin,

making a

cross section resemble a horse-

shoe that has been flattened at the toe.
fruits

The

grow in a flat-topped, erect cluster. They are dry and puckery, but are eaten by birds.
August, September.
Leaves.

The

leaves

are

opposite,

coarsely

and prominently toothed, ovate, pointed at the or heart-shaped at the base. tip, and rounded

The

petioles are short.

Little tufts of hair are

often in the axils of the midrib

veins

on the lower
green.

surface.
is

and branching The leaves are
the autumnal

yellowish
color.

Dark red
from

This shrub

is

five to fifteen feet high,

and has smooth gray bark.
axils."

The under

leaf

surface has the little clusters of

down
is

in the

The name Arrowwood the shrub from the use made
shoots for arrows

applied to of the young
It inhabits

by the Indians.

moist places and borders streams. It extends south, along the mountains, to Georgia and west
to Minnesota.

ABROWWOOD (Viburnum
281

dentatuni)

282

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

SOFT-LEAVED ARROWWOOD
Viburnum molle
Fruit.

Honeysuckle Family

The
and

blue drupe

is

similar to the fruit
is

of the preceding species.

It

larger, sharply

pointed,
is

oily.

not so deep as
Leaves.

The depression of the stone in Viburnum dentatum.
leaves
are

The

somewhat

larger

than those of the Arrowwood, but differ principally in being covered with soft hairs on the

under surface.

Viburnum molle

is

principally distinguished

from Viburnum dentatum by the pubescence on twigs, leaf, and flower stems, and lower leaf surfaces.

grows along the coast from eastern Massachusetts to Florida, and Texas.
It

BLUE OR MOUNTAIN FLY HONEYSUCKLE
Lonicera ccerulea

Honeysuckle Family

Fruit. The berry is formed by the coalescence of two maturing ovaries. The exterior of the fruit shows its double structure by the two " " at the apex, each tiny eyes marking the rem-

\
BLUE OR MOUNTAIN FLY HONEYSUCKLE
283.

(Lonicera cosmled)

284

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

nant of a slightly five-toothed calyx. A cross sec tion of the berry shows a clearly marked partition

between the two ovaries.
short peduncles.

The

berries

grow on

They

are round or ovate and

dark blue, with a bloom. The berry is quite June. juicy, but the flavor is unpleasant.
Leaves.

The

thickish, opposite, ovate leaves

are rounded or narrowed at the base and obtuse
at the apex.

The upper and the under
is

surfaces

of the leaf are slightly hairy, as

the margin.

The pale yellow blossoms grow on short stems in the axils of the leaves. The
Flowers.
ovaries are almost united.

May.

a low upright shrub, from one to two feet high. It is quite common in mountain

This

is

woods and bogs.

The plant presents an

inter-

esting example of reserve buds.

Three almost

equal buds are formed, one above another, in each axil. The following year one bud develops into a shoot and the other two remain as they
are, unless

the

first

shoot

is

destroyed,

when

another bud develops to take its place. These reserve buds are said to keep their vitality for
several years.

YELLOW

YELLOW
NORTH AMERICAN PAPAW
Asimina triloba
Custard-Apple Family

Several large fleshy berries are borne These fruit together on a thickened peduncle. stems grow laterally from the axils of last year's
Fruit.

Each berry is from two to six inches long and somewhat resembles a green banana. Its color, when ripe, is a yellowish green, and it is covered with a whitish bloom. The pulp is light yellow and of a fine grain, is soft and sweet.
leaves.

Two

rows of

flat

horizontally

and
the

beanlike seeds are arranged each other alternate with
of

throughout
seeds
large,

length
in

the

berry.

The

are

inclosed

fleshy

arils.

They are

and form an obstacle
;

to the pleasure of
is

eating the fruit
Leaves.

the flavor

also too aromatic

to be greatly relished.

October.

The

leaves are large,

from ten

to

twelve inches long and four to
are entire, alternate,

five broad.

and
287

short-petioled.

They They

288
are

HOW
reverse

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

egg-shaped with acute apex, and

pointed or slightly rounded base. of the fall leaf is dirty yellow.

The

color

Flowers.

The

solitary flowers are green at

opening, changing through browns and }^ellows to a deep red. They have two rows of petals ;
the outer three
erect,

spreading, and the inner three

forming a sort of cup. April. This is a low tree or shrub, forming a thick

undergrowth in

throughout the Mississippi valley. The foliage is dense and gives to the plant a tropical aspect. It is our one representative of a family which includes

many

forests, especially

many
spots

Rich, moist, woodland tropical species. and banks of streams are the localities

which it prefers. Its northern limit is Ontario and western New York. It extends west to
Michigan and S9uthward.

MAY

APPLE. MANDRAKE. UMBRELLA LEAF. WILD LEMON
Barberry Family

Podophyllum peltatum

Fruit. The large ovoid or lemon-shaped yellowish berry usually grows from the fork of two

YELLOW
leaves.

289
incloses. numerous

The

fruit is fleshy
is

and

seeds, each of which

surrounded by a pulpy aril. These seeds are arranged in rows along a large
lateral placenta.
It retains

The

fruit is sweet

and

edible.

the thickened

stigma at

the apex.

July.

Leaves.

The

leaves are five- to nine-lobed.

The The

lobes are two-cleft
flowerless

and pointed at the apex.
single leaves

stalks bear

with

the stems terminating near the center, giving the leaves a truly umbrella-like appearance. The
leaves of the flowering stalks are in pairs, and their stems join the leaves nearer their inner
edges.

The upper

surface

is

darker than the

lower.

Flowers.

with

its six to

peduncle

large, white, drooping blossom, nine petals, is borne on a stout in the fork of the leaves. It is

The

cross fertilized

by

bees, that visit the flowers

for their pollen.

They bear no

nectar.

April,

May.

The

leaves

and the horizontal creeping
if

root-

stocks are poisonous

eaten, but possess certain

medicinal

properties.

The plant spreads by
and forms large
fulfills

means

of its creeping rhizome

patches.

The

umbrella-like leaf

the mis-

i2l)0

I10W TO

KNOW
its

WILD FRUITS
for the pollen of the
of the flower

sion suggested

by

name

flower which
itself is

it

covers.

The shape

evidently protective in a similar way. The manner in which the leaf forces its way
is

through the ground
of the

interesting.

The

lobes

underground leaf are folded close to the At the point stem, in closed umbrella fashion.

corresponding to the tip of the umbrella, the leaf cells are white and toughened, forming a hard knob. This, as the stem grows, bores its way

through the earth to the surface. Above ground the group of cells softens, but remains as a white
spot on the leaf.

grows in low woods, and is more prevalent in the Middle States than in
It

New

England.

DWARF THORN
Crataegus uniflora.

Cratasgus parvifolia
is

Apple Family

Fruit.

The yellowish pome
It is

globular or

pear-shaped. usually solitary and borne on a short peduncle. The glandular, deeply cut calyx lobes are persistent.
Leaves.

shaped.

The thick leaves are inversely eggThey are nearly stemless, and the

YELLOW

291

upper portion of the margin has rounded teeth. The upper surface is shining and the lower one
hairy.

Flowers.

The white

flowers

grow on short

stems, usually alone, sometimes in pairs. This low downy shrub favors sandy soil, and

grows from southern New York south to Florida, where it reaches tree stature. It extends west
to

West Virginia and Louisiana.
fruit usually occur alone.

Both flower

and

DWARF
Panax
trifolium.

GINSENG.
Aralia trifolia

GROUNDNUT
Ginseng Family

Fruit.

The

berries are yellow, usually three-

They are angled, but sometimes in united pairs. two- to three-seeded. They grow in a simple
umbel.
Leaves.

The

three

compound

leaves

grow

in

a circle about the stem.
leaflets in each.

There are three to
the

five

The

leaflets are sessile, the

apex

obtuse,

the

base

narrowed, and

margin
in a

toothed.

Flowers.

The tiny white

flowers
April,

grow May.

small, fluffy, terminal cluster.

292

now
is

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
flower of our rich

This

quite a

common

woods.
high.

It is

seldom more than eight inches
is

Its tuher
is

globular,

edible,

and

aro-

matic, but
so

deep in southern limit.

rather difficult to procure, being the ground. Georgia marks the

DEERBERRY.
Vaccinium stamineum

SQUAW HUCKLEBERRY
Huckleberry Family

Fruit. This berry is globose or pear-shaped, It is rather large, and greenish or yellowish. scarcely edible, falsely ten-celled, and few-seeded.

The

fruits

grow in leafy-bracted racemes.

Sep-

tember.
Leaves.
leaves

The oval

have short, whitened or slightly pubescent beneath, and the margins are slightly rolled backwards.
Flowers.
their

or slightly heart-shaped downy petioles. They are

The

flowers are distinguished

by

long stamens, which project far beyond the short white corollas. The flowers grow in
graceful clusters, with leaf bracts smaller than

the regular leaves. This is a much-branched shrub, from

two

to

YELLOW
five

293

feet

high.

Maine and
Louisiana.

It grows in dry woods from Minnesota south to Florida and

PERSIMMON.
Diospyros Virginiana

DATE PLUM
Ebony Family

Fruit.

The

fruit is
is

but botanically

plumlike in appearance, a berry, with sometimes as

many
is

as eight large flat seeds.

When

green,

it

action of the frost to
cious.

very astringent, and in the north needs the make it sweet and deliIt then

changes from a yellowish color to a yellowish brown. The style is at the
at the base.

summit, and the thick, four- to six-lobed calyx, September, November.
thickish leaves are dark green above and paler beneath. They are nearly at the apex, and narsmooth, ovate, pointed

Leaves.

The

rowed or rounded at the
Flowers.

base.

The
ones

flowers are usually dioecious.

The

fertile

are solitary

and grow

in the

axils, while the smaller sterile ones are in small

clusters.

This tree

is

essentially southern, although

it

294

HOW
New

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

occurs occasionally as far north as

Rhode Island
in color

and

York.

brandies.
is

The The wood
it.

fruit is
is

used in beers and

blackish

and
lasts

well adapted for use in carving.

Shoe

are

of Argyle is Tree to King said to have given a Persimmon

made from
III.

The Duke

George

LOW HAIRY GROUND CHERRY
Physalis pubesceiis

Potato Family
fill

Fruit.

This yellowish berry does not

the
is

small, short,
sticky.
axils.

membranous

calyx.

The berry

The

solitary fruits

grow from the

leaf

Leaves.

The

leaves are entire or

somewhat

wavy and angled. They are rather small, from one inch to an inch and a half in length. They
are pubescent or nearly

smooth with hairy

veins.

Flowers.
centers

The

flowers are yellow, with dark

and purplish anthers. This is an annual which is much-branched, and has pubescent stems and leaves. It favors
sandy
soil

from

New York

to Minnesota,

and

south to Florida and Texas.

295

296

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

CUT-LEAVED GROUND CHERRY
Physalis angulata

Potato Family

Fruit.

The

fruit-enveloping calyx
base.
It

is

ovoid

and has a sunken

sometimes shows

The greenish yellow berry purplish veinings. The fruit is pulpy nearly fills it when mature. The berries are solitary, and many-seeded. hanging on slender peduncles from the axils
of the leaves.

Leaves.

The

leaves

are

ovate

and often

Many are cut into wedge-shaped at the base. narrow lobes. The leaves are long, thin, sharp,
and smooth.

The greenish yellow flowers are small and unspotted. The anthers are somewhat tinged with purple. July-September.
Flowers.

This smooth annual
feet tall,

is

erect,

sometimes three

and much-branched.
Pennsylvania to

Gray

defines its

range 'from southward.

Minnesota,

and

YELLOW

297

CLAMMY GROUND CHERRY
Physalis heterophylla

Physalis Virginiana

Potato Family

The yellow berry is loosely inclosed in the membranous calyx, which is much sunken at the stem. The fruit stem and calyx are The solitary fruits hang along the pubescent.
Fruit.

branches from the leaf
Leaves.

axils.

The leaves are broad, thick, and somewhat heart-shaped. They and the petioles are hairy. The apex is generally acute and the
margin wavy, often having
lobes.

irregular, tooth -like

Flowers.

The

yellow,

five-lobed

flowers

have brown centers and yellow anthers. This is the most common species and
variable.
It is a viscid, hairy,
It

is

very

much-branched,
Ontario

spreading perennial.
Var. ambigua

extends from

and Minnesota to Texas and Florida.
is

coarser,

and coarsely covered
are violet.

with long soft

hairs.

The anthers

298

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FBUITS

HORSE NETTLE
Solanum Carolinense
Fruit.
Potato Family

The smooth globular berries are orange-yellow and nearly three-quarters of an
inch

through.
clusters,

They grow

in

small,

usually

lateral

on prickly stems.

lobes are at the base of each berry.

The calyx They are

many-seeded.

oblong leaves have wavy margins or are lobed with acute or obtuse
Leaves.
or
lobes.

The ovate

The veins

of

the

leaves

are

often

prickly.

Flowers.

The

violet flowers

grow

in

ter-

minal racemes, which become lateral in fruit. This perennial of sandy waste places is hairy and has branches, stems, and parts of leaves
It extends thickly set with yellowish prickles. from Connecticut west to Iowa and south.

GREEN

GREEN
GREEN ARROW-ARUM
Peltandra Virgiiiica

Peltandra undulata

Arum Family
Fruit.

The

berries

grow

in a

head similar

to the fruits of Indian Turnip

and Dragon Root.

however, are green and nearly inclosed in the lower portion
berries,

The Green Arrow-arum

of

the

the sheathing spathe. The upper part of breaks off before fruit develops. spathe
to

The one
stem
water.
is

three

large seeds are

inclosed

in

a colorless, jelly-like
recurved, and

mass.

The

fruit-bearing

the fruit bends to the

The leaves are shaped like long arrow heads. One prominent vein extends from base toward tip and one from base into each
Leaves.
basal lobe.

Flowers.

The

tapering spadix

is

covered

with flowers throughout its length. It bears both staminate and pistillate flowers, the latter
301

302
at
its

HOW
base.

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
incloses

The spathe

the

entire

length of the spadix, with the exception of an oval opening in front, about midway of its
length.

Clusters of Green

Arrow-arum grow

in shal-

It is about a low water along river borders. foot and a half high. The sheathed fruit looks

much

a pond lily bud and bends on its recurved stem to the surface of the water. It is
like

quite possible that the fruit heads are broken

by

the force of the water and carried
to

down stream
of

originate

new

colonies.

Lack

bright

coloring in the fruit is suggestive of
of seed dispersal other than

some means

The plant extends west
siana.

to

by agency of birds. Michigan and Loui-

CHOKEPEAR
Pyrus communis

Apple Family
its

The Ghokepear Tree, with

green, puckery
I

pear, hardly needs description.

trust

many

another like myself holds it in grateful remembrance for the childhood joys it has furnished.
addition the fruit was, on chestnutting expeditions, to the ginger cookies, which always

What an

GREEN

303

started out in the pail with us never to return.
If

you have never eaten

it

cooked as a sauce and
taste a

flavored with molasses,

you have yet to

very delectable sirup.

AMERICAN CRAB APPLE
Mains coronaria
Apple Family
Pyrus coronaria

The apple is yellowish green and flatFruit. The small, smooth calyx lobes tened lengthwise. are in the deep, broad depression at the summit.

The fruit stem is slender. brown seeds are in each

One
cell.

or

two dark
fruit
is

The

It hangs long on the trees, fragrant but sour. and does not usually decay until the following

spring.

Leaves.

The

leaves are ovate or triangular-

ovate, they grow on short, slender, hard petioles. The margins are serrate. Sometimes the leaf is
three-lobed.
It is

yellow in autumn.
flowers are

Flowers.

The

much

like those of

the cultivated apple, but very fragrant and of a beautiful pink color.

This tree

is

often planted near homes, because

304

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS
of

of the fragrance

and beauty

the

blossoms.

The
is

fruit is

sometimes used for

cider.

The

tree

not
is

very high, spreading, and often thorny.
particularly a northern species.
tree,

This

A

similar

Mains

angustifolia,

is

the

southern species, although the two overlap in range. Bailey says that the best mark of distinction between the two " is the thick, half-

evergreen shining leaves of Mains angustifolia." The flowers are smaller than in preceding
species.

WHITE

WHITE
BAYBERRY. WAXBERRY
Myrica Carolinensis
Bayberry Family

Myrica

cerifera

aments develop into clusters of dry drupes, with from four to nine sepaThese clusters are rate fruits in the cluster.
Fruit.
fertile

The

fastened

.to

the branches by short stalks.

Each

drupe
finally

is

covered with

many tiny grains, which
The

become coated with white wax.
is first

covering
white.
for

The

green, then blackish, and finally The fruits persist stone is hard.
years.

two or three

Leaves.

The obovate

or oblanceolate leaves

on both

are nearly stemless. They have resinous dots are leathery, shining, bright green, sides,

and aromatic.

The margin

is

slightly toothed

toward the apex, otherwise entire. The base and the apex obtuse, sometimes is narrowed or often ends abruptly in a sharp point. acute,
307

308

HOW
and

TO

KNOW
fertile

WILD FRUITS
catkins are small and

Flowers.
erect,

The

consist of several ovaries,
scales.

which are

sheltered

by

April-June.

The

fruits in the earlier
-

days of our country's

history were

much
This

prized for the
is

wax which

they yield.

obtained by boiling the drupes and skimming the wax from the surface It was used for making candles, of the water.
either alone or

mixed with tallow or beeswax.
odor, but

The Bayberry candles emit a pleasant
their light
is

not so bright as the flame of the

tallow

candles.
soil.

The Bayberry

will

grow in
Great

almost any
coast,

It extends along the eastern

and occurs somewhat near the

Lakes.

WHITE MULBERRY
Moms alba
Fry.it.

Mulberry Family

The

structure

of

the fruit

is

the

same

as that of the
alba,

Red Mulberry.
is

The

fruit of

Morus

however,

white, shorter, and not

as juicy.

July.

Leaves.

The shining dark green
and shining.

leaves are

variable in shape, serrate,

WHITE
The White
Mulberry Tree

309

grows

rapidly,
It

reaching a height of thirty or forty feet. is a native of China, and its leaves are
tensively used as food for silkworms.

extree

The

was introduced
raising

into

America when silkworm

was being

occurs
in

now

in this country, and near houses, especially spontaneously
tried

the

vicinity of

long-established

silk

manu-

facturing plants.

SMALL MISTLETOE
Razoumofskya
pusilla

Arceuthobium pusillum

Mistletoe Family

Fruit.

The ovoid-oblong

berries are solitary

and grow on short recurved stems.
fleshy,

They

are

with seeds inclosed in a sticky mucus. They develop in the autumn, a year or more
This
is

after flowering.

an inconspicuous parasite, drawing- its It is nourishment from branches of the fir.
olive green
to

brown

in color,

and the leaves

are obtuse

and

scale-like.

310

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS

AMERICAN MISTLETOE
Phoradendron flavescens
Fruit.
Mistletoe Family

The white

berries are globose, pulpy,

and one-seeded.
short foot stalk.

They grow

in

clusters

on a

Leaves.

The

leaves are thick, leathery, yel-

lowish green, oval or obovate, entire, obtuse at apex and narrowed into a short petiole at the
base.

They are persistent throughout the season. The dioecious flowers grow in catFlowers.

kinlike spikes.

May

July.

This

parasite flourishes

on deciduous
Its

trees,

notably the

Red Maple and Tupelo.

wood

is yellowish green, and the thick, firm leaves and white berries persist during the winter. The

Mistletoe has a place in Christmas decorations, and may often be seen at that time exposed for
sale.

Phoradendron means
life.

tree-thief, referring

to its -parasitic
it

While

essentially southern,

occurs in southern

New

Jersey, Pennsylvania,

Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois*

WHITE BANEBERRY

(Actsea alba)

312

WHITE

313

WHITE BANEBERRY
Actaea alba

Crowfoot Family

Fruit.

The terminal

fruit

clusters

of

the

White Baneberry are oblong and usually more open than those of the Red. The white berries
are almost globular, have a black mark at the tip and a crease on one side, extending from the

apex to the and usually

pedicel.
red.

The

pedicel

is

thickened

The lower

pedicels are

much

longer than the
large

upper ones.

The numerous
horizontally.

brown seeds are packed

A

plant with red berries on thickened red stalks sometimes occurs. The fruit develops in August, about a month later than the Red Baneberry,

and

persists into September.

Leaves.

The leaves

are twice or thrice com-

'

pound, with deeply cut, acute lobes and sharp
teeth.

Flowers.
to

The

petals are so like stamens as

seem to be transformed stamens.
no honey, simply

The

flowers

yield

pollen, to the bees,

which

secure their cross fertilization.

This herb grows in woods as far south as

Pennsylvania and

New

Jersey.

314

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

POISON SUMAC
Rhus Vernix.
Fruit.
is

Rhus venenata

Sumac Family

grayish.

The smooth, somewhat glossy drupe It is dry and slightly pear-shaped,

It grows in open with the sides unequal. It closely loose clusters from the leaf axils. resembles the fruit of the Poison Ivy. August,

September.
Leaves.

The

stalks of the

compound

leaves

are usually purplish.

There are from three to

thirteen nearly stemless leaflets,

which are un-

equal at the base.
green,

They

are a bright shining

acute

at

or

oval.

The

the apex, entire, and obovate autumnal colorings are most

brilliant.

Flowers.
cious flowers

The
grow

small, greenish yellow, dioein

open loose panicles from

the leaf axils.
It
is-

not strange that
to prolong his

many an
into

unfortunate,

hoping
foliage,

enjoyment

of the brilliant

should

be

lured

gathering

its

autumnal leaves for home

decorations.

Im-

mune, he

true, but doubtless a long may be, period of suffering will follow his rash act.
it is

WHITE

315

persons are poisoned by even passing near the plant, contact not being necessary. If in fruit, the whitish color of the drupes and

Some

marks by which this Sumac may be distinguished from the other The entire leaves and lack of winged species.
their drooping clusters are sure
petioles
tinction.

and pubescence are

also

marks

of dis-

POISON, CLIMBING,

OR THREE-LEAVED
Rhus Toxicodendroii

IVY
Rhus radicans

Sumac Family
Fruit.

The

fruit closely resembles

that of

Poison Sumac.
Leaves.

September and persistent. The compound leaves have

three

pale green leaflets, which are sharply toothed and entire or sometimes lobed.

This plant
feet high,

is

sometimes erect and one to three
trailing,

sometimes prostrate and

and

It supports itself by nusometimes climbing. merous rootlets, which penetrate and hold tena-

ciously to

various

supports.

Its

three-parted

leaves

and white

fruit distinguish this poisonous

POISON IVY (Rhus radicans) 316

WHITE

317

plant from the harmless Virginia Creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia,
lar in its

which

is

manner

of growth.

somewhat simiThe dryish fruits
For crows

are used as food

by the winter

birds.

especially they serve as an important article of

Poison Ivy seeds are said to have been found in the stomach
diet.

One hundred and

fifty-three

of one of these birds.

The dry outer husks

are

removed by action of stomach and thrown out again in small masses through the mouth.

RED-OSIER CORNEL OR
Cornus stolonifera

DOGWOOD
Dogwood Family

Fruit.

globose.

The drupe is white, or whitish, and The stone is very variable in shape.
grow
in flat-topped, rather smallish

The

fruits

cymes.
Leaves.

The ovate

or ovate-lanceolate

leaf

has an abrupt, short, tapering apex and a rounded
base.

The upper surface is finely pubescent and the lower whitish and somewhat downy. The smallish flat cymes are rather Flowers.
few-flowered.

June, July.

Reddish branches are a characteristic feature

318
of this

HOW

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

dogwood. They are especially brilliant The main stem in late winter and early spring. is usually prostrate, often unnoticed because of a
This sends down rootlets covering of leaves. and sends up slender branches, soon forming broad clumps. The main shoot is sometimes

underground.

The range

of the shrub

is

from ocean to ocean,

extending south to Virginia, Kentucky, Nebraska,
Arizona, and California.
in Siberia.

A similar species occurs

PANICLED CORNEL
Cornus candidissima

Cornus paniculata

Dogwood Family
Fruit.

The
in

small, white, flattened, globose

convex clusters. The peduncle drupes grow and pedicels are red. The plant often fruits sparingly, and the clusters are consequently

Each fruit is crowned ragged ,and irregular. with minute calyx teeth, through which the
style protrudes.

The

flesh

is

thin and white,
stone.

inclosing a two-celled, two-seeded
gust, September.
fruited

Au-

This

is

one of

the earliest

Dogwoods.

PANICLED CORNEL (Cornus candidissima)
319

320
Leaves.

HOW

TO

KNOW WILD

FRUITS
leaves

The

ovate-lanceolate

are

The petioles are short, the opposite and entire. The under tip pointed, and the base acute.
surface
is

whitish but smooth.

Flowers.

The

perfect white blossoms

grow

in loosely flowered cymes.

May, June.
distinguished from our

Cornus candidissima
other white-fruited

is

Dogwood, Cornus stolonifera, by its gray branches and its imperfectly convex It is a much-branched flower and fruit cluster. shrub, growing in thickets and along streams. It extends south to North Carolina and west to
Minnesota.

CREEPING SNOWBERRY
Chiogenes hispidula

Chiogenes

serpyllifolia

Huckleberry Family

Fruit.

The

shining, white, globose or oval

The calyx berry is solitary in the leaf axil. teeth are present near the apex, and the berry is often It is small, four-celled, manybristly.
seeded, mealy,
flavor of

and aromatic, having much the
August, September. leaves are a dark
bristles

Sweet Birch.

Leaves.

The evergreen

olive green, with stiff

brownish

on the

SNOWBERRY

(Sijmphoricarpos racemosus)

322

WHITE
under surface.

323

They

are small, on short stems,

and have backward
flowers.
are single,
axil.

rolled margins.

The tiny white nodding flowers growing on short stems from the leaf
bracts are beneath the calyx.
of this creeping

Two

May.

trailing shrub It is a are scarcely woody, slender, and bristly. native of Japan, and in our country extends from

The stems

and

Newfoundland
Michigan,

to British

Columbia and south

to

New

Jersey,

and Pennsylvania, con-

tinuing along the Alleghanies to North Carolina. " snow Chiogenes means offering," referring most appropriately to the snow-white fruit.

SNOWBERRY
Symphoricarpos racemosus

Honeysuckle Family
fruit spike usually

Fruit.

The terminal

has

a pair of leaves at its base. Solitary berries sometimes grow from the axils of the next
lower pair of leaves.

The

ripe berries are quite

The persistent calyx large, waxy, and white. teeth are at the top and two tiny bracts are at the base. The berries are nearly stemless.
They have two
large cells, each containing
?.

324
seed

HOW
;

TO

KNOW

WILD FRUITS

and two smaller empty cells. The seed The berries begin to ripen in coats are hard. and the spikes show fruit in various stages July,
of

development, with buds and flowers at the
into September.

summit well
Leaves.

The

ovate,

The grow in pairs. The leaves are dark green above and
beneath.

usually entire leaves stems are quite short.
lighter

Flowers.

The small

bell-shaped pink
It
is

blos-

som

is

four- or five-toothed.

hairy at the

throat.

This

is

a

common

inhabitant of old-fashioned

gardens, and

lingers

about abandoned
It

farm-

houses or even the cellars.

strays beyond the garden bounds and often occurs along the
roadsides.

New
It
is

grows also along rocky banks in England to Pennsylvania and westward. most attractive in September, when the
It
is

spike

nearly full of matured fruits.

Symphoricarpos pauciflorus appears in the mountains of Vermont and Pennsylvania and
westward.

The

leaves
berries

are

smaller

than

the

preceding, and the
in the

grow

singly or in pairs

uppermost

leaf axils.

GLOSSARY
Achene.
ally

A

small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit with usu-

a thin pericarp.
Sharp-pointed.

Acute.

Alternate.

Ament.

spike consisting of imperfect flowers with a scale-like bract at the base of each. Annual. Of but one season's growth.
Anther.
Aril.

As opposed to opposite. Synonymous with catkin.

A

The

A

fleshy

part of the stamen which yields the pollen. seed covering growing from the cord which

attaches the seed to the seed vessel.
Axil.

The angle which

the stem forms with a leaf or branch.

Bloom.
Bract.
Bristle.

A secretion of wax covering the surface of leaf or fruit. A modified leaf at the base of flower or fruit. A stiff, hairlike growth.
The outer and
protective floral whorl. dry, dehiscent fruit of two or more carpels. This is the seed-bearing part of the flower. It

Calyx.
Capsule.
Carpel.

A

may

be

a simple pistil or one of the parts of a
Catkin.
Cell.

compound

pistil.

Same

as ament.

A

structure inclosing a cavity.

With hairy margin. A whole made up of two or more similar parts. Connate. The joining of similar organs. Opposite leaves whose
Ciliate.

Compound.

Conn.

bases join. Like a solid bulb.

Corolla.

The inner

floral

whorl.

Corymb.

flat-topped or rounded flower cluster with the marginal flowers opening first.

A

325

326

GLOSSARY
A

seed leaf or leaves. Cotyledon. The action resulting Cross Fertilization.

from the deposit of the pollen of one flower on the stigma of another. flattish flower cluster with the blossoms unfolding Cyme.

A

from the center outwards.
Deciduous.

Not

persistent.

Dicotyledonous.
Dioecious.

With two
same

cotyledons.
pistillate flowers

Staminate and

borne on different
about the base of

plants of the
Disk.

A

species. thickened circle of cellular tissue

the stamens and around the ovary.
Fertile.

Productive.

Gland.

A

secreting surface or structure.

Glaucous.

Covered with a bloom.
the above-ground stems living but one season.

Herb.

With

Involucre.

Bracts surrounding a single flower or a flower clus-

ter or head.

Lanceolate.

Much longer than broad. The widest portion is below the middle, and the leaf tapers towards either end.
With but one cotyledon. Separate staminate and pistillate flowers on the

Monocotyledonous.
Monoecious.

same
Node.

plant.

The joints on the stem where a would naturally grow.

leaf or

whorl of leaves

Oblanceolate.

The broadest portion

of the long leaf nearest the

apex and tapering to either end. Oblong. Longer than broad, and with sides nearly parallel. Obovate. Egg-shaped, with broader portion nearest apex.

GLOSSARY
Obtuse.

827

Ovary.
Ovule.

With a rounded or blunt end. The part of the pistil containing the ovules. The body which, when fertilized, is meant to become

a

seed.

Panicle.
Parasitic.

Pedicel.

loose, irregular cluster with branching flower sterns. Gaining nourishment from a host plant. The stem of one of the component flowers or fruits of

A

a cluster.
Peduncle.
Perennial.

A

stem of a single flower or of a flower

cluster.

Continuing year after year. Perfect (flower). Having both stamens and
Perianth.

pistils.
if

The floral envelope

consisting of calyx and corolla

both are present. Petal. One unit of the corolla.
Petiole.

Pinnate.

The leaf stalk. With the leaflets
The

of a

compound
of

leaf

on either

side of

the leaf stalk.
Placenta.
interior portion

the

ovary on which the

ovules are borne.
Pollen.

Polygamous.
Prickles.

grains which fertilize the ovules. Plants bearing staminate, pistillate, and perfect flowers on the same plant.

The anther-borne

A

slender, sharp

growth from bark or

rind.

Pubescent.

Finely hairy.

Raceme.

Spike bearing stemmed flowers.

The modified portion of an axis Receptacle. flowers or portion of a flower is borne.
Rhizome.
Root.

upon which the

An underground

stem.

The underground

part of the plant which obtains nour-

ishment there.

Scape. Seed.

A

naked flower stem springing from the ground.

The ripened ovule. Sepal. One unit of the calyx. Serrate. With forward-pointing

teeth.

328
Sessile.

GLOSSARY
Stemless.

woody structure and with several stems from the ground or near it, or whose stems are springing much-branched. Usually smaller than trees. Sinus. The margin between the lobes.
Shrub.

Plants with

Spadix.

A

Spathe,
Spike.

One

spike having a fleshy axis. or more large bracts inclosing an inflorescence.

Sessile or nearly sessile flowers borne on a somewhat elongated axis. Spine. A sharp growth from the stern.
Sterile.

Unproductive.

Stigma.
Stipule.

The portion

of the pistil receptive to the pollen grain.

An

appendage at the base of a leaf stem, sometimes

Style.

joined to the petiole. The portion of the pistil connecting the stigma and
ovary.

Tendril.
its

A

slender, coiling part of a climbing plant, aiding in

support.

Umbel.

A flower

cluster in

which the pedicels spring from a

common
Whorl,

point.

A

circular

arrangement of

leaves, etc.,

around a

stern.

ABBREVIATIONS OF AUTHORS' NAMES
Ait., Aiton.

Medic., Medicus.

Andr., Andrews.
C.

Michx., Michaux.
Mill., Miller.

&

S.,

Chamisso and SchlechCandolle.

tendahl.

Muench., Muenchhausen.
Muhl., Miihlenberg.
Nutt., Nuttall.
Pers., Persoon.

DC.,

De

Desf., Desfontaine.

Desv., Desvaux.
Dietr., Dietrich.

Planch., Planchon.
Poir., Poiret.

Ehrh., Ehrhart.
Ell, Elliott.

R.

&

S.,

Roemer and

Schultes.

Hook., Hooker.
Jacq., Jacquin.
Karst., Karsten.
L., Linnaeus.

Roem., Roemer.
Salisb., Salisbury.

Spreng., Sprengel.

Sudw., Sudworth.
Torr., Torrey.

Lam., Lamarck. L. f., Linne (the son).
L'Her., L'Heritier de Brutelle.

T.

&

G.,

Torrey

&

Gray.

Vent., Ventenat.

Lodd., Loddiges.

Walt., Walter.

MacM., MacMillan.
Marsh., Marshall.

Wang., Wangenheim. Willd., Willdenow.

329

INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES
Alder, Black, 97.
Allspice, Wild, 38. Angelica Tree, 218.

Low

Running, 185. Mountain, 192.
187.

Running Swamp,
Sand, 188.
Thornless, 193.

Apple, American Crab, 303.

Arrowwood,

279.

Downy-leaved, 239.
Maple-leaved, 237.
Soft-leaved, 282.

Black Haw, 246.
Blackthorn. 196.
Blueberry, Canadian, 278.
301.

Arum, Green Arrow,

Water, 9. Ash, American Mountain, 64. European Mountain, 66.
Asparagus,
10.

Dwarf, 277. High-bush, 272.

Low,

278.

Low

Black, 231.

Tall, 272.

Blue Tangle, 269.
Baked-apple Berry, 47. Baneberry, Red, 33.

Boxberry, 114. Buckthorn, 205.
Alder-leaved, 207.

White, 313.
Barberry,

Common,

34.

Bayberry, 307.
Bearberry, Alpine, 228.
Black, 228.

Lance-leaved, 207. Buffalo Berry, Canadian, 106.

Bunchberry, 108. Burning Bush, 101.
Carrion Flower, 163.
Catbrier, 168. Cedar, Red, 252.

Red, 116.

Benjamin Bush,

38.

Bilberry, Great, 271. Dwarf, 272.

Birthroot, 21.

Bittersweet, 125.

Shrubby Red, 254. Checkerberry, 114.
Cherry, Bird, 83.

Climbing, 103.

Shrubby, 103.
Blackberry, 184.

Choke, 86. Dwarf, 197.

Common,

189.

May,
192.

71.

High-bush, 189.

Pigeon, 83.
Pin, 83.

Leafy Cluster,

331

332
Cherry,

INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES
Rum,
198.

Sand, 197.

Disporum, Hairy, Dockmackie, 237.
Dogberry, 66.

16.

Wild Black, 198. Wild Red, 83.
Chokeberry, Black, 193.

Dogwood, Alternate-leaved, 266
Flowering, 110.
Red-osier, o!7.

Red, 66. Chokepear, 302.
Clintonia, Yellow, 257. White, 155.

Round-leaved, 262.

Dragon Root,

8.

Cloudberry, 47.
Coffee, Wild, 141. Cohosh, Blue, 257.

Eglantine, 62. Elder, American, 236.

Coral Berry, 142.
Cornel, Alternate-leaved, 266.

Red-berried, 133. Sweet, 236.

Wild, 224.

Dwarf,

108.

Low,

108.

Panicled, 318.
Red-osier, 317.

Fever Bush, 38. Feverwort, 141. Foxberry, 118.
Fringe Tree, 232.
Garget, 176.

Round-leaved, 262.
Silky, 263.

Cowberry, 118. Cranberry, American, 121. European, 119.
Large, 121.

Ginseng, 107.

Dwarf, 291.
Horse, 141.

Mountain, 118.
Small, 119.

Golden
42.

Seal, SO.

Gooseberry,

Eastern
40.

Wild,

Cranberry Tree, 139. Few-flowered, 140. Crowberry, Black, 202.

Hawthorn,

Northern, 40.

Cucumber Tree,
Fetid, 44.

29.

Swamp,

43.

Currant, Black, 180.
Indian, 142.

Wild, 179.
Grape, Bear's, 118.
Blue, 211.

Mountain, 44.
Prostrate, 44.

Chicken, 214.
Frost, 214.

Red, 45.
Dangleberry, 269.
Deerberry, 292.

Northern Fox, 208.
Riverside, 212.

Summer,

210.

Sweet-scented, 212.

INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES
Greenbrier, 168.
Bristly, 171.
,

333

Dwarf, 230.
High-bush, 229.

Glaucous-leaved, 167.
Hispid, 169.

Squaw, 292.
Indian Cucumber Root, 161. Indian Root, 219.

Long-stalked, 170.
Walter's, 25.

Green Dragon,

8.

Indian Turnip,
297.

5.

Ground Cherry, Clammy,
Cut-leaved, 296.

Inkberry, 203.
Ipecac, Wild, 141.

Low

Hairy. 294.

Wood,

141.

Philadelphia, 124. Groundnut, 291.

Ivy, American, 217. Climbing, 315.

Guelder Rose, 139.
Hackberry, 172. Hemlock, Ground,

Poison, 315.

Three-leaved, 315.
3.

Jack-in-the-Pulpit,

5.

Hercules' Club, 218.

Juneberry,
Juniper,

71.

Hobble Bush, 135.
Holly, American, 94.

Oblong-fruited, 195.

Common,

249.

Large-leaved, 97.

Mountain, 100. Wild, 100. American Honeysuckle,
151.

Kinnikinnic, 118, 263.

Fly,

Leatherwood, 105. Lemon, Wild, 288.
Lily-of-the- Valley, False, 14.

Blue Fly, 282.
Coral, 148.

Glaucous, 145.
Hairy, 145.
Italian, 144.

Magnolia, Laurel, 26. Mountain, 29
282.

Mountain Fly,
Perfoliate, 144.

Mandrake, 288. Matrimony Vine,

129.

May

Apple, 288.

Smooth-leaved, 145.

Mealberry, 118.
Mistletoe,

Swamp

Fly, 150.

American, 310.

Trumpet, 148.
Horsebrier, 168.

Small, 309.

Horse Nettle, 298. Huckleberry, Black, 229. Box, 270. Bush, 230.

Moonseed, Canada, 178. Moose wood, 105. Mulberry, Red, 173.
White, 308.
Myrtle, Barren, 118.

334
Nanny Berry,

INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES
244.

Nightshade, 125. Black, 234.

Sarsaparilla, Bristly, 224. False, 167.

Virginian, 221.

Garden, 234.

Wild, 221.
Sassafras, 258.

Orange Root,

30.

Scoke, 176. Service Berry, 71.

Papaw, North American, 287. Papoose Root, 257.
Partridge Berry, 129.

Shad Bush,
Sloe, 196.

72.

Sheepberry, 244.
Smilax, Halberd-leaved, 167.

Pepperidge, 226.

Persimmon,

293.

Snowberry, 323.
Creeping, 320.

Pigeon Berry, 176. Plum, Beach, 82.
Bullace, 197.

Solomon's Seal, Hairy, 157. Smooth, 159.
Star-flowered, 156.

Canada,

81.

Date, 293.
Horse, 81.
Porter's, 196.

Three-leaved, 13.

Two-leaved,
Spice Bush, 38.

14.

Sour Gum, 226.
Spikenard, American, 219.

Red, 79. Yellow, 79.
Poke, 176.
Privet, 233.

Wild, 11. Spindle Tree, 101.
Stag Bush, 246.

Raspberry, Black, 183.

Strawberry, American Wood,

55.

Dwarf, 50. Mountain, 47.
Purple-flowering, 45.

European Wood, 54. Northern Wild, 54.
Scarlet, 52.

Purple Wild, 50.

Virginia, 52.

Wild Red,
Rose, 55.

49.

Strawberry, Bush, 100.

Running,

101.

Canker,* 61.

Stretch Berry, 171.

Dog, 61.

Sugarberry, 172.

Low, 59. Meadow,

Sumac, Dwarf,
57.

88.

Fragrant, 93.
Poison, 314.
,

Northeastern, 61.
Pasture, 69.

Smooth,

92.

Smooth,

57. 58.

Swamp,

Staghorn, 89. Sweet-scented, 93.

INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES
Velvet, 89. Sweetbrier, 62.

335

Wahoo,

101.
19.

Wake-Eobin, Early,
Ill-scented, 21.

Tangleberry, 269.

Large-flowered, 20.

Teaberry, 114.

Nodding, 23.
183.
73.

Thimble Berry,

Painted, 24.
Sessile-flowered, 19.

Thorn, Cockspur,

Dotted-fruited, 74.

Waxberry, 307.

Dwarf, 290.
Large-fruited, 74.

Waxwork,

103.

Pear, 78.
Scarlet, 75.

Wayfaring Tree, 135. Winter Berry, Evergreen,
Smooth,
99.

203.

Tinker's Weed, 141.
Tupelo, 226.

Virginia, 97.

Wintergreen, Creeping, 114.
Spring, 114.

Twisted Stalk, Clasping-leaved,
16.

Withe-rod, 240.
Larger, 243.

Sessile-leaved, 18.

Woodbine, 217. American, 144.
Umbrella Leaf,
288.

Viburnum, Maple-leaved,
Sweet, 244. Virginia Creeper, 217.

237.

Yellow Indian Paint, Yellow Puccoon, 30. Yellow Root, 30.

30.

Yew, American,

3.

INDEX TO LATIN NAMES
Actsea alba, 313. Actsea rubra, 33.
Actsea spicata, Var. rubra, 33.

Chiogenes serpyllifolia, 320. Chionanthus Virginica, 232.
Clintonia borealis, 257.
Clintonia umbellulata, 155.

Amelanchier Botryapium, 72. Amelanchier Canadensis, 71. Amelanchier oligocarpa, 195.
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 217.
Aralia hispida, 224. Aralia nudicaulis, 221. Aralia quinquefolia, 107.

Aralia racemosa, 219. Aralia spinosa, 218. Aralia trifolia, 291.

Cornus alternifolia, 266. Cornus Amonum, 263. Cornus Canadensis, 108. Cornus candidissima, 318. Cornus circinata, 262. Cornus florida, 110. Cornus paniculata, 318. Cornus sericea, 263. Cornus stolonifera, 317.
Cratsegus coccinea, 75.
Cratsegus Crus-Galli, 73. Cratsegus macracantha, 77. Cratsegus moll is, 77.

Arceuthobium pusillum,

309.

Arctostaphylos alpina, 228.

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi, 11G. Arissema dracontium, 8.

Arissema triphyllum, 5. Aronia arbutifolia, 66. Aronia nigra, 193.

Cratsegus parvjfolia, 290.
Cratsegus punctata, 74.
Cratsegus tomentosa, 78.

Asimina

triloba, 287.
officinalis, 10.

Cratsegus uniflora, 290.

Asparagus

Benzoin Benzoin, 38.
Berberis vulgaris, 34.
Calla palustris,
9.

Diospysos Virgin iana, 293. Dirca palustris, 105.

Disporum lanuginosum,

16.

Caulophylluin thalictroides, 257
Celastrus scandens, 103.
Celtis occidentalis, 172.

Empetrum nigrum, 202. Euonymus Americanus,

100.
101,

Euonyrrms atropurpureus,

Chiogenes hispidula, 320.

Euonymus
337

obovatus, 101.

338

INDEX TO LATIN NAMES
Magnolia acuminata, 29. Magnolia glauca, 26. Magnolia Virginiana, 26. Maianthemuin Canadense, Mairania alpina, 228. Malus angustifolia, 304. Malus coronaria, 303. Medeola Virginiana, 161.
Mitchella repens, 129.

Fragaria Americana, 55. Fragaria Canadensis, 54.

Fragaria vesca,

54.

Fragaria Virginiana, 52.
Gaultheria procumbens, 114.

14.

Gaylussacia brachycera, 270. Gaylussacia dumosa, 230. Gaylussacia frondosa, 269.

Menisperinum Canadense, 178.

Gaylussacia resinosa, 229.

Hydrastis Canadensis, 30.
Ilex glabra, 203. Ilex laevigata, 99.

Morus alba, 308. Morus rubra, 173.
Myrica Carolinensis, 307. Myrica cerifera, 307.

Ilex monticola, 97. Ilex opaca, 94.
Ilex verticillata, 97.
Ilicioides

Nemopanthes

fascicularis, 100.

Nyssa sylvatica, 226.

mucronata, 100.

Juniperus communis, 249. Juniperus comniunis, Var.
pina, 251.

Oxy coccus macrocarpus, 121. Oxycoccus Oxy coccus, 119.
al-

Juniperus nana, 251.

Panax quinquefolium, Panax trifolium, 291.

107.

Juniperus Sabina, 254.
Juniperus Virginiana, 252.
Lepargyraea Canadensis, 106.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia, 217. Peltandra undulata, 301.

Peltandra Virginica, 301.

Phoradendron flavescens, 310.
Physalis angulata, 296.
Physalis heterophylla, 297.

Ligustrum vulgare, 233. Lindera Benzoin, 38. Lonicera Caprifolium, 144. Lonicera ciliata, 151. Lonicera coBrulea, 282. Lonicera dioica, 145. Lonicera glauca, 145. Lonicera grata, 144.
Lonicera hirsuta, 145. Lonicera oblongifolia, 150. Lonicera serapervirens, 148.

Physalis heterophylla ambigua,
297.

Physalis Philadelphia, 124.

Physalis pubescens, 294.
Physalis Virginiana, 297.

Phytolacca decendra, 176. Podophyllum peltatum, 288.

Lyciuna vulgare, 129.

Polygonatum biflorum, 157. Polygonatum commutatum, 159. Polygonatum giganteum, 159.

INDEX TO LATIN NAMES
Prunus Primus Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus Prunus
Allegheniensis, 196.

339

Americana,
nigra, 81.

79.

Ribes rubrum, Var. subglandulosum, 45.

Rosa blanda, 57. Rosa canina, 61. Rosa Carolina, 58. Pennsylvanica, 83. Rosa humilis, 59. pumila, 197. Rosa nitida, 61. serotina, 198. Rosa rubiginosa, 62. spinosa, 196. Rubus Allegheniensis, 192. spinosa insititia, 197. Rubus Americanus, 50. Virginiana, 86. Rubus argutus, 192. Pyrus Americana, 64. Rubus Canadensis, 185, 193. Pyrus arbutifolia, 66. Pyrus arbutifolia, Var. melano- Rubus chainsemorus, 47. Rubus cuneifolius, 188. carpa, 193. Rubus hispidus, 187. Pyrus com munis, 302. Rubus neglectus, 50. Pyrus coronaria, 303. Rubus nigrobaccus, 189. Pyrus sambucifolia, 66. Rubus occidentalis, 183. Rubus odoratus, 45. Razoumofskya pusilla, 309. Rubus strigosus, 49. Rhamnus alnifolia, 207. Rubus triflorus, 50. Rhamnus cathartica, 205. Rhamnus lanceolata, 207. Rubus villosus, 185, 189.
maritima, 82.

Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus Rhus

aromatica, 93.

Canadensis, 93.
copallina, 88.

glabra, 92.
hirta, 89.

Sambucus Canadensis, 236. Sambucus pubens, 133. Sambucus racemosa, 133.
Sassafras officinale, 258. Sassafras sassafras, 258.

radicans, 315.

Toxicodendron, 315.
typhina, 86.

Shepherdia Canadensis, 106. Smilacina racemosa, 11.
Sinilacina stellata, 156.

venenata, 314. Vernix, 314.

Smilacina

trifolia, 13.

Ribes Cynosbati, 179. Ribes floridum, 180.

Ribes lacustre, 43. Ribes oxyacanthoides, 40.
Ribes prostratum, 44. Ribes rotundifolium, 42.
Ribes rubrum, 45.

Smilax Smilax Smilax Smilax Smilax Smilax Smilax

Bona-nox, 171.
glauca, 167.

herbacea, 163.
hispida, 169.

Pseudo-China, 170.
rotundifolia, 168.

tamnifolia, 167.

310
Smilax Walter!,

INDEX TO LATIN NAMES
25.

Solanum Carolinense,
Solanum nigrum,
234.

298.

Solarium Dulcamara, 125.

Sorbus Americana, 64. Sorbus sambucifolia, 66.
Streptopus amplexifolius, 16. Streptopus roseus,
18.

Symphoricarpos pauciflorus, 324. Symphoricarpos racemosus, 323. Vagnera racemosa, 11. Symphoricar- Vagnera stellata, 156. Symphoricarpos pos, 142. Vagnera trifolia, 13. Viburnum acerifolium, 237. Symphoricarpos vulgaris, 142.

Vaccinium corymbosum, 272. Vaccinium macrocarpon, 119. Vaccinium nigrum, 231. Vaccinium Oxycoccus, 119. Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum, 277. Vaccinium stamineum, 292. Vaccinium uliginosum, 271. Vaccinium vacillans, 278. Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea, 118.

Taxus Canadensis, Taxus minor, 3.
Trillium

3.

cermmm,

23.

Trillium erectum, 21. Trillium erythrocarpum, 24.
Trillium grandiflorum, 20. Trillium nivale, 19.

Trillium sessile, 19. Trillium undulatum, 24.

Triosteum perfoliatum, 141. Unifolium Canadense,
14.

Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum Viburnum

alnifolium, 135. cassinoides, 240.

clentatum, 279.

lantanoides, 135.

Lentago, 244.
molle, 282.

nuduui, 243.
Opulus, 139. pauciflorum, 140.

prunifolium, 246.

pubescens, 239.

Vitis sestivalis, 210.

Vitis bicolor, 211.
Vitis cordifolia, 214.

Vaccinium atrococcum, 232. Vaccinium csespitosum, 272. Vaccinium Canadense, 278.

Vitis Labrusca, 208. Vitis riparia, 212. Vitis vulpina, 212.

A

Woman's Hardy Garden
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