The Religion Of Islam ( A Standard Book ) - Vol 1 - By Dr. Ahmed a. Galwash Ph. D. Litt. D | Quran | Muhammad

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Religion of
A standard book

Dr. Ahmed A. Galwash, Ph. D., litt. D

Volume One

F Fo or r f fr re ee e b bo oo ok k s se er rv vi ic ce e p pl le ea as se e w wr ri it te e t to o: :- -
C Co on nv ve ey yi in ng g I Is sl la am mi ic c M Me es ss sa ag ge e
S So oc ci ie et ty y
P P. .O O. . B Bo ox x A Al le ex xa an nd dr ri ia a, ,
E Eg gy yp pt t
C Ci im ms s_ _e eg g@ @y ya ah ho oo o. .c co om m - - W WW WW W. .i is sl la am mi ic cm me es ss sa ag ge e. .n ne et t
R Re eg gi is st te er re ed d C Ch ha ar ri it ty y N No o. .

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The Religion of Islam
A standard book
Volume One
Dr. Ahmed A. Galwash, Ph. D., litt. D
Table of Contents


a-d 1able oí (ontents
1 A loreword
2 (omments. Reports and Letters on the Book
5 1 1h he e R Re el li ig gi io on n o oí í I Is sl la am m Preíace
6 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n

16 B Bo oo ok k I I: : H Hi is st to or ry y o of f 1 1h he e A Ar ra ab bs s A A S Su um mm ma ar ry y
19 1 1h he ei ir r R Re el li ig gi io on n
21 1 1h he ei ir r ( (h ha ar ra ac ct te er r a an nd d M Ma an nn ne er rs s
22 1 1h he ei ir r A Ac cc co om mp pl li is sh hm me en nt ts s
24 1 1h he e B Br ra an nc ch he es s o oí í K Kn no ow wl le ed dg ge e ( (u ul lt ti i· ·a at te ed d b bv v t th he e A Ar ra ab bs s b be eí ío or re e
I Is sl la am m
25 1 1h he e ( (i it tv v o oí í M Me ec cc ca a

26 B Bo oo ok k I II I: : 1 1h he e L Li if fe e o of f P Pr ro op ph he et t M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d
26 I I. . B Bi ir rt th h a an nd d L La ar rl lv v D Da av vs s
28 I II I 1 1h he e B Be eg gi in nn ni in ng g o oí í M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d R Re e· ·e el la at ti io on n
30 I II II I M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d` `s s M Mi is ss si io on n
36 I IV V 1 1h he e P Pa ag ga an n A Ar ra ab bs s S Sa ac cr re ed d I Id do ol ls s
41 V V 1 1h he e P Pr ro op ph he et t a at t M Me ed di in na a
4¯ V VI I 1 1h he e P Pe ea ac ce e o oí í l lu ud de ei ib bi iv va a
50 V VI II I 1 1h he e ( (o on nq qu ue es st t o oí í M Me ec cc ca a
59 V VI II II I 1 1h he e P Pe er rs so on n a an nd d ( (h ha ar ra ac ct te er r o oí í t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d
59 Personal Appearance and Gait oí the Prophet,:
59 lis labits:
59 Simplicitv oí his liíe:
60 Urbanitv and Kindness oí Disposition
60 lriendship:
61 Moderation and Magnanimitv
63 (on·iction oí Special Pro·idence
64 Unwa·ering Steadíastness at Mecca
65 Denunciation oí Polvtheism and Idolatrv
65 Larnestness and lonestv oí Mohammed at Mecca
66 lis disposition:
66 lumilitv:
66 Attitude at Pravers:

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6¯ I IX X 1 1h he e R Re ea al l M Mo ot ti i· ·e es s o oí í t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
69 X X A At tt ta ac ck ks s o oí í ( (h hr ri is st ti ia an n D Di i· ·i in ne es s a ag ga ai in ns st t t th he e P Pr ri i· ·a at te e ( (h ha ar ra ac ct te er r o oí í t th he e
P Pr ro op ph he et t
¯0 XI. 1he Social (hanges Brought about bv the prophet
¯0 X XI II I. . 1 1h he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l O Or rg ga an ni iz za at ti io on n \ \r ro ou ug gh ht t b bv v t th he e A Ad d· ·e en nt t o oí í I Is sl la am m
¯1 X XI II II I 1 1h he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l S Sv vs st te em m o oí í I Is sl la am m
¯3 X XI IV V 1 1h he e S So oc ci ia al l O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n o oí í I Is sl la am m
¯5 X XV V R Re eí íu ut ta at ti io on n o oí í ( (e er rt ta ai in n l la al ls se e ( (h ha an ng ge es s b bv v P Pr re ej ju ud di ic ce ed d \ \r ri it te er rs s
a ag ga ai in ns st t I Is sl la am m
¯5 1.lorce and (ompulsion were Lmploved íor the Dissemination
oí Islam
¯8 2. Mohammedanism: A Religion oí Sex-Indulgence`
80 3- Islam and Polvgamv
85 Polvgamv is not essential in Islam
85 Polvgamv is not an institution originated bv Islam
85 X XV VI I 1 1h he e S St ta at tu us s o oí í \ \o om me en n i in n I Is sl la am m
89 1. 1he Object oí Marriage
90 2. Marriage and Di·orce
92 3. 1he Guardian and the (onsent oí the Bride
92 4. 1he Inequalitv oí the 1wo Sexes with regard to Di·orce
93 5. Limitations oí Di·orce
96 6. Islam`s Suggestions íor Reconciliation
98 ¯. 1he lorm oí Separation- A (heck on Separation
101 8. Kholaa Di·orce`
104 9. lemale Seclusion

B Bo oo ok k I II II I L Lx xp po os si it ti io on n o of f t th he e R Re el li ig gi io on n o of f I Is sl la am m

110 Section I. Belieís
110 Section II. De·otion
110 Section III. 1ransactions
110 Section IV. Moralities
111 Section V. Punishments

111 Digest of Islam Creed
111 J. Belief in God
111 \hat God is not
112 God`s Liíe and Power
112 God`s Knowledge
113 God`s will
113 God`s learing and Sight
113 God`s \ord
114 God`s \orks

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115 1he Unitv oí God.

115 J. Proofs of His Lxistence:
115 God`s Omnipresence asserted
116 God`s Omnipotence
116 (reator oí all things
116 Períect in lis \orks.
116 1he Light oí lea·en and Larth
11¯ Pro·ides íor All
11¯ lis \ords are (ountless.
11¯ las no Oííspring
11¯ (reated all Beings to Adore lim
118 low le Speaketh with Man
118 God is (reator oí Good and L·il Deeds and \et Good is írom
lim. but L·il is írom Man in (onsequence oí his Ignorance or
118 Omniscient and Omnipotent
118 All-Seeing but Unseen
119 God`s Lo·e and Mercv
120 1he Lxistence oí God

126 2. Belief in the Angels of God

12¯ 3. Belief in the Scriptures of God
130 1he Koran
134 1.(alling the Jews and (hristians to come to agreement with the
134 2. Ordering the Prophet to Praise God
134 3. Right and \rong
134 4. Belieí oí the laithíul

136 Islam and the Iour Gospels
136 1. St. Luke`s Gospel
138 2.1he Gospel oí St. Matthew and that oí St. Mark
139 1he lour Gospels
140 Gospels:
141 Some Important Discrepancies
142 Interpolations
143 Ascension

144 1he Koran
14¯ 1he Koranic (onception oí Man
149 1he lrailties oí luman Nature
151 1he Koran and the Doctrine oí Personal loliness

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153 4. Belief in the Apostles of God
155 1, Promised to Marv
155 2, Birth oí Jesus
156 One oí the Miracles oí Jesus
15¯ 1he Mission oí Jesus
15¯ Jesus not (ruciíied
158 Jesus and the Di·initv
158 1he 1rinitv (ondemned
159 ( (o on nt tr ra ad di ic ct to or rv v 1 1e ea ac ch hi in ng gs s o oí í ( (h hr ri is st ti ia an ni it tv v í ír ro om m M Mo os sl le em m` `s s P Po oi in nt t o oí í
V Vi ie ew w
160 1 1h he e G Go od dh he ea ad d o oí í J Je es su us s ( (o on nd de em mn ne ed d b bv v I Is sl la am m
162 \hat Jesus Savs about himselí in Relation to his Alleged Di·initv
163 Priestcraít and Islam
164 Supposed Di·initv oí Jesus
165 (anon Barnes on the Old 1estament
165 \as (hrist Di·ine·
16¯ Biblical Prophecies as Reíerring to the Ad·ent oí the Prophet-

1¯1 5. 1he Belief in the Day of Resurrection

1¯¯ 6. Predestination
185 (onclusion
186 Reíerences

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The Religion of Islam
A standard book
Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b. Pb. D.. titt. D
. íorerora
owe a hea·v debt oí gratitude to his Lxcellencv the (onsul General oí
Lgvpt íor India who íirst brought me into contact with the intellectual liíe
oí his countrv bv sending me some numbers oí the Al-Azhar Uni·ersitv
Magazine which contains contribution írom the most eminent Lgvptian
scholars. and reílects the trend oí Lgvptian thought. 1hese journals ga·e me
some idea oí the ·aluable work which modern Lgvpt was doing to re·i·e the
glorious achie·ements oí Islam in science and art. and to relight the torch oí
learning which. in the Middle Ages. illumined e·erv dark corner oí the world.
and brought about the Luropean Renaissance.

It was in the pages oí this journal that I came across Dr. Galwash`s
Religion oí Islam` which appeared there in serial parts. I was greatlv struck bv
the author`s scholarlv handing oí his subject. the breadth oí his outlook and his
command o·er the Lnglish language. I requested his Lxcellencv to ía·our me
with the name and address oí a book seller írom whom this book could be
obtained. but instead oí supplving me this iníormation. he con·eved mv
admiration íor the Religion oí Islam` to the author. who sent me a
sumptuouslv bound copv oí the book as a generous present.

It is a lamentable íact that no Muslim scholar oí established reputation has
vet written in anv Luropean language a standard book on the liíe oí the
Prophet or the teachings oí Islam. Ií an Luropean wants to be enlightened
about Islam. he is compelled to consult the works oí non Muslim authors who
are ne·er tired oí re·iling the Prophet and misinterpreting the doctrines oí the
Muslim íaith. According to these authors Islam represents all that is e·il in
human nature. and legalizes the worst íorms oí brutalitv. moral corruption. and
carnal lust. 1he Muslim world was badlv in need oí a writer who might
counteract these misrepresentations and paint Islam as it is without
extenuating anvthing or setting down aught in malice`. 1his long íelt want has
now been supplied bv Dr. Galwash. whose Religion oí Islam`. oí which onlv
the íirst ·olume has appeared up till now. will be an authoritati·e work oí
Islamic religion. and expose the deliberate distortion oí Koranic teaching bv the
non-Muslim exponents oí Islam. either bv the use oí wrong premises as the
basis oí their conclusions oí íallacious logic.

Dr. Galwash begins his look with a brieí sur·ev oí Arabia and its people at
the time oí the Prophet`s birth. le then proceeds to gi·e outline to the
Prophet`s liíe. his immaculate character. the Di·ine call which he recei·ed to
deli·er his message his earlv trials and tribulations. the reíorms which his
monotheistic íaith brought about in the social and moral condition oí the
Arabs. his migration írom Mecca to Medina. and the deíensi·e wars which he

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had to íight with the Koraish in·aders who were determined to kill him and
crush his mo·ements.

Aíter touching on the Prophet`s liíe. which illustrates the practical
application oí Koranic precepts to human aííairs. the author deals with the
teachings oí the Koran about the attributes oí God. the spiritual side oí human
nature. and the regulation oí man`s dealings with his íellow men in the social
political and economic spheres oí liíe. le gi·es the raisons d`etre oí all these
Koranic commandments which are generallv used as targets oí hostile criticism
bv the ad·ersaries oí Islam. lis explanations. which are based not on re·elation
or tradition. but on rational arguments. clearlv show that the charges íramed
against Islam ha·e no íoundation in íact.

Dr. Galwash has also made a studv oí comparati·e religion. and speciallv the
Bible. which is so necessarv íor a thorough understanding oí the Koran. lis
írequent comparisons oí the Biblical and Koranic texts in regards to matters
mentioned in both the (hristian and Muslim Scriptures. and his reíerence to
the Biblical prophecies about the ad·ent oí the Prophet indicate the wide range
oí his reading and research. lis work must ha·e been greatlv íacilitated bv his
good íortune in ha·ing access to the world-íamous libraries oí (airo. which are
store house oí Lastern learning. and enshrine the rarest and most ·aluable
books on e·erv branch oí knowledge which ha·e been written either in ancient
or modern times. Dr. Galwash has done a great ser·ice to Islam bv writing a
book. which will be helpíul to e·erv Muslim in understanding his religion and
guiding his íootsteps along the right path according to the injunctions oí the

Sir Liakat Ali Kt. M.A.. LLB
Retired Minister. Bhopal State. India

Comments, Reports and Letters
on the Book.
A letter írom Mr. \illiam M. Johnson Pussvíoot, oí the USA:
I was much interested in the manuscript oí vour book. I read it íar into the
right and got prettv good idea oí its contents.
In regards to vour remarks on plain speaking in vour preíace. I could not
íind anvthing in the book that need oííend the most sensiti·e.
It is. oí course. and properlv so. written írom the Moslem standpoint. and I
should like see it. published. I would like to ha·e (hristians generallv read it. íor
it would gi·e them a new concept oí what Islam reallv is....
Ií there is anvthing that I could do in London to promote the project oí
publishing the book I would be glad indeed to do so.


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Lxtracts oí a letter írom Mr. L. V. linbert. editor oí the worthv re·iew Les
Messages d`Orient.` Paris:
Manv oí our íriends who are specialized in religious problems are delighted
with the substantial documentation and speciallv with the íer·our and sinceritv
oí vour writing. I would ask vou to send me as soon as possible the manuscript
I alreadv had the pleasure to read with the greatest interest. I would start
translating into lrench and ha·e it published in our selection oí modern eastern
I am alwavs with vou in spirit and communion oí what constitutes the
highest oí liíe.

(opv oí a letter írom Major 1. l Stern. Ad·iser. Irrigation Oííice.
Alexandria. Lgvpt:
I ha·e read vour book 1he religion oí Islam` with much interest and íeel
that the objects set íorth in the preíace ha·e been ·erv ablv pursued.
Iníormation about the religion which numbers such a ·ast proportion oí the
world`s inhabitants among its adherents cannot but be oí ·erv real ·alue.
Manv oí the Lnglish speaking races will. I íeel sure. welcome the
opportunitv to read a book which gi·es such a restrained and well balanced
account oí the teachings oí Islam.
In vour book vou ha·e collated and compiled in a most interesting manner
the rele·ant íacts about Mohammedanism. 1he Person oí Mohamed must
alwavs be a subject oí great interest and the gathering oí so much iníormation
between two co·ers íorms most illuminating reading.
\hile manv readers mav ha·e a general idea as to the teaching oí Islam. this
book presents an opportunitv to authentic their knowledge and appreciate the
religious attitude oí present dav Moslems. on such matters as polvgamv. status
oí women. etc.
1he pre·ailing tendencv oí the world is to judge a religion bv its íollowers
instead oí íirst enquiring what the religion taught bv the íounder was. I think
the present book will do much to present the teachings oí the Prophet
Mohamed in a reasonable and enlightened manner to all who bv inclination or
circumstances come in contact with his íollowers and read it.
I must congratulate vou on the excellence oí the diction and the general
tone oí moderation which per·ades the book.

(opv oí a letter írom Proíessor Gerald Brackenburv oí the ligher 1raining
(ollege. Ministrv oí Lducation (airo.
I ha·e read Ahmed Galwash`s book on Islam with the greatest interest. It
presents the case íor Islam in a ·erv striking wav. and shows a deep knowledge
oí the ligher (riticism oí the Bible and oí the most recent arguments used bv
the chieí Anglican Di·ines against the literal inspiration oí the Scriptures. Bv
his quotations írom (hristian writers he shows himselí independent oí mere

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It is Important in these davs oí íree thought íor all liberal-minded (hristians
to escape írom their prejudices inherited írom the (rusades and to learn the
spirit oí Islam as it exists in the mind oí a de·out Moslem.
I hope the book will be published and will ha·e the success it deser·es. 1he
Masterv oí Lnglish shown is remarkable.

(opv oí a letter írom Dr. l. L. Morton lowell. Minister and
Plenipotentiarv oí the united States oí America to Lgvpt:
I ha·e. with ·erv great interest . read the manuscript oí the Religion oí
Islam and the liíe oí the Prophet Mohammed.`
I should sav: 1hat as a de·out íollower and belie·er in the Koran and the
source oí its inspiration. the prophet Mohammed. vou ha·e in this treatise set
íorth such an interpretation oí it as shall make more easilv understood the
íundamentals oí this prophet`s teaching.
A íine charitable spirit` accompanied bv lucid expression and diction.
per·ades the whole text.

(opv oí a letter írom Mr. lermann Besser. Orientalist. (airo:
I ha·e just íinished the reading oí vour book and I should like to express to
vou the deep impression it perusal has made upon me. As one. to whom the
studv oí Lastern religions has been a matter oí great attraction during more
than íortv vear and whom the ·arious works on the Prophet and lis Mission
are not altogether unknown. I will sav that I ha·e ne·er seen this great subject
treated with more sinceritv. dispassionateness. luciditv. íairness and. at the same
time. with a nobler con·iction oí the truth oí the author`s own íaith. that the
work could not ha·e been better described than that oí a true Moslem.
As such. it should be inestimable ·alue to all searchers aíter 1ruth
throughout the worldand this particularlv in an age when materialism threatens
to discredit and o·ercome. in the minds oí mankind. those 1hings 1hat Reallv
1hat a book oí this nature cannot but call íorth criticism and opposition
írom the part oí orthodox adherents oí other creeds is certain. but as long as
these íollow the exampleoí tolerance set in vour book and no other can matter.
the great ·alue oí vour book and its leading idea oí helping men íorward.
howe·er little. in the wav oí right understanding. will. I trulv belie·e be in
nowise. aííected.

(opv oí a letter írom (olonel A. S. John (ooks. oí London:
I ha·e read vour book with great interest. I am íullv ali·e to the need oí a
better understanding bv (hristian Nations oí the basic íacts oí the Islamic
Religion and I wish vour book e·erv success in consequence.
1here is a great new mo·ement in all Moslem (ountries. tending towards
the de·elopment oí (haracter and the Substitution oí deeds íor words. 1here

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is. at the same time. a determination to use all the best that the scientiíic
de·elopments oí the \est ha·e períected. I thereíore. hope that someone
equallv giíted and de·out mav write a (ompanion Volume to bring out the
good points oí (hristianitv in the íormation oí right thinking and action. so
that a studv oí the two mav lead to a still better íeeling between the íollowers oí
the two great Religions. which ha·e done so much to help world de·elopment.
Islam bv its great brotherhood under the One God as expounded bv Mohamed.
and (hristianitv bv its indi·idualistic responsibilitv to imitate as íar as possible.
the liíe oí (hrist.
A íull and accurate knowledge oí each other`s aspirations must lead to that
good understanding vou claim as the goal oí vour book.

Lxtracts oí a Report submitted to l. L. the Minister oí Lducation. (airo bv
Proíessor J. \alker oí the Ministrv:
1he book is a work oí considerable literarv merit.
1he stvle is excellent. Ií the book is published I recommend that copies be
placed in the school Libraries as it would be read bv the Luropean member oí
the staíí with proíit.
I ha·e gone through this Book. 1he religion oí Islam.` It embodies
authentic illustrations oí a good deal oí Islamic questions. As such. it ser·es as a
guide to the religion oí Islam.

R Re el li ig gi io on n o of f I Is sl la am m
he general interest aroused bv the íirst edition oí this book and its rapid
exhaustion. ha·e called íor the printing oí second.
1he purpose oí the book is to gi·e to Lnglish readers a concise and íair
historv oí the Prophet Mohammad Peace and blessing oí Allah be Upon him,
and to present an accurate account oí the religion oí Islam wronglv called
Mohammedanism, which he taught a religion which has became the íaith oí
hundreds oí millions oí people throughout the world. I ha·e been mo·ed to
undertake this work because I írequentlv met Lnglishmen brought to Lgvpt
connection with the Great \ar 1914 - 1919, who e·inced a real desire to
acquire a certain knowledge oí the principles oí Islam. the dominant religion oí
the countrv.
I tried to satisív their curiositv just as much as mv limited intercourse with
them permitted. linallv it was suggested to me that I should write a treatise on
the subject íor the use oí Lnglish speaking inquirers to íamiliarize millions oí
British subjects. I considered it a dutv to complv with the suggestion - íirst in
regard to the religion oí Islam. as I ha·e as vet hardlv íound a single treatise
which properlv explains the essence oí that creed and is at the same time íree
írom deíects or misrepresentations: and secondlv in regard to the members oí
the Anglo- Saxon race. through whose language I was able to pursue mv studies
Apparentlv Lnglish writers. or rather writers oí the (hristian persuasion
who dealt with Islam. seem either to ha·e obtained their knowledge oí that

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religion haphazardlv írom untrustworthv sources. or to ha·e allowed their
judgment to ha·e been biased bv their own (hristian outlook: and this partialitv
has. consciouslv or otherwise changed them írom honest historians to critics -
and at times malignant critics. In compiling this book. I ha·e set beíore me a
high ideal: to be a true historian and a conscientious writer. to obtain not onlv
írom eulogv and partisanship. but also írom scoííing and misplaced criticism.
Mv sole ende·our is to gi·e the reader a true account oí the liíe oí the Prophet
Mohammad Peace and blessing oí Allah be Upon him, and a íair exposition oí
the religion oí Islam.
As the historv oí the Arabs has a ·erv close connection with the liíe oí the
Arabian Prophet and the rise and de·elopment oí Islam. I ha·e dedicated part 1
oí the Book to a summarv oí that historv and the exposition oí the social
moral. political and religious conditions oí the Arabs prior to the ad·ent oí
Islam. \ith regard to the present work. the author who is an Lgvptian Muslim
lavs no claim to the art oí elegant composition in Lnglish. But íurther he is oí
opinion that ií this abilitv were within his reach. it would ha·e been misplaced
in a work oí this nature. the principal merit oí which is simple íidelitv. I desire
abo·e all things. that in a humble wav. this book mav be the ambassador oí
good will and understanding between Muslims and those oí other íaiths. 1he
two supplements present mv theses oííered íor the degrees oí Ph.. and Litt. D.
at the Uni·ersitv oí Brussels and lelsinki respecti·elv

Ahmed A. Galwash
(airo. April 1940

I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
he diííusion oí knowledge all-o·er the world and the spread ci·ilisation
ha·e ·erv largelv lessened the diííerence between one nation and another
and ha·e almost subdued the ílames oí animositv kindled in men`s bosoms bv
blind íanaticism e·oked bv religion or creed.

listorv related manv awíul wars waged in the name oí religion.
1odav. howe·er. men are largelv imbued with the spirit oí toleration and
lo·e oí truth and libertv. 1he more enlightened do respect the doctrines and
principles oí their íellow men. howe·er widelv thev oííer írom their own. 1he
íollowers oí diííerent religions make earnest endea·ours to spread their own
íaith and to plant their standards e·ent íarther a íield. It is leít to reason to
examine and judge the respecti·e merits oí each. (hristian missionaries in the
Orient mav be heard loudlv preaching (hristianitv to íollowers oí Moses and
Mohammad Peace and blessing oí Allah be upon them, without the least
apprehension oí anv unlawíul opposition on the part oí their hearers.
lrom time to time. we read oí some distinguished person who has
abandoned the religion oí his íoreíathers to adopt a diííerent persuasion.
which. in the light oí reason he has íound more acceptable. lurther the spirit oí
intelligent curiositv has been so íullv de·eloped in human beings bv education.
that books are eagerlv read which deal with the dogmas and tenets oí diííerent

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nations. 1he widest possible knowledge oí these is sought and at time an
attachment to new belieís is not hidden. nor a readiness to adopt them.

On the other hand. the more highlv a nation is ci·ilized. the more it is
inclined to make known its customs. habits and national or religious character.
Although some ·ague knowledge oí the laws and tenets oí Islam mav be
obtained írom treatises and books which ha·e been composed bv certain
westerners. vet he who desires to thoroughlv comprehend their spirit must trace
them to the íountain head. In the ordinarv intercourse oí liíe. he who is
desirous oí gaining the esteem and aííection oí those with whom he con·erses.
will be careíul not to oííend against their religious precepts and notions oí right
and wrong. with which precepts and notions he can become acquainted bv
consulting their own records.

lurthermore. it beha·es those ministers and missionaries oí the (hristian
íaith whose zeal leads them to labour in the propagation oí their own doctrines
and in attempts to reíute the tenets and precepts oí other religions. to be well
acquainted with those things which thev undertake to impugn.
1he learned Roland
has shown that (hristian writers oí no small
eminence in point oí learning and reputation ha·e egregiouslv misrepresented
the doctrines oí Muslim íaith. and bestowed much useless labour. in coníuting
opinions which the íollowers oí the Arabian Prophet ne·er maintained. thus
exposing themsel·es to the charge oí ignorance and the contempt oí their
ad·ersaries and injuring the cause thev had undertaken to deíend. bv making it
appear to stand in need oí íalse allegations íor its support`.

Indeed. it is misrepresentation and misiníormation. írom which Muslims
chieílv suííer. 1hev ha·e had imputed to them that which has no existence
whate·er in their teachings and policv: baseless charges ha·e been ad·anced
against Islam: nav. the ·erv beauties which Muslims account amongst their
exclusi·e possessions ha·e been denied them. and the ·erv e·ils which Islam
came to eradicate and did succeed in so doing are ascribed to it. It is certainlv a
great pitv that. with all this outpouring oí learning and literature. e·erv little real
eííort has been made to clear awav the clouds oí misrepresentation and
deíecti·e knowledge which still en·elop the religion oí the Arabian Prophet in
Lurope and America. It is happv sign. howe·er. to íind plans íor a uni·ersal
religion being discussed in certain ad·anced circles in both continents. and a
desire to create a better understanding among the adherents oí the ·arious
denominations oí the world. 1o achie·e this desirable end. it is inconsistent
with the ad·anced culture oí enlightened Luropean or American inquirers that
iníormation on Islam- a religion which at present is a poweríul íactor in
humanizing millions hitherto li·ing in ignorance barbaritv- should come
through anv adulterated channels and írom the writings and works oí
propagandists hostile to Islam. Undoubtedlv a true knowledge oí the liíe oí the
Prophet and oí his principal teachings is íull oí interest to those who desire to
increase their general stock oí iníormation. Indeed the doctrines oí Islam tend

, De Relig. Mohamammedica L II.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
in general to promote the welíare and propertv oí mankind. in as much as thev
culti·ate charitv and good will to all people.

1he prophet said: No man`s íaith shall be períect unless he wishes íor his
brother whatsoe·er he wishes íor himselí`.
1hat Islam was admittedlv the torch-bearer oí light and learning in the \est
when Lurope was enshrouded in ignorance and darkness. and that the
íollowers oí the Prophet were undoubtedlv among the ·erv íew íactors creating
the conditions leading to present culture and ad·ancement. are in themsel·es
cogent reasons to justiív an appeal to the \esterner`s sense oí dutv and justice
in judging Islam and the Muslims.

An honest student oí the tenets oí Islam and the labours oí Muslims íor the
regeneration and ediíication oí mankind. especiallv oí Lurope. cannot íail to
íind much íor which Islam should be thanked.
I quote Major Arthur Glvn Leonard in this connection:
Ne·er to this dav has Lurope acknowledged in an honest and
wholehearted manner the great and e·erlasting debt she owes to Islamic culture
and ci·ilisation. Onlv in a lukewarm and períunctorv wav has she recognized
that when. during the dark ages. her people were sunk in íeudalism and
ignorance Muslim ci·ilisation under the Arabs reached a high standard oí social
and scientiíic splendour that kept the ílickering embers oí Luropean societv
írom utter decadence.

Do not we. who consider oursel·es on the topmost pinnacle e·er reached
bv culture and ci·ilisation. recongnise that. had it not been íor the high culture.
the ci·ilisation and intellectual. as well as the social splendours oí Arabs and
soundness oí their school svstem. Lurope would to this sav ha·e remained
sunk in the darkness oí ignorance· la·e we íorgotten that the Muslim maxim
was that the real learning oí man is oí more public importance than anv
particular religious opinion he mav entertain`. that Muslim liberalitv was in
striking contrast with the then intolerant state oí Lurope· Does the magniíicent
·alour oí the Arabs. inspired as it was bv atheism as loítv as it was pure. not
appeal to us· Does not the moderation and comparati·e toleration shown bv
them to the conquered not with standing the íierce and burning ardour to
regenerate mankind that impelled them onward to conquest also appeal to us·
Does it not all the more appeal to us when we contrast this with the bitterness
oí the attitude oí the (hristian sects towards one another· Lspeciallv when we
consider that in (hristendom. as it was then constituted. extortion tvrannv and
imperial centralisation. combining with ecclesiastical despotism and
persecution. had practicallv extinguished patriotism. bv substituting in its place
schismatic and degenerate (hurch·

lurther the same writer continues to sav: -
Is it possible that Lurope is unmindíul oí. and has the ingratitude to
ignore. the splendid ser·ices oí the scientists and philosophers oí Arabic· Are

, Bosworth Smith: Mohamed and Mohammedanism`.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the names oí Assamh. Abu Othman. Alberuni. Alberithar Abu Ali Ibn Sina
A·icenna, the great phvsician and philosopher. Ib Rushd A·erroes, oí
(ordo·a. the chieí commentator oí Aristotle. Ib Bajja Anempace, besides a
host oí others but dead letters· Is the great work that thev ha·e done and the
íame thev ha·e leít behind them in their books to be consigned to the limbo oí
obli·ion. bv an ungrateíul but antipathetic Lurope·

It cannot be that alreadv we ha·e lost sight oí the amazing intellectual
acti·itv oí the Muslim world during the earlier part oí the Abbaside period
more especiallv. It cannot be that we ha·e quite íorgotten the irreco·erable loss
that was inílicted on Arabian literature. and on the world at large. bv the went
on destruction oí thousands oí books that was promoted bv (hristian bigotrv
and íanaticism. It cannot be surelv said oí (hristian Lurope that íor centuries
now she has done her best to hide her obligation to the Arabs: vet most
assuredlv obligations such as these are íar too sacred to lie much longer

lor íurther enlightment as to the íar-reaching beneíicial eííects oí Islam I
quote Bosworth Smith. M.A.. Asst master in larrow School and late íellow oí
1rinitv (ollege. Oxíord:
Nor does Islam lack other claims on our attention. Its ultimate acceptance
bv the Arabs. the new direction gi·en to it bv the later re·elations to
Mohammad. its rapid conquests. the literature and ci·ilisation it brought in it
train. the wav in which it crumpled up the Roman Lmpire on one side and the
Persian on the other. how it dro·e (hristianitv beíore it on the \est and North
and íire worship on the Last and South: how it crushed the íalse prophets that
alwavs íollow in the wake oí a true one. as the jackals do the trail oí a lion. how
it spread o·er two continents. and how it settled in a third and at one time all
but o·erwhelmed the whole.... all this is matter oí historv. at which I can onlv

And what is the position now·
It numbers at this dav more than one hundred millions. probablv one
hundred and íiítv millions
oí belie·ers as sincere. as de·out. as true to their
creed. as are the belie·ers in anv creed whate·er. It still has its grip on three
continents extending írom Morocco to the Malav Peninsula. írom Zanzibar to
the Kirghis horde...

... Aírica which had vielded so earlv to (hristianitv. nav. which had gi·en
birth to Latin (hristianitv itselí. the Aírica oí (vprian and 1ertullian. oí Antonv
and Augustine vielded still more readilv to Mohammad`: and írom the Straits oí
Gibraltar to the Isthmus oí Suez mav still be heard the crv which with them is
no ·ain repetition oí Allah Akbar`. God is Great. there is no God but God
and Mohammad Peace and blessing oí Allah be upon him, is his Prophet.

, Islam` ler Moral and Spiritual Value` Bv Major Arthur Glvn Leonard.

, 1he number is assumed at present 2002, to be about 1100 millions

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
And ií it be said. as it oíten is. that Islam has gained nothing since the íirst
ílame or religious enthusiasm íanned. as it then oíten was. bv the lust oí
conquest has died out. I answer that this is íar írom the truth. In the extreme
Last. Islam has since then won and maintained íor centuries a moral supremacv
in the important (hinese pro·ince oí \un-Nan. and has thus actuallv succeeded
in thrusting a wedge between the two great Buddhist empires oí Burma and oí

1hroughout the (hinese Lmpire there are scattered Mussulman
communities who ha·e higher hopes than Buddhism or (oníucianism. and a
purer moralitv than 1aoism can supplv. 1he Panthavs themsel·es. it is belie·ed.
still number a million and a halí and the unitv oí God and the mission oí God`s
Prophet are attested dav bv dav bv a continuous line oí worshippers írom the
Atlantic to the Paciíic Ocean.
Nav. e·en bevond. in the Last Indian Archipelago. bevond the straits oí
Malacca ií I mav ·enture just now so to call them. in Ja·a and Sumatra. in
Borneo and (elebes. ISLAM has raised manv oí the nati·es abo·e their íormer
sel·es and has long been the dominant íaith...

It cannot oí course. be supposed that among races so low in the scale oí
humanitv as are most oí the Indian islanders. Islam would be able to do what it
did originallv íor the Arabs or íor the 1urkish hordes` but it has done
something e·en íor them. It was propagated bv missionaries who carea rery
vvcb tor tbe .ovt. tbey covta riv. ava votbivg tor tbe ptvvaer tbey covta carry ott.
1hev conciliated the nati·es learned their language. intermarried with them and
in larger islands their success was rapid and. so íar as nature would allow.

1he Philippines and the Molaccas. with were conquered bv Spain and
Portugal respecti·elv did not become Muslim. íor thev had to surrender at once
their libertv and their religion. It is no wonder that the religion known to the
nati·es chieílv through the unblushing rapacitv oí the Dutch has not extended
itselí bevond the reach oí their swords. lere. as elsewhere in the Last. the most
íatal hindrance to the spread oí (hristianitv has been the li·es oí (hristians.

In Aírica again Islam is spreading itselí bv giant strides almost vear bv vear.
L·ervone knows that within halí a centurv oí the Prophet`s death. the richest
states oí Aírica. and those most accessible to (hristianitv and to Luropean
(i·ilisation. were torn awav írom both. bv the armies oí the íaithíul. with
hardlv a struggle or a regret: but íew except those who ha·e studied the subject.
are aware that e·en since then Islam has been graduallv spreading o·er the
northern halí oí the continent.

, (rawíord`s Indian Archipelago` II. 2¯5 and 315

, lor the cruelties oí the Portuguese. see (raíord. II. 403 and íor the Dutch see
especiallv II. 425 and 441. lor some startling íacts as to the comparati·e moralitv oí
some nati·e and (hristian communities in India. see a paper bv Re·. J.N. 1hoburn in
the Report íor the Allahabad Missionarv (oníerence. held in 18¯2-¯3 p. 46¯-4¯0.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Starting írom the north west corner. it íirst marched southwards írom
Morocco. and bv the time oí the Norman (onquest had reached the
neighbourhood oí 1imbuctoo. and had got íirm hold oí the Mandingoes.
thence it spread southwards again to the loulahs. and then eastward bv the
thirteenth centurv to Lake (had. where íinallv the Arab missionaries írom the
\est joined hands with those írom the Last in the ·erv heart oí Aírica...
\e hear oí whole tribes laving aside their de·il- worship or immemorial
letish and springing at a bound. as it were írom the ·erv lowest to one oí the
highest íorms oí religious belieí. (hristian tra·elers with e·erv wish to think
otherwise. ha·e remarked that the Negro who accepts Islam. acquires at once a
sense oí the dignitv oí human nature not commonlv íound e·en among those
who ha·e been brought to accept (hristianitv.
It is also pertinent to obser·e here. that such progress as anv large part oí
the Negro race has hitherto made. is in exact proportion to the time that has
elapsed. or the degree oí íer·our. with which thev originallv embraced. or ha·e
since clung to Islam. 1he Mandingoes and the loulahs are salient instances oí
this: their unquestionable superioritv to other Negro tribes is as unquestionablv
owing to the earlv hold that Islam got upon them. and to the ci·ilisation and
culture that is has alwavs encouraged. 1he Go·ernment Blue Books on our
\est Aírican settlements. and the reports oí missionarv societies themsel·es.
are quite at one on this head. 1he Go·ernor oí our \est Aírican (olonies. Mr.
Pope lennesav. remarks that the liberated Aíricans are alwavs handed o·er to
(hristian missionaries íor instruction. and that their children are baptized and
brought up at the public expense in (hristian schools. and are. thereíore. in a
sense readv made con·erts. vet the total number oí proíessing (hristians 35.000
out oí a population oí 513.000. ·erv íew e·en oí these. as the Go·ernor savs.
and as we can uníortunatelv well belie·e írom our experience in countries that
are not Aírican. being practical (hristians - íalls íar short oí the original
number oí liberated Aíricans and their descendents.
On the other hand the
Re·. James Johnson. a nati·e clergvman. and a man oí remarkable energv and
intelligence. as well as oí ·erv (atholic spirit. deplores the íact that oí the total
number oí Muslims to be íound in Sierra Leone and its neighbourhood three
íourths were not born Muslims. but ha·e become so bv con·ersion. whether
írom a nominal (hristianitv or írom Paganism.

\e are assured on all hands that the Muslim population has an almost
passionate desire íor education. and those in the neighbourhood oí our

, Papers relating to ler Majestv`s (olonial Possessions Part. II 18¯3 2

, Papers relating to ler Majestv`s (olonial Possessions Part. II 18¯3 2
p.15. As Mr. Pope lennessv`s Report has been much criticized. chieílv on the ground
that he is a Roman (atholic. and as I ha·e based some statements upon it. it mav be
worth mentioning that I ha·e had a con·ersation with Mr. Johnson. who is a strong
protestant himselí. and that he bore testimonv to the bonaíides oí the Report and to its
accuracv e·en on some points which ha·e been most questioned. le told me that Islam
was introduced into Sierra Leone not manv vears ago. bv three zealous missionaries
who came írom a great distance. It seems now to be rapidlv gaining the ascendancv. in
spite oí all the Luropean iníluence at work.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

colonies would through our schools. íirst ií the practical education gi·en was
worth ha·ing. and secondlv. ií the teachers would reírain írom needlesslv
attacking their cherished and oíten harmless customs. \here·er Muslims are
numerous. thev establish schools them-sel·es. and there are not a íew who
tra·el extraordinarv distances to secure the best possible education. Mr. Pope
lennessv mentions the case oí one voung Muslim Negro who is in the habit oí
purchasing costlv books írom 1rubner in London and who went to loulah.
two hundred and íiítv miles awav. to obtain an education better than he could
íind in sierra Leone itselí. Not is it an uncommon thing íor newlv con·erted
Muslims to make their wav right across the desert írom Bornu or írom Lake
(had. or down the Nile írom Daríour or \adi. a journev oí o·er one thousand
miles that thev mav carrv on their studies in Ll-Azhar. the great collegiate
Mosque at (airo. and thev mav thence bring back the results oí their training to
their nati·e countrv. and íorm so manv centers oí Muslim teaching and

Nor as to the eííects oí Islam when íirst embraced bv a Negro tribe can
there be anv reasonable doubt. Polvtheism disappears almost instantaneouslv.
sorcerv with it attendant e·ils. graduallv dies awav: human sacriíice becomes a
thing oí the past. 1he general moral ele·ation is most marked: the nati·e begins
íor the íirst time in their historv to dress and that neatlv. Squalid íilth is
replaced bv a scrupulous cleanliness: in hospitalitv becomes a comparati·elv
rare exception. 1hough polvgamv is allowed bv the Koran. it is not common in
practice: and. bevond the limits laid down bv the Prophet. incontinence is rate:
chastitv is looked upon as one oí the highest and becomes in íace one oí the
commoner ·irtues. It is idleness henceíorward that degrades. instead oí the
re·erse. Oííences are henceíorward measured bv a written code instead oí the
arbitrarv caprice oí a chieítain - a step. as e·ervone will admit. oí ·ast
importance in the progress oí a tribe. 1he Mosque gi·es an idea at all e·ents
higher than anv the Negro has vet had. A thirst íor literature is created. and that
íor works oí science and philosophv. as well as íor commentaries on the
Koran. 1here are whole tribes. as the Jaloís on the ri·er Gambia and the
laussas. whose manlv qualities we ha·e had occasions to test in Ashantee.
which ha·e become to a man Muslims and ha·e raised themsel·es iníinitelv in
the process: and the ·erv name salt-water- Muslims gi·en to those tribes along
the coast. who. írom admixture with Luropean settlers. ha·e relaxed the
se·eritv oí the Prophet`s laws is a striking prooí oí the extent. to which the
stricter íorm oí the íaith pre·ails in the íar interior.
It is melancholv to contrast with these wide spread beneíicial iníluences oí
Islam. the little that has been done íor Aírica till ·erv latelv bv the (hristian
nations that ha·e settled in it. and the still narrower limits within which it has
been coníined. 1ill a íew vears ago the good eííects produced bevond the
immediate territories occupied bv them were absolutelv nothing.
1he message that Luropean traders ha·e carried íor centuries to Aírica has
been one oí rapacitv. oí crueltv and oí bad íaith. It is a remark oí Dr.
that the onlv art that the nations oí Aírica ha·e acquired írom

, Li·ingstone`s Lxpedition to the Zambesi` page 240.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
their 500 vears` acquaintance with the Portuguese. has been the art oí distilling
spirits írom a gun - barrel: and that the onlv permanent belieí thev owe to
them. is the belieí that man mav sell his brother man: íor this. he savs
emphaticallv. is not a nati·e beneíit to Aírica: but ií we except the small
number oí con·erts made within the limits oí their settlements. it has been the
onlv beneíit coníerred bv Luropeans.

1rulv ií the question must be put. whether it is Muslim or (hristian nations
that ha·e as vet done most íor Aírica. the answer must be that it is not the

I think I can occupv no more space in this introduction bv making íurther
quotations to discuss the relation oí Islam to modern ci·ilisation and the
position which it holds among the recognized religions oí the world. It is a
matter oí pure historv that Islam has been beneíicial to humanitv in general and
that it had. and still has. an e·erlasting iníluence on the de·elopment oí human
1he Muslim School embraces all branches oí human knowledge and
research: -theologv. medicine. historv. astronomv. grammar. economics.
phvsics. racial philosophv and racial psvchologv and ethics. It is an important
educator on all svstems oí purelv human origin. and its creed most sublime
loítiest and di·ine expression. ne·er to be íound in the liturgv oí other
religions. 1he Islamic conception oí God is that le is Allah` and there is no
deitv beside lim: le alone is to be worshipped. le begets not and le is not
begotten. le was beíore time began its race. le is Allah` \ho hath raised
diííerent Prophets oí men throughout the ages. lis Greatness is immeasurable.
Allah is le that abideth írom eternitv to eternitv. 1his is but a íractional part oí
the Muslim (reed - a creed that strictlv íorbids the worship oí images and the
artistic representation oí anvthing that resembles the human íorm. \et in
(hristian literature periodicals and other publications Muslims ha·e been
alluded to. and spoken oí. as pagans idolaters. polvgamists. sun-worshippers
and what not. Out sacred ediíice has been characterized as the Mosque oí
swords our hea·en as a hea·en oí sensual bliss. and that aíter death we sink
into space soul less and ha·e no account to gi·e. In the romance oí 1rpin`
quoted bv Renan. Mohammad. the íanatical destrover oí all idolatrv. is turned
himselí into an idol oí gold and under the name oí Mawment. is reported to be
the object oí worship at (adiz. In the song oí Roland. the National Lpic oí
lrance. Mohammad` appears with the chieí oí the pagan gods on one side oí
him and the chieí oí the De·ils on the other. luman sacriíices are supposed to
ha·e been oííered to him. in imagination and assertions oí (hristian writers oí
the tenth and ele·enth centuries under the ·arious names oí Baíum. or
Maphomet. or Mawment. Malaterra. in his historv oí Sicilv describes that island
as being. when under Saracenic rule. and land whollv gi·en up to idolatrv.
It is
not a little curious that both the Lnglish and lrench languages still bear witness

, R. Bosworth Smith Mohamed and Mohammedanism`.

, \hich people were the great idolaters. anv candid reader oí the Italian annalists oí
this time. collected bv Muratori. can sav` Bosworth - Mohammed and

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
to the popular misapprehension: the lrench bv the word Mahomerie`. the
Lnglish bv the word Mummerv`. still used íor absurd or superstitious rites.

Mammetrv`. a contraction oí Mahometrv was used in earlv Lnglish íor anv
íalse religion. especiallv íor worship oí idols. insomuch that Mammet` or
Mawmet: came to mean an idol. In Shakespeare the name is extended to a
mean doll: a Juliet. íor instance. is called bv her íather A whinning mammet`
In the twelíth centurv the god Mawmet` passes into the heresiarch Mahomet.
and as such. oí course he occupies a conspicuous place in the Iníerno.`

Dante places him in his ninth circle among the showers oí religious discord:
his companions being lra Dolimo a communist oí the íourteenth centurv. and
Bertrand de Born. a íighting 1roubadour.
1he Romances oí Baphomet. so common in the íourteenth and íiíteenth
centuries. attribute anv and e·erv crime to him. just as the Athanasians did to
Arius. le is a debauchee. a camel stealer. a cardinal. who ha·ing íailed to obtain
the object oí e·erv cardinal`s ambition. in·ents a new religion to re·enge
himselí on his brethren.

\ith the leaders oí the Reíormation. Mohammad the greatest oí
meets with little svmpathv. and their hatred oí him. as perhaps was
natural. seems to be proportionate with their knowledge Luther doubts whether
he is not worse than Leo: Melanchton belie·es him to be either Gog or Maggog
and Probablv both.

In the imagination oí the Biblical commentators. the Arabian Prophet
di·ides with the Pope the credit or discredit. oí being the subject oí special
prophecv in the books oí Daniel and the Re·elation. le is Antichrist. the Man
oí Sin. the Little lorn` and I know not what besides: nor do I think that a
single writer. till towards the middle oí the eighteenth centurv. treats oí him as
otherwise than a rank impostor and íalse prophet.

Lngland and lrance were the íirst to take a diííerent ·iew and to ha·e
begun that critical studv oí Arabian historv or literature which in the hands oí
Gibbon and oí Muir. oí (aussin de Perce·al and oí St. lilaire. oí \eil and oí
Springer has pro·ided some material íor a comparati·elv íair and unbiased
judgment within the reach oí e·ervone. But most other writers oí the 18

centurv such as Dean Prideaux and the Abbe Maracci. Boulain·illiers and
Voltaire ha·e approached the subject onlv to pro·e a thesis. \ith them the
Prophet was to be either a hero or an impostor. lrom them is learnt much

, See 1rench on \ords` p.112.

, Mawmet countr.ír. Mahomet, a puppet: a doll: originallv an idol. because in the
Middle Ages was generallv belie·ed that the Moslems worshipped images representing
Mohammed`. See \ebster`s Dictionarv.

, Renan Ltudes d`listoire Religieuse` p. 223. note.

, Bosworth Smith.

, See Ouarterlv Re·iew` Art. Islam. bv Detsch. No. 254. p.296.

,Bosworth Smith.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
that has been said about Mohammad. but comparati·elv little oí Mohammad

Gagnier has then proceeded to write a historv oí the Prophet claimed to
ha·e been based on the work oí Abul leda. Gagnier`s historv was still not íree
írom wrong iníerences and erroneous allusions.

1hen íollowed the translations oí the Koran bv Sale and Sa·arv into
Lnglish and lrench respecti·elv. Gibbon has then written his three master-
pieces oí biographv`: Athansaius. Juian. and Mohammad. Gibbon`s treatment
oí Islam is considered to be generallv íair and philosophic. in spite oí
occasional uncalled-íor sarcasms and characteristic innuendoes.
It seems that
Gibbon`s so called uníair treatment oí (hristianitv pre·ented the (hristian
world írom doing justice to his generallv íair treatment oí Islam: and
consequentlv most Lnglishmen who do not condemn the Arabian Prophet
unheard. deri·e what ía·ourable notions oí him thev ha·e not írom Gibbon.
but írom (arlvle.`

It was reallv a great surprise and an epoch in Lnglish intellectual and
religious liíe. as Bosworth Smith has rightlv obser·ed. when it was íound that
(arvle chose íor his lero as Prophet` not Moses or Llijah or Isaiah. but the
so called impostor Mohammed`

Now it is time to conclude this mv introduction. 1he reader will see and
judge íor himselí the extent to which Luropean writers oí ·arious reputations
and in ·arious ages ha·e. in their diííerent treatment oí the Prophet
Mohammed Peace and blessing oí Allah be Upon him, and oí Islam. been
either misleading or themsel·es misled.
In conclusion I wish to express mv heart-íelt-obligation to mv numerous
íriends both in Lgvpt and abroad íor their kind assistance and encouragement
which enabled me to bring this work to completion. I wish it were possible íor
me to name them all. but certain considerations pre·ent mv doing so.
Mv special gratitude is due to lis Lminence Shiekh Mohammed Mustapha
Ll Maraghi Grand Rector oí Al Azhar Uni·ersitv through whose personal
suggestion the book has been accredited bv that great Muslim Institution íor
publication as a supplement to Al Azhar Oííicial Monthlv Re·iew.
In mv human endea·ours I humblv implore the Almightv God. the God oí
all mankind. to grant that mv labour mav ser·e as a basis. ií not íor an ultimate
agreement between (hristendom and Islam. at all e·ents íor mutual
understanding and íorbearance. íor svmpathv and respect.

Ahmed Galwash


, Bosworth Smith.

, Ibid.

, Bosworth Smith.

, Bosworth Smith.

, Ibid.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
rabia is the great western peninsula oí Asia. Its area is about 1.230.000
square miles. i.e. about one third oí Lurope. 1he name is said to be
deri·ed írom Araba`. a small district in the south east oí the pro·ince oí
1ehama. to which \arab the son oí Kahtan 1he Biblical Joktna`,. the íather
oí the ancient Arabs ga·e his name. and where some ages aíter dwelt Ishmail.
the son oí Abraham and lagar.
1he chieí pro·ince in connection with the historv oí Islam is known as the
lidjaz. which occupies the western strip oí Arabia to the east oí the Red Sea
and contains the íamous cities oí Mecca and Median. 1he íormer oí these
claims the distinction oí being the birth place oí the Prophet and possesses the
celebrated sanctuarv oí the Kaaba. and the second was the home oí the
Prophet íor the last ten vears oí his liíe. and in it he was laid to rest.
1he shrine oí Kaaba is stated to ha·e been originallv built bv Abraham and
Ismail íor the worship oí the true God. but in aíter times it became the
common pantheon oí pagan Arabia. 1he peninsula oí Arabia has alwavs been
inhabited bv two -classes - town dwellers and those who li·e in tents. 1he
íormer li·e bv tillage. the culti·ation oí palm-trees. cattle breeding. and the
exercise oí trades. and e·en in the time oí Jacob. were íamous as merchants.
1he members oí the tribe oí Koreish. the wealthiest and most distinguished oí
the Arabian tribes. were especiallv engaged in commerce. and Mohammed in
his vouth was brought up as a trader. as it was the Arabian customs íor sons to
carrv on the business oí their íathers. 1he Arabs who dwelt in tents were
occupied with the pasturing oí their ílocks. ·aried bv the raiding oí cara·ans
and pillaging oí tra·elers. 1hev li·ed chieílv on milk. dates and camel ílesh: thev
changed their habitation as the con·enience oí water and oí pasture required
staving no longer in one place when these íailed.
\hether townsmen or tent-dwellers. the Arabs ha·e alwavs been di·ided
into tribes and clans. each ha·ing its own habits. customs. mental outlook and
peculiarities and being more or less distinct írom the other in mode oí worship.
in culture and de·elopment. 1his di·ersitv oí culture was mainlv due to
di·ersitv oí origin. Various races had inhabited the peninsula in ·arious ages.
Manv oí these had passed awav. but their íailure or success to add luster to the
Arab race was e·er íresh in the memorv oí successi·e generations. and on this
tradition the earlv historv oí the nation was based.
1he most íamous tribes oí the ancient Arab were those oí Aad. 1hamoud
and Amalik. 1he destruction oí the íirst two tries bv God íor reíusing to
acknowledge the missions oí his prophets to them or to obev them. is
írequentlv reíerred to in the Koran as instances oí God`s Judgment on
obstinate unbelie·ers and a warning to the Ouraishites. the tribe oí
Muhammad. who were his most poweríul and in·eterate enemies.
According to tradition. the Adites appeared at one time to ha·e been
poweríul and conquering people. 1hev are said to ha·e in·aded Babvlonia 2000
vears B.(.
1he 1hamudites were people who li·ed in houses car·ed in the

, George Sale`s translation oí the Koran. preliminarv Discourse.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
rock. 1he ruins oí these habitations are described in Sir lenrv Lavard`s Larlv
1ra·els`. 1he tribe oí Amalik rendered itselí so poweríul that beíore the time
oí the Prophet Joseph it conquered the middle oí Lower Lgvpt and íurnished
se·eral oí her Kings. known to historv as the Shepherd Kings.`
Aíter thev
had possessed the throne oí Lgvpt íor some generations. thev were expelled bv
the inhabitants and íinallv were destroved utterlv bv the Israelites.

1he Arabs oí todav are descended írom two stocks Kahtan Biblical Joktan,.
son oí Lber and Adnan. descended in a direct line írom Ishmael. the son oí
Abraham and lagar. 1he íormer are considered as pure Arabs. the latter as
naturalized Arabs. 1he posteritv oí Ishmael had intermarried and settled among
the Kahtanic Arabs and had become amalgamated with them into one nation.
1he Arabians were íore some centuries go·erned bv descendants oí Kahtan.
\arab one his sons. íounding the kingdoms oí \emen in the south and Jorham.
another that oí lidjaz in the north.
1he descendants oí \arab known as the kings oí limvar continued to reign
undisturbed o·er \emen until the time oí Alexander the Great. 1he íirst great
calamitv that beíell the tribes who settled there. was the inundation oí Arem
which happed about 340 B.(.. one oí the leading e·ents in the historv oí
Manv tribes had to abandon their dwellings on this occasion. and írom the
scattered tribes rose two other kingdoms. known as Ghassan and lira.
According to the storv oí the inundation reíerred to abo·e. Abd Shams.
surnamed Saba. one oí the íamous kings oí the tribe oí limvar ha·ing built the
citv oí Saba íirst named aíter him and aíterwards called Marat,. constructed a
·ast reser·oir to store up the water oí the mountain torrents íor the use oí
inhabitants in the vears oí drought. 1he dam was so íirmlv built that there
seemed no probabilitv oí its bursting. 1he water rose to the height oí twentv
íathoms and was kept in on e·erv side bv masonrv so solid that manv oí the
inhabitants oí the pro·ince had their houses built on its walls. Lach íamilv had
a certain portion oí this water distributed bv aqueducts. But at last according to
tradition,. God being highlv displeased at their great pride and insolence. and
resol·ing to humble and disperse them. caused a mightv ílood to break down
bv night and carrv awav the whole citv. with the neighbouring towns and

1he tribes which remained in \emen aíter this terrible occurrence still
continued under the rule oí the original princes till about ¯0 vears beíore the
birth oí Mohammed. when the King oí Lthiopia sent o·er íorces to assist the
(hristians oí \emen against the cruel persecution oí their King Zul Nowas. a
bigoted Jew. 1hev attacked him so closelv that he íorced his horse into the sea.
and so lost his liíe. and the countrv was then go·erned bv íour Lthiopian
Princes in turn till Seií Ibn Zi \azan. oí the tribe oí lumvar. ha·ing obtained
assistance írom Khosrou Anushirwan. King oí Persia. assistance which had
been denied him bv the Lmperor leraclius. reco·ered the throne and dro·e

, Sir. lenrv Lavard`s Larlv 1ra·els`.

, G. Sale.

, Abulíeda.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
out the Lthiopians. but was himselí slain bv some oí the enemv who had been
leít behind.
1he Persians appointed the succeeding princes till \emen íell into the hands
oí the Prophet Mohammed. to whom Bazan. the last oí them. submitted
embracing Islam at the same time.
1he kingdom oí the limvarites is said to
ha·e lasted 2000 vears.

It has alreadv been obser·ed that two kingdoms were íounded bv those who
leít their countrv on account oí the inundation oí Arem. 1hev were neither
írom Arabia properlv so called. One was the kingdom oí Ghassan. 1he
íounders oí this kingdom were oí the tribe oí Azd. settled in Svria Damascena.
near a spring called Ghassan. whence thev took their name. 1his kingdom.
according to Abulíeda. lasted 600 vears. until the Khaliía Omar subjugated the
whole oí Svria to the rule oí Islam.
1he other kingdom was that oí lira which was íounded in (haldea oí Iraq.
1his kingdom was better known as the kingdom oí Mondhirs oí the tribe oí
Lakhm. 1hese princes retained their throne except íor a short period during
which the Persians held the reins oí go·ernment, till the time oí the Khaliía.
Abu Bakr. when al Mondhir el Maghrour. the last oí them. lost his throne and
luíe in battle with Khaled Ibn el \aled the Muslim conqueror oí Svria. 1his
kingdom lasted 620 vears.
1he kingdom oí lidjaz as alreadv obser·ed was íounded bv Jorham. the
son oí Kahtan. and remained in the hands oí this íamilv until the time oí
Ismael. 1he latter married the daughter oí Modar. one oí the Jorhamite kings.
and she bore him twel·e sons. one oí whom. Kidar bv name. inherited the
crown írom his uncle. 1he descendants oí Kidar expelled the Jorhamite tribe
who. retiring to Johainah. was aíter ·arious íortunes at last destroved bv an
linallv the go·ernment oí lidjaz was shared bv the heads oí tribes
almost in the same wav as the Arabs oí the desert are go·erned at present.
Mecca was in the hands oí an aristocracv that controlled aííairs oí state until
the time oí the Prophet Mohammed. to whose tribe the custodv oí the íamous
pantheon oí Kaaba was transíerred.
1hus ha·e the Arabs preser·ed their libertv and independence. oí which íew
nations can show so glorious and unbroken a record. e·en írom the ·erv
Deluge: íor though great armies ha·e been sent against them. all attempts to
subdue them ha·e íailed.
Neither the Assvrian nor the Median Lmpires e·er íound a íooting in
Arabia. and the Persian rulers ne·er succeeded in making her tributarv and were
so íar írom being her masters that (ombvses. on his expedition against Lgvpt.
was obliged to ask permission to pass through her territories.
\hen Alexander the Great conquered Lgvpt. the Arabians held him in so
little awe that alone oí all the neighbouring nations. sent no ambassadors to
him at anv time. 1his want oí respect and the desire oí possessing so rich a
countrv. made him íorm a design against it. and had he not died beíore he

, Ld. Pocock.

, Pocock. p. ¯4

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
could put it into execution. this people might possible ha·e con·inced him that
he was not in·incible.

T Th he ei ir r R Re el li ig gi io on n
he religion oí the Arabs beíore Islam was in the main gross idolatrv.
the Sabian religion or idolatrv being the most widelv extended among
the whole nation. though there were also considerable numbers oí (hristians.
Jews and Magians among them. 1he Sabians belie·ed in God howe·er. thev
worshipped also stars and planets and angels as well as images: thev honoured
them as deities and thev begged íor their intercession with God. 1hev did not
consider the idols to be direct agents. though thev oííered sacriíices and
oííerings to them. as well as to God. who was oíten put oíí with the lesser
portion. 1hus when thev planted íruit trees. or sowed a íield. thev di·ided their
culti·ation bv a line into two parts. setting aside one part íor their idols and the
other íor God: ií anv oí the íruits happened to íall írom the idols` parts. into
God`s thev made restitution. but ií írom God`s part into the idols` thev made
no restitution. Also when thev watered the idol`s land. ií the water broke o·er
the channels made íor that purpose. and ran on God`s part. thev dammed it up
again. but ií the water ran into the idol`s part thev let it run on. saving thev the
idols, wanted what was God`s but he wanted nothing. In the same manner. ií
the oííering designed íor God happened to be better than that designed íor the
idols. thev made an exchange. but not otherwise. It was írom this gross idolatrv
or worship oí iníerior deities or the companions oí God` as the Arabs used to
call them. that the Prophet Mohammed reclaimed his nation bv establishing
among them the undi·ided worship oí the true God.

1here were seen celebrated temples. dedicated to the se·en planets. adored
bv the whole nation. though each tribe had chosen one planet as the peculiar
object oí its worship. 1he tribe oí limvar worshipped in general the sun. the
tribe oí Misam the Bull`s eve the tribes oí Lakhm and Joham. Jupiter. the tribe
oí Keis. Sirius or the Dog star. that oí Assad. Mercurv. the tribe oí 1av
worshipped (anopus. while the temple oí Mecca was dedicated to Sturn. lor
the worship oí angels and intelligences there were other celebrated. peculiar
idols. ten oí which are mentioned in the Koran: thev are: Al Lat. Al-Uzza and
Manata which were called Goddesses` and Daughters oí God. Al Lat was the
idol oí the tribe oí 1hakií. Al-Uzza was the deitv oí Ghatían: Manata was the
ía·ourite idol oí Kuzaah and luzail. 1here were two other celebrate idols.
namelv Al Jibt and 1aghout which are also reíerred to in the Koran. 1hev were
oí the chieí idols oí the tribe oí Koreish. Special mention is also made in the
Koran oí íi·e idols. namelv \add. Suwaa. \agoutha. \auka and Nassra. 1hese
were common idols among the pagan Arabians besides the idols reíerred to
abo·e the Arabs worshipped a great number oí other. Almost e·erv
housekeeper had his household god. 1here was a íamous idol called lobbal.
which was supposed bv the Arabs to supplv them with rain. a ·erv important
consideration in their drv land. 1hereíore. it was an object oí common worship

, G. Sale.

, G. Sale.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
among them. It had bv accident lost a hand. which the Koreish repaired with
one oí gold. A great number oí idols were no more than large rude stones. the
worship oí which was íirst introduced bv the prosperitv oí Ishmael: íor when
thev increased in number and the territorv oí Mecca grew too narrow íor them.
large numbers oí them emigrated to other localities. It was usual íor them on
such emigrations to take with them some oí the stones oí the re·ered lolv
Land oí Mecca. and to set them up in their new abodes and to pav them
de·otion. But this de·otion ended at last in rank idolatrv: the Ishmaelites
íorgetting the religion oí their íathers so íar as to pav di·ine worship to rude
pieces oí stone. As to the worship oí the stars. the Arabs might be easilv led
into it írom their obser·ing the changes oí weather happening at the rising and
setting oí certain oí them which aíter a long course oí experience induced them
to ascribe a di·ine power to those stars. and to think themsel·es indebted to
them íor their rain: thev used to sav that their rain came írom such or such a
star. 1he Koran particularlv takes notices oí this superstition.
Magian religion or íire-worship. was introduced bv the Persian Zoroastrians
through their írequent intercourse with the Arabs.
Judaism was introduced among the idolatrous Arabs bv the Jews who íled in
great numbers into Arabia írom the íearíul destruction oí their countrv bv the
Romans. 1hev made proselvtes among se·eral tribes and in time became ·erv
poweríul. and possessed oí se·eral towns and íortresses in the Arabian
Peninsula. But o·er a centurv at least beíore. the Jewish religion was not
unknown to the Arabs. Abu (arb Assab who was king oí \emen about ¯00
vears beíore Islam. is said to ha·e introduced Judaism among the idolatrous
limvarties. Some oí his successors also embraced the same religion. one oí
whom. \ousseí. surnamed Zul Nowas. was remarkable íor his zeal and terrible
persecution oí all who would not turn Jew. putting them to death bv ·arious
tortures. the most common oí which was throwing them into a glowing pit oí
íire whence he acquired the sinister title oí Lord oí the Pit`. 1his persecution
is also reíerred to in the Koran.

(hristianitv had likewise made good progress among the Arabs beíore
Islam. 1he persecutions and disorders which darkened the eastern church soon
aíter the beginning oí the third centurv. obliged great numbers oí (hristians to
seek shelter in Arabia. that countrv oí libertv. 1hese were íor the most part oí
the Jacobite communitv. a sect that was widelv distributed throughout Lgvpt.
Arabia and Mesopotamia.
1he abo·e mentioned were the principal religions that pre·ailed among the
Arabs. though the chieí religion was gross idolatrv. Some oí the pagan Arabs
belie·ed neither in a creation oí Di·ine origin nor in a resurrection. attributing
the existence oí things and their dissolution to nature.
Some belie·ed that when the soul separated itselí írom the bodv. it took the
shape oí a bird. called lama` or Sada`. Ií the deceased person was the ·ictim
oí ·iolent death. the bird remained ho·ering o·er the gra·e crving Iskouni` i.e..
Gi·e me drink`. till his death was a·enged and then it ílew awav. 1his belieí
was íorbidden bv the Koran. Belieí in Spirits and lairies and Oracles rendered
bv their idols whom thev consulted bv means oí headless arrows which thev

, Koran (hap. 85

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
called Azlam` was uni·ersal. Lach tribe had its particular idols and particular
temples. 1he hierophants attending these temples recei·ed rich oííerings írom
the de·otees and oíten there arose sanguinarv conílicts among the worshippers
oí diííerent temples. But the celebrated temple oí the Kaaba at Mecca. the
(hapel oí Abraham and Ishmael. was considered sacred bv all. 1he Jews and
Sabians sent oííerings there. 1he custodv oí the Kaaba was the object oí great
jealousv among the tribes. as it coníerred on the custodians the most
honourable íunctions and pri·ileges. At the time oí the birth oí Mohammed
the custodv oí the Kaaba was in the hands oí his íamilv. the lashimites.
As íor the (hristian religion at the ad·ent oí Mohammed. though it
ílourished and had a large number oí íollowers among the Arabs. its true and
pure doctrines were exceedinglv and abominablv corrupted.
Some oí the
(hristians belie·ed the soul died with the bodv. and was to be raised again with
it on the last dav. Others substituted the Virgin Marv íor God or worshipped
her as such. 1hese who belie·ed in the di·initv oí the Virgin Marv were named
the Mariamites.
1his conception is condemned in the Koran.
Re·iewing the religious aspect oí the Arabs beíore Islam. Sir \illiam Muir
savs: Aíter íi·e centuries oí (hristian L·angelization. we can point to put a
sprinkling here and there oí (hristians: the Bau larith oí Najran. the Banu
laniía oí 1amama. some oí Banu 1av oí 1avma and hardlv anv more. Judaism.
·astlv more poweríul had exhibited a spasmodic eííort oí proselvtism under
Zul Nowas. but as an acti·e and con·erting agent. the Jewish íaith was no
longer operati·e. In íine. ·iewed thus in a religious aspect. the suríace oí Arabia
had been now and then gentlv rippled bv the íeeble eííorts oí (hristianitv. the
sterner iníluences oí Judaism had been occasionallv ·isible in deeper and more
troubled current írom e·erv quarter with an unbroken and unebbing surge
towards the Kaaba. ga·e ample e·idence that the íaith and worship oí Mecca
held the Arab mind in a thralldom ·igorous and undisputed.

T Th he ei ir r C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r a an nd d M Ma an nn ne er rs s
rabia during the pre-Islamic davs was in ·erv low state oí ci·ilisation.
Awíul superstition and idolatrv pre·ailed e·ervwhere. Gross
licentiousness was indulged in. grimes oí iníanticide and human sacriíices were
common. 1he ·arious tribes were in constant and perpetual waríare with each
1he absence oí anv stable go·ernment had led to the pre·alence oí
anarchism and criminal excesses. 1he whole peninsula was in a pitiíul state sí
chaos. sin. impuritv and wickedness.
1he sacred the chapel oí antiquitv erected
bv their ancestor Abraham and Ishmael íor the worship oí the One God. the
Almightv. was con·erted into a temple containing o·er three hundred idols
representing superstitious gods and goddesses. 1he great and di·ine religions.
which the Prophets oí vore had brought down írom lea·en. had lost their

, Sale. Prelim. Disc.

, Lpiphon.

, Sir \illiam Muir: 1he Liíe oí Mohammad. Vol. 1. int.

, G. Sale.

, Abu leda. Ibn Athir. Sale. Muir etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

originalitv íidelitv and puritv. Opposition. persecution and e·en brutal íorce
were e·erv dav`s occurrences. It seems that the reign oí Islam alone with its
teachings and morals was re·ealed at a time. when need íor guidance was most
íelt. as will be dealt with later in this book.

T Th he ei ir r A Ac cc co om mp pl li is sh hm me en nt ts s
he accomplishments the Arabs prided themsel·es on. were:-
1, Lloquence and a períect skill in their own tongue. 2, Lxpertness in
the use oí arms and horsemanship. and 3, lospitalitv. 1he íirst thev exercised
themsel·es in bv composing orations and poems. 1heir orations were oí two
sorts. metrical and prosaic. the one being compared to pearls strung. and the
other to loose ones. 1hev endea·oured to excel in both and whoe·er was able.
in an assemblv. to persuade the people to a great enterprise. or dissuade them
írom a dangerous one or ga·e them other wholesome ad·ice. was honoured
with the title oí Khateeb` or orator poetrv was held in such great esteem
among them that was a great accomplishment and a prooí oí ingenious
extraction. to be able to express oneselí in ·erse with ease and elegance. on anv
extraordinarv occurrence and. e·en in their common discourse. thev made
írequent applications to celebrated passages oí their íamous poets. In their
poems were preser·ed the historical e·ents. the rights oí tribes. the memorv oí
great actions and the progress oí their language. íor which reason an excellent
poet reílected so great an honour on his tribe that. as soon as anvone began to
be admired íor his períormances oí this kind in a tribe. the other tribes sent
publiclv to congratulate it on the occasion. and his own tribe made
entertainments at which the women assisted. dressed in their nuptial
ornaments. singing to the sound oí tambourines the happiness oí their tribe
who had now one to protect their honour. to preser·e their genealogies and the
puritv oí their language. and to transmit their actions to posteritv: íor this was
all períormed bv their poems. 1hus thev were solelv indebted to their poems
íor knowledge and instructions. moral and economical. and to them thev had
recourse. as to an oracle. in all doubts and diííerences. No wonder. then. that a
public congratulation was made on this account. which honour thev vet were so
íar írom making cheap that thev ne·er did it. except on one oí these three
occasions which were reckoned great points oí íelicitv. to wit on the birth oí a
bov. the rise oí a poet and the íoal oí a she-camel oí a generous breed.
1o keep up emulation among their poets. the tribes had once a vear a
general assemblv at Okaaz. a place íamous on that account and where thev held
a weeklv íair. 1his annual meeting lasted a whole month. during which time
thev emploved themsel·es not onlv in trading. but also in repeating their
poetical compositions. contending and ·ving with each other íor the prize. 1he
poems that were judged to excel. were kept in their king`s treasuries and hung
on the Kaaba as were the se·en celebrated poems called Al-Moaallacat`.

As to the exercise oí arms and horseman-ship the Arabs were in a manner
obliged to practice and encourage this bv reason oí the independence oí their

, Pocock.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
tribes. whose írequent quarrels made wars almost continual: and thev usuallv
ended their disputes in pitched battle.

lospitalitv was so habitual to the Arabs. and so much esteemed. that the
examples oí this ·irtue among them exceed whate·er can be cited among other
nations. Nor were the Arabs less addicted to liberalitv aíter the coming oí their
Prophet than their ancestors had been.
Manv remarkable instances oí this
commendable qualitv among them can be quoted. Sale in his Preliminarv
discourse. aííixed to his 1ranslation oí the Koran has contented himselí with
reproducing the íollowing occurrence: 1hree men were disputing in the (ourt
oí the Kaaba. as to which was the most liberal person among the Arabs. One
ga·e the preíerence to Abdallah. the son oí Jaaíar. the uncle oí the Prophet
Mohammed: another to Kais Lbn Obadah. and the third ga·e it to Arabah. oí
the tribe oí Aws. Aíter much debate. one that was present. to end the dispute.
proposed that each oí them should go to his íriend and ask him íor assistance
that thev might see what each one ga·e. and íorm a judgment accordinglv. 1his
was agreed to. and Abdallah`s champion. going to him. íound him with his íoot
in the stirrup. just mounting his camel íor a journev. and thus accosted him:
Son oí the uncle oí the Apostle oí God. I am tra·eling and in necessitv.` upon
which Abdallah alighted and bade him take the camel. with all that was upon it.
but desired him not to part with a sword which happened to be íixed to the
saddle. because it had belonged to Ali. the son oí Abu-1alib. So he took the
camel and íound on it some ·ests oí silk and 4000 pieces oí gold: but the thing
oí greatest ·alue was the sword. 1he second went to Kais Lbn Saad. \hose
ser·ant told him. that his master was asleep. and desired to know his business.
1he íriend answered that he came to ask kais`s assistance. being in want on the
road. \hereupon. the ser·ant said that he had rather supplv his necessitv than
wake his master. and ga·e him a purse oí ¯000 pieces oí gold. assuring him that
it was all the monev then in the house. le also directed him to go to those who
had the charge oí the camels with a certain token. a camel and a sla·e and
return home with them. \hen Kais awoke and his ser·ant iníormed him oí
what he had done. he ga·e him his íreedom and asked him. whv he did not call
him· lor`. said he. I would ha·e gi·en him more. 1he third man went to
Arabah and met him coming out oí his house to go to pravers and leaning on
two sal·es. because his evesight íailed him. 1he íriend no sooner made known
his case than Arabah let go the sal·es. and. clapping his hands together. loudlv
lamented his misíortune in ha·ing no monev. but desired him to take the two
sla·es which the man reíuse to do. till Arabah protested. that ií he did not
accept them. he would gi·e them their íreedom and. lea·ing the sla·es. groped
his wav along bv the wall. On the return oí the disputants. judgment was
unanimouslv. and with great justice gi·en bv all who where present. that Arabah
was the most generous oí the three.
Nor were these the onlv good qualities oí the Arabs. 1hev are commended
bv ancient historians íor being most exact to their world
and íor being
respectíul to their senior. and thev ha·e alwavs been celebrated íor their

, Idem.

, Sale. Prelim. Disc.

, lerodotus.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
quickness oí apprehension and the ·i·acitv oí their wit. especiallv those the

T Th he e B Br ra an nc ch he es s o of f K Kn no ow wl le ed dg ge e
C Cu ul lt ti iv va at te ed d b by y t th he e A Ar ra ab bs s B Be ef fo or re e
I Is sl la am m
he chieí branches oí knowledge the Arabs culti·ated beíore the rise oí
Islam. were their historv and the genealogical descent oí íamilies such a
knowledge oí the stars as to be able to íoretell the changes oí weather: and the
interpretation oí dreams.

1hev used to pride themsel·es ·erv much on the nobilitv oí their íamilies
and so manv disputes arose in respect oí this. that it is no wav surprising that
took great pains in recording the genealogies oí their íamilies.
1heir knowledge oí the stars was procured through long experience and not
írom regular studv oí astronomv.
1he stars or planets. bv which thev most
usuallv íorecast the weather. were called Al-Anwaa` or the houses oí the
moon`. 1hev are 28 in number and di·ide the Zodiac into as manv parts.
through one oí which the moon passes e·erv night. As some oí them set in the
morning. other rise opposite to them. which happens e·erv thirteenth night and
írom their rising and setting. the Arabs bv long experience obser·ed. what
change happened in the air. and at length came to ascribe to them di·ine
power. saving that their rain came írom such or such a star. 1his expression the
Prophet condemned. and he absolutelv íorbade them to use it in the old sense.
unless thev meant no more bv it then that God has so ordained that. when the
moon was in such or such a house` or at the setting or rising oí such a star. it
should rain or be windv. or be hot or cold.

1he earlv Arabs. thereíore. seem to ha·e made no íurther progress in
astronomv. although thev aíterwards culti·ated this science so successíullv that
thev were able to obser·e the iníluence oí stars on the weather. and to gi·e
them names: and it was onlv natural that thev should do this. when we consider
their pastoral mode oí liíe. spent íor the greater part under the open skv.
names thev ascribed to the stars. generallv were connected with cattle or ílocks
and thev were so nice in distinguishing them. that no language has so manv
names íor stars and hea·enlv bodies as Arabic. íor though thev ha·e since
borrowed the names oí se·eral constellations írom the Greeks. vet íar greater
numbers are oí their own íinding and much more ancient. particularlv those oí
the more conspicuous stars and those oí the lesser constellations which are
contained within the greater. and were not obser·ed or named bv the Greeks.

, D.lerberlot.

, Al Shahristani.

, Abul larag.

, G. Sale. Prelim. Disc.

, Ibid.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
T Th he e C Ci it ty y o of f M Me ec cc ca a
ecca is the chieí citv oí Arabia. It deri·es its wealth írom the
prodigious concourse oí people who assemble there vearlv as
pilgrims írom all parts oí the world where Islam ílourishes. Ad·antage is taken
oí this to hold a great íair íor kind oí merchandise. 1he possession oí the
temple oí Kaaba ga·e Mecca special sanctitv and predominance o·er all the
other cities oí the peninsula. 1he soil about Mecca is so barren that it produces
nothing but what grows in the desert. la·ing. thereíore. no corn or grain oí
their own growing. the Meccans are obliged to bring it írom other places. and
lashim. Mohammed`s great grandíather. then prince oí his tribe. in order to
secure adequate supplv oí pro·isions íor his tribe. appointed two cara·ans to
set out vearlv íor that purpose. the one in summer and the other in winter.
1hese cara·ans oí pur·evors are reíerred to in the Koran. 1his Mecca írom
the earliest time was the center. not onlv oí the religious associations oí pagan
Arabia. but also oí its commercial acti·itv.

During the period prior to the birth oí Mohammed. the go·ernment oí
Mecca was an oligarchv composed oí the leading members oí the house oí
Kossat. the Prophet`s ancestor. 1he go·erning bodv consisted oí ten senators
who were stvled Sheieís. 1hese decem·irs occupied the íirst place in the state.
and their oííices were hereditarv in ía·oure oí the eldest member oí each
íamilv. 1heir íunctions were: 1, 1he guardianship oí the kevs oí the temple oí
the Kaaba. 2, 1he administration oí the water supplied bv the wells in Mecca
and its neighbourhood. 3, 1he ci·il and criminal magistracv. 4, 1he control oí
íoreign aííairs. 5, 1he custodv oí the standard under which the nation
marched against its enemies. 6, 1he administration oí the poor-tax deri·ed
írom the alms oí the nation and emploved in pro·iding íood íor the poor
pilgrims. ¯, 1he presidencv oí the national assemblv. 8, 1he guardianship oí
the council chamber which oííice coníerred upon its holders the right oí
con·oking the assemblv. 9, 1he administration oí the public íinances and 10,
1he guardianship oí the di·ining arrows. bv which the judgment oí the gods
and goddesses was obtained. At the same time. it was an established custom
that the oldest member exercised the greatest iníluence. and bore the little oí
chieí and lord par excellence. At the time oí the Prophet. his uncle Abbas was
the senior member oí these Senators.

ohammed. literallv. the highlv praised. is the chieí name oí the great
Arabian Prophet and íounder oí the religion oí Islam. wronglv called
aíter him Mohammedanism. le was born at Mecca. the chieí town oí Arabia.
in the vear 5¯0 A.D. le was the posthumous son oí Abdullah who belonged to
the íamilv oí lashim. the noblest íamilv oí the Koreish section oí the Arabian

, Saved Amir Alv. 1he Spirit oí Islam`.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
race. lis grandíather Muttalib who was directlv descended írom Ishmael held
the high oííice oí custodian oí the Kaaba. the common Pantheon oí pagan
Arabia and was ·irtual head oí the Mecca (ommonwealth.
1he birth oí Mohammed is stated to ha·e been attended bv manv
remarkable portents.

Beíore the child completed the 6
vear oí his age. his mother died and the
doublv orphaned Mohammed was under the charge oí his grandíather Abdul
Muttalib who took the most tender care oí him. But the old chieí died two
vears aíterwards. On his deathbed he coníided to his son Abu 1alib the charge
oí the orphan. \hen Mohammed was twel·e vears old. he accompanied his
uncle Abu 1alib on a mercantile journev to Svria and thev proceeded as íar as
Busra. 1he journev lasted íor some months. It was at Busra that the (hristian
monk Bahira met Mohammed and he is related to ha·e said to Abu 1alib
Return with this bov and guard him against the hatred oí the Jews. íor a great
career awaits with vour nephew.` Aíter this tra·el. the vouth oí Mohammed
seems to ha·e been passed une·entíullv. but all authorities agree in ascribing to
him such correctness oí manners and puritv oí morals as were rare among the
people oí Mecca. 1he íair character and the honourable bearing oí the
unobtrusi·e vouth won the approbation oí the citizens oí Mecca. and bv
common consent he recei·ed the title oí Al Amin`. the íaithíul.

In his earlv vears. Mohammed was not íree írom the cares oí liíe. le had to
watch the ílocks oí his uncle. who like the rest oí the lashimites. had lost the
greater part oí his riches. lrom vouth to manhood he led an almost solitarv liíe.
1he lawlessness. riíe among the Meccans. the sudden outbursts oí causeless
and sanguinarv quarrels among the tribes írequenting the íair oí Okaz the
Arabian Olvmpia,. the immoralitv and scepticism oí the Koreishites naturallv
caused íeelings oí pitv and sorrow in the heart oí the sensiti·e vouth. Such were
to him scenes oí social miserv and religious degradation characteristic oí a
depra·ed age.

\hen Mohammed was 25 vears old. he tra·eled once more to Svria as the
íactor oí a noble and rich Koreishite window named Khadija. and ha·ing
pro·ed himselí íaithíul in the commercial interests oí that ladv. was soon
rewarded with her hand in marriage. 1his marriage pro·ed íortunate and
singularlv happv. Khadija was much the senior oí her husband. but in spite oí
the disparitv oí age between them. the lo·ing heart oí a woman who was e·er
readv to console him in his despair and to keep ali·e within him the íeeble.
ílickering ílame oí hope when no man belie·ed in him- not e·en himselí and
the world appeared gloomv in his eves.

1ill he reached the 30
vear oí his age. Mohammed was almost a stranger to
the outside world. Since the death oí his grandíather. authoritv in Mecca was
di·ided among the ten senators who constituted the go·erning bodv oí the

, Ibn Athir. Ibn lisham etc.

, lugh`s Dictionarv oí Islam. pp. 368 - 369.

, lugh`s Dictionarv oí Islam

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Arabian (ommon-wealth. 1here was no such accord among them as to ensure
the saíetv oí indi·idual rights and propertv. 1hough íamilv relations aííorded
some degree oí protection to citizens. vet strangers were írequentlv exposed to
persecution and oppression. In manv cases thev were robbed. not onlv oí their
goods. but e·en oí their wi·es and daughters. At the instigation oí the íaithíul
Mohammed. an old league. called the lederation oí íudul`. i.e. ía·ours. was
re·i·ed with the object oí repressing lawlessness and deíending e·erv weak
indi·idual. whether Meccan or stranger. íree or sla·e. against anv wrong or
oppression. to which he might be the ·ictim. within the territories oí Mecca.

\hen Mohammad reached the 35
vear oí his age. he settled bv his
judgment a gra·e dispute. which almost threatened to plunge the whole oí
Arabia into a íresh series oí her oít- recurring wars. In rebuilding the sacred
temple oí the Kaaba. in 605 A.D.. the question arose as to who should ha·e the
honour oí raising the black stone. the most holv relic oí that temple. into its
proper place. Lach tribe claimed that honour. 1he senior citizen ad·ised the
disputants to accept íor their umpire in this diííicultv the man who would be
the íirst to enter írom a certain gate. 1he proposal was agreed upon. and the
íirst man who entered the gate. was Mohammad. 1he Ameen` Mohammed
ga·e them an ad·ice. which ser·ed to satisív all the contending parties. le
ordered the stone to be placed on a piece oí cloth. and each tribe to share the
honour oí liíting it up. bv taking hold oí a part oí the cloth. 1he stone was thus
deposited in its place. and the rebuilding oí the temple was completed without
íurther interruption.
It is related that. about this period. a certain Osman son
oí lowairith. supported bv Bvzantine hold. made an attempt to con·ert the
territorv oí ligaz into a Roman dependencv. but the attempt íailed. chieílv
through the instrumentalitv oí Mohammed.

1hese are nearlv all the public acts related bv historians. in which
Mohammed had taken part within the 15
vears aíter his marriage with
Khadija. As íor his pri·ate liíe he is described to ha·e been e·er helpíul to the
needv and the helpless. lis uncle Abu 1alib had íallen into distress through his
endea·ours to maintain the old position oí his íamilv. and Mohammed. being
rather rich at his time bv his alliance with Khadija. tried to discharge part oí the
debt oí gratitude and obligation which he owed to his uncle. bv undertaking the
bringing up and education oí his son Ali: and a vear later he adopted Akil.
another oí his uncle`s sons.

Khadija had born Mohammed three sons and íour daughters. all oí the
males died in childhood. but in lo·ing Ali he íound much consolation.
About this time Mohammed set a good example oí humanitv which created
a salutarv eííect upon his people. lis wiíe Khadija. to gratiív her husband.
made him a present oí a voung sla·e. named Zaid son oí laritha` who had
been brought as a capti·e to Mecca and sold to Khadija. \hen laritha heard
that Mohammed possessed Zaid. he came to Mecca and oííered a large sum íor

, Sale

, Ibid.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
his ransom. whereupon Mohammed said. Let Zaid come hither. and ií he
chooses to go with vou` addressing the bov`s íather. take him without ransom:
but ií it be his choice to stav with me. whv should I not keep him· And Zaid.
being brought into Mohammed`s presence. declared that he would stav with his
master who treated him. as ií he were his onlv son. Mohammed no sooner
heard this. than he took Zaid bv the hand and led him to the black stone oí
Kaaba where he public adopted him as his son and constituted him his heir. to
which the íather acquiesced. and he then returned home well satisíied.
lenceíorward Zaid was called the son oí Mohammed.

Mohammed was now approaching his 40
vear and his mind was e·er
engaged in proíound contemplation and reílection. Beíore him lav his countrv.
bleeding and torn bv íratricidal wars and intolerable dissensions: his people.
sunk in barbarism. addicted to the obser·ation oí rites and superstitions. were.
with all their desert ·irtues. lawless and cruel. lis two ·isits to Svria had opened
to him a scene oí unutterable moral and social desolation. ri·al creeds and sects
tearing each other to pieces. wrangling o·er the bodv oí the God thev
pretended to worship carrving their hatred to the ·allevs and deserts oí lidjaz
and rending the townships oí Arabia with their quarrels and bitterness.

ir \illiam Muir. in his Liíe oí Mahomet` remarks: 1he idolatrv and moral
debasement oí his people. pressed hea·ilv upon him and the dim and
imperíect shadows oí Judaism and (hristianitv excited doubts without
satisíving them: and his mind was perplexed with uncertaintv as to what was the
true religion.

Mohammed had been wont. íor vears aíter his marriage. to seclude himselí
in a ca·e in Mount lira. a íew miles írom Mecca. 1o his ca·e he used to betake
himselí íor praver and meditation. sometimes alone and at others with his
íamilv. 1here he oíten spent whole nights in deep thought and proíound
communion with the unseen. vet all-per·ading God oí Uni·erse. It was during
one oí those retirements and in the still hours oí the night. when no human
svmpathv was near. that Mohammed belie·ed that an angel came to him. to tell
him. that he was the Apostle oí God. sent to reclaim a íallen people to the
knowledge and ser·ice oí their God.

Renowned compliers oí authentic traditions oí Islam agree in the íallowing
account oí the íirst re·elations recei·ed bv the Prophet:
It was in true dreams that Mohammed recei·ed the íirst re·elations. le
ne·er dreamt. but it came to pass as regularlv as the dawn oí the dav.`

, Sale.

, Saved Ameer Ali.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Aíter this Mohammed continued to seclude himselí in the ca·e oí Mount
lira and to worship there dav and night. le would. whene·er he wished.
return to his íamilv at Mecca and then go back again. taking with him the
necessaries oí liíe. 1hus he continued to return to Khadija. írom time to time.
until one dav the re·elation came down to him and the angel appeared to him
and said Read`. but as Mohammed was an illiterate man. ha·ing ne·er
recei·ed anv instruction in reading or writing he said to the Angel: I am not a
reader`. 1he Angel took hold oí him and squeezed him as much as he could
bear. and then said again: Read`: and the Prophet said. I am not a reader.`
1hen the Angel again seized the Prophet and squeezed him íor the third time
and said: Read. in the name oí thv Lord who created: created man oí
congealed blood. Read thou íor thv Lord is the most Beneíicent. who hath
taught the use oí the pen. who taught man that which he knoweth not.` 1hen
the Prophet repeated the words with a trembling heart. And he returns to
Khadija namelv írom Mount lira, and said: \rap me up. wrap me up`. And
he was wrapped up in a garment until his íear was dispelled. And he told
Khadija what had occurred. and that he was becoming either a soothsaver or
one smitten with madness. She replied: God íorbid. le will surelv not let such
a thing happen. lor vou speak the truth. vou are íaithíul in trust. vou bear the
aíílictions oí the people. vou spend in good works what vou gain in trade. vou
are hospitable and vou assist vour íellowmen. la·e vou seen aught terrible·`
Mohammed replied: \es`. And told her what he had seen. \hereupon
Khadija said Rejoice. O dear husband and be cheeríul. le. in \hose hands
stands Khadija`s liíe. bears witness to the truth oí this íact. that thou wilt be the
prophet to this people. 1hen she arose and went to her cousin \araqa. son oí
Nouíal. who was old and blind and who knew the scriptures oí the Jews and
(hristians. and is stated to ha·e translated them into Arabic. \hen she told
him oí what she had heard. he cried out: lolv! lolv! lolv! Verilv. this is the
Namus the lolv Spirit, who came to Moses. le will be the prophet oí his
people. 1ell him this and bid him be oí bra·e heart`. And when the two men
met subsequentlv in the street. the blind old student oí the Jewish and (hristian
Scriptures spoke oí his íaith and trust. I swear bv lim. in \hose hand
\araga`s liíe is.` said the old man. God has chosen thee to be the prophet oí
this people. 1hev will call thee a liar. thev will persecute thee. thev will banish
thee. and thev will íight against thee. Oh. that I could li·e to those davs. I
would íight íor thee. And he kissed him on his íorehead.

1he íirst ·ision was íollowed bv a considerable period. during which
Mohammed suííered much mental depression. During this period. the
commentators state. the Prophet was seized with so much melancholv that he
wished to throw himselí when the Angel oí God recalled him to his dutv to
mankind. 1he Angel spoke to the grie·ed heart oí hope and trust. oí the bright
íuture. when he should see the people oí the earth crowding into the one true
íaith. lis destinv was uníolded to him when. wrapt in proíound meditation.
melancholv and sad. he íelt himselí called bv a ·oice írom hea·en to arise and
preach. O thou who art wrapped in thv mantle. rise and warn and gloriív thv

, Ibn lisham. Ibn Ll Athir. Mishkat-ul-Massabeeh etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
And he arose and engaged himselí in the work to which he was called.
Khadija was the íirst to accept his mission. She was to belie·e in the re·elation.
to abandon the idolatrv oí her people and to join him in puritv oí heart in
oííering up pravers to the Almightv God.

t the beginning oí his mission. Mohammed. hereinaíter called the
Prophet,. opened his soul onlv to those who were attached to him and
tried to íree them írom the gross practices oí their íoreíathers. Aíter Khadija.
Ali his cousin. was the next disciple. 1he Prophet used oíten to go into the
desert around Mecca with his wiíe and voung cousin. that thev might together
oííer their heart-íelt thanks to the God oí all nations íor lis maniíold
blessings. Once thev were surprised bv Abu 1alib. the íather oí Ali. And he said
to the Prophet: O son oí mv brother. what is this religion thou art íollowing·`
It is the religion oí God. oí lis Angels. oí lis Apostles and our ancestor
Abraham.` answered the Prophet. God has sent me to lis ser·ants. to direct
them towards the truth and thou. O mv uncle. art the most worthv oí all. It is
meet that I should thus call upon thee and it is meet that thou shouldst accept
the truth and help in spreading it.` Son oí mv brother.` replied Abu 1alib. I
cannot abjure the religion oí mv íathers: but bv the Supreme God. whilst I am
ali·e. non shall dare to injure thee.` 1hen turning towards Ali. his son. the
·enerable chieí asked what religion was his. O íather.` answered Ali. I
belie·ed in God and lis Prophet and go with him.` \ell mv son` said Abu
1alib. le will not call thee to aught. sa·e what is good. whereíore thou art íree
to cling to him.`

Aíter Ali Zaid. Mohammed`s adopted son. become a con·ert to the new
íaith. le was íollowed bv Abu Bakr. a leading member oí the Koreish tribe and
an honest wealthv merchant who enjoved great consideration among his
compatriots. le was but two vears vounger than the Prophet. lis adoption oí
the new íaith was oí great moral eííect. Soon aíter. íi·e notables presented
themsel·es beíore the Prophet and accepted Islam. Se·eral proselvtes also came
írom lower classes oí the Arabs to adopt the new religion. lor three wearv long
vears. the Prophet laboured ·erv quietlv to deli·er his people írom the worship
oí idols. Polvtheism was deeplv rooted among the people. It oííered attractions.
which the new íaith in its puritv did not possess. 1he Korieshites had personal
material interests in the old worship: and their prestige was dependent upon its
maintenance: the Prophet had to control with the idolatrous worship oí its
íollowers and to oppose the ruling oligarchv. which go·erned its destinies.

Aíter three vears oí constant but quiet struggle. onlv thirtv íollowers were
secured. An important change now occurred in the relations oí the Prophet
with the citizens oí Mecca. lis compatriots had begun to doubt his sanitv.
thought him crazv or possessed bv an e·il spirit. litherto he had preached

, Koran ¯4: 1-3

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
quietlv and unobtrusi·elv. le now determined to appeal publiclv to the
Meccans to abandon their idolatrv. lor this he arranged a gathering on a
neighbouring hill. and there spoke to them oí their íollv in the sight oí God. in
oííering worship to pieces oí stone which thev called their gods. le in·ited
them to abandon their old impious worship and adopt the íaith oí tore and trvtb
and pvrity. le warned them oí the íate that had o·ertaken in the past. races
who had not heeded the preaching oí íormer prophets. But the gathering had
departed without listening to the warning gi·en to them bv the Prophet. la·ing
thus íailed to induce his íellow-citizens to listen to him. he turned his attention
to the strangers arri·ing at the citv on commerce or pilgrimage. But the
Koreishites made attempts to írustrate his eííorts. 1hev hastened themsel·es to
íirst meet the strangers on the diííerent routes. to warn them against holding
anv communication with the Prophet whom thev represented as a dangerous
magician. \hen the pilgrims or traders returned to their homes. thev carried
with them the news oí the ad·ent oí the bold preacher who was in·iting the
Arabians loudlv - at the risk oí his own liíe - to abandon the worship oí their
dear idols. Now the Prophet and his íollowers became subject to some
persecution and indignitv. 1he hostile Koreishites pre·ented the Prophet írom
oííering his pravers at the sacred temple oí the Kaaba: thev pursued him
where·er he went: thev co·ered him and his disciples with dirt and íilth. when
engaged in their de·otions. 1hev scattered thorns in the places which he
írequented íor de·otion and meditation. Amidst all these trials the Prophet did
not wa·er. le was íull oí coníidence in his mission. On se·eral occasions he
was put in imminent danger oí losing his liíe.
At this time lamza. the
voungest son oí Abdul Muttalib adopted Islam. lamza was a man oí
distinguished bra·erv. an intrepid warrior. generous and true. whose heroism
earned íor him the title oí the Lion oí God.` le became a de·oted adherent
oí Islam and e·entuallv laid down his liíe in the cause.

1he Prophet continued his preachings to the Arabs in a most gentle and
reasonable manner. le called the nation. so accustomed to iniquitv and wrong
doings. to abandon their abominations. In burning words. which excited the
hearts oí his hearers. he warned them oí the punishment. which God had
inílicted upon the ancient tribes oí Aad and 1hamud
who obstinatelv
disobeved the teachings oí lis messengers to them. le adjured them bv the
wonderíul sights oí nature. bv the noon dav brightness. bv the night when it
spreads her ·eil. bv the dav when it appears in glorv. to listen to his warning
beíore a similar destruction beíell them. le spoke to the dav oí reckoning.
when their deeds in this world shall be weighed beíore the Lternal Judge. when
the children who had been buried ali·e shall be asked. íor what crime thev were
put to death.

, Sir \illiam Muir`s Liíe oí Muhammed.

, Vide Book I oí this Volume

, It was the (ustom oí heathen Arabs to burv their children ali·e írom íear oí want .
1his custom was íorbidden bv the Koran : 1¯ :33.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

As the number oí belie·ers increased and the cause oí the Prophet was
strengthened bv the con·ersion oí manv poweríul citizens. the Prophet`s
preaching aroused a serious re·olutionarv mo·ement. le condemned the idols
the Arabs worshipped and taught the unitv oí God. 1he Koreishites were now
alarmed. 1heir power and prestige were at stake. 1hev were the custodians oí
the idols. which the Prophet had threatened to destrov: thev were the ministers
oí the worship which he denounced: in íact their existence and li·ing whollv
depended upon the maintenance oí the old institutions. Again the tone oí the
Prophet in his teachings was intenselv aevocratic. le taught that in the sight oí
his Lord all beings were equal. the onlv distinction. recongnised among them
being the weight oí their pietv.
1he Koreishites would ha·e non-oí this
le·eling oí distinctions. as it reílected upon their long inherited pri·ileges.
Accordinglv. thev organized a svstem oí persecution in order to suppress the
mo·ement beíore it became íirmlv established. 1hev decided that each íamilv
should take upon itselí the task oí stamping out the new íaith on the spot. Lach
household tortured its own members or adherents or sla·es who were
supposed to ha·e connected themsel·es with the new religion. \ith the
exception oí the Prophet who was protected bv Abu 1alib and his kinsmen.
Abu Bakr and a íew others who were either distinguished bv their rank or
possessed some iníluence among the Koreishites. all other proselvtes were
subjected to diííerent sorts oí torture. Some oí them were thrown into prison.
star·ed and then ílogged. 1he hill oí Ramada the place called Bata became thus
scenes oí cruel torture.

One dav the Koreishites sought to approach the Prophet to induce him to
discontinue his teachings oí the new religion. which had sown discord among
their people. Otba. son oí Rabia. was delegated to see the Prophet and speak to
him. O son oí mv brother.` said Otba on meeting the Prophet. \ou are
distinguished bv vour qualities: vet vou ha·e sown discord among our people
and cast dissension in our íamilies: vou denounced our gods and goddesses and
vou charge our ancestors with impietv. Now we are come to make a
proposition to vou and ask vou to think well beíore vou reject it.` I am
listening to vou. O íather oí \alid` said the Prophet. O son oí mv brother`.
began Otba. Ií bv this aííair vou intend to acquire riches. honour and dignitv.
we are willing to collect íor vou a íortune larger than is possessed bv anv one oí
us: we shall make vou our chieí and will do naught without vou: ií vou desire
dominion we shall make vou our king. and ií the demon which possesses vou
cannot be subdued. we will bring vou doctors and gi·e them riches till thev cure
vou. \hen Otba had íinished his discourse. the Prophet said: Now listen to
me. O íather oí \alid.` I listen.` he replied. 1he Prophet recited to him the
íirst eight ·erses oí the Koran which mav be interpreted as íollows: In the
name oí Allah. the Beneíicent. the Merciíul: lere is a re·elation írom the
Merciíul. a book. the ·erses whereoí are distinctlv: an Arabic Koran. íor the
instruction oí a people who understand. it is a herald oí good tidings and a
\arner. but most oí those who hear it. turn aside. so that thev hear not. and

, Koran : 49 : 13.

, Sir \illiam Muir.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
thev sav to the Prophet,: our hearts are ·eiled írom the doctrine to which thou
in·itest us: and there is a hea·iness in our ears and a curtain hangs between us
and thee: whereíore act thou as thou shalt think íit. íor we shall act according
to our own sentiments. Sav. ·erilv I am onlv a mortal like vou. It is re·ealed
unto me. that vour God is One God: thereíore. take the right wav to lim. and
ask lis íorgi·eness. and woe be to the idolaters. who gi·e not the appointed
alms and belie·e not in the liíe to come.
But as to those who belie·e and do
good. thev shall recei·e an e·erlasting reward.`

\hen the Prophet had íinished his recitation. he said to Otba: 1his is mv
replv to vou proposition: now take what course vou íind best.`

Persecution bv the Koreishites grew íiercer and íiercer e·erv dav and the
suííerings oí the Prophet`s disciples became unbearable. le had heard oí the
righteousness. tolerance and hospitalitv oí the neighbouring (hristian king oí
Abvssiania. le recommended such oí his disciples who were without
protection. to seek reíuge in the kingdom oí that pious king. Al Nagashi
Negus,. Some oí the unprotected adherents oí Islam. to the number oí 15.
promptlv a·ailed themsel·es oí the ad·ice and sailed to Abvssinia. lere thev
met with a ·erv kind reception írom the Negus. 1his is called the íirst ílight in
the historv oí Islam and occurred in the 5
vear oí the Prophet Mohammed`s
mission 615 A.(,. 1hese emigrants were soon íollowed bv manv more oí their
íellow suííerers. until the number reached eightv-three men and eighteen

1he hostile Koreishites. íurious at the escape oí their ·ictims. sent deputies
to the king oí Abvssinia to request him to deli·er the reíugees. that thev might
be put to death. as thev had abjured their old religion and embraced a new one.
1he king summoned the poor íugiti·es and enquired oí them what was the
religion. which thev had adopted. in preíerence to their old íaith. Jaaíar son oí
Abv 1alib and brother oí Ali acted as spokesman íor the exiles. le spoke thus:
O king. we were plunged in the depth oí ignorance and barbarism. we adored
idols. we li·ed in unchastelv. we ate dead bodies and we spoke abominations:
we disregarded e·erv íeeling oí humanitv and anv sense oí dutv towards our
neighbours. and we knew no law. but that oí the strong. when God raised
among us a man. oí whose birth. truthíulness. honestv and puritv we were
aware. and he called us to proíess the unitv oí God and taught us to associated
nothing with him: he íorbade us the worship oí idols and enjoined us to speak
the truth. to be íaithíul to our trusts. to be merciíul and to regard the rights oí
neighbourhood. he íorbade us to speak e·il oí women. or to eat the substance
oí orphans. he ordered us to ílv írom ·ice and to abstain írom e·il. to oííer
pravers. to ga·e alms. to obser·e the íast. \e ha·e belie·ed in him. we ha·e
accepted his teachings and his injunctions to worship God alone and to

, 1he Arabs used to regard hospitalitv as a ·irtue. but alms-gi·ing was considered a
weakness among them. A luture liíe was generallv considered a mere íable.

, Koran (hapter 41. 1-8

, Ibn lisham

, G. Sale.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
associated naught with lim. lence our people ha·e persecuted us. trving to
make us to íorego the worship oí God and return to the worship oí idols oí
wood and stone and other abominations. 1hev ha·e tortured us and injured us
until. íinding no saíetv among them. we ha·e come to vour kingdom: trusting
vou will gi·e us protection against their persecution.

Aíter hearing the abo·e speech. the hospitable king ordered the deputies to
return to their people in saíetv and not to interíere with their íugiti·es. 1hus
the emigrants passed the period oí exile in peace and comíort. \hilst the
íollowers oí the Prophet sought saíetv in íoreign lands against the persecution
oí their people. he continued his warnings to the Koreishites more strenuouslv
than e·er. Again thev came to him with oííers oí riches and honour which he
íirmlv and utterlv reíused. I am neither.` said the Prophet. desirous oí riches
nor ambitious oí dignitv or dominion. I am a messenger oí God to gi·e vou
good tidings and to admonish vou. Ií vou accept the message I bring vou. God
will be ía·ourable to vou. both in this world and in the next: ií vou reject mv
admonitions. I shall be patient and will let God judge between us`. But thev
mocked at him and urged him íor miracles to pro·e his mission. God has not
sent me` he used to answer. to work wonders. he has sent me to preach to
vou`. 1hus disclaiming all power oí wonder - working the Prophet e·er rested
the truth oí his di·ine mission upon his wise teachings. le addressed himselí to
the inner consciousness oí man to his common sense and to his own better
judgment. Listen`. he used to address them: I bring vou a re·elation írom
the Beneíicent. the Merciíul God: a book oí which the ·erses are made plain.
an Arabic Koran íor a people who under-stand: a herald oí good news and a
warner: but most oí vou turn aside. so vou hear not`. On other occasions he
used to address the polvtheists thus: I am onlv mortal like vou: it is re·ealed to
me that vour Deitv is one thereíore worship lim alone and ask lis
íorgi·eness: and woe to those who associate íalse deities with the 1rue God.`
Koran 4: IX,

Despite all the exhortations oí the Prophet. the Koreishities persisted in
asking him íor a sign. 1hev insisted that unless some sign be sent down to him
írom his Lord. thev would not belie·e. \hv.` the iníidels used to ask. lad
not Mohammed been sent with miracles. like pre·ious prophets·` Because`.
replied the Prophet. miracles had pro·ed inadequate to con·ince. Noah had
been sent with signs. and with what eííect· \here was the lost tribe oí
1hamud· 1hev had reíused to recei·e the preaching oí the Prophet Saleh.
unless he showed them a sign and caused the rock to bring íorth a li·ing camel.
le did what thev asked. In scorn thev had cut the camel`s íeet and then daring
the prophet to íulíill his threats oí judgment. were íound dead in their beds
next morning. stricken bv the angel oí the Lord.` 1here are some se·enteen
places in the Koran. in which the Arabian Prophet is challenged to work a sign
and he answers them all to the same or similar eííect: God has the power oí
working miracles. and had not been belie·ed: he who could not know e·en

, Ibn lisham.

, Koran XL1 : 1-4

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
himselí adequatelv could not know what God had hidden: that there were
greater miracles in nature than anv which could be wrought outside oí it: that
the Koran itselí was a great. e·erlasting miracle`. 1he Koran. the Prophet used
to assert to the iníidels. is a book whose blessings shall be intercepted. a
warning íor the whole world: it is a collection oí all that is best in anv other
religion and all that is best in sacred books. it is a complete guidance and
explains e·ervthing necessarv: it is a reminder oí what is imprinted on human
nature and is íree írom e·erv discrepancv and írom error and íalsehood. It is a
book oí true guidance and light to all. Again when the Prophet was urged íor a
sign. he used to address the idolaters thus: O men. vou are thev who stand in
need oí Allah. and Allah is le \ho is Selí-suííicient. the Praised One: Ií le
please. le will take vou oíí and bring a new generation. And this is not diííicult
íor lim to do. A burdened soul cannot bear the burden oí another.`
another instance the Prophet used to appeal to the unbelie·ers` sense oí
judgment bv reciting to them other passages oí the \ord oí God. Surelv Allah
is the knower oí what is unseen in the hea·ens and the earth: surelv le is
(ongnisant oí what is in all hearts. le. it is who made vou íree creatures oí the
earth. thereíore whoe·er disbelie·es will bear the risk oí his unbelieí. 1hose
who remain unbelie·ers will gain nothing bv their obstinacv. except the hatred
oí their Lord. la·e vou considered vour íalse deities whom vou worship beside
God· Show me what thing on earth thev ha·e created: or ha·e thev anv share in
the hea·en· Surelv I am sent to vou with truth. to bear vou good news and gi·e
vou warning: and there is not a people. but a warner írom God was sent to
them. Ií vou gi·e the lie to mv message. it is no wonder that vou do so: other
nations beíore vou ha·e also gi·en the lie to their respecti·e apostles. though
thev brought them clear arguments. scripture and illuminating books.`
As to
Allah. the 1rue God. know ve that it is le \ho made íor vou the night. that
vou mav rest therein. and the dav to see: most surelv Allah is Gracious to men
but most men. are ungrateíul. Allah. vour Lord is the (reator oí e·erv thing:
there is no Deitv but le: whv are vou then turned awav· Allah is le who made
the earth a resting-place íor vou and the hea·en and horizon. and le íormed
vou. then made goodlv vour íorms. and le íurnished vou with wholesome
pro·isions: that is Allah. vour Lord: blessed then is Allah. the Lord oí the
\orlds. I am íorbidden to worship those idols whom vou adore besides God.
because clear arguments ha·e come to me írom mv Lord. and I am
commanded to submit to lim alone. the Lord oí the Uni·erse. le. it is \ho
created vou írom dust. then írom a minute liíe germ. then írom a clot. then le
brings vou íorth as a child. then le causes vou to attain maturitv and some oí
vou mav get old and some are caused to die voung. so that all oí vou will reach
a pre-appointed age. Do vou now understand· Allah is le \ho gi·es liíe and
brings death. so when le decrees an aííair. le onlv savs to it. Be and it is.`

, Koran chap. XXXV.

, Koran chap. XXXV.

, Koran chap. XI.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
s to the idols. so much honoured and esteemed bv the pagan Arabs. the
Prophet openlv declared that thev are naught but emptv names which
vou the idolaters, and vour íathers ha·e in·ented.`
lrom beginning to end the Prophet in all his recitations oí the Koran ne·er
spoke respectíullv oí the in·ented gods or goddesses adopted bv the heathen
Arabs. 1here is nothing in all the trustworthv sources oí Islam to coníirm the
allegations made bv \estern biographers to the contrarv.
\hen the Prophet thus spoke reproachíullv oí the sacred gods oí the
Koreishites. the latter redoubled their persecution. But the Prophet
ne·ertheless. continued his preaching. undaunted bv the hostilitv oí his
enemies. or bv their bitter persecution oí him. And despite all opposition and
increased persecution the new íaith gained ground. 1he national íair at Okaz
near Mecca attracted manv a wild Arab oí the desert and manv a trading citizen
oí distant towns. 1hese listened to the teachings oí the Prophet. to his
admonitions and to his denunciations oí their sacred idols and oí their
superstitions. 1hev carried back all that thev had heard to their distant homes
and thus the ad·ent oí the Arabian Prophet was made known to almost all
parts oí the Peninsula.

1he Meccans. howe·er. were more than e·er íurious at the Prophet`s
increasing preaching against their religion. 1hev asked his uncle Abu 1alib. to
stop him. But Abu 1alib could not do anvthing. except that he re-assured them.
At length. as the Prophet persisted in his ardent denunciations against their
ungodliness and impietv thev turned him írom the Kaaba where he latterlv used
to sit to preach and subsequentlv went in a bodv to Abu 1alib. 1hev urged the
old ·enerable chieí to pre·ent his nephew írom abusing their gods anv longer
or uttering anv ill words against their ancestors. 1hev warned Abu 1alib that ií
he would not do that he would be excluded írom the communication oí his
people and dri·en to side with Mohammed. and the matter would be settled bv
íight. until one oí the two parties were exterminated.
Abu 1alib neither wished
to separate himselí írom his people. nor íorsake his nephew. íor the idolaters to
re·enge themsel·es upon. le spoke to the Prophet ·erv soítlv and begged oí
him to abandon his aííair. 1o this suggestion the Prophet íirmlv replied: O mv
uncle. ií thev placed the sun in mv right had and the moon in mv leít had to
cause me to renounce mv task. ·erilv I would not desist there írom. until God
made maniíest lis cause. or I perished in the attempt.
1he Prophet o·ercome
bv the thought that his uncle and protector was willing to desert him. turned to
depart. But Abu 1alib called him loudlv to come back. and he came. Sav
whate·er thee pleasest: íor the Lord I shall not desert thee. nav. ne·er.` 1he
Koreishites again attempted in ·ain to cause Abu 1alib to abandon his nephew.
1he ·enerable chieí declared his intention to protect his nephew against anv
menace or ·iolence. le appealed to the sense oí honour oí the two íamilies oí

, Abul lida: Ibn Athir:

, Sale. \. Muir. Abul lida etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the sons oí lashim and the sons oí Muttalib. both íamilies being kinsmen oí
the Prophet. to protect their member írom íalling a ·ictim to the hatred oí ri·al
parties. All the members oí the two íamilies noblv responded to the appeal oí
Abu 1alib. except Abu Lahab one oí the Prophet`s uncles. who took part with
the persecutors.

At this period. Omar. son oí Khattab adopted Islam. In him the new íaith
gained a ·aluable adherent and an important íactor in the íuture de·elopment
and propagation oí Islam.
litherto Omar had been a ·iolent opposer oí the Prophet and a bitter
enemv oí Islam. lis con·ersion is said to ha·e been worked bv the magic eííect
on his mind oí a chapter oí the Koran which his sister was reading in her
house. where he had gone with the intention oí killing her on account oí her
adoption oí Islam.
1he partv oí the Prophet had been strengthened bv the
con·ersion oí his uncle. lamza a man oí great ·alour and merit. and oí Abu
Bakr and Omar. both men oí great energv and reputation. 1he Moslems now
·entured to períorm their de·otions in public.
Alarmed at the bold part which the Prophet and his íollowers were now
able to assume. and roused bv the return oí the deputies írom Abvssinia and
the announcement oí their unsuccessíul mission. the Koreishites determined to
check bv a decisi·e blow anv íurther progress oí Islam. 1owards this end. in the
se·enth vear oí mission. thev made a solemn league or co·enant against the
descendants oí lashim and Muttalib. engaging themsel·es to contract no
marriage with anv oí them. and to ha·e no communication with them. Upon
this. the Koreishites became di·ided into two íactions. and the two íamilies oí
lashim and Muttalib all repaired to Abu 1alib as their chieí: except onlv Abu
Lahab the Prophet`s uncle. who. out oí his in·eterate hatred against his nephew
and his doctrine. went o·er to the opposite partv whose chieí was Abu Soíian
Ibn larb. oí the íamilv oí Omavia. 1he persecuted partv. Moslems as well as
idolaters betook themsel·es to a deíile on the eastern skirts oí Mecca. 1hev
li·ed in this deíensi·e position íor three vears the pro·isions which thev had
carried with them. were soon exhausted. Probablv thev would ha·e entirelv
perished. but íor the svmpathv and occasional help thev recei·ed írom less
bigoted compatriots.

1owards the beginning oí the tenth vear oí the mission a reconciliation was
concluded between the Koreishites and the two íamilies oí lashim and Abdul
Muttalib through the intermediation oí lashim. son oí Amr. and Zobeir. son
oí Abu Omavia. 1hus. the alliance against the two íamilies was abolished. and
thev were able to return to Mecca.
During the period the Prophet and his kins-people in their deíensi·e
position. Islam made no progress outside: but in the sacred months. when
·iolence was considered sacrilege. the Prophet used to come out oí his
temporarv prison to preach Islam to the pilgrims. In the íollowing vear. both
Abu 1alib and Khadija died. 1hus. the Prophet lost in Abu 1alib the kind
guardian oí his vouth who had hitherto protected him against his enemies: and

, Ibn lisham. Sir \. Muir.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
in Khadija his most encouraging companion. She was e·er his angel oí hope
and consolation. 1he Prophet weighed down bv the loss oí his amiable
protector and his belo·ed wiíe without hope oí turning the Koreishites írom
idolatrv. with a saddened heart. vet íull oí trust. resol·ed to exercise his ministrv
in some other íield. and he chose 1aveí. a town about sixtv miles east oí Mecca
whither he went accompanied bv his íaithíul ser·ant Zaid. 1he tribe oí 1hakií.
who were the inhabitants oí 1aveí. recei·ed Mohammed ·erv coldlv. lowe·er.
he staved thereíore one month. 1hough the more considerate and better sort oí
men treated him with a little respect. the sla·es and common people reíused to
listen to his teachings: thev were outrageouslv indignant at his in·itation to
abandon the gods thev worshipped with such íreedom oí morals and lightness
oí heart: at length thev rose against him. and bringing him to the wall oí the
citv. obliged him to depart and return to Mecca.

1his repulse greatlv discouraged his íollowers: howe·er. the Prophet was
not wanting to himselí. but boldlv continued to preach to the public assemblies
at the pilgrimage
. and gained se·eral new proselvtes. among whom where six
oí the citv oí \athrib oí the Jewish tribe oí Khazraj. \hen these \athribnites
returned home. thev spread the news among their people that a prophet had
arisen among the Arabs who was to call them to God. and put an end to their
It was in the twelíth vear oí his mission. that the prophet ga·e out that he
had made his night journev írom Mecca to Jerusalem. and thence to lea·en. all
that Moslems must belie·e respecting this journev is that the Prophet saw
himselí. in a ·ision. transported írom Mecca to Jerusalem. and that in such
·ision he reallv beheld some oí the greatest signs oí his Lord. lowe·er. se·eral
trustworthv traditions maintain that this journev. known in historv as Miraj
ascension,. was a miraculouslv real bodilv one and not onlv a ·ision.

An eminent writer. commenting on the ascension remarks: It mav. I think.
be íairlv asked. whv (hristians who belie·e in the boldlv resurrection and bodilv
ascension oí Jesus and oí Llijah should look upon those Moslems who belie·e
in the bodilv ascension oí Mohammed as less rational than themsel·es·`,
In this vear twel·e men oí \athrib. oí whom ten were oí the Jewish tribe oí
Khazraj and the other two oí Aws. came to Mecca. and took an oath oí íidelitv
oí the Prophet at Akaba. a hill on the north oí that citv. 1his oath was called
the women`s oath: not that anv women were present at this time. but because a
man was not therebv obliged to take up arms in deíence oí the Prophet or his
religion: it being the same oath that was aíterwards exacted oí the women. 1his
oath was as íollows: \e will not associate anvthing with God: will not steal
nor commit adulterv or íornication. nor kill our children as the pagan Arabs
used to do when thev apprehended that thev would not be able to maintain
them,. nor íorge calumnies: we will obev the Prophet in e·ervthing that is
reasonable. and we will be íaithíul to him in weal and sorrow.` \hen thev had
solemnlv engaged to do all this. the Prophet sent one oí his disciples. Massaab

, Sir \. Muir.

, Ibn lisham: Al 1abari: Ibn Athir etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Ibn Omair. home with them. to teach them the íundamental doctrines and
ceremonies oí the religion. Massaab. ha·ing arri·ed at \athrib. bv the assistance
oí those who had been íormerlv con·erted. gained se·eral proselvtes.
particularlv Osaid Ibn lodeira. a chieí man oí the citv. and Saad Ibn Moaz.
prince oí the tribe oí Aws. Islam has now spread so íast. that there was scarcelv
a house wherein there not some who had embraced it.

1he next vear. being the thirteenth oí the mission 622 A.D.,. Massaab
returned írom \athrib. accompanied bv se·entv three men and two women oí
that citv. who had adopted Islam besides other who were as vet unbelie·ers. On
their arri·al these \atheribites immediatelv sent to the Prophet and in·ited him
to their citv. 1he Prophet was now in great need oí such an assistance. íor his
opponents had bv this time grown so poweríul in Mecca. that he could not stav
there much longer without imminent danger. le. thereíore accepted their
proposal. and met them one night bv appointment at Al-Akaba. mentioned
beíore. attended bv his uncle Al-Abbas. who though he was not then a con·ert.
wished his nephew well. Al-Abbas made a speech to those oí \athrib wherein
he told them that. as the Prophet Mohammed was obliged to quit his nati·e citv
and seek shelter elsewhere. and thev had oííered him their protection. thev
would do well not to decei·e. him: and that ií thev were not íirmlv resol·ed to
deíend and not to betrav him. thev had better declare their minds. and let him
pro·ide íor his saíetv in some other manner. Upon their proíessing their
sinceritv. the Prophet swore to be íaithíul to them. on condition that thev
should worship none but God. obser·e the precepts oí Islam. obev the Prophet
in all that was right and protect him against all insults as heartilv as thev would
their wi·es and íamilies. 1hev then asked him what would be their return. ií
thev should happen to be killed in the cause oí God: he answered: Paradise.`
\hereupon thev pledged their íaith to him and to his cause. 1he Prophet then
selected twel·e men out oí their number to act as his delegates. 1hus was
concluded the second co·enant oí Al-Akaba. 1he \atheribites returned home.
lea·ing the Prophet to arrange íor his journev to their citv. 1he Prophet
directed his íollowers to seek immediate saíetv at \athrib: which thev
accordinglv did. About one hundred íamilies silentlv disappeared írom Mecca
and proceeded to \athrib. where thev were recei·ed with enthusiasm and much
hospitalitv. All the disciples had gone to \athrib. 1he Prophet alone remained
at Mecca. keeping with him onlv his voung cousin Ali. and his de·oted íriend.
old Abu Bakr.

1he Meccans. íearing the consequence oí this new alliance. began to think
seriouslv oí pre·enting Mohammed írom escaping to \athrib. 1hev met in all
haste at the town- hall. Aíter se·eral milder expedients had been rejected. thev
decided. that he should be killed. 1hev agreed that one man should be chosen
out oí e·erv tribe íor the execution oí this design. and that each man should
strike a blow at him with his sword. so that the responsibilitv oí the guilt might
rest equallv on all tribes. to whose united power the lashimites. Mohammed`s
own tribe were much iníerior. and thereíore would not be able to re·enge their
kinsman`s death. A number oí noble vouths were selected íor the sanguinarv
deed. As the night ad·anced. the assassins posted themsel·es round the

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Prophet`s dwelling. 1hev watched all night long. waiting to murder
Mohammed` when he should lea·e his house at the earlv down. Bv some
the Prophet had been warned oí the danger. In order to keep the
attention oí the assassins íixed upon the bed which thev had been watching
through a hole in the door. the Prophet directed Ali to lie down in his place and
wrap himselí up in his green cloak: which he did whereas the Prophet
miraculouslv escaped through the window. le repaired to the house oí Abu
Bakr. unpercei·ed bv the conspirators who had alreadv assembled at the
Prophet`s door. 1hese. in the meantime looking through the cre·ice and seeing
Alv whom thev mistook íor Mohammed` himselí asleep. continued watching
there till morning. when Alv arose. and thev íound themsel·es decei·ed. 1he
íurv oí the Koreishites was now unbounded. 1he news that thev would be
assassins had returned unsuccessíul. and that Mohammed` had escaped
aroused their whole energv. A price oí a hundred camels was set upon
Mohammed`s head.

lrom Abu Bakr`s house the Prophet and he went to a ca·e in Mount 1hor.
to the south east oí Mecca. accompanied onlv bv Abu Bakr`s ser·ant. and an
idolater whom thev had hired íor a guide. In this ca·e thev lav hidden íor three
davs to a·oid the search oí their enemies whom thev ·erv narrowlv escaped. It
is related than aíter the Prophet and his companions entered. two pigeons laid
their eggs at the entrance. and a spider co·ered the mouth oí the ca·e with its
web which made the enemies look no íarther.
Abu Bakr. seeing the Prophet in
such imminent danger. became ·erv sorrowíul. whereupon the Prophet
comíorted him with these words. recorded in the Koran: Be not grie·ed. íor
God is with us.` 1heir persecutor ha·ing retired. thev leít the ca·e and set out
íor \athrib bv a bve-road. la·ing miraculouslv escaped some horsemen who
were sent to pursue them. the íugiti·es continued their journev. without
molestation. Aíter three dav`s journev thev reached the territories oí \athrib.
lere thev were joined bv Ali who had been se·erelv maltreated bv the idolaters
aíter their disappointment at Mohammed`s escape. 1he prophet and his
companions then proceeded to \athrib. attended bv a great number oí his
disciples who met them at Koba. 1hev entered the citv on the morning oí a
lridav. the 16
Rabi 1 corresponding to the 2
dav oí Julv 622,. 1hus was
accomplished the lijrah. or the ílight oí Mohammed as called in Luropean
annals. írom which the Islamic calendar dates.

hen the Prophet Mohammed and his companions settled at \athrib. this
citv changed its name. and henceíorth was called Al-Medianh Al-
Munawara.` the illuminated citv. or more shortlv Medina. the citv. It is situated
about ele·en davs journev to the north oí Mecca. At the time it was ruled bv

, It is belie·ed that it was bv inspiration that Mohammad was so warned. ·ide Ibn
lisham. Al \akidi. etc.

, Al \akidi. Ibn lisham. etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
two Kahtanite tribes. namelv Aws and Khazraj. 1hese two tribes. howe·er.
were constantlv quarrelling among themsel·es. It was onlv about the time when
the Prophet announced his mission at Mecca that these tribes. aíter long vears
oí continuous waríare. entered on a period oí comparati·e peace. \hen the
Prophet settled at Medina. the tribes oí Aws and Khazraj íorgetting entirelv
their old íeuds were united together in the bond oí Islam. 1heir old di·isions
were soon eííaced. and the Ansar`. the helpers oí the Prophet. became the
common designation oí all Medinites who had helped the Prophet in his cause.
1hose who emigrated with him írom Mecca recei·ed the title oí Muhajereen`
or the emigrants`. 1he Prophet. in order to unite both classes in closer bonds.
established between them a brotherhood. which linked them together as
children the same parents. with the Prophet as their guardian.

1he íirst step the Prophet took. aíter his settlement at Medina. was to build
a mosque íor the worship oí God. according to principles oí Islam. Also
houses íor the accommodation oí the emigrants were soon erected.
Medina and its suburbs being at this time inhabited bv three distinct parties.
the Lmigrants. the lelpers and the Jews. the Prophet in order to weld them
together into an orderlv íederation. granted a charter to the people clearlv
deíining their rights and obligations. 1his charter represented the íramework oí
the íirst (ommonwealth organised bv the Prophet. and dwelt chieí on íreedom
oí conscience. It started thus: In the name oí the most Merciíul and
(ompassionate God. this (harter is gi·en bv Mohammed. 1he Apostle oí God.
to all belie·ers. whether oí Koreish or Medina. and all indi·iduals oí whate·er
origin who ha·e made common cause with them. who shall all constitute one
nation.`. 1he íollowing are some extracts írom the (harter: 1he state oí peace
and war shall be common to all Moslems: no one among them shall ha·e the
right oí concluding peace with. or declaring war against. the enemies oí his co-
religionists. 1he Jews who attach themsel·es to our (ommonwealth. shall be
protected írom all insults and ·exations: thev an equal right with our own
people. to our assistance and good oííices. the Jews oí the ·arious branches.
and all others domiciled in Medina shall íorm with the Moslems one composite
nation: thev shall practice their religion as íreelv as the Moslems. 1he allies oí
the Jews shall enjov the same securitv and íreedom. 1he guiltv shall be pursued
and punished. 1he Jews shall join the Moslems in deíending Medina against all
enemies. 1he internal oí Median shall be a sacred place íor all who accept this
charter. All true Moslems shall hold in abhorrence e·erv man guiltv oí crime.
injustice or disorder: no one shall uphold the culpable. though he be his nearest

Aíter dealing with the interior management oí the State. the charter
concluded as íollows: All íuture disputes arising among those who accept this
charter. shall be reíerred. under God. to the Prophet.`

, Sir \. Muir G. Sale.

, Sir \. Muir G. Sale.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

1hus this charter put an end to the state oí anarchv that pre·ailed among
the Arabs. It constituted the Prophet Mohammed as chieí magistrate oí the
nation. 1he partv oí the Ansars or helpers. included some lukewarm con·erts
who retained an ill-concealed predilection íor idolatrv. 1hese were headed bv
Abdullah Ibn Obav. a man with some claims to distinction. 1hev ostensiblv
joined Islam. but in secret were disaííected. 1hev oíten were a source oí
considerable danger to the new - born (ommonwealth and required unceasing
watchíulness on the part oí the Prophet. 1owards them he alwavs showed the
greatest patience and íorbearance. hoping in the end to win them o·er to the
íaith. which expectations were íullv justiíied bv the result. \ith the death oí
Abdullah Ibn Obav. his partv which were known as the partv oí the
Munaíiquin` the hvpocrites, disappeared.

1he Jews who constituted the third partv oí the Medinites were howe·er.
the most serious element oí danger. No kindness or generous treatment. on the
part oí the Prophet. would seem to satisív them. 1hev soon broke oíí. and
ranged themsel·es with the enemies oí the new íaith. 1hev did not hesitate to
declare openlv. that thev preíerred idolatrv. with its attendant e·ils. to the íaith
oí Islam. 1hus. the Prophet had to keep an eve on his enemies outside Medina.
on the one hand and those within the citv on the other. 1he Meccans. who had
sworn Mohammed`s death. were well acquainted. thanks to the partv oí the
lvpocrites and oí the Jews at Medina. with the real íorces oí Moslems. 1hev
also knew that the Jews had accepted Mohammed`s alliance onlv írom moti·es
oí temporarv expendiencv. and that thev would break awav írom him to join
the idolaters. as soon as the latter showed themsel·es in the ·icinitv oí Medina.
1he saíetv oí the State required the proscription oí the traitors who were
executed íor high treason oí this nature.

1owards the second vear oí the lijrah`. the iníidels oí Mecca began a
series oí hostile acts against the Moslems oí Medina. 1hev sent men in parties.
to commit depredations on the íruit-trees oí the Moslems oí Medina and to
carrv awav their ílocks. Now came the moment oí se·erest trail to Islam. It
became the dutv oí the Prophet. to take serious measures to guard against anv
plot rising írom within or a sudden attack írom without. le put Medina in a
state oí militarv discipline. le had to send írequent reconnoitering parties. to
guard against anv sudden onslaught. No sooner did the Prophet organize his
state. than a large well- equipped armv oí the Meccans was a-íield. A íorce
consisting oí one thousand men. marched under Abu Gahl. a great enemv oí
Islam. towards Medina. to attack the citv. 1he Moslems recei·ed timelv notice
oí their enemies` intention. A bodv oí three hundred adherents. oí whom two
thirds were citizens oí Medina. were gathered. to íorestall the idolaters bv
occupving the ·allev oí Badr. situated near the sea between Mecca and Medina.
\hen the Prophet saw the armv oí the iníidels approaching the ·allev. he
praved that the little band oí Moslems might not be destroved.
1he armv oí the Meccans ad·anced into the open space which separated the
Moslems írom the idolaters. According to Arab usage. the battle was begun bv
single combats. 1he engagement then became general. 1he result old the battle
was. that the Meccans were dri·en back with great loss. Se·eral oí their chieís

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
were slain: and Abu Gahl íell a ·ictim. A large number oí idolaters remained
prisoners in the hands oí the Moslems. 1hev were. contrarv to all usage and
traditions oí the Arabs. treated with the greatest humanitv. 1he Prophet ga·e
strict orders. that svmpathv should be shown them in their misíortune. and that
thev should be treated with kindness.
1hese instructions were íaith-íullv
obeved bv the Moslems. to whose care the prisoners were coníided. Dealing
with this e·ent. Sir \illiam Muir quotes one oí the prisoners saving: Blessing
be on the men oí Medina: thev made us ride. while thev themsel·es walked:
thev ga·e us wheaten bread to eat. when here was little oí it. contenting
themsel·es with dates.

1he remarkable circumstances. which led to the ·ictorv oí Badr. and the
results. which íollowed it. made a deep impression on the minds oí the
Moslems. 1hev íirmlv belie·ed that the angels oí hea·en had battled on their
side against their enemies. 1he di·ision oí the spoils created some dissension
between the Moslem warriors. lor the moment the Prophet di·ided it equallv
amongst all. Subsequentlv. a Koran re·elation laid down a rule íor íuture
di·ision oí the spoils. According to this rule. a íiíth was reser·ed íor the public
treasurv íor the support oí the poor and indigent: and the distribution oí the
remaining íour íiíths was leít to the discretion oí the (hieí oí the State.

1he next battle between the Koreishites and the Moslems. was the battle oí
Ohod. a hill about íour miles to the north oí Medina. 1he idolaters. to re·enge
their loss at Badr. made tremendous preparations. íor a new attack upon the
Moslems. 1he next vear. thev collected an armv 3000 strong. oí whom ¯00
were armed with coats oí mail. and 200 horses. 1hese íorces ad·anced under
the command oí Abu Soíian. and encamped at a ·illage. six miles írom Medina.
where thev ga·e themsel·es up to spoiling the íields and ílocks oí the
Medinites. 1he Prophet being much iníerior to his enemies in number. at íirst
determined to keep himselí within the town and recei·e them there: but
aíterwards. the ad·ice oí some oí his companions pre·ailing. he marched out
against them. at the head oí 1000 men. oí whom 100 were armed with coats oí
mail: but he had no more than one horse. besides his own. in his whole armv.
\ith these íorces he halted at Mount Ohod. le was soon abandoned bv
Abdullah Ibn Obav. the leader oí the lvpocrites. with 300 oí his íollowers.
1hus. the small íorce oí the Prophet was reduced to ¯00. At Mount Ohod the
Moslem troops passed the night. and in the morning. aíter oííering their
pravers. thev ad·anced into the plain. 1he Prophet contri·ed to ha·e the hill at
his back. and the better to secure his men írom being surrounded. he placed
íiítv archers on the height in the rear. behind the troops and ga·e them strict
orders. not to lea·e their posts whate·er might happen. \hen thev came to
engage. the Prophet had superioritv at íirst. but aíterward. through the íault oí
his archers. who leít their position íor the sake oí plunder. and suííered the
enemies horsemen to surround the Moslems and to attack them in the rear. he
lost the dav. and was ·erv near losing his liíe. le was struck down bv a shower

, Al \akidi. Ibn lisham. Ibn Athir. etc.

, Sir \illiam. Muir: 1he Liíe oí Mohamed

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
oí stones. and wounded in the íace bv two arrows. and one oí his íront teeth
was broken. Oí the Moslems ¯0 men were killed. among whom was lamza the
Prophet`s uncle: oí the iníidels 22 men were lost.

1he Koreishites were too exhausted to íollow up their ad·antage. either bv
attacking Medina or bv dri·ing the Moslems írom the heights oí Ohod. 1hev
retreated írom the Medinite territories. aíter barbarouslv mutilating the corpses
oí their dead enemies.
1he moral eííect oí this disastrous battle was such as to encourage some
neighboring nomad tribes. to make íoravs upon the Medinite territories: but
most oí these were repressed.
1he Jews also were not slow to in·ol·e in trouble the Prophet and his
íollowers. 1hev tried to create disaííection among his people. and libelled him
and his adherents. 1hev mispronounced the words oí the Koran. so to gi·e
them an oííensi·e meaning. 1hev also caused their poets who were superior in
culture and intelligence. to use their iníluence to sow sedition among the
Moslems. One oí their distinguished poets. called Kaaba. oí the tribe oí
Nadeer. spared no eííorts in publiclv deploring the ill-success oí the idolaters.
aíter their deíeat at Badr. Bv his satires against the Prophet and his disciples.
and his elegies on the Meccans who had íallen at Badr. he succeeded in exciting
the Koreishites to that írenzv oí ·engeance which broke out at Ohod. le then
returned to Medina. where he continued to attack the Prophet and the
Moslems. men and women. in terms oí the most obscene character. 1hough he
belonged to the tribe oí Nadeer. which had entered into the compact with the
Moslems and pledged itselí both íor the internal and external saíetv oí the
State. he openlv directed his acts against the (ommonwealth oí which he was a
member. Another Jew Sallam bv name oí the same tribe. beha·e equallv íiercelv
and bitterlv the Moslems. as did Kaaba. le li·ed with a partv oí his tribe at
Khaibar. a ·illage íi·e dav`s journev north-west oí Medina. le made e·erv
eííort to excite the neighbouring Arab tribes against the Moslems. 1he Moslem
(ommonwealth with the object oí securing saíetv among the communitv.
passed a sentence oí outlawrv upon Kaab and Sallam. 1he members oí another
Jewish tribe. namelv Bani Ouavnouqa. were sentenced to expulsion írom the
Medinite territorv. íor ha·ing openlv and knowinglv iníringed the terms oí the
compact. It was necessarv to put an end to their hostile actions. íor the sake oí
maintaining peace and securitv. 1he Prophet had to go to their head-quarters.
where he required them to enter deíiniti·elv into the Moslem (ommonwealth
bv embracing Islam. Or to lea·e Medina. 1o this thev replied in the most
oííensi·e terms: 1hou hast had a quarrel with men. ignorant oí the art oí war.
Ií thou art desirous oí ha·ing anv dealings with us. we shall show thee that we
are men.`
1hev then shut themsel·es up in their íortress and set the Prophet
and his authoritv at deíiance. 1he Moslems decided to reduce them. and siege
was accordinglv laid to their íortress without loss oí time. Aíter íiíteen davs
thev surrendered. 1hough the Moslems at íirst intended to inílict some ser·er
punishment on them. thev contented themsel·es with banishing the Bani

, Ibn lisham

, Ibn lisham.: Ibn Athir.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Ouavnouqa. 1he tribe oí Nadeer had now beha·ed in the same wav as
Ouavnouqa. 1hev had likewise. knowinglv and publiclv. disregarded the terms
oí the (harter. 1he Prophet sent them a message similar to that which was sent
to their brethren. the Ouavnouqa. 1hev. relving on the assistance oí the
lvpocrites` partv. returned a deíiant replv. Aíter a siege oí íiíteen davs. thev
sued íor terms. 1he Moslems renewed their pre·ious oííer: and the Jews oí
Nadeer chose to e·acuate Medina. 1hev were allowed to take with them all
their mo·able propertv. with the exception oí their arms. Beíore lea·ing
Medina. thev destroved all their dwellings. in order to pre·ent the Moslems
írom occupving them.
1heir immo·able propertv. warlike material. etc. which
thev could not carrv awav with them. were distributed bv the Prophet. with the
consent oí the lelpers among the Reíugees. A principle was henceíorth
adopted that anv acquisition. not made in actual waríare. should belong to the
state. and that its disposal should be leít to the discretion oí the ruling

(ertain prejudiced \estern historians wronglv accused the Moslems oí
ha·ing treated these Jews oí Nadeer with the utmost crueltv. lor instance Dr.
prideaux in his Liíe oí Mahamet`. íalselv charged them with o·ertaking the
Jews who íled to Svria and putting them all to death.
G. Sale has alreadv sa·ed us the Moslems` the trouble oí reíuting such
erroneous statements.
1he expulsion oí the Nadeers took place in the íourth vear oí the lijra`.
1he remaining portion oí this vear. and the earlv part oí the next were passed in
repressing the hostile attempts oí the nomadic tribes against the Moslems and
inílicting punishment íor ·arious murderous íoravs on the Medinite territories.
Oí this nature was the expedition against the (hristian Arabs oí Dumat el
Gandal. a place about se·en dav`s journev to the south oí Damascus, who had
stopped the Medinite traííic with Svria. and e·en threatened a raid upon
Medina: these marauders. howe·er. íled on the approach oí the Moslems. and
the Prophet returned to Medina. aíter concluding a treatv with a neighbouring
chieí. to whom he granted permission oí pasturage in the Medinite territories.

In the same vear. the enemies oí Islam made e·erv possible attempt to stir
up the tribes against the Moslems. 1he Jews also took an acti·e. ií hidden. part
in those intrigues. An armv oí ten thousand men. well equipped. marched
towards Medina. under the command oí Abu Soíian. 1hev encamped near
Mount Ohod. a íew miles írom the citv. 1he Moslems could gather onlv a
much smaller armv oí three thousand men. Seeing their iníerioritv in numbers
on the one hand. and the turbulence oí the lvpocrites within the town on the
other. thev preíerred to remain on the deíensi·e. 1hev dug a deep moat round
the unprotected quarters oí Medina and encamped outside the citv with a
trench in íront oí them. 1hev relied íor saíetv oí the other side upon their
allies. the Koraiza. who possessed se·eral íortresses at a short distance towards

, Ibn lisham.: Ibn Athir.

, Vide Droits Musulman` bv M. Ouerrv. p. 33¯.

, (. de Perce·al. Vol. III: 1abari. Vol. III.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the south and were bound bv the compact to assist the Moslems against anv
raiders. 1hese Jews. howe·er. were induced bv the idolaters to ·iolate their
pledge and to join the Koreishites. As these Jews were acquainted with the
localitv and could materiallv assist the raiders: and as. on the other hand the
lvpocrites within the walls oí the citv were waiting íor an opportunitv to plav
their part. the situation oí the Moslems was most dangerous. 1he siege had
alreadv lasted íor twentv davs. 1he enemv made great eííorts to cross the
trench. but e·erv attempt was íiercelv repulsed bv the small Moslem íorce.
Disunion was now riíe in the midst oí the besieging armv. 1heir horses were
perishing íast. and pro·isions were becoming less e·erv dav. During the night-
time a storm oí wind and rain caused their tents to be o·erthrown and their
lights extinguished. Abu Soíian and the majoritv oí his armv íled awav and the
rest took reíuge with the Ooraiza.
1he Moslems. though thev were satisíied
with the íailure oí their enemies. could not help thinking that the ·ictorv was
unsatisíactorv so long as the Ooraiza. who had ·iolated their sworn pledge.
remained so near. 1he Jews might at anv time surprise Medina írom their side.
1he Moslems íelt it their dutv to demand an explanation oí the ·iolation oí the
pledge. 1his was utterlv reíused. (onsequentlv the Jews were besieged. and
compelled to surrender at discretion. 1hev onlv asked that their punishment
should be leít to the judgment oí Saad Ibn Moaz. the prince oí the tribe oí
Aws. 1his chieí who was a íierce soldier. had been wounded in the attack and
indeed died oí his wounds the íollowing dav. Iníuriated bv the treacherous
conduct oí the Bani Ooraiza. he ga·e judgment that the íighting men should be
put to death. and that the women and children should become the sla·es oí the
Moslems. 1he sentence was carried into execution.

(ommenting on the harshness oí the sentence. Mr. Stanlev Lane Poole in
the introduction oí his Selections írom the Koran` writes as íollows: It was a
harsh. bloodv sentence. worthv oí the Lpiscopal generals oí the armv against
the Albigenses. or oí the deeds oí the Augustan age oí Puritanism: but it must
be remembered that the crime oí these men was high treason against the State
during time oí siege: and those who ha·e read how \ellington`s march could
be traced bv the bodies oí the deserters and pillagers hanging írom the trees.
need not be surprised at the summarv execution oí a traitorous clan.`

It was about this time that the Prophet granted to the monks oí the
monasterv oí St. (atherine. near mount Sinai his liberal (harter bv which thev
secured íor the (hristians noble and generous pri·ileges and immunities. le
undertook himselí. and enjoined his íollowers. to protect the (hristians. to
deíend their churches and the residence oí their priests and to guard them írom
all injuries. 1hev were not to be uníairlv taxed: no bishop was to be dri·en out
írom his dioceses: no (hristian was to be íorced to reject his religion: no monk
was to be expelled írom his monasterv: no pilgrim was to be stopped írom his
pilgrimage. nor were the (hristian churches to be pulled down íor the sake
building mosques or houses íor the Moslems. (hristian women married to

, Ibn el Athir: Ibn lisham. etc.

, Vide Stanlev Lane Poole. Selections írom the Koran.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Moslems were to enjov their own religion. and not to be subjected to
compulsion or annovance oí anv kind. No (hristian resident among the
Moslems should be treated with contempt on account oí his creed. 1he
Prophet declared that anv Moslem ·iolating anv clause oí the (harter should be
regarded as a transgressor oí God`s (ommandments. a ·iolator oí lis
1estament and neglectíul oí lis íaith.

ix vears had alreadv elapsed since the Prophet and his Meccan íollowers
íled írom their birthplace. 1heir hearts began to vear íor their homes and
íor their temple oí the Kaaba. 1he season oí the pilgrimage approached. 1he
Prophet announced his intention to ·isit he holv centre. Numerous ·oices oí
his disciples responded to the call. Preparations were soon made íor the
journev to Mecca. 1he Prophet accompanied bv se·en or eight hundred
Moslems. reíugees and helpers. all totallv unarmed. set out on the pilgrimage.
1he Koreishites who were still íull oí animositv towards the Moslems gathered
a large armv to pre·ent the true belie·ers írom entering Mecca. 1hev maltreated
the en·ov whom the Prophet had sent to ask their permission to ·isit the holv
places. Aíter much diííicultlv a treatv was concluded bv which it was agreed
that all hostilities should cease íor ten vears` that anv one coming írom the
Koreishites to the Prophet without the permission oí the guardian or chieí.
should be gi·en back to the idolaters: that anv Moslem persons going o·er to
the Meccans should not be surrendered: that anv tribe desirous oí entering into
alliance. either with the Koreishites or with the Moslems should be at libertv to
do so without disputes: that the Moslems should go back to Medina on the
present occasion and stop ad·ancing íurther: that thev should be permitted in
the íollowing vear to ·isit Mecca. and to remain thereíore three davs with the
arms thev used on journevs. namelv. their scimitars in sheaths.

1he treatv thus ended. the Prophet returned with his people to Medina.

About this time it was re·ealed to the Prophet that his mission should be
le dispatched se·eral en·ovs to in·ite the neighbouring so·ereigns
to Islam. 1he embassv to the king oí Persia. (hosroes Par·is. was recei·ed with
disdain and contumelv. le was haughtilv amazed at the boldness oí the Meccan
íugiti·e in addressing him on terms oí equalitv. le was so enraged that he tore
into pieces the Prophet`s letter oí in·itation to Islam and dismissed the en·ov
írom his presence with great contempt. \hen the Prophet recei·ed
iníormation oí this treatment. he calmlv obser·ed: 1hus will the empire oí
(hosroes be torn to pieces.`

, Abul leda: Ibn Athir: Al \akidi etc.

, 1hat is without íulíilling their proposed pilgrimage.

, Koran (hap. VII.

, Ibn lisham. Vol. VII.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he embassv to leraclius. the Lmperor oí the Romans was recei·ed much
more politelv and re·erentiallv. le treated the ambassador with great respect
and sent the Prophet a gracious replv to his message.
Another en·ov was sent to an Arab prince oí the Ghassanite tribe a
(hristian íeudatorv oí leraclius. 1his prince instead oí recei·ing the en·ov
with anv respect cruellv murder him. 1his act caused great consternation among
the Moslems who considered it as an outrage oí international obligations.
In the same vear the Jews oí Khaibar. a stronglv íortiíied territorv at a
distance oí íour davs` journev írom Medina. showed implacable hatred towards
the Moslems. Se·eral branches oí the Nadeer` and Ooraiza` took reíuge at
Khaibar which contributed to increase the íeeling oí animositv on the part oí
their brethren towards the Prophet and his íollowers. United bv alliance with
the tribe oí Ghatían` as well as with other cognate tribes. the Jews oí Khaibar
made serious attempts to íorm a coalition against the Moslems. 1he Prophet
and his adherents were apprised oí this mo·ement. Immediate measures had to
be taken in order to repress anv new attack upon Medina. An expedition oí
1400 men was soon prepared to march against Khaibar. 1he allies oí the Jews
leít them to íace the war with the Moslems all alone. 1he Jews íirmlv resisted
the attacks oí the Moslems but e·entuallv all their íortresses had to be
surrendered. one aíter the other to their enemies. 1hev praved íor íorgi·eness.
which was accorded them on certain conditions. 1heir lands and immo·able
propertv were secured to them. together with the íree practice oí their religion.

Aíter subduing Khaibar. the Moslems returned to Medina in saíetv. Beíore
the end oí the vear. it being the se·enth vear oí the lijra. the Prophet and his
adherents a·ailed themsel·es oí their armistice with the Koreishites to
accomplish their desire oí ·isiting the holv Kaaba. 1he Prophet accompanied
bv 2000 Moslems went on his journev to Mecca to períorm the rites oí
pilgrimage. On this occasion the Koreishites e·acuated the citv during the three
davs on which the ceremonies lasted.
Muir in his Liíe oí Mohammed Vol III. (omments on the incident as
íollows: It was surelv a strange sight which at this time presented itselí at the
·ale oí Mecca. a sight vviqve iv tbe bi.tory ot tbe rorta. 1he ancient citv is íor three
davs e·acuated bv all its inhabitants. high and low. e·erv house deserted. and. as
thev retire. the exiled con·erts. manv vears banished írom their birth-place.
approach in a great bodv accompanied bv their allies. re·isit the emptv homes
oí their childhood. and within the short allotted space. íulíill the rites oí
pilgrimage. 1he outside inhabitants. climbing the heights around take reíuge
under tents or other shelter among the hills and glens: and clustering on the
o·erhanging peak oí Abu Ouebeis. thence watch the mo·ements oí the ·isitors
beneath. as with the Prophet at their head. thev make the circuit oí the Kaaba
and the procession between Ls-saía and Marwah. and anxiouslv scan e·erv
íigure. ií perchance thev mav recognise among the worshippers some long-lost
íriend or relati·e. ít ra. a .ceve revaerea po..ibte ovty by tbe tbroe. rbicb gare birtb
to í.tav.

, Ibn Athir. Ibn lisham. (aussin de Perce·al. etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In accordance with the terms oí the treatv. the Moslems leít Mecca at the
end oí three davs` ·isit. 1his peaceíul ·isit was íollowed bv important
con·ersions among the Koreishites. Khaled Ibn el-\alid. known as the Sword
oí God. who. beíore this. had been a bitter enemv oí Islam and who
commanded the Koreishites (a·alrv at Ohod: and Amr Ibn el-Aas. another
important character and warrior adopted the new íaith.
\hen the Prophet and his íollowers returned to Medina. thev arranged an
expedition to exact retribution írom the Ghassnite Prince who killed the
Moslem en·ov. A íorce oí 3000 men. under the Prophet`s adopted son Zaid
was sent to take reparation írom the oííending tribe. Khaled Ibn el-\alid was
one oí the generals chosen íor the expedition. \hen thev reached the
neighbourhood oí Muta. a ·illage to the south-east oí the Dead Sea. thev met
an o·erwhelming íorce oí Arabs and Romans who were assembled to oppose
them. 1he Moslems. howe·er. resol·ed resolutelv to push íorward. 1heir
courage was oí no a·ail and thev suííered great losses. In this battle Zaid and
Jaaíar. a cousin oí the Prophet and se·eral other notables were killed. Khaled
Ibn el-\alid. bv a series oí manoeu·res. succeeded in drawing oíí the armv.
and conducting it without íurther losses to Medina. A month later howe·er.
Amr Ibn el-Aas marched unopposed through the lands oí the hostile tribes.
recei·ed their submission and restored the prestige oí Islam on the Svrian

bout the end oí the se·enth vear oí the lijra. the Koreishites and their
allies. the Bani Bakr ·iolated the terms oí the peace concluded at
ludeibiva bv attacking the Bani Khuzaah who were in alliance with the
Moslems. 1he Bani Khuzaab oí whom a number oí men were massacred
appealed to the Prophet íor help and protection. 1he Prophet determined to
make a stop to the reign oí injustice and oppression. which had lasted long at
Mecca. le immediatelv gathered ten thousand men to march against the
idolaters. On Januarv 1
630. the Prophet began his march. Aíter eight davs the
Moslems Armv halted and alighted at Marwat el Zahran a dav`s journev írom
Mecca. On the night oí his arri·al. Abu Suíian. who was delegated bv the
Koreishites to ask the Prophet to abandon his project. presented himselí and
besought an inter·iew. On the morrow it was granted las the time not come.
O Abu Soíian.` said. the Prophet. íor the to acknowledge that there is no deitv
sa·e God. and that I am lis apostle·` Abu Soíian aíter hesitating íor a while
pronounced the prescribed íormula oí belieí
. and adopted Islam. le was then
sent back to prepare the citv íor the Prophet`s approach. \ith the exception oí
a slight resistance bv certain clans headed bv Ikrima and Saíwan. in which manv
Moslems were killed. the Prophet entered Mecca almost unopposed. 1he citv
which had treated him so cruellv. dri·en him and his íaithíul band íor reíuge
amongst strangers. the citv which had sworn his liíe and the li·es oí his de·oted
adherents. now lav at his mercv. lis old persecutors were now completelv at his

, (h. lughes` Dictionarv oí Islam.

, No Deitv sa·e God and Mohammad is his apostle`.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
íeet. 1he Prophet entered Mecca on his ía·ourite camel Al Kaswa.` ha·ing
Abu Bakr on his right hand. Usaid on his leít. and Usama walking behind him.
On his wav he recited a chapter oí the Koran. known as the chapter oí the
1he Moslem armv entered the citv unostentatiouslv and peaceíullv. No
house was robbed. no man or woman was insulted. 1he Prophet granted a
general amnestv to the entire population oí Mecca. Onlv íour criminals. whom
justice condemned. were proscribed. le. howe·er. ordered the destruction oí
all idols and pagan images oí worship. upon which the 360 idols which the
lolv Kaaba contained were thrown down. 1he Prophet himselí destroved a
wooden pigeon írom the rooí which was regarded as one oí the deities oí the
Koreishites. During the downíall oí the images and idols he was heard to crv
aloud. God is great. God is great.` 1ruth has come and íalsehood has
·anished: ·erilv íalsehood is e·anescent.` 1he old idolaters obser·ed
thoughtíullv the destruction oí their gods. which were utterlv powerless. Aíter
the Prophet had abolished these pagan idols and ·erv pagan rite. he deli·ered a
sermon to the assembled people. le dwelt upon the natural brotherhood oí
man in the words oí the Koran as contained in chapter XIIX. ·erse 13

Now great multitudes came to adopt Islam and take the oath oí allegiance to
the Prophet. lor this purpose an assemblv was held at mount el Saía. Omar
acting as the Prophet`s deputv. administered the oath. wherebv the people
bound themsel·es not to adore anv deitv but God to obev the prophet to
abstain írom theít. adulterv. iníanticide. lving and backbiting. 1hus was íulíilled
the prophecv embodied in the chapter oí Victorv in the Koran.

During his stav at Mecca. the Prophet dispatched his principal disciples in
e·erv direction to preach Islam among the wild tribes oí the desert and call
them to the true religion oí God. le sent small detachments oí his troops into
the suburbs to destrov the temples oí Al Uzza. Suwaa and Manat. the three
íamous idols in the temples oí the neighbouring tribes. 1he Prophet ga·e strict
orders that these expeditions should be carried out in a peaceable manner.

1hese injunctions were obev in all cases. with one exception. 1he troops under
Khaled Ibn el-\alid. the íierce newlv-con·erted warrior. killed a íew oí the
Bani Jazima. \hen the news oí this wanton bloodshed reached the Prophet he
was deeplv grie·ed. and exclaimed. Oh mv Lord I am innocent oí what
Khaled had done. and he dispatched a large sum oí monev íor the windows
and orphans oí the slain and se·eral rebuked Khaled.
At this time the tribes oí
lawazin and 1hakií showed unwillingness to render obedience to the Moslems
without resistance. 1hev íormed a league with the intention oí attacking the

, Koran. chap. IX

, Verilv the true belie·ers are brethren: whereíore make peace among vour brethren:
and íear God. that ve mav obtain mercv.`

, \hen ·ictorv and triumph are come írom God and thou seest hosts oí people
embrace the religion oí God. vou will then praise the glorv oí vour Lord and implore
lis pardon. as le is e·er readv to welcome penitence.`

, 1. P. lughes - Dictionarv oí Islam`.

, 1. P. lughes - Dictionarv oí Islam`.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Prophet. But he was ·igilant enough to írustrate their plan. A big battle was
íought with this new enemv oí Islam near lunein. a deep and narrow deíile
nine miles to the north east oí Mecca. 1he idolaters were utterlv deíeated. One
bodv oí the enemv consisting chieílv oí the 1hakií tribe. took reíuge in their
íortiíied citv oí 1aveí. which. as the reader mav remember. eight or nine vears
beíore had dismissed the Prophet írom within its walls with injuries and insults.
1he remainder oí the deíeated íorce. consisting principallv oí the lawazin.
sought reíuge at a camp in the ·allev oí Autas. 1his camp was raided bv the
Moslem troops. 1he íamilies oí the lawazin. their ílocks and herds with all
their other eííects were captured bv the troops oí the Prophet. 1aveí was then
besieged íor a íew davs onlv. aíter which the Prophet raised the siege. well
knowing that the people oí 1aveí would soon be íorced bv circumstances to
submit without bloodshed. Returning to his camp where the prisoners oí
lawazin were leít íor saíetv. the Prophet íound a deputation írom this hostile
tribe who begged him to set íree their íamilies. 1he Prophet replied that he was
willing to gi·e back his own share oí the capti·es and that oí the children oí
Abdul Muttalib. but that he could not íorce his íollowers to abandon the íruits
oí their ·ictorv. 1he disciples íollowed the generous example oí their teacher
and about six thousand people were in a moment set íree.
1he spirit oí libertv
iníluenced the hearts oí se·eral members oí the 1haqií tribe who oííered their
allegiance and soon became earnest Moslems.

1he Prophet now returned to Medina íullv satisíied with the achie·ements
oí his mission.
1he ninth vear oí the lijra is known as the vears oí embassies. as being the
vear in which the ·arious tribes oí Arabia submitted to the claim oí the Prophet
and sent embassies to render homage to him. litherto these tribes had been
awaiting the issue oí the war between Mohammed and the Koreishites: but as
soon as that tribe -the principal oí whole nation. and descendants oí Ismail.
whose prerogati·es none oííered to dispute- had submitted. thev were satisíied
that it was not in their power to oppose Mohammed.
lence their embassies
ílocked into Medina to make their submission to him. 1he conquest oí Mecca
decided the íate oí idolatrv in Arabia. Now deputations began to arri·e írom all
sides to render the adherence to Islam oí ·arious tribes. Among the rest. íi·e
Princes oí the tribe oí limvar proíessed Islam and sent ambassadors to notiív
the same. 1hese were the Princes oí \emen. Mahra. Oman and \amama.

1he idolaters oí 1aveí. the ·erv people who had dri·en the Preacher oí
Islam írom their midst with ·iolence and contempt now sent a deputation to
prav íorgi·eness and ask to be numbered amongst his íollowers. 1hev begged.
howe·er. íor temporarv preser·ation oí their idols. As a last appeal thev begged
íor one month`s grace onlv. But this e·en was not conceded. 1he Prophet said
Islam and the idols could not exist together. 1hev then begged íor exemption
írom the dailv pravers. 1he Prophet replied that without de·otion religion
would be nothing. At last thev submitted to all that was required oí them. 1hev.

, (í. 1abari. Vol. III. Ibn lisham: Ibn el Athir. Vol. II.

, G. Sale. Introd. 1o Koran.

, (í. Abul leda. G. Sale: Introd. 1o Koran.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

howe·er. asked to be exempted írom destroving the idols with their own hands.
1his was granted. 1he Prophet selected Abu Suíian and Mughira to destrov the
idols oí the 1aveíites. the chieí oí which being the notorious idol oí .ttat. 1his
was carried out amidst cries oí despair and grieí írom the old women oí 1aveí.

1he con·ersion oí this tribe oí 1aveí is worthv oí notice. 1his tribe which
hitherto had pro·ed hostile to the new íaith was noted among the Arabs íor its
idolatrous priesthood. A small detachment under Ali was sent to reduce them
to obedience and to destrov their idols. 1he prince oí the tribe was Adi. the son
oí the íamous latim. whose generositv was spoken oí all o·er the peninsula oí
Arabia. On the approach oí the Moslem íorce. Adi íled to Svria lea·ing his
sister with some oí his principal clansmen. to íall into the hands oí the
Moslems. 1hese were conducted bv Ali with e·erv sign oí respect and
svmpathv to Medina. \hen the daughter oí latim came beíore the Prophet
she addressed him in the íollowing words: O: Apostle oí God. mv íather is
dead: mv brother. mv onlv relation has íled into the mountains. on the
approach oí Moslems. I cannot ransom mvselí: I count on vour generositv íor
mv deli·erance. Mv íather was an illustrious man. the prince oí his tribe. a man
who ransomed prisoners. protected the honour oí women íed the poor
consoled the aíílicted and was deaí to no appeal`. 1hv íather`. answered the
Prophet. had the ·irtues oí a true Moslem: ií it were permitted to in·oke the
Mercv oí God on anv whose liíe was passed in idolatrv. I would prav to God
íor mercv íor the soul oí latim.` 1hen. addressing the Moslems around him.
he said: 1he daughter oí latim is íree her íather was a generous and humane
man: God lo·es and rewards the merciíul` \ith the daughter oí latem. all her
people were set at libertv. She proceeded to Svria. and related to her brother the
generositv oí Mohammed`. Adi touched bv gratitude hastened to Medina
where he was kindlv recei·ed bv the Prophet. le proíessed Islam and returned
to his people and persuaded them to abandon idolatrv. 1hev all submitted and
became de·oted Moslems.

litherto no prohibition had been eníorced against idolaters entering the
lolv Kaaba or períorming their abominable rite within the sacred precincts.
1owards the end oí the ninth vears oí the lijra. during the month oí
pilgrimage Ali was delegated bv the Prophet to read a Proclamation that ran as
íollows: No idolater shall aíter this vear períorm the pilgrimage: no one shall
make the circuit oí the temple naked such a disgraceíul custom was practiced
bv the heathen Arabs,. anv treatv with the Prophet shall continue in íorce. but
íour months are allowed to e·erv man to return to his territories: aíter that
there will be no obligation on the Prophet except towards those with whom
treaties ha·e been concluded.

1he ·ast multitude who had listened to the abo·e declaration returned to
their homes and beíore the íollowing vear was o·er the majoritv oí them were

, (í. Ibn lisham: Ibn Athir Vol.. II.. Amir Saved Alv: Spirit oí Islam`

, Abul leda. Ibn Athir: Ibn lisham.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
During the tenth vear oí the lijra as in the preceding one. numerous
embassies continued to pour into Medina írom all parts oí Arabia to testiív to
the adhesion oí their chieís and their tribes. 1eachers were sent bv the Prophets
into the diííerent pro·inces to teach the new con·erts the principles and
precepts oí Islam. 1hese teachers were in·ariablv gi·en the íollowing
injunctions when thev were about to depart on their mission: Deal gentlv with
the people and be not harsh: cheer them. and do not look down upon them
with contempt. \e will meet with manv belie·ers in the lolv Scriptures.
will ask vou \hat is the kev to hea·en·` Answer them that it the kev to
hea·en, is to bear witness to Di·ine truth and to do good.`

1hus. the mission oí the Prophet Mohammed was now accomplished: the
whole work was achie·ed during his liíetime. Idolatrv with its nameless
abominations was entirelv destroved. 1he people who were sunk in
superstition. crueltv and ·ice. in regions where spiritual liíe was utterlv
unknown. were now united in one bond oí íaith. hope and charitv. 1he tribes
which had been. írom time immemorial. engaged in perpetual wars were now
united together bv the ties oí brotherhood. lo·e and harmonv. lence-íorth.
their aims are not coníined to this earth alone: but there is something bevond
the gra·e-much higher. purer and di·iner-calling them to the practice oí
charitv. goodness. justice and uni·ersal lo·e. 1hev could now percei·e that God
was not that which thev had car·ed out oí wood or stone. but the Almightv.
Lo·ing. Merciíul the (reator oí the Uni·erse.
On the return oí the sacred month oí the pilgrimage. the Prophet under the
presentiment oí his approaching end. determined to make a íarewell pilgrimage
to Mecca. In lebruarv 632. he leít Medina with a ·erv considerable concourse
oí Moslems. It is stated that írom 90.000 to 140.000 persons accompanied the
On his arri·al at the holv places. írom which e·erv trace oí the old
superstition had been remo·ed. and which in accordance with his orders oí the
pre·ious vear. no idolater was to ·isit unless he assumed the pilgrim garb.
Beíore completion all rites oí the pilgrimage. he addressed the assembled
multitude írom the top oí the Mount Araíat. in the íollowing words: \e
people! Listen to mv words. íor I know not whether another vear will be
·ouchsaíed to me aíter this vear to íind mvselí amongst vou. \our li·es and
propertv are sacred and in·iolable amongst one another until ve appear beíore
the Lord. as this dav and this month is sacred íor all: and remember. ve shall
ha·e to appear beíore vour Lord \ho shall demand írom vou an account íor
all vour actions. \e people. \e ha·e rights o·er vour wi·es. and vour wi·es
ha·e rights o·er vou.Verilv ve ha·e taken them on the securitv oí God and
ha·e made their persons Lawíul unto vou bv the words oí God. And vour
sla·es. see that ve íeed them with such íood as ve eat voursel·es. and clothe
them with the stuíí ve wear. and ií thev commit a íault which ve are not
inclined to íorgi·e. then part with them: íor thev are the ser·ants oí the Lord
and are not to be harshlv treated. \e people Listen to mv words and understand
them. Know that all Moslems are brothers. \e are one brotherhood: but no

, I.e. Jews or (hristians.

, Ibn lisham.

, Ibn lisham. Ibn Athir Vol. II.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
man shall take aught írom his brother. unless bv his íree consent. Keep
voursel·es írom injustice. Let him who is present tell this to him who is absent.
It mav be. that he who is told this aíterwards mav remember better than he
who has now heard it.`

1he Prophet concluded his sermon bv exclaiming. O Lord I ha·e íulíilled
mv message and accomplished mv work` 1he assembled multitude all in one
·oice cried. \ea ·erilv thou hast.` 1he Prophet again exclaimed. O Lord I
beseech thee. bear witness unto it.`
la·ing rigorouslv períormed all the ceremonies oí the pilgrimage that his
example might be íollowed bv all Moslems íor all succeeding ages. the Prophet
returned with his íollowers to Medina.
1he ele·enth vear oí the lijra being the last vear oí Mohammed`s liíe. was
spent at Medina. 1here he settled the organisation oí the pro·incial and tribal
communities which had adopted Islam and become the component parts oí the
Moslem íederation. More oííicers had to be deputed to the interior pro·inces
íor the purpose oí teaching their inhabitants the precepts oí the religion.
administering justice. and collecting tithes. Muaz Ibn Jabal was sent to \emen.
On his departure to that distant pro·ince. the Prophet enjoined him to use his
own discretion. in the e·ent oí his being unable to íind express authoritv in the
Koran. Ali was deputed to \amama in the south-east oí the Peninsula. 1o
them the Prophet said: Ne·er decide between anv two parties who come to
vou íor justice unless vou íirst hear both oí them.`

A íorce was now being prepared under Osama. the son oí Zaid. who was
killed at Muta. against the Bvzantines. to exact the long delaved reparation íor
the murder oí the en·ov in Svria. as the news oí the Prophet`s sickness and
íailing health had caused that expedition to be stopped. 1his news was soon
noised abroad and produced disorder in some districts. 1hree pretenders had
arisen who ga·e themsel·es out as prophets. and tried bv all kinds oí imposture
to win o·er their tribes. 1he most dangerous oí these pretenders was known as
AL Aswad. le was a chieí oí \emen and a man oí great wealth and sagacitv.
and a cle·er conjurer. le soon succeeded in gaining o·er his tribesmen. and
with their help reduced to subjection manv oí the neighbouring towns. le
killed Shahr whom the Prophet had appointed as Go·ernor oí Sana in the place
oí his íather. Bazan who had just died. Bazan had been the ·icerov oí \emen.
under (hosrores oí Persia. and aíter he had adopted Islam. was allowed bv the
Prophet to remain as Go·ernor oí \emen. le was able to con·ert to Islam all
the Persian colonv in that pro·ince. Al Aswad. the conjurer. had now killed
Shahr but. soon aíter. he was massacred bv the Persians oí \emen. 1he other
two pretenders. 1ulavha and laroun bv name were not suppressed until aíter
the death oí the Prophet. during the reign oí Abu Bakr. laroun. better known
as Mussavlamah. addressed to the Prophet a letter which ran as íollows: lrom
Mussavlamah. the Prophet oí God to Mohammed the Prophet oí God. Peace
be to vou. I am vour partner. Let the exercise oí authoritv be di·ided between
us. lalí the earth will be mine. and halí will belong to vour Koreish. But the
Koreishites are too greedv to be satisíied with a just di·ision`. 1o this letter the
Prophet replied as íollows: lrom Mohammed. the Apostle oí God. to

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Mussavlamah. the liar. Peace be to those who íollow the right path. 1he earth
belongs to God. It is le \ho maketh to reign whomsoe·er. le pleaseth. Onlv
those will prosper who íear the Lord`.

1he health oí the Prophet grew worse. lis last davs were remarkable íor the
calmness and serenitv oí his mind. le was able. though weak and íeeble. to
lead the public pravers. until within three davs oí his death. le requested that
he might be permitted to stav at Avesha`s house. close to the mosque. during
his illness. an arrangement to which his other wi·es assented. As long his
strength lasted. he took part in the public pravers. 1he last time he appeared in
the mosque. he addressed the congregation. aíter the usual pravers were o·er.
in the íollowing words: O Moslems! Ií I ha·e wronged anvone oí vou. here I
am to answer íor it: ií I owe aught to anvone all I mav happen to possess
belongs to vou. A man in the crowd rose and claimed three Dirham. which he
had gi·en to a poor man at the request oí the Prophet. 1hev were immediatelv
paid back with these words: Better to blush in this world than in the next.`
1he Prophet then praved and implored God`s mercv íor those who had íallen
in the persecution oí their enemies. le recommended to all his íollowers the
obser·ance oí religious duties and the leading oí a liíe oí peace and good will.
le concluded his ad·ice with the íollowing ·erse oí the Koran: 1he íuture
mansion oí paradise, \e will gi·e unto them who do not seek to exalt
themsel·es on earth or to do wrong: íor a happv issue shall attend the pious.`
1hen he spoke with emotion. and with a ·oice still so poweríul as to reach
bevond the outer doors oí the mosque: Bv the Lord in \hose hand lies the
soul oí Mohammed.` he said. as to mvselí no man can lav hold on me in anv
matter: I ha·e not made lawíul anvthing excepting what God hath made lawíul:
nor ha·e I prohibited aught. but that which God in lis Book hath prohibited.`
1hen turning to the women who sat close bv. the exclaimed: O latima. mv
daughter. and Saíia. mv aunt. work ve both that which shall procure vou
acceptance with the Lord: íor ·erilv I ha·e no power to sa·e vou in anv wise.`
le then rose and re-entered the house oí Avesha.
Aíter this. the Prophet
ne·er appeared at public pravers. A íew hours aíter he returned írom the
mosque. the Prophet died whilst laving his head on the bosom oí Avesha. As
soon as the Prophet`s death was announced a crowd oí people gathered at the
door oí the house oí Avesha. exclaiming. low can our apostle be dead·`
No.` said Omar. le is not dead. he will be restored to us. and those are
traitors to the cause oí Islam who sav he is dead. Ií thev sav so let them be cut
in pieces. but Abu Bakr entered the house at this moment. and aíter he had
touched the bodv oí the prophet with demonstration oí proíound aííection. he
appeared at the door and addressed the crowd with the íollowing speech: O
Moslems. ií anv oí vou has been worshipping Mohammed. then let me tell vou
that Mohammed is dead. But ií vou reallv do worship God. then know vou that
God is li·ing and will ne·er die. Do vou íorget the ·erse in the Koran:
Mohammed is but an apostle. beíore whom other apostles ha·e alreadv
passed·` and also the other ·erse: 1hou shalt surelv die O Mohammed, and

, Ibn lisham: Al \akidi: Ibn Athir.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
thev also shall die· Upon hearing this speech oí Abu Bakr Omar
acknowledged his error and the crowd was satisíied and dispersed.
Al Abbas. the Prophet`s uncle. presided at the preparation íor the burial.
and the bodv was dulv washed and períumed. 1here was some dispute between
the Koreishites and the Ansars as to the place oí burial: but Abu Bakr settled
the dispute bv aííirming that he had heard the Prophet sav. that a prophet
should be buried at the ·erv spot where he died. A gra·e was accordinglv dug in
the ground within the house oí Avesha. and under the bed on which the
Prophet died. In this gra·e the bodv was buried. and the usual rites were
períormed bv those who were present.
1hus the glorious liíe oí the Prophet Mohammed ended. 1he Arabs. being
then united in one íaith and under one banner and one prince íound
themsel·es in a position to make those conquests which extended the Islam
íaith o·er so great a part oí the world.

1he íollowing comment on the Prophet`s liíe bv 1homas (arlvle. will be
íound to be as true a picture oí Mohammed`s character as can possiblv be
written bv the pen oí a Luropean historian. In his lecture 1he lero as
Prophet.` 1homas (arlvle writes: Mahomed himselí. aíter all that can be said
about him. was not a sensual man. \e shall err widelv ií we consider this man
as a common ·oluptuarv. intent mainlv on base enjovments-nav. on enjovments
oí anv kind. lis household was oí the írugalest. his common diet barlev bread
and water: sometimes íor months there was not a íire once lighted on his
hearth. 1hev record with just pride that he would mend his own shoes. patch
his own cloak. A poor hard-toiling. ill-pro·ided man: careless oí what ·ulgar
men toil íor. Not a bad man I should sav: something better in him than hunger
oí anv sort: or these wild Arab men íighting and jostling three- and twentv
vears at his hand. in close contact with him alwavs. would not ha·e re·erenced
him so. 1hese were wild men. bursting e·er and anon into quarrel. into all kinds
oí íierce sinceritv: without right. worth and manhood. no man could ha·e
commanded them. 1hev called him Prophet. vou sav· \hv he stood there íace
to íace with them: bare. not enshrined in anv mvsterv. ·isiblv clouting his own
cloak cobbling his own shoes. íighting. counselling ordering in the midst oí
them. thev must ha·e seen what kind oí a man he was. let him be called what ve
like! No emperor with his tiaras was obeved as this man in a cloak oí his own
clouting. During three and twentv vears oí rough actual trial. I íind something
oí a ·eritable hero necessarv íor that oí itselí.
lis last words are praver. broken ejaculations oí a heart struggling up in
trembling hope towards its Maker. \e cannot sav that his religion made him
worse: it made him better: good not bad. Generous things are recorded oí him:
when he lost his daughter. the thing he answers is. in his own dialect e·ervwav
sincere. and vet equi·alent to that oí (hristians. 1he Lord gi·eth and the Lord
taketh awav: blessed be the name oí the Lord` le answered in like manner oí
Zaid his emancipated well belo·ed sla·e. the second oí the belie·ers. Zaid had
íallen in the war oí 1abuc. the íirst oí Mahomet`s íighting against the Greeks.
Mahomet said it was well: Zaid had done his Master`s work Zaid had now gone
to his maker: it was all well with Zaid vet Zaid`s daughter íound him weeping

, G. Sale in his Preliminarv Discourse to his translation oí the Koran.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
o·er the bodv: -the old grevhaired man melting in tears! \hat do I see·` said
she. \ou see a íriend weeping o·er his íriend.` le went out íor the last time
into the mosque two davs beíore his death: asked. ií he had injured anv man·
Let his own back bear the stripes. Ií he owed anv man· A ·oice answered:
\es. me three drachms borrowed on such an occasion.` Mahomet ordered
them to be paid. Better be in shame now.` said he. than at the Dav oí
Judgment.` \ou remember Khadija and the No. bv Allah!` traits oí this kind
show us the genuine man. the brother oí us all. brought ·isible through twel·e
centuries. the ·eritable Son oí our common Mother.`

Mr. Bosworth Smith. apparentlv an unprejudiced Lnglish historian in his
Mohammed and Mohammedanism` comments as íollows: -
Mohammed did not. indeed. himselí weld together into a homogeneous
whole a ·ast svstem oí states like (harles the Great. le was not a philosophic
king. like Marcus Aurelius. nor a philosopher. like Aristotle. or like Bacon ruling
bv pure reason the world oí thought íor centuries with a more than kinglv
power: he was not a legislator íor all mankind nor e·en the highest part oí it.
like Justinian: nor did he cheaplv earn the title oí the Great bv being the íirst
among rulers to turn. like (onstantine. írom the setting to the rising sun. le
was not a philanthropist. like the Greatest oí the Stoics.
Nor was he the apostle oí the highest íorm oí religion and ci·ilisation
combined. like Gregorv or Boniíace. like Leo or Alíred the Great. I ha·e
seen.` and the ambassador sent to the triumphant Ouoraish at the despised
exile at Medina I ha·e seen the Persian (hosroes and the Greek leraclius
sitting upon their thrones: but ne·er did I see a man ruling his equal`s as does
lead oí the state as well as the (hurch he was (aesar and Pope in one: but
he was Pope without the Pope`s pretensions. (aesar without the legions oí
(aesar. \ithout a standing armv. without a íixed re·enue: ií e·er anv man had
the right to sav that he ruled bv a right di·ine. it was Mohammed. íor he had all
the powers without its instruments. and without its supports.
Bv a íortune absolutelv unique in historv. Mohammed is a threeíold
íounder oí a nation. oí an empire and oí a religion. Illiterate himselí. scarcelv
able to read or write.
he brought a book which is a code oí laws. a book oí
(ommon Praver. and a bible in one and is re·erenced to this dav bv a sixth oí
the whole oí the human race. as a miracle oí puritv oí stvle. oí wisdom and oí
truth. It was the one miracle claimed bv Mohammed-his standing miracle he
called it and a miracle indeed it is. But looking at the circumstances oí the time.
at the unbounded re·erence oí his íollowers. and comparing him with the
íathers oí the church or with mediae·al saints. to mv mind the most miraculous
thing about Mohammed is that he ne·er claimed the power oí working
miracles. \hate·er he had said he could do. his disciples would straightwav
ha·e seen him do. 1hev could not help attributing to him miraculous acts.

, Lectures on leroes bv 1homas (arlvle. p. 66.

, All trustworthv commentators and Moslem listorians agree in that the Prophet
Mohammad was absolutelv illiterate. le could ne·er read and write. (í. Ibn Athir: Ibn
lisham: Al \akidi: G. Sale: Sir \m Muir: 1he Koran,.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
which he ne·er did. and which he alwavs denied he could do. \hat more
crowning prooí oí his sinceritv is needed· Mohammed to the end oí his liíe
claimed íor himselí that title onlv. with which he had begun. and which the
highest philosophv and the truest (hristianitv will one dav. I ·enture to belie·e
agree in vielding to him. that oí a Prophet. a ·erv Prophet oí God.`

T Th he e P Pe er rs so on n a an nd d C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r o of f
t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t M Mo oh ha am mm ma ad d
t is onlv right that. beíore bringing the biographv oí the Prophet to a
conclusion. I should gi·e illustration oí his chieí traits and character. as
alreadv brought to light and passed as authentic bv distinguished Luropean
critics. Sir \illiam Muir writes.

“Personal Appearance and Gait (of the
Prophet): lis íorm. though little abo·e mean height. was statelv and
commanding. 1he depth oí íeeling in his dark black eves and the winning
expression oí a íace otherwise attracti·e gained the coníidence and lo·e oí
strangers. e·en at the íirst sight. lis íeatures other unbended into a smile íull oí
grace and condescension. le was` sav his contemporarv biographers. the
handsomest and bra·est. the brightest íaced and most generous oí men.` \et
when anger kindled in his piercing glance. the object oí his displeasure might
well quail beíore it. lis stern írown was an augurv oí death to manv a
trembling capti·e. In later vears. the erect íigure began to stoop but the step
was still íirm and quick. lis hail has been likened to that oí one descending
rapidlv a hill. \hen he made haste. it was with diííicultv that one kept pace with
him. le ne·er turned. e·en ií his mantle was caught in a thornv bush. so that
this attendants talked and laughed íreelv behind him. secure oí being

His Habits: 1hrough and complete in all his actions. he took in
hand no work with-out bringing it to a close. 1he same habit per·aded his
manner in social intercourse. Ií he turned in con·ersation towards a íriend. he
turned not partiallv. but with his íull íace and his whole bodv. In shaking hand
he was not the íirst to withdraw his own: nor was he the íirst break oíí in
con·erse with a stranger. nor to turn awav his ear`

, Vide 1he Liíe oí Mohammad` bv Sir \m. Muir.

, Vide 1he Liíe oí Mohammad` bv Sir \m. Muir.


)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Simplicity of his life: A patriarchal simplicitv
per·aded his liíe. lis custom was to do e·ervthing íor himselí. Ií he ga·e an
alms. he would place it with his own hand in that oí petitioner. le aided his
wi·es in the household duties. mended his clothes. tied up the goats. and e·en
cobbled his sandals. lis ordinarv dress was oí plain white cotton stuíí. made
like his neighbours: but on high and íesti·e occasions he wore garments oí íine
linen. striped or dved in red. le ne·er reclined at meals. le ate with his íingers:
and when he had íinished. he would lick them beíore he wiped his hands. le
li·ed with his wi·es in a row oí low and homelv cottages. built oí unbaked
bricks. the apartments separated bv walls oí palm branches. rudelv daubed with
mud. while curtains oí leather. or oí black haircloth. supplied the place oí doors
and windows. le was to all easv oí access -e·en as the ri·er`s bank to him that
draweth water írom it`- vet he maintained the state and dignitv oí real power.
No approach was suííered to íamiliaritv oí action oí speech. 1he Prophet must
be addressed in subdued accents and in a re·erential stvle. lis word was
absolute: his bidding law. Lmbassies and deputations were recei·ed with the
utmost courtesv and consideration. In the issue oí rescripts. bearing on their
representations. or in other matters oí state. the Prophet displaved all the
qualiíications oí an able and experienced ruler. as the reader
will ha·e obser·ed
írom the numerous examples gi·en. And what renders this the more strange. is
that he was ne·er known himselí to write.`

Urbanity and Kindness of Disposition:
A remarkable íeature was the urbanitv and consideration. with which
Mohammed treated e·en the most insigniíicant oí his íollowers. Modestv and
kindliness. patience. selí-denial and generositv per·aded his conduct and ri·eted
the aííections oí all around him. le disliked to sav. No` Ií unable to answer a
petitioner in the aííirmati·e he preíerred silence. le was more bashíul.` savs
his wiíe Avesha. than a ·eiled ·irgin: and ií anvthing displeased him. it was
rather írom his íace. than bv his words. that we disco·ered it: he ne·er smote
anvone. but in the ser·ice oí God. not e·en a woman or a ser·ant`. le was not
known e·er to reíuse an in·itation to the house e·en oí the meanest. nor to
decline a proííered present. howe·er small. \hen seated bv a íriend. he did not
haughtilv ad·ance his knees toward him. le possessed the rare íacultv oí
making each indi·idual in a companv think that he was the ía·oured guest. Ií
he met anv one rejoicing at success. he would seize him eagerlv and cordiallv bv
the hand. \ith the berea·ed and aíílicted. he svmpathized tenderlv. Gentle and
indulgent towards little children. he would not disdain to accost a group oí
them at plav. with the salutation oí peace. le shared his íood. e·en in time oí
scarcitv. with others: and was sedulouslv solicitous íor the personal comíort oí
e·erv one about him. A kindlv and bene·olent disposition per·ades all these
illustrations oí his character.`

Friendship: Mohammed was also a íaithíul íriend. le lo·ed Abu
Bakr with the close aííection oí a brother: Ali. with the íond partialitv oí a

, I.e. the reader oí Sir \m. Muir`s Liíe oí Mohammad`.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
íather. Zaid. the sla·e oí his wiíe Khadija. was so stronglv won bv the kindness
oí the Prophet. that he preíerred to remain at Mecca. rather than return home
with his own íather: I will not lea·e thee.` he said. clinging to his patron. íor
thou hast been a íather and a mother to me.` 1he íriendship oí Mohammed
sur·i·ed the death oí Zaid and his son Osama was treated bv him with
distinguished ía·our íor the íather`s sake. Othman and Omar were also the
objects oí his special attachment: and the enthusiasm with which at Al
lodeibiva. the Prophet entered into the Pledge oí the 1ree`. and swore that
he would deíend his beleaguered son-in-law e·en to death. was a signal prooí
oí íaithíul íriendship. Numerous other instances oí Mohammed`s ardent and
unwa·ering regard might be adduced. And his aííections were in no instance
misplaced: thev were e·er reciprocated bv a warm and selí-sacriíicing lo·e.`
Moderation and Magnanimity: In the exercise oí a
power absolutelv dictatorial Mohammed was just and temperate. Nor was he
wanting in moderation towards his enemies. when once thev had cheeríullv
submitted to his claims. 1he long and obstinate struggle against his mission.
maintained bv the inhabitants oí Mecca. might ha·e induced its conqueror to
mark his indignation in indelible traces oí íire and blood. But Mohammed.
excepting a íew criminals. granted a uni·ersal pardon: and noblv casting into
obli·ion the memorv oí the past. with all its mockerv. its aííronts and
persecution. treated e·en the íoremost oí his opponents with gracious and e·en
íriendlv consideration. Not less marked was the íorbearance shown to Abdallah
and the disaííected citizens oí Medina. who íor so manv vears persistentlv
thwarted his designs and resisted his authoritv. nor the clemencv. with which he
recei·ed the submissi·e ad·ances oí tribes that beíore had been the most
hostile. e·en in the hour oí ·ictorv.`

Some (hristian biographers oí the Prophet dwell too much on what thev
termed his crueltv towards his enemies. lonestlv speaking. crueltv was nowhere
shown in the conduct oí the Prophet. as the reader will ha·e obser·ed in his
Liíe. as gi·en in this book.
It is not the intention oí the author oí this book to occupv too much space
in reíuting the numerous misrepresentations made bv hostile biographers.
lowe·er. as one instance oí the íalse charge oí crueltv. brought against the
Prophet or his íollowers without íoundation. I quote a statement on the subject
bv Mr. George Sale:-Dr. Prideaux. speaking oí Mohammed`s obliging those oí
Al Nadir to quit their settlements. savs that a partv oí his men pursued those
who íled into Svria. and ha·ing o·ertaken them. put them all to the sword.
excepting onlv one man that escaped. \ith such crueltv.` continues he. did
those barbarians íirst set up to íight íor that imposture thev had been deluded
But a learned gentleman has alreadv obser·ed that this is all grounded
on a mistake which the doctor was led into bv an imperíection in the printed
edition oí Llmacians: where aíter mention oí the expulsion oí the Nadirites. are
inserted some incoherent words. relating to another action which happened the

, Vide Sir \illiam Muir`s 1he Liíe oí Mohammad`

, Prideaux. Liíe oí Mah. P. 82.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
month beíore. and wherein se·entv Moslems. instead oí putting others to the
sword. were super·ised and put to the sword themsel·es. together with their
leader Al Mondar Lbn Omar (aab Lbn Zeid alone escaping. Vide Gagnier.
not in Abulí. Vit Moh. P.¯2,.`

Sir \illiam Muir continues his remarks on the person and character oí the
Prophet as íollows:
Domestic Life:
In domestic liíe. the conduct oí Mohammed was exemplarv. As husband
his íondness and de·otion were entire. As a íather he was lo·ing and tender. In
his vouth. he li·ed a ·irtuous liíe: and at the age oí twentv-íi·e he married a
window. íortv vears old. during whose liíetime. íor íi·e and twentv vears. he
was a íaithíul husband to her alone. \et it is remarkable that during this period
were composed most oí those passages oí the Koran. in which the black eved
louries` reser·ed íor Belie·es in Paradise. are depicted in such glowing

Sir \illiam Muir. íollowing the example oí other (hristian writers. has
attributed the Prophet`s polvgamv to unchecked range oí his uxorious
inclinations` and when ·iewing the social and domestic liíe oí Mohammed.
íairlv and impartiallv`. he saw it to be chequered bv light and shade: and that.
while there is much to íorm the subject oí nearlv vvqvatitiea` praise. there is
likewise much cannot be spoken oí but in terms oí reprobation.`
Sir \illiam Muir himselí. as quoted abo·e. states that in his vouth the
Prophet li·ed a ·irtuous liíe: and at the age oí twentv íi·e married a window.
íortv vears old. avrivg rbo.e tite tive. tor tire ava trevty year.. be ra. a taitbtvt
bv.bava to ber atove. It is ob·iouslv absurd. to think that a man whose character
was such. could ha·e anv range oí uxorious inclinations`.
Sir \illiam Muir asserts. that it was not until the mature age oí íiítv-íour.
that the Prophet made the trials oí Polvgamv`. It is ob·iouslv a contradiction.
unworthv oí a íair and impartial critic. to think íor a moment that at such an
ad·anced age. a man who had li·ed in his vouth a ·irtuous liíe`. and who. at the
age oí twentv íi·e. married a window. íortv vears old. during whose liíe time.
íor íi·e and twentv vears. he was a íaithíul husband to her alone.` should ha·e
sexual inclinations. 1o anv reallv impartial biographer and also to anv
thoughtíul reader. this is quite impossible.

But the marriages oí the Prophet ha·e íurnished his critics with their chieí
weapons oí attack. and the interested missionarv has gone so íar as to call him a
·oluptuarv. although some oí his own re·ered spiritual leaders and Prophets
were chronicled to possess e·en as manv as a íew hundred wi·es.
lor this
reason I gi·e here a íew particulars regarding the Prophet`s marriages.

, G. Sale. 1rans oí Al Koran P. 405. lred. \arne & (o.

, Da·id had six wi·es and numerous concubines. 2 Sam. ·. 13. 1 (hron. iii 1-9: xi· 3,
Solomon had as manv as ¯00 wi·es and as manv as 300 concubines. Kings xi : 3,
Rehoboams had 18 wi·es and sixtv concubines 2 (hron. xi 21,.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

lis íirst marriage was contracted when he was twentv íi·e vears oí ages. and
the window. Khadija whom he married was íortv vears old. that is íiíteen vears
his senior. It was with her alone. that he passed all the vears oí his vouth and
manhood. until she died three vears beíore the lijra or emigration to Medina.
when he was alreadv an old man oí íiítv. 1his circumstance alone is suííicient
to gi·e the lie to those who would belittle him and call him a ·oluptuarv. Aíter
her death. while still at Mecca. he married Sauda and Avesha. the latter oí
whom was his onlv ·irgin wiíe. and she was the daughter oí his intimate and
illustrious íriend and helper Abu Bakr. 1hen íollowed the emigration to
Medina. and subsequent to be emigration. he had to íight manv battles with his
enemies. the Koreish. or such sided with the Koreish and persecuted the
Moslems. 1he result oí these battles. was a great discrepancv between the
number oí males and íemales. and his ía·ourite íollowers íell in the íield oí
battle. íighting his enemies. the care oí their íamilies de·ol·ed upon the
Prophet and his sur·i·ing companions. In the battle oí Badr íell Khunais. son
oí luaiía. and the íaithíul Omar`s daughter laísa was leít a window. Omar
oííered her to Othman and Abu Bakr in turn. and she at last was married to the
Prophet in the third vear oí the lijra.

Obaida. son oí larith. íell a martvr at Badr. and his window Zainab.
daughter oí Khuzaima. was taken in marriage bv the Prophet in the same vear.
In the next vear. Abu Salma died. and his window Um-i-Salma was taken to
wiíe bv the Prophet. As (hristian criticism lavs too much stress upon the
Prophet`s marriage with Zainab daughter oí Jahsh. a íull explanation oí the
e·ents in connection with this marriage is necessarv:
Zainab was the daughter oí the Prophet`s own aunt: she was one oí the
earlv con·erts to Islam. and the Prophet proposed to her brother that she
should be gi·en in marriage to Zaid. his adopted son and íreedman. Both
brother and sister were a·erse to this match. and onlv vielded under pressure
írom the Prophet. It is related. that thev both desired that the Prophet himselí
should marrv Zainab.
but the Prophet insisted that she should accept Zaid.
1he marriage was. howe·er. not a happv one. Zainab was harsh oí temper.
and she ne·er liked Zaid. on account oí the stigma oí sla·erv which attached to
his name. Diííerences arose. and Zaid expressed a desire to the Prophet oí
di·orcing Zainab. 1he news was grie·ous to the Prophet. íor it was he who had
insisted upon the marriage. and he thereíore ad·ised Zaid not to di·orce her.
le íeared that people would object that a marriage which had been arranged bv
the Prophet. was unsuccessíul. It is to this circumstance. that the ·erse in
Koran 3¯: XXII reíers: And. vou íeared men. and God had a greater right
that vou should íear lim.`

Let us now re·ert to Sir \illiam Muir`s ·iews oí the character oí the

, Al Razi: Abul lida: Ibn Athir etc.

, On the other hand. an end had to be put to the old custom oí the Arabs`
condemning a man`s marriage with a woman was once wedded to his adopted son.
lence. Koran`s ·erse.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Conviction of Special Providence:
Proceeding now to consider the religious and prophetical character oí
Mohammed. the íirst point which strikes the biographer is his constant and
·i·id sense oí a special and all per·ading Pro·idence. 1his con·iction moulded
his thoughts and designs. írom the minutest actions in pri·ate and social liíe to
the grand conception. that he was destined to be the reíormer oí his people and
oí all Arabia. le ne·er entered a companv but he sat down and rose up with
the mention oí the Lord. \hen the íirst íruits oí the season were brought to
him. he would kiss them. place them upon his eves and sav: Lord as 1hou hast
shown us the íirst. show unto us likewise the last.` In trouble and aííliction. as
well as in prosperitv and jov. he e·er saw and humblv acknowledged the hand
oí God. A íixed persuasion that e·er incident. small and great. is ordained bv
the di·ine will. led to the strong expressions oí predestination which abound in
the Koran. It is the Lord \ho turneth the hearts oí mankind: and alike íaith in
the belie·er. and unbelieí in the iníidel. are the result oí the di·ine íait. 1he
hour and place oí e·ervman`s death. as all other e·ents in his liíe. are
established bv the same decree: and the timid belie·er might in ·ain seek to
a·ert the stroke bv shunning the íield oí battle. But this persuasion was íar
remo·ed írom the belieí in a blind and inexorable íate: íor Mohammed held the
progress oí e·ents in the di·ine hand to be amenable to the iníluence oí praver.
le was not slow to attribute the con·ersion oí a scoííer. like Omar. or the
remo·al oí an impending misíortune as the deli·erance oí Medina írom the
(oníederate hosts,. to the eííect í his own earnest petitions to the Lord.`

Unwavering Steadfastness at Mecca: 1he
growth in the mind oí Mohammed oí the con·iction. that he was appointed to
be the Prophet and Reíormer. is intimatelv connected with his belieí in a special
Pro·idence embracing the spiritual as well as the material world: and out oí that
con·iction arose the coníidence that the Almightv would crown his mission
with success. \hile still at Mecca. there is no reason to doubt that the
questionings. and aspirations oí his inner soul were regarded bv him as
proceeding directlv írom God. 1he light which graduallv illuminated his mind
with a knowledge oí the di·ine unitv and períections. and oí the duties and
destinv oí man. -light amidst gross darkness. -must ha·e emanated írom the
same source: and le \ho in lis own good pleasure had thus begun the work.
would surelv carrv it through to a successíul ending. \hat was Mohammed
himselí. but an instrument in the hand oí the Great \orker· Such. no doubt.
were the thoughts which strengthened him. alone and unsupported. to bra·e
íor manv wearv vears the taunts and persecutions oí a whole people. In
estimating the signal moral courage. thus displaved. it must not be o·erlooked
that íor what is ordinarilv termed phvsical courage Mohammed was not

It mav be doubted whether he e·er engaged personalitv in acti·e conílict
on the battleíields. 1hough he oíten accompanied his íorces. he ne·er himselí
led them into action. or exposed his person to a·oidable danger. And there
were occasions. on which he showed svmptoms oí a íaint heart. \et e·en so. it

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
onlv brings out in higher relieí the singular displav oí moral daring. Let us íor a
moment look to the period when a ban was proclaimed at Mecca against all
citizens. whether proíessed con·erts or not. who espoused his cause or
·entured to protect him: and when along with these. he was shut up in the
Shi`b`. or quarter oí Abu 1alib. and these íor three vears. without prospect or
relieí endured want and hardship. Strong and steadíast must ha·e been the
moti·es which enabled him. amidst such opposition and apparent hopelessness
oí success to maintain his principles unshaken. No sooner had he been released
írom this restraint than. despairing oí his nati·e citv. he went íorth solitarv and
unaided to At-1aií. and there summoned its rulers and inhabitants to
repentance. with the message which he said he had írom his Lord: on the third
dav was dri·en out oí the town with ignominv. while blood ílowed írom
wounds inílicted on him bv the populace. Retiring to a little distance. he poured
íorth his complaint to God. and then returned to Mecca. there to resume the
same outwardlv hopeless cause. with the same high coníidence in its ultimate
success. \e search in ·ain through the pages oí proíane historv íor a parallel to
the struggle. in which íor thirteen vears the Prophet oí Arabia. in the íace oí
discouragement and threats. rejection and persecution. retained thus his íaith
unwa·ering. preached repentance. and denounced God`s wrath against his
godless íellow-citizens. Surrounded bv a little band oí íaithíul men and women.
he met insults. menaces. and danger with a loítv and patient trust in the íuture.
And when at last the promise oí saíetv came írom a distant quarter. he calmlv
waited until his íollowers had all departed. and then disappeared írom amongst
ungrateíul and rebellious people.
Not less marked was the íirm íront and unchanging íaith in e·entual
·ictorv which at Medina bore him through se·en vears oí mortal conílict with
his nati·e citv: and enabled him. sometimes e·en under deíeat. and while his
iníluence and authoritv were vet limited and precarious. e·en in the citv oí his
adoption. to speak and to act in the constant and undoubted expectation oí

Denunciation of Polytheism and
Idolatry: lrom the earliest period oí his religious con·ictions. the
Unitv. or the idea oí One Great Being guiding with almightv power and
wisdom all creation. and vet iníinitelv abo·e it. gained a thorough possession oí
his mind. Polvtheism and idolatrv. at ·ariance with this grand principle. were
indignantlv condemned. as le·eling the (reator with the creature. On one
occasion alone did Mohammed swer·e írom this position. when he admitted
that the goddesses oí Mecca might be adored as medium oí approach to God.

But the inconsistencv was soon percei·ed: and Mohammed at once retraced his
steps. Ne·er beíore. nor aíterwards. did the Prophet de·iate írom the stern
denunciation oí idolatrv.

, 1his is a great mistake on the part oí the biographer caused bv a misconception oí
the peculiar ·erse oí the Koran which reíers exclusi·elv to the heathens` own
con·iction oí the successíul intercession oí their idols. Author,

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

Earnestness and Honesty of Mohammed at
Mecca: As he was himselí subject to con·ictions thus deep and poweríul.
it will readilv be concei·ed that his exhortations were distinguished bv a
corresponding strength and cogencv. Master oí eloquence. his language was
cast in the purest and most persuasi·e stvle oí Arabian oratorv. lis íine
poetical genius exhausted the imagerv oí nature in the illustration oí spiritual
truths: and a ·i·id imagination enabled him to bring beíore his people the
Resurrection and the Dav oí Judgment. the jovs oí belie·ers. in Paradise. and
the agonies oí lost spirits in lell. as close and impending realities. In ordinarv
address. his speech was slow. distinct. and emphatic: but when he preached. his
eves would redden. his ·oice rise high and loud. and his whole írame agitate
with passion. e·en as ií he were warning the people oí an enemv. about to íall
on them the next morning or that ·erv night`.

His disposition: \hen Avesha was questioned about
Mohammed. she used to sav: le was a man just such as voursel·es: he
laughed oíten and smiled much:. Ií he had the choice between two matters. he
would alwavs choose the easier. so that no sin accrued thereírom. le ne·er
took re·enge. excepting where the honour oí God was concerned. \hen angrv
with anv person. he would sav: \hat hath taken such a one that he should soil
his íorehead in the dust.`

Humility: lis humilitv was shown bv his riding upon asses. bv his
accepting the in·itation e·en oí sla·es. and when mounted. bv his taking
another behind him. le would sav: I sit at meals as a ser·ant doth. and I eat
like a ser·ant. íor I reallv am a ser·ant`. and he would sit as one that was readv
to rise. le discouraged supererogatorv íasting. and works oí mortiíication. le
hated nothing more than lving: and whene·er he knew that anv oí his íollowers
had erred in this respect. he would hold himselí alooí írom them. until he was
assured oí their repentance.`

Attitude at Prayers: le used to stand íor such a length
oí time at praver that his legs would swell. \hen remonstrated with. he said.
\hat shall I not beha·e as a thankíul ser·ant should· le ne·er vawned at
praver. \hen he sneezed. he did so with a subdued ·oice. co·ering his íace. At
íunerals he ne·er rode: he would remain silent on such occasions. as ií
con·ersing with himselí so that the people used to think he was holding
communication with the dead.`

1he íollowing are abstracts oí \ashington Ir·ing`s account oí the
characteristics oí the Prophet Mohammed.

lis intellectual qualities were undoubtedlv oí an extraordinarv kind. le had
a quick apprehension. a retenti·e memorv. a ·i·id imagination. and an in·enti·e

, Sir \illiam Muir`s 1he Liíe oí Mohammad`.

, Liíe oí Mahomet bv \ashington Ir·ing Bell & Daldv. London 1864,

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
genius. lis ordinarv discourse was gra·e and sententious. abounding with those
aphorisms and epilogues. so popular among the Arabs: at times. he was excited
and eloquent. and his eloquence was aided bv a ·oice musical sonorous.
le was sober and abstemious in his diet. and a rigorous obser·er oí íasts.
le indulged in no magniíicence oí apparel. the ostentation oí a pettv mind.
neither was his simplicitv in dress aííected. but the result oí a real disregard to
distinction írom so tri·ial a source. lis garments were sometimes oí wool.
sometimes oí the striped cotton oí \emen. and were oíten patched. le
íorbade the wearing oí clothes entirelv oí silk: but permitted a mixture oí
thread and silk.
le was scrupulous as to personal cleanliness. and obser·ed írequent
ablutions. In his pri·ate dealings he was just. le treated íriends and strangers.
the rich and the poor. the poweríul and the weak. with equitv. and was belo·ed
bv the common people íor the aííabilitv. with which he recei·ed them. and
listened to their complaints. le was naturallv irritable. but had brought his
temper under great control. so that e·en in the selí-indulgent intercourse oí
domestic liíe. he was kind and tolerant. I ser·ed him írom the time I was eight
vears old.` said his ser·ant Anas. and he ne·er scolded me íor anvthing.
though things were spoiled bv me.`

T Th he e R Re ea al l M Mo ot ti iv ve es s o of f t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
. Ir·ing. seeking to disco·er the real moti·es oí Mahomet` in gi·ing
himselí íor a prophet oí God. put the íollowing questions. which
himselí answered: -
\as it riches· lis marriage with Khadija had alreadv made him wealthv.
and íor vears preceding his pretended ·ision.` he had maniíested no desire to
increase his store. \as it distinction· le alreadv stood high in his nati·e place.
as a man oí intelligence and probitv. le was oí the illustrious tribe oí Koreish.
and the most honoured branch oí the tribe. \as it power· 1he guardianship oí
the Kaaba. and with it the command oí the sacred citv had been íor generation
in his immediate íamilv. and his situation and circumstances entitled him to
look íorward with coníidence to that exalted trust. In attempting to sub·ert the
íaith. in which he had been brought up. he struck at the root oí all these
ad·antages. On that íaith were íounded the íortunes and dignities oí his íamilv.
1o assist it. must draw on himselí the hostilitv oí his kindred. the indignation oí
his íellow-citizens and the horror and odium oí all his countrvmen who were
worshippers oí the Kaaba.

\as there anvthing brilliant in the outset oí his prophetic career to repav
him íor these sacriíices. and to lure him on· On the contrarv. it was begun in
doubt and secrecv. lor vears it was not attended bv anv material success. In
proportion as he made known his doctrines and proclaimed his re·elations.
thev subjected him to ridicule. scorn. obloquv and íinallv to an in·eterate
persecution. which ruined the íortunes oí himselí and his íriends: compelled
some oí his íamilv and íollowers to take reíuge in a íoreign land: obliged him to
hide írom sight in his nati·e citv. and íinallv dro·e him íorth a íugiti·e. to seek

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
an uncertain home elsewhere. \hv should he persist íor vears in course oí
imposture which was thus prostrating all his worldlv íortunes. at a tie oí liíe
when it was too later to build up anew·
le was íortv vears oí age beíore he íirst broached his doctrines. le
suííered vears aíter vear to steal awav. beíore he promulgated them outside oí
his own íamilv. \hen he íled írom Mecca. thirteen vears had elapsed írom the
announcement oí his mission. and írom being a wealthv merchant. he had sunk
to be a ruined íugiti·e. \hen he reached Medina. he had no idea oí the worldlv
power that awaited him: his onlv thought was to build a humble mosque where
he might preach: and his onlv hope. that he might be suííered to preach with
lis militarv triumphs awakened no pride nor ·ainglorv. as thev would ha·e
done had thev been eííected íor selíish purposes. In the time oí his greatest
power he maintained the same simplicitv oí manners and appearance as in the
davs oí his ad·ersitv. So íar írom aííecting regal state. he was displeased ií. on
entering a room. anv unusual testimonial oí respect were shown him. Ií he
aimed at uni·ersal dominion. it was the dominion oí íaith: as to the temporal
rule which grew up in his hands. he used it without ostentation. and he took no
step to perpetuate it in his íamilv.

1he riches which poured in upon him írom tribute and the spoils oí war
were expended in promoting the ·ictories oí the íaith: and in relie·ing the poor
among its ·otaries: insomuch that his treasurv was oíten drained oí its last coin.
Omar Ibn Al lareth declares that Mahomet` at his death. did not lea·e a
golden dinar nor a sil·er dirham. a sla·e nor a sla·e-girl. nor anvthing but his
grav mule Daldal. his arms and the ground which he bestowed upon his wi·es.
his children. and the poor.

It is this períect abnegation oí selí connected with this apparentlv heartíelt
pietv. running throughout the ·arious phases oí his íortune. which perplex one
in íorming a just estimate oí Mahomet`s character. lowe·er. he betraved the
allov oí earth aíter he had worldlv power at his command. the earlv aspirations
oí his spirit continuallv returned and bore him abo·e all earthv things. Praver.
that ·ital dutv oí Islam. and that iníallible puriíier oí the soul. was his constant
practice. 1rust in God`. was his comíort and support in times oí trail and
despondencv. On the clemencv oí God. we are told. he reposed all his hopes oí
supernal happiness. Avesha relates that on one occasion she inquired oí his.
Oh. prophet. do none enter Paradise but through God`s mercv· None. none.
none.` replied he. with earnest and emphatic repetition. But vou. O prophet.
will not vou enter excepting through lis compassion·` 1hen Mahomet` put
his hand upon his head. and replied three times. with great solemnitv. Neither
shall I enter Paradise. unless God co·er me with lis mercv.`
\hen he hung o·er the death-bed oí his iníant son Ibrahim. resignation to
the will oí God was exhibited in his conduct under this keenest oí aíílictions:
and the hope oí soon rejoining his child in Paradise was his consolation. \hen
he íollowed him to the gra·e. he in·oked his spirit. in the awíul examination oí
the tomb to hold íast to the íoundations oí the íaith. the unitv oí God. and his
own mission as a prophet. L·en in his own dving hour. when there could be no

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
longer a worldlv moti·e íor deceit he still breathed the same religious de·otion.
and the same belieí in his apostolic mission. 1he last words that trembled on
his lips ejaculated a trust oí soon entering into blissíul companion-ship with the
prophets who had gone beíore him.`

A At tt ta ac ck ks s o of f C Ch hr ri is st ti ia an n D Di iv vi in ne es s
a ag ga ai in ns st t t th he e P Pr ri iv va at te e
C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r o of f t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
he manner. in which (hristian di·ines ha·e attacked the pri·ate character
oí the prophet. is indeed ·erv surprising. 1hev seem to reject the sacred
mission oí the prophet Mohammed merelv on account oí his polvgamous
marriages etc.. when vet thev recei·e as inspired the savings oí Balaam. Da·id
or Solomon. Missionaries should not. as a rule attack the character oí
Ií the prophetic mission oí Mohammed should be rejected bv the ministers
oí the church on account oí his ha·ing had nine wi·es and two concubines.
whv should not thev raise the same objection against such oí the Old
1estament prophets whose number oí wi·es and concubines had bv íar
exceeded that number·

Da·id had six wi·es and numerous concubines 2 sam ·. 13: 1 (hron .iii. 1-
9: xi·. 3,: Solomon as manv as ¯00 wi·es and as manv as 300 concubines.
Kings xi. 3,. Rehoboam had 18 wi·es and 60 concubines 2 (hron. ix. 21,. a
pluralitv expresslv íorbidden to the so·ereign oí Israel. who was commanded
not to multiplv wi·es to himselí Deut. x·ii. 1¯,. lonestlv speaking. prejudice
and partialitv alone seem to reign o·er all the writings oí (hristian missionaries.
when thev deal with the person and character oí the Prophet.

1he mere íact that the Prophet Mohammed entered into polvgamous
relationship should not be made the pretext íor attacks on his unsullied
character. ·ouched íor bv íriends and íoes alike. 1he circumstances. connected
with the marriages oí the Prophet must be taken into consideration. in order to
come to a right conclusion. As alreadv stated. he passed his adult davs with an
elderlv widow and did not. condescend to enter into another wedlock. e·en
though the Mecca elders gladlv agreed to place the most beauteous damsel oí
the wealthiest íamilv at his disposal. lowe·er. later on. in the declining vears oí
his liíe. he married a number oí wi·es who. with the solitarv exception oí
Avesha. were either widows or di·orced women. 1hese íacts. ·iewed in the
light oí the truth that the Prophet passed his davs in preaching and acti·elv

, \. Ir·ing`s Liíe oí Mohamet` Bell. & Daldv , p. 200.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
pushing the cause oí his new íaith. and his nights in praver. and that the
Prophet was uni·ersallv belie·ed to be an honest man. endowed with all the
qualities oí moral greatness and all the attributes oí ·irtuous manliness. bring
home the con·iction to e·erv sound mind. that sensualitv as a moti·e oí action.
is conspicuous bv its absence in the liíe oí the Prophet oí Islam. Lach oí his
marriages brought a world oí social and political good to the Moslem
communitv. and these marriages were a ·aluable instrument in welding together
the contending íactions oí Arabia into a united communitv. lad polvgamv.
allowed bv the Prophet under reasonable restraints and limitations. been a
social bane. as some prejudiced critics trv to assert. it would ha·e hampered the
moral ele·ation oí the corrupted Arabs. But with the adoption oí Islam as a
moral code. the moral impro·ement grew apace. and the transíormation
wrought in the moral condition oí Arabia. is without a parallel in the historv oí
the world.

T Th he e S So oc ci ia al l C Ch ha an ng ge es s
B Br ro ou ug gh ht t a ab bo ou ut t b by y t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
ealing with the social changes brought about bv the Prophet. Dr.
states: One íact among others bv which we can estimate the
striking impression the Prophet produced upon the Arabs. is that as each tribe
submitted. or adopted his religion. it renounced the right oí retaliation íor the
bloodshed in the struggle. Under other circumstances. this renunciation oí
blood re·enge. or oí wergild at least. would ha·e seemed to the Arab the lowest
depth oí humiliation. 1his was. indeed so striking a íeature oí the new
brotherhood that it could not íail to make a silent but deep impression upon
the unbelie·ing multitude who now began to íeel the power oí the new religion.
1o those who seek miracles. this glorious result. achie·ed in less than a
decade. constitutes a real and splendid miracle oí Islam. which alone gi·es it the
title. to be ranked as a great religion and a wonderíul ci·ilising agencv. In an
exquisitelv beautiíul passage. íull oí grace and wisdom. the lolv Koran draws a
contrast between the liíe and manners oí the Arabs in the shade oí Islam and
those in pre-Islamic times: and urges upon the true belie·ers a true union oí
hearts. and dwells on the real purpose oí the ad·ent oí the new religion. lere is
a translation oí the ·erses: O ve belie·ers. íear God as le deser·eth to be
íeared: and die not but as true Moslems. And hold ve íast bv the cord oí God.
all oí vou. and do not scatter voursel·es. and remember God`s goodness
towards vou. bor tbat rbev yov rere evevie.. íe vvitea yovr beart.. ava tbrovgb
íi. grace. ye becave bretbrev, and when ve were on the brink oí the pit oí íire.
le drew vou back írom it: thus clearlv God showeth lis signs. that ve mav be
guided. And let there be among vou a people who in·ite to the good. and
enjoin the right. and íorbid the wrong: and these are thev who shall succeed.
And be ve not like those who ha·e broken into di·isions and íallen into

, Dr. Noldeke`s Book on Islam.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
·ariance. aíter the clear prooís ha·e come to them: and íor those there waits a
terrible chastisement`

X XI II I. .
T Th he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n W Wr ro ou ug gh ht t
b by y t th he e A Ad dv ve en nt t o of f I Is sl la am m
slam writes Mr. Stanlev Lane Poole. is a íorm oí a pure theism. simpler and
more austere than the theism oí most íorms oí modern (hristianitv
. Loítv
in the conception oí the relation oí man to God. and noble in its doctrine oí
the dutv oí man to the lower creatures. 1here is little in it oí superstition
. less
oí complexitv oí dogmas: it is an exacting religion without the repulsi·eness oí
asceticism: se·ere but not merciless.
Nothing in íact is more odious. according to the doctrines oí Islam. than
the selí-inílicted torments and ·oluntarv penance oí the ascetics. It alwavs
recommends the culti·ation oí the social ·irtues and the practice oí those
qualities which íorm the graces oí a corporate liíe. Islam laid the íoundations oí
a social svstem which breathes the spirit oí charitv. íriendship. and mutual trust
among its member. So impressi·elv did the Prophet bring these high lessons
home to the Arabs mind. both bv precepts and example. that the tribal
jealousies oí centuries soon became extinct. the old spirit oí re·enge. inherent
in the nation. died awav. and the hearts oí the true belie·ers were knit together
in the closest bond oí svmpathv and íraternitv. 1hev now íelt themsel·es as the
brethren oí one and the same íaith and citizens oí the same commonwealth.
enjoving equal rights and pri·ileges.
Islam penetrated into the ·erv hearts oí the Arab people. and the old spirit
oí jealousv and ·engeance. oí hostilitv and ill-will. vielded place to a happv
conscious-ness. oí the power oí lo·e. svmpathv and íellow-íeeling: the ·erv
character oí the Arab mind was changed. and manv oí the e·ils rooted in the
nation were íast eradicated. \ithin the Islamic commonwealth the internecine
wars. which were cause oí much wanton bloodshed. soon became a thing oí
the past: and hostile tribes were united in íaith and obedience: and the ·alour
which had been idlv spent in domestic quarrels. was ·igorouslv directed against
a íoreign enemv.`

T Th he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l S Sy ys st te em m o of f I Is sl la am m
hen the Prophet settled at Medina. he established a commonwealth
based not upon the old basis oí consanguinitv. but upon Religion. with
the Prophet himselí as the chieí magistrate. 1he spirit oí blood-re·enge
deri·ed írom the íierv and sensiti·e temper oí the Arabs which was responsible
íor the long protracted blood íeuds between clan and clan. waned awav. and in

, In íact there is not to be íound such a pure theism in anv other religion than Isalm.

, 1here is not the slightest superstition in Islam.

, Stanlev Lane Pool`s Lectures on Islam.`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
its place there grew up in each member oí the new commonwealth a genuine.
earnest desire to see the peace and unitv oí the communitv maintained. 1he
sense oí tribal pride and superioritv lost much oí its keenness: the bond oí
consanguinitv was greatlv relaxed. 1hev were taught to re·erence the new
institution. planted through the Prophet. bv God limselí. and to sink their
tribal dissensions in the common weal oí the brotherhood oí íaith. O men.
·erilv. we ha·e created vou oí one male and one íemale: and we ha·e di·ided
vou into peoples and tribes. that ve might ha·e knowledge one oí another.
1rulv. tbe vo.t rortby ot bovovr iv tbe .igbt ot Coa i. be rbo tearetb íiv vo.t.
Verilv. God is knowing and (ongnisant.`

Lqualitv oí rights was thus the distinguishing íeature oí the Islamite
commonwealth. A con·ert írom a humbler clan enjoved the same rights and
pri·ileges as one who belonged to the noblest Koreish. L·en a sla·e was
admitted as a brother írom the ·erv moment oí his con·ersion. and the highest
dignitarv in the state thought it no dishonour. to partake oí his repast with him.
Nor in the place oí worship were suííered artiíicial diííerences between man
and man: the high and the low. the prince and the peasant. the rich merchant oí
Mecca and the roaming bedouin oí the desert. stood shoulder to shoulder in
the presence oí their common Deitv. 1his equalitv and íraternitv was. and is
e·en todav. though much weakened. the kev-note oí Islam and the secret oí its
power as a world-religion.
1his le·eling principle. underlving the tenets oí the
new íaith. pro·ed a ·eritable blessing to the Arabs in particular. 1ribes and
races. hitherto at war with one another. were. in the embracing íold oí Islam.
welded into one nation. imbued with common ideas. common aims and
aspirations. and de·oted to a common cause. (onílicting interests were
harmonised írom a loval desire to ad·ance the public good. 1he lolv Koran
laid down certain principal laws. intended to go·ern their new relations as
members oí the state. to extinguish the íire oí the old tribal jealousv. and to
aííect a union oí hearts unknown beíore. 1he laws soon succeeded in bringing
order out oí chaos and coníusion and made ci·ic liíe possible íor the íirst time
in Arabia. O belie·ers.` So run the íine ·erses oí the Koran. Ií anv wicked
man come to vou with news. make a thorough inquirv. lest through ignorance
ve harm a people and ha·e to repent on the morrow oí what ve ha·e done: and
know that an apostle oí God is among vou. Should he submit to vou in most
matters ve would certainlv íall into diííicultv. But God hath endeared the íaith
to vou. and hath gi·en it ía·our in vour hearts. and hath made unbelieí and
wicked-ness and disobedience hateíul to vou. Such are thev who pursue a right
path. a bountv írom God and a grace: and God is knowing and \ise. Ií two
bodies oí the belie·ers are at war. then make ve peace between them with
íairness and do justice: God lo·eth those who are just. 1hose who belie·e are
brethren: whereíore make peace between vour brethren: and íear God. that ve
mav obtain mercv. O belie·ers. let not a people laugh another people to scorn
who haplv mav be better than themsel·es: neither let women laugh women to
scorn who haplv mav be better than themsel·es. Neither deíame one another.

, Koran. ch. 49 :13

, 1. \. Arnold. 1he Preaching oí Islam`.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
nor call one another bv bad names. \ickedness is such a bad qualitv to adopt.
aíter becoming true belie·ers. and whose who repent not oí this, are
wrongdoers. O belie·ers. a·oid írequent suspicions: ·erilv some suspicions are
a crime. and prv not into others` secrets. neither let the one oí vou traduce
another in his absence. \ould anv oí vou like to eat the ílesh oí his dead
brother· Surelv vou would loathe it. And íear ve God. íor God is readv to
íorgi·e. and le is Merciíul. O men. ·erilv \e ha·e made vou oí one male. and
one íemale. and \e ha·e made vou peoples and tribes that ve might know one
another. 1rulv. the most worthv oí the honour beíore God is he who íeareth
lim most. Verilv God is knowing. and (ognisant.

Such were the principles. on which the political svstem oí Islam was
grounded. It was thoroughlv democratic in character. It recognised indi·idual
and public libertv. secured the person and propertv oí the subjects. and íostered
the growth oí all ci·ic ·irtues. It communicated all the pri·ileges oí the
conquering class to those oí the conquered who coníormed to its religion. and
all the protection oí citizenship to those who did not. It put an end to old
customs that were oí immoral and criminal character. It abolished the inhuman
custom oí burving the iníant daughters ali·e. and took eííecti·e measures íor
the suppression oí the sla·e-traííic. it prohibited adulterv and incestuous
relationship: and on the other hand. inculcated puritv oí heart. cleanliness oí
bodv. and sobrietv oí liíe.`

T Th he e S So oc ci ia al l O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n o of f I Is sl la am m
he Prophet Mohammed did not onlv promulgate a religion. but he also
laid down a complete social svstem. containing minute regulations íor a
man`s conduct in all circumstances oí liíe. with due remarks and penalties.
according to his íulíillment or otherwise oí these rules. 1he social and the
religious parts oí Islam are so inseparablv bound up that it is impossible to cut
oíí the one írom the other without destroving both. Religion according to
Islam should not onlv lav down the law oí relation oí man to God. but should
also regulate and distinctlv deíine the proper relation between man and his
1he lolv Koran inculcates the soíter ·irtues. such as íriendliness. good
temper. aííabilitv oí manners. hospitalitv. íorgi·eness. íairness. in dealing.
regard íor superiors. kind treatment oí iníeriors. respect íor women. care oí
orphans. tending the sick. helping the helpless and the destitute. with a íorce
and persuasion which it is diííicult to íind elsewhere. 1he critics oí Islam ha·e
íor most part expressed their unstinted admiration íor the heroic. or sterner
·irtues. to wit: patient endurance. íortitude. lo·e oí truth under personal risk.
courage and manlv independence. which Islam has alwavs exalted and in the
practice oí which the Prophet himselí and the earlv Moslems were so
mar·elouslv distinguished: but these critics oíten íorget that Islam enjoins with
equal emphasis the culti·ation oí the gentler ·irtues too. Lessons oí modestv

, Koran. ch. 49 : 6-13.

, Bosworth Smith. Mohamed and Mohammedanism`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and bene·olence and charitv ha·e been so oíten reiterated in the Koran: and
again. these ·irtues íorm so conspicuous an element in the liíe and conduct oí
the Prophet and his companions. that Islam can justlv claim to be ranked as a
Religion oí Lo·e. L·erv chapter oí the lolv Koran begins with the name oí
God. the Merciíul. the (ompassionate.`

1he Prophet oí Islam has been denominated in the Koran as the tender.
the compassionate.` and the mercv íor the uni·erse.` limselí the tenderest and
the most lo·ing oí men. he was ne·er tired oí preaching to his íollowers the
brotherhood oí man and humanitv to all God`s creatures. low do vou think.`
he asks. God will know vou when vou are in lis presence· Bv vour lo·e oí
vour children. bv vour lo·e oí vour kin. oí vour neighbours. oí íellow-
creatures.` le displaved the greatest consideration íor the íeelings and
sensibilities oí others. le lo·ed his wi·es. and was kind to his ser·ants. le was
particularlv íond oí little children and discouraged the use oí the rod íor their
correction. le enjoined humanitv e·en to dumb animals.
Such being the ethics oí the Koran and the teachings oí the Apostle oí
Islam. it is easv to íorm some idea oí the exact nature and extent oí the change
wrought therebv in the liíe and thought oí the Arabs. Some oí the íirst íew
con·erts to Islam. unable to bear persecutions at the hands oí the idolaters.
sought reíuge in Abvssinia. \hen asked bv the Negus as to the reason whv thev
had leít countrv. Jaaíar. a cousin oí the Prophet. spoke thus as the mouthpiece
oí the small band oí reíugees: O King. we li·ed in ignorance. idolatrv and
unchastitv: the strong oppressed the weak. we spoke untruth: we ·iolated the
duties oí hospitalitv. 1hen a prophet arose. one whom we know írom our
vouth. with whose descent and conduct and good íaith we are all acquainted.
le told us to worship one God. to keep good íaith to. assist our relati·es. to
íulíill the rights oí hospitalitv. and to abstain írom all things impure ungodlv.
unrighteous. And he ordered us to sav pravers. gi·e alms. and to íast. \e
belie·ed in him: we íollowed him. But our countrvmen persecuted us. tortured
us and tried to cause us to íorsake our religion: and now we throw oursel·es
upon thv protection. \ilt thou not protect us·`

Dealing with this great spiritual re·olution. Sir \illiam Muir obser·es as
íollows:- Ne·er since the davs when primiti·e (hristianitv startled the world
írom its sleep. had men seen the like arousing oí spiritual liíe.1hirteen vears
beíore the lijra`. Mecca lav liíeless in its debased state. \hat a change had
those thirteen vears now produced. A band oí se·eral hundred persons had
rejected idolatrv. adopted the worship oí one God. and surrendered themsel·es
implicitlv to the guidance oí what thev belie·ed a Re·elation írom lim: praving
to the Almightv with írequencv and íer·our. looking íor pardon through lis
Mercv and stri·ing to íollow aíter good works. alms-gi·ing. puritv and justice.
1hev now li·ed under the constant sense oí the omnipotent power oí God and
oí lis pro·idential care o·er the minutest oí their concerns. In all the giíts oí
nature. in e·erv relation oí liíe. at each turn oí their aííairs. indi·idual or public.
thev saw lis hand. Mohammed was minister oí liíe to them. the source under

, Stanlev Lane Poole.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
God oí their new-born hopes. and to lim thev vielded an implicit

R Re ef fu ut ta at ti io on n o of f C Ce er rt ta ai in n F Fa al ls se e C Ch ha an ng ge es s
b by y
P Pr re ej ju ud di ic ce ed d W Wr ri it te er rs s a ag ga ai in ns st t I Is sl la am m
1. “Force and Compulsion were Employed
for the Dissemination of Islam”
slam took its birth. and has since li·ed. in the broad davlight oí historv. 1he
Moslems adhere to the íaith oí Islam not because thev were born and bred
in this íaith. but because it is the most historical religion and can bear with
períect saíetv e·en the se·erest possible criticism.
Ií those who brought the abo·e charge. had cared to deal with their subject
in an honest. straightíorward manner. thev should ha·e gone through the
teachings oí Islam. as embodied in the lolv Koran. and then pondered o·er
the íace. that the earlv Moslems were so much de·oted to the letter. as well as
the spirit oí this Book. that thev sacriíiced e·ervthing to obedience to the
injunctions contained in it. and did not swer·e e·en a hair`s breadth írom the
path laid down in their Book. Ií the Book enjoined íorce and compulsion íor
the spread oí Islam. the Moslems must íought and worked ha·oc íor the
propagation oí Islam. 1here is not e·en a single ·erse in the lolv Koran which
directlv or e·en indirectlv insinuates the alternati·e oí death or Islam íor the
unbelie·ers. 1here is no compulsion in religion` trumpets íorth loudlv the
peaceíul spirit oí Islam. 1he commandment is absolutelv positi·e and admits oí
no exception. 1he use oí íorce and compulsion is. then. totallv íorbidden. and
the imperati·e and highlv dictatorial character oí the injunction lea·es no room
íor anv chance oí making an exception in ía·our oí the emplovment oí war-
like means. íor the purpose oí popularising Islam. 1he mere íact that in the
historv oí Islam one meets with íighting and bloodshed can in no wav lead to
the conclusion that Islam was spread bv the sword. 1here is no religion the
historv oí which is not stained with blood. 1he (rusades. the (hristian
conquest oí Spain. the subsequent persecution and expulsion oí the Moslem
Moors. the davs oí the Inquisition. the massacres oí St. Bartholomew`s dav and
other similar tragedies. perpetrated in the name oí religion. recurring the
memorv. send a new horror and dismav throughout the world.

No reasonable person will thereíore be prepared to accuse the adherents oí
anv religion oí allowing íorce and compulsion. on the ílimsv ground that the
storv oí such religion makes mention oí bloodshed and íighting. Islam will be
to blame. ií it can be pro·ed that it sanctions the use oí íorce and compulsion
íor the propagation oí the íaith. But on the contrarv. we íind clear and explicit

, Sir \illiam Muir`s Liíe oí Mohammed.`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
injunctions íorbidding íorce íor the purpose oí religion. 1he onlv possible
conclusion that can be drawn írom the abo·e considerations. is that ií the
Moslems were acting in accordance with the teachings oí Islam. thev did not
take up arms íor the sake oí íorcing con·ersions. A glance at the historv oí
those davs will bring to light the íact that thev were persecuted. and were
subjected to all sorts oí torture and ill-treatment. 1hev leít their homes to sa·e
their li·es. but the merciless enemies íollowed them. At last when all peaceíul
means íailed. and the aggressi·e spirit oí their antagonists reached its zenith.
the enemies ha·ing made up their minds. to annihilate the embrvo dispensation.
the handíul oí Moslems were dri·en to ha·e recourse to arms. 1hev íought and
íought. till there was no danger leít to retard íree growth and expansion oí
Islam. Ií íacts alone are looked at. there should be no diííicultv in realising the
real situation oí the earlv Moslems who had to íight íor the sake oí selí-
preser·ation. Later on there was also a good deal oí íighting. and although
much oí this later íighting had little to do with religion. there is certainlv
nothing in it to blame the Moslems íor. 1he political de·elopment oí a nation is
another problem which needs careíul handling and which I lea·e íor students
oí politics to examine. In regard to those ·erses oí the lolv Koran. in which
war is enjoined upon Moslems against the iníidels. and that where·er thev are
íound thev shall be taken and killed with a general slaughter.` these ·erses and
their like. as alreadv stated. bear upon the deíensi·e war oí the Prophet. 1he
Moslems can produce anv number oí ·erses írom the lolv Koran which enjoin
all courtesv. politeness and ci·ilitv. e·en in the case oí se·ere persecutors. 1he
example oí the Prophet is clear on this point. le granted pardon to the Mecca
persecutors when. quite ·anquished. thev threw themsel·es on the mercv oí the
Prophet. God savs` And the ser·ants oí God oí Mercv are thev who walk
upon the earth soítlv: and when the ignorant address them. replv Peace`: and
thev pass the night in the adoration oí their Lord. prostrate at times, and
standing at others, íor pravers.`

I appeal to the good sense oí the readers as to whether there can be. íound a
higher ideal íor humanitv to pursue. God`s ser·ants are required to walk
humblv and harmlesslv. and when thev are coníronted with ignorance which is
onlv another name íor lack oí manners and manlv beha·iour. e·en there. when
hedged round bv ill manners and ill-treatment the true Moslem is called upon
to wish íor peace. le sole object in his social capacitv should be to spread
peace. e·en when harassed bv bad beha·iour and inconsiderate treatment.
Peace is the Moslem`s watchword. whate·er circumstances he has to pass
through. \hen comparing this highlv practical ideal with the (hristian
injunction Lo·e vour enemv.` a Moslem is constrained to admit his
impression that the (hristian code oí moralitv is onlv a set oí íair-seeming
platitudes. not meant íor practice. but merelv íor contro·ersial purposes. It is
all ·erv well to lo·e one`s enemv. but is it. a Moslem asks. in consonance with
human nature. to be able to show anvthing like real and true lo·e. where there
exists enmitv· Our enemv ií he is an enemv at all. in the natural sense oí the
word. cannot be expected to íeel ía·ourablv disposed. much less lo·ing and
aííectionate to us. lowe·er pious and godlv we mav happen to be. hatred and
contempt. the necessarv characteristics oí enmitv. must re-act on us. and our

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
attitude. at best. will be supposed inacti·e hatred. and in no case real lo·e. Lo·e
begets lo·e. and hatred begets hatred. 1his is the law oí nature. and a wise man
cannot ignore the course oí nature and írame a line oí conduct conílicting
straightwav with it. Islam does not require us to be hvpocritical lo·ers oí our
enemies. but calls upon us to be reconciled with our enemies. and to be at
peace with them. 1hus. remo·ing the cause oí enmitv. ií it is possible to do so.
a Moslem should be sincerelv lo·ing. But ií the cause cannot be remo·ed. our
hostilities should not be acti·e and aggressi·e. íor we are. in the honest
discharge oí our religious duties bound to wish íor peace under all
circumstances and all e·ents.

I ha·e alreadv stated with suííicient íullness. and not repeat it o·er and o·er
again that Moslem wars. as allowed in the Koran and explained bv the teachings
oí the Prophet. were entirelv deíensi·e. and thereíore the attacks recommended
are ne·er aggressi·e. 1he religion oí Islam is essentiallv íor peace. and e·en in
íighting the aim was nothing but peace.

1he deíensi·e wars oí the earlv Moslems are a matter oí historv. It is an
historical truth. and no reasonable person can reíuse to accept it. Aíter thirteen
long vears` persistent persecution. when all peaceíul measures had íailed and
pro·ed una·ailing when war or death were the onlv alternati·es. it would not
ha·e been right to act upon the Gospel ·erdict Lo·e vour enemies and do
good to them that hate vou.` and thus to allow the enemies oí Islam to re·el in
the wholesale massacre oí harmless worshippers oí the one true God. and to
sweep the onlv li·ing íaith out oí existence. Moslems who were bent upon the
preser·ation oí their belo·ed íaith at all hazards. Moslems who lo·ed God
abo·e all worldlv considerations. e·en their ·erv li·es. Moslems who were bv all
sorts oí ruthless tortures and merciless butcheries. goaded bv natural anger. so
íar kept down bv the peaceíul ordinances oí Islam. could not oí course adopt
the Lo·e vour enemv` maxim as their guide. 1he enemv oí God and his
blessed dispensation which preaches lo·e. peace and íellow-íeeling. can
scarcelv be expected to deser·e real lo·e at the hands oí a sincere lo·er oí God.
A Moslem cannot aííord to lo·e an enemv who hates God. le cannot go
against human nature. lis ideal will be peace. he reíuses to plav the aggressi·e
part. and he takes the initiati·e in the reconciliation and shows sincere lo·e
there-aíter. A zealous enthusiastic Moslem writer makes the íollowing remarks
on the attitude oí (hristian critics who lav great stress on the deíensi·e wars oí
the Prophet:

Our (hristian íriends lo·e to conceal íacts while dealing with Islam. 1hev
are e·er prepared to dwell upon the deíensi·e wars oí the Prophet and his earlv
íollowers. but thev take good care to keep us awav írom what Jesus is reported
to ha·e said with positi·e deíiniteness: 1hink not that I am come to send
peace on earth. I came not to send peace. but a sword` Again. we read: I am
come to send íire upon the earth and what will be ií it be alreadv kindled.` \e
read again in the Gospels: Suppose ve that I am come to gi·e peace on earth·
I tell vou. nav but rather di·ision.` One more we read in the Gospel: 1hen
said he unto them but now he that hath no sword let him sell his garment and

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
buv one`. It is now as clear as the dav. that ií Jesus had had the opportunitv oí
gaining political strength. he would ha·e íilled the earth with war and
bloodshed. notwithstanding his saving Lo·e vour enemv`. Peace is the thing a
Moslem is called upon to maintain bv whate·er means he can: but peace.
according to the abo·e statements attributed to Jesus. is the ·erv thing (hrist
came to destrov.

Instead oí the (hristian commandment. Resist not e·il. but whose·er
smiteth thee on the right cheek. turn to him the other also.` the Moslems
íollow their Koranic ·erdict. to wit: \ard oíí e·il in the best possible

Ií e·il is not to be resisted. it would be allowed to grow unchecked and eat
awav the ·erv ·itals oí humanitv. All goals. reíormatorv schools. and law courts
should be abolished íorthwith. so that under the charitable teachings oí the
(hristian íaith. e·il mav ha·e períect íreedom and run riot in whate·er wav it
can. \hen it is a sin to resist e·il. the natural consequence is the abject
toleration. or rather encouragement. oí all sorts oí neíarious designs and
mischie·ous courses. luman nature is not saíe under the assumed (hristian
teachings: thereíore. it naturallv re·olts against them. Ne·er has mankind. e·en
in the ·erv heart oí ci·ilisation which is said to be the direct result oí (hristian
teachings. acted upon these teachings which are against the intellect. nature and
instincts oí humanitv. 1he lolv Koran strikes at the ·erv root oí e·il. It stops
the ·erv source oí it. It savs: \ard oíí e·il in the best possible manner`. 1he
measure to be taken íor the remo·al oí e·il is not positi·e non-resistance.
which is not a sensible policv at all. but on the contrarv the most eííecti·e
methods ought to be used íor the extirpation oí e·il. 1he means suited to
particular cases are to be emploved. whether thev be harsh or mild. \hate·er is
producti·e oí desirable results should be restored to íor the eradications oí e·il.

2. Mohammedanism: A Religion of Sex–
As regards the assertion that Islam is a religion oí sex-indulgence nothing
can be íarther írom the truth. A comparison oí the moral conditions oí the
countries. populated bv Moslems and (hristians respecti·elv. will clearlv show
that the number oí illegitimate birth is alarminglv greater in (hristian than in
Moslem countries. 1he honour oí the íair sex is more in jeopardv in the íormer
than elsewhere. and the íreedom oí the soíter sex is nowhere so cruellv abused
and insulted as in manv (hristian lands. Islam enjoins upon its íollowers to li·e
and act under a constant sense oí the íear oí God. \hate·er a Moslem does. he
does it God íearinglv. lear oí God is the pre·ailing passion with a Moslem. and
go·erning all his thoughts. words. and actions. L·en in conjugal relations and
connubial dealings. íear oí God is the main moti·e oí action.
I gi·e below. in extenso. the nuptial sermon. uni·ersallv preached on the
occasion oí marriage. in imitation oí the Prophet: -

, Ouazi Abdul laque. 1he Re·iew oí Religion` Sept. 1913,.

, Koran.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
O ve belie·ers. íear God as le deser·es to be íeared. and die not without
ha·ing become true Moslems. O men íear vour Lord \ho hath created vou oí
one progenitor. and oí the same species created. le his wiíe and írom these
twain hath spread abroad so manv men and women. And íear ve God. in
\hose name ve ask mutual ía·ours. and re·erence the wombs that bore vou.
Verilv. God is watching o·er vou. O belie·ers íear God and speak with well-
guided speech. that God mav bless vour doings íor vou and íorgi·e vou vour
sins. And whoso obeveth God and lis apostle. with great bliss he surelv shall
be blest.`
1he sermon is a collection oí Koranic ·erses. and their repetition at each
and e·erv wedding. is meant to remind the Moslem men and women oí their
duties and obligations. It opens with a commandment to íear God and the selí-
same commandment is repeated quite a number oí times in the course oí the
sermon. showing that the whole oí the ceremonv to carried through with íear
oí God so that írom beginning to end it mav be a pure moral binding. and no
selíish equi·ocation or hvpocritical pre·arication mav mar the sanctitv oí the
sacred rite. 1he obligations accepted bv the pair at the time when the marriage
sermon is deli·ered. will thus be real and will exercise a lasting iníluence on the
íuture liíe oí the couple. as man and wiíe. 1he institution. based solelv on íear
oí God. is bound to be holv and those who hold to such a holv institution
cannot be charged with sinister moti·es. ií thev are true Moslems. Such a sacred
svstem can ne·er be producti·e oí sex-indulgence. A man who God-íearinglv
enters into a contract and bind himselí to certain obligations. cannot be termed
a sexual man. 1he ·erses clearlv gi·e the Moslem to understand that the
ultimate object oí the marriage contract is to win the pleasure oí God. \hen
acting írom such moti·es. it cannot be concei·ed that a Moslem considered
himselí to be pleasing God. while indulging in sensualitv. Sensualitv is an
abomination to God and a Moslem knows that íact írom the Koran. more than
anvbodv else. It is impossible. thereíore. to incur displeasure where the a·owed
object is to win appro·al. 1hus it is clear that Islamic marriage makes liíe pure
and chaste. and does not aííord occasion to taunt anv one with the ·ice oí
\hether a Moslem weds one wiíe or the íullest admissible number oí wi·es.
he cannot lose sight oí the object oí his liíe. le is not born íor anvthing but the
adoration oí God. le turns heretic ií he e·en íor an instant. e·en in the
moment oí sexual intercourse-the moment oí utmost enjovment and thereíore
oí utmost selí-íorgetíulness banishes írom his mind the purpose. íor which he
was brought into being. Marriage. whether monogamous or polvgamous. is íor
a Moslem the means oí attaining the nearness oí God.
1he Gospel`s commandment L·erv one that looketh at a woman to lust
aíter her. hath committed adulterv with he alreadv in his mind.` shows us that
an e·il look is íorbidden: but a look ha·ing no wicked intention behind it is
permitted. Moslems. howe·er. are bond bv their religion not to look repeatedlv
and íreelv at a strange woman. íor the pleasure oí doing so. According to
human nature a woman. on account oí her charms. is an object oí temptation:
and whoe·er exposes himselí íreelv to temptation prepares the wav íor his
moral destruction. 1oo much indulgence in the habit oí looking íreelv at
beauties. as it seems to be allowed according to the Gospel`s text leads to e·il.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he best wav to guard against e·il. is to a·oid the path that leads to temptation.
1he Koran íorbids both pure and impure íree looks: íor too much recourse to
pure looks is likelv to prompt impure ones. 1o be saíe. temptation must be
kept at arm`s length and not nourished íreelv to exhaust one`s patience and
power oí resistance. 1he Koran`s injunctions on the subject are as íollows: -
Ask the belie·ers men to cast down their eves and obser·e continence.
1hus thev will be more pure. Verilv God is well aware oí what thev do. And ask
the belie·ing women to reírain their looks and obser·e continence: and to
displav not their ornaments except those which are external. and to draw their
husbands or their husband`s íathers or their sons. or their íathers or their
husband`s sons. or their brothers or their brothers` sons or their sisters sons or
their women or their sla·es or male domestics who ha·e no natural íorce. or to
children who note not women`s nakedness. And let them not strike with their
íeet. so as to show their hidden ornaments. And be ve whollv turned to God. O
ve belie·ers: then all shall be well with vou.`

1hus: both men and women are required to reírain írom unnecessarv
looking at each other. 1he soíter sex is required to walk about so careíullv as
not to be a stumbling block íor anv weakling. and thereíore the social moralitv
and indi·idual chastitv are kept intact. Promiscuous intermingling oí both
sexes. and the reckless displav oí charms on the part oí the íair sex. ha·e gone a
long wav towards undermining the moral tone oí (hristian countries.

A learned man
. commenting on the charge that Islam stimulates sex
indulgence. writes in the Re·iew oí Religions: -
1he li·ing íacts speak ·olumes íor themsel·es and no one who has had
occasion to read up certain articles in the Lncvclopedia Britannica. can aííord
to question the truth oí the sad state oí aííairs so strikinglv brought to light in
them. \e cannot shut our eves to the ennobling iníluence oí the growing
ci·ilisation oí Lurope. but ci·ilisation with all its soítening and ele·ating íorces.
has not vet been able to ob·iate the necessitv oí íood. and alle·iate the pressure
oí all the cra·ings oí nature. Ií thereíore attraction oí charms. is a natural
aptitude. as surelv it is. one cannot help admitting. that unlike other natural
desires. this cra·ing oí nature also remains unaííected bv the ad·ance oí
ci·ilisation. No amount oí learning and no sort oí culture and scholarship can
alter human nature: and it íollows. thereíore. that ci·ilisation can scarcelv pro·e
a bar to the inborn desire oí man íor woman. and ·ice ·ersa. 1o assert that
ci·ilised Lurope is prooí against the resistless onslaught oí passion is a
ridiculous statement when. ci·ilisation has íailed to do awav with other natural
desires oí mankind. 1o gi·e a moral liít to the (hristian countries. it is
necessarv to introduce the Islamic moral code which pavs equal attention to the
intellectual: moral and social ad·ancement oí the people. But under the present
circumstances. it is sad to note that (hristian Lurope impro·es the intellectual
side at the sacriíice oí the moral one.`

, Koran.

, Ouazi Abdul laque.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
3- Islam and Polygamy
Islam enjoins marriage. whether monogamous or polvgamous. as the
conditions oí liíe necessitate. with due regard to pietv. so that there mav be no
·iolence to human nature: and the desire íor sexual intercourse. like other
cra·ings oí nature. being dulv gratiíied. mav lead to the períect saíetv and the
complete securitv oí social moralitv. 1hus the Islamic svstem oí marriage.
harmonising with the practical need and the requirement oí mankind. gains
íresh lustre when brought under the search light oí unbiassed criticism. 1he
Prophet`s example in the matter oí marriage is speciallv striking. It reíutes the
commonplace objection oí ignorant people that it is impossible to deal íairlv
with more than one wiíe. One need not waste time and energv in discussing the
practicabilitv oí monogamv or polvgamv íor mankind. 1he example oí the
Prophet is ·i·idlv beíore us. le had as manv as nine wi·es. but how lo·inglv
and íairlv he beha·ed towards them. is known to all students oí religion. 1he
lo·e he bore to each indi·idual wiíe. and the consummate spirit oí good will
that characterised the mutual relation oí the Prophet and his wi·es. is abo·e the
possibilitv oí suspicion. \e ha·e the absolutelv credible e·idence oí the wi·es
themsel·es. 1hev state him to be the embodiment oí lo·e and justice.
was there anv real grie·ance on the part oí the wi·es against his treatment. 1he
Prophet with his períect example has pro·ed up to the hilt. that it is quite
possible íor a polvgamous husband to maintain justice and equalitv oí
treatment among his wi·es. ií onlv he has a mind to do so. \hen the Prophet
could do períect justice towards nine. there should be no reason whv we cannot
do justice towards onlv íour. e·en less than halí the number. 1he excess
allowed to the Prophet is not to permit him to indulge in sensualitv. as certain
critics would ha·e us belie·e. íor the Prophet`s liíe is unsullied and abo·e such
base charges. but it is meant to show to the world how the Prophet was
endowed with superhuman íeeing oí lo·e and aííection towards his wi·es. It
was also intended to show the Moslems how it was within the range oí
possibilitv. to deal kindlv and justlv with a pluralitv oí wi·es. le leít no room
íor discussion. le acted and asked his íollowers to act. Polvgamv must not be
discarded. ií it be íound conducti·e to social happiness. on the clumsv pretext
that it is impossible to li·e smoothlv with more than one wiíe. 1he Prophet did
li·e peaceíullv with nine wi·es. and we Moslems can also do so. under gi·en
conditions. with íour wi·es. ií we íollow the noble example oí the Prophet in
all our doings and actions. It is onlv when we íail to li·e up to the standard oí
the Prophet`s períect manners. that we íail to secure a peaceíul and lo·ing
attitude towards a pluralitv oí wi·es. nav e·en towards a single wiíe.
1he writer takes this opportunitv to point out that our critic íriends ha·e no
cause to lose their temper at the mention oí polvgamv. Islam does not eníorce
polvgamv. It enjoins marriage where no disabilities stand in the wav.
Monogamv is the general rule. polvgamv is a pro·ision íor urgent emergencies.
It is unwise to question the general wisdom oí an institution in exceptional
cases. Ií a man can be content with one wiíe. Islam does not compel him to
resort to polvgamv. Ií (hristian critics íind that their wav oí li·ing ob·iates the

, Ibn Athir. Abul leda. Sir \. Muir etc. etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
necessitv oí a pluralitv oí wi·es. thev are not bound to ha·e recourse to
polvgamv. Let them li·e with one wiíe and reírain írom re·iling Islam. as Islam
does not make polvgamv obligatorv. Ií thev clearlv understand the problem oí
polvgamv. I hope thev will come to entertain better íeeling towards the law oí
the Prophet Islam simplv permits polvgamv. ií one cannot li·e in happiness and
pietv with one wiíe. But ií (hristians can li·e piouslv and happilv with one wiíe.
Islam does not interíere. Islam is as much monogamous as (hristianitv. the
diííerence. being that the íormer makes a pro·ision íor urgent needs. with due
regard to the rights oí the wiíe. whereas the latter does not. should a man íail to
íind anv emergencv calling íor a pluralitv.
Polygamy is not essential in Islam. 1o
consider polvgamv as essential in Islam would be an unpardonable mistake. In
íact. the teaching oí the Koran is to the contrarv. and stronglv recommends
monogamv. as alreadv shown. Islam claims to be a uni·ersal religion. It was not
re·ealed to meet the requirements oí a particular race or age: with its world-
wide mission. Islam had to look to the requirements oí all ages. countries. and
ci·ilisations. Besides the substantial laws. the code oí Islam. as e·erv wise
legislation must do. pro·ides certain ordinances which mav be looked upon as
auxiliarv or remedial laws. with an elasticitv to meet the contingencies oí place
and time. It deprecates their abuses. and lavs down proper restrictions as to
their use.
1he e·ents oí the world sometimes gi·e rise to circumstances which cause
appreciable paucitv in the number oí men. Inter-tribal or international wars
oíten lead to the same result: and lea·e numberless members oí the weaker sex
without home or protection. 1he recent Luropean war 1914 - 18, and 1939-
45, is a quite example oí international calamitv that caused an unimaginable
decrease in the number oí males lea·ing hundreds oí thousands oí íemales
without guardians or protectors. \ith all our reíined ideas oí chi·alrv and
broadmindedness. no other institution than marriage can saíelv come to sa·e
the situation. Other measures under similar circumstances ha·e been schemed
and resorted to. but thev could not a·oid undesirable results. 1o maintain strict
continence and pietv in societv. Islam would not recommend anv woman to
seek reíuge under the rooí oí anv man who does not stand in marital. or within
the prohibited degree oí relation to her. Our experience also goes íar to
endorse the ad·isabilitv oí Islamic policv in this respect. Polvgamv is the onlv
speciíic remedv to meet the need. But woman has not been leít without her
own choice in the matter. 1o secure her peace. comíort. and happiness. ií she
needs no other help or protection. no Moslem would compel her to marrv a
man who is alreadv the husband oí another woman. 1hus polvgamv. as said
beíore. is a sort oí remedial law in Islam which mav come into operation when
opportunitv arises. and should not be resorted to when there is no occasion íor
it. It is not onlv íor connubial purposes. that equalitv oí number in men and
women is a necessitv. In human liíe there are occasions when onlv men are in
requisition. low to íill up the shattered ranks. ií similar calamities cause the
dearth oí men· 1he onlv two resorts leít are either to encourage bastardv or
adopt polvgamv. 1o recruit the number no one ha·ing the least sense oí
decencv would recommend the íormer measure. One. indeed cannot

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

understand the wisdom oí the law in the \est which. practicallv speaking.
condones what it condemns under the name oí bigamv. Marriage aíter all is
onlv a union oí man and woman which under speciíied íormalities recei·ed the
sanction oí societv. 1hereíore. ií the special circum-stances oí an age do
demand the multiplication oí units in a nation. whv not legalise what has
alreadv recei·ed the sanction oí practice and usage. and sa·e thousands and
thousands oí souls írom the ignominv oí being called bastard` sons or
daughters. and thus gi·e them the right to inherit írom these who ga·e them
their bodv· It would tend to impro·e moralitv. and enhance the sacredness oí
nuptial rights. 1hus. polv-gamv sometimes becomes a national necessitv.

1his institution has also its legitimate use in indi·idual cases as well.
Propagation oí one`s species is the most important oí all the purposes oí
marriage. and ií all hopes oí an issue through the íirst wiíe are at an end. there
seem to be onlv three wavs open to man: either to di·orce his wiíe: to denv
himselí the pleasure oí ha·ing issue- the desire oí nearlv e·erv married man: or
to wait till the death oí the wiíe and spoil his whole liíe. Is not there a second
contemporaneous marriage to be preíerred to anv oí the abo·e alternati·es. a
man mav do it and sa·e heart-burnings. ií he is stronglv attached to his íirst
wiíe· 1he case oí Napoleon presents a good illustration. le had to di·orce his
well belo·ed wiíe. Josephine. a ladv possessing ·irtues and abilities oí a ·erv
high order. 1here was the warmest attachment between the two. but Napoleon
could not ha·e issue írom her. and the countrv thereíore insisted upon her
di·orce. 1he account oí her di·orce. as related bv historians and biographers. is
extremelv pathetic. Napoleon married another wiíe. he reigned splendidlv and
enjoved the beneíits oí a prosperous kingdom: then came calamities. upon him.
which continued until his death. Josephine had been di·orced. but their lo·e
íor each other underwent no change. She remembered him with ardent lo·ed
and svmpathv in his troubles and calamities as in the davs oí happiness. But the
strong cord which bound them together had snapped asunder. Ií polvgamv had
been allowed and this was. I sav. one oí the rare occasions where the jurists oí
Islam ha·e sanctioned polvgamv - Napoleon and his widow. would not ha·e
suííered this extreme aííliction. Moslem ladies ha·e oíten allowed their
husbands in such cases to take another wiíe and beget an issue.

Oí course. those who indulge in polvgamv without ob·ious reasons are not
acting in accordance with the spirit oí their religion. Islam placed the institution
under restrictions which graduallv pro·ed to be a most eííicatious check to
polvgamv. and made the largest portion oí the Moslem world obser·e strict
monogamv. 1he best check indeed has been pro·ided in the ·erv ·erse oí the
Koran which is held to authorize polvgamv: 1hen marrv that seems good to
vou oí women. two. three or íour wi·es,: but ií ve íear that ve shall not act
equitablv. then one wiíe, onlv.`

, Muslim lome` bv l. l. Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba. Ruler oí Bhopal.

, Koran IV : 3.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In this ·erse the license gi·en to polvgamv is curtailed bv the pro·iso which
enjoins strict equitv and justice towards all wi·es as obligatorv on man. In case a
man íeared that he could not act equitablv and justlv between his wi·es. he was
directed to be content with one wiíe onlv. 1he word íear` in the ·erse deser·es
special notice: that is to sav. ií a man is aíraid that he will not be able to complv
with the pro·iso. he must not go bevond one wiíe. And it need hardlv be
pointed out. how diííicult it is to gi·e e·erv one his or her, own just due: nor is
e·erv one able to do it. Nav. the Book oí God itselí admits in another ·erse the
inabilitv oí man. to obser·e the required equalitv oí treatment in e·erv respect
to all oí his wi·es. and this emphasises the desirabilitv oí ha·ing onlv one wiíe:
but suggests. at the same time. a ·erv wise course to those who under
una·oidable circumstances ha·e been compelled to ha·e more than one wiíe.
1he ·erse is as íollows: And ve can ne·er act equitablv between women.
although ve co·et it,: but turn not with all partialitv towards one oí them, nor
lea·e the other like one who is in suspense: but ií ve be reconciled. and íear to
do wrong,. ·erilv God is lorgi·ing. and (ompassionate.`
And ií a wiíe íear
ill-usage or a·ersion írom her husband. it shall be no crime in them both that
thev should be reconciled among themsel·es with some reconciliation: íor
reconciliation is best. And souls are prone to a·arice: but ií ve be good and
God-íearing. ·erilv God knows what ve do.`

Ií will thus be clear írom the abo·e instructions that when a man has
married two wi·es in the belieí that he is able to treat them equitablv. and he
then íinds that he is inclined towards the one to a degree amounting to a·ersion
against the other. and is prepared to di·orce one oí his wi·es. the abo·e ·erses
lav down directions íor the guidance oí both man and wiíe. namelv. that thev
should come to an understanding between themsel·es and be reconciled- the
wiíe bv íorgoing some oí her rights. and the man bv selí-control. 1his would
sa·e each oí them the troubles attendant upon a di·orce.
But the best remedv to a·oid íuture unpleasantness lies in the hand oí the
woman in Islam. where marriage is a cirit covtract and can be saddled with
adequate conditions. to ·iolate which would in itselí bring marriage to nullitv.
1hus. a woman who íears the possibilitv oí a second marriage on the part oí
her betrothed can make pro·isions against its unpleasant eííects. beíore she is
married. She mav get such special damages as are pro·ided in the contract oí
marriage. when the contingencv arises: she mav ha·e the option oí li·ing
separatelv írom her husband with a suitable maintenance: or get herselí
di·orced and lead an independent liíe. and reco·er damages as well. But this
should all be pro·ided íor in the contract oí marriage.

Polvgamv. in a word. in Islam. is a remedv. It has uses and abuses. Islam
guards against the latter. and allows the íormer under restrictions and within
stringent limits. More knowledge oí human needs and exigencies would

, Koran IV : 128.

, Koran IV: 129.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
enlighten the world and enable it to see the necessitv oí allowing an institution.
like polvgamv. with its rare and limited use as in Islam.

Polygamy is not an institution
originated by Islam. Now Mohammed.` writes Mr.
Bosworth Smith. was legislator and a statesman. as well as the íounder oí a
religion and whv is the deíence which we allow to Solon. and the praise we
bestow upon the limited scope oí the Mosaic legislation. denied to Islam·

Polvgamv is. indeed next to caste. the most blighting institution to which a
nation can become a prev. It pollutes societv at the íountain-head íor the íamilv
is the source oí all political and all social ·irtues. Mohammed would ha·e more
than doubled the debt oí gratitude the Lastern world owes to him. had he
swept it awav: but he could not ha·e done so. e·en ií he had íullv seen its e·il.
It is not íair to represent polvgamv as a part oí Mohammedanism anv more
than it is íair to represent sla·erv as a part oí (hristianitv. 1he one co-exits with
the other. without being mixed with it. e·en as the muddv Ar·e and the clear
Rhone keep their currents distinct. long aíter thev ha·e been united in one ri·er
bed. Perhaps it is strange that thev e·er could ha·e co-existed. e·en íor a dav:
but we ha·e to deal with íacts as thev are. and it is a íact. that sla·erv has co-
existed with (hristianitv. nav. has proíessed to justiív itselí bv (hristianitv e·en
till this nineteenth centurv. Mohammed could not ha·e made a tabula rasa` oí
Lastern societv. but what could do he did. le least put strict limitations on the
unbounded licence oí Lastern polvgamv. and the íacilitv oí Lastern di·orce. Ií
the social touch stone oí a religion is the wav. in which it regards the poor and
the oppressed. Mohammed`s religion can stand the test. le impro·ed the
condition oí women bv íreeing them írom the arbitrarv patriarchal power oí
the parents or the heirs oí the husbands. bv inculcating just and kind treatment
oí them bv their husbands themsel·es. bv gi·ing them legal rights in case oí
uníair treatment. and bv absolutelv prohibiting the incestuous marriages which
were riíe in the times oí ignorance. and the still more horrible practice oí the
burving ali·e oí íemale iníants. Nor was this all. íor besides imposing
restrictions on polvgamv. bv this se·ere laws at íirst. and bv the strong moral
sentiment aroused bv these laws aíterwards. he has succeeded. down to this
·erv dav. and to a greater extent than has e·er been the case elsewhere. in
íreeing all Mohammedan countries írom those proíessional outcasts who li·e
bv their own miserv. and bv their existence as a recognized class. are a standing
reproach to e·erv member oí the societv. oí which thev íorm part.


, l. l. Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba. Ruler oí Bhopal. India.

, Bosworth Smith: Mohamed and Mohammedanism` pp. 1¯4-1¯6.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
T Th he e S St ta at tu us s o of f W Wo om me en n i in n I Is sl la am m
t has been said that Islam. as a social svstem. had been a total íailure.
because It has misunderstood the relations oí sexes..and bv degrading
women. has degraded each successi·e generation oí their children down an
increasing scale oí iníamv and corruption until it seems almost impossible to
reach a lower depth oí ·ice.` 1his is certainlv strong language and calls íor an
in·estigation. as to whether Islam has reallv misunderstood the relations oí the
sexes. and whether it has reallv degraded women.
Verv íew oí the critics take pains to determine what actuallv are the
teachings oí Islam in this respect. as embodied in the lolv Koran: and íewer
still is the number oí those who care to studv the liíe oí the Prophet. which is
the most authentic commentarv on the text oí the lolv Book. It is thereíore
most regrettable that misconception should ha·e arisen about the status oí
women in Islam a point. on which the attitude oí Islam is clear and
unmistakable. I am aíraid. manv in Lurope and in America íorm such strange
opinions írom a studv oí the tales or romance or books oí tra·eling. written bv
proíessional globe. trotters. 1hev see in the harem` which is bv the wav a name
in the Last íor the ladies apartment` a home oí gross sensualitv and ·oluptuous
pleasures. Such ideas ha·e uníortunatelv pre·ailed in the \est íor a ·erv long
time: and supported bv the wrong interpretations that ha·e been put. írom time
to time. on certain ·erses oí the Koran and certain sa·ings oí the Prophet oí
Islam. thev ha·e a íirm hold on the imagination oí the critics oí the \est.

One oí the ·erses oí exquisite beautv which ha·e been subject to
misconstruction in certain quarters. is: 1hev the wi·es, are a garment íor vou
and vou are a garment íor them`. It is garment that hides one`s nakedness: so
do husband and wiíe. bv entering into marriage relations secure each other`s
chastitv. 1he garment gi·es comíort to the bodv: as does the husband íind
comíort in his wiíe`s companv. as she in his. 1he garment is the grace. the
beautv. the embellishment oí the bodv. so too are wi·es to their husbands. as
the husbands to them.

Another ·erse which has been similarlv misconstrued is the ·erse which the
Re·. Rodwell translates thus: Men are superior to women on account oí the
qualities. with which God hath giíted the one abo·e the other. and on account
oí the outlav thev make írom their substance íor them. Virtuous women are
obedient. careíul during the husband`s absence. because God hath oí them
been careíul`. lrom this ·erse se·eral critics ha·e drawn the erroneous
iníerence that in Islam woman holds a ·erv subordinate position. and that she
has been placed under man`s tvrannical swav. she ha·ing no choice but to
submit to his arbitrarv dictates and selí-willed decrees. L·en accepting Re·.
Rowlell`s translation oí the ·erse as correct. the sense oí the ·erse appears to be
nothing more than this: that man should treat his wiíe with lo·e and aííection
and pro·ide íor her írom his abundance. while woman should preser·e her
honour. attend to domestic duties and look up to him as her íriend.
philosopher and guide. Understood thus. the ·erse has nothing re·olting to our
íeelings. and describes the relationship between husband and wiíe as it naturallv

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
ought to be. 1here is nothing in the ·erse to implv that the wiíe`s judgment is
in anv wav íettered that she is simplv the sla·e oí her husband`s desires or that
she is at best an ornamental article oí íurniture`. Neither. according to
respectable commentators oí the Koran. does the ·erse admit oí the meaning
which superíicial critics ha·e willíullv put upon it. 1hese commentators
understand the ·erse to point out a man`s right to exercise a certain control
o·er his wiíe. and his dutv to pro·ide íor her securitv and sustenance. 1he
superioritv oí man o·er woman rests on certain innate qualities which man
generallv possesses in greater proportion. in regard to knowledge and power. In
power oí endurance. in audacitv and courage. man has a decided ad·antage
o·er his íair sister. Prophet. apostles. distinguished philosophers and
commanders oí armies ha·e all been men. not women. Leckv. himselí
undoubtedlv a clear thinker and discerning critic. while discoursing on the
distincti·e diííerence between the sexes obser·ers thus: Phvsicallv. men ha·e
the indisputable superioritv in strength. and women in beautv. Intellectuallv. a
certain iníerioritv oí the íemale sex can hardlv be denied. when we remember
how almost exclusi·elv the íoremost places in e·erv department oí science.
literature and art ha·e been occupied bv man.It is impossible to íind a íemale
Raphael. or a íemale landel. or a íemale Shakespeare. Newton.` Leckv.
howe·er. thinks and perhaps rightlv enough. that morallv the general
superioritv oí women o·er men is unquestionable. Be that as it mav when once
we admit the phvsical and intellectual superioritv oí man o·er woman. we
cannot denv that woman has to depend upon. and take ad·antage oí. the
intellectual resources and superior strength oí the opposite sex: and this is
preciselv what Moslem doctors hold to be the important and signiíicance oí the
·erse under consideration.

Some critics made needless comments on the íollowing saving oí the
Prophet: 1reat women with kindness. íor woman was made oí a rib which is
crooked in the upper part: ií vou trv to bend it straight. vou will break it. and ií
vou lea·e it as it is. it will remain so.` In these words the Prophet onlv appeals
to the good sense oí man and the kindliness oí this heart. bv reminding him oí
the natural weaknesses oí the íair sex: so that we mav not expect oí women
things out oí proportion to their talents and capabilities: íor in such
expectations we are likelv to be disappointed. and our disappointment mav
tempt us to accord to them harsh treatment. 1he Prophet. thereíore. exhorts
his íollowers to be rather generous and íorgi·ing than se·erelv exacting and
calculating. It is as ií the Prophet said to his íollowers: I am gi·ing vou sound
ad·ice relati·e to what vour treatment should be towards women. carrv out
thereíore mv will respecting them. Do good to them: and be not angrv with
them. ií thev act in a wav not acceptable to vou. unless. oí course. the deed
in·ol·es anv positi·e sin: íor thev are made oí a crooked rib and. as such. are
naturallv liable to error,

Llsewhere. the Prophet has positi·elv warned us against running aíter
scandals and constant searching aíter the secrets and íaults oí women. since
such a course oí action mav impair the conjugal relations. and íinallv lead to the
absolute dissolution oí the marriage bond.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
(lose acquaintance with the teachings oí Islam repudiates the íalse charge.
that the Prophet is responsible íor the degradation oí woman. 1he Prophet saw
the weak points oí woman`s character. as well as its strong points. le regarded
woman as phvsicallv and intellectuallv iníerior to man in general. but richer in
nobler emotions oí the heart. in tenderness and delicacv oí íeeling. No bodv
can be so bold as to sav. that the Prophet saw nothing good in woman and
concei·ed her to be a bundle oí unmixed e·ils. le said: Let not anv Moslem
be harsh in his treatment oí his wiíe: íor ií certain aspects oí her conduct
displease the husband. certain others will please him.` le neither desired that
woman should be the bond-sla·e oí her husband. nor did he countenance the
idea. that woman should be so íar íree as to o·erstep her proper limits and
encroach upon the sphere oí her husband. On the principle oí di·ision oí
labour. Islam assigns to each a particular sphere oí work. on the íaithíul
discharge oí which depends the happiness oí hearth and home. \oman. in her
capacitv oí a good mother and a de·oted wiíe. is the queen oí her home. while
the husband is to protect her írom all danger and temptation. earn his bread bv
the sweat oí his brow in the open world. and pro·ide íor the maintenance oí
the íamilv. In connection with this setting apart oí spheres oí work with regard
to the nature constitution mental habitude and position oí the person
concerned. the Prophet oí Islam said: All oí vou are so manv so·ereigns. and
all oí vou will be required to render account in respect oí whate·er persons or
things vou ha·e under vour charge. So the chieí who is so·ereign o·er his
subjects: shall be questioned about the treatment he accorded to his subjects
the head oí the íamilv is the so·ereign oí the house and he shall be questioned
with respect to the members oí the house: and woman is so·ereign in the
house oí her husband. and rules her children and she shall be questioned about
these. and the sla·e is so·ereign o·er his master`s belongings. and he shall be
questioned about them.`

1he ruling idea in the teachings oí Islam with regard to man and woman. is
that the husband and the wiíe should supplement each other. call into plav the
distincti·e excellence oí their respecti·e character. and. in mutual coníidence.
stri·e to work out their united happiness. \oman is to exercise her beneíicent.
humanizing iníluence o·er husband. soíten the hardness oí his nature and le·el
down the stiííness oí his character: while man. íor his part. is to educate her
mind and help her to realize those womanlv qualities. in which she bv her ·erv
nature excels. 1his is the conception oí wiíehood which the Prophet oí Islam
ía·oured. as is iníerred írom his teaching. A woman is married íor íour
reasons.` said he. either in consideration oí her wealth. or her noble parentage.
or her beautv. or her pietv. Succeed then in getting a woman oí pietv íor vour
wiíe. íor she is to her husband a helper in liíe and she remains content with

On another occasion he hold a certain woman who had brought a
complaint against her husband: 1here is no woman who remo·es something
to replace it in a proper place. with a ·iew to decorate her husband`s house. but
that God sets it down as a ·irtue íor her. Nor is there a man who walks with his

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
wiíe hand in hand. but that God sets it down as a ·irtue íor him: and ií he puts
his arms round her neck in lo·e his ·irtue will be increased teníold.`
Once again. he was heard praising the women oí the Koreish. because`. said
he. thev are the kindest to their children while thev are iníants. and because
thev keep a careíul watch o·er the belongings oí their husbands.`
In another instance the Prophet oí Islam said: 1here are íour things. such
that ií a person is endowed with anv one oí these. it is as ií the blessings oí
both worlds were showered upon him: íirst. a heart that is grateíul: second a
tongue that utters constantlv the name oí God: third. a mind that is patient and
calm amid troubles: íourth. a wiíe that is ne·er guiltv oí a breach oí trust either
in respect oí her own person or in respect oí her husband`s propertv.`
I will now gi·e some íurther saving oí the Prophet Mohammad. on the
question under discussion. which I hope will shed more light on the position
assigned to women in Islam.
1. Among mv íollowers the best oí men are thev who are best to their
wi·es. and the best to women are thev who are best to their
husbands.1o each oí such women is set down the reward equi·alent to
the reward oí a thousand martvrs. Among mv íollowers. again. the best
oí women are thev who assist their husbands in their work. and lo·e
them dearlv íor e·ervthing. sa·e what is a transgression oí God`s laws.
1he best oí men. on the other hand. are thev who treat their wi·es with
the kindness oí a mother to her children. 1o each oí such men is set
down a reward equi·alent to that oí hundred martvrs. On being asked
bv Omar. who aíterwards rose to be the second (aliph. whv woman`s
reward should be ten times greater than man`s the Prophet said: Do not
vou know that woman deser·es greater reward than man· lor. ·erilv
Almightv God exalts the position oí a man in hea·en. because his wiíe
was pleased with him and praved íor him`.
2. 1he best among vou is he who is the kindest to his wiíe. and I am the
kindest oí vou all to mv wi·es.`
3. \hat are the rights that a wiíe has o·er her husband·` asked Moawivah:
and the Prophet íorthwith replied: leed her when thou takest thv íood:
gi·e her clothes to wear when thou wearest clothes. reírain írom either
gi·ing a slap on her íace or e·en abusing her: separate not írom thv wiíe.
sa·e within the house.
4. Verilv oí the belie·ers he has the most períect íaith who has the best
manners. and shows the greatest kindness to his wiíe and children.`
5. lear God in regard to the treatment oí vour wi·es. íor ·erilv thev are
vour helpers. \ou ha·e taken them on the securitv oí God. and made
them Lawíul bv the words oí God.`
6. Once the Prophet portraved an ideal wiíe in the íollowing words: She is
the ideal wiíe who pleases thee when thou lookest at her. obevs thee
when thou gi·est her direction: and protects her honour and thv propertv
when thou art awav.`
¯. 1he world is íull oí objects oí jov and delight. and the best and the most
proíitable source oí delight is a pious. chaste woman` .
8. Paradise lies at the íeet oí mothers.`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
9. Search aíter knowledge is obligatorv both on Moslem men and Moslem

1. The Object of Marriage
1he object oí marriage was deíined bv the Prophet in clear unambiguous
words. It was ne·er meant to be a means oí satisíving the sensual appetite: but
on the other hand. it was instituted. in the íirst place. as a saíeguard against
lewdness and incontinence. and in the second place. as a means oí procreation.
It is on these and similar grounds. that he alwavs encouraged a married liíe in
preíerence to a liíe oí celibacv. and laid so much stress on the pietv and
íruitíulness oí women. \hoe·er marries a woman solelv íor her power and
position.` said the Prophet God but increases his humiliation: whoe·er
marries a woman solelv íor her wealth. God but increases his po·ertv: whoe·er
marries a woman solelv íor her beautv. God but increases his ugliness: but
whoe·er marries a woman. in order that he mav restrain his eves. obser·e
continence. and treat his relations kindlv. God putteth a blessedness in her íor
him. and in him íor her.

1hus pietv and continence are uppermost in the conception oí Islam. as the
prime moti·e oí marriage. 1his is clear enough in another saving oí the
Prophet. 1here are three persons.` said he. whom the Almightv limselí as
undertaken to help-íirst. he who seeks to buv his íreedom` second. he who
marries with a ·iew to secure his chastitv: and third. he who íights in the cause
oí God`.
Another saving oí the Prophet is equallv clear on this point: le. who
marries. completes halí his religion: it now rests with him to complete the other
halí bv leading a ·irtuous liíe in constant íear oí God`. 1hat Islam ·iewed
marriage as means oí procreation. and not íor gratiíication oí sensual desires. is
clear írom a short but pregnant saving oí the Prophet: Marrv and generate`.
On another occasion he said: Marrv a woman who holds her husband
extremelv dear. and who is richlv íruitíul`. 1he Prophet ad·ised great
circumspection in the selection oí the bride. and e·en permitted that the
intended bride be seen. beíore her betrothal` bv him who seeks her hand. lest a
blunder in choice or an error oí judgment should deíeat the ·erv end oí

2. Marriage and Divorce
1he laws oí marriage and di·orce were so íramed bv the Prophet that thev
mav ensure the permanence oí marriage relations. without impairing indi·idual
íreedom. 1hese laws displav a wonderíul insight into human nature. inasmuch
as thev ne·er lose sight oí exceptional circumstances. requiring special
treatment. In the íormulation oí the laws oí marriage and di·orce. extremes
ha·e been a·oided in ía·our oí a golden mean. Ií. under certain circumstances.
more than one wiíe is permitted. or dissolution oí marriage is ía·oured. it is
because oí the operation oí the same principle oí ílexibilitv that go·erns the
entire bodv oí the Islamic laws. It is certain that the Islamic laws oí marriage
and di·orce ha·e been abused: and sometimes ílouted in certain Moslem lands:

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
but the laws themsel·es are not responsible íor the delinquencies oí the
1he Islamic laws ha·e recognised women as íree and responsible members
oí societv and ha·e assigned to them a con·enient position. A Moslem woman
is entitled to a share in the patrimonv. along with her brothers. and though the
proportion is diííerent. the distinction is íounded on a just appreciation oí the
relati·e position oí brother and sister. No male member oí the íamilv. not e·en
her husband. can manipulate her propertv which during the marriage remains
absolutelv her own and quite at her disposal. 1he exigible portion oí the
stipulated dower is pavable to her on demand. as soon as the status oí marriage
is established. and the deíerred portion on the termination oí the marital
relation. unless the woman is guiltv oí a maniíest wrong. Under the Moslem
law. the dower settled upon the wiíe. is an obligation imposed bv the law on the
husband. as a mark oí respect íor the wiíe. the non- speciíication oí which. at
the time oí marriage. does not aííect the ·aliditv oí the marriage. In the e·ent
oí dissolution oí marriage. the husband can retain no part oí the wiíe`s
propertv. including her ante-nuptial settlement: and ií the administration oí the
wiíe`s estate was entrusted to him. he must render the wiíe an account oí such
administration. ler propertv is in íact jealouslv guarded on all sides. and no
restrictions are placed on the indi·idual right she has in her belongings. She
possesses the right oí di·iding and alienating her propertv. and this right oí
alienation is in regard. not onlv to her husband but also to e·erv bodv else. She
can sue her husband. as she can sue her other debtors. in the open court. She
does not require her husband or íather. to represent her at law. She can act as
an executi·e and can enter into anv contract independentlv.

A Moslem wiíe retains her distinct indi·idualitv e·en aíter marriage. and she
ne·er assumes her husband`s name. (o·erture has no place in the marriage oí
Islam. Marriage under Islam is but a ci·il contract. and not a sacrament. in the
sense that those who are once joined in wed-lock can ne·er be separated. It
mav be controlled. and under certain circumstances. dissol·ed bv the will oí the
parties concerned. Public declaration is no doubt necessarv. but it is not a
condition oí the ·aliditv oí the marriage. Nor is anv religious ceremonv deemed
absolutelv essential. 1wo witnesses are required to attest the contract has been

, 1he whole listorv oí the (hristian Laws oí Marriage and di·orce. íurnishes a ·erv
interesting and instructi·e reading to a Moslem jurist: íor. he percei·es. perhaps not
without a íeeling oí just pride. that his (hristian brethren are coming nearer to Islam. at
least in their conception oí marriage and the relations to which it gi·es rise. In all
Luropean countries. the laws relating to marriage and di·orce ha·e been re·ised and
recast. and the changes introduced. when examined will be íound to exhibit in some oí
their board íeatures. a ·erv close analogv to the Islamic Laws. íramed se·eral centuries
beíore. 1hus. in Germanv. íor instance. the code 1900 reccognises ci·il marriages alone.
It is eííected. bv the declaration oí the parties beíore a Registrar. in ht epresence oí
each other . oí their intention to be married. 1wo witnesses oí íull age must be present.
1he Registrar asks each oí the parties whether he or she will marrv the other. and on
their answer in the aííirmati·e. declares them dulv married. and enters them in the
register. 1he marriage must be preceded bv a public notice. Dissolution oí marriage has

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

3. The Guardian and the Consent of the
1hough the Islamic Laws recognise the consent oí a woman as an
indispensable element oí a ·alid marriage: thev recommend the consent oí her
guardian be also taken. Moslem jurists are. no doubt. di·ided in their opinions.
as to whether the consent oí the bride`s guardian is essential but thev all agree
in holding that a woman who is sui-juris can under no circumstances be
married without her own express consent.` According to the laníi Islamic
School oí Law. the capacitv oí a woman who is adult and oí sound mind. to
contract herselí in marriage is absolute. 1he same school explicitlv lavs down
that a woman who is adult and oí sound mind mav be married bv ·irtue oí her
own consent. although the contract mav not ha·e been made or acceded to bv
her guardian and this whether she be a ·irgin. or a 1havviba`.
On the same
principle. the marriage oí an adult woman under compulsion has been held to
be in·alid. It is related on good authoritv. that an adult woman who was
married bv her íather to a man against her will. came and spoke about it to the
Prophet who declared the marriage ·oid. According to the lanaíi School also.
the marriage oí a minor under compulsion oí her íather or grandíather. holds
good. on the assumption that a marriage thus contracted is prima íacie in the
best interests oí the child. and thereíore she cannot cancel the contract oí
marriage when she arri·es at her íull age. unless there be good grounds íor such
a step. Ií. howe·er. she was gi·en in marriage bv guardian. other than her íather
or grandíather. she can exercise. ií she like. the option oí pubertv`. and ask the
court to set aside the marriage.
It is clear. then. that under the lanaíi School oí law. a marriage can be
contracted with or without a guardian. pro·ided the girl is adult and has gi·en
her consent to the contract.

1he Shaíie and the Maleki School oí law. on the other hand. maintain that a
maiden cannot personallv consent to marriage. According to them. the \ali`s
the guardian`s, consent. in the case oí a mainden. is one oí the essential íactors
oí marriage. though not in the case oí a thavviba. 1he distinction seems to ha·e
been deri·ed írom the idea that a thavviba`s judgment is naturallv more reliable
than a ·irgin`s and that she is expected to understand better the nature oí the
marriage contract. In support oí their ·iew thev reíer to the tradition. related bv
Avesha. that the Prophet said that the contract oí marriage is absolutelv ·oid. ií
a woman enters into such without the consent oí her guardian.
1he great majoritv oí the girls being quite innocent oí the nature oí the
contract. it is thereíore necessarv that the guardian oí the girl should inter·ene

long been recognized in Germanv and the United States oí America. In Lngland.
di·orces were ·erv rare till 185¯. when the powers exercised in marrimonial matters bv
the house oí Lords. the Lcclesiastical (ourts oí (ommon Law were transíerred to a lav
court termed 1he (ourt íor Di·orce and marrimonial (auses.` and constituted íor the
adminstration oí all matters connected with di·orce. In lrance. a similar change came
about in the vear 1884. In Italv di·orces are still almost unknown.

, Namelv. a girl who is not a ·irgin: a widow or a di·orced woman.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

and protect her írom being duped bv interested persons. or írom the e·il
consequences likelv to ílow írom the choice oí the girl. when injudicious or
against her own interest.

4. The Inequality of the Two Sexes
with regard to Divorce
Marriage being regarded as a ci·il contract and as such not indissoluble. the
Islamic law naturallv recognises the right in both the parties to dissol·e contract
under certain gi·en circumstances. Di·orce. then. is a natural corollarv to the
conception oí marriage as a contract. and it is regrettable that it should ha·e
íurnished Luropean critics a handle íor attack. L·en Sale. that eminent scholar
has íallen into the same error: íor he too seems to entertain the ·iew. that the
Islamic law permits a man to repudiate his wiíe e·en on the slightest
\hether the law permits. or ía·ours. repudiation on the slightest
disgust. we shall presentlv see. But as to the other point raised bv the same
learned critic. namelv: the inequalitv oí the two sexes in regard to the right oí
obtaining a di·orce. one has to remember that this inequalitv is more seeing
than real. 1he theorv oí marriage. no doubt. points to a subordination oí the
wiíe to her husband. because oí her comparati·e iníerioritv in discretionarv
powers: but in practice the hands oí the husbands are íettered in more wavs
than one. 1he theoretical discretion must not be understood as gi·ing a tacit
sanction to the excesses oí a brutal husband: on the other hand it is intended to
guard against the possible dangers oí an imperíect judgment. 1he relations
between the members oí the opposite sexes which marriage legalises are.
howe·er. so subtle and delicate. and require such constant adjustment.
in·ol·ing the íate and well-being oí the íuture generations. that in their
regulation the law considers it expedient to allow the ·oice oí one partner.
more or less. predominance o·er that oí the other.

Perhaps it is here worthv oí notice that in Lurope the two sexes are not
placed on an equal íooting in respect oí the right oí the di·orce. Lord lelier.
P.(.. K.. (.B.. who was President oí the Probate Di·orce and Admiraltv
Di·ision oí the ligh (ourt oí Justice. 1892 - 1905. obser·es on this point:
Much comment has been made on the diííerent grounds. on which di·orce is
allowed to a husband and to a wiíe - it being necessarv to pro·e iníidelitv in
both cases. but a wiíe being compelled to show either an aggra·ation oí that
oííence or an addition to it. Opinions probablv will alwavs diííer whether the
two sexes should be placed on an equalitv in this respect. abstract justice being
in·oked. and the idea oí marriage as a mere contract. pointing in one direction.
and social considerations in the other. But the reason oí the legislature íor
making the distinction. is clear. It is that the wiíe is entitled to an absolute
di·orce onlv ií her reconciliation with her husband is neither to be expected nor
desired. 1his was no doubt the ·iew taken bv the house oí Lords.`

, G. Sale`s Prelim. Disc. 1o his translation oí the Koran Sec. VI.

, Mohammadan Jurisprudence. page 32¯.

, 1he Re·iew oí Religion. April. 1913.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

5. Limitations of Divorce
A Moslem is not íree to exercise the right oí di·orce on the slightest
disgust.` 1he law has put manv limitations upon the exercise oí this power.
1hen. again. the example and precepts oí the Prophet in this particular ha·e
rendered di·orce. most repellent to the Moslem mind. A Moslem is permitted
to ha·e recourse to di·orce pro·ided there be ample justiíication íor such an
extreme measure. 1he whole Koran expresslv íorbids a man to seek pretexts
íor di·orcing his wiíe. so long as she remains íaithíul and obedient to him. Ií
thev namelv. women, obev vou. then do not seek a wav against them.`
law gi·es to the man primarilv the íacultv oí dissol·ing the marriage. ií the wiíe
bv her indocilitv or her bad character. renders the married liíe unhappv: but in
the absence oí serious reasons. no Moslem can justiív a di·orce either in the
eves oí religion or the law. Ií he abandons his wiíe or puts her awav írom
simple caprice. he draws upon himselí the di·ine anger. íor the curse oí God`
said the Prophet. rests on him who repudiates his wiíe capriciouslv`.

Intrinsicallv. di·orce is an e·il. and must be regarded as such. where·er there
is the least respect íor the law oí God and the precepts oí the Prophet. 1he
pagan Arab. beíore the time oí the Prophet. was absolutelv íree to repudiate his
wiíe or wi·es. whene·er it suited his whim or purpose. le was not bound to
oííer anv reasons íor the exercise oí the power oí di·orce. 1he mere expression
oí his will was enough to eííect a separation. 1he wiíe was a mere plavthing.
Sometimes the husband would re·oke the di·orce and again di·orce her. and
again take her back. to di·orce her again. and so on indeíinitelv. Sometimes.
again she was di·orced. but she was not íree to marrv. \omen under such
circumstances. were in a perpetual state oí suspense. as it were. At last the
Prophet. the Mercv íor the Uni·erse. came. le declared di·orce to be the most
disliked oí lawíul things in the sight oí God. le was indeed ne·er tired oí
expressing his abhorrence oí di·orce. Once he said: God created not anvthing
on the íace oí the earth which le lo·eth more than the act oí manumission.
nor did le create anvthing on the íace oí the earth which le detesteth more
than the act oí di·orce. On another occasion he said: lorbidden is the
íragrance oí paradise to her who demands di·orce írom her husband without
una·oidable reasons. Nor is this all. 1he Prophet actuallv imposed manv
conditions on the exercise oí the power oí di·orce. and so ·ehementlv did he
protect the women against the tvrannv oí their husbands. that there soon grew
up a general íeeling among the women oí the time. that the Prophet would
deíend their cause. whether it be just or unjust. and that his decision would be
in·ariablv in their ía·our. lis deíence oí the cause oí women. and oí orphans
and oí children. had in íact passed into a bvword.

, Koran. IV: 34. Obedience here signiíies obedience to man onlvin matters
recommended bv the law oí God. 1his signiíicance is made clear bv a comparison with
Koran. 33:31. 33:35 and 66: 5. 1his ·erse holds to mean Seek not a pretext íor

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In the lolv Koran. there is a most ediíving ·erse which is generallv
o·erlooked. Associate with the wi·es`. so runs the ·erse. with goodness: and
ií ve dislike them. it mav be that ve dislike a thing and God mav put abundant
good in it.`
1hus the Koran enjoins íorbearance. e·en with a wiíe one does
not like. One reallv wonders at the boldness oí the critics who sav that the law
oí Islam permits di·orce e·en on the slightest disgust.`
Manv and ·arious are the saving oí the Prophet oí Islam that teach lo·e.
untiring patience. íorgi·ing disposition and. abo·e all. íear oí God in the
treatment oí women. 1he man who bears with the ill manners oí his wiíe.`
said the Prophet. shall recei·e írom God rewards equi·alent to what the Lord
ga·e unto Job. when he suííered his aííliction: And to the woman who bears
with the ill manners oí her husband. God granteth rewards equi·alent to what
le granted to Assivah. the wiíe oí Pharaoh`
A great Moslem commentator. obser·es that di·orce is allowable when the
object is not to trouble the wiíe bv di·orcing her without just grounds. as
reíractorv or unseemlv beha·iour on her part. or extreme necessitv on the part
oí the husband.
It is clear. then. Islam discourages di·orce in principle. and permits it onlv
when it has become altogether impossible íor the parties. to li·e together in
peace and harmonv. It a·oids. thereíore greater e·il bv choosing the lesser one.
and opens a wav íor the parties to seek agreeable companions and. thus. to
accommodate themsel·es more comíortablv in their new homes.
lor. under Islam. a di·orced woman. like the husband who di·orces her.
acquires the right oí marrving anv person she or he likes. the moment the
separation is recognised bv the law.

lullv recognizing the arise írom di·orce. the Prophet oí Islam took ·erv
cautious steps in íraming the laws: and the ruling idea seems to be. that di·orce
should be permitted onlv when marriage íails in its eííects. and the parties cease
to íulíill the duties that spring írom the marriage relation. 1here is in íact no
justiíication íor permanentlv voking together two hostile souls. who might
make themsel·es quite comíortable in new homes. ií thev were permitted to
eííect a separation. 1o compel them to li·e together in pursuance oí a most
·exatious law under a voke oí the hea·iest sla·erv. -íor such is marriage without
lo·e- would indeed be a hardship more cruel than anv di·orce whate·er. God.
thereíore. ga·e laws oí di·orce. in their proper use. must equitable and
lor. most appalling consequences sometimes íollow. unless di·orce
is permitted where it is desirable. Justinian. the great Roman emperor. had to
repeal the prohibition oí his predecessor on di·orce bv mutual consent. despite
the opposition oí the clergv. and the ground stated bv the enactment was. that
it was diííicult to reconcile those who once came to hate each other and who.
ií compelled to li·e together. írequentlv attempted each other`s li·es` le
vielded` writes Gibbon. to the pravers oí his unhappv subjects. and restored

, Koran.

, \ith (hristians the case is not so: \hosoe·er shall put awav his wiíe. sa·ing íor the
cause oí íornication. causeth her to commit adulterv: and whosoe·er shall marrv her
that is di·orced committeth adulterv.` Matt. V:32.

, A 1reatise on (hristian Doctrine bv J. Milton.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the libertv oí di·orce bv mutual consent. the ci·ilians were unanimous. the
theologians were di·ided. and the ambiguous word
which contains the
precepts oí (hrist. is ílexible to anv interpretation that the wisdom oí a
legislature can demand.`

6. Islam’s Suggestions for
A careíul studv oí the laws oí the Koran which relate to marriage and
di·orce. will show that the spirit oí the ·erses unmistakablv points to a
pre·ention oí di·orce. and that e·ervwhere a reconciliation is recommended in
the most appealing terms. Beíore the parties proceed to the extremitv oí
di·orce íor una·oidable reasons. it is expresslv laid down. that all lawíul means
be adopted íor a·oiding a breach: and it is onlv in the e·ent oí their íailure that
a separation is permitted. oí course. as a last recourse. Under such extreme
circumstances. di·orce is not merelv permissiblv. but has been held quite
expedient. and recourse to it is recommended. in spite oí deterrents. like
po·ertv. It is belie·ed. God limselí opens out manv a wav íor those whose
intentions are honest: And ií thev separate. God will make them richer out oí
lis abundance. íor God is extensi·e and wise.`
It is interesting to note that
nearlv the same idea is expressed in the Koran where those who are single are
exhorted to marrv. Marrv those who are single among vou. and such as are
honest oí vour menser·ants and vour maid ser·ants. ií thev be poor. God will
enrich them oí lis abundance.`
It íollows. then. that according to the Islamic
laws. di·orce. under certain circumstances. is as necessarv marriage.

1he directions oí the Koran in respect oí the adoption oí the courses that
tend to make reconciliation possible. are as explicit as thev are íull oí wisdom.
1hus. in the chapter on women. we read:-
Virtuous women are obedient. careíul during the husband`s absence.
because God hath oí them been careíul. But those. íor whose reíractoriness ve
ha·e cause to íear. chide: remo·e them into beds apart: and chastise them. but
ií thev are obedient to vou. then seek not occasion against them: ·erilv God is
ligh and Great. And ií ve íear a breach between husband and wiíe. send a
judge out oí his íamilv. and a judge out oí her íamilv: ií thev are desirous oí
agreement. God will eííect a reconciliation between them: íor God is knowing
and apprised oí all.`

Ií woman is chaste and mindíul oí her duties as wiíe. the Islamic law makes
it obligatorv upon the husband to associate with her on the best oí terms. and
with kindness and courtesv. But. ií she pro·es reíractorv in her beha·iour. the

, St. Matt. V.32

, Koran. IV : 129.

, Koran. XXIV : 32.

, Koran. IV : 33. 34.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
law coníers on the husband the power oí correction ií exercised in

1he driít and tone oí the ·erses quoted abo·e. point to the desirabilitv oí
exercising the power oí correction in three degrees. le mav begin with a
reprimand. ií her conduct calls íor such. 1hen. ií she still remains rebellious. he
mav banish her írom his bed íor a íew davs. Ií this also pro·es una·ailing. he
mav next beat his wiíe. but not so as to cause her permanent injurv. íor he is
not allowed to use ·iolence. e·en under extreme pro·ocation.`
In the e·ent oí
the íailure oí all these expedients. di·orce need not íollow. but a resort to
arbitrators is ad·ised. each partv being represented bv a member oí his or her
íamilv. 1he arbitrators aíter hearing both sides. shall endea·our bv all possible
means. to bring about a reconciliation. ií their eííorts pro·e unsuccessíul. thev
mav grant a repudiation. when empowered bv both parties to do so.

1he Prophet. who no doubt understood the import oí the Koranic ·erses
better than anvbodv else. is reported on good authoritv to ha·e said: leed thv
wiíe as thou íeedest thvselí. clothe her as thou clothest thvselí. strike her not
on her íace. separate not írom her. except within the house: but ií she persists
in her reíractoriness.begin with admonitions. and awaken in her the íear oí
God the Most ligh: ií she does not submit. banish her írom thv bed. and
con·erse not with her íor three davs: ií she still reíuses to mend her manners.
beat her but not so as to lea·e anv mark on her person. as would be the case ií
a rod were used: íor the object is to correct her. and not to destrov her. Should
this course íail to mend matters. let the case be reíerred to two Moslem
arbitrators. íree and just. one chosen írom the íamilv oí each oí the parties: and
thev shall see whether in that particular case reconciliation or separation is
desirable: and their decision shall be binding upon them both.`

\hen. howe·er. the cause oí disagreement proceeds írom the husband. the
wiíe is certainlv not gi·en the power the correction. but then. she is empowered
bv the Islamic law to obtain a di·orce. ií she so desires. Beíore the ad·ent oí
Islam. neither the Jews nor the Arabs recognised the right oí di·orce íor
women: and it was the Koran that. íor the íirst time in the historv oí Arabia.
ga·e this great pri·ilege to women. And at the same time. it must be
remembered. the spirit oí the Koran is opposed to an indiscriminate exercise oí
this pri·ilege. 1he Prophet warned women. not to plav the hvpocrite. and men
are ad·ised in the most emphatic terms. to reírain írom seeking a breach. where
a little moderation on their part. mav perhaps do awav with the diííerence. I
gi·e below some oí the ·erses oí the Koran. and the reader will see how thev

, 1he law oí Lngland similarlv ·ested in the husband the right oí chastising his wiíe
íor le·itv oí conduct. and the husband in quite recent times. was allowed to restrain
her personal libertv. but his right so to do was íirst expresslv negati·ed bv decision oí
the (ourt oí Appeal in the vear 1891.` lolland`s Jurisprudence. page 240.`

, 1he Mohammadan Law.` stated the Lord oí the Pri·v (ouncil. on a question oí
what is legal crueltv between man and wiíe. would probablv not diííer materiallv írom
our own` Abdul Kader 1886.,

, Ghunvat et 1alibeen ch: Manners oí Marriage.`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
ask us to make allowance íor the írailties. to which our human nature is prone.
and in what manner a reconciliation is recommended. It is impossible to read
the ·erses without being impressed with their appealing tone and graceíul
simplicitv. And ií a woman`. so runs the íine ·erse. lear ill usage or a·ersion.
on the part oí her husband. it shall be no íault in them. ií thev can agree with
mutual agreement: íor agreement is best.
Souls are prone to a·arice
. but ií ve
act kindlv and íear God. then ·erilv vour actions are not unnoticed bv God.
And ve will not ha·e it at all in vour power to treat vour wi·es alike. e·en
though vou íain would do so: but vield not whollv to disinclination. so that ve
lea·e one oí them. as it were. in suspense: but ií ve come to an understanding.
and íear God. ·erilv God is íorgi·ing and merciíul: but ií thev separate. God
can compensate both out oí lis abundance. íor God is Vast and \ise.`

\e ha·e seen. then that di·orce is permissible in Islam onlv in cases oí
extreme emergencv. \hen all eííorts íor eííecting a reconciliation ha·e íailed.
the parties mav proceed to a dissolution oí the marriage bv 1alaq` or bv
\hen the proposal oí di·orce proceeds írom the husband. it is
called 1alaq`. and when it takes eííect at the instance oí the wiíe it is called
Under manv svstems oí law. di·orce was certainlv permitted. but it could
not be re·oked. But the Islam legislator. while he permitted di·orce. recognised
under certain circumstances. the light oí return in the husband. 1his pri·ilege.
in the iníancv oí Islam was indeíinitelv exercised. and oíten abused to the
detriment oí women. until the Prophet recei·ed re·elations. setting limits to the
act oí di·orce. and íorbidding wanton crueltv to wi·es. bv keeping them in
suspense íor an indeíinite period.
\ou mav di·orce vour wi·es. and then
either retain them with humanitv. or dismiss them with kindness.`
\hen ve
di·orce women. and the time íor sending them is come either retain them with

, 1o wit. agreement is better than separation. better than ill-usage and better than
a·ersion. Razi (ommentarv,

, A·arice` here implies whate·er is an impediment to reconciliation. On the part oí
the wiíe it takes the íorm oí an uncompromising attitude and a tenacious insistence on
her rights which mav pre·ent a meeting halí-wav. and as applied to the husband. it
means unwillingness to associate with the wiíe íor ugliness oí her íeatures or old age. or
other like causes. Razi (ommentarv,

, Koran : IV. 12¯-129.

, 1here is a third wav. also called Mubarat.` which is di·orce bv Mutual consent.
Again : Men used to di·orce wi·es. and take them back. not because thev intended to
retain them. but because thev wanted to tease their wi·es bv putting oíí the di·orce
indeíinitelv: so God re·ealed the ·erse: Retain them not bv constraint etc.` Malik`s

, A man di·orced his wiíe. took her back. when the period oí retirement was
coming to an end. again di·orced her. saving-bv God. I will neither accept thee. nor
allow thee íreedom to marrv another. So God re·ealed the ·erse: \ou mav di·orce
vour wi·es etc.` Malik`s Mowattaa,.

, Koran. chII :229.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
generositv. or put them awav with generositv: but retain them not bv constraint
so as to be unjust toward them. le who doth so indeed injures himselí.`

7. The form of Separation- A Check
on Separation
1he Prophet imposed certain such conditions on the exercise oí the power
oí di·orce that while. on the one hand. thev ser·ed as a poweríul check on the
injudicious and arbitrarv use oí this power. thev aííorded. on the other hand.
manv opportunities to the parties íor an amicable agreement. ií thev so desired.
Oí the se·eral íorms oí di·orce recognised bv Islamic law. the one that bears
the impress oí the Prophet`s sanction and appro·al is the Ahsan` tvpe oí
1alaq.` 1his íorm oí repudiation in·ol·es the íollowing conditions. each oí
which being intended to pre·ent a permanent breach.
a, 1he husband. in the íirst place. must pronounce onlv one repudiation.
the object oí this limitation being. that the mav subsequentlv. when
better sense pre·ails. re·oke the repudiation-ií he has produced it írom
caprice or in a moment oí excitement- within the period oí the wiíe`s
retirement consequent upon that repudiation and that he mav re-marrv
her. ií the period expires without the right oí return ha·ing been
exercised bv the husband.

b, 1he repudiation must be pronounced when the wiíe is in a state oí
puritv. and there is no bar to sexual intercourse. it being declared
unlawíul to pronounce repudiation when the wiíe is in menses. or when
she is pure. but has alreadv been approached.`
c, 1he husband must abstain írom connubial intercourse with his wiíe aíter
pronouncing repudiation íor the period oí three months.`

1here is a tradition oí accepted authenticitv that throws considerable light
on the wisdom underlving the last two restrictions. Abdullah Ibn Omar
di·orced his wiíe while she was in her menses: and the matter was reported to
the Prophet who. much exasperated at the le·itv oí his conduct. said: Let him
take her back and retain her: till she be pure and again ha·e her courses and
again gets pure. 1hen. ií he thinks it prudent. let him di·orce her. but he should
do so when she is clean and has not been approached: and this is the period oí
retirement Iddat, which God has ordered íor di·orce.`
Some learned commentators obser·e in connection with this tradition that
the purpose oí this condition is. to a·oid a rash and hastv procedure on the part
oí the husband. through a·ersion arising írom the wiíe`s impuritv. and bv íixing
a long period oí abstinence to gi·e him opportunities to reconsider his decision
about the di·orce. so that perchance he mav repent. and exercise the right oí
return beíore the expirv oí the term.

, Koran. ch.II: 231.

, latawi Moughiri.

, 1hese htree months constitute the iddat` period which is obligatorv on such wi·es
with whom the marriage has been consummated. 1he women who are di·orced shall
wait concerning themsel·es until thev ha·e their courses thrice.` Koran. II:228.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
During this period oí probation. the marriage subsists between the parties.
and the husband retains his marital authoritv o·er his wiíe. le mav. thereíore.
ha·e access to the wiíe e·en without her permission. and can treat her as his
wiíe. but this would actuallv amount to his exercising the right oí return.
During iddat`. the husband id under legal obligation to lodge the wiíe in his
house. though in a separate apartment. and maintain her. 1he laws oí the
Koran are quite clear on this point. O Prophet. when ve di·orce women.
di·orce them at their appointed time and compute the term exactlv. and íear
God vour Lord. Oblige them not to go out oí their apartments. nor allow them
to depart. unless thev be guiltv oí maniíest uncleanness.`

louse the di·orced as ve house voursel·es. according to vour means. and
distress them not. bv reducing them to straits. And ií thev are pregnant. then be
at charges íor them. till thev are deli·ered oí their burden: and ií thev suckle
vour children. then pav them their hire and consult among voursel·es. and act

Ií. the husband has pronounced one. or e·en two repudiations. and ií within
the prescribed period. he abstains írom intercourse with his wiíe. and does not
exercise the right oí return on the repudiated wiíe. he loses the power oí
recantation at the expiration oí the term. and complete cessation oí the marital
rights and duties takes place. a íresh marriage being necessarv íor the parties to

It is ob·ious. that the ·erv spirit oí the prescribed traditional íorm oí
repudiation is towards a re·ocation oí the di·orce and a reconciliation between
the parties concerned. Ií. howe·er. the parties íail to take ad·antage oí the
prescribed interim. and are determined to break írom each other. the husband
mav pronounce the repudiation íor the third time and thus dissol·e the
marriage deíinitelv. 1he di·orced wiíe is íorthwith rendered unlawíul to him
and he cannot remarrv her. unless the wiíe marries íirst another person bv a
·alid and binding contract. is di·orced bv this person. aíter a bona íide
consummation oí marriage and completes the period oí iddat` consequent
upon such repudiation.

1his se·ere condition. has been the subject oí much comment bv the critics:
but thev íorget that the ·erv existence oí such a condition demonstrates most
stronglv that the principles oí Islam are entirelv opposed to the alleged íacilitv
oí di·orce. 1he object oí laving down such a rule. was to pre·ent a deíinite
dissolution oí marriage. bv appealing to the sense oí honour oí the people.

Sautavra and Sedillot agree with the Mohammadan jurists. in thinking that
his rule was íramed with the object oí restraining the írequencv oí di·orce in
Arabia. Sedillot speaks oí the condition as a ·erv wise one` as it rendered
separation more rare. bv imposing a check on its írequent practice among the

, Koran. ch .LXV.I.

, Ibid : 6.

, Koran. II : 232.

, Koran. chap. II : 230.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
lebrews and the leathen Arabs oí the Peninsula. Sautavra savs that the check
was intended to control a jealous. sensiti·e. but halí cultured race. bv appealing
to their sense oí honour.`

Sir \. Muir erroneouslv think that Islam positi·elv sanctions the hiring oí a
temporarv husband. to legalise re-marriage with a thrice-di·orced wiíe.
idea oí getting the di·orced wiíe married to a third person. on an express
understanding that he would di·orce her in ía·our oí her íormer husband. was
condemned bv the Prophet in the most emphatic terms.
In the other íorm oí di·orce three repudiation are pronounced in the period
oí puritv. either on one occasion or on three separate occasions. 1his di·orce is
·alid. but is an act oí sin. 1his íorm oí di·orce is called 1alaq Bid-a.` i.e. not
in coníormitv with pious practice.

It is to be remembered that the abuses. likelv to arise írom the laxitv oí the
laws. mav con·enientlv be counteracted bv other lawíul impositions. 1he wiíe
or her guardian íor instance. mav stipulate. at the time oí marriage. against the
arbitrarv exercise oí the power oí di·orce bv the husband. 1he right oí
dissolution oí the contract mav be stipulated to be with the wiíe. instead oí
with the husband. ií necessarv. 1he same object mav also be achie·ed indirectlv.
bv íixing the dower at a large sum. bevond the means oí the husband to
liquidate. 1he wiíe mav also. bv stipulation reser·e to herselí the power oí
dissol·ing the marriage under certain legitimate circumstances. íor example. ií
the husband marries a second wiíe.

In the e·ent oí a di·orce the Islamic laws are ·erv particular in pro·iding íor
the protection oí the wiíe`s propertv against the a·arice oí the husband: Ií the
di·orce is due to a cause imputable to the husband: he has to make o·er to her
all her propertv. and pav oíí the dower that had been settled upon her. Ií.
howe·er. the di·orce has been restored to at the instance oí the wiíe. without
anv justiíiable cause. she has simplv to abandon her claim to the dower. 1he
wiíe thus occupies.` obser·es Sved Ameer Ali. a decidedlv more ad·antageous
position than the husband.`

8. “ Kholaa Divorce”
Kholaa di·orce is deíined thus: \hen married parties disagree and are
apprehensi·e that thev cannot obser·e the bounds prescribed bv the di·ine
laws. -that is. cannot períorm the duties imposed on them bv the conjugal
relationship - the woman can release herselí írom the tie. bv gi·ing up some
propertv in return. in consideration oí which the husband is to gi·e her a
Kholaa`. and when thev ha·e done this. an irre·ersible di·orce would take
Kholaa` is thereíore a repudiation with consent. and at the instance oí the
wiíe. in which she agrees to gi·e a consideration to the husband íor her release
írom the marriage tie. But ií the wiíe íails to pav the compensation. there is vet

, Personal Law oí the Mohammadans. p 335.

, Sir \illiam. Muir`s Liíe oí Mahomet.` Vol. III. p.349.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
another means to dissol·e the marriage. namelv. Mubarat.` according to which
no compensation has to be paid. and a complete separation is eííected. merelv
bv mutual consent oí the parties. Ií. howe·er. the husband gi·es a Kolaa` to
his wiíe ritbovt anv compensation. the respecti·e claims oí husband and wiíe
are not cancel-led íorthwith. and thev are quite competent to sue each other íor
the pavment oí anv debts which mav be due.
1he compensation is a matter oí arrangement between the husband and
wiíe. 1he wiíe mav return the whole. or a portion oí the dower. ií it has been
paid: or she mav simplv surrender her dower or other rights. such as the right
to maintenance and lodging during the iddat` period. or she mav make anv
other agreement íor the beneíit oí the husband such as íor instance. to nurse
their child during its two vears oí suckling. or to keep and maintain the child íor
a íixed period at her own expense aíter ha·ing weaned it.

It should be remembered that the distinction between talaq` and Kholaa`
is real and not merelv technical. Ií the cause oí disagreement proceeds írom the
husband or ií he alone wishes íor a talaq`. he must pav oíí the settlement debt
to the wiíe. But. in case the proposal íor a di·orce emanates írom the wiíe
because oí her a·ersion to the husband. and her consequent íailure to períorm
her duties as a wiíe. or ií she alone wishes íor a Kholaa.` she has to surrender
her dower or abandon some oí her rights. as compensation. Ií the wiíe be so
uníortunate as to be subject to abuse bv a brutal husband who mav wish her
either to íoríeit the whole oí her dower. or li·e with him. she need not íoríeit
the whole oí her dower. Let her onlv go to the judge. preíer a complaint against
her husband and demand a íormal separation bv the decree oí the (ourt. Ií her
allegations are true. the judge will call upon the husband to repudiate her. In
case he reíuses to do so. the judge himselí pronounces a repudiation which will
operate as a ·alid repudiation and the husband will be liable íor the whole oí
the deíerred dower. 1his procedure is known as taíriq` or legal separation. in
the Islamic law. and is based on the words oí the Prophet: Ií a woman be
prejudiced bv a marriage. let it be broken oíí.`

1he íirst Kholaa` case in Islam is quoted bv Bukhari in the íollowing
words: the wiíe oí 1habit Ibn Oais came to the Prophet and said O messenger
oí God. I am not angrv with 1habet íor his temper or religion: but I am aíraid
that something mav happen to me contrarv to Islam. on which account I wish
to be separated írom him. 1he Prophet said: \ill vou gi·e back to 1habit the
garden which he ga·e to vou as vour settlement· She said. \es.` 1hen the
Prophet said to 1habit. 1ake vour garden and di·orce her at once`

1his tradition clearlv tells us that 1habit was blameless. and that the
proposal íor separation emanated írom the wiíe who íeared she would not be
able to obser·e the bounds set bv God namelv not to períorm her íunctions as
a wiíe. 1he Prophet here permitted the woman to release herselí bv returning
to the husband the ante-nuptial settlement. as compensation íor the release
granted to her.

, Bukhari`s (ommentarv.

, Bukhari is the greatest commentarv oí Islamic orthodox traditions.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In the Kholaa` írom the basic principle oí repudiation is. that the husband
is lawíullv entitled to compensation. onlv when he is not at all responsible íor
the breach -neither whollv nor in part.- but when the wiíe is alone responsible.
as in the tradition quoted abo·e.
Moslem jurists are all agreed that the compensation extorted írom an
innocent wiíe is unlawíul. (ompensation is absolutelv unlawíul íor the
husband. e·en when the wiíe happens to be partlv responsible íor the
disagreement. 1he religion oí Islam is the onlv one that can produce a set oí
laws which jealouslv protects the properlv and person oí a wiíe against her
husband`s` cupiditv and tvrannv.`
I now ad·ert to a passage in the Koran which expresslv íorbids the husband
to resort to crueltv or other ·iolent means. with a ·iew to compel a woman to
enter into Kholaa` and to relinquish her dowrv. O belie·ers. it is not allowed
vou to be heirs oí vour wi·es against their will: nor to imprison them.
in order
to take írom them a part oí the dowrv vou ga·e them. unless thev ha·e been
guiltv oí maniíest crime: but associate kindlv with them: íor. ií ve are estranged
írom them. haplv ve are estranged írom that in which God hath placed
abundant good. And ií ve be desirous to ex-change one wiíe íor another. and
ha·e gi·en one oí them a talent. make no deduction írom it. \ould ve take it
bv slandering her. and with maniíest wrong· low. moreo·er. could ve take it.
when one oí vou hath gone in unto the other. and thev the wi·es, ha·e
recei·ed írom vou a strict bond oí union.`
It is impossible to think oí a more
appealing and íorcible exhortation to a husband. to deal kindlv with his wiíe.
e·en ií she happens to be a woman oí unseemlv manners. It is íorbidden in the
strongest terms. to lav hold on her propertv in the e·ent oí a separation.
Beíore these ·erses were re·ealed. brutal husbands used to maltreat their
wi·es. and e·en to imprison and torture them until. unable to bear their
suííerings. thev were íorced to relinquish the dowrv settled upon them at
marriage: and this propertv thev used to endow their new wi·es with. 1his was
expresslv íorbidden bv the ·erses quoted abo·e. According to the Malikite
School oí law. -ií a husband has íorced his wiíe to enter into a kholaa.` the
wiíe is entitled to get back the dowrv. but the separation will be ·alid in law. I
ha·e alreadv made mention oí the procedure known as 1aíriq` which legallv
means dissolution oí the status oí marriage bv a judicial decree. I gi·e here
some oí the cause íor which a wiíe can demand a di·orce bv authoritv oí the
(ourt. It must be remembered that. where the wiíe has the right to preíer a
claim oí taíriq` the husband is entitled to no compensation. as he is so entitled
in kholaa`. A di·orce mav be granted bv the (ourt íor: -

1. labitual ill-treatment oí the wiíe.
2. Non-íulíillment oí the terms oí the marriage contract
3. Insanitv.
4. Incurable in competencv.
5. Ouitting the conjugal domicile without making pro·ision íor the wiíe

, Sometimes the phrase is translated. Do not hinder them írom marrving others.`

, Koran. IV : 18.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
6. Anv other similar causes which in the opinion oí the (ourt justiív a

\e ha·e seen. then. the position oí woman and her legal status in Islam. 1o
sum up: ler legal status is decidedlv superior to that oí Luropean women.
1he social immunities she enjovs allow the íullest exercise. on her part. oí the
powers and pri·ileges which the law gi·es to her. She acts. ií sui-juris. in all
matters which relate to herselí and to her own propertv. in her own indi·idual
right. without the inter·ention oí husband or íather. She appoints her own
attornev. and delegates to him all the powers she herselí posseses. She enters
into ·alid contracts with her husband and her male relations. on a íooting oí
equalitv. Ií she is ill-treated. she has the right to ha·e the marriage tie dissol·ed.
She is entitled to pledge the credit oí her husband íor the maintenance oí
herselí and her children. She is able. e·en ií holding a creed diííerent to that oí
her husband. to claim the íree and uníettered exercise oí her own religious
obser·ances. ler ante-nuptial settlement is her own bv absolute right. and
she can deal with it according to her own will and pleasure. 1o become entitled
to its enjovment. she requires no intermediates. trustees or next oí kin. \hen
she is aggrie·ed bv her husband. she has the right to sue him in her indi·idual

It is both interesting and instructi·e to compare this extract with another.
írom the writings oí J.S. Mill which gi·es us an idea oí the corresponding
position oí women in (hristianitv: \e are continuallv told` savs he. that
ci·ilisation and (hristianitv ha·e restored to woman her just rights. Meanwhile
the wiíe is the actual bond- ser·ant oí her husband: no less so. as íar as legal
obligation goes. than sla·es commonlv so called. She ·ows a liíelong obedience
to him at the altar. and is held to it all through her liíe bv law. (asuists mav sav
that the obligation oí obedience stops short oí participation in crime. but it
certainlv extends to e·ervthing else. She can do no act whate·er. but bv his
permission. at least. tacit. She can acquire no propertv. but íor him: the instant
it becomes hers. e·en ií bv inheritance. it becomes ipso íacto his. In this respect
the wiíe`s position under the (ommon Law oí Lngland is worse than that oí
sla·es in the laws oí manv countries: bv the Roman Law. íor example. a sla·e
might ha·e peculium which to a certain extent. the law guaranteed him íor his
exclusi·e use.`

9. Female Seclusion
1he Islamic laws regulating the social intercourse oí Moslems. ha·e oíten
gi·en rise to needless criticism in Lurope. In their enthusiasm íor social libertv.
the \estern critics sav. that these laws are degrading to Moslem women. and
are responsible íor the low state oí moralitv among Moslems. lowe·er. the
true íact is. that these laws. strict as thev are. had íor their ·erv aim the
preser·ation oí good morals in societv. Indeed. preser·ation oí good morals -
and not unrestricted íreedom oí social intercourse among men and women.

, 1he Re·iew oí Religions. Mav 1913. . L·identlv J.S. Mill wrote prior to the Married
\omen`s Propertv Act oí 1882.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
such as is pre·alent to-dav in (hristian Lurope- is the intention oí the Islamic
laws. lemale seclusion is misunderstood in manv quarters in íoreign countries.
íor the apparent reason that sanctions oí religion and usage ha·e not been kept
apart. as thev ought to ha·e been but ha·e been grosslv mixed one with
another. lailing to distinguish between the two. our \estern critics ha·e íallen
into the ·erv serious íault oí disseminating a íalse notion among their
countrvmen. that Islam is responsible íor the seclusion oí íemales. and íor all
the e·ils that ílow thereírom.
I will dwell on the subject a little and make an attempt to show whether the
religion oí Islam actuallv sanctions the seclusion oí women. as is
misunderstood bv Luropean critics.
1he íollowing ·erse occurs in the Koran. which touch on our present
subject: Speak unto the íemale belie·ers that thev restrain their eves. and keep
themsel·es írom immodest actions: and that thev displav not their charms and
ornaments. except to their husbands or their íathers. or their husband`s íathers.
or their sons or their husbands` sons. or their brothers. or their brother`s sons
or their sisters` sons. or their women. or their sla·es. or male domestics who
ha·e no natural íorce. or to children who distinguish not women`s nakedness.
And let them not strike their íeet together. so as to disco·er their hidden
ornaments. And be ve all turned to God. O ve belie·ers. that it mav be well
with vou.`

1he chieí object oí these ·erses is to secure greater puritv oí heart and
increasing chastitv oí mind: and hence the belie·ers are here reminded that
God is well aware oí what thev do. and that it shall be well íor them. ií thev
constantlv turn to him. 1o attain this moral puritv. the belie·ing man is íirst
directed to retrain his eves and obser·e continence. 1hen the belie·ing woman
is likewise directed to co·er her person and ornaments írom public ·iew. to
restrain her eves and obser·e continence. A Moslem woman is at libertv to go
out oí her house. ií necessarv. aíter she has obtained permission írom her
husband or guardians. Onlv. she has to take good care to dress herselí properlv.
so as to co·er her person írom head to íoot. and to walk in the street with
downcast eves.
It is needless to point out. that the injunction with respect to looking down.
is useless and uncalled íor. ií the women are ne·er to walk abroad. Likewise the
reíerence to external ornaments too becomes pointless. ií women are to appear
onlv beíore per-sons mentioned in the ·erses quoted abo·e. It is allowable íor a
woman to unco·er part oí her íace. íingers oí her hands. soles oí her íeet.
when she íeels the necessitv oí going out. 1he rest oí the bodv must be
concealed beíore strangers. but beíore the persons enumerated in the ·erses. it
is enough that the part írom breast to knee remains co·ered.
It is clear then. that the ·erses quoted abo·e deal with proprietv oí dress.
and íorbid women to ílirt and coquet. in order to gain admirers. On the other
hand. thev enjoin upon the íaithíul women modestv oí deportment. puritv oí
heart and íear oí God.
It can be coníidentlv asserted that the excellent teachings upon chastitv.
together with the remedies íor incontinence. as contained in the lolv Koran.

, Koran: XXIV : 31

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
are a peculiaritv oí Islam. One particular point deser·es especial attention. 1he
natural inclination oí man is to sexual desire. o·er which he cannot ha·e íull
control except bv undergoing a thorough transíormation. 1he di·ine injunction
in this respect is. thereíore. not that we mav look at strange women and their
beautv and ornaments. or their gait and dancing. so long as we do it with pure
looks. nor that it is lawíul íor us to listen to their sweet songs. or to the stories
oí their lo·e and beautv. pro·ided it is done with a pure heart: but that it is
ne·er lawíul íor us. to cast glances at them. whether to lust or otherwise and to
listen to their ·oices. whether with a pure or an impure heart. \e are íorbidden
to do an act. in the doing oí which we are not treading upon sure ground. Ií the
eves are accustomed to look aíter strange women. there is a íear. lest this
practice should. some time. lead to dangerous consequences. 1hat \orld oí
God: as re·ealed in the lolv Koran. thereíore. restrains the carnal desires oí
man and enjoins upon him. to a·oid the occasions. where there is danger oí the
excitement oí the e·il passions.

\e now ad·ert to another passage in the lolv Book. where the mothers oí
the íaithíul` are addressed: O \i·es oí the Prophet. ve are not as other
women. Ií ve íear God. be not too complaisant oí speech. lest the man oí
unhealthv heart should lust aíter vou. but speak with discreet speech. And abide
still in vour houses. and go not in public. decked as was common in the davs oí
ignorance. but obser·e praver and gi·e alms. and obev God and the Apostle:
God but desireth to put awav all impuritv írom vou. O ve the household oí the
Prophet. and puriív vou thoroughlv. And studv what is rehearsed to vou in vour
houses. oí the Book oí God. and oí \isdom: God is Keen-sighted and
(ongnisant oí all.`

1he wi·es oí the Prophet. who were destined to be patterns íor all íaithíul
women. are here gi·en positi·e injunctions. to íear God. puriív their hearts.
obser·e praver. gi·e alms. obev the Prophet and read constantlv the lolv
Koran. - in short to lead a liíe oí puritv. de·otion and pietv. In the sublimitv oí
their thoughts. these noble women were not unmindíul oí the humbler duties
oí domestic liíe. 1he great lesson which their noble husband taught. was that
woman`s proper sphere is her house. and the claims oí domestic duties should
recei·e her íirst and best consideration. le set up an ideal beíore his wi·es. and
through them. to all belie·ing women: it was the ideal oí plain li·ing and high
It is to be remembered. that the wi·es oí the Prophet were all accessible to
religious inquiries. Avesha was. as it were the repositorv oí the traditions. and
was írequentlv consulted on matters oí religion and ritual. Men came írom
distant parts oí the countrv and straightwav saw the wi·es oí the Prophet. and
all oí these ·isitors were certainlv not oí blameless character. It was quite
natural. that the wi·es oí the Prophet should ha·e recei·ed guidance with
regard to general deportment and proprietv oí speech. Bv discreet speech`. in
the abo·e quoted ·erse. is meant that the wi·es oí the Prophet should speak to
these religious inquirers as mothers would do to their sons.

, Koran. XXXIII : 32-34.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

1he next ·erse. to which we would like to allude. is called the ·erse oí the
·eil. and it occurs íurther on in the same chapter: And when ve would ask anv
giít oí his wi·es ask it írom behind a ·eil. Purer will this be íor vour hearts and
íor theirs.`

According to some commentators. strangers mav approach the wi·es oí the
Prophet. and talk to them. ií thev are ·eiled: and presumablv this applies to the
generalitv oí Moslem women as well. Aiming. as it does. at the puriíication oí
the heart: the ·erse onlv íorbids too íamiliar an intercourse between strangers
and the wi·es oí the Prophet. It does not warrant the conclusion. that the
Koran laws are responsible íor the immurement oí the íair sex.

1here are other commentators. who íollow a stricter interpretation oí the
·erse. namelv. that the wi·es oí the Prophet were here commended. not to
appear beíore strangers. e·en though thev were ·eiled. 1hose who uphold this
interpretation are careíul to limit the applications oí the ·erse to the Prophet`s
wi·es onlv. Ií anv other Moslem woman appears beíore stranger. she commits
no íault: but ií she does not appear at all. it is better still.`

1he occasion oí this ·erse. in accordance with one ·ersion. also lends
support to the ·iew. that the ·erse was intended íor the wi·es oí the Prophet
alone. Omar. who aíterwards was ele·ated to the (aliphate. once happened to
come upon the wi·es oí the Prophet. who were still sitting in a mosque in
companv with manv other women. Such a sight was not to Omar`s liking íor he
was alwavs in ía·our oí the seclusion oí the Prophet`s wi·es. le there and then
exclaimed- \hat a happv thing it would ha·e been. ií the mothers oí the
íaithíul` had been under ·eils.`
In that case thought he. their superioritv would
ha·e been established o·er other women much in the same wav as the
superioritv oí their noble husband is established o·er other men.

In studving these ·erses. manv íorget to take into account the circumstances
and conditions that pre·ailed in those times in Arab Societv. A sort oí
chi·alrous spirit doubtless existed: but it existed in Arab poetrv. rather than in
the actual liíe oí the people. \omen were no better than cattle and íurniture.
lree women. as well as. sla·e women. íreelv walked in the open. with their
heads bare. and oíten with scantv clothing. 1he houses were not large enough.
and the rooms were narrow and íew in number. In most cases. one and the
same room ser·ed manv diííerent purposes. It is easv to see. thereíore. that
aimd such conditions. it was ·erv diííicult to maintain pri·acv. Indeed ·iolation
oí pri·acv. and e·en oí decencv. was an e·erv dav occurrence. It was to put a
stop to such an undesirable state oí things. that the íollowing teachings were

, Koran XXXIII : 53.

, Zamakhshari`s (ommentarv.

, 1hus were the wi·es oí the Prophet termed in the Koran.

, Zamakhshari. p.1141.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
O ve who belie·e. enter not into other houses than vour own. until ve ha·e
asked lea·e. and ha·e saluted the íamilv thereoí: this is better íor vou: haplv ve
will bear this in mind.`
And ií ve íind no one therein. then enter it not. till lea·e be gi·en vou: and
ií it be said unto vou. Go ve back: then go ve back.. 1his will be more pure íor
vou. and God knoweth what ve do.`
1here shall be no harm in vour entering houses. in which no one
dewelleth. God knoweth that which ve disco·er and that which ve conceal.`

(ommentators mention a signiíicant tradition about a person who. aíter the
re·elation oí these ·erses. inquired oí the Prophet. ií it were necessarv íor him
to get permission e·en írom his mother. beíore entering into her chamber.
\es.` said the Prophet. But she has none to attend to her. except mvselí.` put
in the Arab inquirer. Likest thou to see vour mother naked·` obser·ed the
Prophet. (ertainlv not.` Replied the man. Ask her permission then.` said the
Prophet emphaticallv.
Likewise. we íind that. at certain times oí the dav. e·en domestics and
children should not come into our presence without notice. lere are the
instruction bearing on the occasion:
O ve who belie·e. let vour sla·es and those oí vou who ha·e not come oí
age ask lea·e oí vou. three times a dav. ere thev come into vour presence:
beíore morning praver. and when ve lav aside vour garments at mid-dav. and
aíter the e·ening praver. 1hese are three times oí pri·acv. No blame shall attach
to vou or them. ií aíter these times. when ve go vour rounds oí attendance on
one another thev come in without permission,. 1hus doth God make clear to
vou lis signs: and God is knowing. wise. And when vour children come oí age.
let them ask lea·e to come into vour presence. as thev who were beíore them.
asked it.`

Under such circumstances and conditions Arab societv grew. 1he iníluence
oí Islam was a blessing to the Arab race. It was Islam that awakened in the
Arab mind respect íor women. and a high sense oí decencv. and social
decorum. It was onlv an extension oí the laws oí decencv and social decorum.
when too close intercourse between strangers and the Prophet`s wi·es was
íorbidden. as we ha·e seen in the ·erse oí the ·eil. It is reallv to be much
regretted. that the critics oí Islam will not see all this. and should obstinatelv
ascribe the íraming oí all these healthv rules. to moti·es oí selíish jealousv.
1here is one more ·erse. in the same chapter. to which reíerence mav be
made in this connection: O Prophet. speak unto thv wi·es and thv daughters.
and the wi·es oí the true belie·ers. that thev cast their outer garment o·er them
when thev walk abroad,: this will be, more proper. that thev mav be known
to be matrons oí reputation,. and mav not be aííronted bv unseemlv words or
actions, God is Gracious and, Merciíul.`

, Koran: XXIV : 2¯-29.

, Koran : XXIV : 5¯-58.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he purport oí this ·erse is quite clear. and requires no elucidation. 1he
wi·es oí the Prophet. as well as the wi·es oí the íaithíul. are permitted to go
abroad. ií necessarv. - and thev are required to co·er themsel·es with large
wrappers. 1he object oí this qualiíication. as brieílv indicated in the ·erse. mav
be best understood bv a reíerence oí the íact. that beíore the re·elation oí this
·erse. both the íree women. as well as the sla·e women. used to go abroad.
without anv wrappers on and with their heads bare: and wicked men ·erv oíten
aííronted them in the streets. Ií in the case oí a íree woman. anv altercation
ensued. these men were readv with their explanation that thev took them íor
sla·e women. 1he íree women were. thereíore. commanded bv this ·erse. to
co·er themsel·es with wrappers. when thev walked out oí doors. so that thev
might easilv be distinguished írom sla·e women. and thus be saíe írom the
insolence oí street-men. Nor was the wrapper. a mere mark oí their social states
- it was a mark oí their chastitv as well. lor. bv using large wrappers. and
therebv co·ering the bodies. including the íaces which it is not at all obligatorv
to co·er. thev bore a silent. but strong testimonv to their moral puritv. and
inspired awe. e·en in the tainted hearts oí wicked people.

1he Koranic ·erses are ·erv clear on this point. and lea·e little room íor
doubt. Lea·ing aside the diííerence oí interpretation. two íacts stand out in
bold relieí:
1. 1hat the object oí the ·erses is to secure chastitv oí heart and mind. and
puritv oí looks íor man and woman.
2. 1hat the ·erses actuallv íorbid an unrestrained and promiscuous mingling
oí both sexes. and this in the interest oí good morals and social well-

Islam does not compel a woman to remain within her house under all
circumstances. It permits her to go out. whene·er there arises anv legitimate
necessitv íor her to go out. It is certain. that she has to take permission. either
express or implicit. írom her husband. 1here are. howe·er. occasions when the
husband cannot denv his wiíe such a permission. as íor example. when she
intends to acquaint herselí with the opinion oí the learned on anv matter
aííecting herselí. or to ·isit her sick parents. etc.
As regards attending public pravers. there is nothing to pre·ent women írom
doing so under certain reser·ations. but it is preíerable that thev should prav at
home. It is more meritorious` said the Prophet. that a woman should sav her
pravers in the courtvard oí her house. rather than in the mosque: it is more
meritorious that she should sav her pravers within the house. rather than in the
courtvard: and better still. in her closet. rather than in her house: and all this
with a ·iew to conceal her írom public ·iew.`

I hope that I ha·e succeeded in presenting the correct teaching in accordance
with the Islamic laws. in regard to the question oí íemale seclusion.
It can be emphaticallv asserted. that Islam ne·er ía·ours woman`s seclusion
in anv extra·agant írom. Seclusion or the Islamic ·eil svstem is deíined as
throwing a wrapper o·er the bodv íorm head to íeet. and it is clear. that in this
sense. it is not incompatible with a woman`s stepping bevond the threshold oí

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the house. particularlv when occasion demands. and when she obtains the
consent oí her husband or guardian. (ertain restrictions ha·e. doubtless. been
imposed on the íreedom oí her mo·ements. as we ha·e shown abo·e. But this
is due as much to moral considerations as to the íact. which has been so oíten
ignored that woman`s proper sphere oí action and iníluence is her own house.
Man. to go abroad with a ·iew to earn a li·ing íor himselí. his wiíe. and
children. -and woman. íree írom such cares. to remain at home. in order to
watch o·er the trust committed to her. and to discharge her own
responsibilities. as a mother and a wiíe such is the Islamic conception oí the
relation between the two sexes.

E Ex xp po os si it ti io on n o of f t th he e R Re el li ig gi io on n o of f I Is sl la am m
he word Islam which literallv signiíies resignation` to God`s will,. is a
comprehensi·e name commonlv applied to the religion oí the íollowers oí
the Prophet Mohammed. It embodies the ·arious sections oí the Islamic Law.
which God has established íor the guidance oí lis people. both íor the
worship oí their Lord. and íor the duties oí liíe. 1hese sections are íi·e in
number. namelv: - belieís: Practical De·otions: 1ransactions: Moralities and

Section I. Beliefs
Belieís embrace the six articles oí the Islamic íaith. namelv: Belieí in a,
God: b, lis angels: c, lis books: d, lis Prophets e, 1he dav oí
Resurrection: í, Predestination.

Section II. Devotion
De·otions are sub-di·ided into íi·e articles oí practice: a, Recital oí (reed:
b, Praver to God: c, Paving legal alms: d, lasting the month oí Ramadan: e,
Pilgrimage to the Kabaa oí Mecca once in a liíetime. ií means allow it.
De·otions also embrace legal waríare íor the deíence oí the religion oí Islam.

Section III. Transactions
1ransactions include such duties as are required between man and man. and
mav be di·ided into three sub-di·isions. namelv: - (ontests: Nuptials: and
Securities. Almost all the ·arious sections oí ci·il jurisprudence relating to
barter. sale. agencv. larcenv. marriage. di·orce. dower. partnership. claims etc..
are embraced under those three heads.

Section IV. Moralities
Moralities embrace the consideration oí all those moral excellences which
are enjoined in the Koran and in the teachings oí the Prophet. such as.
Sinceritv: (oníidence in God: lumilitv: Resignation: Keeping worldlv
ambitions within bounds: Gi·ing good counsel and ad·ice: (ontentment:
Liberalitv: lo·e to God and man: Patience: Lthical instructions and rules oí

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
conduct relating to 1, salutations. 2, asking permission to enter a house. 3,
shaking hands. and embracing. 4, rising up. 5, sitting. sleeping and walking. 6,
sneezing and vawning. ¯, laughing. 8, names. 9, poetrv and eloquence. 10,
backbiting and abuse. 11, promises. 12, joking. 13, boasting and partv spirit.

Section V. Punishments
Punishments include 1, penalties exacted íor manslaughter or serious
bodilv injuries. 2, punishment íor theít bv the loss oí a hand. 3, punishment
íor íornication and adulterv: stoning íor a married person. and one hundred
lashes íor an unmarried person. 4, punishment íor slander bv eightv lashes. 5,
punishment íor apostasv bv death. 6, punishment íor inebriation bv eightv
lashes. Mv object in writing this book. howe·er. is quite limited. It is to deal
with two important sections onlv oí the religion oí Islam. namelv. Belieís.
which embrace all matters oí íaith. and De·otions which include all matters oí
practice. as distinguished írom articles oí íaith. lence. I will coníine the
íollowing pages to the two abo·e-mentioned comprehensi·e di·isions oí the
Law. Meanwhile. I will gi·e a brieí summarv oí the more important articles
embodied in the rest oí the sections.

he creed oí Moslems demands íaith in the íollowing:
1, God: 2, 1he angels oí God: 3, 1he books oí God: 4, 1he Apostles
oí God: 5, 1he dav oí Judgment or Resurrection: 6, Predestination. I will now
deal with each oí these articles separatelv:

1. Belief in God
Belieí in God is best represented bv the íollowing íormula which e·erv
Sunni. or orthodox Moslem must proíess sincerelv: God is one and has had no
partner: Singular. without anv like lim: Uniíorm ha·ing no contrarv: Separate.
ha·ing no equal: Ancient. ha·ing no íirst: Lternal. ha·ing no beginning:
L·erlasting. ha·ing no end: L·er-existing. without termination: Perpetual and
(onstant. with neither interruption nor termination: L·er qualiíied with the
attributes oí Supreme Greatness: nor is le bound to be determined bv lapse oí
ages or times. But le is Alpha and Omega the lirst and the Last,. and the
. and the lidden.

What God is not
God is not a íormed bodv: nor a measurable substance: neither does le
resemble bodies. either in their being measurable or di·isible. Neither is le a
substance. nor do substances exist in lim: neither is le an accidental íorm.
nor do accidentals exist in lim.
le is not like anvthing that exists. neither does anvthing resemble lim. le
is not determined bv dimensions. nor contained within bounds: nor is le

, As to lis ob·ious existence.

, As to lis realitv

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
surrounded bv sides: nor is le comprised within the hea·ens or earth. le sits
upon the throne. aíter the manner which le limselí has described. and in that
same sense which le limselí meant: it is a sitting. íar remo·ed írom anv
notion oí contact. or resting upon. or local situation: but both the throne itselí.
and whatsoe·er supports it. are sustained bv the goodness oí lis power. and
are conquered bv lis will. le is abo·e lis throne and abo·e all things. but so
abo·e as at the same time not be a whit nearer to the throne and the hea·en or
íarther írom the earth.
God is exalted bv iníinite degrees abo·e the throne. no less than le is
exalted abo·e the earth. and at the same time. le is near to e·ervthing that has
being: nav. he is nearer to men than their jugular ·eins. and is witness to
e·ervthing: though lis nearness is not like the nearness oí bodies: neither is
lis essence like the essence oí bodies. le does not exist in anvthing. nor does
anvthing exist in lim: but le is too exalted. to be contained in anv place. and
too lolv. to be determined bv time: íor le existed beíore le created time and
place: and le is now as he alwavs existed. le is also distinct írom the creatures
bv lis attributes. neither is there anvthing besides limselí in lis essence. nor
is lis essence in anv other besides lim.

le is too lolv to be subject to change. or anv local motion: neither do anv
accidents dwell in lim. nor anv contingencies beíall lim: but le abides
through all generations with lis glorious attributes. íree írom all dissolution.
As to the attribute oí períection. le wants no addition oí períection. As to
being. le is known to exist bv the apprehension oí the understanding. and seen
as le is bv the eves. through a ía·our which will be ·ouchsaíed out oí lis
mercv and grace. to the holv in the eternal mansion. completing their jov bv
·ision oí lis glorious presence.

God’s Life and Power
God s li·ing. poweríul. mightv. omnipotent. not liable to anv deíect or
impotence. neither slumbering nor sleeping. nor being subject to decav or
death. 1o lim belongs the Kingdom. the power and the might. lis is the
dominion and the excellence and the creation and the command. 1he hea·ens
are íolded in lis hands. and all creatures are held within lis grasp. le is the
sole creator oí beings and producer oí things. and le is the communicator oí
existence. and írom lim e·ervthing has its beginning. le created men and
their works. and destined their maintenance. and determined their li·es.
Nothing that is possible. can escape lis grasp. nor can the ·icissitudes oí things
elude lis power. 1he eííects oí lis might are innumerable. and the objects oí
lis knowledge iníinite.

God’s Knowledge
God knows all things that can be known. and comprehends whatsoe·er
comes to pass. írom the extremities oí the earth to the highest hea·ens: e·en
the weight oí atom cannot escape lis knowledge. either in earth or hea·en. le
knows all things hidden or maniíest. le knows the number oí lea·es oí the
trees. oí the gains oí wheat and oí sand. L·ents past and íuture are known to

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
lim. le knows what enters into the heart oí man. and what he utters with his
mouth. le alone. except those to whom le has re·ealed them. knows the
in·isible things. le is íree írom íorgetíulness. negligence and error. lis
knowledge is internal. it is not posterior to lis essence.

God’s will
God wills those things to be that exist. and disposes oí all accidents.
Nothing passes in the earth or in the hea·ens. neither little nor much. nor small
nor good nor e·il. nor proíitable nor hurtíul. nor íaith nor iníidelitv. nor
knowledge nor ignorance nor prosperitv nor ad·ersitv. nor increase nor
decrease. nor obedience nor rebellion. but bv lis determinate counsel and
decree. and lis deíinite sentence and will. Nor does the wink oí him that sees.
nor the subtletv oí him that thinks. exceed the bounds oí lis will: but it is le
who ga·e all things their existence or being. le is the (reator and Restorer and
the sole operator oí what le pleases. there is no one re·erse lis decree. or
delav what le has determined. nor is there anv reíuge íor man írom rebellion
against lim. but onlv lis help and mercv: nor has anv man anv power to
períorm anv dutv towards lim. but through lis lo·e and will. 1hough men.
genii. angels and de·ils should conspire together. either to put one single atom
in motion. or cause it to cease its motion. without lis will and approbation.
thev would not be able to do so. lis will subsists in lis essence. with the rest
oí lis attributes. bv which le willed írom eternitv the existence oí those things
that le decreed. which were produced in their proper seasons. according to
lis eternal will. without anv Beíore or Aíter. and with agreement both with lis
knowledge and will. and not bv methodising oí thoughts. nor waiting íor a
proper time. íor which reasons no one thing is in lim a hindrance írom

God’s Hearing and Sight
God-praised bv lis name- is hearing and seeing. and hears and sees. No
audible sound howe·er still. escapes lis hearing: nor is anvthing ·isible so
small as to escape lis sight: íor distance is no hindrance to lis hearing. nor
darkness to lis sight. le sees without pupil or eve-lid. and hears without anv
passage or ear. e·en as le knows without a brain. and períorms lis actions
without the assistance oí anv corporeal limb. and creates without anv
instrument. íor lis attributes are not like those oí men. anv more than lis
essence is like theirs.

God’s Word
God commands. íorbids promises. threatens bv an eternal word. subsisting
in lis essence. Neither is it like the word oí the creatures. nor does it consist in
a ·oice. arising írom the commotion oí the air and the collision oí bodies: nor
in letters which are separated bv the joining together oí the lips. or motion oí
the tongue. 1he Koran. the Law. the Gospel and the Psalter are books sent
down bv lim to lis Apostles. 1he Koran. indeed. is read with tongues. written

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
in books and kept in hearts: vet. as subsisting in the essence oí God. it does not
become liable to separation and di·ision. when it is transíerred into the hearts
and the papers. 1hus Moses also heard the word oí God. without ·oice or
letter. And since these are lis attributes. le li·es and knows and wills and
hears and sees and speaks. bv liíe and knowledge and will and hearing and sight
and word. not bv lis simple essence.

God’s Works
God-praised bv lis name-exists aíter such a manner. that nothing besides
lim has anv being. but what is produced bv lis operation. and ílows írom lis
justice. aíter the best most excellent. most períect and most just model. le is.
moreo·er. wise in lis works. and just in lis decrees. But lis justice is not to
be compared with the justice oí men. lor a man mav be held to act unjustlv bv
in·ading the possessions oí another: but to God. inasmuch as there is nothing
which mav belong to anv other besides limselí. no wrong is imputable. íor le
cannot be considered as meddling with things not appertaining to lim. All
things. limselí onlv excepted. genii. men de·ils. angels. hea·en. earth. animals.
plants. substance. and their attributes. all are lis creation. le created them bv
lis power out oí nothingness. and brought them into existence. when as vet
thev were nothing at all. but le alone existing írom eternitv. neither was there
anv other with him. Now. le created all things írom the beginning íor the
maniíestation oí lis power and lis will. and íor the coníirmation oí lis word
which was true írom all eternitv. Not that stood in need oí them. nor wanted
them: but le maniíestlv declared lis glorv in creating and producing and
commanding. without being under anv obligation. nor out oí necessitv. íorivg.
/ivave... tarovr ava grace ava beveticevce. belong to lim: whereas it is in lis
power to pour íorth upon men a ·arietv oí torments. and to aíílict them with
·arious kinds oí sorrows and diseases: and should le do this. lis justice would
not be arraigned. nor would le be chargeable with injustice. \et le rewards
those who worship lim íor their obedience. on account oí lis promise and
beneíicence. not íor their merit or oí necessitv. since there is nothing which le
is under an obligation to períorm: nor can anv injustice be supposed in lim.
nor can le be under anv obligation to anv person whatsoe·er. 1hat lis
creatures. howe·er. should be bound to ser·e lim. arises írom lis ha·ing
declared bv the tongues oí the Prophets. that it was due to lim bv them. 1he
worship oí God is not simplv the dictates oí the understanding. but le sent
messengers to carrv to men lis commands and promises and admonitions: the
·eracitv oí these messengers le Pro·ed bv maniíest miracles. wherebv men are
obliged to gi·e credit to them in those things which thev relate.

Mr. George Sale rightlv comments on the Islamic notion oí God as íollows:
1hat both Mohammed and those among his íollowers who are reckoned
orthodox. had and continue to ha·e. just and true notions oí God and lis
attributes. appears plain írom the Koran itselí and all the Mohammedan
di·ines. so that it would be to.. ot tive. to retvte tbo.e rbo .vppo.e tbe Coa ot

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Mobavvea to be aitterevt trov tbe trve Coa. and onlv a íictitious deitv or idol oí
his own creation.`

I will now gi·e a translation oí some quotations írom the Koran. bearing on
the essence oí God: this subject íorming such an important íeature oí the
teachings oí the religion oí Islam:

The Unity of God:
Sav: le is God. the Singular. God the Lord. le begetteth not. nor is le
begotten. nor is anvthing equal unto lim.` 1rulv vour God is but one. Lord
oí the lea·ens and oí the Larth. and oí all that is between them. and Lord oí
the points at which the sun rises and sets in the course oí the vear,. God.
1here is no deitv but le. Most excellent are lis attributes.`

1. Proofs of His existence:
le God, bringeth íorth the li·ing out oí the dead. and le bringeth íorth
the death out oí the li·ing and le quickeneth the earth aíter it hath been dead:
and in like manner shall ve be brought íorth írom vour gra·es, oí lis signs
one is., that le hath created vou oí dust: and behold. ve are become, men.
spread o·er the íace oí the earth. And oí lis signs another is, that le hath
created íor vou. out oí voursel·es. wi·es. that ve mav cohabit with them: and
hath put lo·e and compassion between vou: ·erilv herein are signs unto people
who consider. And oí lis signs are also., the creation oí the hea·ens and the
earth. and the ·arietv oí vou languages. and oí vour complexion: ·erilv herein
are signs unto men oí understanding. And oí lis signs are., vour sleeping bv
night and bv dav. and vour seeking to pro·ide íor voursel·es, oí lis
abundance: ·erilv herein are, signs unto people who hearken. Oí lis signs
others are, that le showeth vou the lightning. to strike terror. and to gi·e
hope oí rain,. and that le sendeth down water írom hea·en. and quickeneth
therebv the earth. aíter it hath been dead: ·erilv herein are signs unto people
who understand. And oí lis signs this also is one. namelv, that the hea·ens
and the earth stand íirm at lis command: here aíter when le shall call ve out
oí the earth at one summons. behold. ve shall come íorth.`

\hen ad·ersitv beíalleth men. thev call upon their Lord. turning unto
lim: aíterwards. when le hath caused them to taste oí lis mercv. behold. a
part oí them associate other deities, with their Lord: showing themsel·es
ungrateíul íor the ía·ours which \e ha·e bestowed on them.`
\hen \e cause men to taste mercv. thev rejoice therein: but ií e·il
beíalleth them. íor that which their hands ha·e beíore committed. be-hold.
thev despair. It is, God \ho hath created vou. and hath pro·ided íood íor
vou: hereaíter will le cause vou to die: and aíter that. will le raise vou: again to
It is, God \ho created vou in weakness. and aíter weakness hath gi·en
vou, strength: and aíter strength. le will again, reduce vou, to weakness. and

, Vide Sale`s Prelim. Disc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
grev hair: le createth that which le pleaseth: and le is, the \ise. the

God’s Omnipresence asserted
1here is no pri·ate discourse among three persons. but le is the íourth oí
them: nor among, íi·e. but le is the sixth oí them: neither among, a smaller
number than this. nor a larger. but le is with them. wheresoe·er thev be: and
le will declare unto them that which thev ha·e done. on the dav oí
resurrection: íor God knoweth all things.
God’s Omnipotence
God. there is no deitv le. the Li·ing. the Selí-Subsisting: Neither slumber
seizeth lim nor sleep: lis. whatsoe·er is in the hea·ens. and whatsoe·er is on
the earth. \ho is le that can intercede with lim. but bv lis permission· le
knoweth what hath been beíore them and what shall be aíter them: vet naught
oí lis knowledge shall thev grasp. sa·e what le willeth. lis Seat reaches o·er
the hea·ens and the earth. and the upholding oí both is no burden unto lim:
and le is the ligh and the Great.`

Creator of all things
le causes the dawn to appear. and hath ordained the night íor rest. and
the sun and the moon íor computing time. 1he ordinance oí the Mightv. the
\ise.` And it is le \ho hath ordained the stars íor vou. that ve mav be
guided therebv in the darkness oí the land and oí the sea. (lear ha·e \e made
Our signs to men oí knowledge.` And it is le \ho produced vou írom one
man. and hath pro·ided íor vou, an abode and resting place. (lear ha·e \e
made our signs íor men oí insight.`

And it is le \ho sendeth rain írom lea·en. and \e bring íorth bv it the
buds oí all the plants. and írom them. \e bring íorth the green íoliage. and the
close growing grain. and palm trees with sheaths oí clustering dates. and
gardens oí grapes. and the oli·e and the pomegranate. like and unlike. Look ve
on their íruits. when thev ripen and bear íruit. 1rulv herein are signs unto
people who belie·e.1his is God vour Lord. 1here is no deitv but le. the
creator oí all things. thereíore worship lim alone: and le watcheth o·er all
things` \e created the hea·ens and the earth and all that is between them in
six davs. and no weariness touched Us.`

Perfect in His Works.
Blessed be le in \hose hand is the Kingdom: and o·er all things is le
\ho hath created death and liíe. to pro·e who oí vou will be most
righteous in deed: and le is the Mightv. the lorgi·ing.`
\ho hath created se·en hea·ens one abo·e another. No deíect canst thou
see in the creation oí the God oí mercv: repeat the gaze: seest thou a single

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1hen twice more repeat the gaze: thv gaze shall return to thee dulled and
wearv.` Koran,

The Light of Heaven and Earth
God is the Light oí the lea·ens and oí the Larth. lis light is like a niche
in which there is a lamp -the lamp encased in glass- the glass. as it were a
glistening star. lrom a blessed tree it is lighted. the oli·e tree. neither oí the
Last nor the \est. whose oil shines out as it were. e·en though íire touched it
not. It is light upon light. God guideth whom le will to lis light. and God
setteth íorth parables to men. íor God knoweth all things.`
Provides for All
\hoso chooseth this quicklv passing liíe. quicklv will \e bestow thereon
that which \e please-e·en on him \e choose: aíterwards \e will appoint hell
íor him. in which he shall burn- disgraced. outcast.`
But thev who choose the liíe to come and stri·e aíter it. as it should be
stri·en íor. being also belie·ers- as íor these. their stri·ing shall be grateíul to
1o all-both to these and those- \ill \e prolong the giíts oí Us \e, vour
Lord: íor not to anv shall the giíts oí thv Lord be denied.`
See how \e ha·e caused some oí them to excel others: but the next liíe
shall be greater in its grades. and greater in excellence.
Set not up another Lord with God. lest thou sit thee down disgraced.
helpless. 1rv Lord ordained that ve worship none but lim...`

His Words are Countless.
Sav: Should the sea become ink. to write the words oí mv Lord. the sea
would surelv íail. ere the words oí mv Lord would íail. though we brought
other seas, like it in aid.
Ií all the trees that are upon earth were to become pens. and ií God should
aíter that swell the sea into se·en seas oí ink, lis words would not be
exhausted: íor God is Mightv and \ise.`

Has no Offspring
And thev sav. God hath a son: No Praise be to lim. But- lis is whate·er
is in the lea·ens and the Larth. All obev lim.`
Sole maker oí the lea·ens and oí the Larth. And when le decreeth a
thing. le onlv saith to it. Be` and it is.
\et ha·e thev assigned the jins to God as lis associates. though le
created them: and in their ignorance thev ha·e íalselv ascribed to lim sons and
daughters. Glorv be to lim. and high let lim be exalted abo·e that which thev
attribute to lim.
Sole Maker oí the lea·ens and the Larth. how. when le hath no consort.
should le ha·e a son· le hath created e·ervthing and le knoweth e·ervthing.
1his is God vour Lord. 1here is no deitv but le. the creator oí all things:
thereíore worship lim alone: and le watches o·er all things. 1hev sav: 1he
God oí Mercv hath gotten oííspring.` Now ha·e ve done a monstrous thing.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Almost might the ·erv lea·ens be rent thereat. and the Larth clea·e asunder.
and the mountains íall down in íragments. that thev ascribe a son to the God oí
Mercv. when it beseemeth not the God oí Mercv to beget a son.`

Created All Beings to Adore Him
I ha·e not created Jins and men. but that thev should worship Me.`

How He Speaketh with Man
It is not íor man that God should speak with him. but bv ·ision. or írom
behind a ·eil: Or. le sendeth a messenger to re·eal. bv lis permission. what
le will: íor le is exalted and, wise.
1hus ha·e \e sent the Spirit Gabriel, to thee with a re·elation. bv our
command: 1hou knewest not. ere this. what the Book` was or what the true,
íaith was. But \e ha·e ordained it íor a light: bv it will \e guide whom \e
please oí Our ser·ants. And thou O. Mohammed, shalt guide their íeet into
the right wav.`

God is Creator of Good and Evil Deeds,
and Yet Good is from Him, but Evil is
from Man in Consequence of his
Ignorance or Disobedience
Bv the sun and his noondav brightness: Bv the moon when she íolloweth
him: Bv the dav when it re·ealeth his glorv: Bv the night when it enshroudeth
him: Bv the earth and lim \ho spread it íorth: Bv a soul and lim \ho
re·ealed to it the wav oí wickedness and the wav oí pietv to choose between
them,- Blessed now is he who hath kept it pure. and undone is he who hath
corrupted it.` Ií good íortune betide them. thev sav. this is írom God and ií
e·il betide them. thev sav this is írom thee` the Prophet,. Sav: All is írom God:
\hate·er good betideth thee. is írom God. and whate·er betideth thee. oí e·il.
is írom thvselí: and \e ha·e sent thee to mankind as an apostle: God is thv
suííicient witness.`

Omniscient and Omnipotent
And with lim are the kevs oí secret things: none knoweth them. but le:
le knoweth whate·er is on the land and in the sea: and no leaí íalleth but le
knoweth it: neither is there a grain in the darkness oí the earth. nor. a thing
green or sere. but it is noted in a distinct writing.`

All–Seeing but Unseen
1he eves do not reach lim. but le reaches the eves: and le is the Subtile.
the All- iníormed.`

, On the preser·ed tablet. on which are written all the decrees oí God.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
It is le \ho in six davs created the lea·ens and the Larth. then ascended
lis throne. le knoweth that which entereth the earth. and that which goeth
íorth írom it. and what cometh down írom lea·en. and what mounteth up to
it: and where·er ve are. le is with vou. and God beholdeth all vour actions.
lis is the Kingdom oí the lea·ens and the Larth: and to God shall all
things return. le causeth the night to pass into the dav. and le causeth the dav
to pass into the night: and le knoweth the ·erv secrets oí the bosom.`

God’s Love and Mercy
1he two attributes oí Rahman` and Rahim.` usuallv translated as
Beneíicent and Merciíul respecti·elv. occur 400 times in the Koran. 1heir
importance is remarkablv indicated bv bringing them immediatelv aíter the
attribute Lord oí the worlds` in the opening chapter oí the Koran. and íurther
bv heading with them e·erv chapter oí the lolv Book. Rahman` expresses the
greatest preponderance oí the qualitv oí Mercv. while Rahim` expresses a
constant repetition and maniíestation oí that qualitv. 1he two words are
applicable to two diííerent states oí the exercise oí mercv in God. the íirst oí
that state when man has not done anvthing to deser·e it and God exercises lis
unbounded mercv in bestowing lis giíts on him. and the second to that state
when man does some good to deser·e God`s mercv. and lis mercv is
repeatedlv exercised íor him. 1hus Rahman` is le \ho creates íor man all
those things which make his liíe possible on this earth. and Rahim` is le \ho
gi·es him the íruit oí his labour. In other term Rahman` is le \ho. through
lis re·elation. shows the right wav to man to de·elop his íaculties. and
Rahim` is le \ho rewards the íaithíul íor the good thev do. 1his distinction.
obser·es Mohammad Ali. M. A. LL. B.. oí Lahore. is so íine that (hurch
(hristianitv has been unable to realize it. íor it holds that God could not show
mercv unless man had done something to deser·e it. and hence the necessitv
íor a ·icarious atonement.

According to the Koran. so great is di·ine mercv that it encompasses the
belie·er and the unbelie·er alike. L·en the opponents oí the Prophet are
spoken oí as ha·ing mercv shown to them: And \hen \e make people taste
oí mercv aíter an aííliction touches them. Lo! thev de·ise plans against Our
communications` 10:21, And whene·er the polvtheists are spoken oí as calling
upon God in distress. we are told that God remo·es their distress. and has
mercv on them.
Again. we íind it repeatedlv stated in the Koran that the e·il done bv man is
either obliterated or punished onlv with the like oí it. but good is rewarded
teníold. hundredíold. e·en without measure. All this pro·es that according to
the lolv Koran God`s lo·e is the most preponderating oí lis attributes. It is
not onlv the írequent occurrence oí the two names oí Rahman` and Rahim`
and the importance attached to them bv placing them at the head oí each
chapter that shows that the qualitv oí lo·e is predominant. but the Koran has

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
gone íurther and laid the greatest stress in explicit words on the immeasurable
·astness oí Di·ine mercv and beneíicence. I quote onlv a íew examples:

le has ordained mercv on limselí` 6:12,
\our Lord has ordained mercv on limselí` 6:54,
\our Lord is the Lord oí all-encompassing mercv` 6:14¯,
And Mv mercv encompasses all things` ¯:156,
In the grace oí God and lis mercv thev should rejoice.` 10:58,
O Mv ser·ants ! who ha·e acted extra·agantlv against themsel·es. do not
despair oí the mercv oí God. íor God íorgi·es the sins altogether vou ha·e
simplv to repent and ask God íor íorgi·eness,.` 39:53,
Sav, Our Lord ! 1hou embracest all things in mercv and knowledge.`

The Existence of God
Oí all the doctrines and belieís that ha·e been objected to in this age oí
materialism. the greatest is the belieí in the existence oí God. 1he íirst demand
which an atheist makes is: Ií vou show God to me. I will belie·e in lim. low
can I belie·e in lim without seeing lim· \estern iníluences ha·e gone along
wav towards eííacing írom the hearts oí manv voung men. the imprint oí the
Di·ine Being. and hundreds oí college students and others. ha·e begun to denv
existence oí God. 1here are thousands oí persons who. though reíraining írom
an open declaration oí their ·iews through íear oí the communitv. ha·e reallv
no íaith in lim: thereíore I submit the íollowing suggestions on the subject.
that haplv some íortunate soul mav be beneíited therebv.
Man knows diííerent things bv means diííerent senses. Some things we
know bv means oí seeing. some bv tasting. A colour is known bv seeing not bv
smelling. touching or tasting Ií anvbodv should sav. that he will acknowledge a
colour. onlv ií he is made to hear the sound oí it. would not such a proposition
be considered unreasonable· Similarlv. íragrance is known bv means oí
smelling. Now ií anvone should sav that he will consider a rose to be íragrant.
onlv ií he is made to taste its íragrance. would such a person be regarded as
wise· On the other hand. ií anv bodv seeks to know. bv smelling. things which
can be known bv tasting. such as sourness and sweetness. bitterness and
saltiness. he will ne·er be able to do so. 1hereíore it is not right. that we should
accept those things onlv which we can behold with our eve. and disbelie·e
those things which are not recognisable bv the eve. low absurd is. then. the
demand that God must be shown to us beíore we belie·e in him.

Moreo·er. there are certain things in man himselí. the existence oí which he
recognises. without ha·ing seen them. \e do not know all things merelv bv
seeing. but thev are known bv means oí íi·e diííerent senses. Now. there are
manv things which are not knowable. e·en bv these gatewavs oí knowledge.
there being other wavs oí knowing them. lor instance. reason. memorv and
intelligence are things which are not denied bv anv bodv: vet nobodv has e·er
seen. heard. tasted smelt or touched them. low did we. then. come to know
that there were such things as reason. or memorv. or intelligence· Again. has

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
anvbodv e·er seen. smelt. touched or tasted energv· L·en the simplest man can
see that we ha·e not known these things bv means oí the íi·e senses. but that
there are other e·idences that ha·e led us to the knowledge oí their existence.
\e see that when a man is coníronted with a diííicultv. he thinks íor a while.
and then de·ises a plan. bv which he is able to sol·e his diííicultv. \hen we see
diííiculties being remo·ed in this wav we conclude that there is something in
man which is oí ser·ice to him on such occasions. and we call it reason. 1hus.
we do not become aware oí the existence oí reason directlv through the íi·e
senses. but we obtain a knowledge oí it bv means oí its wonderíul
maniíestations. Similarlv. when we see a man able to carrv hea·v loads. and
some man. able to carrv hea·ier weights than others. we iníer that there is a
capacitv in man. which enables him to bear these burdens. and which some
persons possess in a greater degree than others. 1his capacitv we call strength.
\e ha·e not seen strength. but we ha·e seen the deeds that are done bv
strength. and írom these we ha·e concluded its existence.

1hus. we íind that the more subtile a thing is. the more hidden it is írom the
human eve. and it is bv actions. and not bv the íi·e senses. that we percei·e the
existence oí such things.
But God is the subtlest oí all. low unjust is it. then. to sav that we cannot
belie·e in the existence oí God. unless le is shown to us. las anvbodv e·er
seen electricitv· But can we. then. denv the transmission oí messages and
signals to long distances. lighting and the working oí machinerv bv means oí
electricitv· 1he disco·erv oí either has brought about a re·olution in the world
oí phvsical science. but has anv scientist been able to íind it bv means oí his
íi·e senses· But ií we denv its existence. we íind oursel·es unable to explain
how the ravs oí the sun reach the earth. low unjust is. then. the demand that
in order to be belie·ed in. God must be ·isible to the eve. while there are so
manv things which are belie·ed in. though thev are not ·isible to the eve. or
perceptible bv anv other oí the íi·e senses. God is ·isible. but onlv to the eves
that are capable oí seeing lim. But ií anvbodv is desirous oí seeing lim. le is
beíore the whole world through lis powers. and in spite oí lis being hidden.
le is the most apparent oí all. 1his íact has been brieílv. but ·erv exquisitelv
mentioned in the lolv Koran in the íollowing words:
1he eves do not reach lim. but le reacheth the eves: and le is the
Subtile. the Knowing`.
In this ·erse. God draws the attention oí man to the íact that his eves are
not capable oí seeing lim. íor le is subtile. and subtile things cannot be
percei·ed bv the eves. \hat. then is the wav oí knowing God· 1he Koran
answers this question bv saving: And le reacheth the eves` namelv though the
eves oí man are not capable oí seeing lim. vet le re·eals limselí to man bv a
displav oí lis powers. and bv a maniíestation oí lis attributes. Maniíold are
the wavs in which le re·eals limselí to man. le displavs lis unlimited power
sometimes bv terror - striking signs. sometimes bv signs oí mercv. and at
others. bv accepting praver. Ií God were to be belie·ed in. onlv ií le were
perceptible bv the eve. then we should ha·e to denv the existence oí about
íour-íiíths oí the things oí the world. or the existence oí all things. ií we accept

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
as true the ·iew oí certain philosophers who allege. that nobodv can see the
substance oí anvthing in the world. and that it is onlv the íorm that we see.
\e know ·erv little oí God. and vet we know that God exists: that there is a
Great Mvsterious Power. at work behind the Uni·erse.
In ancient times. Nature or the íorces oí Nature. were deemed to be
íreakish. capricious powers. personiíied. to popular intelligence as demons. and
the like. Now we know that there is nothing íreakish or capricious about
Nature. that Nature works in accordance with íixed law- the law oí the
Uni·erse. the law laid and established bv the great Mvsterious Power at work
behind the Uni·erse.
All we know oí that Great Mvsterious Power is compounded oí all we know
oí the ·arious laws -disco·ered írom time to time- which go·ern the Uni·erse.
1here are three main laws in the Uni·erse: - the Law oí (reation. the Law oí
Substance and the Law oí L·olution: so ií we seek. as it were. to personiív the
Great Mvsterious Power. and clothe lim with attributes that we mortal men
can comprehend. we shall endea·our to ·isualise him as (reator. Sustainer and
1he Arabic language has one word which comprises all three ideas Rabb-
vt- .ataveev: the word Rabb signiíving (reator. Sustainer. and one who was
endowed e·erv object with the capacitv oí ultimate de·elopment -therebv
anticipating the doctrine oí L·olution. manv centuries beíore Darwin ga·e his
theories to the world.
At e·erv e·olutionarv stage oí matter. howe·er transient it be. we íind a
course prescribed. and an organisation pre-ordained- Nature e·ervwhere
obeving the Law.
As the lolv Koran savs: And to Allah does obeisance whate·er is in
hea·en and earth willinglv or unwillinglv.`
O·er and o·er again. the lolv Koran lavs down with great claritv. that a
Reign oí Law exists. dominating the whole material world: and e·erv dav. íresh
disco·eries oí science do but pro·e inspired accuracv oí the Sacred Book. lor
aíter all. this is the sum total oí all scientiíic disco·erv. that all growth and all
de·elopment oí e·erv element in Nature. is under the Rule oí the Law.
Is. thereíore. this Reign oí Law. -this mechanism as it were oí rule and
regulation. - international· Or is it accidental·
(all it mechanism ií vou will: but can vou dissociate mechanism. írom
1he machine itselí cannot think: but what oí the mind that made it·
Mechanism cannot construct itselí.
In all human mechanism. we belie·e in the prioritv oí laws and principles.
on which certain mechanism is working. \e acknowledge the pre-existence oí
the mind that de·ised the machine. and set it working.
\hv do we hesitate. when we come to the great mechanism oí Nature· I
suppose. we are aíraid lest. ií we once make such an admission. we shall ha·e to
accept Law. as separate írom Matter. - to admit that Mind has prioritv o·er
About se·entv vears ago. 1he Atomic theorv was the popular craze. 1he
Atom was our great God. our íirst cause and origin: but later. we íound this

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
god itselí a sla·e to Law. It was íound to be. not an origin. but a product oí
some electronic specialization. which in its turn recei·ed its birth. not as an
accident. but under a Law- the Law oí (ondensation- írom the collocation oí
ethereal speaks. But this ether. as it is called. is. in its turn a law - ridden entitv.

Lrnst laeckel and others. reíusing to admit the prioritv oí Mind to Matter.
sought a wav out bv regarding matter and energv as one and the same thing.
with law-abidingness` as a permanent characteristic. and calling it Law-
Substance. Law substance. thereíore. is a íirst cause. selí-created. and the
creator oí other things. selí-existing. and the maintainer oí subsequent growth.
omnipresent. and all per·ading. indestructible and iníinite: add to these the
attributes oí all-knowing and all-poweríul. designer and regularizer. and
though vou stvle vourselí atheist or íree-thinker. vou belie·e in the God oí
Islam. As the lolv Koran savs: And to lim doth obev what is in the hea·ens
and the earth. And a sign to them is the night: we draw íorth írom it the dav.
then. Lo! thev are in the dark: and the sun runs on to a term appointed íor it:
that is the ordinance oí the Mightv and the knowing. And as íor the moon. \e
ha·e ordained íor it stages. till it becomes again as an old drv palm- branch.
Neither is it allowable to the sun. that he should o·ertake the moon. nor can
the night outstrip the dav. All íloat on in a sphere` XXXIV: 3¯-40,. 1hus is the
whole Solar Svstem under Di·ine Ordinance.

\hat was that Law- the Law oí Gra·itv.- e·ol·ed írom accidence.` what
made the earth stand on its orbit. with its axis inclined·
\hat a contradiction in terms - law and accident. 1o what lengths will we
not go. to a·oid belieí in the Di·ine Ordinance.
Is the camera an accident· 1he lens. the sensiti·e paper. 1he light regulating
contri·ance and so íorth. all suggest design and mind: and vet the camera is but
the crudest copv oí an eve which is. presumablv. a thing e·ol·ed at random.
And what about the íeeling that the image reílected produces· 1he lens oí the
camera reílects the image. but it does not see. it does not íeel: whereas the eve
sends a thrill into the ·erv soul. when we see anvthing beautiíul.
(an we gi·e or recei·e a telephone message without an exchange`· Some
ae.igv to connect the gi·er and the recei·er is indispensable.

1he brain oí an armv-known in modern parlance as General lead
Ouarters- is preeminentlv the product oí design. Is the brain oí man just a
haphazard contri·ance. meaningless in its inception·
\e assign a distinct design to e·erv one oí the hundred and one pipes íixed.
in the machinerv oí an ordinarv steam engine. Are the million and one ner·es
that work so miraculouslv in our own bodies. purposeless and without intent·
\et. I could e·en worship this letish oí Accident. ií all these deíined
mo·ements oí our planet had íailed to produce desirable results. making íor
our beneíit. And this being so. I am compelled to belie·e in some \ill. under
whose control Nature works. not blindlv. 1he alternation oí dav and night-
which cause changes in the weather. aííecting the atmosphere. changing the
course oí the winds. bringing the rainv seasons and the drv weather. in a desired
order: the withering oí Nature. and its resuscitation: these. and the liíe oí man

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
himselí. depending no the peculiar bend oí the earth sphere towards its orbit.
are these all at random·
\ou will not íind a single thing in the realm oí nature which unconnected
with vou own existence. As the Book savs: 1hose who remember Allah.. And
reílect on the creation oí the hea·ens and the earth. sav,: Our Lord -\ho
looks to our sustenance and maintenance- 1hou hast not created all this in
·ain. Glorv be to 1hee`. III : 190,.
1he unintelligible phenomena oí vesterdav are. todav. instinct with a great
and real purpose. And so it will be with the milliards oí things which still baííle
us. \hich being the case. I ha·e e·erv right to suppose that e·erv object in
Nature admits oí mv using it íor mv beneíit-ií onlv I know how.- and is
subser·ient to me under the ordinance oí some Mind. which I call Allah: íor.
did vou e·er think oí a contri·ance. or scheme out a design. in the working out
oí which vou did not íind the necessarv aids alreadv existing in Nature·
But. vou will sav. things in themsel·es are not subject to design: it is onlv
man`s intelligent use oí them that makes them useíul.
\e all know that light. and the colour known as green. strengthen the sight:
and green is the pre·ailing colour in Nature aíter light. But. it is said the green
colour was not made intentionallv to strengthen sight: rather the eve became
accustomed to it. and so deri·ed beneíit írom it.
But consider the case oí the mole. 1he mole has eve. but being generallv
awav írom the light. it is blind. It cannot make its surrounding subser·ient to its
sight. \hence it mav be seen. to what an extent the eve is indebted to light and
green colour.
In support oí his theorv. that Nature is not with purpose intrinsicallv. but
that its purpose is. as it were oí man`s contri·ing. Lrnst laeckel adduces the
illustration oí powder.
Powder was íor ages lving useless and unused: - bv íinding a use íor it we
ha·e in·ested it with a purpose. But that is tantamount to asserting that inquires
ha·e in·ested powder with its properties. or in other words that the purpose oí
the explosi·e was alreadv in it. but in a dormant state: and that it is due to us.
that it has become acti·e. All oí which tends rather to pro·e design. than
otherwise. But there are other wavs oí looking at it.
Ií a mind works upon material. gi·ing it shape to ser·e a certain purpose. it
is impossible íor another person. to use that material in a wav other than that in
which it was designed bv its maker. Ií vou denv the design oí its maker. vou are
looking íor trouble. and wasting vour eííort.
lere are pieces oí iron and wood beíore me: I use them in making a
machine and anv person desirous oí using that machine. must do so in the wav
intended bv me. and in that wav onlv.
(an vou use the things that God has made. otherwise than in the wav
intended bv lim·
\our bodv is wonderíul machine-endowed with numerous íaculties. to
which are added lree-will. and the power oí discretion. But can vou use vour
nose íor seeing· Or can vou eat through vour ear·
1his machine oí vour bodv has been íashioned bv an intelligence and a
Mind and ií vou act contrarv to its designs. vour actions will not be acceptable
in the realm oí Nature. lor thus savs the lolv Koran: Is it. then. other than

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Allah`s wav that thev seek to íollow: and to lim submits whoe·er is in the
hea·en or on the earth. willinglv or unwillinglv. And whoe·er desires a wav
other than submission Islam, it shall not be accepted írom him: and in the end.
he shall be the loser` III. 82-84,
Again. ií a particular íorm oí matter in·ol·es. in its being. certain principles.
the knowledge and application oí which. alone make the realisation oí that
purpose possible: then it is certain that a mind has pre-ordained it. Ií the small
íorm oí matter had existed independentlv oí such principles. and ií there had
been no need oí their knowledge. nor had anv ad·antage accrued to us in our
application oí such knowledge. then one might. perhaps. denv. the purpose
behind it.
1he lolv Koran tells us. that e·ervthing in Nature is íor our beneíit. and
íurther apprises us oí the principles which will enable us thoroughlv to make
use oí them: 1he Beneíicent God taught the Koran. le created man. taught
him the mode oí expression. 1he sun the and moon íollow a rec/ovivg. ava tbe
berb. ao obey tíiv). And the hea·en. le raised it on high: and le made the
vea.vre: that vou mav not be ivoraivate iv re.pect ot tbe vea.vre: and keep up the
batavce with equitv. and do not va/e tbe vea.vre aeticievt. And the earth le has
set it íor li·ing creatures: therein are íruit and palms ha·ing sheathed clusters.
and the grain with its, husk and íragrance. \hich then oí the bounties oí the
Lord will vou reject`· LV-1-13,.
Note the words in italics. 1he whole uni·erse has been regulated with
mathematical precision: and that we mav deri·e the best ad·antage írom it. we
must respect the measure. -íind out these reckonings and measures. and not
make them deíicient.
L·erv created things. írom the stars oí hea·en to the smallest herbs that
grow on the earth. obser·es rules laid down with mathematical reckoning. and
obser·es measures. prescribed íor its creation and de·elopment.
In short e·ervthing that is created in this uni·erse. is based on mathematical
principles: and all our scientiíic researches owe their existence to this science
and reckoning.
I could agree with Lrnst laeckel. ií man. in this search íor purpose in
Nature. could disregard these mathematical principles. In realitv we did not
create purpose íor Nature: we simplv disco·ered those measures and rules
which had been laid down íor the working out oí the purpose.
(an we. then. denv. behind the working oí Nature. oí existence oí some
Great Mind. - the Regulariser. the Reckoner and the Measurer· Let us. in the
words oí the lolv Koran. gloriív the name oí Our Lord Most ligh. \ho
creates. then balances: \ho measures. then guides`.
Does e·olution oí matter reallv consist in the de·elopment oí its
potentialities· Is not the human organism pro·ed. bv biological research. to be
the íinal and best e·olution oí matter·
1he consciousness which is e·ol·ed out oí animated matter. in the animal
kingdom in the íorm oí impulses. e·ol·es into natural passion in man. But this
is not the íinal growth. In its turn. it must e·ol·e ethics and high philosophv.
\here. then. is the constructi·e abilitv. inherent in matter. which should now
work all the more ·igorouslv. to sublimate mv consciousness into high moral

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and philosophic growth· Do I possess a nature which automaticallv
distinguishes between Right and \rong· Or must I culti·ate such a nature
through guidance· Do I. bv nature. nauseate at wrong philosophv· Do I. bv
instinct. spurn things injurious to mv intellect· Do I discern between
wholesome and unwholesome íood. without guidance· Man. who represents
the highest possible íorm oí e·ol·ed matter. is hopelesslv destitute oí that
constructi·e abilitv íor the e·olution oí this intellect. which discriminates so
unerringlv in the phvsical building oí organism. 1he ·erv íact that. as íar as the
unconscious growth oí matter goes. this constructi·e abilitv works so
splendidlv. but disappears on the rise oí consciousness. pro·es conclusi·elv.
that it was not an inherent íacultv in matter. but an external guidance.- guidance
íorm the Source that has been called Rabb -\ho is the God oí Islam.
Ií. then. the scientiíic world agree. that Law predominates in matter. íorce
and energv and ií it also belie·es in Monism. it íollows that it must belie·e in
one design and in one mind. 1here mav be a hundred and one laws at work in
Nature. but thev all con·erge on one purpose. In short. law is. and must be
obeved. ií the world is to go on at all. Law is the Obeved` Lntitv and in this
connection. the reader mav be interested to learn. that the word Allah. \ho is
the object oí worship with Moslems. literallv means. 1he Obeved`
God savs.` savs Mohammad. do not abuse the Uni·erse. because í av tbe
|virer.e.` - a great truth and undeniable realitv. It means. that all the
maniíestations oí Nature are the maniíestations oí the God-Mind. and that all
the íorces and laws oí Nature are the íeatures and characteristics oí that Great
1o be in touch with Nature. is the secret oí all success oí all íelicitv in liíe:
and ií. in Islam the dictum has been pronounced. in a somewhat diííerent
language. to imbue oursel·es with Di·ine Attributes`. it means the same thing.
lor the attributes oí God. as mentioned in the lolv Koran. do períectlv and
completelv index and working oí Nature: and ií. to belie·e in God. is to accept
lim. as the Source oí all Law. and to worship lim means simplv to obev lis
Law. how can we disbelie·e in the God oí Islam·

2. Belief in the Angels of God
1he angels are created oí light. and endowed with liíe. speech and reason.
1hev are íree írom carnal desire and the disturbance oí anger: thev disobev not
God in what le has commanded them. but do all that thev are commanded.
1heir íood is. to celebrate God`s glorv: their drink. proclaim lis holiness: their
con·ersation. to commemorate God: their pleasure. to worship lim. 1he
angels are created in diííerent íorms and with diííerent powers.
1he number oí angels is ·erv great: it can be known to no one except to
God. lour oí the angels are archangels. namelv Jibril Gabriel,. the angel oí
re·elations: Mikae`il Michael, the angel oí rain: Israíil. the angel who will
announce the ad·ent oí Resurrection: Azrail the angel oí death.
L·erv man is attended bv two recording angels. called the Kirav-vt-
Katibeev. or the illustrious writers. one oí whom records his good actions. and

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
other his e·il actions. 1here are also two other kinds oí angel called Mov/ar
and ^a/eer. who examine the dead in the gra·e.
1here are also two celebrated angels Raarav who is in charge oí Paradise.
and Malik` who is in charge oí lell.
1he angels intercede íor men. while. thev celebrate the praise oí God: thev
implore íorgi·eness íor the dwellers oí earth. 1hev also act as guardians íor
men. Lach man has a succession oí angels beíore and behind him. who watch
o·er him bv God`s behest.

3. Belief in the Scriptures of God
1he íundamental position. on which the superstructure oí the Religion oí
Islam is erected. is that. írom the beginning to the end oí the world. there has
been and íor e·er will be. but one true orthodox religion. 1his true religion
consists as to matter oí íaith. in the acknowledgement oí the onlv true God.
and in the belieí in. and obedience to such messengers or prophets oí God. as
le has been pleased to send írom time to time. with credentials. to re·eal lis
will to mankind: and as to matter oí practice. the religion oí God consists in the
obser·ance oí the immutable and eternal laws oí right and wrong. together with
such other precepts and ceremonies. as God ordained as íit. íor the time being.
according to the diííerent dispensations in diííerent ages. 1hese precepts and
ceremonies were in themsel·es non--essential. but thev became strictlv
obligatorv bv God`s positi·e command: and were thereíore. temporarv. and
subject to alteration. according to lis will and wisdom. lence. the name
Islam.` signiíving absolute surrender to the will oí God. is used commonlv to
denote the Religion oí Islam. 1his name. howe·er. also applies to God`s
religion. since the beginning oí the \orld. inasmuch as all true religion is
nothing. but absolute submission to God`s will. As to scriptures. the Moslems
are taught that God. in di·ers ages oí the world. ga·e re·elations oí lis will in
Books. to se·eral prophets. 1he number oí these sacred Books is said to be
104: ten Books were gi·en to Adam. íiítv to Seth. thirtv to Idris Lnoch,. ten to
Abraham: and the other íour. being the Pentateuch the Psalms the Gospel and
the Koran. were successi·elv deli·ered to Moses. Da·id. Jesus and Mohammed.
No íurther re·elation to mankind is to be expected. 1he Prophet Mohammed
is. as taught bv the Koran. the seal oí God`s messengers and prophets.
All oí these di·ine Books. except the íour last. are belie·ed to be now
entirelv lost. As to the Pentateuch. the Psalms and the Gospel. the Moslems
gi·e no credit the present copies oí these Books. which thev belie·e to ha·e
undergone manv alterations and corruptions. though there might possiblv be
some part oí the true word oí God therein. Anv passages in the present copies.
which in sense are not in harmonv with the teachings oí the Koran. as íar as
matters oí íaith are concerned. are held bv Moslems to be no true re·elation.
lence. such statements in the present copies oí the Old and New 1estaments.
as attribute to God a son. or to the Di·initv a pluralitv or a corporeal íorm. are
dogmaticallv and emphaticallv condemned as schismatic.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

On the other hand. ií anv precept tenet. law or regulation. relating to mode
oí worship. or rules oí right and wrong. íound in the Koran. is in harmonv with
similar precepts. as taught bv the 1estaments. it is because such tenets are
immutable and eternal. and relate to that part oí God`s one. true and orthodox
religion which is subject to no change or alteration. inasmuch as such laws were
sa·ed írom corruption.
Apparentlv it is due to the misunderstanding oí this íundamental
superstructure oí the Religion oí Islam to wit: that írom the beginning to the
end oí the world. there has been and still íor e·er will be. but one true religion,.
that some oí the prejudiced class oí \estern historians and commentators ha·e
been apt to wronglv describe such svstems. rites or rules oí the Religion oí
Islam. oí which the like exist in the Jewish Scriptures. as borrowed` írom these
books. Such critics. ií absolutelv innocent. conscientious and well-iníormed.
must needs admit. that these common precepts are but coníirmed bv the Koran
as immutable in themsel·es.
It must again and again reiterated until the basis oí the Religion oí Islam is
well understood. that this religion does not proíess to be a new religion.
íormulated bv the prophet Mohammed. but a continuation oí the true religious
principles. established bv God through lis re·elations to Adam. Noah.
Abraham. Moses and to other inspired Messengers oí God. 1he re·elations oí
God`s prophets. prior to the ad·ent oí Islam are held to ha·e been partlv
corrupted bv the hand oí man. through the ·arious renderings and di·ers
·ersions oí same. All portions oí the \ord oí God that were bv chance. or
otherwise. sa·ed írom corruption. -such as relate to that part oí God`s religion
which is eternal and immutable ha·e been preser·ed and coníirmed bv the
Koran. together with other corrected belieís and dogmas oí íaith. and such
additional rules oí practical de·otion. as God judged íit íor the new and eternal
dispensation. lence it is out oí place and entirelv misleading. that anv critic
should suggest. that Islam is indebted`. either to the Jewish or anv other
dispensation. íor anv elements in its svstem.
In brieí. it is enjoined upon e·erv Moslem. to belie·e in God`s pre·ious
Books oí re·elations. írom Adam to Jesus. in so íar as the contents oí anv
extant book oí them are not contradicted bv the Koran.

At the ad·ent oí Islam. the \ord oí God. as re·ealed in the Old and New
1estament. was wrapped up in ·arious superstitions and was spoiled bv an
admixture oí ungodlv belieís and imaginations. 1he Jews were openlv charged.
in the earlv chapters oí Koran. with ha·ing corrupted their Scriptures. with
stiíling passages. 1hev obstinatelv and impiouslv denied the ad·ent oí Jesus.
1hev belie·ed that (hrist was vet to come. 1hev spoke ill. and most wronglv
and indecentlv. oí the acknowledged Jesus (hrist and oí his re·ered mother.
the Virgin Marv. 1hev attributed to God the adoption oí a son in the person oí

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
\ith regard to (hristianitv. its real and pure doctrines were exceedinglv and
abominablv corrupted.
A sect substituted the Virgin Marv íor God or
worshipped her as such. 1hese were called the Mariamites.

(hristians also belie·ed in the di·initv oí Jesus. 1hev worshipped him as
God called him the Son oí God and e·en God limselí.
Dr. lughes. commenting on the state oí degradation. into which the
(hristian (hurch had íallen. at the ad·ent oí Islam. writes as íollows: -
1he bitter dissensions oí the Greeks. Nestorians. Lutechiana and
Monophvsites. are matters oí historv. and must ha·e held up the religion oí
Jesus to the ridicule oí the heathen world. 1he contro·ersies. regarding the
nature and person oí our Di·ine Lord. had begotten a sect oí 1ritheists.

1he worship oí the Virgin Marv had also gi·en rise to a religious
contro·ersv between the Antidus-Mariamites and the (ollvridians: the íormer
holding that the Virgin Marv was not immaculate. and the latter. raising her to a
position oí a goddess. Under these circumstances. it is not surprising to íind
that the Arabian reíormer turned awav írom (hristianitv.`

1he Gospel oí St. Barnabas commonlv considered bv (hristian theologians
as apocrvphal`- is most in harmonv. as to matters oí íaith with the Koran.
Jesus (hrist is spoken oí in that Gospel as the ser·ant oí God: the word oí
God and a Spirit írom God. lis miraculous birth. being born without a íather
was e·en less supernatural than the creation oí Adam who was created bv
God`s power without íather or mother. 1he cruciíixion oí Jesus bv the Jews is
entirelv reíuted. according to St. Barnabas and the Koran. In that Gospel. it is
asserted that Judas. the traitor. was he who was cruciíied. in the place oí the
Lord Jesus. Oí this Gospel`. writes Mr. Sale. 1he Moriscoes in Aírica ha·e a
translation in Spanish. and there is in the librarv oí Prince Lugene oí Sa·ov. a
manuscript oí some antiquitv containing an Italian translation oí the same
Gospel made. it is supposed. íor the use oí renegades.`

In St. Barnabas Gospel. the Prophet Mohammed is íoretold bv name. as the
Periclvte. that is. the íamous or illustrious. that being the signiíication oí the
name oí Mohammed in Arabic: therebv justiíving the passage in the Koran
chap 61, where Jesus is íormallv asserted to ha·e íoretold his coming. under
his other name oí Ahmed. which is deri·ed írom the same root as Mohammed
and oí the same import.

Mr. Sale states that he inspected a Spanish translation oí the Italian copv oí
St. Barnabas Gospel oí which he gi·es the íollowing account:
1here is a preíace preíixed to it. wherein the disco·erer oí the original MS..
who was a (hristian monk called lra Marion. tells us that. ha·ing accidentallv
met with a writing oí Irenacus among others,. wherein he speaks against St.
Paul. alleging íor his authoritv the gospel oí St. Barnabas. he became

, Vide G. Sale`s Prelim. Discourse.

, Vide Dr. lughes` Dict. oí Islam p.53

, See lughess` Dictionarv oí Islam. P. 53

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
exceedinglv desirous to íind this gospel: and that God. oí lis mercv. ha·ing
made him ·erv intimate with Pope Sixtus V 1521-1590, one dav. as thev were
together in that Pope`s librarv. lis loliness íell asleep and he. to emplov
himselí. reached down a book to read the íirst he laid hand on pro·ed to be the
·erv gospel he wanted: o·erjoved at the disco·erv. he scrupled not to hide his
prize in his slee·e. and on the Pope`s awaking took lea·e oí him. carrving with
him that celestial treasure. bv reading oí which he became a con·ert to

1his Gospel oí Barnabas contains a complete historv oí Jesus (hrist. írom
lis birth to lis ascension. and most oí the circumstances oí the íour real.
gospels are to be íound therein. but manv oí them turned. and some artíullv
enough. to ía·our the Mohammedan svstem.1he passages produced írom the
Italian MS. bv M. de la Monnove. are to be seen in this Spanish ·ersion almost
word íor word`.

The Koran
On the other hand. the practical side oí both the Jewish and (hristian
dispensations. as concerning social matters and ci·il law. is most deíicient: and
that deíiciencv is made good bv the Koran. it being the last di·ine word oí

Let us now make a swiít sur·ev oí the Koran. as íar as our limited space in
this work allows: íor to describe it in detail would require unlimited time and
space. lor ·arious reasons. all being much to the ad·antage oí the non-Moslem
reader. - I shall content mvselí with a number oí quotations oí what was
written on the Koran bv the pen oí non-Moslem critics. whose writings on the
subject can be passed bv a Moslem. as gi·ing a suííicientlv true picture oí the
lolv Koran. lowe·er. it must e·er be remembered that. as miraculouslv
Di·ine Book. the Koran. when translated into a íoreign language. necessarilv
loses a great deal oí its supernatural elegance and puritv oí stvle.
Mr. Sale addresses the reader oí his Lnglish ·ersion- praiseworthv as it is -
in the íollowing words:
. 1hough he the reader, must not imagine the translation to come up to the
original. notwithstanding mv endea·ours to do it justice`
In another place. the same writer comments on the Koran as íollows:
1he Koran is uni·ersallv allowed to be written with the utmost elegance
and puritv oí language in the dialect oí the tribe oí the Koreish. the most noble
and polite oí all the Arabians: but with some mixture though ·erv rarelv. oí
other dialects. It is coníessedlv the standard oí the Arabian tongue and as the
more orthodox belie·e and are taught bv the book itselí. inimitable bv anv
human pen. and thereíore insisted on as a permanent miracle. greater than that
oí raising the dead. and alone suííicient to con·ince the world oí its origin.
And to this miracle Mohammed himselí chieílv appealed íor the
coníirmation oí his mission. publiclv challenging the most eloquent men in

, Sale`s preíace to his translation oí the Koran.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Arabia which was at the same time stocked with thousands whose sole studv
and ambition it was. to excel in elegance oí stvle and composition: to produce
e·en a single chapter that might be compared with it I will mention but one
instance out oí se·eral. to show that this book was reallv admired íor the beautv
oí its composition bv those who must be allowed to ha·e been competent
judges. A poem oí Labid Lbn Rabia. in Mohammed`s time being aííixed to the
gate oí the temple oí Mecca. an honour allowed to none but the most esteemed
períormances. none oí the other poets durst oííer anvthing oí their own in
competition with it. But the second chapter oí the Koran. being aííixed near it
soon aíter. Labid himselí then an idolater, on reading the íirst ·erses onlv. was
struck with admiration. and immediatelv proíessed the religion taught therein
declaring that such words could proceed írom an inspired person onlv. 1his
Labid was aíterwards oí great ser·ice to Mohammed. in writing answers to the
satires and in·ecti·es that were made on him and his religion.`

Von Geothe renowned German author. speaking oí the Koran in his \est
Oestlicher Di·an. states:
lowe·er oíten we turn to it. the Koran,. at íirst disgusting us each time
aíresh. it soon attracts. astounds and in the end eníorces our re·erence.. Its
stvle. in accordance with its contents and aim. is stern. grand. terrible. e·er and
anon trulv sublime.thus this book will go on exercising. through all ages. a
most potent iníluence.`

Dr. Steingass. the learned compiler oí an Lnglish Arabic and Arabic Lnglish
Dictionarv \.l. Allen and (o., has recorded his opinion on the Koran in Dr.
lughes` Dictionarv oí Islam. Aíter alluding to the abo·e words oí Goethe Dr.
Steingass writes: 1hese words seem to me so much the more weightv and
worthv oí attention. as thev are uttered bv one who. whate·er his merits or
demerits in other respects mav be deemed to be. indisputable belongs to the
greatest masters oí language oí all times. and stands íoremost as a leader oí
modern thought and the intellectual culture oí modern times:` lere Dr.
Steigngass quotes the words oí Goethe and then sa·e,. A work then which
calls íorth so poweríul and seeminglv incompatible emotions. e·en in the
distant reader - distant as to time and still more so. as to mental de·elopment a
work which not onlv conquers repugnance with which he mav begin its
perusals. but changes this ad·erse íeeling into astonishment and admiration.
Such a work be a wonderíul production oí the human mind indeed. and a
problem oí the highest interest to e·erv thoughtíul obser·e oí the destinies oí
mankind. Much has been said. in the preceding pages. to acknowledge. to
appreciate. and to explain the literarv excellences oí the Koran. and a more or
less distinct admission. that Buííon`s much - quoted saving Le stvle est
I`homme`. is here more justiíied than e·er. underlies all these ·erdicts. \e mav
well sav. the Koran is one oí the grandest books e·er written because it
íaithíullv reílects the character and liíe oí one oí the greatest men that e·er

, See Sale`s Prelim Discourse.

, See Goeth`s \est-Oesticher Di·an. 1hese words oí Goethe were placed bv Mr.
Rodwell bv wav oí motto on the re·erse oí the title page oí his translation oí the

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
breathed. Sinceritv writes (arlvle. sinceritv. in all senses. seems to me the
merit oí the Koran.`. 1his same sinceritv. this ardour and earnestness in the
search íor truth. this ne·er - ílagging per-se·erance in trving to impress it.
when partlv íound. again and again upon his unwilling hearers. appears to me as
the real and undeniable seal oí prophecv` in Mohammed.`

But the approaches to truth are manv. and he who de·oted al his powers
and energies. with untiring patience and selí-denial. to the task oí leading a
whole nation bv one oí these approaches. írom a coarse and eííete idolatrv. to
the worship oí the li·ing God. has certainlv a strong claim to our warmest
svmpathies. as a íaithíul ser·ant and noble champion oí truth.
It is. howe·er. not mv intention to dwell here anv longer upon this side oí
the question. Praise has been bestowed in this work on the Koran and its
author. without stint or grudge. and unanimitv oí so manv distinguished ·oices.
in this respect. will no doubt impress the general reader in ía·our oí the sacred
book oí the Moslems which until now he mav ha·e known onlv bv name.
Dealing with the opinion. expressed on the Koran bv some Luropean
authors who dwell upon the pretended iníerioritv oí the later portions oí the
Koran in comparison with the earlier chapters. Dr. Steingass ablv remarks as
Not being an Arabic scholar himselí Goethe,. he knew the Koran onlv
through the translations existing at the time which íollow throughout the order
oí the recei·ed text.1hose critics. on the other hand. who ·iew the Koran
with regard to the chronological order oí its constituents. íollow the descending
scale in their estimate. But ií we consider the ·arietv and heterogeneousness oí
the topics. on which the Koran touches. uniíormitv oí stvle and diction can
scarcelv be expected: on the contrarv. it would appear to be strangelv out oí
place. Let us not íorget that in the book. as Mohammed`s newest biographer.
Ludolí Krehl Das Leben des Mohammed. Lepizing 1884, express it. there is
gi·en a complete code oí creed and morals. as well as oí the law based
thereupon. 1here are also the íoundations laid íor e·erv institution oí an
extensi·e commonwealth. íor instruction. íor the administration oí justice. íor
militarv organization. íor íinance. íor a most careíul legislation íor the poor: all
built up on the belieí in the one God \ho holds man`s destinv in lis hand.`
\here so manv important objects are concerned. the standard oí excellence. bv
which we ha·e to gauge the composition oí the Koran as a whole. must needs
·arv with the matter treated upon in each particular case. Sublime. and chaste.
where the supreme truth oí God`s unitv is to be proclaimed: appealing in high-
pitched strains to the imagination oí a poeticallv-giíted people. where the
eternal consequences oí man`s submission oí God`s holv will. or oí rebellion
against it. are pictured: touching in its simple. almost crude earnestness. when it
seeks again and again encouragement or consolation íor God`s messenger. and
a solemn warning íor those. to whom he has been sent. in the histories oí the
prophets oí old: the language oí the Koran adapts itselí to the exigencies oí
e·ervdav liíe. when this e·ervdav liíe. in its pri·ate and public bearings. is to be
brought in to harmonv with the íundamental principles oí the new

, See Von Goethe`s \est-Oestlicher Di·an.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

lere thereíore. its merits. as a literarv production should. perhaps. not be
measured bv some preconcei·ed maxims oí subjecti·e and aesthetic taste. but
bv the eííects which it produced in Mohammed`s contemporaries and íellow-
Ií it spoke so poweríullv and con·incinglv to the hearts oí his hearers. as to
weld hitherto centriíugal and antagonistic elements into one compact and well
-organized bodv. animated bv ideas. íar bevond these which had until now
ruled the Arabian mind. then its eloquence was períect. simplv because it
created a ci·ilised nation out oí sa·age tribes. and shot a íresh wooí into the
old warp oí historv.
\hen a long period oí conquests scattered the Arabs to the íarthest Last
and to the íarthest \est. their spoke language might de·iate írom its pristine
puritv. slurring o·er unaccented svllables and dropping terminations. But the
íine idiom oí their íoreíathers. as deposited in the Koran. remained the
language oí their praver and their pious meditation. and thus li·ed on with
them. as a bond oí unitv. an object oí national lo·e and admiration. and a
source oí literarv de·elopment íor all times.

1he Koran. thereíore. is the last Scripture írom God. which has superseded
bv its new dispensation all preceding Scriptures. containing all comprehensible
instructions and laws. all matters concerning the relation between the (reator
and lis creature. and between man and man. It is a miraculous book which is a
poem. íar bevond the power oí poets to imitate. a code oí laws bearing on
e·erv. institution oí an extensi·e commonwealth. on instruction. on the
administration oí justice. on militarv organisation. on íinance. on a most careíul
legislation íor the poor: and a complete code oí belieís and morals: all built up
on the períected belieí in the one God \ho holds man`s destinv in lis land.
It embodies a correct summarv oí the true religion which íormer prophets
írom the time oí Adam had taught to their respecti·e countries. and a solemn
warning to all mankind. to whom the Seal oí Prophets` had been sent to
reclaim and to reíorm. It exposes and reíutes the pretensions and incorrect
interpretations oí rabbins and priests who had misled their people. 1hese later
were oíten called upon. in the Koran to come to a reasoning with the íollowers
oí the new íaith and. then. to judge íor themsel·es. as to whether Islam was to
be rejected bv pure reason cleared oí e·erv grain oí partialitv. But the high
·oice írom lea·en was not hearkened to and diííerence oí a religious nature
still continue between Moslems and non-Moslems.
1he Koran is a Di·ine Book which írom the dav oí its re·elation through
the message oí the Arabian Prophet and Apostle oí God. up to this moment.
has undergone no alteration whate·er.
It is the Sacred Book that continues to
reign o·er the hearts oí its hearers. to con·ince them. through their own
conscience and spiritual nature oí its Di·ine origin. No human pen. howe·er
poweríul. can ·enture to imitate it. 1he miraculous nature oí the Koran has.
long ago. been solemnlv coníirmed bv those who were the most competent
judges. 1he Arabians could boast oí no other literature than wittv poems oí

, Vide Dr. lughes` Dis1. Oí Islam pp. 526-530.

, See Sir Muir`s Liíe oí Mohammad: Dr. lughes` Dict. oí Islam

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
eloquence in their own language. -though as thev paid due honour to anv
distinguished poem bv their íamous poets- were struck with iníinite admiration.
when thev heard the Prophet oí God rehearsing certain portions oí God`s new
Gospel to them. 1heir own celebrated Rabiaa. whose poem was attached to the
Sacred Pantheon oí the Kaaba. could without much trouble or hesitation. judge
that the Koran was rightlv a Di·ine Book. and that the illiterate orphan was the
true messenger oí God. lrom the perusal oí the concise. but accurate historv oí
the Prophet. in part II oí this essav. it is clear enough. how the obstinate
minded Arabs oí the Desert recei·ed the Book with adoration and períect
re·erence. Again the contents oí the Koran most readilv answer all questions
that mav be raised on religious or ci·il matters. I will quote here some
translated passages írom that lolv Book. as specimens oí the rest. and lea·e
them to recommend themsel·es:

1- Calling the Jews and Christians to
come to agreement
with the Moslems:
Sav. O ve who ha·e recei·ed the Scripture Jews and (hristians, come to a just
determination between us and vou: that we worship not anv except God. and
associate no creature with lim: and that the one oí us takes no other íor Lord
beside God. But ií thev turn back. sav: Bear witness that we are true belie·ers.`

2- Ordering the Prophet to Praise God:
Sav. O God possessor oí the Kingdom. 1hou gi·est dominion. to whom
1hou will. and 1hou takes awav Kingdom írom whom 1hou will: 1hou exaltest
whom 1hou wilt. and 1hou humblest who. 1hou wilt. in 1hv hand is good. and
1hou art the Almightv: 1hou causest the night to succeed the dav. and 1hou
causest the dav to succeed the night: 1hou bringest íorth the li·ing out oí the
dead and 1hou bringest íorth the dead out oí the li·ing. and 1hou art the
pro·ider oí substance. to whomsoe·er 1hou wilt. without measure.`

3- Right and Wrong:
“Sav. whether ve conceal that which is in vou hearts. or whether ve show it
God knoweth it: le knoweth whate·er is in hea·en and whate·er is on earth:
and le is the Almightv. On the Dav oí Judgment. e·erv soul shall íind present
the good which it wrought. And the e·il which it wrought. will cause it such a
disgrace. that it shall wish that there was a ·ast distance between itselí and that

4. Belief of the Faithful

, 1hat is to come to such terms oí agreement as are indispensablv consonant to the
doctrine oí all the prophets and scriptures. and thereíore cannot be reasonablv rejected.

, 1he Jews and (hristians used to pav rather blind obedience to their priests and
monks who took upon them to pronounce what things were lawíul and what were
unlawíul. and to dispense with the laws oí God. Sale,.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he Apostle Mohammed, belie·eth in that which hath been sent down unto
him írom his Lord. as do the íaithíul also,. L·erv one oí them, belie·eth in
God and lis angels. and lis Scriptures. and lis Apostles: \e make no
distinction between anv oí lis Apostles. And thev sav \e ha·e listened. and
so we obev. 1hv mercv. O Lord. íor unto 1hee O Lord, must we return.`.
God will not burden anv soul bevond its power. It shall enjov the good which
it hath gained. and shall bear the e·il which it hath wrought. O Lord punish us
not. ií we íorget or íall into sin: O Lord. lav not on us a burden. like that which
1hou hast laid on those who ha·e been beíore us. neither make us. O Lord. to
bear what we ha·e no strength to bear. but be ía·ourable unto us. and spare us
and be merciíul unto us. 1hou art our patron. help us thereíore against the
unbelie·ing people.`

\ith regard to the New 1estament, Moslems hold the belieí that. although
God re·ealed the Gospel to lis Messenger Jesus (hrist. the so-called gospels.
ascribed to the íour saints. do not represent the true word oí God as re·ealed
to the 1eacher oí Nazareth. \ith Moslems these books are vere bi.toricat
ror/.. aeativg ritb tbe bi.tory ot ¡e.v.. and thev contradict each other in certain
statements. 1hree oí the authors oí the íour gospels did not see Jesus at all. 1,
St. Mark did not see Jesus. until the vear he was taken up to hea·en. Aíter the
ascension oí Jesus. St. Mark wrote in the citv oí Alexandria. his gospel. in which
he ga·e an account oí the birth and liíe oí the Master oí (hristianitv.
mentioning se·eral e·ents which are not to be traced in the other three gospels.
2, St. Luke also did not see Jesus. but he was con·erted to (hristianitv bv St.
Paul. the latter being an Israelite who himselí had not seen Jesus. but was
con·erted bv St. Anamias. 3, St. Matthew also did not see Jesus but was
con·erted to the (hristian íaith bv St. Peter some time aíter the ascension oí
Jesus: he took his gospel írom St.Peter in the citv oí Rome. St. Matthew`s
gospel contradicts se·eral statements oí the other three Gospel.

St. John was the nephew oí Jesus. It was at the wedding oí John. that Jesus
con·erted water into wine. \itnessing this miracle. John immediatelv became a
(hristian proselvte. leít his wiíe and íollowed Jesus. le was the author oí the
íourth Gospel called aíter him written in the Greek language in the citv oí
1hese are the íour gospels oí the (hristian New 1estament. although
Moslems do not belie·e them to contain the uncorrupted word oí God. 1hev
are nothing more than biographical works which are liable to deíects and
errors. 1here was but one Gospel. namelv. the L·angel` which God
·ouchsaíed to gi·e to Jesus. íor him to preach to the Israelites. 1he Book
containing the 1rue \ord oí God must needs be íree írom all discrepancies:
vet it is written in St. Mark`s gospel. that in the book oí the Prophet Isaiah it
was said bv God: I ha·e sent an Angel beíore thv íace` namelv beíore the íace
oí Jesus: whereas the words are vot in the book oí Isaiah. but in that oí Malachi
see St. Mark R.V,. again it is related in St. Matthew`s gospel: Matt. xii 40, that
Jesus said Mv bodv will remain in the bellv. oí the earth three davs and three
nights aíter mv death. just as Jones was in the whale`s bellv. and it is e·ident this

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
was not true. íor Sr. Matthew himselí agrees with the three other writers oí the
gospels. that Jesus died at the sixth hour on lridav. and was buried at the íirst
hour oí the night and rose írom the dead earlv on Sundav morning. so that he
remained in the bellv oí the earth two nights onlv.

Islam and the Four Gospels
s alreadv pointed out. Moslems do not admit the authenticitv oí the
Gospels. or the creed contained therein. or the leading e·ents liíe oí
Prophet Jesus. as depicted bv these same Gospels. In this attitude Moslems are
supported bv the scholarlv researches oí de·out (hristians e·en. It seems.
howe·er. that the laitv in (hristendom are generallv as ignorant. with regard to
these ·ital questions. as non-(hristians. to whom (hristian literature is
inaccessible in the main. A brieí account oí these questions is. thereíore. likelv
to be o interest and use. According to the doctrines oí Islam. the íour Gospels
are re·ealed bv God. Nor was it the lolv Ghost that mo·ed the writers oí the
said Gospels to write them. But it was the example oí other writers. that
inspired them with the desire oí compiling brieí biographies oí Jesus.

1. St. Luke’s Gospel
St. Luke`s own words to this eííect are:
lor as much as manv ha·e taken in hand to set íorth. in order. a
declaration oí those things which are most surelv belie·ed among us.
L·en as thev deli·ered them unto us. who írom the beginning were
evewitness. and ministers oí the word:
ít .eevea gooa to ve at.o. ha·ing had períect understanding oí all things.
írom the ·erv íirst. to write unto thee in order. most excellent 1heophilus.
1hat thou mightest know the certaintv oí those things. wherein thou hast
been instructed` St. Luke : i-4.
St. Luke as ·erv plainlv set íorth the grounds oí his inspiration namelv:
1, the example oí other writers oí Jesus` liíe: 2, his consciousness oí
possessing períect understanding oí all things írom the íirst`: and 3, to
impart reliable iníormation to 1heophilus. 1hus St. Luke does not call his
Gospel a di·ine re·elation. but he claims íor it a, diligence in collecting all
a·ailable material. b, íullness. c, careíul in·estigation. d, orderlv arrangement
and e, accuracv.
1he Re·. Grie·e. M. A.. D.D.. Principal oí the (ongregational lall.
Ldinburgh. and joint Lditor oí Peake`s íamous (ommentarv explains Luke`s
preíace in the íollowing words: 1:1-4. 1he writer. ivttvevcea bv the attevpt. oí
others. to record the primiti·e tradition oí (hristianitv. as it was handed down
bv the íirst generation oí disciples. essavs the same task. and ha·ing taken pains
to collect. examine. siít and arrange the contents oí the rrittev orat traaitiov.
presents the result to 1heophilus. a Roman oííicial oí some standing-a literarv

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
patron oí the L·angelist`s who needed íuller acquaintance with the historic
basis oí the oral teaching about (hristianitv which he had recei·ed.`

God re·eals books íor the guidance oí a nation or nations. as the case mav
be. but St. Luke dedicates his books to the vo.t e·cettevt )beopbitv.
1he Lncvclopedia Biblica throws íurther light on this dedication` 1he
dedication oí Luke i-14, shows. that we ha·e passed into a new literarv
pro·ince. 1he Muratorian íragment calls attention to the íact. that the author
writes iv bi. orv vave, a voretty among L·angelists. le also dedicates his work
to someone who. ií not an imaginarv God belo·ed` would appear to be a
patron. a man oí rank. 1he apostles - the 1-2, evewitnesses and ministers oí
the word` - appear to ha·e deli·ered their testimonv bv oral tradition and to
ha·e passed awav. 1o supplv their places. 1-i, manv had attempted to draw up
a íormal narrati·e concerning the matters íullv established in the (hurch. 1hese
writers had clearlv not been evewitnesses. nor were thev. in Luke`s judgment. so
successíul as to make unnecessarv anv íurther attempts. Apparentlv thev had
íailed in the three points. in which he hopes to excel: 1, thev had not traced
e·ervthing up to the source. and this 2, as íar as it went not accuratelv and 3,
thev had not written in order.`

1he same book íurther discusses the point whether or not the work oí St.
Luke justiíies the claims oí that Apostle: \e are led to the conclusion that.
though Luke attempted to write accuratelv`. and in order`. ve be covta vot
atray. .vcceea. \hen deciding between an earlier and a later date. between this
and that place and occasion. between metaphor and literalism. between what
Jesus himselí said and what he said through his disciples. he Luke, had to be
guided bv e·idence which sometimes led him aright. but not alwavs.`

\e íurther read in the same work: Luke`s absolute omission oí genuine
and ·aluable traditions- especiallv in connection with (hrist`s appearance to
women aíter the Resurrection. and with (hrist`s promise to go to Galilee` -
..seriouslv diminishes the ·alue oí his work. It is probablv the best adapted
íor making con·erts. But ií bold bare íacts are in question. it i. probabty tbe tea.t
avtboritatire ot tbe íovr.

Luke`s íailure has e·identlv been ascribed to his attempts being human. and
his sources mortal. which could not alwavs guide him aright. Ií his work had
been re·ealed. he could not ha·e been accused oí ha·ing omitted some most
important incidents. or oí his book being the least authoritati·e.`

1he quotations cited abo·e clearlv buttress the Islamic belieí. that the
(hristian gospels are but human attempts to draw up accounts oí the liíe oí

, Peak`s (ommentarv. p. ¯25.

, Lncvclopaedia Biblica. P. 1¯90.

, Ibid.

, Lncvclopaedia Biblica. P. 1¯93.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Jesus. and as such are neither complete nor satisíactorv. Re·elation alone can
make a recipient immune írom error: íor it suspends. íor the time being. all
other mental acti·itv oí the person. upon whom the \ord oí God descends.
lis \ord and \ill were re·ealed to prophets. like Abraham. Moses. Jesus and
Mohammed. But the íollowers oí Jesus were animated. or inspired. to compile
what was alreadv known to them. 1hev had but to collect. siít and arrange the
material which was in the possession oí the people. As such the works oí the
Apostles are necessarilv characterized bv mortal shortcoming. L·en the de·out
(hristian scholar admits it. and is readv to bear testimonv to the íact. that the
record oí the gospels is not altogether complete and reliable. \e cannot do
better than quote some oí the most scholarlv and popularlv admitted opinions
which carrv weight and con·iction in this connection.
1he Re·. Dummelow M.A.. expresses his opinion as íollows: Speaking
broadlv. the (hristians mean bv their inspiration an impulse írom God. causing.
certain persons to write. and directing them how to write. íor the ediíication oí
others. 1hough it is closelv connected with reretatiov. it is not identical with it.
Bv reretatiov. God makes known to a soul truths which were unknown to it
beíore but it is not at all necessarv. that an inspired writer should recei·e anv
new truths bv wav oí re·elation. 1hus. St. Mark was inspired to write his
Gospel. but he was inspired to rrite aorv trvtb. which were alreadv íamiliar to
him and to others through the instruction gi·en bv St. Peter.`

2. The Gospel of St. Matthew and that
of St. Mark
1he íoregoing also applies to both St. Matthew`s and St. Mark`s Gospels.
St. Mark is the oldest oí the Svnoptists. and has been used bv St. Matthew and
St. Luke. who ha·e incorporated the bulk oí his Gospel into their own with
comparati·elv íew alterations.`

It is thus plain that (hristian scholars oí sacred literature do not claim di·ine
origin íor (hristian Gospels. 1hev. on the other hand. admit that the said
books were complied bv mere men who were bv no means experts. 1hev were
consequentlv liable to mistakes. I quote the Re·. Dummelow once more on the
point: \e must not regard the Bible as an absolutelv períect book. in which
God is limselí the author. using human hands and brains onlv as a man mav
use a tvpewriter.1heir inspiration did not in·ol·e a suspension oí their natural
íaculties. nor abolish the diííerences oí training and character: it did not e·en
make them períectlv íree írom earthlv passion. 1hereíore. we íind that their
knowledge sometimes is no higher than their contemporaries and their
indignation against oppression and wrongdoing sometimes breaks out into
desire oí re·enge. It surprises us in the Bible. because oí our íalse
preconception: because oí our íalse theorv oí Verbal Inspiration.`
1he same (ommentarv íurther throws light upon the insuííiciencv and
incompleteness oí these sacred records. and thus precludes anv chance oí their
claiming di·ine origin. 1odav we realise that the liíe oí Jesus can ne·er be

, 1he Re·. Dummelow`s (ommentarv. p. ¯1.

, Ibid p. 133.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
written. 1he material is wanting. Neither in qualitv. nor in extent. do the
Gospels satisív the requirements oí a modern biographv. At best. thev oííer us
certain memorabilia oí the public ministrv oí Jesus. hardlv adequate to
construct the storv oí the vear or vears. during which he e·angelised his people.
and barelv suííicing to mirror the chieí íeatures oí his message. \here the
modern mind is most curious. the Gospels seem to be least communicati·e.
Men would íain trace the de·elopment oí innermost con·ictions which
condition his acti·itv as a prophet. But the íacts that the Gospels tells us little
or nothing oí the earlv liíe oí Jesus. and that almost e·erv storv consists oí a
simple record oí outward act and utterance. with íew hints as to inward íeeling
or historical setting. seem at íirst sight to deíeat the hopes oí analvsing moti·e.
and tracing growth.`

The Four Gospels
ealing with the sources oí the íour Gospels oí the (hristian íaith. the
Lncvclopedia Biblica comments as íollows:
1hese documents are oí ·arving ·alue írom a historical point oí ·iew.
(ritical opinion is much di·ided as to the íourth. that which bears the name oí
John. the judgment oí manv critics being. that it is the tea.t )rv.trortby a. a
.ovrce. rbetber tor rora. or tor tbe act. ot ¡e.v.. Bv comparison. the íirst three.
írom their resemblances called svnoptical. are regarded bv manv as possessing a
considerable measure oí historical worth. but e·en these. írom a critical point
oí ·iew are not oí equal ·alue. nor do the contents oí anv oí them possess a
uniíorm degree oí historical probabilitv. 1hev present to the critic a curious
interesting. and perplexing problem. still íar írom íinal solution. Bv their
resemblances and diííerences. agreements and disagreements. thev raise manv
questions as to origin. relati·e dates. and literarv connections. which ha·e called
íorth a multitude oí conílicting hvpotheses and a most extensi·e critical
In the opinion oí the best Lnglish scholars oí the New 1estament. the
Gospels are not to be looked upon as re·ealed books. the sole source oí which
should ha·e been God and not man. But thev are to be regarded. on the other
hand. as inadequate attempts. made bv pious but not talented íollowers oí
(hrist. at the description oí his liíe. It is a great pitv. that the world ne·er
a·ailed itselí oí the collection oí those liíe-inspiring words that were uttered bv
the Prophet oí Nazareth. lowe·er. pietv and ·eneration. íor a long time.
assured the credulitv oí the earlv (hristians. that the Gospels re·ealed the \ord
oí God. and in consequence were iníallible. 1here was a time. when e·erv
article oí it was íirmlv and re·erentlv belie·ed to ha·e directlv proceeded írom
In short. what had been written bv man. passed íor the word oí God.
1his is clear to those clergv who ha·e undergone uni·ersitv training. But the
pitv oí it is. that thev ha·e not the moral courage to enlighten their
congregation on the subject. It would onlv seem. that pious anxietv dictates.
that a character oí iníallibilitv should still be gi·en to what has been written bv

, Dr. Ph. Schaíí`s (ompanion to the Greek 1estaments and the Lnglish Version pp.
88 & 89.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
human hands. and that crude attempts at the biographv oí the Prophet oí
Nazareth should continue to be belie·ed to ha·e been re·ealed bv God
Anvhow. what scholarship and research ha·e now brought to light was
re·ealed o·er thirteen centuries ago in the Koran:
Do thev not know. that God knows. what thev keep secret. and what thev
make known: and there are among them ignorant. who know not the Book. but
onlv idle stories and thev do but conjecture: woe. then. to those who write the
book with their own hands. and then sav. 1his is írom God. so that thev mav
obtain therewith a small gain: thereíore woe to them. íor what their hands ha·e
written. and woe to them. íor what thev ha·e earned.`

Dr. Murrav`s illustrated Bible Dictionarv` which is a ·aluable commentarv
enlightens us thus:
Gospels: - 1he íirst point which attracts our notice in reading the
Gospels is. that the íirst three Gospels are distinct írom the íourth. 1he íirst
three Gospels coníine themsel·es almost exclusi·elv to the e·ents which took
place in Galilee. until (hrist`s last journev to Jerusalem. Ií we had three Gospels
alone. we could not deíinitelv sav. that our Lord went to Jerusalem during his
ministrv. until he went there to die. 1he diííerence in character is no less. than
the diííerence in scene. lurther. tbe .yvopti.t. ao vo claim to be evewitnesses oí
our Lord`s work: the íirst three Gospels are usuallv called the svnoptic
Gospels. It is ob·ious that not onlv all three svnoptic Gospels diííer írom
John. but thev diííer. riaety írom each other. 1he account oí the birth and
iníancv oí (hrist in Matthew diííers widelv írom that in Luke. 1he incidents oí
the temptation oí our Lord are recorded in a diííerent order in Matthew and
Luke. and the temptation is recorded without these incidents in Mark. All three
Gospels gi·e a slightlv diííerent account oí the inscription on the cross. and the
words spoken bv the centurion at the death oí Jesus. ·arv in Luke írom the
words in Matthew and Mark. Also the language diííers and diííers in a ·erv
singular manner.

lrom the abo·e quotations it is ·erv clear. that the material íor Marks.
Gospel was supplied bv St. Peter`s preaching. and that Mark was íreelv drawn
upon bv Matthew and Luke: which establishes the íact. that the svnoptic
Gospels are no re·elations at all. but are purelv and simplv human
compilations. It remains to deal with St. John Gospel.

1he 1wentieth (enturv New 1estament makes the íollowing obser·ation
on John:
1he writer apparentlv proposed to himselí to illustrate the spirit oí the
Gospel oí Lo·e` bv such incidents in the liíe oí Jesus. as best suited his
purpose. 1here is no attempt at a regular connected narrati·e: and the writer
allows himselí such íreedom in commenting upon the teaching oí Jesus that it
is not alwavs easv to tell where that teaching ends and the writer`s comments
begin. It is to the great struggle between Light and Darkness. Death and Liíe-

, 1ranslation oí the lolv Koran II. ¯2 : ¯3 & ¯4.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
words much in use and much debated in the current philosophv oí Lphesus.
that the writer de·otes his attention. rather than to the external incidents oí a
storv which has alreadv been told. and which is plainlv ·iewed bv him írom a
greater distance oí time. than is the case with the compliers oí the three other

Another eminent authoritv. namelv Dr. \evmouth. in his introduction to
John obser·es:
It must be owned that. although the íourth Gospel makes no assertion
which contradicts the character oí 1eacher and Reíormed attributed to lim bv
the svnoptists. it presents to us a personage so enwrapped in mvsterv and
dignitv. as altogether to transcend ordinarv human nature. 1his 1ranscendent
personalitv is indeed. the a·owed centre oí the whole record. and his portraval
is its a·owed purpose.

Now. these quotations point ·erv clearlv to the íact. that there is a general
agreement. as to John ha·ing plaved the role oí an interpreter or a
commentator oí the three other Gospels. 1here is not an allusion or a
reíerence. made to John ha·ing recei·ed a re·elation írom lea·en. or ha·ing
been inspired to íurnish the world with an explanation oí the doctrines oí
(hrist. \e learn on the other hand. that. while the authors oí the three other
Gospels complied the incidents oí the liíe oí Jesus. John ga·e a mvstical
meaning to them. le himselí does not lav claim to re·elation. or to consequent
períection. le has. on the contrarv. coníessed the imperíection oí his attempts.
to depict the incidents oí the liíe oí Jesus. Likewise he admits. that he is but a
recorder oí incidents or signs. 1here were also a great number oí signs which
Jesus períormed in the presence oí the disciples. which are not recorded in this
book: but these ha·e been recorded. in order that vou mav belie·e. that he is
the (hrist. the son oí God. and that. through belie·ing. vou mav ha·e Liíe
through his name.`
1his text. which re·eals the object oí the íourth Gospel.
announces that this is a partial record oí some oí those signs which Jesus
períormed beíore his disciples. 1o record e·ents or signs which are known to
manv. or all. oí the disciples and others. does not require the aid oí re·elation
which supplies iníormation which is not alreadv in the possession oí human
Some Important Discrepancies
Jesus said to them who took oííence. and who were not prepared to
recognise his claims simplv because he was a carpenter`s son and had other
humble ties,: A propbet is not without honour. but in his own countrv. and
among his own kin. and in his own house` Mark,. 1his statement was curtailed
bv Matthew. and still more bv John. Luke ignored it altogether.
But oí that dav and that hour knoweth no man. no. not the angels which
are in hea·en. neither the Son. but the lather` Mark xiii. 32,. 1his text
embodies a coníession bv Jesus. eloquent oí his limited knowledge and a·owed

, Dr. \evmouth`s Introduction to St. John`s Gospel.

, John XX. 30.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
ignorance: while Luke and John howe·er make no mention oí that humiliating
1he Re·. Dummelow`s (ommentarv makes the íollowing remake on
Neither the Son`: 1his is the true reading not onlv here in Mark, but in
Matthew xxi·. 35. where it has been atterea in manv MSS.. probablv as being a
diííicultv to íaith.` Peake`s (ommentarv oííers the íollowing note on it:
Mark xiii 32- 1his is one oí Schmiedel`s pillar-passages.` A passage
admitting a limit to (hrist: knowledge must be trustworthv historv. according to
Schimiedel. (ertainlv later commentators íound the ·erse diííicult.
Mv God. mv God. whv hast 1hou íorsaken me· Mark x·. 34, these words
ha·e been copied bv Matthew onlv. 1hev picture the inborn weakness oí Jesus.
1his expression oí his human nature was unworthv oí record. in the opinion oí
Luke and John.

Oí manv interpolations. mention will be made here oí a íew onlv: A, John
·ii 53 and ·iii. 1-11. that is. the last ·erse oí the se·enth chapter. with its
continuation in the íirst ele·en ·erses oí the eighth chapter. which relates the
storv oí an adultress. is an interpolation. 1his is admitted uni·ersallv. 1he Re·.
Dummelow`s (ommentarv has the íollowing obser·ations on it: 1he woman
taken in adulterv- All modern critics agree. that this section ·ii. 53-·iii-1-11, is
no original part oí the íourth Gospel. It is not in the author`s stvle: it breaks the
sequence oí our Lord`s discourses. and is omitted bv most oí the ancient

Peake`s (ommentarv comments on the storv at the end oí John ·ii. 53 ·iii-
1-11. ¡e.v.. ava tbe rovav accv.ea ot .iv: 1he well known storv oí the woman
taken in adulterv has no claim to be regarded as part oí the original text oí this
. It is supported bv no earlv Patristic e·idence. 1he e·idence pro·es it to be
an interpolation oí a western` character`.
Dr. \evmouth`s New 1estament in Modern Lnglish` mark`s the section as
an interpolation. 1he 1wentieth (enturv New 1estament has excised it. and
placed it in such a place as indicates clearlv. that it has no connection with John.
1he (omplete Bible in Modern Lnglish` writes in a íootnote: 1he narrati·e oí
the siníul woman chap. Vii. 53 to ·iii-1-11, is rejected bv the most competent
authorities as a spurious interpolation.`
B,John xxi: - In the opinion oí the Re·. Dummelow the last two ·erses at
least. 24 and 25- are reallv doubtíul. and thev mav ga·e been added bv the
Lphesian elders. who íirst put the Gospel in circulation. aíter the death oí the
Apostle. and who wished to testiív to its genuineness and trustworthiness.
(, Mark x·i 9-20 is another interpolation. Dummelow`s (ommentarv
obser·es that Internal` e·idence points deíinitelv to the conclusion. that the
last twel·e ·erses are not bv St. Mark.` It íurther supplies the íollowing
iníormation on the subject: \hen at the close oí the apostolic age. an attempt
was made probablv in Rome, to collect the authentic memorials oí the
Apostles and their companions. a copv oí the neglected second Gospel was not
easilv íound. )be ove tbat ra. actvatty ai.corerea ava ra. v.ea to vvttipty copie.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
baa ta.t teat. ava .o a tittivg tervivatiov ttbe pre.evt appevai·) ra. aaaea by
avotber bava.`

1he unanimous ·erdict gi·en in the New 1estaments oí Dr. \evmouth Dr.
Moííat. lerrar lenton. and in the 1wentieth (enturv New 1estament. is that
Mark x·i-9-20. is an addition.
D, Luke xxi·- 51 is another interpolation. as is conceded on all hands. It
elicits the íollowing comment írom the Re·. Dummelow: A íew ancient
authorities omit these words. Ií thev are omitted it i. po..ibte to regara tbi. erevt.
not as the ascension. but as a miraculous disappearance oí Jesus at the end oí
the inter·iew begun in ·erse 36.`
Peake`s (ommentarv makes similar remarks: 1he words and was carried
up into hea·en` are omitted in some oí the best MSS.. and ha·e probablv crept
in írom Acts i-9 í`
1he 1wentieth (enturv New 1estament and Dr. Moííat`s New 1estament`
make it as an interpolation.`

Our co-religionist. Maul·i Sadr-ud-Din. BA.. írom whose interesting essav.
Are the Gospel inspired.`
I ha·e chieílv reproduced the abo·e chapter.
makes the íollowing conclusion to his work::
Ií according to (hrist and Mohammed peace be upon them and all the
other prophets., the essence oí religion lies in our períect lo·e oí God which
can onlv be maniíested in out willing obedience to lis Di·ine will. we must be
assured. as rational beings. oí the genuineness and credibilitv oí God`s message.
as much as oí the soundness oí the truth. that it re·eals. It is this natural
cra·ing. that has led to what is known as the higher criticism oí the Bible. A
similar test has been applied to the lolv Koran as well. to which reíerence has
been made pre·iouslv. 1he result oí the higher criticism oí the íour Gospels
has partiallv been presented in this treatise. with the object oí making the laitv
and non-(hristians in general acquainted with it. In doing so. I ha·e purposelv
reírained írom quoting the opinions expressed in the learned commentaries oí
the nonconíormists. and in the books issued on the subject bv the Rational
Press. I ha·e. on the contrarv. restricted the treatment to the ·iews expounded
bv the (lergv oí the (hurch oí Lngland. in the main and to the ·iews oí those
who are rather conser·ati·e. I ha·e also deliberatelv o·erlooked the question.
whether we can ascribe with certaintv the authorship oí the Gospels to the
L·angelists. whose names thev bear now. All the commentaries are agreed
upon the íact that the original copies oí the Gospel. were without indication as
to the authors` names. It was guessed. later. who were the most probable
writers oí them. 1he probable conjecture has not vet reached certaintv. 1he

, lor a íuller treatment oí the subject oí the higher criticism oí the New 1estamant
see ·erv interesting treatise entitled Are the Gospels inspired·` bv Maul·i Sadar-ud-
Din. B.A.. írom whose work the íoregoing passage has been chieílv reproduced.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
authenticitv oí the names. to which. the Gospels are attributed. is open to
doubt. as can be seen bv reíerring to anv commentarv.`

\hat. we ha·e learnt. with respect to the origin oí the (hristian Gospels.
and the creed preached therein. can be recapitulated in a íew words. Mar/ ra.
tbe tir.t ava vot Mattber. as is generallv indicated bv the present
arrangement oí the íour books. Mark. who was a con·ert and interpreter oí St.
Peter penned at the instance oí his hearers`. what St. Peter had adopted and
preached to his Roman audiences Mark has been incorporated into Matthew
and Luke. But Matthew has represented the words and works oí Jesus as
íulíilling the prophecies oí the Old 1estament. No less than sixtv-íi·e
reíerences ha·e been made to Old 1estament texts. to establish that the ad·ent
oí the Messiah was in strict accordance with the Jewish ideals. 1his conception
and purpose per·ade the whole oí Matthew. and distinguish it írom the other
three. ív/e repre.evt. ´t. Pavt`. rier.. rbicb are iv covttict ritb ´t. Peter`.. 1hus
we ha·e in Luke an altogether diííerent point oí ·iew. ít oppo.e. Mattber ava
Mar/ vo.t botaty, and places its literal and (atholic description oí (hristianitv
in a striking contrast to Matthew and Mark. who coníine God`s blessings and
ministrations to the elect alone. John strikes an entirelv diííerent note. It oííers.
to interpret (hristianitv íor us. \e mav respect his opinion. as an indi·idual
one. and as diííerent írom the other three: but we cannot be assured. that his
·ague and mvthical representation oí (hristianitv is identical with the deíinite
and plain teachings oí the prophet Jesus. In a word. the Gospels are as
di·ergent. in expressing the (hristian doctrines. as their ·ersions are discrepant.
in the reproduction oí the words and works oí Jesus. 1hev ha·e not been
saíeguarded against mistakes and interpolations. On the contrarv. thev are
replete with extraneous matter. Sometimes glosses and editorial notes ha·e
been absorbed in the bodv oí the book. and sometimes irrele·ant additions
ha·e been made. Matthew and Luke ha·e either toned down or omitted what
thev deemed objectionable in Mark. 1hev do not teach that. because the
deepening anxietv oí Jesus in alliance with a íear oí treacherous betraval on the
part oí some oí his disciples. led to his sudden and skillíullv planned
disappearance: we should belie·e that he soared upwards to hea·en. 1heir
accounts oí the incident oí the cruciíixion do not show that God sa·ed Jesus
írom the cursed death on the cross. 1he plain and useíul teachings oí Jesus. as
pronounced in the Gospels. howe·er make the belieí in the atoning and
propitiating powers oí the cruciíixion unnecessarv. lis disciples also betrav
total ignorance oí such a dogma as the ·icarious atonement. Jesus himselí
belie·ed in one God. worshipped lim. and praved to lim. and laid all possible
stress on good li·ing and cherishing lo·e íor one`s neighbour.
1his brings the treatment to a close with mv sincerest hopes that it will be oí
some interest and beneíit to God`s people.

The Koran
As to the Koran. it consists exclusi·elv oí the re·elation or commands
which the Prophet proíessed. to ha·e recei·ed írom time. as a message direct

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
írom God: and which under di·ine direction. the Prophet deli·ered to those
about him.
L·erv svllable oí the Koran is oí di·ine origin. eternal and uncreated` as the
Deitv limselí. It is one oí the Islamic arguments against the Jewish and
(hristian Scriptures. that thev are not exclusi·elv oracles proíessing to proceed
írom the mouth oí God.
1he Prophet him-selí neither read nor wrote. lis being an illiterate man.
enhances the mar·el oí his re·elation.
Learning savs the Re·. Margoliouth.
he had none. or next to none.

At the moment oí inspiration or shortlv aíter. each passage was recited bv
the Prophet in the presence oí íriends or íollowers. and was generallv
committed to writing bv someone amongst them. at the time or aíterwards
upon palm-lea·es. leather. stones. or such other rude material as con·enientlv
came to hand. 1hese di·ine messages continued throughout the twentv-three
vears oí his prophetic liíe. so that the last portion was not recei·ed till near the
time oí his death.

1he Koran. being the di·ine re·elation and the corner stone oí Islam. the
recital oí a passage írom it íormed an essential part oí dailv praver. public and
pri·ate: and its perusal and repetition were considered to be a great pri·ilege.
1he preser·ation oí the ·arious chapters during the liíe-time oí the Prophet.
was not altogether dependent on their being committed to writing. 1he Koran
was committed to memorv bv almost e·erv adherent oí Islam. and the extent.
to which it could be recited. was one oí the chieí sources oí distinction. in the
earlv stages oí Islam. Amongst a crowd oí warrior martvrs. he who had been
the most ·ersed in the Koran. was honoured with the íirst burial. 1he person
who in anv companv could most íaithíullv repeat the Koran. was ipso íacto
entitled to conduct the public pravers. and in certain cases to pecuniarv rewards.
1he retenti·e íacultv oí the earlv Arabs ía·oured the task: and it was applied
with all the ardour oí an awakened spirit. to the Koran. Se·eral oí the Prophet`s
íollowers could during his liíe-time repeat with scrupulous accuracv. the whole
as then in use. lour or íi·e such persons are named: and se·eral others also
who could ·erv nearlv repeat the whole beíore the Prophet`s death.

lowe·er retenti·e the Arab memorv. remarks Sir \illiam Muir. we should
still ha·e regarded with distrust a transcript made entirelv írom that source. But
there is good reason íor belie·ing. that manv íragmentarv copies. embracing
amongst them the whole Koran. or nearlv the whole were during his liíe-time
made bv the Prophet`s íollowers.
Such as the condition oí the next during Mohammed`s liíe time. and such
it remained íor about a vear aíter his death. imprinted upon the hearts oí his
people. and íragmentarv transcripts increasing dailv`

, Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí Mohammad.

, 1he Re·. Margoliouth`s introduction to Rodwell`s translation oí the Koran.

, Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí Mohammad.

, Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí Mohammad.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
lurther the same writer states: 1he contents and arrangement oí the Koran
speak íorciblv íor its authenticitv. All the íragments ha·e. with artless simplicitv.
been joined together.
L·en the írailties oí the Prophet. as noticed bv the Deitv. ha·e with e·ident
íaithíul-ness. been entered in the Koran.
In íine. we posses e·erv internal guarantee oí coníidence namelv in the
authenticitv oí the Koran. as it exists in the present copies,.
.. 1here is otherwise e·erv securitv. internal and external. that we possess
that text which Mohammed himselí ga·e íorth and used.
So careíullv. indeed. has it been preser·ed that there are no ·ariations oí
importance- we might almost sav no ·ariations at all- to be íound in the
innumerable copies scattered throughout the ·ast bound oí the Lmpire oí
\et. but One Koran has been current amongst them: and the consentaneous
use bv all oí the same Scripture. in e·erv age to the present dav. is an
irreíragable prooí. that we ha·e now beíore us the ·erv text prepared bv
command oí the (aliph Othman who was murdered some time aíter the
compilation oí the Koran.
1here is probablv in the world no other work. which has remained twel·e
centuries 1861,. with so pure a text.
1his is onlv because the ·arious
re·elations in the Koran. regarding its di·ine nature. and its remaining íore·er
íree írom corruption or contradistinction. are rightlv coníirmed. lere are a íew
·erses bearing on this point:
\e ha·e surelv sent down the Koran: and we will certainlv preser·e the
same írom corruption. (hap. XV,
1his Koran could not ha·e been composed bv anv. except God: but it is a
coníirmation oí that which was re·ealed beíore it. and an explanation oí the
scripture: there is no doubt thereíore: sent down írom the Lord oí all creatures.
\ill thev sav. Mohammed, hath íorged it· Answer. Bring thereíore a chapter
like unto it: and call whom ve mav to vour assistance, besides God. ií ve speak
truth.` (hap. X,
Sav. Verilv ií men and genie were purposelv assembled. that thev might
produce a book, like this Koran. thev could not produce one like unto it.
although thev assisted each other. And we ha·e ·ariouslv propounded unto
men in this Koran. e·erv kind oí íigurati·e argument: but the greater part oí
men reíuse to recei·e it. merelv out oí iníidelitv.` (hap. XVII.,

1he Re·. Rodwell states:
It must be acknowledged too. that the Koran deser·es the highest praise
íor its conception oí the di·ine nature. in reíerence the attributes oí Power.
Knowledge and uni·ersal Pro·idence and Unitv- that its belieí and trust in the
One God oí lea·en and Larth. is deep and íer·ent.`
It is due to the Koran that the occupants. in the sixth centurv. oí an arid
peninsula. whose po·ertv was onlv equaled bv their ignorance. become not onlv

, It is more than íourteen centuries alreadv 2002,. See Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the íer·ent and sincere ·otaries oí a new creed. but. like Amru and manv more.
its warlike propagators.`

1he simple shepherds and wandering bedouins oí Arabia. are transíormed.
as ií bv a magician`s wand. into the íounders oí empires. the builders oí cities.
the collectors oí more libraries. than thev at íirst destroved. while cities like
lostat. Baghdad. (ordo·a and Dehli. attest the power. at which (hristian
Lurope trembled. And thus. while the Koran. which underlies this ·ast energv
and contains the principles which are its springs oí actions. reílects to a great
extent the mixed character oí its author. its merit as a code oí laws. and as a
svstem oí religious teaching. must alwavs be estimated bv the changes which it
introduced into the customs and belieís oí those who willinglv or bv
compulsion embraced it. In the suppression oí their idolatries. in the
substitution oí the worship oí Allah íor that oí the powers oí nature and genii
with lim. in the abolition oí child murder. in the extinction oí maniíold
superstitious usages. in the reduction oí the number oí wi·es to a íixed
standard it was to the Arabians an unquestionable blessing. and an accession
through not in the (hristian sense a Re·elation oí 1ruth: and while e·erv
(hristian must deplore the o·erthrow oí so manv ílourishing Lastern churches
bv the arms oí the ·ictorious Moslems. it must not be íorgotten that Lurope.
in the middle ages. owed much oí her knowledge oí dialectic philosophv. oí
medicine and architecture to Arabia writers. and that Moslems íormed the
connecting link between the \est and the Last íor the importation oí
numerous articles oí luxurv and use.`
lor ií he Mohammed, was indeed the illiterate person the Moslems
represent him to ha·e been. then it will be hard to escape their iníerence. that
the Koran is. as thev assert it to be. a standing miracle.`

The Koranic Conception of Man
1he lolv Koran represents man as a íree and responsible being. giíted with
the íacultv oí distinguishing between right and wrong. 1hen according to the
Koran. man is capable oí obeving the law oí God. le needs nobodv to atone
íor his sins. but himselí: íor the Lord is merciíul and will íorgi·e him his sins.
1he lolv Book oí Islam mentions no original sin. which we inherit at our birth.
It does not represent man as coming into the world with a load oí sin on his
back. On the contrarv. it represents him as an unconscious Moslem at the
moment oí creation. 1he Prophet oí Islam savs: L·erv child is born with a
Moslem heart`. and it is the external iníluences that makes it what it becomes
aíterwards in liíe. Ií bad iníluences happen to be at work. the child generallv
surrenders to such iníluences. unless God limselí undertakes to nurture the
little soul. \hen the child grows into manhood. he mav used the God giíted
íacultv oí discrimination and mav become what he chooses in liíe. Indeed. God
gi·es him manv a chance in liíe. that he mav reco·er himselí írom sin and
iniquitv. le mav make or mar his íortune e·en in the spiritual sense. Ií in him.
laith asserts its power. ií true repentance places him in the right attitude
towards God. ií the spirit oí God impels him to do ·irtuous deeds. ií he íeels
the hand oí God working in the smallest concerns oí his liíe. and. abo·e all. ií

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
he accepts death with a smiling countenance. and loses himselí to sa·e himselí.
whv this is suííicient atonement in the sight oí the Lord. whose pre- eminent
attribute is Mercv.

1o understand the Koranic conception oí man. a reíerence to the íollowing
·erses is necessarv: Oí goodliest íabric \e created man. then brought him
down to be the lowest oí the low: sa·e who belie·e and do things that are right.
íor theirs shall be a reward that íaileth not`. 1hese ·erses indicate that man. at
the moment oí his creation. is períectlv sinless. It is aíterwards. that sin tries to
assert itselí and bring him down to the le·el oí the brutes. But he has also the
di·ine in him. - the power to oííer ií he so wills. a stubborn resistance: and bv
the help oí this power. he mav grow up to a saint`. Although his own íorce is
íeeble. there is the Spirit oí God which will cooperate with him in this work oí
selí-regeneration onlv ií he shows genuine desire to turn to God. to belie·e and
to do things that are right. 1he lolv Koran is ·erv clear on this point. It does
not ask to belie·e in the doctrine oí original sin: and so atonement. in a
(hristian sense. has no place in the Islamic Scripture. \hat God wants oí us. is
this that we íor our part. should make the utmost endea·our to secure lis
pleasure and grace while le íor lis part. undertakes to direct us into lis wavs.
And whoso maketh his utmost endea·our towards Us. \e will surelv direct
him into Our wavs.` savs the Koran. 1his utmost endea·our on our part. to
reach God. in·ol·es the idea oí personal atonement and sacriíice which the
Moslem is required to oííer. \e íind the same thought clearlv expressed
elsewhere in the \ord oí God. 1hev who set their íace with resignation God-
ward. and do what is right. their reward is with their Lord: nor íear shall come
on them. neither shall thev be grie·ed.` 1urning his íace towards God.
graduallv proceeding towards lim. till he realizes himselí in lim-herein lies the
sal·ation oí man. according to the Koran. 1he Moslem is taught the high truth.
that the good dri·es awav the e·il in man`. and so he requires not anvone to
take the burden oí his sin and to undergo punishment as his substitute`. le
de·elops his íaculties. and tries his ·erv best. to make use oí them in doing
good deeds and working out the will oí his Maker: and hopes that his little will
be accepted as much bv the Most Merciíul Lord.

L·ervwhere. in the lolv Koran. man is represented as the crown and glorv
oí creation. le is the central íigure oí this beautiíul uni·erse. In Adam. he is
God`s ·icegerent on earth. Out oí lo·e. God hath created man. And he hath
created íor him the hea·ens and the earth. and sendeth down water írom the
hea·en. and so bringeth íorth the íruits íor his íood and to him le hath
subjected the ships. so that bv lis command thev pass through the sea: and to
him le hath subjected the sun and the moon in their constant courses: and to
him le hath subjected the dav and the night: oí e·ervthing which he mav ask
lim. gi·eth le to him: and ií he would reckon up the ía·ours oí God. he can
ne·er count them.

And the cattle. lor vou le created them: írom them ve ha·e warm
garments. and thev are useíul in manv wavs: and oí them ve eat: and thev obev
vou well when ve íetch them home and when ve dri·e them íorth to pasture:

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and thev carrv vour burdens to lands which ve could not else reach. but with
tra·ail oí soul: trulv. vour Lord is íull oí Goodness. and Merciíul: And le hath
gi·en vou horses. mules and asses. that ve mav ride them. and íor vour pleasure:
And things. oí which ve ha·e no knowledge. hath le created. Oí God it is. to
point out the wav. Some oí vou, turn aside írom it: but had le pleased. le
had guided vou all aright.`

According to the Koran. God hath endowed us with the power oí selí-
go·ernment which is an almost incredible trust. Bv this power. God not onlv
trusts our destinies to oursel·es. but le actuallv trusts. or seems to trust. the
whole íinal outcome oí lis creati·e work to our treatment oí it. 1his earth. at
least. is put into our hands. to make what we will oí it and oursel·es. its
inhabitants. It is stored with all possible helps to us. in natural íorces and
materials: we are gi·en intelligence. to íind them out and to use them íor the
enrichment and beautiíving oí our li·es: we are gi·en the understanding oí a
Rule oí Right in our conduct towards each other. that will keep us in períect
harmonv and happiness together. íor the common good: we are gi·en a
complete code oí regulations. to guide us as to what is right and what is wrong:
we are drawn towards well-doing. in accord with the Rule oí Right. bv a íeeling
created in us. which will not let us íorget it or ·iolate it. without willíul intent:
but and here lies the grandeur oí the part. man períorms in creation, we are
trusted with the íreedom. to do with all this what we will. 1he out come. good
or e·il. is what we and our íellows oí the human race. past and íuture. are
helping. or ha·e helped. or will help to make it. 1he glorv oí triumph or the
shame oí íailure. in the creation oí mankind. is to belong to the race itselí.

The Frailties of Human Nature
1he Koran also dwells on the weaknesses. to which the ílesh is heir. and
constantlv reminds man oí his inconstancv. injustice and ingratitude. Man is
created weak.` Surelv man is unjust and ungrateíul`. Man is hastv.` Man is
co·etous`. Verilv. man is created extremelv impatient` Verilv. man is
ungrateíul unto his Lord.` It must. howe·er. not be iníerred írom ·erses like
these. that man stands condemned beíore his (reator. as deser·ing onlv death
and perdition. 1hese ·erses rather breathe a noble svmpathv íor the weakness
oí man and the iníirmities oí the ílesh. 1hev contain in them promises oí
God`s grace and íorgi·eness. In reminding man oí the iníirmities oí his nature.
God desires that he should realise his weakness and powerlessness. bow down
his head beíore the Lord. turn to lim íor strength and assistance. and prav
constantlv. that le mav guide him into the right. straight path. Indeed. the
Moslem is enjoined to throw himselí in this attitude towards his Maker. and to
oííer such pravers repeatedlv through the dav and night. le is taught to sav:
Praise be to God. Lord oí the worlds: the (ompassionate. the Merciíul. King
oí the dav oí Reckoning. 1hee onlv do we worship. and to 1hee do we crv íor
help. Guide 1hou us in the right path. the path oí those unto whom 1hou hast

, Koran. XVL. 5-9.

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been gracious: - and not oí those with whom 1hou art angrv. and neither oí
those. who go astrav.`

As will be seen. this human praver is íull oí svmpathv towards the weakness
oí man. In it the Lord teaches lis ser·ant. to beg oí lim spiritual blessings. In
it le indirectlv asks them not sink in despair and indirectlv promises. to guide
them into the path oí holiness and to gi·e them strength. to bear the voke oí
lis law. \hat an upliíting hope is breathed into our hearts. when le tells us.
that le was gracious in the past. unto those who sought lim. and e·en so to-
dav le is readv to be gracious unto us. ií we onlv turn to lim and look up to
lis Grace. as our true Sa·iour.
But. as Shakespeare said: 1he course oí true lo·e ne·er did run smooth`.
\ith equal truth it mav be said oí di·ine lo·e. that it course ne·er runs smooth.
1rials and tribulations are bound to come. Manv a trail the seeker aíter God has
to undergo. beíore he can expect to recei·e the grace oí God. 1hink ve.` savs
the Lord. to enter Paradise. when no such things ha·e come upon vou. as no
those who ílourished beíore vou· Ills and troubles tried them: and so tossed
were thev bv trials. that the Apostle and thev. who shared his íaith. said \hen
will the help oí God come· Is not the help oí God nigh·`
L·en the Patriarch
Abraham. was tried bv God. when le commanded him to lea·e his home and
countrv. and to oííer his belo·ed son as a sacriíice.

No doubt. it is rather a diííicult task. to secure the blessing oí God. and to
períorm the di·ine laws. But. let not man stagger under the diííicultv oí the task
that lies beíore him. Let him take courage. and with a íirm trust in God and a
cheeríul heart. undertake the períormance: and abo·e all íear the Lord: íor it is
God`s promise. that le will make lis command easv to him who íeareth
lim 1he God oí Islam. it should alwavs be remembered. is not a niggardlv.
exacting God. but le is gracious unto lis ser·ants.` Llsewhere. we read a
surpassinglv comíorting ·erse. which comes as a message oí hope to each and
all oí us. God desireth. to be gracious unto vou. God desireth to make vour
burden light: íor man hath been created weak.`
Again we read: God wisheth
vou ease and ne·er wisheth vou discomíort.` A world oí mercv and íorgi·eness
is surelv concealed behind. and breathed out bv these ·erses. God is oííering
lis grace: we ha·e onlv to throw oursel·es in the right attitude oí laith. and
gi·e oursel·es up to God and lis land will lead us to lis blessings. \e ha·e
but to coníess out weakness and ask írom our Lord power. strength. and lis
spirit will descend upon us.

1here is another remarkable passage in the lolv Koran which presents to
us a just. but at the same time a merciíul God. and then gi·es a most beautiíul
praver. so com-íorting to the helpless man who. toiling up the spiritual heights
sits down totallv unner·ed. looking up to God íor strength and support. God
will not burden anv soul bevond its power.` so run the words oí God. It shall

, 1his is the praver. with which the lolv Book oí Islam opens.

, Koran. II : 210.

, Koran: IV: 28.

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enjov the good which it hath acquired and shall bear the e·il. íor the
acquirement oí which it laboured. Our Lord punish us not ií we íorget. or íall
into sin: Our Lord lav not on us a burden. like that which 1hou hast laid on
those who ha·e been beíore us: neither make us. O Lord. to bear what we ha·e
not the strength to bear: but blot out our sins. and íorgi·e us. and ha·e pitv on
us. 1hou art our Patron: help us. thereíore. against those who do not belie·e.`

The Koran and the Doctrine
of Personal Holiness
Islam has taken due cognisance oí the írailties oí human nature. and this
constitutes its chieí excellence as a svstem oí religion. 1hus. the laws oí Islam
exhibit elasticitv. which is a prooí oí their beneíicence and useíulness. 1hough
Islam. no doubt. points to a loítv idealism. it is. at the same time. thoroughlv
practical. 1he merit oí Islam. as a religion. consists in a happv harmonious
blending oí the ideal and the practical. It ía·our no íorm oí asceticism. and
ne·er asks anv man. to do what he has not the power to do. 1here is. howe·er.
one thing. on which it lavs the greatest emphasis. It is personal holiness and
puritv oí heart. It is the grand purpose. íor which the Prophet was sent down.
as it appears írom the praver oí Abraham: Our Lord. raise up among them an
apostle who mav rehearse 1hv signs unto them. and teach them the Book and
\isdom. and puriív them.`
1he reader will obser·e that the ·erse graduallv
ascends to a climax. Puriíication oí men being put last as the most important
part oí the íunctions oí the Prophet oí Islam. le who is puriíied. hath
obtained íelicitv.` savs the Koran elsewhere.`
Again. aíter mentioning the
blessings oí hea·enlv liíe. the lolv Book adds: And this shall be the reward oí
him who shall be pure.`
1hat a ·erv important place is gi·en to puritv oí mind
and personal holiness. will be seen írom another ·erse. where sinners are
threatened with the punishment. that God shall neither speak unto them nor
shall le puriív them.` Moreo·er. thev who conceal anv part oí the scripture
which God hath sent down unto them .God shall not speak unto them. on
the dav oí resurrection. neither shall le puriív them. and thev shall suííer a
grie·ous punishment.`
It is clear. then that communion with the Deitv and
personal holiness are the kevnote oí Islam.

But e·en here. man is not held responsible íor the e·il thoughts that in spite
oí himselí. pass through his mind. like ílashes oí lightning. 1o render man
responsible íor such passing íancies. o·er which he has little control. would be
sheer injustice. (ommission oí a wrong act. without pre·ious intention and
deliberation does not make one guiltv. íar less a passing thought that rises like a
bubble onlv to die and disappear the next moment. Adam ate oí the íorbidden
íruit and therebv committed a mistake as all men are liable to commit mistakes:

, Koran: Last ·erses oí chap. II.

, Koran. chap. II 123.

, Koran IXXXV 11 : 14.

, Koran XX : ¯8.

, Koran. II : 1¯5.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
but he was ne·er guiltv oí committing sin. and the lollv Koran clears him oí
the íalse accusation. just as it has cleared other prophets. like Moses and Jesus
oí similar charges. lor it savs: \e heretoíore ga·e a command to Adam. and
be torgot it and \e íound vo ivtevtiov in him to disobev our command,`
is. indeed. an important principle. and it has important bearings on the doctrine
oí sin. as presented bv the lolv Koran. íor elsewhere we read: God will not
punish vou íor an inconsiderate word in vou oaths: but le will punish vou íor
that which vour hearts ha·e assented unto.`
1his ·erse clearlv lavs down. that
a wrong act. or an e·il thought. is a sin. ií it is deliberate. Shorn oí intention and
deliberation. a wrong act or an impure thought is a mere accident which.
howe·er deplorable. cannot pro·e the doer a guiltv sinner in the sight oí God.

But. ií the element oí intention is present. e·en the íaintest thought is
enough. to render a man guiltv beíore his Maker. not to speak oí a deed which
is maniíestlv wrong. God íorbids both kinds oí sin -open and secret- equallv in
the same ·erse: Draw not near unto sin neither open nor secret.`
both- the outside oí iniquitv and the inside thereoí.`
Again: Sav. ·erilv. mv
Lord hath íorbidden sins. whether open or secret and iniquitv and unjust

1hese ·erses suííicientlv establish the doctrine oí personal holiness in Islam:
but to crush the objection oí the critics absolutelv. we gi·e one more ·erse
which shows. that not onlv the eves and the ears. but also the heart. will be
required to gi·e e·idence on the Dav Judgment. ií anv sin has been committed
through them. And the ·erse is this: And íollow not that. whereoí thou hast
no knowledge: íor the hearing and the sight and the heart - each oí these shall
be examined.`

Personal holiness. it must be remembered depends largelv on a thorough
belieí in the Omniscience and Omnipresence oí God. And nothing is more
striking to the reader oí the lolv Koran. than the íorce. with which it
impresses upon us these two attributes oí the Deitv. 1he belieí. that the
Supreme Being sees our actions and knows e·en the innermost secrets oí our
hearts. is a most poweríul check upon the tendencv to commit sin. So long as a
man realizes. that he works and mo·es under the great 1ask master`s eves he
keeps himselí írom ·ice: but whene·er this consciousness in him grows dim.
and he thinks he is not watched bv God. he exposes himselí to constant

, Koran. XX : 114. It is interesting to note. that the word ..Azma, in the ·erse
quoted. has been taken. both bv Rodwell and Sale to mean íirmness oí purpose` and
not intention.` lence. Mr. \herrv savs in his commentarv: 1his ·erse is íatal to the
Moslem theorv oí the sinlessness oí prophets.`

, Koran. II : 225.

, Koran. VI : 151

, Koran. XVI : 38.

, Koran. VII : 34.

, Koran. XVII : 38.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

4. Belief in the Apostles of God
1he íourth article oí the Islamic creed is íaith in all the Apostles oí God. A
Moslem must belie·e. that the Merciíul (reator sent in di·ers ages certain
messengers or apostles. to reclaim mankind írom iníidelitv and superstition.
and to teach them the religion and laws oí God and to gi·e them good tidings
and admonitions. 1he number oí these apostles is gi·en as 313. 1wentv-íi·e oí
them must be remembered. since their names are distinctlv gi·en in the Koran:
but it is not necessarv to learn them bv heart. 1he íollowing are the names
according to chronological order: -
Adam. Noah. loud leber,. Saleh Methuselah, Lot. Abraham. Ishmail.
Isaac. Jacob. Shu`aib Jethro, laroun Aaron,. Moses. Da·id. Solomon. Avoub
Job,. Zulkiíl Isaiah,. \ounis Jonah,. Ilias. Alvas`aa Llisha,. Zacharias. \ahia
John the Baptist,. Jesus and Mohammed.
Ií a Moslem is asked about anvone oí these men. he must coníess his belieí.
that he was an apostle oí God.
Moslems must also belie·e. that the apostles oí God were truthíul íaithíul
and intelligent. and that thev deli·ered in íull God`s message to their respecti·e
people. A Moslem must íurther belie·e that all apostles oí God were. bv their
prophetic characteristics íree írom 1, telling lies. 2, committing unlawíul
deeds. 3, stupiditv. laziness or cowardice 4, concealing anv part oí the
message thev were ordered to deli·er.
1he apostles oí God were subject to the same human wants as the rest oí
mankind such as eating. drinking. sleeping. marrving. etc.. thev were also liable
to ordinarv but not disgusting maladies etc.
Since the nature. as well as the storv. oí Jesus (hrist were matters oí dispute
between (hristians and Moslems. I must gi·e a summarv oí the Moslems` belieí
in this respect. according to the teachings oí the Koran and the interpretations
oí the Prophet.
Moslems hold. that Jesus (hrist was the blessed Apostle oí God who was
sent to reclaim the people oí Israel. le was a spirit írom God. lis messenger.
lis ser·ant and prophet. illustrious in this world and in the next. le was
miraculouslv born oí the Virgin Marv. 1he Jews ha·ing spoken ill oí Marv and
charged her with unchastitv. Jesus (hrist. speaking in the cradle. ·indicated his
mother`s honour. Jesus períormed miracles bv God`s power: gi·ing liíe to a clav
íigure oí a bird. healing the blind. curing the leper. quickening the dead. and
causing a table oí íood to be brought down írom lea·en. le was sent bv God.
to coníirm the law oí Moses and to preach the Gospel to the people oí Israel.
le proclaimed his mission bv manv maniíest signs. being coníirmed bv the
lolv Spirit. le íoretold the ad·ent oí another apostle to succeed him. named
Periclete or Ahmed. 1he Jews intended to cruciív Jesus. but God sa·ed him
írom the plot. took him up to lea·en. and stamped his likeness on a
treacherous Jew who was apprehended and cruciíied in his stead. It is the
constant doctrine oí the Moslems. that it was not Jesus who underwent
cruciíixion but someone else. resembling him in shape namelv. Judas. who
agreed with the Jews. to betrav Jesus íor some pieces oí sil·er. and led those

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who were sent to take him. Aíter the cruciíixion oí the wicked Judas. and the
taking up oí Jesus into lea·en. (hrist. the Apostle oí God. was sent down
again to the earth. to comíort his mother and de·oted disciples. and to tell
them. how the Jews were decei·ed: and he was taken up a second time to

It is supported bv se·eral`. writes Mr. G. Sale that this storv was an original
in·ention oí Mohammed`s: but thev are certainlv mistaken: íor se·eral sectaries
held the same opinion. long beíore his time. 1he Basilidans. in the ·erv
beginning oí (hristianitv. denied. that (hrist himselí suííered. but that Simon
the (vrenean was cruciíied in his place. 1he (erinthians. beíore them. and the
(orporatians next to name no more oí those who aííirmed Jesus to ha·e been
a mere man, did belie·e the same thing: that it was not himselí. but one oí his
íollowers ·erv like him. that was cruciíied. Photius tells us. that he read a book
entitled 1he Journev oí 1he Apostles.` relating the acts oí Peter. John.
Andrew. 1homas and Paul: and among other things contained therein. this was
one. that (hrist was not cruciíied. but another in his stead and that thereíore.
he laughed at his cruciíiers. or those who thought thev had cruciíied him.`

St. Barnabas relates this part oí Jesus (hrist`s historv with circumstances
approximating to the Islamic ·iew. In that Gospel it is related. that the
moment the Jews were going to apprehend Jesus in the garden. he was liíted up
to hea·en. bv the ministrv oí íour angels: that he will not die. till the end oí the
world. and that it was Judas who was cruciíied in his stead: God ha·ing
permitted that traitor. to appear so like his master. in the eves oí the Jews. that
thev took and deli·ered him to Pilate. 1hat this resemblance was so great. that
it decei·ed the Virgin Marv and the disciples themsel·es: but that Jesus (hrist
aíterwards obtained lea·e oí God to go and comíort them. 1hat Barnabas
ha·ing then asked him. whv the di·ine goodness had suííered the mother and
disciples oí so holv a prophet. to belie·e. e·en íor one moment. that he had
died in so ignominious a manner. Jesus returned the íollowing answer. O
Barnabas. belie·e me. that e·erv sin. howe·er small. is punished bv God with
great torment. because God is oííended bv sin. Mv mother thereíore. and
íaithíul disciples. ha·ing lo·ed me with a mixture oí earthlv lo·e. the Just God
has been pleased. to punish this lo·e with their present grieí. that thev might
not be punished íor it hereaíter in the ílames oí hell. And as íor me. though I
ha·e mvselí been blameless in the world. vet other men ha·ing called me God
and the son oí God: thereíore God. that I might not be mocked bv the de·ils
on the Dav oí Judgment. has been pleased. that in this world I should be
mocked bv men with the death oí Judas. making e·erv bodv belie·e that I died
upon the cross. And hence it is. that this mocking is to continue till the coming
oí Ahmed. and messenger oí God: who. coming into the world. will undecei·e
e·ervone who shall belie·e in the law oí God írom this error.`

, See G. Sale`s 1ranslation oí the Koran. chap. III. p. 38 l. \arne & (o. London,

, See G. Sale`s Prelim. Discourse.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he Moslems are also taught. that aíter Jesus had leít this earth. his disciples
disputed among themsel·es concerning his nature. some calling him God and
others the son oí God. 1hev belie·e that he will come again into the world. will
slav Antichrist. and will reign as a just king íor manv vears. marrv and ha·e
children die.
1he íollowing are a ·arietv oí translated passages oí the Koran bearing on
the storv oí Jesus (hrist. and the disputed nature and liíe oí the Great 1eacher
oí (hristianitv:

(1) Promised to Mary
a, And when the angels said: O Marv ·erilv. God hath chosen thee and
hath puriíied thee. and hath raised thee abo·e all other women oí the world: O
Marv. be. thereíore. de·out towards thv Lord and prostrate thvselí and bow
down in worship with those de·otes who bow down to lim`
b,And when the angel said: O Marv. ·erilv. God sendeth thee good
tidings: thou shalt bear a word írom lim whose name will be (hrist Jesus. the
son oí Marv and who will be illustrious in this world and in the next. and one
oí those men who are honoured with approach to the presence oí God: and he
shall speak to men alike when in the cradle and when he is grown up: and he
shall be one oí the most righteous: she said: O mv Lord. shall I ha·e a son.
since a man hath not touched me· 1he angel said: 1hus God will create what
le will: when le decreeth a thing. le onlv saith Be` and it is`. le God, shall
teach him the scripture and wisdom and the law and the Gospel: and le shall
appoint him and apostle to the children oí Israel. and he shall sav to them:
Verilv. I come unto vou with a sign írom vour Lord. íor I will make beíore vou
out oí clav. as it were the íigure oí a bird: then I will breathe into it. and it shall
become an animated bird. bv the will oí God: and I will heal the blind and the
leper. bv the will oí God. and I will raise the dead. bv the will oí God: and I will
tell vou what ve eat and what ve store up in vour houses. Verilv. this will be a
sign to vou. ií ve belie·e. And I will come to coníirm the law which was
re·ealed beíore me. and to allow unto vou as lawíul. part oí what hath been
íorbidden vou: thereíore. íear God and obev me. Verilv God is mv Lord and
vour Lord: thereíore ser·e lim. 1his is the right wav. But Jesus percei·ing their
unbelieí. said: who oí vou will assist towards the wav to God· 1he disciples
said: \e are vour helpers towards the wav to God: we do belie·e in God. and
do thou bear witness. we are true belie·ers. O Lord. we belie·e in what 1hou
hast sent down. and ha·e íollowed 1hv apostle: write us down. then with those
who bear witness oí his message,.

(2) Birth of Jesus
a, And make mention in the \ord`. oí Marv when she retired írom her
íamilv eastward. and drew a ·eil upon her to conceal herselí írom them: and
\e sent our spirit Gabriel, to her. and he appeared to her in the íorm oí a
períect man. She said: I ílv íor reíuge írom thee to the Most Merciíul. Ií thou
íearest lim`. le said: I am the messenger oí thv Lord. that I mav bestow on
thee a puriíied son.` She Said: low shall I ha·e a son when man hath ne·er
touched me. and I was ne·er unchaste· le said: So shall it be. 1hv Lord hath

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
said. it is a simple thing with lim. and that le will make him a sign to
mankind. and a mercv írom lim: 1his is a thing alreadv decreed.` \hereíore
she concei·ed him: and she retired aside with him in her womb, to a distant
place. and the throes came upon her near the trunk oí a palm-tree She said,
\ould to God. I had died beíore this. and had become as one lost in obli·ion.
And he who was below her namelv the newlv born babe, came to her. saving.
Be not grie·ed. 1hv Lord hath pro·ided íor thee a ri·ulet at thv íeet: and do
thou shake the trunk oí the palm-tree towards thee: it will drop íresh ripe dates
to eat. 1hereíore. eat and drink and cheer thvselí: and shouldst thou see anv
human being. sav: Verilv. I ha·e ·owed a íast to the Most Merciíul. whereíore I
will bv no means speak to a human being this dav. So she came with the babe
to her people. And thev said to her. O Marv thou hast committed a gra·e thing.
O sister oí Aaron
. thv íather was not a bad man. nor was thv mother
unchasted. And she made a sign to him the iníant,. 1hev said` how shall we
speak to him who is an iníant in the cradle· le said Verilv. I am the ser·ant oí
God: le hath gi·en me the Book 1he Gospel,. and le hath appointed me a
prophet. And le hath made me blessed. whosesoe·er I mav be and hath
commanded me. to prav to him and to gi·e alms. As long as I li·e: and hath
made me dutiíul towards mv mother: and le hath not made me cruel or
wicked. 1he peace oí God was on me the dav I was born. and it will be on me
the dav I shall die and the dav I shall be raised again to liíe.` 1his was Jesus. the
son oí Marv. the word oí truth. concerning whom thev dispute.
b,Verilv the case oí Jesus with God is the same as that oí Adam. le
created him Adam, out oí the dust. and then said to him Be`. and he was.
1his is the truth íorm thv Lord: be not thereíore. one oí those who dispute.`

One of the Miracles of Jesus
Remember when the disciples said. O Jesus. son oí Marv. is thv Lord able
to send down to us a table oí pro·isions írom hea·en· le said: lear God. ií ve
be true belie·ers`. 1hev said: \e desire to eat thereírom. and to ha·e our
hearts assured. and to know that thou hast indeed spoken truth to us. and to be
witnesses thereoí.` Jesus. the son oí Marv. said O God. our Lord send down a
table to us írom hea·en. that the dav oí its descent become a recurring íesti·al
to us. to the íirst oí us and to the. last oí us. and a sign írom 1hee: and do
1hou pro·ide íood íor us. íor 1hou art the best pro·ider`. God said: Verilv. I
will cause it to descend unto vou: but whosoe·er among vou shall disbelie·e

, Mr. Sale rightlv comments this phrase. O sister oí Aaron` as íollows: Se·eral
(hristians writers think. the Koran stands con·icted oí a maniíest íalsehood in this
particular. but I am aíraid. the Moslems mav a·oid the charge. as thev do. bv se·eral
answers. Some sav. the ·irgin Marv had reallv a brother named Aaron. who had the
same íather. but a diííerent mother: other suppose Aaron. the brother oí Moses. is here
meant. but sav . Marv is called his sister. either because she was oí the le·itical race as
bv her being related Llizabeth. it should seem she was, or bv wav oí comparison with
her. and conspicuous íor his good or bad qualities. and that thev likened her to him.
either bv wav oí condemnation or reproach. See Sale`s 1ranslation oí the Koran.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
hereaíter. I will surelv punish him with more se·ere a punishment than I will
punish anv other oí mv creatures.

The Mission of Jesus
a, \e íormerlv sent our apostles with e·ident signs and miracles. and \e
sent down with them the Scriptures and the balance. that men might obser·e
justice.` And \e caused Jesus. the son oí Marv to succeed them. and \e ga·e
him the Gospel: and \e put in the ears oí those who íollowed him.
compassion and mercv: but as to the monastic liíe. thev in·ented it themsel·es:
\e did not prescribe it to them: thev did it out oí design to please God. vet this
thev did not properlv obser·e. And \e ga·e to such oí them as belie·ed. their
reward: but manv oí them were e·il doers.`
b, also caused Jesus. the son oí Marv to íollow the íootsteps oí the
Prophets. to coníirm the Law which was sent down beíore him: and \e ga·e
him the Gospel. containing guidance and light. and coníirming the preceding
word and a direction and admonition unto those who íear God: so that thev
who ha·e recei·ed the Gospel might judge. according to what God hath
re·ealed therein. And those will not judge. according to what God hath
re·ealed. thev are certainlv transgressors.:
c, Some oí the apostles \e ha·e endowed more than others. 1hose. to
whom God hath spoken. le hath raised to the loítiest position. And to Jesus.
the son oí Marv. \e ga·e maniíest signs. and \e strengthened him with the
lolv Spirit. And ií God had pleased. thev who come aíter them. would not
ha·e wrangled. aíter the clear signs had reached them. But into disputes thev
íell: some oí them belie·ed. and some were iníidels: vet. ií God had pleased.
thev would not ha·e wrangled: but God doth what le will.`
d, And Jesus. the son oí Marv. said: O children oí Israel. Verilv I am
God`s apostle to vou who came to coníirm the law which was gi·en beíore. me.
and to announce an apostle who shall come aíter me whose name shall be
Ahmed. But when he Ahmed, presented himselí with clear signs oí his
mission. thev said: 1his is maniíest sorcerv.` Jesus said to them: I come to
attest the law which was re·ealed beíore me. and to allow vou part oí that
which had been íorbidden vou: and I come to vou with a sign írom vour Lord:
thereíore. íear God and obev me: ·erilv. God is mv Lord and vou Lord:
thereíore. worship lim: this is the right wav.`

Jesus not Crucified
a, 1he Jews were cursed íor their unbelieí and íor their ha·ing spoken a
grie·ous calumnv against Marv and íor their saving: Verilv we ha·e slain (hrist
Jesus. the son oí Marv. the apostle oí God`: vet thev slew him not. and cruciíied
him not. but he was represented to them bv one in his likeness. and ·erilv. thev
who disputed about him. were in doubt. concerning this matter: thev had no
sure knowledge thereoí. but íollowed onlv an uncertain opinion.
1hev the

, lor some maintained. that he was justlv and reallv cruciíied: some insisted. that it
was Jesus who suííered. but another. but another resembled him in the íace . some

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Jews, did not reallv kill him: but God took him up to limselí and God is
Mightv and \ise.`
Jesus and the Divinity
a, le Jesus, is no other than a ser·ant oí God whom \e ía·oured. and
set íorth as an instance oí di·ine power, to the children oí Israel: and ií \e
pleased. ·erilv. \e could ha·e e·en produced angels írom voursel·es to
succeed vou on earth.`
b,And when Jesus came with maniíest signs. he said: Now I am come to
vou with wisdom. and to explain to vou part oí those things. about which vou
disagree: thereíore íear God. and obev me. Verilv God is mv Lord and vour
Lord: whereíore worship ve lim: this is the right path. But the diííerent parties
íell into disputes among themsel·es
. but woe to those who thus transgressed
because oí the punishment oí a grie·ous dav.`
c, 1he Jews sav: Lzra is the son oí God: and the (hristians sav. (hrist is
the son oí God. 1his is their saving with their mouths. íollowing the example
oí those who misbelie·ed beíore them Mav God resist them. low are thev
iníatuated! 1hev take their priests and their monks íor their Lord. besides God.
and take, (hrist. the son oí Marv. íor their: lord besides God,. although thev
are commanded to worship one Deitv onlv: 1here is no Deitv but le the true
God,: íar be those írom lim whom thev associate with God,.`

The Trinity Condemned
a, 1hev are surelv iníidels who sav. Verilv. God is (hrist the son oí Marv:
since (hrist said. O ve children oí Israel. worship God. mv Lord and vour
Lord: whoe·er. shall associate aught with lim. God shall íorbid him paradise.
and his habitation shall be hell íire: and the ungodlv shall ha·e none to help
them. 1hev are certainlv iníidels who sav. God is the third oí three. íor there is
no Deitv. but God alone. And ií thev do not desist írom what thev. sav. a
painíul torment shall surelv be inílicted upon those who misbelie·ed among
them. \ill thev not turn unto God. and ask lis pardon· Since God is Gracious
and Merciíul. (hrist. the son oí Marv. is no more than apostle: Other apostles
preceded him. and his mother was a true belie·er: thev both used to eat íood
as all other creatures oí God,. Behold. how we declare unto them the signs oí
God`s unitv,: and then behold. how thev turn aside írom the right path,. Sav
O Mohammed. unto them, will ve worship. besides God that which can cause
vou neither harm nor proíit· God heareth e·erv thing, and seeth e·erv thing,.
Sav. O ve who ha·e recei·ed the Scriptures. exceed not the just bounds in vour
religion. bv speaking beside the truth. neither íollow the desires oí people who
ha·e heretoíore erred. and who ha·e seduced manv. and ha·e gone astrav írom
the right path.`

said. he was taken up to hea·en. and others. that his manhood onlv suííered. and that
his godhead ascended into hea·en.

, Lither reíerring to the Jews in the time oí Jesus who opposed his doctrine. or to the
(hristians since. who ha·e íallen into ·arious opinions concerning him: some making
him to be God. others the son oí God. and others one oí the persons oí the trinitv etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
b,O ve who ha·e recei·ed the Scriptures. exceed not the just bounds in
vour religion. neither sav oí God otherwise than the truth. Verilv (hrist. the
son oí Marv. was the apostle. and lis \ord which le con·eved to Marv. and a
Spirit coming írom lim. Belie·e. thereíore. in God and lis apostles. and sav
not: 1here are three Deities` desist: it will be better íor vou. God is the onlv
Deitv. lar be it írom lim. that le should ha·e a son: unto lim belongeth
whate·er is in hea·en and on earth: and God is the best Protector. (hrist doth
not proudlv disdain to be a ser·ant to God`
c, It beseemeth not a man that God should gi·e the Scripture and the
wisdom and the giít oí prophecv to him. and that then he should sav to the
people Be ve worshippers oí me. as well as oí God.` but rather. Be ve períect in
thing pertaining to God. since ve know the Scriptures. and ha·e studied
d, And when God shall sav namelv unto Jesus on the Dav oí Judgment,.
O Jesus son oí Marv. hast thou said unto the people: 1ake me and mv mother
íor two deities. beside God· le shall answer. Glorv be to 1hee. it is not íor me.
to sav that which I ought not in truth: ií I had said it. 1hou wouldst surelv ha·e
known it: 1hou knowest what is in me but I know not what is in 1hee: íor
1hou art the knower oí all secrets I ha·e not spoken to them otherwise. than
thou didst command me. I said to them: \orship God. mv Lord and vour
Lord: and I was a witness against them as long as I staved amongst them: but
when 1hou causest me to die. 1hou hast been the \atcher o·er them. as thou
art the \atcher o·er all things. Ií thou punish them. thev are surelv thv
ser·ants. and ií thou íorgi·e them. thou art the Almightv and the All-wise.`

C Co on nt tr ra ad di ic ct to or ry y T Te ea ac ch hi in ng gs s o of f
C Ch hr ri is st ti ia an ni it ty y f fr ro om m M Mo os sl le em m’ ’s s P Po oi in nt t o of f
V Vi ie ew w: :
1he íollowing would illustrate certain contradictions in the íundamental
principles oí (hristianitv. as ·iewed bv Moslems:

The first and the íoremost (hristian principle is Unitv in 1rinitv.
and 1rinitv in Unitv. 1his in itselí is but a clear illustration oí the principle oí
compromise. oí which a di·ine religion should be íree. 1he Romans belie·ed in
three gods. whilst the Jews belie·ed in one. \hen the Romans showed their
readiness to adopt (hristianitv. a compromise was. it seems at once arri·ed at.
Apparentlv íor the sake oí the Romans. the Unitv oí God as belie·ed bv the
Jews. underwent a change: it was assimilated to the tri-headed Godhood. and
so the two creeds became merged into one. No Moslem person can think oí
reconciling such contradictions.

The second instance oí contradictorv principles is. that Jesus has
been called a man and God. at the same time: while the íact is that the (reator
and the created cannot be one and the same. 1hereíore. Jesus cannot be God
and man. at the same time.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
The third principle. where contradictions ha·e been brought
together. is that. on the one hand. Jesus declares in the Gospels. that ·iolation
oí e·en the least commandment oí the law dooms a man to eternal perdition.
while it is taught bv Paul. that the Law was a curse.

The fourth example oí contradictorv principles. in the (hristian
doctrine. that God cannot íorgi·e sins. hence the necessitv oí the cruciíixion oí
lis onlv begotten son íor the redemption oí the sins oí mankind. while
maintaining at the same time. that God would íorgi·e us our trespasses. onlv
when we íorgi·e those that trespass. against us. A Moslem cannot understand.
how God both can and cannot íorgi·e trespasses. Ií le cannot íorgi·e. then
·ain is our íorgi·ing or condemning: íor that is oí no a·ail. Ií le can than a
Moslem does not see that there is anv need oí Atonement.

The fifth contradictorv principle is the teaching. that Jesus has
taken awav all our sins bv suííering cruciíixion íor mankind at large. impressing
upon us. at the same time. the necessitv oí doing good. Ií Jesus bv his unnatural
death has atoned íor our sins. then there should be no need íor us to trouble
oursel·es about good or bad deeds anv more. It matters little whether we do
good or e·il. \e are quite at libertv. to re·el and carouse at will. On the one
hand. (hristianitv teaches us the doctrine oí Atonement. thus making us
independent oí all good deeds. while on the other hand. it imposes upon us the
obligation to períorm good deeds.

The sixth contradictorv principle that (hristianitv oííers the world
is. that it holds (hrist as accursed. dving as he is belie·ed bv (hristians, an
accursed death on the (ross: vet it holds him up as the ·erv paragon oí
excellence. the son oí God- lis dearest one. It is impossible íor a Moslem to
comprehend how an accursed man can be the son oí God. (urse betokens
di·ine ·engeance. a great gulí between lim and the the person accursed. 1o
reconcile these two contradictions passes the wit oí a Moslem.

The seventh contradiction is that Jesus is called the son oí God. as
well as the son oí Da·id. low can a man possiblv. be the son oí two distinct
personalities· le must be either oí one or oí the other. but not oí both at the
same time.

T Th he e G Go od dh he ea ad d o of f J Je es su us s C Co on nd de em mn ne ed d b by y I Is sl la am m
1he abo·e has been the doctrine oí the Religion oí Islam with regard to the
personalitv oí Jesus (hrist. Aíter íourteen centuries the same doctrine is now
adopted bv some (hristian (hurches. namelv the Unitarian. Probablv it will not
be out oí place to quote here a íew statements írom a lecture. deli·ered beíore
the (ooper Literarv Institute. Philadelphia. on March 4
. 1913. bv Dr. A. Geo.
Naker. late President oí the Institute:
\e ha·e now arri·ed at a time when the literature oí all nations. and their
historv. are being careíullv studied bv those who are íitted íor the task. 1he

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
manv írauds which the (hristian churches ha·e practiced in the past. are all
being exposed now. and the result is that manv oí the wisest and best men ha·e
íorsaken the orthodox doctrines oí the (hristian churches. \e ha·e here in the
United States. a large and intelligent bodv oí belie·ers who are called
Unitarians. i.e. belie·ers in one God. and who object to the old doctrine oí a
trinitv oí person in the Godhead. and reject the same. 1hev look upon (hrist as
a great prophet and a good man. but still onlv a man Our ex- President 1aít
belongs to this Unitarian church. In taking his íarewell írom the Unitarian
congregation in \ashington. he said in his last speech to them: It has alwavs
been a wonder to me. whv all the world is not Unitarian.` 1he president. oí
course. meant bv all the world` all the Protestant world oí the United States.
because the (atholic (hurch is under the power oí the Pope and admits oí no
change oí creed or dogma.
1he Unitarians consider (hrist as a mere man. inspired. as other great men
are. though in a greater degree: thev reject the doctrine oí original sin. the belieí
in miracles. and generallv the whole supernatural elements oí (hristianitv.
1here are manv oí the so-called liberals in the churches who hold Unitarian
doctrines. but do not separate írom their old connections. President 1aít is.
thereíore. entirelv Justiíied in asserting that the trouble we suííer írom - ií it be
trouble - is. that there are so manv Unitarians in other churches who do not sit
in the pews oí our church. But that means ultimatelv that thev are coming to us.
1here seems to be e·erv prospect that President 1aít`s prophecv mav be
íulíilled in regard to the Protestant world.
(harles Lliot. President Lmeritus oí lar·ard Uni·ersitv. made a similar
prophecv in a pamphlet called 1he religion oí the luture` Printed bv the
American Unitarian Association. Mr. Lliot savs: 1he religion oí the íuture will
not be based on authoritv. either spiritual or temporal namelv on neither Pope
nor King,. It is hardlv necessarv to sav that in the íuture religion there will be
no personiíication oí the íorces oí nature. 1here will be in the religion oí the
íuture. no identiíication oí anv human being. howe·er majestic in character.
with the Lternal Deitv.`
1he ordinarv consolations oí constitutional (hristianitv no longer satisív
intelligent people whose li·es are broken bv the sickness or premature death oí
those thev lo·e.`
1he lecturer quoted abo·e goes on to sav: Jesus (hrist praved John x·ii. 3,
And this is liíe eternal. that thev might know 1hee. the onlv true God. and
Jesus (hrist whom 1hou hast sent namelv. 1hine apostle,. 1here are manv
other places to pro·e. that (hrist did not claim to be God. But (hristians
cannot see it in that light. because thev want three Gods instead oí one.`

Oí course. there are points at which all religions touch each other. but the
(hristian íails to see this. 1he Moslem belie·es in one God. and also in (hrist
as one oí God`s great prophets. 1he (hristian savs. he also belie·es in one
God. but le has a trinitv oí persons. 1his is e·identlv deri·ed írom the lindu
religion. írom Bram. Vishnu and Si·a. 1he Jewish religion knew oí no trinitv in
the Old 1estament. and vet the (hristian pretends. that his religion is íounded
on the Jewish religion. 1he Jewish religion knew oí no Sa·iour. besides the one
God. le was their Sa·iour and Redeemer. See Isaiah 43:3. I am the Lord thv

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
God. the lolv One oí Israel thv Sa·iour` and Isaiah 42.·.8. I am the Lord that
is mv name and mv glorv will I . not gi·e to another. neither mv praise to
gra·en images. and again Is 43:11. I. e·en I am the Lord. and beside me there
is no Sa·iour`. and Is 44: 6 1hus savs the Lord the King oí Israel. and his
redeemer. the Lord oí hosts. I am the íirst. and I am the last: and beside me
there`s no God`. 1here are manv other passages in Isaiah. and other Old
1estament books which insist that there is no God. but the one God. and le is
the Sa·iour and Redeemer. and there is non beside lim. 1he (hristians who
take (hrist íor their Sa·iour and Redeemer are. thereíore. outside oí the
promise oí the Scripture which thev themsel·es acknowledge to be the word oí
God. But all this with the manv passages in the New 1estament. where (hrist
distinctlv savs that he is not God. does not con·ince them.`

What Jesus Says About Himself in
to his Alleged Divinity
According to the Koran
. Jesus. on the dav oí Judgment. will be asked bv
God whether he hold his people to consider him and his mother
two Gods.
besides God limselí. \hereupon. Jesus not onlv disa·ows his claim oí
di·initv. but also asserts he ne·er preached such a doctrine to his disciples.
when he was with them. lortunatelv the narrati·e oí the 1eacher oí Nazareth
as reported in the íour gospels. though in the consideration oí Islamic
judgment not genuine in its entiretv. still contains suííicient e·idence to
corroborate the statement oí the Koran. 1he íollowing are the savings oí (hrist
about himselí as reported bv the L·angelists:
I do nothing oí mvselí` John ·iii. 28,
Mv íather is greater than I` John xi· 2,
1his is liíe eternal. that thev might know 1hee. the onlv true God and Jesus
(hrist whom 1hou hast sent` John x·ll. 3,

, (hap. VII: 116-118.

, lrom the Koranic description oí Marv being taken íor a God bv the (hristians.
some (hristian (ritics oí the Koran conclude that the doctrine oí the 1rinitv. according
to the Koran. consists oí three persons- God. Jesus and Marrv. But this is unwarranted
conclusion. Marrv is spoken oí as being taken íor an object oí worship bv the
(hristians: but the doctrine oí 1rinitv is not mentioned. here. while the Di·initv oí
Marrv is not mentioned. where the 1rinitv is spoken oí. lad Marv not been
worshipped bv the (hristians as the Mother oí God.` the conclusion would ha·e been
saíe. that the Koran mistook Marv íor the third person oí the 1rinitv. But the doctrine
and practice oí the Mariolatrv. as it is called bv Protestant contro·ersialists. is too well
known. In the catechism oí the Roman (hurch. the íollowing doctrines are to be
íound: 1hat she is trulv the mother oí God.. and the second L·e. bv whose means we
ha·e recei·ed blessing and liíe: that she is the mother oí Pitv and. ·erv speciallv. our
ad·ocate: that her images are the oí the utmost utilitv Lncvc. Brit. 11
ed. Vol. 1¯.
813., It is also stated that her intercessions are directlv appealed to in the Litanv. And
íurther. that there were certain women in 1hrace. Scvthia. and Arabia who were in the
habit oí worshipping the Virgin as a goddess. the oííer oí a cake being one oí the
íeatures oí their worship etc.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he Lord our God is one Lord` mar x·ii.29,
1hou shalt worship the Lord thv God. and lim onlv shalt thou ser·e`
Matt. i·. 10,.
\hv callest thou me good· None is good sa·e one. that is God`
I am not vet ascended to mv lather: but go to brethren and sav unto them.
I ascend unto mv lather and vour íather. and to mv God and vour God`
I bv the íinger oí God cast out de·ils` Luke xl.20,
lather. I thank thee that thou hast heard me. and I knew that 1hou hearest
me alwavs: but because oí the people which stand bv. said it. that thev mav
belie·e that 1houhast sent me` John xl. 41. 42,
1he works which the íather hath gi·en me to íinish. the same works that I
do. bear witness oí me. that the lather hath sent me` John ·. 36, Ií anv man
hear mv words and belie·e not. I judge him not: íor I came not to judge the
world` John XII. 4¯.,
Jesus then went a little íurther. íell on his íace. and praved. saving,`
O Mv lather. ií it be possible. let this cup pass írom me: ne·ertheless. not
as I will. but as thou wilt` Matt. XXVI: 38. 39,.
Lli. Lli. Iama sabachthani - Mv God mv God. whv hast 1hou íorsaken
me` Matt. xxii. 46,
lather. into mv hands I commend mv spirit.` Luke xxiii. 46,

1hese expression coníirm to a great extent the Islamic notion oí Jesus
(hrist. namelv. that he was a true ser·ant and a messenger oí God. and one oí
lis humble creatures and ne·er a god. Jesus admits his limited knowledge and
power. le looks to God e·en íor his sustenance. le expresses his complete
submission to the di·ine will. le disa·ows all goodness íor himselí. when
speaking oí God. A messenger. no doubt. he was oí God. le spoke to the
children oí Israel what he heard írom God. le has been reported to períorm
certain miracles. but these he períormed bv the help oí God. le is said to ha·e
raised Lazarus to liíe. but he has to prav to God and thank lim on being heard.
\hen he was asked. he admitted that such miracles could be done onlv through
íasting and praver to God.
Speaking oí himselí. Jesus also is reported to ha·e said:
loxes ha·e holes. and the birds oí the air ha·e nests. but the Son oí Man
hath nowhere to lav his head.`
In another instance he is reported to ha·e said:
Oí mvselí I can do nothing: oí that dav and that hour knoweth no man
.neither the son`
Moslems íail to understand. how in the presence oí these admissions on the
part oí Jesus. di·initv can still be attributed to him. 1his is a problem which can
onlv be sol·ed bv the words said oí Jesus:
I thank 1hee O lather. Lord oí hea·en and earth. that 1hou hast kept
these things írom the wise and prudent. and hast re·ealed them unto babes`

Priestcraft and Islam
Islam is the laith oí works. oí approach to God through selí-endea·our
and not through anv intermediarv. In Islam there is no such teaching as that oí

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he lolv Spirit descending in the greatest degree to the elected Pope. and in
lesser degrees to bishops. deans and clergv.` 1hat e·erv soul must labour íor its
own sal·ation. is the kevstone oí Islamic teachings. Islam has no monasticism.
no apostolic succession. no bodv oí men whose ·erv li·elihood depends upon
their claim that. aíter their ordination as priests. thev ha·e the Spirit oí God in
them. and that as Jesus was the chieí intercessor between God and man. so the
priest is the intercessor between the people and Jesus and the saints. \hile
other religions belie·e. that man cannot approach God. and he cannot e·en
coníess his sins to lim. but that he must coníess to a priest. who ha·ing the
Spirit oí God. has the power to assure him that he is íorgi·en.` Islam teaches
that le who is best among men is he who does most good works.` In such a
religion the priest is not needed. 1rulv mosques require attendants. and some
men lo·e to de·ote their li·es to religion: but the doctrine oí priesthood itselí is
not. and ne·er has been íound. in the religion oí Islam. \ith Islam. a man mav
attain to spiritual closeness to God. not through his ha·ing been ordained a
priest. but bv li·ing a liíe oí religion. pietv and good works.

1he simple worship oí the One 1rue God \ho rules o·er all. \ho hears
the pravers. both oí the most cultured and the most ignorant requiring nothing
but a pure heart and sincere moti·e. is the chieí characteristic oí the religion oí
Islam. 1he absence oí the priest in the religion oí Islam is one oí the reasons
which helped Moslems to be better acquainted with their religion.

Supposed Divinity of Jesus
Modern (hristian Di·ines agree with Islamic ·iews. as to the supposed
Di·initv oí Jesus.
1he íollowing extract is taken írom 1he Graphic` oí August 20
. 1920:
During the last íew davs orthodox (hristianitv has recei·ed the greatest
blow it has suííered íor manv vears. Outside the (hurch. scores oí people.
learned and skilled in the wavs oí theologv. ha·e been attempting to pro·e. that
the basis oí (hristianitv was all wrong. and that modern science had destroved
its ·erv íoundation. 1his time. though. a blow has come írom the inside itselí:
and three highlv - placed theologians. all a·owed members oí the (hurch oí
Lngland. in which thev li·e. preach and ha·e their being. ha·e united. to use
words which lav men take to mean. that (hrist was not the son oí God. but a
Palestine Jew..

Now. what Renan argued in 1he Liíe oí Jesus`. what all scientists outside
the íaith ha·e expressed in learned terms. has been suddenlv put into a bomb
which. thrown at the Modern (hurchmen`s (ongress at (ambridge not a week
ago. has staggered the Anglican (hurch so much that the re·erberations oí the
shock will be íelt íor vears. Dr. Rashdall. the Dean oí (arlisle. Dr. Bethune -
Baker. Ladv Margaret Proíessor oí Di·initv. the Re·. R.G. Persons oí
Rusholme. ha·e stood up at an Anglican (oníerence. and - ií their words ha·e
been reported rightlv denied the Godhead...

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(hrist was not di·ine but human. said Dr. Rashdall. I do not íor a
moment suppose. that (hrist e·er thought oí himselí as God`. said Dr.
Bethune-Baker. Jesus was a man genuinelv. utterlv. completelv. unreser·edlv
human.` said the Re·. R.G. Parsons- A Palestine Jew who expressed himselí
through the conditions and limitations oí liíe. and though peculiar to his own

1hese three men are not people whose opinions can be disregarded. e·en bv
the most orthodox oí all (hristians. 1hev are men oí the highest intellectual
attainments. men oí brilliant achie·ements in the world oí theologv: all oí them
men who. as lecturers and íellows and proíessors. ha·e instructed scores oí
Anglican di·ines beíore their ordination and since.`

Canon Barnes on the Old Testament
In its issue oí Januarv 6
. 1922. the Dailv Graphic has dealt with a speck
deli·ered bv the (anon oí \estminster at the Association oí Uni·ersitv
\omen 1eachers. 1he íollowing is an extract oí the speech as inserted in the
abo·e issue:
In this connection it was most important. that the true nature and ·alue oí
the Old 1estament should be explained to children. It was Jewish literature: and
was ·aluable íor us. mainlv. because it showed how the Jewish prophets were
led to the idea oí God. which Jesus accepted and emphasised. and because. in it
·ague expectations oí a Messiah íoreshadowed the ad·ent oí (hrist. But in the
Old 1estament were also to be tovva tot/tore. aetectire bi.tory. batt·.arage voratity.
ob.otete torv. ot ror.bip ba.ea vpov privitire ava erroveov. iaea. ot tbe vatvre ot
Coa. and crude science. 1he whole. howe·er. was ·aluable. as showing the
growth oí a pure monotheism among the Jews- a religious phenomenon. as
remarkable and inexplicable as the great intellectual de·elopment oí the Golden
Age oí Greece. It was ·erv diííicult. to con·ev truths. like this. to children. and
so it seemed to him better. to postpone the Old 1estament part oí religious
teaching. to the later stages: otherwise. children would learn stories. like that.
with which the Book oí Genesis opened. which thev would aíterwards disco·er
to be untrue.`

1he same paper goes on to sav:
le. (anon Barnes. had come reluctantlv to the conclusion. that it was
highlv dangerous. to use íor didactic purposes such allegories. as the creation oí
woman. the Daniel stories and Jonah: it encouraged the pre·alent belieí. that
religious people had a low standard oí truth.`
1hus. the Re·erenced Doctor condemns the Old 1estament. and desires to
eliminate it írom the course oí studies. le considers that. among other stories.
that oí Jonah is dangerous to teach to human intellect. while in its iníancv and
growth. le acknowledges. that to accept stories. like that oí Jonah and Daniel.
as genuine pieces oí historv. would betrav a low standard oí truth in the
belie·ers oí (hristianitv.

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Was Christ Divine?
Dr. Rashdall. Dean oí (arlisle. recentlv deli·ered a remarkable speech at the
Modern (hurchman`s (ongress on Jesus as the Son oí God`. and in the course
oí his address. he said:
1here is a growing demand. that liberal theologians should speak in quite
deíinite language about the di·initv oí (hrist. 1he íollowing are some oí the
things that we do not and cannot mean. bv ascribing di·initv to (hrist:
1. ¡e.v. aia vot ctaiv airivity tor biv.ett. le mav ha·e allowed himselí to be
called Messiah. but ne·er in anv criticallv well attested savings. is there anvthing
which suggests. that his conscious relation to God is other than that oí a vav
torara. Coa. 1he speeches oí the íourth Gospel. where thev go bevond the
svnoptic conception. cannot be regarded as historv.
2. It íollows írom this admission that ¡e.v. ra. iv tbe tvtte.t .ev.e a vav. ava tbat
be baa vot verety a bvvav boay. bvt at.o a bvvav .ovt. ivtettect ava ritt
3. It is equallv unorthodox to suppose that the human soul oí Jesus pre-existed.
1here is simplv no basis íor such a doctrine. unless we sav that all human souls
exist beíore their birth into the world. but that is not the usuallv accepted
(atholic position.
4. 1he di·initv oí (hrist does not necessarilv implv ·irgin birth. or anv other
miracle. 1he ·irgin birth. ií it could be historicallv pro·ed. would be no
demonstration oí (hrist`s di·initv nor would the disprooí oí it throw anv doubt
on that doctrine.
5. 1he di·initv oí (hrist does not implv omniscience. 1here is no more reason
íor supposing. that Jesus oí Nazareth knew more than his contemporaries
about the true scientiíic explanation oí the mental diseases which current belieí
attributed to diabolic possession. than that he knew more about the authorship
oí the Pentateuch or the Psalms. It is diííicult to denv. that he entertained some
expectation about the íuture which historv has not ·eriíied.`
1he Re·. l.D.A. Major. Principal oí Ripon lall. Oxíord who opened the
discussion was as outspoken as the Dean.
It should be clearlv realised`. said the Re·. Major. that Jesus did not claim
in the Gospels to be the Son oí God in a phvsical sense. such as the varratire.
oí the ·irgin birth suggest. nor did he claim to be the Son oí God in a
metaphvsical sense. such as was required bv the Nicene theologv. le claimed to
be God`s son in a moral sense. in the sense. in which all human being are sons
oí God. as standing in a íilial and moral relationship to God. and capable oí
acting on those moral principles. on which God acts.`

1he Dean oí (arlisle. who is recognised as one oí the most íearless and
outspoken oí Modern (hurchmen. had a distinguished uni·ersitv career. le
was a theological tutor at Balliol. and preacher at Lincoln`s Inn. íor íi·e vears.
le was Dean oí lereíord. beíore his transíer to (arlisle. in 191¯.

1he glorv oí Jesus naturallv does not lie in being a God. because he cannot
be a God. but his whole triumph lies in being a man. a períect man. a holv man.

, 1he Islamic Re·iew. August 1921.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and in the words oí the lolv Koran. a Model íor the people whom he was

Biblical Prophecies as referring to
the Advent
of The Prophet - Mohammed
Although Moslems hold. that the original Old and New 1estaments ha·e
largelv been corrupted bv the interíerence oí prejudiced men. or otherwise. as
has alreadv been pointed out elsewhere in this book. thev still belie·e. that the
existing Scriptures contain. to such an extent as thev are coníirmed and
supported bv the lolv Koran. the 1rue \ord oí God.

1he íollowing are thereíore. a íew extracts oí the saíe contents oí the Bible
which Moslems take to reíer directlv to the Prophet Mohammed:
1he Lord came írom Sinai. and rose up írom Seir unto them: le shined
íorth írom Paran and le came with ten thousands oí saints: írom lis right
hand went a íierv law íor them.` Deut. xxxiii-2,.
God came írom 1eman. and the lolv one írom Paran. Saleh. lis glorv
co·ered the hea·ens. and the earth was íull oí his praise.` lab iii.3,.
I will raise them up a Prophet írom among their brethren. like unto thee.
and will put mv words in his mouth: and he shall speak unto them all that I
shall command him.` Deut. ··iii.18,.
I ha·e vet manv things to sav unto vou. but ve cannot hear them now.
lowbeit when he. the Spirit oí truth. is come he will guide vou into all truth:
íor he shall not speak oí himselí: but whatsoe·er he shall hear. that shall he
speak: and he will show vou things to come.` John x·i. 12-13,.
\hile Moses promises to the children oí Israel the coming Lpiphanv oí
God in the person oí a Prophet írom among their brethren like unto thee`.
Jesus characterises the promised one as the Spirit oí truth. who will guide them
into all truth. 1he description oí the lolv one in the words oí Moses and Jesus.
howe·er. is strikinglv similar: I will put words in his mouth and he shall speak
unto them all that I shall command him.` Deut x·iii.18, le shall not speak
oí himselí but whatsoe·er he shall hear. that shall he speak.` John x·i.13.,
1hese words make the promised one a messenger írom God. and a Prophet
rather than one abstract and impersonal Di·ine Lpiphanv. and ií 1he Lord
came írom Sinai` in lis re·elation to Moses. and le rose up írom Seir`
according to lis message írom the Nazarene. should we not look íor some
other son oí man írom Paran`. to stand íor the shining íorth oí God írom the
same· Lspeciallv when the Prophet labakkuk calls him 1he lolv One írom
Paran` lab. iii.3,. 1he Prophet spoken oí bv Moses. has howe·er. wronglv
been coníused with Jesus. in later (hristian theologv. 1he house oí Jacob
alwavs distinguished (hrist írom the Prophet spoken oí in Deut. x·iii.18. as it

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
appears írom the íollowing we read about John the Baptist. \hat then. art
thou Llias·` and le said: No I am not.` Art thou that Prophet· And le
answered. No..And thev asked him. \hv baptised thou. ií thou be not that
(hrist. nor Llias. neither that Prophet· John i.21-25,.

1hese words speak distinctlv oí three diííerent personalities. namelv (hrist.
Llias and that Prophet. Jesus himselí did not claim to be that Prophet.` Ií
Jesus was the (hrist and John the Baptist Llias. as Jesus himselí makes him to
be. we are quite justiíied in concluding that the appearance oí Jesus was not the
promised Prophet. L·en the íirst íollowers oí Jesus were oí the same opinion.
And le shall send Jesus (hrist which beíore was preached unto vou: \hom
the hea·en must recei·e until the times oí restitution oí all things which God
hath spoken bv the mouth oí all his prophets since the world began. lor Moses
trulv said unto the íathers. a prophet shall the Lord vour God raise up unto vou
oí vour brethren. like unto me: him shall ve hear in all things whatsoe·er he
shall sav unto vou.` Acts. iii.20-22,. 1hough the writer oí these words looks to
the second ad·ent oí Jesus íor the íulíillment oí the Mosaic prophecies. so íar
it is undisputed that the íirst ad·ent oí Jesus is not the ad·ent oí the Prophet
like unto me.` 1he second ad·ent oí (hrist as well cannot be the íulíillment oí
the words in Deuteronomv. Jesus. as it is belie·ed bv the (hurch has to appear
íor the judgment and not íor gi·ing the law. while the Prophet like unto Moses.
has to come with a íierv law in his right hand. like Moses. he will bring the law:
besides. the promised Prophet was to be raised not írom amongst the Israel.
but írom amongst the brethren oí the Israelites. namelv the Ishmaelites.

In ascertaining the personalitv oí the promised Prophet. the other prophecv
oí Moses is. howe·er. helpíul. in which he speaks oí the shining íorth oí God
írom Paran. In Deuteronomv xxxiii.2. the Lord has been compared with the
sun. le comes írom Sinai. he rises írom Seir. but he shines in his íull glorv
írom Paran. where he had to appear with ten thousands oí saints: írom his right
hand went a íierv law íor them. None oí the Israelites. including Jesus. had
anvthing to do with Paran. lagar. with her son Ishmael. wandered in the
wilderness oí Beershena. who aíterwards dwelt in the wilderness oí Paran.
Gen. Xxx.21,. le married an Lgvptian woman. and through his íirst born.
Kedar ga·e descent to the Arabs who. írom that time till now. are the dwellers
oí the wilderness oí Paran. Admittedlv on all hands. the descent oí Mohammad
is traced to Ishmael through Kedar. he appeared as a Prophet in the wilderness
oí Paran. and re-entered Mecca with ten thousand saints. and ga·e a íierv law to
the people. so that the prophecv has been íulíilled to its ·erv letter. 1he words
oí the prophecv in labakkuk are especiallv noteworthv. lis - the lolv One
írom Paran`s glorv co·ered the hea·en and the earth with íull praise. 1he word
praise` is ·erv signiíicant as the ·erv name Mohammed` as alreadv stated
elsewhere in this book. means the highlv praised`. Again the inhabitants oí the
wilderness oí Paran had been promised a Re·elation: Let the wilderness and
cities thereoí liít up their ·oice. the ·illages that Kedar doth inhabitants oí the
rock sing. let them shout írom the top oí the mountains. Let them gi·e glorv
unto the Lord. and declare lis praise in the islands. 1he Lord shall go íorth as

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
a mightv man. le shall stir up jealousv like a man oí war: le shall crv vea. roar.
le shall pre·ail against lis enemies.` Isa. X 1ii.11.12.13,.

Moreo·er we read in Isaiah two other prophecies worthv oí note. where
reíerences ha·e been made to Kedar. Arise shine. íor thv light is come. and
the glorv oí the Lord is risen upon thee. 1he multitude oí camels shall co·er
thee. the dromedaries oí Midian and Lphak: all thev írom Sheba shall come.
All the ílocks oí Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee. the rams oí
Nebaiath shall minister unto thee: thev shall come up with acceptance on Mine
Altar. and I will gloriív the house oí mv glorv.` Isaiah 1x 1-¯,. 1he other
prophecv runs thus: 1he burden upon Arabia. In the íorest in Arabia shall ve
lodge. O ve tra·elling companies oí Dedanim. 1he inhabitants oí the land oí
1ema brought water to him that was thirstv. thev pre·ented with their bread
íiv tbat ttea. lor thev íled írom the swords. írom the drawn sword and írom
the bent bow. and írom the grie·ousness oí war. lor thus hath the Lord said
unto me. \ithin a vear according to the vears oí an hireling. and all the glorv oí
Kedar shall íail.` Isaiah xx.13-16,

1he abo·e two re·elations read in the light oí the one in Deuteronomv. will
make the meaning quite clear: It is acknowledged. that Ishmael inhabited the
wilderness oí Paran. where he ga·e birth to Kedar. who is the ancestor oí the
Arabs. 1he sons oí Kedar had to recei·e re·elation írom God. 1he ílocks oí
Kedar had to come up with acceptance to a di·ine altar. to gloriív the house oí
mv glorv`. where the darkness had to co·er the earth íor centuries. and then
that ·erv land had to recei·e light írom God. All the glorv oí kedar had to íail.
and the number oí archers. the mightv men oí the children oí Kedar. had to
diminish within a vear aíter thev íled írom the swords and írom the bent bows.
1hereíore. the lolv one írom Paran lab. iii.3, should be no one else than the
Prophet Mohammed. le is the holv oííspring Ishmael through Kedar. who
settled in the wilderness oí Paran
. the Prophet Mohammed is the onlv
Prophet. through whom the Arabs recei·ed re·elation at the time when the
darkness had co·ered the earth and gross darkness the people.
1hrough him
God shone írom Paran. and Mecca is the onlv place. where the house oí God is
gloriíied bv the ílocks oí Kedar who come up with acceptance on its altar. 1he
Prophet Mohammed was persecuted bv his people and had to lea·e Mecca. le
was thirstv and íled írom the drawn swords and the bent bows: within a vear
aíter his ílight: the descendants oí Kedar met him at Badar. the íield oí the íirst
battle between the Meccans and the prophet.
1here the children oí Kedar and
their number oí archers diminished. and all glorv oí Kedar íailed. Besides. the
house oí mv glorv`. reíerred to in Isaiah Ix. is the house oí God at Mecca. and
not the (hurch oí (hrist as thought bv (hristian commentators. 1he ílocks oí
Kedar. as mentioned in ·erse ¯. ha·e ne·er come to the (hurch oí (hrist. It is

, Reíerence to the liíe oí the Prophet in part II oí this book shows how distinctlv this
prophecv has been íulíilled.

, See the listorv oí the Arabs. in this book or anvwhere else.

, George Sale: Prelim. Discourse.

, See Sir \illiam Muir`s 1he Liíe oí Mohammad`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
a íact. that the ·illage oí Kedar. and their inhabitants are the onlv people in the
whole world who ha·e remained impenetrable to anv iníluence oí the (hurch
oí (hrist.
Again. the mention oí ten thousand saints. in Deuteronomv xxxiii.
is ·erv signiíicant.. le shined íorth írom Paran and he came with ten
thousand oí saints.` 1he whole historv oí the wilderness oí Paran shows that
there was no other e·ent but when Mecca was conquered bv the Prophet. le
came with ten thousand íollowers írom Medina and reentered the house oí
mv glorv.` le ga·e a íierv law to the world which has superseded and cancelled
all other laws. 1he comíorter the Spirit oí 1ruth
spoken oí bv Jesus was no
other than the Prophet Mohammed himselí. It cannot be taken to be the lolv
Ghost. as the (hurch theologv savs. It is expedient íor vou that I go awav. savs
Jesus. íor ií I go not awav. the (omíorter will not come unto vou: but ií I
depart. I will send him unto vou.` 1he wav. in which Jesus describes the
(omíorter. makes him to be a human being. and not a ghost. le shall not
speak oí himselí. but whatsoe·er he shall hear. that he shall speak. 1he words
oí Jesus clearlv reíer to some messenger írom God. le calls him the Spirit oí
1ruth. and so the Koran speaks oí the Prophet Mohammed. Nav he has come
with the 1ruth and ·eriíied the apostles.`

1he abo·e prophecv oí Jesus has also been reported in the Koran in the
íollowing words: Jesus the son oí Marv. said: O children oí Israel surelv I am
the apostle oí Allah to vou. ·eriíving that which is beíore me oí the 1orah. and
gi·ing the good news oí an apostle who will come aíter me. his name being
Ahmed.` 1he word Ahmed` which is another name oí the Prophet
Mohammed. is deri·ed írom the same root. namelv lamd` which signiíies
praising and it means a person whose personal qualities are such as to be
worthv oí praise. It should not be supposed. that Jesus uttered the ·erv words
which are reported in the lolv Koran. íor he spoke in lebrew. and not in
Arabic. 1he actual words oí Jesus not being preser·ed. we should depend oí a
Greek ·ersion. in which we íind the word paraclete. which is translated in
Lnglish as comíorter. It is a well known íact. that translations are sometimes
misleading. and thereíore the use oí the word paraclete in the Greek ·ersion. or
that oí comíorter in the Lnglish. does not positi·elv. show. what the textual
word spoken bv Jesus was. Anvhow the qualiíications which are reported in
John xi·. 16 and x·i ¯. are met with in the person oí the Prophet Mohammed.
le is stated to be one who shall abide íore·er. and it is the Prophets law. íor
aíter him comes no prophet. to promulgate. a new law. le is to teach all things
and it was with a períect law. that the Prophet came. 1he prophecv in John x·i
12-14. about the Spirit oí 1ruth which is the same as the comíorter. mentioned
in John xi·. 1¯. clearlv establishes the íollowing points:
1, Jesus could not guide into all truth. because his teaching was coníined to
reíorm the Israelites. and he denounced onlv their crving e·ils: but the
teaching oí the (omíorter would be a períect law. guiding men to all

, See George Sale`s Prelim. Discourse.

, It is to be noted. that the Prophet Mohammad is írequentlv called 1he 1ruth` in
the lolv Koran. as in 1¯-81: And sav. 1he truth has come. and the íalsehood has

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
truth: and the lolv Koran is the onlv book which claims to be a períect
Book oí Di·ine Laws
2, 1hat the (omíorter would not speak a word oí himselí. but that which
he shall hear he shall speak. a qualiíication which is met with onlv in the
person oí the Prophet Mohammed.
3, 1hat he will gloriív Jesus. and the Prophet did gloriív Jesus bv denouncing
as utterlv íalse all these calumnies which the Israel indulginglv attributed
to Jesus and his mother.

5. The Belief in the Day of Resurrection
1he íiíth pillar oí the Moslem creed is belieí in the Dav oí Resurrection.
Reckoning oí Judgment. which dav shall be the beginning oí an eternal liíe aíter
death. 1he dead shall rise írom their gra·es. restored to liíe. L·erv human being
shall ha·e to render an account oí his or her actions on earth. 1he happiness or
miserv oí indi·iduals will depend upon the manner. in which thev ha·e
períormed the commandment oí God.
1he Prophet. being the seal oí God`s Messengers to mankind. has gi·en
se·eral prophecies in detail. with respect to the state oí being írom the time a
man is dead. until the resurrection: and also an account oí the eternal destinv oí
mankind. beginning írom that dav. laith in all such prophecies is essential to
complete the creed oí a períect Moslem. Beíore entering into the main subject
under discussion. it is desirable to make a íew preliminarv remarks.
Some people are apt to think that prophecies relating to matters connected
with the aíter-liíe must be examined bv pure reason beíore thev can be
adopted. 1here. howe·er. should be no excuse íor rejecting anv prophecv on
the mere assumption that it is diííicult íor human reason to comprehend it.
luman power to discernment. penetration. or discrimination on all questions
raised bv prophets must be restricted merelv to deciding whether the
iníormation obtained through such an agencv is or is not an impossibilitv. Bv
impossibilitv is meant those things which human being cannot be expected to
belie·e. such as a camel passing through a needle`s eve. But once it is no longer
a question oí impossibilitv and the prophetic commission is rightlv established
there should be no excuse íor human reason to reject anv prophetic statement.

1he Islamic School a·ails itselí oí the íollowing suggestion with regard the
nature oí prophecv and the obligation oí Mankind thereto.
1he mind oí a newlv born iníant is so unde·eloped. that he has no
knowledge oí the wondrous world around him. As he grows he graduallv
acquires knowledge oí things through the ·arious channels oí comprehension.
1he íirst sense created in him is that oí íeeling bv which he can comprehend
certain species oí things such as heat and coldness. dampness and drvness.
soítness. and coarseness etc. But colours or sounds do not come in the domain
oí the sense oí íeeling. Sight is the next to come into operation bv which one
can comprehend colours and íorms and it is the most comprehensi·e oí all the
senses. 1hen hearing is open bv which one can distinguish diííerent ·oices. 1he
child then acquires the power oí discriminating diííerent tastes. \hen a human
being approaches his or her se·enth vear his or her intellect is íurther

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
awakened. 1hrough this new agencv. one acquires knowledge oí things. bevond
those dependent exclusi·elv on the senses. and oí which nothing exists in the
world oí sense. 1he child then de·eloped into a still higher state oí being`
namelv the state oí reasoning bv which necessities. possibilities. impossibilities
and other things which the senses cannot teach bv themsel·es are
comprehended. Bevond reason: there is still another independent íacultv. bv
which a new agencv is gi·en. to see the unseen and things oí the íuture. and
other things. írom which reason is absolutelv a diííerent things oí the íuture.
and other things. írom which reason is absolutelv a diííerent thing. inasmuch as
a understanding is diííerent írom those things belonging to reason. and as the
power oí reasoning is írom things known onlv through the senses. A man born
blind mav will ignore the existence oí anvthing like colours. and a man born
deaí mav ignore things like ·oices. merelv on account oí the lack oí the
particular senses capable oí comprehending them. Inasmuch as it is
unreasonable íor a man born blind. to denv the existence oí colours. or íor a
man born deaí. to denv the existence oí ·oice. so too it is illogical íor a man. to
denv the prophetic giít. simplv because he himselí is lacking in spiritual giíts.
God has made it easv íor his creatures. to ha·e some idea oí the prophetic
nature. bv gi·ing them a picture or tvpe thereoí. namelv sleep. \hen asleep. a
man sometimes íoresees things. either directlv or svmbolicallv. In the íormer.
the meaning is clear in the latter. it mav be íound bv interpretation. 1his is a
wonderíul state oí comprehension which. ií not personallv experienced bv anv
particular person. but told to this person bv another man. who íalling asleep.
like the dead. cold comprehend unseen things. would certainlv be rejected bv
this person who would set íorth prooís against the possibilitv oí the
iníormation. It would be asserted that. as the sensiti·e íaculties are the onlv
source oí comprehension and that e·en with their presence. a man can not
acquire anv knowledge oí unseen things. he would all the more and most
assuredlv be incapable oí knowing such things. in the absence oí is senses. 1his
is a reasoning bv analogv which is howe·er contradicted bv actualitv and
practice. L·en as reason is a state oí human being. bv which an insight is
created in man. enabling him to know species oí reasonable things. the
comprehension oí which lies bevond the power oí the senses. so prophecv is
another state oí being bv which a still íurther source oí knowledge is created. a
peculiar light. capable oí making ·isible unseen things. incomprehensible bv

1he doubt in prophecv mav be connected either with its possibilitv. its
existence and occurrence. or with its occurrence to a certain person. 1he prooí
oí its possibilitv is its existence. And the prooí oí its existence is the existence
oí branches oí knowledge in the world that cannot be acquired bv mere reason
íor instance. the science oí medicine or astrologv. Deep studv oí these sciences
is suííicient to tell us oí the impossibilitv oí their being acquired. except bv
di·ine inspiration and guidance írom God. and ne·er bv mere experience and
practice. 1here are certain astronomic phenomena which do not take place but
once e·erv thousand vears: but these ha·e been accuratelv íoretold. low then
can such be got be practice· 1he same argument applies to medicine. lence it
is clear. that there is some supernatural. power bv which we acquire the

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knowledge oí things. which cannot be comprehended bv mere reason. In this
wav prophecv can be illustrated. But prophecv does not consist onlv in these
things. 1he comprehension oí certain things. bevond the limits oí reason. is but
one oí the ·arious íaculties oí prophecv. and represents but a drop in the ocean
oí the prophetic nature. All men ha·e in themsel·es a natural example oí the
prophetic íacultv. namelv what thev íoresee oí íuture e·ents while asleep. 1he
two sciences oí medicine and astronomv are also examples oí the prophetic
íacultv. Prophecies are the miracles oí prophets. which ordinarv men can bv no
means attain bv human reason.
Ií one doubts a particular person being a person. one cannot be con·inced
that he is so. except bv knowing his character. either bv personal obser·ation or
bv hearing oí it repeatedlv. Ií a man has knowledge oí medicine or law. he can
easilv distinguish between phvsicians and lawvers bv seeing their respecti·e
qualiíications pro·ed. or bv hearing their statements. A man cannot íail to
know that Galens was a phvsician. or that Shakespeare was a poet - a
knowledge based on experience. and not on hearsav - ií he is acquainted with
medicine or poetrv. Bv reading their books and words he can. then ha·e a íull
knowledge oí the subjects thev treat. 1he same thing applies to prophecv. Ií a
man careíullv goes through the Koran. and closelv studies the Saving oí the
Arabian Prophet. he will surelv acquire a true knowledge oí his character. and
will necessarilv admit. that he must ha·e enjoved the highest degree oí
prophecv. 1he abo·e knowledge mav still be coníirmed. bv testing what the
Prophet said concerning the mar·elous eííect oí carrving out the practical
religious obligations oí cleansing and puriíving the heart. le will therebv know.
how true the Prophet was. when he said: 1o him who shall put into practice
what he has been taught. God shall gi·e knowledge oí what he does not know.`
and how trulv he said: lim who. when getting up. íorgets all his cares. except
the care oí God`s duties. God shall relie·e írom the cares oí this liíe and the
next`. Ií a man has tested the truth oí the abo·e promises. and oí thousands
and thousands oí others. he will surelv ha·e a períect knowledge oí the
character oí the prophet who íoretold them. 1his is the wav to attain
con·iction oí the realitv oí prophecv. and not bv seeking to see a rod turned
into a serpent. or the moon di·ided into parts: because. bv coníining his
researches to such wonderíul acts alone. without their being corroborated bv
numerous other e·idences. a man might mistake mere acts oí sorcerv and
imposture íor prophetic miracles.

Now it is time to resume the statements oí what. a Moslem should belie·e
will take place aíter death according to the teaching oí Islam. 1he Prophet oí
Islam prophesied that. when a man is put into the gra·e he shall encounter two
angels who adopt so íearíul a íorm. that he will be greatlv írightened. 1hev shall
cause the dead man. bv di·ine power to sit upright. and examine him
concerning his íaith in the unitv oí God and the mission oí the Prophet
Mohammed. 1hese angels are called the tempters oí the gra·e`. as thev appear
to require the man examined to gi·e a wrong replv. Ií he answers rightlv. he will
rest in peace. until the resurrection. Ií not. he will remain suííering to that dav.
It is also to be belie·ed. that some oí the dead who were sinners during their
liíe. are liable. in their sepulcher. to some torment in the shape oí pressure on

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their bodies. Onlv the righteous are sa·ed írom the torment oí the gra·e. Some
people would object to the abo·e prophecv. that the answers oí the dead. under
such examination. ha·e ne·er been heard: or ask. how those can undergo it.
whose bodies are burnt or de·oured bv beasts or birds. or otherwise consumed
without burial. 1he answer is that it is possible notwithstanding. since men are
not able to percei·e what takes place in the next world unless thev ha·e been
told oí it bv prophecv: and God. the all-poweríul who created man írom dust.
and dust írom nothing. is able to restore liíe to the dead so that he mav
understand anv question put to him.

As to the resurrection. Moslems belie·e. that both bodv and soul will be
raised. 1he time oí resurrection is a proíound secret to all. but God alone.
lowe·er. the Prophet has íoretold some signs oí its approach. 1hese signs are:
1. 1he decav oí íaith among men:
2. 1he ad·ancing oí the meanest persons to positions oí dignitv:
3. 1owards the end oí the world. men shall be much gi·en to
4. 1umults and seditions:
5. A war with the Romans:
6. Great distress in the world. so that a man. when he passes bv
another`s gra·e. shall sav: \ould to God. I were in his place`
¯. 1he appearance oí an extraordinarv beast which shall be able.
bv God`s power. to speak to men. 1his sign oí the approach
oí the resurrection is mentioned in the 84
chapter oí the
8. 1he building oí \athrib Medina, shall reach Mecca etc.

1here are the lesser signs. the greater signs being:
1. 1he sun`s rising in the west.
2. 1he ad·ent oí Antichrist or the íalse (hrist bv whom people
shall be tempted. le will do manv apparent wonders and
períorm íalse miracles. suííicient to make people mistake him
íor the true (hrist and. consequentlv thev shall perish through
their mistake.
3. 1he descent oí Jesus on earth. le shall kill Antichrist. and
there shall be under him great securitv and plentv in the world.
4. 1he appearance oí Gog and Magog. 1hese barbarians will
come to Jerusalem and there. greatlv distress Jesus and his
companions. till at the request oí Jesus. God will destrov
5. 1he ad·ent oí Al Mahdi. 1he Prophet said: 1he world
should not ha·e an end. till one oí his íamilv should go·ern
the Arabians. whose name should be the same as his own
name and whose íather`s name should be also the same as his
own íather`s name: and who should íill the world with the

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1hese are some oí the greater signs which. according to the prophecies oí
the Apostle oí God. are to precede the Dav oí Resurrection: but the exact time
oí it is a períect secret to all. but God. 1he immediate sign oí the coming oí the
Resurrection will be the íirst blast oí a trumpet which will be wounded three
1. the blast oí consternation:
2. that oí examination:
3. the blast oí Resurrection. At the íirst blast. all creatures in hea·en and
earth shall be struck with terror. except those whom God shall please to
exempt írom it. 1he earth will be shaken. all buildings and mountains
le·eled. \omen who gi·e suck shall abandon the care oí their iníants.

At second blast. all creatures in hea·en and earth shall die. or be annihilated.
except those whom God shall please to example írom that common íate. 1he
last to die will be the angel oí death. lortv vears oí rain will íollow. when the
third blast is sounded. and all dead bodies shall be raised íor judgment. 1he
resurrection will be general and extend to all creatures. angels. jenii. men and

Mankind shall then be assembled íor reckoning. 1he ungodlv and the
wicked will appear. on that dav. with certain distinguishing marks íixed on
them. 1hese will come under ten headings namelv a, the backbiters. b, thev
who ha·e been greedv oí íilthv lucre. and who ha·e enriched themsel·es bv
public oppression c, the usurers d, unjust judges e, thev who exult in their
own works í, the learned men or preachers whose actions contradicted their
saving g, thev who ha·e injured their neighbours h, the íalse accusers and
iníormers i, thev who ha·e indulged their passions and ·oluptuous appetites j,
the proud and the arrogant people.

1he íirst men to be sentenced to hell íire. will be the hvpocrites who
decei·ed people. bv pretending to do good works íor the sake oí God though
thev did them onlv in order. that their íellow-men might extol their actions.
As alreadv stated. the object oí Resurrection is. that thev who are so raised.
mav gi·e an account oí their actions. and recei·e the reward thereoí. It is to be
belie·ed that not onlv mankind. but the genii and irrational animals also. will be
judged on the last dav: the unarmed cattle shall take ·engeance on the horned.
till entire satisíaction be gi·en to the injured.
As to mankind. thev are all assembled together. 1hev will not be
immediatelv brought to judgment. 1hev ha·e to wait íor that purpose a long
time. During this period oí waiting. the resuscitated shall suííer greatlv. both
the just and unjust: but the suííerings oí the íormer shall be light in
comparison. Men shall resort to their respecti·e prophets íor intercession. that
thev mav be redeemed írom that painíul situation. and be called upon íor trail.
L·entuallv the prophet Mohammed shall accept the oííice oí intercession. aíter
it has been declined bv Adam. Noah. Abraham and Jesus. who shall beg

, Koran. ch. IXXXI.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
deli·erance onlv íor their own souls. Belieí in the Prophet`s intercession is
enjoined upon Moslems. as part oí the íiíth article oí íaith.

1he abo·e intercession accepted. men shall be ordered. to appear íor
judgment. On this occasion. the books. wherein the actions oí e·erv person
ha·e been recorded bv their guardian angels. will be distributed to their
respecti·e owners. God will command the ·arious Apostles. to bear witness
against those. to whom thev ha·e been respecti·elv sent. 1hen e·erv person
will be examined concerning his actions in this liíe: not as ií God needed anv
iníormation in this respect. but to oblige the person. to make public coníession
and acknowledgement oí God`s justice.
1he next e·ent to take place aíter the resurrection is o·er. is the ordeal oí
the resurrection balance. wherein the weights oí all men`s actions shall be
weighted. According as the good or e·il actions shall preponderate. sentence
will be gi·en: those whose balances are laden with good works. will be sa·ed:
but those whose balances are light. will be condemned. Belieí in this balance
also íorms an essential part oí the íiíth article oí laith.

1he abo·e examination being past. and e·erv one`s actions weighted in a
just balance. mutual retaliation will íollow according to which all persons will
ha·e satisíaction íor the injuries thev suííered. 1he manner oí gi·ing this
satisíaction. will be bv taking awav a proportionate part oí the good works oí
him who did the injurv. and adding it to those oí him who suííered. Ií. aíter
this is done. there remains oí a person`s good works as much as equals the
weight oí an ant. God will. oí lis mercv. cause it to be doubled to him. that he
mav be admitted to Paradise. But ií. on the contrarv. a person`s good works be
exhausted. and there remain e·il works onlv. and there be anv who ha·e not vet
recei·ed satisíaction írom him. God will. oí his justice. order that an equal
weight oí their sins be added to his. that he mav punished íor them in their
stead. and be sent to hell. laden with both. 1his will be the method oí dealing
with mankind.

As to brutes. aíter thev ha·e been punished íor the injuries which thev
caused each other. God will command them. to be turned into dust. \icked
men. being reser·ed íor more grie·ous punishment in hell. thev shall crv out.
on hearing this sentence pronounced on the brutes`: \ould to God. that we
were dust also`.
Aíter the trail is o·er. those who are to be admitted into paradise. as well as
those destined to hell. shall ha·e to pass to their respecti·e abodes. o·er a
bridge. laid o·er the midst oí hell. 1his bridge is so wonderíullv íashioned. that
the good shall cross with ease and swiítness to paradise. while the iníidels and
the wicked shall miss their íooting. and íall down headlong into hell.

Belieí in this bridge is essential. to complete the article oí creed oí the Dav
oí Resurrection.

, 1he old Jewish writers make mention as well oí the books to be produced at last
dav. wherein men`s actions are registered. as oí the balance. wherein thev shall be
weighed: and the Scriptures themsel·es seem to ha·e gi·en the íirst notion oí both.`

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he iníidels alone shall be doomed to eternal damnation. 1hose who ha·e
embraced the true religion oí God. e·en ií thev ha·e been guiltv oí atrocious
crimes. shall be deli·ered írom hell. aíter thev ha·e expiated their sins bv their
suííerings. 1he orthodox doctrine oí the Moslem Religion is. that no iníidel
who denied the existence oí God. or anvone who did not belie·e in the unitv oí
God. shall e·er be redeemed: but no person who has belie·ed in the existence
and unitv oí God shall be condemned to eternal punishment.
As to whether paradise and hell are alreadv existent or are to be created
hereaíter the orthodox oí Islam is. that thev were created e·en beíore the
1he íelicitv oí the righteous in paradise. and the pains oí the wicked in hell.
will ·arv in degree. according to their merits or demerits. respecti·elv. 1he
happiness and íelicitv oí the dwellers oí paradise. on the one hand. and the
anguish and pains oí the inhabitants oí hell. on the other. are according to the
orthodox doctrine. sensuous and material. both bodv and soul being entitled or
subject to them. respecti·elv. But. the most happv will íind the jov oí jovs. to
consist in the beatiíic ·isions oí the soul in the presence oí God. 1he Prophet
said: 1he most ía·oured oí God will be he who shall see the íace the glorv, oí
his Lord. night and morning. a íelicitv which will surpass all the pleasures oí the
bodv. as the ocean surpasses a drop oí sweat.` 1he reward oí ·irtue will not be
coníined to an exact measure oí man`s good works: it will íar exceed his
deserts. But the recompense oí e·il will be strictlv proportioned to what a man
has done.` 1hev who do right. shall recei·e a most excellent reward. and a
superabundant addition: neither darkness nor shame shall co·er their íaces:
these shall be the inhabitants oí paradise: thev shall continue therein íore·er.
But thev who commit e·il. shall recei·e the reward oí e·il. equal thereunto. and
thev shall be co·ered with shame. as thought their íaces were ·eiled with pieces
oí nights oí proíound darkness.`

1he íoregoing is all that is incumbent upon a true Moslem to belie·e
concerning the Dav oí Resurrection. linallv I must. beíore quitting this chapter.
reíute a íalsehood oí ·ulgar imputation on Moslems who are reported. bv some
(hristian writers. to belie·e that women ha·e no souls. or. ií thev ha·e. that
thev will perish like those oí brutes. and will not be rewarded in the next liíe.
(ommenting on this íalse charge. Mr. G. Sale made the íollowing pertinent
obser·ation: .it is certain that Mohammed had too great a respect íor the íair
sex. to teach such a doctrine: and there are se·eral passages in the Koran which
aííirm. that women. in the next liíe. will not onlv be punished íor their e·il
actions but will also recei·e the rewards oí their good deeds. as well as the men.
and that in this case God will make no distinction oí sexes.`

6. Predestination
1he sixth pillar oí Islamic íaith is the belieí in predestination. \hate·er has.
or shall come to pass in this world. whether it be good or e·il. proceeds entirelv

, Koran. ch. x.

, G Sale: Prelim. Discourse.

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írom the di·ine \ill. and has been irre·ocablv created aíter a íixed decree. 1he
Koran distinctlv states:
All things ha·e been created aíter a íixed decree` (h. IV: 49,
No one can die. except bv God`s purpose according to the book that
íixeth the term oí liíe.` (h III: 139,
1he Lord hath created and balanced all things. and hath íixed their
destinies and guided them.` (h. XXXV ii: 2,
Sav: Bv no means can aught beíall us. but what God hath predestined íor
us.` (h. IX: 51,
God creates what le will.` (h. XXIV: 44,
.nor is there anvthing not pro·ided beíorehand bv Us. or which \e send
down. otherwise than according to a íoreknown decree` (h. XXII: 40, ..
and \ho created all things. and determined respecting the same with absolute
determination.` (h. XXV: 2,

1he íollowing are also a íew savings oí the Prophet bearing on God`s
predetermination: - .and God said to Adam: I ha·e created this íamilv íor
paradise and their actions will be like unto those oí the people oí paradise and
God said to him: I ha·e created this íamilv íor hell and their actions will be like
unto those oí the people oí hell.` learing the abo·e teaching oí the Prophet. a
man said to him: Oí what use will deeds oí anv kind be· 1he Prophet said:
\hen God createth lis ser·ant íor Paradise. his action will be deser·ing oí it.
until he die. when he will enter therein: and when God createth one íor the íire.
his actions will be like those oí the people oí hell. till he die. when he will
enter therein`

1he Prophet oí God also said to his companions:
1here is no one amongst vou whose place not predestined bv God.
whether in hell or in paradise.` the companions said. O Prophet oí God. since
God hath pre-appointed our places. mav we coníide in this belieí. and abandon
our religious and moral duties· le said: No. because the righteous will do
good works and be obedient to God,. and the wicked will do bad works`: aíter
which the Prophet recited the íollowing ·erses oí the Koran: 1o him who
gi·eth alms. and íeareth God. and vields assent to the excellent creed. to him
we will make easv the path to happiness. But to him who is worldlv. and is
indiííerent. and who does not belie·e in the excellent creed. to him we will
make easv the path to miserv.`
1he Prophet oí God also said: 1he íirst thing which God created was a
di·ine, pen. and le said to it. \rite.` it said \hat shall I write·` and God
said \rite down the íate oí e·erv indi·idual thing to be created.` And
accordinglv the Pen wrote all that was. and that will be. to eternitv.` 1he
Prophet also said: God hath predestined íi·e things to his ser·ants: their
duration oí liíe. their actions. their dwelling places. their tra·els and their

It happened. that oí the companions said to the Prophet: O Prophet oí
God. iníorm me respecting the medicines which I swallow. and the shields

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
which I make use oí íor protection. whether thev can resist anv oí the decree oí
God· 1he Prophet answered: 1hese also are bv the decree oí God.`
1he Prophet oí God once came out oí his house. when the companions
were debating about íate. and he was angrv. and became red in the íace. And he
said. lath God ordered vou to debate oí íate· \as I sent to vou íor this·
\our íoreíathers were undone through debating about íate and destinv. I
conjure vou not to argue on those points.`
1he doctrine oí predestination. as íorming an essential part oí the Islamic
aííirmed íaith. mav be summarised in the íollowing terms:
A Moslem should belie·e in his heart. and coníess with his tongue. that the
most exalted God hath decreed all things: so that nothing can happen in the
world. whether it respects the conditions and operations oí things. or good or
e·il. or obedience or disobedience. or sickness or health or riches or po·ertv. or
liíe or death. which is not contained in the written tablet oí the decrees oí God.
But God hath so decreed. good works obedience. and íaith. that le ordains
and wills them. that thev mav be under lis decree. lis salutarv direction. lis
good pleasure and command. On the other hand. God hath decreed and does
ordain and determine e·il. disobedience and iníidelitv: vet without lis salutarv
direction. good pleasure and command: but onlv bv wav oí temptation and trail.
\hosoe·er shall sav. that God hath not indignation against e·il and unbelieí.
he is certainlv an iníidel.`

1he doctrine oí predestination. or the absolute decree. oí e·ent. both good
and e·il. is a recognised element in manv creeds.
1his doctrine has gi·en rise
to as much contro·ersv among the Moslems. as it did among (hristians: but the
íormer. generallv belie·e in predestination. as being in some respects.
li·e points howe·er arise írom the doctrine oí predestination. as
gi·en in detail in the íollowing íormula:
a, Ií the destinv oí man is determined bv the di·ine purpose. how
can we explain man`s íreedom oí choice. Man is absolutelv
conscious oí personal íreedom oí action. which it is impossible
to denv.
b, Ií man is aííected. in all his actions. bv eternal predestination.
what then is the meaning oí human. and the indi·idual
accountabilitv which is the mainspring oí moral liíe·
c, Ií what is to be. must be. with the o·erruling and irre·ocable
Decree oí God. what is the use oí di·ine commands and

, \e read the íollowing statement in (hamber`s (vclopaedia: - 1he doctrine oí
predestination is explicitlv enunciated in Rom. 8 : 29í 9. 10. 11. and Lph. 1: 4í. 11. and
it is recognized element in manv creeds e.g. (oní. laith III : church oí Lngland
Articles. XVII, \e íurther read in the work: 1he Apostle Paul was doubtless aware oí
inconsistencv íor it was crux oí Jewish theologv see Lderstein`s Jesus the Messiah. 1 :
316 íí,: but the Apostle was accustomed. to Isolate anv Particular doctrine. as occasion
required. without being careíul. to reconcile it with the real or apparent antithesis. see
(hamber`s (vc. Art. Predestination.,

, See. 1he manners and (ustoms oí the Modern Lgvptians.` bv Ld. Lane p.69.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
prohibitions: rewards and punishments: promises and threats:
and aíter all. what is the use oí Prophets Books etc.
d, Some acts oí man are bad such as tvrannv. polvtheism. robberv:
etc. Ií these are predestined and predetermined bv God. it
íollows. that to tvrannise. to ascribe pluralitv to God. or to rob is
to render obedience to lim. which ob·iouslv enough. is not the
e, Ií iníidelitv and sin are decreed bv God it íollows that God is in
ía·our oí sin and iníidelitv. but to speak thus oí God is

I will answer these questions as brieílv as possible. not írom a philosophical
point oí ·iew. but írom a strictlv religious aspect. this book being de·oted
exclusi·elv to matters oí purelv religious nature.
1he apparent contradiction in·ol·ed in the doctrine oí predestination. mav
be reasonablv sol·ed bv considering. that man is not acquainted. in this liíe with
anvthing oí what has been predestined íor him bv the Almightv God.
1hereíore. it cannot be suggested that under the doctrine oí predestination.
man`s personal íreedom oí choice and action is aííected in anv wav. Man is so
created bv All-Poweríul God. that he is sensible oí a personal íree will. choice
and action. so that belieí in predestination bv no means interíeres with his
moral íreedom. 1o speak oí man as a íree agent. we mean that he is not
withheld írom action bv anv external cause. that. morallv he is neither a
prisoner. nor a sla·e. nor paralvsed. nor otherwise disabled. Next. we mav applv
the term íree` to the eternallv or psvchological decision: with he is external
íree to carrv out. In this sense. the íreedom oí an action e·identlv consists in
the íact. that the action proceeds írom the intelligent choice oí the agent. and
such choice is plainlv and stronglv contrasted with the mechanical
determination which exists in the phvsical world.

As God`s predestination is altogether a secret to man. human beings are in
all ages. made acquainted. through God`s prophets. with what duties thev
should períorm. and what prohibitions thev must respect. so that no act oí
disobedience. on the part oí man. can be justiíied on the plea oí ignorance oí
what he ought or ought not to do. or on the plea. that man was actuated to
disobev or to sin. bv di·ine decree. Man is not congnisant oí anvthing he was
predestined to do. whether it be good or bad. until he has committed it. bv his
own choice and own íreedom oí will oí which he was quite conscious. It is
then. and onlv then. that a man realises that his act was predestined. On the
other hand. God`s predestination has e·er been associated with di·ine íore-
knowledge oí all human character and conditions. As the Almightv God
predestined a man to sin. le. at the same time íoreknew that that man would
commit the siníul deed. while acting bv his own íree and intelligent choice. A
siníul man can on no account shun the moral responsibilitv íor his deeds. on
the plea oí ha·ing acted upon irre·ocable di·ine predestination. oí which he
was totallv ignorant. Being absolutelv conscious oí a personal íreedom oí will
and action. an e·il doer cannot reasonablv justiív his action bv reíerring to
predestination. In íact. belieí and íaith in di·ine predestination can neither

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
necessitate denial oí human consciousness oí íreedom oí will. nor eliminate the
íactor oí indi·idual responsibilitv írom human conduct. So long as man is
conscious oí personal íreedom oí will. choice and action within himselí. the
sense oí indi·idual accountabilitv which is the mainspring oí moral liíe. alwavs
remains untouched. 1he said belieí. thereíore. should neither interíere with
man`s enthusiasm íor progress. nor depri·e him írom íreedom oí will. which
íacultv he is. undoubtedlv. conscious oí enjoving.

1o belie·e in heart. as an orthodox Jew. (hristian or Moslem is bound to.
that whatsoe·er one had to do. right or wrong. whatsoe·er has beíallen one.
the minutest mo·ement oí man. and the meanest e·en oí his liíe. has been
irre·ocablv predestined bv God írom eternitv: and that no amount oí eííort to
the contrarv can alter the course oí e·ents. predestined bv the absolute di·ine
authoritv. Such a purelv religious dogma can. on no account. interíere with anv
amount oí human moralitv. 1he doctrine oí predestination does not implv
denial oí man`s íreedom oí will and action. Lach component part oí man is
bound bv religion. to íulíill some íunction: the heart and conscience. to belie·e
in God. lis attributes and lis predestination: the other external members oí
man. to work each according to its respecti·e íacultv and aptitude. as
recommended bv the law. Now. ií the heart íulíils its proper íunction. namelv:
to belie·e that nothing whatsoe·er that has happened. or will happen in the
uni·erse. is contrarv to the will oí God. the íunction oí no other member is
necessarilv oííended or retarded. as it cannot be suggested. that. under such a
religious belieí in God and lis di·ine attributes. the eves shall be pre·ented
írom seeing. the ears írom hearing. the íeet írom walking. the tongue írom
speaking. or anv other part oí man. írom the proper discharge oí its respecti·e

1hereíore. it is quite uníair and illogic íor anvone to claim. that íaith in
predestination. as required bv orthodox religion. tends to damp all enthusiasm
íor progress. Such a claim might be reasonablv admitted. onlv ií a man were
gi·en accurate íoreknowledge oí his íate and destinv. Ií he knew. íor instance.
írom the beginning. that he was doomed to perdition he might. ·erv naturallv.
make no eííort to resist his destinv and no attempt at progress: or seeing that
he was predestined to sal·ation. he might make no eííort to deser·e it. Man
ha·ing no íoreknowledge whatsoe·er oí his own destinv. his dutv absolutelv in
adherence to the law. As íar as man`s intelligent íree action is concerned. he has
nothing more to do with the eternal decrees oí God than to ha·e períect íaith
in them. Reason and logic both dictate to man the belieí in God. the One the
sole (reator. the absolute Disposer. In like manner. as a culti·ator cannot
rightlv claim or to be the creator oí his own har·est. so it is the case with man:
he cannot rightlv claim to be independentlv the originator his own actions. 1he
Islamic doctrine oí predestination mav be reduced to two distinct belieís:

a, 1hat God has determined the destinv oí man. not onlv according to the
íoreknown character oí those whose íate is so determined. but also
according to God`s own will. 1here is no dispute on this point between
di·ines oí all creeds. Judaism Orthodox (hristianitv and Islam. all not onlv

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
agree and acquiesces in this. but thev unreser·edlv admit it. and
emphaticallv declare anv possible notion to the contrarv to be blasphemv.

b, 1hat man is directlv responsible íor his own actions. so long as he is master
oí his íree choice. As man is certainlv sensible. that he is morallv a íree
agent. he is accountable íor all actions aííected bv his ·olitional power. In
the Koran we read. that God does not saddle a man with responsibilitv
bevond his capacitv to bear it. 1here is a ·ast sphere oí human acti·itv.
where man`s apparent will enjovs íreedom oí control and direction.
(onsequentlv a man is held responsible. bv religion. íor the right or wrong
exercise oí his íaculties. It is. thereíore. a matter oí the deepest concern to
man. to ascertain the rules and regulations which should guide his conduct
in that connection. 1o supplv this need. the All-Merciíul God has endowed
man with intellect. and re·elation. Bv the help oí intellect man endea·ours
to work out his moral and spiritual e·olution in all his dealings with his
(reator and his íellow creatures. But man`s obligation towards God and
man. surelv in·ol·e complications. too delicate íor unaided human reason.
1he result oí an intellectual error might be the ·iolation oí human or di·ine
laws. lence. the absolute necessitv oí direct guidance and laws írom God
to make up íor the írailties oí reason and to enlighten man. as to how he
ought to regulate his relations with his Maker. as well as with his íellow-
men. In obedience to these laws. man can carrv out his duties. and attain
what is best in liíe. Laws relating to human liíe. ha·e been summed up in
the íollowing ·erse oí the lolv Koran: Surelv God orders justice and
good works to all,. and orders, kindness to relation. and le condemns
indecencv. illicit deeds and all wrong. le admonishes vou. that vou mav be

\ith regard to man`s guidance as to his relation to God. the lolv Koran
tells us: Sav mv pravers. mv sacriíice mv liíe. mv death. is íor God. the Lord oí
the worlds \ho has no partner with lim. 1his I ha·e been ordered. and am
the íirst to submit`. In carrving out his duties in liíe. man must not lose sight oí
God`s ordinances. and oí what le desires oí him. so that he should in no wav
satisív himselí or his íellow creatures. bv disobeving the Uni·ersal (herisher oí
all. the (reator oí all.
1hrough his íaith in predestination. man can beha·e íaithíullv and
righteouslv. since he is coníident. that all power. help and sustenance lie onlv
with lim Man`s dutv is. to spare no eííort in obser·ing the injunctions oí his
Maker. and then he is quite saíe.
Prosperitv and plentv oíten tempt man. to turn awav írom God. 1ouching
this point. the lolv Koran savs: O belie·ers. let not vou children make vou
íorget vour God.` Man makes use írequentlv oí these blessings oí God as a
means to encroach upon the rights oí others. or as an encouragement to
neglect his de·otional duties towards God. 1hereíore the lolv Book wishes it
to be remembered. that temptation lies hidden under the enjovment oí wealth
and oííspring.

, See Molesworth`s and (hamber`s (vclopaedias. Art. Predestination.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
L·en as man is liable to temptation bv abundant prosperitv. so is he apt to
be retarded írom the íulíillment oí his duties bv misíortunes. lowe·er. ha·ing
períect íaith in predestination. a true belie·er will not íorget. that what
happens. good or bad has been predetermined and decreed bv God. and that
the ine·itable must come to pass. in spite oí human eííorts to the contrarv.
1hereíore he is bound to submit himselí cheeríullv and resignedlv to all trials.
Reíerring to this. the lolv Koran savs: And \e will most certainlv trv vou
with íear and hunger. and loss oí propertv and liíe and blessings: thereíore. O
Prophet, gi·e good tidings to the patient who. when misíortune beíalls them.
sav: Verilv. we belong to God and to lim we shall ·erilv return. 1hose the
patient, are thev. on whom blessings and mercv írom their Lord will descend,.
and those are the íollowers oí the right course.` 1hus Islam teaches. that
misíortunes ser·e as good tidings and as íore-runners oí hea·enlv blessings.
And with a heart íull oí íaith in predestination a true belie·er cheeríullv submits
to hardships and trails. 1hose ha·ing a submissi·e írame oí mind under ad·erse
circumstances. On them.` savs the lolv Koran. descend the blessings oí
God`. \ith Islam. a calamitv is a mercv in disguise. Ali·e to the purpose oí
di·ine will. a di·ine will. a belie·ing Moslem resigns himselí with a cheeríul
heart to his íate. It is God who alone go·erns the uni·erse and disposes
thereoí. according to lis eternal and irre·ocable \ill. One oí the comíort-
gi·ing ·erses oí the Koran read as íollows: Sav: O God. \ho art the Owner oí
the Kingdom: 1hou gi·est authoritv to whom 1hou wilt: and 1hou takest awav
authoritv. írom whom 1hou wilt: 1hou exaltest whom 1hou wilt and 1hou
humblest whom 1hou wilt: in 1hv hand is all the good. and 1hou art
Omnipotent. 1hou makest the night enter into the dav. and 1hou makest the
dav to enter into the night. 1hou, bringest íorth the li·ing out oí the dead. and
1hou, bringest íorth the dead out oí the li·ing. and 1hou, pro·idest
sustenance. to whom 1hou wilt. and e·en so without limit.` 1hus. under
conditions oí hardship and misíortune. a true belie·er will not neglect his duties
towards God. \ith the utterance oí his noted íormula. 1o God we belong
and to lim shall we return.` he submits to ad·ersitv. and goes on with his
duties uninterrupted. On the other hand. ií good íortune and prosperitv be his
luck. he is not to put distrust in abundance and plentv. and so íorget his duties
towards his Maker. Sustainer and Nourisher. le is warned bv re·elation. not to
make these ·erv blessings oí God a pretext íor encroachment upon the rights
oí others. and thus change them into a curse íor himselí.

\ith regard to íreedom oí human will. the Prophet oí Islam has positi·elv
declared man`s undisputed right. to make a choice between good and e·il.
Again and again. in the lolv Koran. this point has been emphasized. lest man
should íorget his own responsibilitv íor his conduct. Indeed. the whole trend oí
Koranic ethics points in this direction. Sav. the 1ruth is írom vour Lord.
whosoe·er mav wish. he mav belie·e: and whosoe·er mav wish. he mav
disbelie·e`. savs the lolv Koran. God has moreo·er pointed out to man the
right path. and ordered him to íollow it. and the wrong one and warned him
against taking it. In this respect the Koran savs: Verilv. we ha·e shown to man
the right path: he mav be grateíul or ungrateíul.` meaning there is no
compulsion. on the part oí God. íelt bv man to bear upon him to adopt this

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
course or that. Again we read: Verilv this is a reminder to all people: íor those
oí vou who wish to take the right course.` lere too. man has been let alone in
the matter oí selection. lurther on: It is íor God onlv. to íurnish strong prooí.
and ií le so pleased to iníluence man, le would ha·e guided vou all.` 1his
means. that Almightv God has chosen to let each man íeel. that he is a íree
agent who acts under an intelligent íree will. Danial oí interíerence cannot be
made in clearer terms. Ií God were so pleased. as to eníorce lis own desire
upon man. bv depri·ing him oí his personal moral íreedom. le would not ha·e
let a single man go astrav. Ií God were pleased. le would ha·e brought
together the whole oí humanitv into one and the same path.` namelv. the path
oí righteousness. But le has so ordained that le made man to íeel that there is
no compulsion brought to bear upon him. to incline him this wav or that. Man
is absolutelv conscious oí being master oí himselí and the organiser oí his own
career. le is gi·en power. bv which he can accomplish his own desires. in
·irtue oí the moral íreedom which he enjovs. lowe·er. according to Islam. the
power oí selí-go·ernment. with which we are endowed is a trust and not a íree
giít. It not onlv entrusts our own destinv to oursel·es. but it actuallv trusts. or
seems to trust. the whole íinal outcome oí God`s creati·e work to our
treatment oí it. 1his earth. at least. is put into our hands. to make what we will
oí it and oí oursel·es. its inhabitants. 1o this eííect. the lolv Koran savs: \e
ha·e proposed the trust unto the hea·ens and the earth and the mountains. and
thev reíused to undertake the same. and were aíraid to undertake it: but man
undertook it. vet, he is ·erilv unjust and ignorant.` 1his means. that oí all
God`s creations man alone accepted the trust oí moral íreedom which makes
him master oí himselí. and digniíies and exalts him among the creatures oí
God. Giíts oí all other sorts are nothing. to compare with it. Ií we had not the
power to rule our own actions bv our own will. we should be iníinitelv poorer
in moral worth than we are now. 1hereíore man should be anxious to be
digniíied in this respect. but the lolv Koran. in the abo·e ·erse. asserts. that
man is unjust and ignorant in this connection. le is unjust. in that he abuses his
moral íreedom. in choosing to do wronglv deeds. instead oí righteous ones.
And he is ignorant. in that he gi·es no heed to the consequences oí his choice.
because doing what we know that we ought to do. is not onlv íor the good oí
the world. but likewise and íar more. íor the good oí oursel·es. \e deri·e
iníinitelv more beneíit írom our own períormance oí an act oí uprightness: and
iníinitelv more harm írom an act oí wrong. than the good we bestow. or the
harm we inílict. 1he good or ill we go. goes deeplv into our nature-reíines or
coarses it. liíts or lowers it. and is either inspiring or deadening to all that is best
in soul and mind. lew men reach old age without saving sadlv. Oh. that I
could li·e mv liíe again.` because time their vouth íor a diííerent de·elopment
oí themsel·es and a diííerent shaping oí their li·es. In this connection the lolv
Koran savs:
Sav. O. mv worshippers. who ha·e transgressed against vour own souls.
despair not oí the mercv oí God: seeing that God íorgi·eth all sins: íor le is
Gracious and Merciíul. And be turned unto vour Lord. and resign voursel·es
unto lim. beíore the punishment comes suddenlv upon vou. and ve percei·e
not the approach thereoí,: when a soul shall sav. Alas. íor that I ha·e been
negligent in mv dutv towards God: ·erilv. I ha·e been one oí the scorners: or

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
sav: Ií God had directed me. ·erilv. I had been one oí the pious`: or sav. when
it seeth the prepared punishment: ít í covta retvrv ovce vore ivto tbe rorta. í
rovta becove ove ot tbe rigbteov..`. ßvt Coa .batt av.rer: My .igv. cave vvto tbee
beretotore ava tbov aia.t cbarge tbev ritb tat.ebooa. ava ra.t pvttea vp ritb priae`
ava tbov becave.t ove o tbe vvbetierer. Koran. (h. XXXIX,

In brieí. it is reasonable. as well as it is uni·ersallv religious to belie·e. that
nothing whatsoe·er. be it a circumstance. an action or a thought. can take place
against the will oí God. Again. nothing can happen in the world. either as
proceeding írom a human being. an animal. or a thing. which God had not.
írom eternitv. known and willed it to be. Bv will` is here meant the proper
acceptation oí the \ord. namelv the decree. the determination. and not the
desire or inclination. 1here is nothing contradictorv. in holding the belieí in
absolute predestination and the belieí in selí-responsibilitv.

End Of Volume One

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

1. Bosworth Swith Mohamed and Mohamedanism.
2. Islam-ler Moral and Spiritual Value` bv Major Arthur Glvn Leanard.
3. (rawíord`s Indian Archipelago.`
4. Re·. J.N. 1hoburn. Report íor the Allahabad Missionarv oníerence.`
5. Papers relating to ler Majestv`s (olonial Possessions`
6. Li·ingstone`s Lxpedition to the Zambesi.`
¯. 1rench on \ords`
8. \ebster`s Dictionarv.
9. Renan. Ltudes d`listoire religieuse`
10. Ouarterlv Re·iew.
11. George Sale`s 1ranslation oí the Koran. Preliminarv Discourse.
12. Sir lenrv Lavard`s Larlv 1ra·els.`
13. Abuíeda.
14. Ld. Pocosk.
15. Koran.
16. Lusebius listorv.
1¯. Lpiphan.
18. Sir \illiam Muir. 1he Liíe oí Mohammed.`
19. Ibn Athir.
20. lerodotus.
21. D. lerbelot.
22. Al- Sharistani
23. Abul larag
24. Saved Amir Alv
25. Ibn lisham
26. lughes` Dictionarv oí Islam`
2¯. Miskat-ul-Massabeeh
28. Al 1abari.
29. Al \akidi
30. Droits Musulman bv M. Ouerrv
31. (aussin de Perce·al.
32. Stanlev Lane Poole. Selection írom the Koran`
33. Lectures on leroes and leroship.` bv 1homas (avlvle.
34. Old 1estament.
35. Al Razi.
36. Oadi-Avad`s Al Shiía`
3¯. \ashington. Ir·ing. Liíe oí Mohamet.`
38. Dr. Noldeke`s Book on Islam.
39. 1. \. Arnold`s 1he Preaching oí Islam`
40. 1he Re·iew oí Religions.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
41. Al Ghazali.
42. Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba. Ruler oí Bhophal`s Muslim
43. Mohammedan Jurisprudence.` Bv Abdul (ader.
44. New 1estament.
45. J. Milton`s.
46. lolland`s Jurisprudence.
4¯. Ghunvat el 1alibeen.`
48. Malik`s Mowattaa.
49. íatawi Moughiri.
50. Personal Law oí Mohammedans` bv Abdul Kader.
51. Bukhari`s (ommentarv.
52. Zamakhshari`s (ommentarv oí the Koran.
53. Goethe`s \est-Oestlicher Di·an.
54. Peake`s (ommentarv oí the Bible.
55. Lncvclopaedia Biblica.
56. Re·. Dummelow`s (ommentarv.
5¯. Dr. Ph. Schaíí`s (ompanion to the Greek 1estament and the Lnglish
58. Dr. \evmouth`s Introduction to St. John`s Gospel.
59. Re·. Margoliouth`s Introduction to Rodwell`s 1ranslation oí the
60. (hamber`s Lncvclopaedia.

)be Retigiov ot í.tav ßy Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

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